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WATERSHED NUTRIENT LOADING ASSESSMENT FOR THREE PONDS IN WAYLAND, MA October 2007

Prepared For: Town of Wayland, Massachusetts Attn: Mr. C.W. Moores 4 Deer Run Wayland, MA 01778

Prepared By: 289 Great Road, Suite 105 Acton, MA 01720 (978) 263-9588 www.Geosyntec.com


WATERSHED NUTRIENT LOADING ASSESSMENT FOR THREE PONDS IN WAYLAND, MA TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION 1:

INTRODUCTION ................................................................ 1

SECTION 2:

METHODS ....................................................................... 1

SECTION 3:

RESULTS......................................................................... 7

SECTION 4:

DISCUSSION ................................................................... 12

SECTION 5:

RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................................ 13

ATTACHMENT 1 ............................................................................... 14

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SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION Geosyntec Consultants, Inc. (Geosyntec) was contracted by the Town of Wayland, Massachusetts to design and execute a sampling and analysis program to evaluate sources of nutrients affecting rooted plant and algae productivity at Dudley Pond, Heard Pond and the North Pond of Lake Cochituate (North Pond). The goals of the program were: (1) to evaluate the level of non-point source phosphorus pollution occurring within portions of the study watersheds; (2) evaluate the contribution of landscaping fertilizers to nutrient loading within the study watersheds ; and (3) evaluate if bacterial contamination from septic systems is intruding the storm drain system.

SECTION 2: METHODS Geosyntec developed a sampling program in consultation with the Wayland Surface Water Quality Committee (WSWQC) that included two types of sampling regimes: storm event based wet weather sampling and dry weather sampling. The dry weather-sampling regime was used to evaluate nutrient and bacteria levels of nuisance flows and base flows in storm drains at the sampling sites. The results were used to evaluate the potential for bacterial contamination from septic system leachate intruding the storm drain systems. A wet weather-sampling regime was used to characterize storm water quality from catchment areas that drain to the sampling sites. The program included sampling for total phosphorus (TP) as the primary pollutant of concern. Wet weather sampling was used to estimate the magnitude of external phosphorus loading and to help identify potential TP sources within the catchment area. Phosphorus is typically the limiting nutrient for plant productivity in fresh water ecosystems and is a primary component of most landscaping fertilizers. 2.1

Wet Weather Sampling

GeoSyntec’s wet weather-sampling regime involved collecting “first flush” samples at specified locations around each of the three ponds during qualifying wet weather events. First flush refers to the initial runoff that occurs at the beginning of a rain event. In general, pollutants accumulate during dry inter-event periods and are mobilized during the first flush of an event. Pollutant concentrations in storm water runoff occurring during a rain event are typically highest during the first flush. Additionally, the magnitude of the first flush is more dependant on the length of the dry inter-event period leading up the event and is less dependent on the total precipitation accumulation that occurs during the event. Sampling sites at each of the ponds included storm drain discharge points and tributary inlets that drain to the ponds. Geosyntec conducted a review of current land use conditions (e.g., aerial orthophoto images, USGS quadrangle maps, etc.) within each watershed to identify potential sampling locations (e.g., outfalls, tributary inlets, etc.). These sampling locations were revised based on comments from the WSWQC during a meeting conducted on 25 April 2007. The final sampling locations for Dudley Pond, Heard Pond and the North Pond of Lake Cochituate are presented on Figures 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Dudley Pond: Six locations were sampled around Dudley Pond. The majority of locations included stations at the downstream most accessible point in the storm drain systems, immediately upstream of the outfall locations. The locations were selected to provide a safe and accessible sampling location that would be representative of the quality of storm flows at the outfall, as follows: •

Station D-1 was sampled in the storm drain system at 27 Bayfield Road, at the catch basin of the culvert that drains to the pond.

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Station D-2 was sampled using a first flush sampler installed in the storm drain system near 12 Crest Road at a catch basin.

