Page 1

www.designworldonline.com

April 2019

inside: MOTION CONTROL: Electric actuators for better

robotic-vehicle steering

p. 68

3D CAD: Updates in CAD focus

on better simulation

p. 86

Step motors

FLUID POWER: Looking into the factory

of the future

p. 92

APRIL 2019 DW COVER_FINAL.indd 1

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Why should you worry about traceability?

Mention traceability to a lot of engineers, and they’ll say that their industry doesn’t require it, and so they don’t get involved with that. And it’s true — a lot of traceability requirements have come from industry or governmental mandate, in areas such as medical, automotive, aerospace, and food and beverage. At a recent trade show in California, I was chatting with Keith Kersten, Marketing Group Manager for Omron, and he pointed out that as customers demand more from their suppliers, traceability makes sense for more and more manufacturers. “Traceability is no longer just regulatory, it also allows you to see things flow through your process to identify bottlenecks. Also, it can help you optimize each process and then your overall supply chain,” Kersten said. “As you’re trying to gather all this data about what you’re producing and how you’re producing it, this also becomes kind of a baseline or a base of input to that.” Everyone’s talking about connectivity and the Internet of Things, and how the factory of the future will be much more able to trace everything. But that’s no reason not to start down the path to traceability now. For each item you produce, you’re able to start understanding how long it spends with each process, Kersten explained. You also learn how long it spent not being processed. Then, if you start to have any issues along the way, whether it’s at the end of the process or during the process, you can start to track all of those things — and you can identify problem spots a lot quicker. Maybe you realize you could invest in a little bit more automation in one particular spot, and that would allow your overall flow to increase. In many ways, traceability can end up being more of a long-term benefit to a manufacturing operation than just a mandated item designed to help end customers, meet regulations, or control recalls. If it can make your processes more efficient and your manufacturing operations speedier, why wouldn’t you consider it? DW

Paul J. Heney - VP, Editorial Director pheney@wtwhmedia.com On Twitter @ DW—Editor

(408) 460-1345

4 April 2019 www.designworldonline.com DESIGN WORLD DW Insights 4-19_Vs2.LL.indd 4

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Teschler on Topic

Say goodbye to creative lab rats Examine Silicon Valley and some of the other notorious high-tech hotspots and you can’t help notice the building boom in research labs. Researchers of yesteryear often referred to themselves as lab rats partly because their surroundings were usually dark and dank. In contrast, scientists and engineers toiling in this new crop of labs are more likely to be housed in spectacular architecture sitting in expensive urban neighborhoods on campuses with resort-like amenities. These super-expensive digs are meant to create ideal conditions for creativity and scientific breakthroughs. One problem: There’s little evidence that better architecture begets better engineering or better thinking. At their core, these modernday research sanctoriums attempt to duplicate the social interactions among circa WWII scientists and engineers at places like Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, and M.I.T.’s RadLab. The creative efforts coming out of RadLab, for example, have been ascribed to the fact that it housed a large number of research projects whose personnel were haphazardly crammed together. The arrangement made for chance encounters among researchers from

different backgrounds. The resulting conversations sometimes gave rise to rapid scientific advances and promoted the idea in popular culture that happy accidents and lateral thinking could accelerate technical work. The irony, though, is that the facilities in which the happy accidents took place were anything but grand. Buildings at Los Alamos back then, for example, were little more than hastily constructed huts. Structures occupied by other big-name research outfits weren’t much better. Today, it isn’t just buildings that are being designed to help speed technical advances; it’s also the spaces and furniture within them. Historians credit the origins of creative working environment themes partly to Xerox’s Palo Alto Research Center which opened in 1970. The main conference room at PARC had floor-to-ceiling white boards, no conference table, and beanbags for chairs. But the beanbags weren’t there because they made their occupants creative. Though the beanbags did impart an air of informality and kept people relaxed, part of their purpose was to help discourage pissed-off researchers from jumping up and getting in the face of presenters when discussions got heated. A recently published book provides an interesting dig into such issues.

Called Laboratory Lifestyles and edited by Sandra Kaji-O’Grady, Chris Smith, and Russell Hughes, it examines the architectural, economic, and social perspectives of new mega-labs with history in mind. It also investigates how “lifestyle science” affects actual science, including what happened among the occupants locked inside Biosphere 2 for two years. One of the more interesting sections covers Applied Sciences NYC, billed as a vision for world-class applied sciences and engineering campuses in the Big Apple. Built on preemo real estate, ASNYC campuses have been likened to urban cruise ships, functioning as autonomous (and likely expensive) worlds seemingly independent of the city in which they sit. Surprisingly, Laboratory Lifestyles doesn’t point out the major downside to ASNYC dreams: It’s hard to imagine a more divisive development in a country where there’s already a serious usversus-them attitude between workingclass citizens and elites. Architects designing palatial lab facilities don’t seem to understand that the people whose behavior they are trying to recreate had a sense of purpose, not a sense of architecture. And ASNYC proponents should recall that the work environments they promote had roots in chairs procured to help keep people from taking a swing at each other. DW

Leland Teschler • Executive Editor lteschler@wtwhmedia.com On Twitter @ DW_LeeTeschler

6

April 2019 www.designworldonline.com

Lee Teschler Column 4-19_V3_LT.LL.indd 6

DESIGN WORLD

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Technology Forward Additive technology will have a

place in manufacturing 3D printing/additive manufacturing technology has come a long way. More than thirty years ago, 3D printers were small enough to fit on a desk. The main use of these devices was to help engineers create a prototype in less time than professional services—a couple of days versus several weeks.

More than 30 years ago, material choices were slim and color was nonexistent. Now the focus is how to make 3D printing competitive with machining and injection molding technologies. Additive vendors continue to explore a range of options and technologies to deliver more speed and capability. And the range of industries using additive manufacturing keeps expanding; from manufacturing aids and tooling jigs to aerospace jet engine parts, to houses, furniture, medical devices and aids, clothing, shoes, and more. Not that long ago, additive systems could only produce one part at a time. Now vendors are looking into mass production. This ongoing effort is innovating ways to produce hundreds of thousands of parts in the near future. A number of recent surveys indicate that nearly half of additive manufacturing users use these devices for limited run production. About one-quarter of users are using these systems for full-scale production. Additive manufacturing now meets specific business needs, including reducing product lead time, delivering mass customization, producing complex geometries that reduce weight and

part counts, enabling the quick testing and validation of new ideas, reducing the cost of producing parts, and reducing shipping costs by bringing manufacturing closer to the customer. Many users think this industry will save the manufacturing industry billions of dollars as the technology matures. This industry has made amazing advances in the last six to eight years. Yes, you read that right. Even though this technology is a bit more than 30 years old, the last few years have the seen the greatest advances. There are more advances to come. Funding for research is still strong. And this is the major place to be for innovation in making objects. The cost of these systems will eventually drop, as will the cost of materials. More people will be skilled in using them. It won’t be long before today’s students go into the workforce and take full advantage of this technology. More experience will ease qualification and certification procedures. It may be a few years more before the limitations on part size are removed. But then, we need something to look forward to, don’t we? DW

Leslie Langnau • Managing Editor llangnau@wtwhmedia.com On Twitter @ DW_3Dprinting

8

April 2019 www.designworldonline.com

Tech Forward 4-19_Vs2.LL.indd 8

DESIGN WORLD

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OFFSET SHAFTS. SOLVED. Offset Couplings from Zero-Max reduce space requirements for parallel offset shafts in large system applications. These specialized couplings provide machine designers with an important option for reducing overall machine size and footprint. Compact in design, Schmidt Offset Couplings transmit constant angular velocity and torque in a wide range of parallel shaft misalignments. Handling high amounts of parallel offset up to 9 inches, they are available with torque capacities up to 459,000 in-lbs. Schmidt Offset Couplings can be mounted to shaft hubs or directly to existing machine flanges. They are available for shaft displacements of 0.156 inches to 17.29 inches and torque capacities from 55 to 459,000 inch-pounds. Many design configurations are available including specials.

www.zero-max.com 800.533.1731

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Green Engineering Paul J. Heney

• VP, Editorial Director

Pioneering production of circular polymers

Frank Kuijpers, General Manager Corporate Sustainability, and Jeroen Castelijn, General Manager Geleen site celebrate the certified circular polymers produced in the Netherlands.

SABIC, a diversified chemicals company headquartered in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, recently announced a milestone in the production of certified circular polymers using a feedstock from mixed plastic waste. This achievement — the production of the first certified circular polymers — is part of what is known as a ‘market foundation stage.’ Launched in January, this stage is an important step towards creating a new circular value chain for plastics, during which, initial volumes of pyrolysis oil from plastic waste are introduced as feedstock at the company’s Geleen production site in The Netherlands. The patented pyrolysis oil has been produced by Plastic Energy Ltd. from the recycling of low quality, mixed plastic waste otherwise destined for incineration or landfill. As part of the market foundation stage, SABIC has begun to produce and commercialize the first monthly volumes of certified circular polymers — polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) — prior to the projected start-up in 2021 of the commercial plants planned by SABIC and Plastic Energy in the

DESIGN WORLD

Green Engineering 4-19_Vs2.LL.indd 11

Netherlands to manufacture and process the alternative feedstock. “Certified circular polymers are a disruptive innovation and SABIC’s market foundation stage is a critical phase in their development,” said Frank Kuijpers, General Manager, Corporate Sustainability at SABIC. “It will act as a bridge moving from a linear economy to a circular one and will enable the value chain to become familiar with the products and consider how they can best be implemented in their own markets. It will allow confidence in this pioneering product to grow before SABIC goes into full scale production.” The polymers are certified through the International Sustainability and Carbon Certification plus (ISCC+) scheme that certifies circular content and standards www.designworldonline.com  

across the value chain from source to end product. The ISCC+ certification works on what is known as a “mass balance system,” meaning that for each ton of circular feedstock fed into the cracker and substituting fossilbased feedstock, a ton of the output can be classified as circular. Certified circular polymers will help SABIC’s customers to meet consumer demand for more sustainable products and will contribute to closing the loop on reutilizing plastic waste. The company manufacturescin the Americas, Europe, Middle East and Asia Pacific, making distinctly different kinds of products, including chemicals, commodity and high-performance plastics, agri-nutrients and metals. DW SABIC | sabic.com April 2019

11

3/29/19 8:29 AM


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Contents 4 • 2019

vol 14 no 4

designworldonline.com

April 2019

68

Design equipment faster, smarter, and under budget with TiPS from leading suppliers. | istockphoto.com

Aerospace COVER_Vs1_4-19.indd 51

50-61

68 _MOTION CONTROL

92 _FLUID POWER

Electric actuators for better robotic-vehicle steering

Looking into the factory of the future

Tomorrow’s manufacturing facility will still use everything from hydraulics to electrics, and automation will provide more flexibility than ever.

Steering design for advanced logistics vehicles and mobile robots starts with understanding design requirements; deciding if custom is critical; and choosing the best solution for specific application.

78 _LINEAR MOTION Getting the most from a linear motion system

Understanding resolution as well as some lesser-known error sources, such as Abbé error, can help boost linear motion system performance. 86 _3D CAD

CONTENTS 4-19_Vs3.LL.indd 14

| Ritbearing

Bearing Tips 4-19_Cover_FINAL.indd 62

3/28/19 12:39 PM

62-67

Black oxide finish has a long tradition. Since testing methods were standardized in DIN 50938 and ISO 11408, they have been further refined by the bearing industry for specific application to rolling element bearings. Here’s a look at the benefits in theory and practice.

April 2019 www.designworldonline.com

A Supplement to Design World - April 2019

Design equipment faster, smarter, and under budget with TiPS from leading suppliers.

Black oxide’s effects on roller bearing performance

While the latest upgrades to major CAD systems don’t make major changes to the way those programs operate, they do include significant updates. Here’s a look at some of the biggest enhancements and key features of these programs.

14

www.bearingtips.com

100 _MECHANICAL

Updates in CAD focus on better simulation

3/28/19 1:52 PM

ON THE COVER

SureStep IP65 step motors are completely protected from dirty environments and lowpressure water jets from any direction. | courtesy of AutomationDirect.

A | S | B | P| E

A | S | B | P| E

A | S | B | P| E

American Society of Business Publication Editors

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Fostering B2B editorial excellence

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FEATURED MANUFACTURERS

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SEAL

4.19

• contents departments

and

DELIVER

04 Insights 06 Teschler on Topic 08 Technology Forward 11 Green Engineering 20 Design For Industry 30 Design Notes 40 CAE Solutions

Don’t Get Caught In a Labyrinth of Bad Seals

107 Product World 112 Ad Index

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CONTENTS 4-19_second page_Vs1.indd 16

April 2019

DESIGN WORLD

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hIgh

PERfORmaNCE

Water Resistant Densi-Pak “AA” Battery Holders

• IP65 rated to withstand water, dust and other harsh environments • Cover gasket seals out water and dust • Equipped with a built-in, sealed, on-off switch for additional security • Holders include coil spring contacts • Sealed, 6” long, pre-tinned wire leads • For “AA” batteries in two, three, and four cell configurations (Wired in series)

It’s what’s on the InsIde that counts ® E L E C T R O N I C S

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Change the way you look at pressure measurement

I2C pressure transmitters

kelleramerica.com

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DESIGN WORLD

Follow the whole team on twitter @DesignWorld

EDITORIAL

VP, Editorial Director Paul J. Heney pheney@wtwhmedia.com @dw_editor Managing Editor Leslie Langnau llangnau@wtwhmedia.com @dw_3dprinting Executive Editor Leland Teschler lteschler@wtwhmedia.com @dw_leeteschler Senior Editor Miles Budimir mbudimir@wtwhmedia.com @dw_motion Senior Editor Lisa Eitel leitel@wtwhmedia.com @dw_lisaeitel Senior Editor Mary Gannon mgannon@wtwhmedia.com @dw_marygannon

DIGITAL MEDIA/WEB/ DEVELOPMENT

Web Development Manager B. David Miyares dmiyares@wtwhmedia.com @wtwh_webdave Senior Digital Media Manager Patrick Curran pcurran@wtwhmedia.com @wtwhseopatrick VIDEO SERVICES

Videographer Bradley Voyten bvoyten@wtwhmedia.com @bv10wtwh Videographer Derek Little dlittle@wtwhmedia.com @wtwh_derek Videographer Graham Smith gsmith@wtwhmedia.com DIGITAL MARKETING

Associate Editor Mike Santora msantora@wtwhmedia.com @dw_mikesantora

Digital Marketing Director Virginia Goulding vgoulding@wtwhmedia.com @wtwh_virginia

