Page 1

by W es Ryals

wor msloe:

University of Georgia

|

Re-envisioning a Cultur al L andscape

College of Environment and Design


Front Cover: View from Isle of Hope marsh looking toward Long Island (photo by author).


wor msloe:

Re-envisioning a Cultur al L andscape by James Wesley Ryals

A Senior Design Project Presented to the College of Environment and Design University of Georgia in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Landscape Architecture Athens, GA 2010


page

7

Introduction

8

Project Narrative

11

Site Analysis site development history, suitability, photo inventory

17

35

Site Photos Project Directive precedent studies, cultural landscape report, incremental program phasing

42

45

Concepts Design Strategies + Program Development systems analysis, site programming

49

Masterplan

50

Planting Plan

52

Site Connectivity historical connectivity, saltmarsh restoration, ecological connectivity

4 W OR M S L O E 2 0 1 0

58

Treatment Options

63

Credits + Acknowledgements

64

Appendices


SPECIAL THANKS This project could not have been undertaken without the support and guidance of the Wormsloe staff and caretakers. A special thanks belongs to Craig and Diana Barrow, who opened up their beautiful home and property to my research. Through their faithful stewardship, the legacy of Wormsloe is alive and well. Their support was critical to the successfulness of this project. A special gratitude also goes to Sarah Ross, whose support made it possible for me to continue my work with Wormsloe. I am delighted to be a part of preserving such a significant cultural landscape.

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6 W OR M S L O E 2 0 1 0


Pr eserving a Cultur al Her itage

W

ormsloe stands apart among Georgia’s cultural heritage sites, serving as an important gateway to

the state’s history. The site’s environmental stewardship sets a precedent for post-wilderness conservation, reflecting a correlation between human and environmental interaction. Additionally, Wormsloe is poised to become a leading contributor in the study, interpretation, and outreach of environmental history.

Insert: Wymberly Jones De Renne laid out the main entrance oak allée in the mid-1890s. R e -e n vis ion in g

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WYMBERLEY SUBDIVISION WYMBERLEY SUBDIVISION

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES PROPERTY DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES PROPERTY

LOCATION MAP: Chatham County, savannah, georgia

T

he Wormsloe proper t y encompasses 822 acres and lies approximately 11 miles southeast of the cit y of Savannah, Georgia. The proper t y is flanked by the Moon River to the west; the Isle of Hope River to the east; the Diamond Causeway to the south; and the Wymberley subdivision to the nor th.

R

LIBRARY

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O F

WORMSLOE FOUNDATION WORMSLOE FOUNDATION O F

VISITOR CENTER

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VISITOR CENTER

FORTIFIED HOUSE RUINS FORTIFIED HOUSE RUINS

Environmental Degradation Two events feature prominently in the environmental degradation of the site. The first occurred in 1972 with the construction of the Diamond Causeway, an impor tant connection linking Savannah to Skidaway Island. The connection ef fectively bisected impor tant salt marsh communities, choking of f tidal flow nor th of the causeway. E xcess fill was deposited nor th of the causeway, resulting in thinly vegetated areas of high marsh as well as upland hammock. Increased salinit y levels have led to the formation of ex tensive salt flats devoid of vegetation. Recent soil sampling of the site area suggests the buried marsh to be under two to three feet of fill. Recent plans to widen the causeway place additional strain on the functionalit y of this delicate estuarine environment.

N E S N A R R O W S O J N E S N A R R O W S O

D D I A I A M M O N O N DD

A Y A U S E WW A Y CC A U S E

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A second disruption occurred in 1974 with an infestation of the Southern Pine Beetle on the Isle of Hope. Subsequently, a large tract of old- grow th forest had to be clear- cut to avoid fur ther contamination. 8 W OR M S L O E 2 0 1 0

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O P E H O P ER I V R E I V R

ESTATE HOUSE ESTATE HOUSE LIBRARY M M O O O O N N R IR V I EV E R R

Current Land Use + Contex t Ownership of the proper t y is subdivided among the private estate, the Wormsloe Foundation, and the Georgia Depar tment of Natural Resources. The proper t y remained largely a private domain until 1927, when the family, spurred by financial dif ficulties, opened the old plantation grounds to a paying public. Today, the focal features of the proper t y continue to be the 1.5 mile live oak alleé entrance drive and the colonial era remnants of Noble Joneses’ for tified house. A visitor center and living histor y demonstration area provide some contex t for a visiting public. However, interpretation of the landscape remains largely fragmented, and in some cases, ignored completely.