Station D-3 was sampled using a first flush sampler installed at the culvert outfall across from the middle school. Station D-3 was the upstream most point in the adjacent wetland system.

Station D-4 was sampled from the tributary that drains from the wetland into the Pond. Station D-4 was sampled by collecting a grab sample.

Station D-5 was sampled at the culvert outfall at the public beach area, just north of Mansion Road. Station D-5 was relocated to the storm drain system immediately adjacent to the beach, as the outfall did not have any flow during the initial sampling event. Station D-5 was sampled using a first flush sampler.

Station D-6 was sampled using a first flush sampler installed in the storm drains system between the catch basin and culvert outfall at the Simpson Road.

Heard Pond: One location was sampled at the inlet tributary to Heard Pond. The station was sampled using a first flush sampler installed in the tributary adjacent to the south side of Beckwith Street. North Pond: Five locations within the Town of Wayland portion of the North Pond watershed were sampled using a first flush sampler, as follows: •

Station C-1 was sampled from the storm drain system near the catch basin located at the intersection of Edgewood Rd. and Ridgefield Rd.

Station C-2 was sampled from the storm drain system at the catch basin located on Lake Road Tier, adjacent to Morrill Drive.

Station C-3 was sampled from the storm drain system at the catch basin located at the end of Gage Road.

Station C-4 was sampled from the storm drain system at a catch basin at the town beach.

Station C-5 was sampled immediately down stream of the storm drain outfall identified in a Letter Report dated December 13, 2005 prepared by ESS entitled “Wayland Ponds Study – Report, ESS Project No. W244-000.

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D-1

D-6 D-2 D-5 D-4

D-3

Sampling Location Figure 1: Dudley Pond with Sampling Locations.

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H-1

Sampling Location

Figure 2: Heard Pond with Sampling Locations.

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C-1

C-2

C-3 C-4

C-5

Sampling Location Figure 3: North Pond at Lake Cochituate with Sampling Locations.

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The following is a description of GeoSyntec’s wet weather sampling procedure: (1) Geosyntec monitored forecasts and the development of storm systems and predicted accumulations during the period of study. Based on the forecast, Geosyntec made a “go/no go” decision at least six hours prior to the event and mobilized to setup Nalgene first flush samplers at the designated sampling stations. Nalgene first flush samplers are sampling devices that allow flow to enter the sample bottle until the bottle is full. The sampler device then self seals and does not allow additional flow to enter the sample bottle. The collected sample volume best represents the water quality of storm flows that occur early in a runoff event. (2) Geosyntec monitored the total event accumulation during the event to determine if the event is a qualifying event (i.e., greater than 0.10 inches of precipitation). A total accumulation of 0.10 inches was selected as a qualifying event as events with less accumulation typically do not generate storm water runoff. A minimum precipitation accumulation of 0.10 inches is recommended by the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AWWARF, 2004) for storm event based sampling programs. (3) Geosyntec mobilized to retrieve samples immediately upon a total accumulation of 0.10 inches or more of precipitation. First, the Nalgene first flush sampler containing storm water runoff was removed from the sampling location and shaken 10 times to ensure a homogenous sample. Next, 250 mL of sample volume was transferred to a 250 mL plastic sample container with sulfuric acid (i.e., H2SO4) provided by the laboratory. The preserved sample was then placed on ice in a cooler at 4 degrees Celsius. The remaining sample volume was removed from the Nalgene sampler and the sampler was collected. (4) Geosyntec delivered the preserved samples to Thorstensen Laboratory in Westford, MA. TP was measured by the laboratory according to EPA method 365.2 on 6/4/2007 and EPA method SM4500-P-E on for the remaining sampling dates. (5) Geosyntec collected all Nalgene first flush samplers used during the sampling event. The samplers were cleaned using Alconox® phosphorus-free detergent and rinsed twice with de-ionized water. The decontaminated sampling equipment was then stored for the next pre-event mobilization. Five wet weather events were sampled as described in Section 3. Geosyntec’s sampling plan targeted twelve samples per event. However, not all sampling events resulted in twelve samples. A sampling event that resulted in less than twelve samples was likely an event that resulted in either low or no flow conditions at the sampling location, resulting in a sample bottle that was not filled to the required volume (250 mL) for laboratory analysis. 2.2 Dry Weather Sampling GeoSyntec conducted one dry weather-sampling event that involved the collection of grab samples collected at designated sampling locations to evaluate nuisance flows in storm drain systems within the three watersheds. A dry weather event was defined as a sampling event that was preceded by a period of dry weather for at least 72 hours. Dry weather flows were analyzed for TP and fecal streptococci (fstrep).