CREATIVE SERVICES

Digital Marketing Manager Amanda Fourlaris afourlaris@wtwhmedia.com @wtwh_amanda

VP, Creative Services Mark Rook mrook@wtwhmedia.com @wtwh_graphics Art Director Matthew Claney mclaney@wtwhmedia.com @wtwh_designer Graphic Designer Allison Washko awashko@wtwhmedia.com @wtwh_allison Graphic Designer Mariel Evans mevans@wtwhmedia.com @wtwh_mariel

Webinar Manager Lisa Rosen lrosen@wtwhmedia.com Webinar Coordinator Halle Kirsh hkirsh@wtwhmedia.com Leadlift Onboarding Specialist Mike Ulanski mulanski@wtwhmedia.com @wtwh_mike

EVENTS

Events Manager Jen Kolasky jkolasky@wtwhmedia.com @wtwh_jen Event Exhibitor & Speaker Manager Michelle Flando mflando@wtwhmedia.com Events Marketing Specialist Christina Lograsso clograsso@wtwhmedia.com @wtwh_christina PRODUCTION SERVICES

Customer Service Manager Stephanie Hulett shulett@wtwhmedia.com Customer Service Representative Tracy Powers tpowers@wtwhmedia.com Customer Service Representative JoAnn Martin jmartin@wtwhmedia.com Customer Service Representative Julie Ritchie jritchie@wtwhmedia.com

Digital Production Manager Reggie Hall rhall@wtwhmedia.com Digital Production Specialist Brian Furda bfurda@wtwhmedia.com FINANCE

Controller Brian Korsberg bkorsberg@wtwhmedia.com Accounts Receivable Specialist Jamila Milton jmilton@wtwhmedia.com

Director, Audience Development Bruce Sprague bsprague@wtwhmedia.com

2011 - 2018 2014 Winner

WTWH Media, LLC 1111 Superior Ave., 26th Floor, Cleveland, OH 44114 Ph: 888.543.2447

Medical Design & OUTSOURCING DESIGN WORLD

Staff page 4-19_Vs1.indd 19

www.designworldonline.com  

April 2019

19

4/2/19 7:56 AM


Aerospace/military

Design for Industry Food & Beverage

Servo motors satisfy wash-down

requirements

D

Designers have a range of choices when it comes to motion equipment that can meet food hygiene and wash-down requirements common in food and beverage applications. One of the latest additions to the market is the AKMHT Hygienic Servo Motor. Built with FDA approved food grade materials, this motor meet standards for IP69K, EHEDG and 3A. The AKMH motor helps food processors reduce food recall risk, improve durability in washdown applications and decrease cleaning time. The motor can withstand 1450 psi spray and chemicals with pH 2 through 12. The special vented cable connector equalizes pressure from inside the motor to the outer housing to prevent water ingress. With 316L stainless steel outer surface and 32-micron finish, it also eliminates harborage points such as metal-tometal seams and ensures a hygienic design. Another option is the AKM Washdown and Food Grade Servo Motor. This motor uses AKM electromagnetics within a housing protected by an FDA-approved 2-K coating and IP67rated seal configuration for applications with strict hygiene regulations. No additional cover or special protection is required for the motor casing. Stainless steel hardware is used on all precision interfaces (motor shaft, screws and connectors). Available in a wide range of standard lengths, windings, feedback systems, and connection technologies. DW

Kollmorgen www.kollmorgen.com

20

April 2019 www.designworldonline.com

DFI 4-19 Vs2.LL.indd 20

DESIGN WORLD

3/29/19 12:24 PM


POWER TRANSMISSION

RETAINING DEVICES &

Food & Beverage

maintenance & assembly tools

Step motors handle

BEARLOK

SHOELOK

BEARLOK Shrink Disc

BEARHUG

CLAMPNUT

TANGENTLOK

low-pressure water jet cleaning

T

These SureStep IP65 rated step motors for food and beverage applications take advantage of the latest step motor design—the square-frame or “high-torque� style that is the latest in bipolar motor technology. It delivers the best torque to volume ratio. The SureStep stepping motors are completely protected from solids and dust ingress and from low-pressure water jets from any direction, making them suitable for many wash-down applications. These fully sealed, single-shaft motors are available with industry-standard NEMA 17, 23, and 34 mounting flanges and provide holding torque from 61 to 1288 oz-in. The motors use 2-phase technology with 200 full steps per revolution or 1.8 degrees per full step. Waterproof white epoxy coating on the motor laminations and special bearings and seals keep moisture out of the motor. IP65 Motors are available in single-shaft configurations and have a 1-ft. cable and locking connector. Extension cables with mating IP65 connector are available in 6, 10 and 20 ft lengths.

PRECISION NUTS & WASHERS

INCH and METRIC THREADS LEFT HANDED as well as RIGHT -HANDED

ADAPTER SLEEVE ASSEMBLIES

Materials of: CARBON, ALLOY and HARDENED ALLOY STEELS Materials of: ALLUMINUM and CORROSION RESISTANT STEEL NUTS & WASHERS

HARDENED TONGUE WASHERS

SPLIT COLLAR

RETHREADING DIES

ADJUSTABLE SPANNER WRENCH

BEARING ASSEMBLY SOCKET

DW

AutomationDirect www.automationdirect.com/ip65-stepper-motors

W

HI

TT

ET

-H

IG

GI

NS US

A

WHITTET-HIGGINS manufactures quality oriented, stocks abundantly and delivers quickly the best quality and largest array of adjustable, heavy thrust bearing, and torque load carrying retaining devices for bearing, power transmission and other industrial assemblies; and specialized tools for their careful assembly. Visit our website–whittet-higgins.com–to peruse the many possibilities to improve your assemblies. Much technical detail delineated as well as 2D and 3D CAD models for engineering assistance. Call your local                  or a good distributor. 33 Higginson Avenue, Central Falls, Rhode Island 02863 Telephone: (401) 728-0700 • FAX: (401) 728-0703 E-mail: info@whittet-higgins.com Web: www.whittet-higgins.com

DESIGN WORLD

DFI 4-19 Vs2.LL.indd 21

 

April 2019

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Design for Industry Medical

Additive manufacturing helps dentist realize a new design in dental implants

F

First invented to aid the chewing function, the focus for dental implants has shifted from mechanical

requirements to more biological and aesthetic aspects. For example, their appearance should be as close to nature as possible. Because of this shift, the long-term stability, predictability, and aesthetic appeal of the dental abutment – the connecting element between an implant and a crown – has gained more importance.

But as more patients are fitted with dental implants, the occurrence of an infectious disease, peri-implantitis is

growing. Peri-implantitis inflames the gum and the bone structure around a dental implant, causing the soft tissue around the implant to recede - making the metal abutment visible. The cause of an infection depends on several factors, including the health of the soft tissue, the implant’s design and roughness, external morphology or excessive mechanical load. To correct the problem, dental technicians must fire a piece of ceramic to the spot where the metal is visible using abutments currently available. This is neither aesthetically pleasing, nor a permanent solution, as the ceramic can easily become loose. A new design for an age-old problem Based in Hall in Tyrol, Austria, Prof. Dr. Mario Kern, a leading oral implantologist, invented a solution, the Extended Anatomic Platform (EAP), to cover all biological-aesthetical aspects and provide a new design to address peri-implantitis. He spent more than 5,000 hours of development time, developed 200 prototypes and took 160 electron microscope images, documenting the cell behavior scientifically, while developing the solution, which has been granted patents in Europe, Canada and Australia. Incorporating Additive Because the thin wall structures of abutments cannot be manufactured using conventional milling techniques, Dr. Kern began to explore additive manufacturing in 2017 and opted for GE Additive’s dental hybrid solution, comprising a Concept Laser Mlab cusing 200R, a milling machine from Georg Fischer (because the abutment still require some milling afterwards) and Follow-Me hyperDENT software. Compared to existing, standard abutments, Prof. Dr. Kern’s design features a different geometry, by incorporating ceramic behind the metal and a bowl design that allows the ceramic to sit lower. For patients with a recession of the gingiva, dentists can simply remove the metal to see the ceramic again. The EAP hybrid abutment for dental implants is more biocompatible, with better cell attachment, enhanced ease-of-use, high aesthetic appeal, subsequently changeable, scientifically proven and sound. In terms of aesthetic appeal, the EAP offers advantages over existing

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titanium abutments. The preparation margin is made entirely of ceramic, and additional modifications are always possible, because the design-related glue joint of the hybrid abutment can be easily and quickly displaced coronally. This guarantees a better reduction of cytotoxic influence of the glue joint. Cells find this an optimal condition to attach to the abutment, enabling the formation of ‘biological width’ to a physiological measure. Offering a larger surface also guarantees solid cell attachment. Before, the glue joint would prevent cell attachment and the development of hemidesmosomes. Smooth surfaces make cell attachment difficult, so the 02. to 0.5 µm roughness on the surface of an EAP abutment encourages cell growth. The traditional, analog way of making final restorations or the use of digital

CAD/CAM techniques are both possible. Crowns can be co-manufactured in one piece, either as full ceramic or PFM crown. Dentists and dental technicians can maintain their usual work processes when constructing superstructures.

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Additive advantages In addition to the advantages of being able to manufacture complex, custom, precise frameworks and tension free dental prostheses for improved fit in the mouth, using additive technology, Dr. Kern has seen several other additional benefits from using the GE Additive solution; • A marginal loss of material, around 85% material savings in contrast to just milling, and un-melted powder can be reused. • 50% time saving in production compared to casting. • With a 99.6% density of the final product, additive demonstrates better metallurgical properties than with a cast part made from the same material. DW

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Design for Industry O f f- H i g h w a y

Controller has easy to implement safety features

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With this controller, designers can easily add safety features to mobile equipment. The X90 controller includes integrated safety technology. A new option board expands any X90 controller to include a full-fledged safety controller. To create the corresponding safety application, the user simply connects ready-made software components using ladder diagram. This brings all the advantages of networked safety technology without any traditional programming and makes it substantially easier to achieve compliance with the European Machinery Directive. DW

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Design for Industry O f f- H i g h w a y

Compact supercomputer gets the data

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One way to bring local processing in closer proximity with a system’s sensors is to use a compact supercomputer. The rugged GPGPU (link is external) RediBuilt supercomputer, the A177 Twister, is based on the NVIDIA Jetson TX2 System-on-Module (SoM). It uses CUDA and deep learning acceleration capabilities to handle the complex computational requirements of embedded systems managing multiple data and video streams.   Multiple I/O options offer design flexibility The small form factor (SFF) supercomputer uses 256 CUDA cores for capturing and processing several different to reach more than 1 TFLOPS, while consuming only 17 Watts of types and streams of video and data.  I/O power and weighing less than 2.2 lb.    includes Gigabit Ethernet, UART serial, USB 2.0    The IP67-rated and fanless high performance embedded and 3.0 as well as HDMI output, composite computer (HPEC) can be used in rugged and remote outdoor inputs, HD-SDI inputs and WiFi and environments. These include security and surveillance systems, Bluetooth. The A177 provides simultaneous mining and excavating operations as well as in complex marine capture of all eight RS-170A (NTSC/PAL) and boating applications, such as weather condition analysis and composite video channels at full frame rates. navigation, and agricultural machinery.   The industrial A177 SFF system   Dan Mor, GPGPU and HPEC product line manager at Aitech incorporates a removable Secure Digital Systems, commented, “The amount of data and graphics industrial (SD) disk with quick erase and secure applications are processing is on par with that found in military erase.  System resources include dynamic environments. Calculation power, size-to-weight ratio and heat voltage and frequency scaling, temperature dissipation are just as critical, so we’ve made our rugged GPGPU sensors and an elapsed time recorder in technology available for a wider range of applications, beyond just addition to a multi-standard video/jpeg aerospace and defense.” decoder/encoder with hardware encoding for   Measuring 5.9 x 5.8 x 2.5 in. (149 x 147 x 63 mm), the A177 H.264/H.265. DW Twister is a low-cost, low-power, SWaP-optimized (size, weight and power) supercomputer that offers video capture, processing and overlay capabilities for a number of industrial environments. Aitech Defense Systems Inc.

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Design for Industry O f f- s h o r e

Modular concept for proportional valves simplifies the design process

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Two high-flow proportional valves expand

this product line’s range of low- to high-flow capabilities. The PVG 128 and PVG 256 valves easily integrate with the PVG 16 and PVG 32 to supply the hydraulic flow from low to high within the same valve stack. The addition of the high-flow valves extends the range of hydraulic flow within the PVG series up to 300 liters (79 gallons) per minute with the PVG 128 and up to 400 liters (105 gallons) per minute with the PVG 256. A special turbo version of the PVG 256 is also available, increasing the flow up to 500 liters (132 gallons) per minute. The broad flow rate range lets users customize the exact hydraulic flow needed for a specific use. The high-flow valves work in conjunction with the smaller valves in the PVG portfolio, with consistent performance through the entire valve range. A total of four different valve sizes offer OEM customers more options, all of which use the same electrical and hydraulic interfaces to fit the exact flow needed for every application. The use of common parts within the PVG platform means the high-flow valves can easily be incorporated into existing applications. The PVG valves offer multiple spool sizes that can be adapted to meet customers’ specific application needs. Available spools have a combination linear and progressive characteristic, and the same spool can be used for all configurations with and without LS A/B relief valves. Features and benefits of the high-flow valves include: • High machine performance and productivity, due to the pre-compensated valve design. • Adaptable to regional fitting standards and reducing costs and installation complexity with available variations to SAE- and Metric flanges as well as BSP and UNF threaded ports. • Smooth load-independent flow control for optimum productivity and precise operation. • Limited pressure on each valve section work port from the individual load-sensing A/B relief valves, reducing stress on the structure, improving energy efficiency and ensuring safe and reliable operation. • Consistent control interface across the PVG portfolio and easy setup due to the same type of actuation as the PVG 32 and PVG 16, including mechanical (PVM), hydraulic (PVH), high current (PVHC) as well as CANbus control (PVED S5) with full PLUS+1 compliance.

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• Optimized operator productivity through high precision and repeatability of the valve performance. This is ensured through the precise PVE S7 and PVED S5 valves, which build on the high performance of the PVG 128 and PVG 256. • Additional diagnostics, lower cost of installation and ensured data availability on the bus through CANbus control. • A manual control (PVM) for each valve section, allowing work to continue in the event of electrical power failure. DW

Danfoss Power Solutions powersolutions.danfoss.com

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The Flow Pack Specialist: Slip Ring SR060E

The SR060E is a compact, low maintenance slip ring with up to 3 load and 2 signal/data channels – ideally suited for heated rollers in packaging machines. The smooth and flat surfaces allow easy cleaning. IP64 rating (with IP65 possible) and no mercury content help meet the requirements of the food processing industry. Innovative contact materials do not require oiling and typical service life is up to 500 million cycles. Rotational speeds up to 500 RPM. Fully encapsulated design means no exposed conductors to shock or short circuit

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Design Notes

Z.PACK 4 with semiautomatic insertion handling — all stations are equipped with SIKO position indicators.