FAMILY ESTATE FAMILY ESTATE


Above: live oaks, draped in spanish moss, mark the entrance drive into Wormsloe. (photo by author)


CHAPTER

01 SITE ANALYSIS

A

thorough analysis was conducted for hydrological, ecological, and ethnographic systems. By analyzing these systems, we

gain a more thorough understanding of the complex relationships between the various elements—both contrived and "natural"—that comprise Wormsloe's character. This understanding then directs design applications in ways that support the environment and allow for flexibility and change over time.

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SITE DEVELOPMENT HISTORY Site Development Circulation "

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Earthen Dam (two possible trajectories)

Wormsloe2_Dgps <all other values>

#

COMMENT # "

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shell midden

"

shells - large area

#

shoreline - original?

ditch dam; dam west end

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depression (possible burial ground)

#

ditch (1740 property line)

!

fence

"

gate1; gatepost Sightline to Bethesda (guess) 1829 House

Archeology1 COMMENT

Archeology1 COMMENT

Cemetery Fortified House Ruins

Midden

Slave Residence Area

Shell Feature

1897_Poly_LandCover2 <all other values>

Prior to 1733

Pre-Colonial and Early European Contact

1150

Guale Indians make use of coastal resources for food including: white-tailed deer, Atlantic sturgeon, shellfish, maize, small mammals, birds

1733

Queen Anne makes landfall at Yamacraw Bluff initializing the colonization of Georgia

1736

Noble Jones is granted an outlying 500 acres, which are to become Wormsloe

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1733-c. 1790 Colonial and Early Federal Period

c. 1790-1860 Cotton Culture

17371738

Steer imported from S. Carolina left to subsist on native saltgrass, knotroot bristlegrass, panic grass, paspalum

1765

John Bartram notes agricultural diversity including: orange, grape, pomegranate, fig, nectarine, apricot

1825

Architect Alexander Shaw of Savannah commissioned to build 40â&#x20AC;&#x2122; x 20â&#x20AC;&#x2122; two-story plantation house

1743

Edward Kimber notes ecological diversity including: marsh oak, shrub oak, alligator, bear, wolf, snipe, mullet, mosquito

1790s

Introduction of day-neutral Sea Island cotton ushers in labor-intensive shift

1850

Surviving recipe books reinforce centrality of marshes as food source

1800

Cotton production eclipses rice

1854

1750

Jones acknowledges shift to slave labor

1815

Inventory of property reveals cotton house, corn building, pea shed, fodder barn

Agricultural innovation and diversification characterize the dramatic shift in operations at Wormsloe, further illustrating the reciprocal relationship b/t man and nature

Cover Open field


SITE DEVELOPMENT HISTORY SITE DEVELOPMENT HISTORY SiteSite Development Development Circulation Circulation

Wormsloe2_Dgps Wormsloe2_Dgps <all other values>

COMMENT "

ditch

!

gates

!

<all other values>

COMMENT

1908 racetrack bank turn " 1908 racetrack bank turn

#

#

ditch

!

gates

hen house

!

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! hen house ornamental plantings ornamental plantings

!