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SECTION 3: RESULTS 3.1

Wet Weather Sampling Results

Geosyntec sampled five wet weather events between June and September 2007. Each wet weather event was sampled as described in Section 2. A summary of hydrologic/climate conditions and water quality results are presented below. 3.1.1

Summary of Hydrologic and Climate Conditions

Wet weather events were preceded by a minimum of 48 hours of dry weather. Rainfall accumulations for the wet weather events were recorded from National Oceanic and Atmospheric (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) weather stations in Worcester, MA and Boston, MA. Event precipitation accumulations ranged between 0.18 and 1.21 inches. A hydrological summary of wet weather events is included in Table 1. The NWS does not maintain a weather station in the Wayland, MA area. Therefore, precipitation accumulation data from Boston, MA and Worcester, MA weather stations were averaged to estimate the approximate total accumulation in the Wayland area. Table 1: Summary of Wet Weather Sampling Events

6/4/2007

Total Precipitation Worcester (inches) 0.84

Total Precipitation Boston (inches) 1.46

7/6/2007

1.00

0.37

0.69

Date of Sampling Event

Total Average Precipitation (inches) 1.15

7/9/2007

0.35

0.25

0.30

7/18/2007

0.18

0.17

0.18

9/11/2007

1.12

1.29

1.21

The summer (i.e., June through August) of 2007 for southern New England was described by NOAA (i.e., Boston weather station observations)) as the 51st driest summer on record since 1872 with 8.04 inches of precipitation. This is approximately 1.61 inches below historic average for southern New England (9.65 inches). August 2007 was the second driest August on record and the driest August since 0.39 inch accumulated in 1883. A summer climatological summary is included in Table 2 below. Table 2: Boston, MA NOAA NWS Summer 2007 Climatological Summary Month

Average Temperature (F)

June 2007

68.5

Reference to Average Conditions (F) +0.5

2.12

Reference to Average Precipitation (inches) -1.10

Precipitation (inches)