Position indicator reduces

packaging setup times Edited by Mike Santora • Associate Editor

Zahoransky, a supplier for (tooth)brush production, packaging machines, and mold construction, recently integrated a monitored size changeover system, known as ERCO (Ergonomic Rapid Changeover), into the packaging lines for all types of blister packaging. For this application, it chose electronic position indicators for monitored size changeover from SIKO. The packaging machines with the ERCO system are in the Z.PACK series. “We aimed to design the Z.PACK in such a way that the process would be reliable enough to eliminate operating errors and therefore waste and damage to the machines. We also wanted to reduce the refitting times significantly and save money for our customers,” said Jörg Philip Zimmermann, Head of Product Sales Packaging. The packaging division and the brush machine business unit both recognized that the electronic position indicator from SIKO was already working well in the monitored size changeover in a brush machine. The aim was to integrate this system into the Z.PACK packaging machines also.

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Bus-compatible position indicator with status LEDs The individual stations on the packaging line are moved in a straight line on two guide rails and must be repositioned precisely for each changeover. To ensure process reliability, Zahoransky chose AP10S electronic position indicators from SIKO with a linear magnetic sensor connected to them. This position indicator allows precise

linear measurement of the manual slide adjustment on the guide rails. The bus interface is what sets the electronic AP10S indicator apart from mechanical variants. The PLC sends target values to the position indicator and reads the actual values measured. The target values are set up in a recipe management system within the machine controller; there is a recipe with all of the relevant target values, such as the station positions, for each of the products to be made. The machine controller does not enable the entire system until feedback confirms that all the positions set manually are correct. The position status is displayed with LEDs: green for “Position correct” and red for “Position not correct.” The external magnetic sensor for determining the correct position measures with an absolute accuracy of up to +/- 35 µm. Only when all of the LEDs turn green following adjustment can the packaging machine be put back into operation. The Z.PACK standard machine with a chain length of four meters includes the following stations, each of which can be equipped with the AP10S position

The green LEDs of the AP10S position indicator show that the stations on the Z.PACK are set up correctly and the packaging process can continue.

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Design Notes The stations mounted on guide rails can be adjusted easily and quickly on the Z.PACK with these position indicators.

indicator: the material infeed, into which the blister film is fed via a chain system, and the heating and deep drawing systems, into which the SIKO position indicators can be integrated. Here, the film is preheated and deep-drawn with a blister mold that matches the mold stamp — as a positive or negative mold. The product is then inserted, either by hand or automatically, with a pick-and-place unit. Then the cover material, such as cardboard, Tyvek, aluminum, PET or PVC film, is fed in and the whole thing is sealed, either by heat sealing or ultrasound sealing. Finally, partial or complete cutting is carried out. Depending on the needs of the customer, additional stations can also be integrated which can also be equipped with position indicators for size changeover. Insertion of leaflets, laser or inkjet printing, blind imprinting on the packaging edge, perforation of cardboard and film, folding of the filled blisters, camera-aided monitoring, and scanning of barcodes are all possible. All stations must be adjusted to the new film width on every product change. Cutting contours for the blister packs must be exact for a perfect product, as must the seal surfaces. DW

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Design Notes

Liquid level sensors for harsh environments

Edited by Mike Santora • Associate Editor

Common harsh environmental commercial applications for sensors include offshore oil rigs and fracking, hydraulic systems for industrial power systems and steam co-generation plants (shown here).

Liquid level sensors have to operate in extreme conditions. Picture a holding tank on a drilling rig in the North Sea with temperatures dropping well below zero. Or, imagine the bilge tank in a shipping freighter, which contains the remnants of the industrial fluids and debris as it rolls through heavy seas. How about hot reactor fluids in a nuclear power plant? Those emergency fuel tanks? They could be cooking in the heat of an Arizona afternoon.

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This side mount float switch is used for hightemperature, medical and petrochemical applications as well as plating processes. In commercial and industrial applications with harsh environments, it is vital to know the level of critical fluids or to know when to respond to or change mechanical functions based on changes in fluid level. Many times, the dependability and life of a sensor is critical to equipment operation and public safety. Reed switch-based float level switches and sensors have been available for more than 60 years, and still provide the most cost-effective sensing solutions for commercial applications. They are easy to install, flexible in both materials and operation, provide accurate, dependable information, and are durable enough to survive extremes in temperature, pressure, and fluids.

Point level float switch Point level float switches detect single distinct points as the float or sensor encounters fluids within the tank or enclosure. Once inserted into a tank or positioned to contact the fluid, a float with an internal magnet is moved up/

down on a sealed stem as the fluid level moves to change an internal reed switch. Single point float switches switch between an open/closed state at a single point. They are accurate to within 1/8in. of an inch of liquid level, as the float passes through the middle of its float travel. Float switches can be constructed of different materials to withstand chemicals, high temperatures, high pressures, and even acidic environments. They are suitable for fluids that remain liquid well below freezing, and for hightemperature applications like hot oils to 482F/250C. Most single point float switches can be switched from Normally Opened to Normally Closed by flipping the float for vertically mounted float switches, or by changing the mounting orientation for side mounted float switches.

Multi-point float switch When mounted in a tank or positioned to contact the fluid, a custom multi-point float switch may have from 1 to 6 single

The MSB5600 stainless steel float switch, bracket mount, 60-watt, slosh shield detects high/low levels in a container. It is frequently used in food processing applications and other high-temperature environments where corrosion resistance is required.

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point float switches set on a single stem. The multi-point float switch can indicate multiple points within a tank from a single tank intrusion. Like the single point float switches, multi-point float switches come in many different materials and features and can be sized up to 10-ft in length for specific application conditions.

Continuous level float sensors Continuous level float sensors provide an accurate continuous liquid level value as a sealed float with a magnet moves up and down the stem. These sensors typically provide an increasing or decreasing output value over a range of 6 to 96 inches, dependent upon the application. The sensor output can be 4-20mA, resistive, or proportional voltage. The output value can appear as inches, gallons or other values when displayed through a panel meter. The internal element contains closely positioned switches that accurately indicate the position of the float corresponding to that fluid level. The accuracy is determined by the distance between the internal switches placed within the stem. Standard continuous float level sensors today can provide Âź-in. or better-stepped resolution (accuracy) over the full sensing length and can be customized for OEM applications.

What is considered harsh? Like any other mechanical device, a sensor, and the fluid it senses, can be affected by extremes, including temperature and pressure. Other conditions can include corrosive environments, corrosive fluids, shock and vibration, (both mechanical and thermal), fluids containing dirt and debris, and even humidity. If the right technology, design, and materials are not carefully selected, performance and premature failure of the sensor can result.

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Design Notes Common harsh environmental commercial applications for sensors include; offshore oil rigs and fracking, hydraulic systems for industrial power systems and pumps (including those on military nuclear submarines), or remote fuel tanks. More examples include fire protection systems, hydraulic systems in heavy transport vehicles such as rail cars, semis, and construction, steam co-generation plants, and anywhere that combustible, flammable gases, vapors, and fumes exist as part of the industrial process.

Materials For harsh environments with pressures to 500psi or more, stainless steel is generally the material of choice. Stainless steel float level sensors are constructed with dry contact hermetically sealed sensor elements set inside of a stainlesssteel sealed stem.

Brass is highly resistant to petroleumbased liquids and a good choice for generators, transmissions and hydraulic systems. Other uses include lubricating equipment, waste oil recovery, refining and fuel processing equipment. Kynar (PVDF) is a high purity engineered plastic that offers resistance to harsh thermal, chemical and ultraviolet environments, and is often used in chemical and semiconductor processing at a fraction of the cost of Teflon. Polypropylene holds up well in acidic or alkaline liquids and is FDA approved for food contact. Sensors designed for hazardous areas include sealed conduit connections to seal out the hazardous environment, weather, and other conditions. In many cases, sensors must be tested and approved by a third-party certifying agency for use in hazardous locations.

What is essential when selecting a liquid level sensor for harsh environments? If you understand what your system is going to do but don’t have working knowledge of liquid level sensors and how they can perform, look to the manufacturer for advice. It’s important to remember that all sensors are not the same. Those manufactured overseas at lower prices may be lacking in quality, third-party certification, and application knowledge. Also, it’s important to give the manufacturer as much information as possible about the application, including: • Equipment in which the sensor will be used • Expected sensor function • What the signal will control/go to (PLC, relay, etc.) • Environmental conditions • Type of fluid

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Hazardous Locations Hazardous areas are defined by class and by division or zone (NFPA 70, National Electric Code): Hazardous Area Classes Class I – a location or area made hazardous by the presence of flammable gases or vapors that may be present in the air in quantities sufficient to produce an explosive or ignitable mixture. Class II – a location or area made hazardous by the presence of combustible or electrically conductive dust. Class III – a location or area made hazardous by the presence of easily ignitable fibers or flyings in the air, but not likely to be in suspension in quantities sufficient to produce ignitable mixtures.

• Required approvals • What could go wrong within the operation Gathering the appropriate information to create the proper sensor design up front will reduce total overhead costs saving time and money during system installation and operation. Around us, every day, smart devices and systems are making it more important to know the status of fluids or automate processes for better customer satisfaction under any environmental condition. Float level sensors and float switches are a critical part of these systems. The right liquid level sensor will contribute to the longevity, safety and high quality of service if chosen correctly.

Hazardous Area Divisions Division 1 – A location or area where a classified hazard exists or is likely to exist under normal conditions. Division 2 – A location or area where a classified hazard does not normally exist but is possible to appear under abnormal conditions. Hazardous Area Zones Zone 0 – An area in which an explosive gas atmosphere is continuously present for a long period of time Zone 1 – An area in which an explosive atmosphere is likely to occur in normal operation Zone 2 – An area in which an explosive gas atmosphere does not normally exist

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Design Notes

Custom seals assist rotary gate valve

application

Edited by Mike Santora • Associate Editor

LB Bentley is a specialist in creating small bore valves for subsea applications. Since it introduced the now standard subsea rotary gate valve into the market in 1998, the gate valve has gained universal acceptance throughout the industry. This component is now used globally with many customers preferring this design over traditional needle, ball and slab type gate valve designs. LB Bentley’s MediumDuty Rotary Gate Valve was designed to meet a range of extreme working pressures and operating conditions.

As subsea oil and gas exploration becomes even more challenging, the company realized a highly specialized gate valve that met a wide range of extreme working pressures and operating conditions was needed. Meeting these development challenges led to the new Medium-Duty Rotary Gate Valve. To meet this application’s requirements, Trelleborg Sealing Solutions developed a custom version of Turcon Variseal MC with high-pressure extrusion resistance and back-pressure protection in NORSOK M-710 compliant PTFE and PEEK materials to provide the main stem sealing function. To facilitate subsea use, Trelleborg’s Turcon Glyd Ring T was selected as a contaminant exclusion seal. Throughout the development process, the Trelleborg team had to consider safety issues and challenges inherent in vital subsea equipment applications. For LB Bentley the qualification status of its products is continuously developing, but this allows the company to offer an expanding range of fully qualified products, including the Medium-Duty Rotary Gate Valve that Trelleborg has helped develop. The Medium-Duty Rotary Gate Valve uses minimal moving parts and an efficient quarter-turn mechanism that is operated manually. It exceeds the requirements of the two key industry standards of API6A and API 17D. The two seals used in the gate valve are Turcon Variseal MC and Turcon Glyd Ring T. Turcon Variseal MC was developed to replace multiple chevron seals or V-Stack type products in subsea valve stems that require a high integrity sealing capability. It includes a series of singleacting spring-energized seals housed within a U-shaped Turcon PTFE based material seal profile. The single-piece design improves sealing integrity and leak tightness in high-pressure applications by providing higher contact force across multiple seal hardware interfaces.

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To meet this application’s requirements, Trelleborg developed a custom version of Turcon Variseal MC with highpressure extrusion resistance and back-pressure protection in NORSOK M-710 compliant PTFE and PEEK materials to provide the main stem sealing function.

Turcon Glyd Ring T is recommended for doubleacting sealing for hydraulic components and is particularly suited to heavy duty and large diameter applications. Within the seal, both lateral profile flanks are inclined so that the seal profile tapers toward the seal surface. It can retain the typically robust and compact form of piston seals without losing any of the flexibility required to achieve a pressure-related maximum compression. The edge angle created by the cross-sectional form of Turcon Glyd Ring T permits an additional degree of freedom of movement and enables slight tilting of the seal; the maximum compression is always shifted toward the area of the seal edge directly exposed to the pressure. On the lowerpressure edge of the seal, the Glyd Ring T exhibits only zones with neutral strains without compressive or shearing loads. This design reduces the danger of gap extrusion. DW

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CAE Solutions Democratizing Simulation: delivering measurable results Robert Farrell • Contributing Editor

“Portfolio of simulation apps displayed in an e-handbook browser.” | courtesy of ESRD, Inc.

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Through the process of “democratization” organizations can safely put the power of engineering

simulation into the hands of those who are not experts in using CAE software, including product designers, new engineers and even those in technical sales and customer support. This resulting Democratizing of Simulation accelerates design validation, which in turn shortens time to market with more innovative products. But what are the challenges, benefits, and enabling technologies of this democratization movement; and what results are companies actually seeing today? Product development leverages intelligent Computer-Aided Design (CAD) models. This is no great revelation; it’s been this way since the early 1980s. About that same time the engineering world began to investigate ways to analyze these models to simulate performance. This created a need that was filled by a new breed of engineer who would develop expertise in the domain of numerical simulation - the CAE Analyst. Software tools quickly emerged enabling these experts to painstakingly create elaborate

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mathematical finite element models for replicating real-world conditions and helped reduce the number of required physical prototypes. The process came to be known as “simulation;” and the results were measurable improvements in timeto-market, quality and costs. Since that time industry has embraced simulation and continued to invest in the tools and resources to support its on-going use and development.