July 2007

72.9

-1.0

5.26

+2.20

August 2007

72.7

+0.4

0.66

-2.71

Summer 2007

71.4

Normal

8.04

-1.61

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3.1.2

Summary of Water Quality Results

Background: Water quality results from the study were compared to published event mean concentration (EMC) data for residential land uses. EMC data represents the average pollutant concentration in storm water runoff that is likely to occur during an event and is estimated by the total mass of pollutant in storm water runoff divided by the volume of storm water runoff. EMCs are developed through rigorous storm water sampling programs. Published EMC data for residential land use range between 0.26 and 0.38 mg/L. Residential land use refers to watersheds that include residential developments and associated roads, landscaped features, as well as undeveloped portions of forest or open space that may be integrated into residential landscapes. The concentration of a pollutant in storm water runoff is related to pollutant loading to receiving waters. The concentration in storm water runoff does not directly equal the receiving water’s in-lake pollutant concentration. There is a complex relationship between pollutant concentration in storm water runoff and actual in-lake pollutant concentrations. This relationship includes factors such as dilution, flow, pollutant degradation, in-lake cycling and direct pollutant inputs to the lake as well as other indirect inputs (e.g., atmospheric deposition). Dudley Pond: Six locations within the Dudley Pond watershed were sampled during wet weather events as shown in Figure 1. A summary of wet weather sampling results at Dudley Pond is presented below in Table 3. The event-average TP sample concentration was highest during the 7/6/2007 and 7/18/2007 events. The highest TP sample concentrations were recorded at sampling stations D-1 and D-2 during the 7/18/2007 sampling event. However, the 7/18/2007 sampling event had the smallest precipitation accumulation of 0.18 inches. Stations D-1 and D-2 had the highest average TP sample concentrations of 1.49 and 0.48 mg/L, respectively. Stations D-1 and D-2 also had the highest standard deviation in TP sample results of ±2.25 and ±0.51 mg TP/L. Stations D-3 through D-6 had similar average TP sample concentrations and had similar results for each of the sampling events. Specifically, the standard deviation in TP sample concentrations ranged between ±0.13 mg TP/L and ±0.20 mg TP/L at stations D-3 and D-4, respectively. In general, July sampling events resulted in higher event-average TP sample concentrations when compared to the June or September event. Average TP sample results for stations D3 and D-4 were the lowest of all Dudley Pond sampling stations. In general, TP concentration decreased between station D-3 (upstream of wetland) and station D-4 (downstream of wetland) during the sampled events, except for the 7/18/2007 event, when the concentration at D-4 was 0.13 mg/L higher than at D- 3.

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Table 3: Dudley Pond Wet Weather TP Sampling Results Sampling Event

6/4/2007

7/6/2007

7/9/2007

7/18/2007

9/11/2007

Accumulation (inches)

1.15

0.69

0.30

0.18

1.21

Sampling Location

Total Phosphorus (mg TP/L)

D-1

0.2

0.74

0.41

5.5

0.59

D-2

0.02

0.82

0.21

1.2

0.14

D-3

0.11

0.47

0.23

0.35

0.32

D-4

NS

0.6

0.21

0.26

0.16

D-5

0.12

0.29

0.12

0.19

0.46

D-6

0.25

0.36

0.2

0.62

0.46

Event Average

0.14

0.55

0.23

1.35

0.36

Event Minimum

0.02

0.29

0.12

0.19

0.14

Event Maximum

0.25

0.82

0.41

5.5

0.59

Table Notes: (1) 0.21 indicates that the bottle was missing/not full and therefore the sample was collected during the rain event and may or may not represent first flush. (2) 0.01 is the detection limit reported by the lab. (3) NS indicates that no sample was present or collected due to no or little flow.

The average Dudley Pond wet weather TP sample concentrations exceeded published average concentrations for residential land use reported between 0.26 and 0.38 mg TP/L. This suggests that phosphorus export in the sampled portions of the Dudley Pond watershed may be elevated due to external sources of phosphorus loading such as landscaping fertilizers. The portion of the watershed that includes stations D-1 and D-2 (i.e., northeast portion) has the most variability in sample results and therefore are more likely to be influenced by external TP inputs (e.g., landscaping runoff, etc) than other portions of the Dudley Pond watershed. The average TP sample concentrations at D-3 (upstream wetland) and D-4 (downstream of wetland) generally decreased during sampled events except for the 7/18/2007 event when TP sample concentration slightly increased. The limited sampling data suggests that the wetland does not provide a source of TP during summer rain events, but may reduce the TP load to the pond in summer. Wetland vegetation has the capacity to uptake phosphorus and other nutrients during the growing season for use in plant growth. North Pond: Five locations within the North Pond watershed were sampled during wet weather events as shown in Figure 3. A summary of wet weather sampling results at North Pond is presented below in Table 4. In general, TP sample results were highest during the 9/11/2007 event when the highest precipitation accumulation was recorded. TP sample results were lowest during the 7/9/2007 event, which followed the 7/6/2007 event with a total accumulation of 0.69 inches. Station C-3 had the highest average TP sample concentration of 2.20 mg TP/L; however, this included a high 9.40 mg TP/L sample result during the 9/11/2007 event. The high TP concentration of 9.40 mg TP/L is likely an anomaly in storm water runoff that is common to storm event-sampling regimes. Station C-2 and C-4 had the lowest average sample concentration of 0.73 mg TP/L for all North Pond sampling stations. The North Pond average TP sample concentrations for all stations sampled were among the highest recorded in the study. In addition, sample results varied widely for all stations around North Pond. Specifically, sample TP concentrations’ standard deviations ranged between 0.70 mg TP/L and 2.20 mg TP/L.

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Table 4: North Pond Wet Weather TP Sampling Results Sampling Event

6/4/2007

7/6/2007

7/9/2007

7/18/2007

9/11/2007

Accumulation (inches)

1.15

0.69

0.30

0.18

1.21

0.26

0.5

0.1

2.4

0.91

C-2

0.6

0.23

0.18

0.65

2.00

C-3

0.48

0.39

0.25

0.46

9.40

C-4

0.2

0.39

0.15

0.89

2.00

C-5

0.37

1.14

0.26

0.87

2.00

Sampling Location C-1

Total Phosphorus (mg TP/L)

Event Average

0.38

0.48

0.19

1.05

3.26

Event Minimum

0.2

0.22

0.1

0.46

0.91

Event Maximum

0.6

1.14

0.26

2.4

9.4

Table Notes: (1) 0.21 indicates that the bottle was missing/not full and therefore the sample was collected during the rain event and may or may not represent first flush. (2) 0.01 is the detection limit reported by the lab. (3) NS indicates that no sample was present or collected due to no or little flow.

The average North Pond wet weather TP sample concentrations exceeded published average concentrations for residential land use. The North Pond sampling stations had the highest variability in TP concentrations of the three ponds assessed in this study. This suggests that phosphorus export in the sampled portions of the North Pond watershed may be elevated due to external sources of phosphorus loading such as landscaping fertilizers. Heard Pond: One location in the Heard Pond watershed was sampled during wet weather events as shown in Figure 2. A summary of wet weather sampling results at Heard Pond is presented in Table 5. TP sample results at Heard Pond ranged between 0.04 mg/L and 0.33 mg/L with an average of 0.21 mg/L. The highest TP concentration in all samples was collected during the 9/11/2007 sampling event that corresponded to the largest precipitation accumulation. However, the next highest TP sample concentration of 0.31 mg/L was collected during the 7/18/2007 event when the least precipitation accumulation was recorded. Table 5: Heard Pond Wet Weather TP Sampling Results Sampling Event

6/4/2007

7/6/2007

7/9/2007

7/18/2007

9/11/2007

Accumulation (inches)

1.15

0.69

0.30

0.18

1.21

Sampling Location H-1

Total Phosphorus (mg TP/L) 0.3

0.04

0.06

0.31

0.33

Table Notes: (1) 0.21 indicates that the bottle was missing/not full and therefore the sample was collected during the rain event and may or may not represent first flush. (2) 0.01 is the detection limit reported by the lab. (3) NS indicates that no sample was present or collected due to no or little flow.

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The TP concentrations from the Heard Pond sampling stations were among the lowest in the study. The average TP concentration for station H-1 was 0.21 mg/L with a standard deviation of Âą0.14 mg/L. Average Heard Pond wet weather sample concentrations were below published average concentrations for residential land use. In addition, the limited deviation in sample results suggests that the area draining to H-1 is not likely impacted by external TP inputs such as landscaping activities. 3.2