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Aras Corp. believes that effective, enterprise-wide SPDM must be implemented within an open, vendor-agnostic PLM platform with a systems-centric approach and must be “invisible” to the simulation analysts. The expert dilemma The ability to apply advanced training, software tools, methods, expertise, and experience is as much an art as it is a science. Consequently there remains a relatively small fraternity of CAE experts - many early pioneers, or direct disciples thereof. These are the custodians of a level of expertise and experience relied upon to perform key analysis. It has been estimated there are an order of magnitude more product designers and engineers who consume the results of simulation than those who perform the simulation. The problem is twofold. Limited expert resources create unnecessarily long analysis processes. This reduces the number of design alternatives that may be evaluated thereby stifling innovation. Second, as this generation exits the workforce there is concern that much of their knowledge will retire with them. The truth is that analysis/simulation is a critical competitive advantage for those who possess it. So what’s the answer? Democratizing simulation Today, there are a limited number of simulation experts and a sharply growing demand for simulation. Consequently, the resident expert is often a bottleneck. But what if a way existed to capture and reuse such knowledge and engineering judgment throughout the product development team? Democratizing Simulation is the term that is used for the techniques and approaches that allow product designers and engineers, without

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expertise in the use of simulation tools, to safely perform even advanced simulations and leverage the results in the design process. Expanding the number of those capable of performing simulations safely and robustly reduces experts’ workload and allows designs to be validated more quickly while exponentially expanding the number of design alternatives that can be evaluated. Also, the simulation automation techniques that are used make the experts themselves more efficient and accurate. The results are measurable improvements in product quality, time to market, and product innovation. Additionally spreading the workload allows CAE experts to focus on more sophisticated or critical simulations. This further elevates the role and value of the expert in the organization while allowing their expertise to be leveraged by many others. Gaining traction More than five hundred engineers, designers and business professionals gathered in Cleveland last summer at the NAFEMS Conference on Advancing Analysis & Simulation in Engineering. The event included a growing number of sessions on Democratizing Simulation including fourteen presentations, two workshops, and a roundtable. “It’s clear that it is no longer a question of whether democratized simulation will occur; or if it’s worthwhile to implement. Instead, the focus is on when it will become the industry norm,” said

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NAFEMS Americas Vice President, Matt Ladzinski. “Most presentations were real-world success stories detailing the challenges and ROI of implementation. It’s noteworthy that while none concluded that democratization is an easy process, all felt that the ROI is well worth the effort and intend to expand democratization within their organizations. These companies are the forerunners of the next generation of simulation users, when complex simulation technology vanishes behind a façade that will allow huge numbers of non-experts to safely leverage its power.”

Challenges The vision and promise sound great; but admittedly, there are a few challenges. Implementation The biggest obstacle to widespread implementation is a general lack of understanding as to how or where to begin. Until now engineers were forced to scour the Internet and similar resources for bits of disjointed

information. Too many web sites are all about selling something rather than educating their visitors. At the same time success stories were not well documented or readily available. Quantifying the ROI Often, the higher the business value, the harder it is to quantify. This is true of any business activity as it shifts from tactical to strategic importance. Quantifying the

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value of an expected reduction in cost or schedule can be challenging, but it is much easier than quantifying the value for increasing such things as quality, performance, or innovation. Threat to the Status Quo Democratizing anything represents a paradigm shift for organizations. And so Democratizing Simulation is often viewed as a direct threat by the CAE experts. Knowing the complexities of their job and unsure of how to accurately and completely replicate that knowledge for use by non-experts is understandably concerning. Consequently, CAE experts may be hesitant to endorse such an initiative. Still others may see it as diminishing their value in the eyes of the company. In no way is the role of the senior analyst diminished; nor are they being asked to relinquish control. To the contrary, through democratization techniques such as simulation applications, senior CAE analysts are taking on a more visible and important role as their expertise is now being leveraged throughout the company. Something in common amongst many of the Democratizing Simulation successes is the willingness of the CAE experts to champion the cause. How it works: implementation For those interested in taking a next step; or just want to learn more,

there are multiple starting points for implementation. The most common include: • Intelligent automation templates Template-based Simulation Automation has been used by many organizations to significantly improve the accuracy, consistency, repeatability, and efficiency of performing complex simulations. These intelligent automation templates embed the expertise of the experts in the form of rules that are automatically enforced when a template is executed. Templates not only allow non-experts to safely and robustly run simulations, but often also provide enterprise-wide standardization while making the experts more efficient and accurate. • Simulation apps Equally important is the speed and ease of creating these templates. Specialty tools and Low-Code Development Platforms (LCDP) allow Simulation Applications (Sim Apps) to be created with little or no manual coding. This in turn allows those closest to the design process to build the Apps rather than relying on IT developers. Increasingly, Sim Apps are browser-based, and with authorized access into a corporate network one has access to the Apps without any need to have locally installed software, eliminating yet another historical constraint of simulation and modeling.

• Simulation governance and standardization All major industrial organizations employ numerical simulation in support of their engineering and business decision-making. Therefore using numerical simulation is no longer a differentiator. The differentiator is related to how safely and reliably numerical simulation is being used? Depending on the answer, numerical simulation can be a significant corporate asset or a potential liability. Whenever engineering or business decisions are based on the results of numerical simulation there is an implied expectation of reliability. Without such expectation it would not be possible to justify the time and cost of a simulation project. In fact, if simulation produces misleading information then it has a negative economic value. • System simulation System simulation incorporates the end effects of all sub-systems and components in determining overall product performance. Throughout engineering design and simulation circles, system-level simulation has been synonymous to Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE), which the International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE) defines as a “formalized application of modeling to support system requirements, design, analysis, verification and validation activities beginning in the conceptual design phase and continuing throughout development and later life cycle phases.”

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CAE Solutions

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• Simulation Process & Data Management (SPDM) and the enterprise digital thread Traditionally, simulation data, processes and experts have operated within various silos in the organization. Hence, this valuable expertise and data has not been an integrated part of enterprise engineering processes. Furthermore, organizations are now striving to manage their engineering data and processes in a more consistent manner, connecting these into what is being called a Digital Thread. Any engineering data that exists within silos is, by definition, left out of the Digital Thread – simulation data is such an example. • High performance / cloud computing From product prototyping to process design, High Performance Computing (HPC) can save businesses both time and money, while improving products and streamlining operations. Regardless of one’s experience level with HPC, in order to fully utilize it, you need access to three main components: hardware, software, and expertise. HPC Hardware can consist of cloud-based resources, small departmental level clusters, or even powerful workstations.  These are available from a variety of vendors, ranging from online ‘payas-you-go’ access, to large systems custom designed and installed in dedicated data centers. CAE software can comprise of things such as solvers, meshers, visualization, and workflow managers, and so on.  This software can range from very specialized, open-source packages available at no cost, to more generic commercial packages that can run across a wide scale of domains and resources. Expertise that is available includes domains such as Computational Fluid Dynamics, Finite Structural Analysis, Bioinformatics, and so on.  Companies needing expertise often start with external consulting “engineering service providers” who can assist with a specific project, before eventually directly hiring domain experts versed in a variety of technical skills. Success stories surrounding Democratizing Simulation are plentiful and growing. Forward-thinking companies are taking advantage of available tools and resources to supercharge innovation, quality and productivity with effective use of simulation. Here are some documented examples: GKN Driveline implementation results: • Removes the bulk of routine analysis work and tedious report creation from the CAE Expert role, freeing them to work on more complex problems • Allows a non-expert user to investigate many iterations and establish design-intent before expert involvement • Data interrogation remains available for expert users, but is not required to execute the process • Automation activity drives process refinement and structure, creating a globally consistent methodology DESIGN WORLD

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CAE Solutions American Axle & Manufacturing implementation results: • Average 75% time reduction for each analysis iteration • Approximately $130,000 in annual cost savings at a single engineering site • Improved quality through globally enforced standards and practices which remove human error • Ability to run many more Noise Vibration & Harshness (NVH) analysis iterations, leading to more design decisions, earlier • Ability to redeploy resources as less experienced engineers are now able to safely run simulations Where to learn more A new on-line resource community was launched in June, 2018 to support industry’s growing interest in the Democratization of Simulation. The Revolution in Simulation (www.Rev-Sim. Org) initiative is a collaborative effort

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among subject matter experts, industry end-users, professional associations, and solution providers. They all share a common mission to educate, advocate, innovate and collaborate through an open, non-commercial community to further advance engineering simulation for experts and non-experts alike to help ensure a significant, exponential increase in the use of simulation and simulation data. “Rev-Sim provides access to the largest collection of educational materials including success stories, industry news, whitepapers, blogs, presentations, videos, webinars, best practices and technical reference materials to help individual professionals and their companies fully exploit the latest advances in simulation,” said Rev-Sim co-founder Rich McFall. “Perhaps most exciting is that the initiative is a true collaboration among topic experts, end users, thought leaders and solution providers including ANSYS, Aras, ASSESS, Beyond CAE, EASA,

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ESRD, ESTECO, Front End Analytics, Kinetic Vision, Modelon, NAFEMS, Ohio Supercomputer Center, PLM Alliances, UberCloud and VCollab. These innovative organizations are providing the expertise and funding to support this growing industry-wide movement to make engineering simulation more accessible, efficient, and reliable.” Get on board Democratizing Simulation isn’t some futuristic vision. It’s here and now and it’s delivering measurable and sustained results. Design and product development organizations, manufacturers, suppliers, software vendors and other solutionproviders should begin taking steps to learn more and to join this revolution, this next generation of simulation methodologies and usage. The confluence of simulation methodologies, software, automation templates and processes, and affordable high performance computing platforms, aided by the advent of mobile devices with ubiquitous high-bandwidth access to the Internet, has the potential to increase the number of users of simulation by an order of magnitude, over the next five to ten years. DW April 2019

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CAE Solutions

New Noesis Optimus integration with CAESES further strengthens automated design optimization processes Bruce Jenkins • Ora-Research

CAESES: “Assign identifiers, colors and triangulation settings for each individual surface patch which will be preserved for all generated designs.”

A

Noesis Solutions, developer of the Optimus and id8 product families and one of the pioneers of design space exploration technology, released a new direct integration with CAESES, a flexible CAD platform from Friendship Systems for creation of robust parametric geometry models that are ready for automated meshing and CFD analysis. “By automating the creation of simulation-ready geometries and the related engineering simulations,” Noesis says, “Optimus can evaluate a vast number of design variants in a limited time frame. This further extends the engineering insights delivered by simulation, enabling teams that use CAESES to identify leading candidate designs offering benchmark performance.” Design optimization based on parametric geometry models Friendship Systems’ geometric modeling technology is “used by engineering teams whose ultimate goal is to design optimal flow-exposed products,” Noesis says. Compared with traditional CAD tools, “the creation of geometry variants using CAESES can be fully automated and is 100% robust, thanks to the dependency-based modeling approach. All generated geometries are clean and watertight, which is essential for

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running design studies that involve meshing and CFD simulation software on HPC clusters.” At the same time, CAESES geometry models help engineering teams save computational time as they have fewer design parameters, while design constraints can be built directly into the CAESES geometry model itself. The direct integration between Optimus and CAESES “enables users of both software products to automate the creation of geometry variants with just a few clicks,” according to Noesis. By running CAESES in batch mode, Optimus triggers the generation of geometry variants in the background with no graphical user interface involved. CAESES users only need to set up a reference geometry model, along with a set of design variables that control the geometry shape.

April 2019 www.designworldonline.com

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Using Optimus, design engineers typically perform design of experiments (DOE) to define a virtual experiment plan that acquires the most relevant design information possible with minimum simulation effort, Noesis explains. Next, response surface modeling (RSM) “condenses complex simulations to help design engineers fully understand the unexplored design space potential up-front.” Finally, Optimus “manages an automated and coordinated search to identify those design parameter values that meet a combination of multiple (often competing) performance targets. Throughout the process, Optimus consistently takes into account design constraints imposed by manufacturing realities and stringent regulatory and standardization requirements.” “Identifying the best product design in the shortest time possible” “Optimus is known for capturing and automating simulation workflows without [requiring] any programming skills,” says Noesis Solutions CEO Naji El Masri. “The new direct integration with CAESES makes it easier for Optimus users to parameterize any virtual design model and automate the execution of the entire simulation process, including the creation of robust geometry models. This proven process frees engineers from repetitive tasks, enabling

them to identify better performing designs much faster than through conventional methods. It strengthens manufacturers’ competitive edge by delivering the best product design in the shortest time possible while saving tremendously on engineering, manufacturing and material cost.” “With these new CAESES integration capabilities in Optimus, our joint users can immediately benefit from both solutions without scripting a single line,” said Friendship Systems CEO Dr. Stefan Harries. “All the parameters from a CAESES model are directly accessible in the Optimus GUI, and can be controlled for running large design studies with parametric CAESES models. It’s amazing how easy this works, and hence will attract more engineers to introduce formal shape optimization workflows.” DW

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Canadian Council, Fives join forces to develop inspection technology for aerospace sector 52

April 2019 www.designworldonline.com

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As the aerospace industry in Canada and around the world continues to increase its use of automated composite manufacturing techniques to produce large aircraft components, the industry is eager to find solutions to manufacture reliable, safe, and cost effective composite structures. The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and Fives are working together to improve the efficiency of manufacturing composite parts. They are developing an advanced profilometer that will provide faster and more accurate part inspection.

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Based on an innovative optical technology, the advanced profilometer for composite placement shows considerable advantages over existing inspection technologies used for the same purposes. This groundbreaking in-process inspection technology will help manufacturers meet strict standards by providing superior measuring information without limiting the process functionality. These faster, better measurements will speed up manufacturing processes, reduce the risk of errors, and help composite manufacturers be more competitive.

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Fives has already started the last testing stage of the next-generation profilometer with customers and expects to begin commercializing the technology before the end of 2019. The NRC and Fives will continue to work together to advance this technology and bring innovative manufacturing solutions to the aerospace industry. Manufacturing makes up nearly half of Canada’s aerospace sector. Canada is home to more than 700 aerospace companies employing over 85,000 skilled professionals. The aerospace industry contributed $12.6 billion to Canadian Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2017. The NRC’s aerospace manufacturing technologies center supports industry, particularly the aerospace sector, in developing, demonstrating and implementing next-generation, costeffective manufacturing methods. Fives designs and supplies machines, process equipment and production lines for various industrial sectors and is a major supplier of composite manufacturing equipment to the aerospace industry. The engineering group employs close to 8,700 people in about thirty countries, mainly in Canada, the U.S., and Europe. The Metal Cutting

  

and Composites group that worked on this project has more than 1,100 people globally. “The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) is proud to work with Fives to advance the profilometer technology, pioneered by a multidisciplinary NRC team. Our expertise, paired with Fives’ forwardthinking methods, will help achieve the original vision of developing an innovative, high-impact solution that enhances the efficiency of automated composite manufacturing and facilitates the digital transformation of the process,” said Iain Stewart, President, National Research Council of Canada. “This is an exciting project for Fives as it demonstrates our commitment to advancing stateof-the-art composite application technology with productivity driven innovations, for both new and existing installations,” said Steve Thiry, President and CEO, Fives Machining Systems Inc. AD National Research Council of Canada nrc-cnrc.gc.ca Fives | fivesgroup.com

April 2019

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Aerospace/Defense

Sunpower CT-S Cryocooler launched aboard SpaceX CRS16 Dr. Heiko Wildner • COO • Matmatch

NASA successfully launched a Sunpower CT-S cryocooler in December aboard SpaceX’s CRS 16 spacecraft, as part of the Robotic Refueling Mission 3 (RRM3), which will pioneer techniques for storing and replenishing spacecraft fuel. The RRM3 platform allows NASA to adapt technology that could dramatically change the way the space agency plans and designs for deep-space exploration. Currently, all spacecraft use consumables to perform key functions, such as maneuvering and maintaining critical equipment. These consumables eventually run out, rendering the spacecraft useless. NASA hopes to replenish these spacecrafts with consumables via robot to maintain their functionality and allow them to stay in space longer, eliminating the need to replace with another spacecraft. The RRM3 mission is critical to better understanding and perfecting this technology. The RRM3 mission builds on two previous robotic refueling missions: the RRM1 and RRM2. Roughly the size of a washing machine, the 550-lb RRM3 module will hang from a platform on the International Space Station. The RRM3 has a suite of three unique tools: Cryogen Service Tool, Multi-Function Tool 2, and Visual Inspection Posable Invertebrate Robot 2.