Dry Weather Sampling Results

One dry weather-sampling event was captured on August 22, 2007. The event was sampled following a dry inter-event period of 72 hours and resulted in six samples. Dry weather samples were analyzed for TP and fecal steppocooci (F strep). F Strep is an indicator organism that, when detected, indicates that fecal contamination is present in the sample. Sources of fecal contamination include leaking septic systems, cracked sewer mains, etc. A summary of dry weather sampling results is presented below in Table 6. In general, F. step samples results at Dudley Pond were similar and ranged between 1,320 and 1,380 mpn/100 mL. TP sample results at Dudley Pond ranged between 0.33 and 0.83 mg/L. Several sampling locations at Dudley Pond (D1, D3 and D4) did not have flow during the 22 August 2007 event and therefore were not sampled. F. step samples results at North Pond widely varied and ranged between 860 and 11,680 mpn/100 mL. TP sample results at North Pond ranged between 0.55 and 0.99 mg/L. Several sampling locations at North Pond (C2, C3, and C4) did not have any base flows during the 22 August 2007sampling event. The sampling location at Heard Pond was dry during the 22 August 2007 sampling event. Geosyntec mobilized on 28 August 2007 in preparation for forecasted storm system, which did not result in precipitation in the Wayland area. During the event mobilization, Geosyntec observed sample volume in first flush samplers at one sampling location at Dudley Pond (D1) and two sampling locations at North Pond (C4 and C5). The samples likely represented landscaping runoff (e.g. lawn watering) and were brought to the laboratory and analyzed for TP. The results are presented in Table 6. Table 6: Summary of the Dry Weather Sampling Events Date of Sampling Event

Pond

Dudley Pond

Sample Location

Fecal Strep. Results (mpn/100 mL)

TP Results (mg TP/L)

D2

1,380

0.51

D5

1,540

0.33

D6

1,320

0.83

C1

860

0.55

73 Edgewood

1,000

0.55

C5

11,680

0.99

D1

NA

0.34

C4

NA

1.10

C5

NA

0.72

8/22/2007 North Pond

Dudley Pond 8/28/2007 North Pond

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SECTION 4:

DISCUSSION

Geosyntec designed and executed a sampling and analysis program to evaluate sources of nutrients affecting plant productivity at Dudley Pond, Heard Pond and North Pond in Wayland, MA. The period of study included five wet-weather events and one dry-weather event sampled between June and September 2007. Geosyntec conducted one dry weather-sampling event that incorporated grab samples collected at designated sampling locations to evaluate nuisance flows in storm drain systems within the three watersheds. One dry weather-sampling event was captured on August 22, 2007 following a dry interevent period of 72 hours that resulted in six samples. In general, dry weather F. step samples results at Dudley Pond were similar and ranged between 1,320 and 1,380 mpn/100 mL. Conversely, dry weather F. step samples results at North Pond widely varied and ranged between 860 and 11,680 mpn/100 mL. Overall, the F strep results from the dry weather-sampling event appear to be low when compared to the National Storm Water Quality Database mean F-strep level for residential land use of 24,600 mpn/100 ml. Dry weather TP sample results ranged between 0.33 and 0.83 mg/L for Dudley Pond and between 0.55 and 0.99 mg/L for North Pond. In general, the average TP dry weather sample results were well above the published average storm water concentrations for residential land use reported between 0.26 and 0.38 mg/L. This suggests that the rate of external phosphorus loading from the watershed is above average. In addition, phosphorus concentrations in some of the storm water samples were an order of magnitude above the concentrations detected in dry weather samples. This suggests that phosphorus accumulates in the watershed between precipitation events, resulting in higher TP measurements when storm flows transport pollutants through the watershed. The 8/28/2007 event resulted in three dry weather samples that were likely result of landscaping runoff (e.g., lawn watering, etc.) or other non-storm water flows (e.g., hydrant flushing, wash wastewater, etc.). One of these samples was collected at Dudley Pond station D-1 and had a TP concentration of 0.34 mg/L. Samples collected from North Pond stations C4 and C5 had concentrations of 1.10 and 0.72 mg/L, respectively. The sample concentrations for North Pond were above the published values for storm water runoff TP concentrations. The 7/9/2007 event resulted in the lowest average TP sample concentrations of all sampled events. The 0.30-inch event was preceded by the 7/6/2007 event, which resulted in 0.68 inches of precipitation. This further suggests that accumulation of TP likely occurs during dry inter-event periods and may include accumulation of nutrients from external inputs such as landscaping activities.

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SECTION 5: RECOMMENDATIONS The summer 2007 nutrient sampling and assessment program resulted in the storm water quality data described in Sections 3 and 4. Based on this limited sampling data, Geosyntec recommends that the WSWQC take the following next steps to reduce phosphorus loading to Dudley Pond, Heard Pond and North Pond: o Develop conceptual low impact development (LID) improvements for the Dudley Pond watershed. The conceptual designs could be used in support of a Section 319 Non-point Source Pollution grant application. The conceptual plans should focus on watershed areas that have been identified to have relatively high nutrient concentrations in storm water runoff. The plan should also include concepts for a comprehensive LID program for watershed-wide implementation. o Develop a program to reduce potential pollution from fertilizer applications within the watershed. Aspects of this program could be modeled after similar efforts that have been implemented successfully in other communities and include the following: ƒ

As an incentive to promote the use of phosphorus-free fertilizers, the Town could offer this type of fertilizer to homeowners at a reduced price. Fertilizer providers (e.g. local hardware stores, etc.) would be selected to provide reduced-priced fertilizer for homeowners living in targeted watershed areas. The retailers would be subsidized by the Town for the balance of the fertilizer cost. Homeowners using the fertilizer would be provided signage (optional) to post in their yard, which would educate neighbors about the phosphorus-free fertilizer, and its role in protecting pond water quality. A follow up survey is recommended to evaluate the performance of the program. Printed public outreach materials (e.g., brochure, flyer) are also recommended to ensure that watershed residents are informed of the program.

ƒ

Develop landscaping fertilizer bylaws or ordinances to reduce the amount of phosphorus fertilizer that is applied to landscaped portions of each watershed. There have been numerous successful local ordinances regulating the use of phosphorus fertilizer on lawns. Some examples include the statewide programs in Maine and Minnesota, and portions of states including Dane County, Wisconsin, Muskegon County, Michigan, and Ottawa County, Michigan. A report was prepared for the Minnesota legislature on the law's effectiveness. That report, and other information on the law, is available at www.mda.state.mn.us/phoslaw.

o Develop public educational materials on landscaping, septic systems, low impact development techniques to be distributed through the watersheds. The public education materials could include a summary of the sampling program results. An example of public outreach material prepared for Lake Wyola in Shutesbury, MA is presented as Attachment 1 to this report. o Develop a guidance document on best management practices for future development and redevelopment. A Town Best Development Practices Guidebook (BDP Guidebook) is a set of guidelines for developers, designers and project reviewers intended to improve the quality of development within the Town. The Guidebook would describe the required and preferred design and construction practices related to storm water management, site planning, erosion control, and landscape design and maintenance. An example of a town BDP Guidebook can be reviewed from the Town of Franklin, MA at: http://www.franklin.ma.us/auto/town/pacdev/currplan/bdpguide/.

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ATTACHMENT 1 EXAMPLE PUBLIC OUTREACH MATERIAL

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The Lake Wyola Protection Project

How YOU Can Help! Contact Information: Do not dispose of litter, leaves, and lawn debris in the lake, its tributary streams or adjacent wetlands. Use natural alternatives to lawn and garden chemicals. Promote buffer areas of native vegetation on your property. Control soil erosion on your property by planting native ground cover and stabilizing erosion-prone areas. Wherever possible, re-use rainwater for irrigation. Rain barrels are a low-cost way for homeowners to capture and re-use roof runoff for lawn and garden watering. Don’t feed waterfowl! Bread and snack food are harmful to waterfowl. Feeding discourages migration and encourages large flocks that degrade the Lake Wyola shoreline with droppings.