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April 2019 www.designworldonline.com

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The primary objectives of the RRM3 mission are to transfer liquid methane in microgravity and maintain the cryogen mass with zero boil-off for a period of six months. This mission marks the 82nd successful launch of a Sunpower cryocooler into space with zero cryocooler failures, the most launches of any commercial cryocooler. The first Sunpower cryocooler was launched aboard the RHESSI satellite in 2002 and is still operating — with more than 150,000 hours of runtime. In total, Sunpower cryocoolers have more than 500,000 hours of cumulative space runtime. AD Sunpower Inc. / Materials Analysis Div. of AMETEK Inc. www.sunpowerinc.com

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Aerospace/Defense

Grommet tackles heavy vibration

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Device Technologies (DTi), a manufacturer of wire protection products, announced that Sikorsky Aircraft Corp. has executed an Engineering Change (EC) to use DTi’s Spring-Fast M22529/2 grommet edging in place of the legacy MS21266 nylon grommets for select applications on the Blackhawk UH-60M. SAC turned to DTi for a solution because DTi’s Spring-Fast provides best-in-class EWIS anti-chafe, arcing and sparking protection but at half the cost of legacy systems due to its fast finger pressure install with no glue, no clean up and no curing. Sikorsky made the change after careful evaluation, because critical machined fittings that are used to secure the Active Vibration System were being subjected to vibration of between 10 and 25 Hz. This was causing repeated, non-conforming, discrepancy reports as the legacy glued nylon grommets were dis-bonding and pulling away from the edges and surfaces to which they were applied. Further compounding the problem were tight radii and reverse curves that made up the periphery of the machine fitting. Without protective edge grommets, wiring was susceptible to chafing — which created the discrepancy reports. Over time, this could lead to potentially catastrophic sparking and arcing. “The Blackhawk is another success for DTi. We have supplied our Mil Spec quality grommets for numerous tactical aircraft like the V280 Velour, CH47 Chinook, C-17 Globemaster, T38 trainer and many others,” said Nick Petri, Managing Director of DTi. “It takes time for OEM systems and thinking to change, but we know we have a better alternative than legacy systems, and our job is to show OEMs the performance and cost benefits.” The problem with the old MS21266 legacy grommet is that it lacked the flexibility and static friction needed to hold to varying radii. Despite the adhesive and heat being applied to soften and make the nylon more malleable during application, it retained its tendency to disbond.This created discrepancies as well as a high cost-of-poor-quality as installation work had to be rigorously checked and often reworked. ph | istock

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In contrast, the M22529/2 has excellent retentive capabilities; its thin CRES substrate allows technicians to hand pre-form the grommet to rough interfaces and shapes and then easily snap them into place with just finger pressure. The M22529/2 has been static load tested to 20G on all three axes without adhesives. “We are proud of this Blackhawk EC, but this has implications far wider than aerospace as Spring-Fast grommet edging achieves a rare feat — it provides best in class performance for half the cost,” said Petri. “Any OEM in any industry who uses the old nylon grommet edging with glue can take advantage of this best in class performance for half of the installed cost.” AD Device Technologies Inc. www.devicetech.com

April 2019

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Aerospace/Defense

The future of rhenium Dr. Heiko Wildner • COO • Matmatch

Saffron is said to be the most expensive and rarest spice of all. Its annual production is around 220 tons. The metallic equivalent of saffron is rhenium, with indispensable production of 66 tons. At a density of 21g/cm³, this translates into a volume of less than 3 m³ or a sphere of a diameter of less than 2 meters. Rhenium is needed in the form of molybdenum-rhenium alloys in the aviation and electronics industry for reactors, semiconductors, electrical contacts, filaments and ignition wires? Being a relatively ‘young’ element, researchers and developers still see great potential for rhenium in future applications. The metal is contained in the Earth’s crust in extremely sparse amounts and has been found to occur naturally only in a volcano on the Kuril Islands in Southeast Asia. It took until 1925 for rhenium to be isolated for the first time. In the periodic table of the elements, rhenium takes on a position between the refractory and noble metals. 58

April 2019 www.designworldonline.com

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No primary sources of rhenium are at hand, but rhenium is extracted as a by-product from molybdenum concentrates, which themselves are a by-product of mining copper ores. Rhenium has a melting point of 3,186° C, which is the third highest melting point among all elements after carbon and tungsten. In terms of the boiling point, it ranks at top positions with 5627° C. Rhenium can show its superiority in applications that are subject to very hot temperatures and require stable structures. Unfortunately, rhenium oxidizes rapidly in air at moderate temperatures, forming volatile oxides. It has very high strength at high temperatures and offers good cold working properties. In the early 1950s, molybdenum-rhenium and tungsten-rhenium alloys were developed. The first industrial applications of tungsten-rhenium alloys included high-temperature thermocouples and vacuum tubes used in electronic devices. For a while, rhenium was also used to produce darts (‘rhenium darts’) to positively influence flight characteristics, although this application arguably uses more of a tungsten alloy and just a small amount of rhenium. Today, the production of superalloys for jet engines represents the largest single use for the element. These nickel superalloys contain 3-6% rhenium and are used in combustion chambers, turbine blades and propelling nozzles of jet plane engines. Rhenium improves the alloys’ creep resistance, resulting in more durable components that ensure greater fuel efficiency at elevated temperatures — an important contribution toward lowering fuel consumption in the aerospace industry. The second most frequent use of rhenium is that of a catalyst. Platinum rhenium catalysts are used to produce high-octane lead-free gasoline. Additionally, rhenium is needed in the form of molybdenum-rhenium alloys in the aviation and electronics industry for reactors, semiconductors, electrical contacts, filaments and ignition wires. Molybdenum-tungsten-rhenium alloys are particularly well suited for use at very high temperatures or applications subject to high wear. Tungsten-rhenium alloys are also used in X-ray anodes in high-resolution X-ray equipment — for example in mammography, angiography and computed tomography. Luminescent rhenium complexes have been used in intracellular bio-applications because of their efficient cellular internalization and attractive photophysical properties. Being a relatively ‘young’ element, researchers and developers still see great potential for rhenium in future applications. One of the most promising properties of

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rhenium alloys is their favorable biocompatibility, making them very attractive for the production of medical products. Specifically, molybdenum-rhenium alloys have performed better in implants than conventional titanium alloys. Additionally, researchers have examined the properties of rhenium diboride as a material for hard coatings and found that its hardness is almost equivalent to that of cubic boron nitride. AD Matmatch | matmatch.com

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Master Bond Inc. Epoxy Meets Airbus Specifications for Flame Retardancy Master Bond EP93FRHT non-halogenated epoxy was developed for aircraft applications where stringent requirements for flame retardancy, smoke emission, and toxicity levels must be met. This material has passed rigorous Airbus requirements including the following tests: • vertical ignition • optical density of smoke generated by solid materials • toxic gas analysis All three tests passed with flying colors, well under the permissible acceptable criteria. Master Bond EP93FRHT is a two component epoxy that can be used as an adhesive, sealant and potting system. It is ideal for use in aircraft interior applications. To learn more about this specialty product, contact us today.

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MW Aerospace Solutions is a Dedicated Quality Parts Supplier MW Aerospace Solutions designs and manufactures springs, fasteners, and related products for a wide range of aerospace applications, including components for engines, flight controls, propulsion, landing gear, interiors, avionics, and the most advanced space exploration vehicles. The brands comprising this group include Ameriflex, Atlantic Spring, Accurate Screw Machine, BellowsTech, Helical Products and Servometer, - specializing in springs, stampings, fasteners, couplings, flexures, machined springs, edge-welded, electrodeposited and formed bellows and assemblies. Together, our mission is to enable our OEM and Tier 1 manufacturing partners to bring products to market more quickly and cost-effectively by employing advanced manufacturing practices and processes of the highest caliber.The team has over 100 years of manufacturing experience and dedicated engineering professionals at your service to help optimize your designs for manufacturability and cost savings. No project is ever too small and we specialize in custom designs. ISO9001, AS9100D, ITAR compliant.

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The Lee Company Miniature Latching Solenoid Valve for Power Sensitive Applications The Lee Company’s new Latching Solenoid Valve is the ideal solution for power sensitive applications. By incorporating permanent magnets into the coil design, this miniature solenoid valve offers a dramatic reduction in overall power consumption, particularly when operating with extended “ON” periods. Unlike traditional designs that require continuous voltage to energize the valve from its natural state, this latching solenoid requires only a momentary pulse of less than a Joule to switch to and remain in state. Available in both 2-way and 3-way configurations, this 2 position latching solenoid valve features Lee’s unique and patented MultiSeal™ technology which radically simplifies port layout, offers significant space savings, reduces machining costs and provides superior reliability over traditional sealing methods.

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It’s not a web page, it’s an industry information site Stay current with the latest electronic tips, resources, and news, visit eeworldonline.com and stay on Twitter, Google plus, Facebook and Linkedin. It’s updated regularly with relevant technical information and other significant news to the electrical design engineering community.

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www.bearingtips.com

A Supplement to Design World - April 2019

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B e a r i n g s

The most asked questions on

bearings

Edited by Mike Santora | Associate Editor

Not all frequently asked questions are created equal. Some show up more than others, month after month, in the email inboxes and customer service call centers of bearing manufacturers. These types of questions are often about mainstay components like spherical bearings or recurring challenges like lubrication. A good understanding of these foundational bearing concepts is crucial for industry newcomers, but these ideas are also great for more established industry personnel looking to brush up on info they might not use every day.

What are some bearing lubrication fundamentals? There are two main types of bearing lubricants: oil and grease. While grease lubricants are made by mixing oil lubricants with thickeners, this process gives grease lubricants certain benefits that may make them more suitable for use. In applications that require longer life, engineers often choose grease; grease thickeners slowly release base oil creating a layer of lubrication between rolling elements and the bearing raceways.

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Proper grease selection involves recognizing the operating temperatures and speeds of a specific application. A higher viscosity means more rolling resistance and heat build-up, which means that oil lubricants are typically more suitable for high-speed, hightemperature applications. April 2019

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One of the main reasons for using grease is its viscosity. When oil viscosity is too high, temperature decreases will lead to oil thickening. Conversely, metal to metal contact is a significant risk if oil viscosity is too low. Oils are more likely to drain or leak out of a bearing, while greases are solid enough that they will stay where they are applied. These attributes make grease a better option for applications that will be shut down occasionally, as the grease will remain in the bearing and prevent the potential for dry starts when the application is turned on again. The lack of leakage is also critical for any applications in environments where products can’t be contaminated, such as food processing spaces. Also, there are greases available that are made explicitly for environments with food. Tightly-packed greases can also help block contaminants from entering a bearing, which is useful in environments with dirt or water.

Thin section bearings are beneficial for industries that deal with limited application space and demand continuous, quality performance, such as medical equipment, food processing applications, and even satellites.

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There are two main types of bearing lubricants: oil and grease. While grease lubricants are made by mixing oil lubricants with thickeners, this process gives grease lubricants certain benefits that may make them more suitable for use. These contaminants can then be cleaned out during re-greasing. Another consideration for using grease involves the operating temperatures and speeds of a specific application. A higher viscosity means more rolling resistance and heat build-up, which means that oil lubricants are typically more suitable for highspeed, high-temperature applications. However, applications with medium or low heat and speed requirements are generally very suitable for grease. In open bearing designs, oils are often the first choice. Oil is also common for high speed or low torque applications. With generally lower viscosities than greases, oil can usually allow more efficient movement of a ball through the lubricant. While most bearings require some type of lubrication, dry bearings are often specified for certain applications. When operating environments need lubricant-free operation, and the application can handle the reduced life expectations of a no lubricant solution, dry bearings are selected. This situation is often seen in medical or food and beverage applications with lubricant guideline restrictions. When there is no lubrication between ball and raceway, a substantial reduction in bearing life is to be expected. Oil lubrication lowers the operating torque of the bearing and enables high-speed operation.

The maximum storage interval for sealed bearings depends on the lubricant inside the bearings. Lubricant deteriorates over time from a separation of oil and thickener, condensation, and other factors. Closed bearings — sealed or shielded — containing standard domestic grease (GJN) in original, sealed packaging, have a shelf live of approximately five years. Other grease filled bearings have a shelf life of two or three years depending on the type of grease.

Heat can cause grease separation and moisture can contaminate greases and oil alike. This is an issue for pre-greased closed bearings, but open type bearing assemblies with separate lubricants can be at risk as well. Proper storage minimizes contamination risks. Most 55-gallon lubricant drums have a cap seal to keep the contents protected. The seal should be inspected regularly. A grease drum is like a can of paint. If it is not properly

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B e a r i n g s

resealed, the grease can become compromised, just like the paint. Also, storage temperature is critical. The higher the temperature, the faster the lubricant will degrade.

What are thin section bearings? As you may have guessed, thin section bearings are exactly like what their name suggests: thin. These parts feature a compact design that results in a thinner, more lightweight product than other types of bearings. As a result, thin section bearings are beneficial for industries that deal with limited application space and demand continuous, quality performance, such as medical equipment, food processing applications, and even satellites. While thin, there are several variations of cross sections and sizes available for thin section bearings to fit specific applications. Regardless of size, these parts are lighter in weight when compared to other bearing options. Depending on the needs of your application, you can choose from different styles of thin section bearings. These include radial, angular, and fourpoint contact thin section bearings. The variety of available thin section bearings allows users to take advantage of multi-load capabilities and high stiffness without adding extra weight or taking up too much space in an application. There are also multiple material options, such as 52111 chrome steel, 440 C stainless steel, and M-50 tool steel, as well as thin dense chrome plating options. Another significant benefit of these parts is that they typically have shorter lead times than other bearing styles, with turnaround windows as short as six-to-eight weeks depending on the manufacturer.

they are self-aligning, which gives them the ability to accept shaft misalignment from shaft deflection, mounting, or other issues that can create excess friction and heat with different bearing styles. This makes spherical roller bearings a natural fit for vibrating equipment and other applications where misalignment is an ongoing issue. Spherical roller bearings can accept shaft deviations and misalignment due to the curvature of the raceway and rolling element of the outer ring. These bearings are typically designed with two rows of barrel-shaped rollers that are inclined at opposite angles to the bearing axis. A guide ring can then be used to help keep these rollers in place. These two rows of rollers are designed to follow along separate raceways on the inner ring and a single spherical raceway of the outer ring, with the center of the outer raceway falling in line with the bearing’s axis. As these parts work in union with each other, spherical roller bearings can accept deviations while handling large radial loads at the same time. While spherical roller bearings are typically manufactured with straight bores, tapered bores can also be available depending on the bearing manufacturer. DW

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What are spherical bearings Spherical roller bearings are a type of rolling-element bearing that is designed to withstand arduous operating conditions and environments. The main draw of these types of bearings is that

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BEARINGS BEARINGS

GGB Make Bearing Selection a Priority Early in the Design Process Have you ever considered your bearing component in the beginning of your design process? Although bearing selection is often an afterthought in the product development process, considering your tribological needs as early as possible can yield significant cost efficiencies, performance enhancements and other improvements in the final product. Advantages of early collaboration • Reduce production costs • Avoid Delays in Manufacturing • Improve design • Improve overall system efficiency • Improve functionality • Avoid overspend • Increase customer satisfaction • Improve overall size & weight

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Quality Bearings & Components (QBC) Safe, Efficient, Affordable The QBC/BETEX Cone Heater is used to heat bearings and other drive components, developed specifically for the smaller workshop; it is an affordable alternative to larger induction heaters. The use of heat and shrink fitting is a safe alternative to open-flame heating and oil baths. The QBC/BETEX Cone Heater’s lightweight aluminum body ensures fast, even heating and the unique cone shape can accommodate multiple components in diameters of 10 mm to 203 mm simultaneously. Reduce maintenance costs and improve assembly process with QBC/BETEX Cone Heater. Discover safe, energy efficient, and solution oriented maintenance tools for mounting and dismounting of bearings and other power transmission parts at QBC.

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M o t i o n

C o n t r o l

Electric actuators for better robotic-vehicle steering

Steering design for advanced logistics vehicles and mobile robots starts with understanding design requirements; deciding if custom is critical; and choosing the best solution for specific application. Logistics vehicles include stackers, forklifts, side loaders, pushers and tuggers, and even mobile robots. These move items from point to point, place and remove items onto and off shelves, fill pallets, load and unload trucks, and assist humans in other work. But such vehicles are only as effective as their steering assemblies. Logistics vehicles and mobile robots need to be rapidly and accurately steerable to specific location. Increasingly, that task is performed by electric power steering (EPS).

By Will Hellinger Engineering Manager Allied Motion

It used to be that AGV and robotic-vehicle OEMs wanting to incorporate electric actuators had to build their own systems from scratch. Today these engineers can choose from myriad integrated steering builds — either off the shelf or customized to the application at hand.

Electric steering solutions for plant vehicles Steering systems must be accurate and reliable, even under high duty cycles. They must also be rugged, economical, and easy to install, operate, and maintain. Plus, they must satisfy specialized requirements imposed by electric steering.

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Advanced logistics vehicles and mobile robots are indispensable in an array of facility and operations types. Electric traction and steering actuators improve their function and simplify their production. No wonder electric power steering (EPS) is on the rise in these vehicles and robots.

Motion path requirements: The simplest motion task for vehicle

steering is to drive the vehicle along a straight line. Some installations mount vehicles on rails so no steering is required — just motive power from drive wheels. Slightly more complex are vehicles steered via fixed traction wheels run at different speeds. Such differential-speed operation imparts maneuverability, but this method can wear tires and stress the joints where the wheels attach to the chassis during very tight turns or rapid steering operations. • Vehicles that must execute crabbing — motion perpendicular to the main travel axis — need at least two actively steered wheels capable of 180° rotation. Exotic wheels such as Mecanum or Omni wheels support such crabbing. • Vehicles that must rotate in place (and revolve on an axis) need two to four actively steered wheels … each with a minimum of 360° rotation — or at least two wheels on the vehicle centerline to allow simultaneous rotation in the same direction.

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Turning radius: The required turn radius for a vehicle also impacts the steering design. A three-wheel counterbalance truck riding on a single-drive steering wheel and two casters has a fairly large turning radius. Vehicles with four steered wheels (each capable of 360° rotation) have smallest turning radii and the most flexibility for other movements without necessitating the exotic wheels mentioned above. Note that turning radius may limit vehicles’ maximum wheel or motor size. Small vehicles especially must have sufficient clearance to avoid wheel-chassis interference during operation. Steering torque requirement: Driving surface, load, and tire material all affect torque required to steer vehicle wheels. Vehicle velocity also affects this torque value. Pivoting wheels on a fully loaded forklift truck that’s stopped requires substantially more torque than pivoting them once the truck is moving. Steering motor and gearbox must be sized to deliver torque sufficient to satisfy the former.

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M o t i o n

C o n t r o l

Common steering architectures for logistics vehicles include differential-speed steering; steering with a single steered wheel coupled with two fixed casters; steering with two steered wheels capable 180º turning; and steering with two steered wheels capable of at least 360º rotation.

Steering sensor type: Forklifts, AGVs,

Logistics vehicles include stackers, forklifts, side loaders, pushers and tuggers, and even mobile robots.

and other mobile equipment may operate in very tight quarters. The control steering algorithm or human operator must have accurate knowledge of wheel angles … so wheel position sensing and feedback are necessary. Using relative wheel-position feedback is economical but requires a homing sequence at startup to establish a known steered wheel position. Absolute position sensing is a better alternative but has traditionally involved the use of proximity sensors or multiturn absolute positioning sensors — at added design expense. A third (and economical solution) is to employ traction actuators that use Hall-effect sensing in

the gearing to establish absolute wheel position without the need for homing routines. Safety for collaborative logistics spaces: Especially in the case of vehicles

moving in proximity to humans, safe operation is of utmost importance. So industry has evolved a comprehensive set of safety standards. Meeting these standards requires a combination of redundant systems, specialized hardware, and software. In the case of a steer-bywire system, no mechanical steering linkage exists. The system must detect any problems, quickly bring the vehicle to a complete stop, and then apply a brake.

The Allied Motion EPS steering motor actuator (right) is more compact and economical than a subsystem built from discrete components (left). Integrated motion designs also help OEMs trim engineering and assembly hours.

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M o t i o n

This integrated traction-wheel assembly with steering includes a right-angle permanent-magnet gearmotor. The gearmotor turns a pinion that rotates the wheel about its centerline. The small white pinion and blue sensor (circled in red) send feedback on wheel position to a vehicle controller.

Vehicle reliability: Operations designed around automated systems grind to a halt during vehicle downtime — even if production equipment is running just fine. It is essential that systems perform while simultaneously remaining economical enough to be viable solutions. Reliability is particularly important in the context of the recent industry shift toward service-oriented models. OEMs increasingly sell the service of moving goods, and thus uptime, rather than the vehicles themselves. In this case, reliability is not just a selling point but an essential aspect of the business.

Integrated electric power steering (EPS) assemblies One EPS assembly includes an electric motor mechanically coupled to a swivel-mounted wheel. The EPS unit incorporates a pinion gear that turns a steering gear fixed to the wheel assembly. The EPS can then rotate the steered wheel as commanded by controls (or operator for manual control). Vehicle manufacturers increasingly prefer complete steering drive builds — especially those customizable to specific vehicles. In one 72

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C o n t r o l

design, the brushless motor, gearing, servo drive, and feedback are all integrated into a single steering drive unit. In short, the main vehicle controller gathers input from integrated sensors in the EPS actuator and calculates path commands. Those it sends to the EPS drive electronics via fieldbus or wireless network (with CANopen most common at this time). Such operation is called steerby-wire because no mechanical linkage exists between the operator’s steering wheel (or the vehicle controller, in the case of autonomous vehicles) and the steered wheel. Electric steering solutions generally include integrated or bolted-on gearboxes for mechanical advantage. The production ratio enables the steering assembly to generate sufficient torque using smaller, less expensive motors. Of course, steering actuators should be located as close as possible to the wheel (preferably integrated with the wheel assembly) to eliminate the need for additional mechanical couplings between steering unit and wheel. Also note that some

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vehicle designs may benefit from vertical orientation of the traction or steering motor. That’s especially true where the design has extra vertical space or where horizontal space is at a premium. In some cases, such vertical configurations also let engineers get a smaller turning radius for the vehicle.

Design approaches for tractiondrive steering As with traction solutions, steering solutions include discrete and integrated architectures. The optimal choice depends on the application. Discrete traction-drive steering builds are assemblies of individually selected motion components. Such designs are more customizable. However, they force OEMs to spend more time on system integration — which translates into higher overall cost. More time spent integrating a steering system also means less time the OEM design team spends on the design of the vehicle itself. Discrete steering builds are even more difficult to build when the wheels must provide both power and steering functionality. The entire wheel assembly (which may include two different motors) must also describe the smallest possible circular envelope during turns. Here, fully-integrated EPS units often deliver more compactness and flexibility than OEM-build designs. Integrated electric-steering systems available for purchase as complete assemblies greatly

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M o t i o n

C o n t r o l

Allied Motion’s EPS90 integrated steering motor actuator (here with a SWS steering wheel sensor accessory) includes a motor, gearing, feedback sensor, and power and control electronics.

simplify design and installation. All components are engineered for optimal inter-operation. For example, the gearboxes are predesigned to satisfy design torque and power — even while minimizing backlash and wear. Because the component supplier purchases these subcomponents in volume, the final assembly is less expensive when procured in lower quantities by OEMs. Integrated steering builds also minimize wiring — to trim the costs and complexity of external wiring and interconnects. That’s in part because integrated designs integrate their electronics in their actuators.

In fact, integrated EPS steering builds also include embedded software that can be tailored application requirements. This saves engineering hours for developing code and software validation — expensive and timeconsuming aspect of safety in particular. Single-unit integrated designs can also come certified as units to save OEMs still more time and resources. But integrated systems are not universal solutions and can even compromise applications that need full customization. Maintaining spares of complete actuators may also be more expensive than having an

This is a verticallyoriented steered traction wheel assembly. The EPS steering actuator is right of the traction motor; the steering gear it drives is between the traction motor and wheel.

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Development delays can be costly

YOU KNOW

Compromises on linear motion technology can be risky

WHAT TO DO

Schneeberger will customize the right linear solution so you can move on

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M o t i o n

C o n t r o l

Typical start-off scenario T

t

Magnetic

t

t

Mechanical

t

t

One final note — on how steering feels to vehicle operators In conventional steering systems, drivers get tactile vehicle feedback through mechanical linkages to the wheels. But steer-by-wire systems have no such connection, so electric steer-by-wire power steering systems must simulate this tactile road response for the operator via slight variations in resistance to turning on the operator steering wheel. Common technologies to induce friction in steer-by-wire systems include mechanical brakes, electromagnetic brakes, and magnetic systems. Mechanical and electromagnetic brakes apply friction to provide the driver with a more realistic sense of how the vehicle is moving on the driving surface. But friction-based designs can be problematic where they transmit a misleading slip-stick sensation to the operator at startup. • Mechanical brakes work too, but their friction contact mean they wear over time — necessitating continuous monitoring and regular maintenance. Performance depends on temperature, and that’s an issue on material-handling vehicles that may go back and forth between cold-storage rooms to outside many times a day. To be safe and effective, the simulated resistance needs to be consistent. • Electromagnetic brakes are effective but expensive and bulky — and don’t always have sufficient response time to meet safety standards.

T

t

inventory of discrete actuator components. On the other hand, downtime is usually quite costly for end users, so total actuator swapouts (to quickly return to full operation) may make for lower total cost of ownership (TCO) than that of discrete steering builds.

These plots of breakaway torque versus time show how friction-based resistance creates stick-slip at the start of motion — making it hard for drivers to make small steering adjustments (to drive down a narrow warehouse aisle, for example). Magnetic versions provide much more consistent tactile feedback.

When paired with magnetic position sensing, magnetic-resistance technology brings realistic performance to steer-by-wire designs. The feel of the steering is adjustable and even programmable in some cases … and noncontact operation eliminates wear and maintenance requirements. DW Allied Motion electric steering alliedmotion.com/vehicle-steering-traction/traction Allied Motion electric traction alliedmotion.com/vehicle-steering-traction/traction

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In contrast, systems based on magnetic technology can provide very realistic steering-wheel feel (resistance) yet are economical. Magnetic systems don’t use friction so don’t exhibit stick-slip. Drivers get smooth motion that mimics the sensation of driving via mechanical linkage.

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Getting

the most from a linear motion system Understanding resolution as well as some lesserknown error sources, such as Abbé error, can help boost linear motion system performance. By Danielle Collins | Contributing Editor

Miles Budimir | Senior Editor

W

When evaluating the accuracy of a linear motion system, the area of focus is often the positioning accuracy and repeatability of the drive mechanism. Positioning accuracy and repeatability are standard specifications that describe how a linear motion system behaves along its travel and how closely it reaches the intended position. In truth, there are many factors that contribute to the accuracy (or inaccuracy) of a linear system, including linear errors, angular errors, and Abbé errors. Of these three types, Abbé errors are probably the most difficult to measure, quantify, and prevent, but they can be the most significant cause of undesirable results in machining, measuring, and high-precision positioning applications.

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Abbé errors begin as angular errors Abbé errors are caused by the combination of angular errors in the motion system and the offset between the point of interest (the tooling, load, etc.) and the origin of the error (such as a screw or guideway, etc.). Angular errors — commonly referred to as roll, pitch, and yaw — are unwanted motions due to the rotation of a linear system around its three axes.

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If a system is moving horizontally along the X axis, pitch is defined as rotation around the Y axis, yaw is rotation around the Z axis, and roll is rotation around the X axis. Errors in roll, pitch, and yaw typically result from inaccuracies in the guide system, but mounting surfaces and methods can also be sources of angular errors. For example, mounting surfaces

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M o t i o n

Abbé error, δ, is caused by a combination of angular errors and an offset, h, between the point of interest and the origin of the error, such as a screw or guideway. | Image credit: ETEL S.A.