Pick up after your pet! Use biodegradable doggie bags to collect pet waste. Don’t dispose of pet waste in storm drains. Properly dispose of used paints, oil and household chemicals at collection sites. Do not dump these products on the ground! Clean up spilled brake fluid, oil, grease, and antifreeze when working on your vehicle. Do not hose them into the ground where they eventually reach Lake Wyola and other water bodies. Join the Shutesbury septic system management program. For information, call Bill Elliott at (413) 259-2122.

The Lake Wyola Protection Project is a cooperative effort of: MA Department of Conservation and Recreation For more information about this project, including opportunities to become involved as a volunteer, please contact: (617) 626-1250

The Town of Shutesbury Contact: Bill Elliott, Board of Health (413)259-2122

Lake Wyola Association 6 Shore Drive Shutesbury, MA 01072

For more information on how you can help keep our lakes and ponds clean, please visit www.mass.gov/lakesandponds For more information on Low Impact Development stormwater techniques, please visit www.mass.gov/envir/lid “This project has been financed with Federal Funds from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (the Department) under an s. 319 competitive grant. The contents do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of EPA or of the Department, nor does the mention of trade names or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.”

Cover photos provided by Mary Whitney of M.L. Whitney & Associates

This brochure was developed by GeoSyntec Consultants 289 Great Road, Suite 105, Acton, MA 01720 Phone: (978) 263-9588

Actions YOU Can Take to Protect Lake Wyola


The Lake Wyola Protection Project Attractively landscaped “bioretention cells” and “raingardens” will be constructed with specialized plantings and soils to filter stormwater and reduce direct discharges to the lake. These stormwater management controls will both protect water quality and be an attractive feature of the Lake Wyola neighborhood.

As part of a grant-funded project to protect and improve the water quality of Lake Wyola, the Massachusetts

Raingardens filter stormwater runoff from small areas such as residential yards and driveways

Department of

Vegetated buffer zone plantings will be installed on selected residential properties in the Lake Wyola neighborhood, to filter stormwater runoff, reduce soil erosion, and discourage Canada geese from feeding on lawns.

Conservation and Recreation is developing innovative designs to

Turfstone “porous pavers” will be placed along Farrar Road to reduce erosion and promote infiltration. Porous pavers are permeable alternatives to asphalt that allow stormwater to soak into the ground between paving units, reducing surface runoff pollution and improving groundwater recharge.

reduce the amount of stormwater runoff entering the lake and improve the lake’s Turfstone “porous pavers”

protective vegetated buffer.

To protect beach water quality and prevent beach erosion, stormwater runoff from the state park beach area will be re-directed away from the beach. Stormwater catch basins in the Lake Wyola neighborhood will be improved, including replacement with deep-sump catch basins and infiltrating devices to trap sediment and pollutants and recharge groundwater.

Lake Wyola Watershed

Lake Wyola Facts Lake Wyola is a 129-acre lake that was enlarged in 1883 by the construction of a dam that doubled its surface area. The lake was previously known as Locks Pond. Lake Wyola has an average depth of 11 feet and a maximum depth of 33 feet. Lake Wyola is fed by Ames Brook, South Brook, Fiske Brook, Skerry Brook, Tyler Brook and Plympton Brook. Water from Lake Wyola eventually reaches the Atlantic Ocean at Long Island Sound. The lake empties into the Sawmill River, which is a tributary of the Connecticut River. The 6.8-square mile Lake Wyola watershed, which includes portions of Shutesbury, Wendell and Leverett, is part of the Connecticut River watershed. This 11,250-square-mile watershed includes portions of Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Connecticut. 85% of the Lake Wyola watershed is currently forested. The lake provides habitat for at least nine species of fish, including chain pickerel, yellow perch, pumpkinseed, brown bullhead, golden shiner, bridled shiner, banded killifish, fallfish and white sucker.


2007 Watershed Nutrient Load Sampling and Assessment