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Angular errors include roll (rotation about the Y axis), pitch (rotation about the X axis), and yaw (rotation about the Z axis). | PI USA

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Index Reference Mark

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Main Track

20 µm

This linear encoder has a resolution of 20 μm, but quadrature encoding can increase the resolution by a factor of four, down to 5 μm. | Celera Motion

Abbé errors are probably the most difficult to measure, quantify, and prevent, but they can be the most significant cause of undesirable results in machining, measuring, and high-precision positioning applications.

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that are not precisely machined, components that are not sufficiently fastened, or even varying rates of thermal expansion between the system and its mounting surface can all contribute to angular errors greater than those inherent in the linear guides themselves. Abbé errors are especially problematic because they amplify what, in most cases, are extremely small angular errors, increasing in magnitude as the distance from the errorcausing component (referred to as the Abbé offset) increases. The Abbé offset is h. The amount of Abbé error, δ, can be determined with the equation:

practical for most setups, so linear encoders are used in many applications where Abbé error is a concern. In this case, the most accurate measurements of Abbé error are achieved when the encoder read head is mounted on the point of interest — i.e. the tooling or the load. XY tables are less susceptible to Abbé errors than are other types of multiaxis systems (such as Cartesian robots) are, primarily because they minimize the amount of cantilevered travel and typically operate with the load located at the center of the Y-axis carriage.

δ = h x tan (ϴ)

Resolution While positioning accuracy and repeatability are important, resolution can be equally important in some applications. However, it isn’t often included in performance data for linear motion components and systems. In general terms, resolution specifies the smallest increment that a linear system can measure or display. Think of the marks on a thermometer. A high-resolution thermometer may have tick marks indicating every 0.5-degree increment, while a low-resolution thermometer may only have tick marks for every 2-degree increment. For a linear motion system, resolution specifically refers to the smallest movement the system can make. When driven by a servo motor in a closed-loop system, resolution is measured by an encoder — ideally a

For overhung loads, the farther the load is from the cause of the angular error (typically the guideway or a point on the mounting surface), the higher the Abbé error will be. And for multi-axis configurations, Abbé errors are even more complex because they’re compounded by the presence of angular errors in each axis. The best methods for minimizing Abbé errors are to use high-precision guides and to ensure that mounting surfaces are sufficiently machined so they don’t introduce additional inaccuracies to the system. Reducing the Abbé offset by moving the load as close as possible to the center of the system will also minimize Abbé errors. Abbé errors are most accurately measured with a laser interferometer or other optical device that is completely independent of the system. But laser interferometers aren’t www.designworldonline.com  

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There are many factors that contribute to the accuracy (or inaccuracy) of a linear system, including linear errors, angular errors, and Abbé errors.

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linear encoder mounted on or near to the axis being measured. For linear encoders, resolution is stated as the distance (microns or nanometers) between lines, or counts, and for rotary encoders, resolution is given as the number of measuring units (counts or pulses) per revolution. Although the resolution of an encoder is set by the number of lines and their spacing, the method of signal processing used by the controller can improve resolution. When both the leading and trailing edges of one encoder signal are counted, resolution is effectively doubled. When both the leading and the trailing edges of two signals are counted — referred to as quadrature encoding — resolution is increased by a factor of four. However, just because an encoder can measure a particular resolution or

movement distance, this does not guarantee that the linear system can actually execute the move. In real-world applications, the ability of a mechanical system to move extremely small distances is limited by internal friction and preload, as well as compliance, or windup, in the components. Similarly, the maximum frequency that the drive and controller can accept on the encoder input — 20 million counts per second, for example — may limit the speed of the system due to processing limitations. Instead of resolution, manufacturers often specify minimum incremental motion (MIM), or practical resolution, which indicates the smallest movement the linear system can consistently and reliably achieve. Stepper motors are inherently wellsuited for high-resolution moves, because their movements occur in discreet steps. The resolution of a stepper motor-driven

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system is determined by the lead of the screw, divided by the number of steps per revolution of the motor. When microstepping is used, theoretical system resolution can be significantly increased. However, like servo systems, stepper systems also experience a minimum incremental move, which is limited by the mechanical components and controller bandwidth. For linear systems, resolution is an important specification for applications that require extremely small, highly accurate moves, such as inspection and scanning processes. With low-friction linear guides and a highbandwidth controller, ball- screw-driven systems can achieve practical resolution in the range of 100 Îźm. But when resolution in the single-micron or high-nanometer range is required, most applications will use a linear stage with non-recirculating bearings, such as crossed roller bearings or air bearings, in conjunction with a linear motor or a piezo drive, to completely eliminate recirculating elements that would introduce friction and high breakaway forces. DW

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Updates in CAD focus on better simulation

While the latest upgrades to major CAD systems don’t make major changes to the way those programs operate, they do include significant updates. Here’s a look at some of the biggest enhancements and key features of these programs.

Jean Thilmany | Senior Editor

CAD packages continue to see regular updates, whether a major release, or the minor updates that happen throughout the year. Some updates include major enhancements or new features, as is the case with NX, which now includes machine learning and artificial intelligence features. The company will quit bringing out yearly NX updates, as the software is now offered on continuous release. Other popular programs like Creo, Solid Edge, SolidWorks, and Autodesk Fusion 360 have seen changes as well. More than one company has changed the way in which they name the new versions of their software and several boast new or enhanced simulation capabilities. Here’s a look at the most recent updates. NX from Siemens PLM In February, Siemens announced an update to its NX CAD software, which now includes machine learning and artificial intelligence features that, by following users’ patterns over time, come to automatically predict their next steps and anticipate their needs.

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The programs do this by monitoring the actions of the user and following their success and failures. In that way, the features determine how to serve up the right NX commands and also modify the user interface accordingly, says Bob Haubrock, senior vice President, product engineering software at Siemens PLM Software. Machine learning is increasingly used in the product design process because it has the power to process, analyze, and learn from large volumes of data, he adds. In this way, designers can more efficiently use software to increase productivity. The ability to automatically adapt the user interface to meet the needs of different types of users in various departments can increase CAD adoption rates at a company, continues Haubrock. In another recent change, Siemens PLM Software began delivering NX using a continuous release model. This means the

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software updates are produced in short cycles and are released when needed, at any time. The model gives NX users faster access to new enhancements and quality improvements, while reducing the efforts needed to effectively deploy NX, Haubrock says. “With automatic updates, customers do not have to search for updates online and will not miss critical fixes. The NX Update mechanism will automatically notify and install important updates as they become available.” With continuous release, users can turn on “automatic updates” within their system to ensure they always receive the updates. The approach helps reduce the cost, time, and risk of delivering changes by allowing for more incremental updates to applications. Thus, NX will no longer be identified by a release number and will only be referred to as NX. In other words, there will be no NX13.

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SolidWorks 2019, from Dassault Systèmes, is powered by the company’s 3DExperience platform, which runs the CAD, simulation, and other tools on which designers and engineers rely. Those applications on the 3DExperience platform are tailored to SolidWorks users and mid-market companies.

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Solid Edge 2019, from Siemens PLM, makes it easier for engineers to identify the products within the Solid Edge portfolio. The most significant updates for mechanical designers are tools that allow engineers to model and simulate the entire production process along with the final product.

Machine learning is increasingly used in the product design process because it has the power to process, analyze, and learn from large volumes of data.

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The CADmaker says it’s the first major CAD, CAM, and analysis vendor to deliver its products in this way. The company says the new approach will enable Siemens’ NX users to: • Receive enhancements faster to help boost productivity • Have a consistent schedule for updates • Better plan for the adoption of new technologies • Reduce deployment costs Creo from PTC In February PTC released Creo Simulation Live, which allows engineers to perform simulation in real time on their parametric models because ANSYS simulation capabilities have been integrated with the Creo CAD tool. “Every time you make a change in your model, you’ll see the consequences instantaneously in the modeling environment,” says Brian Thompson, PTC senior vice president, CAD segment. “The goal is to remove the barrier between the CAD and CAE world,” says Andrew Leedy, a PTC applications engineer. “This is targeted toward the engineer or designer rather than the analyst.” The simulation software runs linear, structural, thermal, and modal analyses. The solver uses GPU rather than CPU for instantaneous analysis, Leedy adds. “So as soon as you make changes to the model it updates the

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graphics that drive the simulation. The capability to simulate and design simultaneously helps engineers understand the implications of what they’re making, he adds. The integrated tool also eliminates the need for the engineer to mesh the model before running a simulation and does away with the post-processing step. The integrated simulation software from ANSYS is called Discovery Live. “Engineers can ask ‘What if I add this hole, what will it do to the model?’” he said. “This works on top of the model, it works directly within the environment an engineer is used to.” The CAD software does require a graphics card that supports the ANSYS tool. Solid Edge from Siemens PLM Solid Edge 2019 brings a new naming convention to the tool, which will now be referred to by the year in which it is released. This makes it easier for engineers to identify the release they’re using as well and to identify the products within the Solid Edge portfolio, says Ben Weisenberg, applications engineer at product lifecycle management company Prolim. Weisenberg frequently details Solid Edge updates to the CADmaker’s user community. The most significant updates for mechanical designers are tools that allow engineers to model and simulate the entire DESIGN WORLD

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production process along with the final product, Weisenberg says. These include the convergent modeling tools that designers can use to integrate mesh models directly into their workflows. They can use these tools for the milling, casting, and molding of generative designs and 3D printed designs. Manufacturing constraints allow engineers to optimize the weight and strength requirements of their model. A new design-for-cost feature shows the anticipated cost of the part, to help keep product development on track and within budget. Updated simulation capabilities include: • Enhanced structural and thermal simulation, including transient heat transfer. • Time-based history analysis enables simulation of thermal and cooling performance. • Free surface flow simulation, lighting and radiation capabilities allow digital “what if” analysis. • The ability to display simulation results on geometry faces to help engineers make more informed judgments about the model. SolidWorks from Dassault Systèmes New features to the program, released in September 2018, let product development teams better manage large amounts of data and capture a more complete digital representation of a design. The program also offers new technologies and workflows that improve collaboration and enable immersive, interactive experiences during design and engineering. Other new features include the capability for engineers to interrogate or rapidly make changes to a model through an enhanced large design review capability. Another upgrade gives teams a way to communicate with others not involved in design. With this feature, viewers of the CAD design can add markups to parts and assemblies and then export the marked-up designs as a PDF. The most recent update from Dassault Systèmes involves the Works portfolio, which will bring applications like SolidWorks together with business solutions like a company’s enterprise resource planning (ERP) system. Typically, ERP systems track all pertinent companywide business processes, including accounting, supply chain, and human resources. When parent company Dassault Systèmes launched SolidWorks 2019, executives stated

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Creo Simulation Live, from PTC, lets engineers perform simulation in real time on their parametric models because ANSYS simulation capabilities have been integrated with the Creo CAD tool.

Use of applications across the platform should improve collaboration, manufacturing efficiency, and business agility.

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that the CAD tool was “powered” by the company’s 3DExperience platform, which runs the CAD, simulation, and other tools on which designers and engineers rely. Those applications continue to run on the company’s 3DExperience platform and are tailored to SolidWorks users and midmarket companies. They have been folded in the 3DExperienceWorks portfolio. SolidWorks executives term the new portfolio a “business experience platform.” It provides software solutions for every organization within a company—from design to enterprise resource management, says Bernard Charlès, vice chairman and chief executive officer for Dassault Systèmes. “It’s a way for mid-market companies to tie all processes together, from design to manufacturing.” Use of the applications across the platform should improve collaboration, manufacturing efficiency, and business agility, he added. Companies can accomplish their work using one cohesive digital innovation environment instead of using a complex series of point solutions that requires jumping between applications and interfaces, Charlès, says. The software on the platform includes SolidWorks, analysis, simulation, manufacturing, and ERP applications. It is available on-premise and in the public or private cloud. The platform connects data and streamlines business and design processes by providing dashboard

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templates, managed services, access to industry-focused communities and user groups, and applications specific to a variety of job roles, Charlès says. Autodesk Like other CADmakers Autodesk has consolidated its design, simulation, and other computer-aided engineering capabilities in one product, Fusion 360, which is available as a cloud-based product. The product unifies design, engineering, and manufacturing into a single platform, according to Autodesk. Fusion is a 3D modeling took that includes simulation, visualization, rendering, CAM, and other functions within a single interface. It also includes a 3D animation tool and 2D drawing tools. The product runs on both Windows and Macintosh systems. In March, updates to that product included the capability to know when a teammate is working on your design at the same time to avoid doing work that will be over-ridden by another designer. When someone is working on the same design, an icon is displayed in the toolbar. By using a mouse to hover over the icon, a designer can see who is working on the same design. If one person makes a change to the design and saves it, the icon in the toolbar will change, letting the designer know that the design now has a newer version. DESIGN WORLD

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The toolbar has been updated to include quick access tools and documents tabs that line up with one another for more space on the design desktop. Also new is a hole-tap tool called taper tapped, which allows designers to choose among a variety of thread types. Autodesk also maintains its AutoCAD and Inventor CAD tools with no plans to immediately discontinue those products. Those two CAD systems usually see a new release in March of each year; though as of press time Autodesk hasn’t announced 2020 versions of AutoCAD or Inventor. At Autodesk University in November 2018, Greg Fallon, vice president of business strategy at Autodesk, did announce updates to a collection of tools that work inside Inventor as well as a suite of specialized toolsets now available with AutoCAD. Two years previously at Autodesk University 2016, company officials said they expect to maintain Inventor for another five to ten years and plan to continue updating it and enhancing functions. The Inventor emphasis will continue to be on industrial machinery design, officials said at that time. While Inventor may be phased out in favor of Fusion 360, this has not been explicitly stated by Autodesk executives. As ever, there are too many CAD packages to include in a single roundup. Other applications include IronCAD, TurboCAD, OnShape, Catia, and KeyCreator. All these will include new and updated features in future updates. As designers and engineers know, when it comes to CAD software, the key phrase is, constant evolution. DW

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Looking into

the factory of the future

Tomorrow’s manufacturing facility will still use everything from hydraulics to electrics, and automation will provide more flexibility than ever.

Edited by Paul J. Heney | VP, Editorial Director

By now, anyone involved in the industrial sector has probably heard the term, “factory of the future.” Those four words bring to mind an industrial utopia defined by increased productivity with no downtime, round-the-clock productivity, previously untapped levels of customization, improved safety capabilities — all boiling down to more profitable production processes. There are a number of companies offering systems, software, and other tools to help achieve these goals. One of these companies is Bosch Rexroth.

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The Multi-Product Line brings together hydraulic power units with embedded sensor technology to provide predictive indicators.

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Tomorrow’s manufacturing facility will still use everything from hydraulics to electrics, and automation will provide more flexibility than ever. At the heart of the Bosch Rexroth approach is the automation and IoT software that could turn such a vision a reality. Dr. Henier Lang, SVP of Automation & Electrification Solutions at Bosch Rexroth defines the factory of the future this way: “Full flexibility, individuality and scalability. This is exactly what the factory of the future is about.” The company is heavily involved in bringing these future capabilities into the present with its portfolio of automation solutions. But as automation takes up most of the factory of the future’s attention, technology such as hydraulic components, linear motion and assembly systems can easily fall out of view. Years of multi-technology expertise has made it clear that full flexibility, individuality and scalability must remain a reality.

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The factory of the future and hydraulics The future of hydraulics begins when real-time diagnostics and predictive maintenance meet Rexroth’s hydraulic technology. Here’s how the combination brings the factory of the future idea to life. Using a marriage of industrial hydraulics components and industrial control components, the company provides integrated, ready-to-go solutions. Whether this is an integrated solution with variable speed drives or industrial power units equipped with onboard PLCs, users can use the products right out of the box. In almost all industries, machine users require increased flexibility and availability for production of small batches and continuous diagnostics of actuators and sensors. This specifically comes to life with hydraulics. For

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example, the Multi-Product Line installed in the Bethlehem, Pa. facility brings together hydraulic power units with embedded sensor technology to provide predictive indicators for maintenance. By using CISS sensors, technicians at the facility monitor vibration and noise as part of simple predictive measures. In addition, the general industry has an increasing demand and need for horizontal and vertical connections of machinery and systems for Industry 4.0 applications. The open standard IEC 61131-9, IO-Link, fulfills these requirements with low connection costs and energy consumption. By including an IO-Link interface into a few of its more popular hydraulic products, Bosch Rexroth promotes the integration of fluid technology into Industry 4.0 applications. Starting with select proportional control valves and pressure switches, the implemented IO-Link interface enables users to have direct access to all data provided by the actuator and sensor, in addition to the field bus, helping to enable a batch size of one. As the factory of the future progresses, a wider variety of hydraulic products outfitted with IO-Link capabilities will be available for increased flexibility, individuality and scalability to more applications. The factory of the future and linear motion Customization and scalability are key in the future vision of the factory and Rexroth’s DESIGN WORLD

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linear motion digital platform allows users to design a linear motion system tuned for the specificities of that individual application. In the past, the company was already a primary provider of linear motion eTools such as the Linear Motion Designer, LinSelect and a variety of eConfigurators. With digitalization, it has enhanced its established database of linear motion tools to create a complete digital platform designed for the entire product lifecycle. Because it’s a digital platform, the data are available anytime, anywhere, at the simple push of a button — increasing accessibility for the user. From seeking information, selection, purchase, supply, commissioning, start-up, operation and service, linear motion tools for the factory of the future guide customers through individual processes from start to finish. The factory of the future and assembly technology When the personalization of the factory of the future and assembly technology collide, amazing things can happen. Open communication is primary factor to success — and it extends beyond open networking capabilities. ActiveCockpit, the company’s data visualization tool, encourages open communication throughout the entire plant and provides an efficient way for workers to collaborate and view plant data in real-time. Bosch Rexroth is not just a provider of Industry 4.0-ready technology, but also a lead user of the technology.

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Bosch Rexroth brings customers factory of the future-capabilities into the present with a portfolio of automation solutions.

The ActiveCockpit is a technology executed on the Multi-Product Line and plays a role in its day-to-day operations. Centrally located in the plant, the ActiveCockpit collects, filters and continually displays production data, contributing to increasing transparency, productivity and efficiency in the facility. For added flexibility, the software is compatible with mobile devices and laptops, meaning employees can access the information from anywhere in the plant or remotely. Its open software platform makes it customizable for almost any application and suitable for most any factory. In addition to enabling smaller batch sizes and increasing flexibility, the factory of the future will be worker-centric … and the everdeveloping smart workstation technology is paving the way. Harnessing the personalization capabilities that will make factories more efficient, smart workstations such as ActiveAssist make assembly tasks easier for the worker by providing interactive step-by-step tutorials on the task at hand and customizing the instructions to their individual needs to ensure a quality result. Using web-based software, ActiveAssist makes all information available to employees at all times and is modularly designed to ensure realization of individual solutions, adapted for specific needs. The smart workstation technology embodies the personalization needed for an efficient work environment. As the industry enters into future iterations of assembly technology for factories, the innovations will only become more flexible, more customized, and more scalable.

The smart workstation technology of Now embodies the personalization needed for an efficient work environment.

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The factory of the future and automation Tomorrow’s factory wouldn’t be possible without the automation and electrification solutions that help drive it. Solutions such as cabinetfree drive technology enable machine manufacturers to integrate all

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electrical drive components directly into the machine, for cabinet-free, modular machines with minimal space needs. Advanced features that improve machine safety for a variety of applications can bring a competitive edge to operations. From drive-integrated safety functions to centralized-safety PLCs, each solution is engineered to enhance the transparency of the plant and enable a safer, more transparent work environment. Having an efficient future factory doesn’t require new machines. Future-proof new or existing machines with an IoT gateway software solution. IoT gateways makes it easy to connect to Industry 4.0 environments without intervening in the automation logic. To illustrate the capabilities of an IoT gateway, Bosch Rexroth dusts off a human-powered lathe from 1887 once used in Robert Bosch’s manufacturing plants. It is powered by a foot treadle and adjusted with hand cranks, arguably making it a pre-Industry 1.0 machine. By implementing one of the IoT Gateways and an XDK sensor, valuable data could still be collected, despite it being an archaic innovation. An IoT gateway allows value to be extracted from the process without replacing or redesigning the machine. The factory of the future is connected and the solutions enabling that connectivity are available Now and will only continue to advance. Conclusion The factory of the future is happening now … but today is just the beginning. Increasingly short production life cycles, smaller batch sizes and individual product design mark the requirements for future productions, and the next wave of future technologies will bring the industry closer to economic customization than ever imagined. DW

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M e c h a n i c a l

Black oxide’s

effects on

roller bearing performance Black oxide finish has a long tradition. To aid in the application of this technology, the process, requirements, and testing methods were standardized in DIN 50938 and ISO 11408. Since then, they have been further refined by the bearing industry for its specific application to rolling element bearings. Here’s a look at the benefits in theory and practice.

David Schaljo head of application engineering at NKE

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The black oxide finish forms a protective layer for steel parts. In a multistage chemical process, the surface layer of the treated part is converted into a 1 to 2 micrometer thin mixed ferrous oxide layer containing FeO, Fe2O3., and Fe3O4. Because the black oxide finish contained in the conversion layer does not represent a coating as such, this treatment yields only minimal dimensional changes of the component. The characteristic black appearance of the black oxide finish results from the mixed ferrous oxides contained in the so-called conversion layer.

Often, black oxide finish is used purely as a corrosion protection measure. However, with the thin and porous layer, corrosion protection is mainly achieved by the application of suitable (corrosion protection) lubricants, which are retained to some degree in the structure of the porous conversion layer. As such, the layer provides only limited corrosion protection that depends, ultimately, on proper maintenance. From today’s perspective, more suitable methods are widely available to achieve effective and long-lasting corrosion protection. Multiple protective effects are possible when only one functional element (typically the rolling elements) is treated. Ideally, all functional surfaces of a rolling element bearing, including the inner and outer ring and the rolling elements, should

April 2019 www.designworldonline.com

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be black oxide finished. Black oxide finished bearing components have several unique technical characteristics, especially in the case of components that move relative to each other. The conversion layer of the black oxide finish exhibits a marked resistance against wear and bending. This layer results in favorable run-in characteristics and run-in periods of rolling element bearings and trouble-free and long-lasting operation. Wear during run-in is reduced considerably and the run-in period is significantly shorter than that of standard rolling element bearings. Also, the porous nature of the conversion layer aids in the adhesion and retention of lubricant on the functional surfaces, thereby improving the lubrication conditions especially in the critical run-in and

DESIGN WORLD

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Full complement cylindrical roller bearing NCF1880SQ94D from NKE.

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•• •• M e c h a n i c a l •• Arrow or diamondshaped smears in the raceways of a bearing without black oxide finish.

start-up phases. Black oxide finished cylindrical roller bearings have been proven to lessen the occurrence of WEC (white etching cracks), they also provide additional protection during the run-in and testing phase of gearboxes. Another benefit is improved adhesive wear characteristics. Rolling bearings

Optimize.

operating in low-load situations and bearings that are subjected to rapid speed changes during operation can be susceptible to adhesive wear (slippage damage and smearing). Under these conditions, slippage occurs at the contact area between the rolling elements and most commonly the inner ring raceway, especially when the difference between the rolling speeds

between raceway and rolling elements is very high. The resulting slippage, which mainly takes place where the rolling elements enter the load zone, causes smearing. This causes lasting damage to the rolling element and raceway’s surfaces and material structure; the operating characteristics of the bearing deteriorate quickly and premature failure of the bearing is not unusual. This type of damage often occurs where lubrication is insufficient, or an unsuitable lubricant is used. A particular type of slippage damage occurs on full complement cylindrical roller bearings where the counteracting surface speeds of the contacting rolling elements prevent the formation of a stable lubricant film to separate the contact surfaces. Here, direct contact between adjacent rolling elements cannot always be avoided so that, as friction increases, smearing and damage to the rolling elements’ lateral surfaces occur.

With validated costsavings and increased machinability, Dura-Bar provides a competitive advantage in a wide array of Fluid Power applications. Optimize with Dura-Bar. www.dura-bar.com

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Surface damage to a rolling element without black oxide finish.

Jon Schmidt, Chief Engineer Neff Press, Inc. St. Louis MO

Complex motion? Can do. Why does Neff Press®, an industry leader in high-speed hydraulic production presses, integrate Delta RMC controllers into its precision can-making line?

“Delta provides some highly advanced tools for tuning axes very quickly and accurately. That has been our best experience versus other motion controllers we’ve used.” “…the smoother motion and synchronization between axes enabled by the Delta controller has allowed us to increase our output by 25%.” Look to Delta RMC motion controllers and graphical RMCTools software to make complex motion design so much easier than any alternative. Give yourself a break and call 1-360-254-8688 or visit deltamotion.com Find the Neff can-making case study or one about your own industry or application. Watch a training video to see how easily Delta can put complexity in the can for you. Delta RMC Motion Controller Family

In both cases, the black oxide finish can act as a protective layer, which delays the onset of wear and smearing. If steel on steel contact occurs due to a short breakdown of the separating lubrication film, the risk of cold shut and other types of severe surface damage is reduced considerably. Depending on the severity of the operating conditions in an application, the conversion layer will eventually wear off, not least because of its limited thickness. Cylindrical roller bearings with a bore diameter smaller than 560 mm are designed to operate at an operating load of approx. 1% of their dynamic load carrying capacity and with a rotation speed of up to 1200 rpm. Despite design measures to reduce the number of rolling elements and thus the load carrying capacity, the formation of the characteristic arrow or diamond-shaped smearing marks (Fig. 1) in the raceway and corresponding damage to the rolling elements (Fig. 2) cannot be entirely avoided. This issue can be resolved by using rolling elements with a black oxide finish and introducing a lubricant chosen specifically for the application. Along with its other advantages, black oxide finish also protects against environmental effects. Besides providing better corrosion protection in conjunction with a suitable lubricant, the black oxide layer also helps prevent fretting corrosion and forms a barrier on the bearing steel against harmful hydrogen diffusion and chemical reactions with aggressive lubricant ingredients, such as the wear and corrosion protection additives often found in oils to improve their effectiveness in gear tooth systems. The suitability of this measure for specific applications should always first be assessed, but black oxide finish remains a cost-effective and technically viable means of prolonging the service life and performance of rolling element bearings especially in critical applications. DW NKE | www.nke.at

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Online conveyor modeling tool mk North America mkCAD360!.com This online conveyor modeling tool — CAD360! — adds speed to the modeling process. Users can work via the web on one page without having to navigate to multiple pages or install software. With CAD360! users input the target values for length, width and height, select drive location and target options, and the model is generated on demand. Users can create a single-belt conveyor or choose from a variety of predesigned conveyor-system layouts.

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Miniature manual valves IMI Norgren imi-precision.com Small sizes and a variety of construction materials and porting options mean designers and engineers can easily find these miniature manual valves to meet their space and functional requirements. Competitively priced and easy to install, these valves are problem solvers in pneumatic applications ranging from assembly area test fixtures to piloting to controlling small cylinders. A choice of easy toggle or push-button actuation makes them suitable for manual operations.

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These 3.25-in. input to output shaft distance gearboxes are available in ratios of 10:1, 15:1, 20:1, 30:1, 40:1, & 60:1 with outputs in left hand shaft, right hand shaft, dual shaft, and hollow shaft. The 325 gearbox C-face interfaces match NEMA 56C, 145TC, and 182/4TC motor frame sizes. Constructed of cast iron one-piece housings, the worm gearboxes are designed to change drive direction by 90°, drive a load at a reduced fixed ratio of the motor speed, and increase output torque by the same ratio. Worm gearboxes are used when space is at a premium, such as for conveyors, or to simplify mechanical design. IronHorse gearboxes are mountable in any direction, except motor pointing up.

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Ad Index ABB Motors & Mechanical . ............... 9 Allied Electronics .................Cover,12,13 Allied Moulded Products .................42 AllMotion .................................................. 4 Altech Corporation .............................. 2 Aurora Bearing Company.................45 Automation24, Inc. ............................. 27 AutomationDirect ........................... IFC,1 AutomationDirect ........................ Insert Bay Associates Wire Technologies, Inc. .........................23 Bimba ........................................................ 5 Bird Precision ..................................... 109 Bison Gear and Engineering .......... 24 Bodine Electric Company ............... 98 Canfield Connector ......................... 107 Carlyle Johnson ..................................95 Centritec Seals .....................................16 CGI Motion ............................................44 Clippard ................................................. BC Cornell Dubilier Electronics, Inc. ... 99 CS Hyde Company..............................49 Del-tron .................................................. 73 Delta Computer Systems............... 104 Diequa .................................................. IBC Digi-key..................................................... 15 Dura-Ba................................................. 102 Elesa U.S.A. Corp .................................41 HYDAC Technology Corporation .....................................97 icotek Corp ............................................45 igus ............................................................ 3

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Aerospace & Defense Tips Supplement

Jami Brownlee

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Mike Caruso

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Bill Crowley

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A Supplement to Design World - April 2019

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Step motors keep it clean. Motion Control: Electric actuators for better robotic-vehicle steering. 3D CAD: Updates in CAD focus on better si...

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Step motors keep it clean. Motion Control: Electric actuators for better robotic-vehicle steering. 3D CAD: Updates in CAD focus on better si...

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