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Drainage "

Drainage

Still_Sites

Archeology1 COMMENT Dairy

Still_Sites

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Archeology1

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<all other values> Well

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Dairy

Silo Slave Residence Area Slave Residence Area

COMMENT

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Silo

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COMMENT Well

1908_Poly_LandCover2 1908_Poly_LandCover2 <all other values>

Cover

<all other values>

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Cover

#

Open field (correct?) Open field (correct?) Residential Pier/Pavilion/Water Feature Residential Pier/Pavilion/Water Feature

Structures-1897 Structures-1897 <all other values>

STRUCTURE

<all other values>

STRUCTURE "

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1861-c. 18691869 CivilCivil War, Reconstruction, andand 1861-c. War, Reconstruction, Freedmen Tenancy Freedmen Tenancy

c. 1870-1895 Family Reestablishment Period c. 1870-1895 Family Reestablishment Period

" " "" " ""

"

"

1896-c. 19401940 Family Retreat andand Public Tourism 1896-c. Family Retreat Public Tourism

1861-1861- Wormsloe functions as a as Confederate armed 1897 1897 Wymberley Jones De Renne addsadds 1927 1927 1870 1870 Oyster harvesting rights leased to to Wormsloe functions a Confederate armed Wymberley Jones De Renne Oyster harvesting rights leased 1864 1864 basebase camp following Union blockade. fifty-eight new new exotic ornamentals to to Edward Nelson, revealing the continued camp following Union blockade. fifty-eight exotic ornamentals Edward Nelson, revealing the continued Presence leaves a noticeable scar scar on land. site, site, stressing “naturalistic style”style” importance of marsh ecology Presence leaves a noticeable on land. stressing “naturalistic importance of marsh ecology pioneered by Frederick L. Olmsted at at pioneered by Frederick L. Olmsted 1861-1861- Subsistent crops of corn, peas, hay, and Biltmore Estate Subsistent crops of corn, peas, hay, and Biltmore Estate 1890s1890sSecond oak allee established along Second oak allee established along 1864 1864 fodder production replace cotton fodder production replace cotton 1903 1903 Rapid growth of Savannah threatens to to Rapid growth of Savannah threatens mainmain drivedrive envelope Wormsloe 1865 1865 LongLong Island tracts givengiven to freedmen, envelope Wormsloe Island tracts to freedmen, 1928 1928 Linnius Howell, Bristol Drayton, Prince Linnius Howell, Bristol Drayton, Prince 1895 1895 Closure of open range endsends moremore thanthan a a1908 Closure of open range Library completed 1908 Neoclassical Neoclassical Library completed Jackson, and Charles Steele after seizure Jackson, and Charles Steele after seizure century and and a halfa of livestock century half of livestock by federal authorities 1917 1917 Professional landscaper T. Bignault 1930 1930 by federal authorities Professional landscaper T. Bignault encroachment in forests encroachment in forests commissioned to design formal gardens commissioned to design formal gardens

Family continues horticultural heritage Family continues horticultural heritage with with establishment of “Wormsloe establishment of “Wormsloe Gardens,” allowing visitor access to the Gardens,” allowing visitor access to the formal gardens, house grounds, tabbytabby fort fort formal gardens, house grounds, ruins,ruins, slaveslave cemetary, and remnant slave cemetary, and remnant slave cabincabin Restored slaveslave cabincabin opens to public Restored opens to public featuring stories by mammy, “Aunt Liza”Liza” featuring stories by mammy, “Aunt Decline in dairy production on site Decline in dairy production on allows site allows natural succession to resume natural succession to resume

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Hydrology + Flood Zones 500 yr flood 100 yr. flood water bodies saltmarsh

01

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500

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gate house

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maintenance shed

estate house

library

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dairy barn rui ns

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guest house dnr house

slave cabin shell middens

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visitor center

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50 0

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slave cemetary

fortified house

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living history area

noble jones grave marker J

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existing structures

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civil war embattlements

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shell midden

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U S E W A C A Y

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Composite Analysis

primary (visitor access) private drive secondary (trails w/vehicular access) tertiary (hiking trails) flood zones (100 yr./500 yr.) structurally unsuitable soil site archaeology water bodies

01 Hydrology 02 Soil types 03 Composite Study

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SITE Photos


01

02

03

01 Dairy Barn

02 Formal Gardens 03 Old AllĂŠe

Opposite: Rear of the estate house with Victorian elements still intact. (circa 1895) R e-en vision in g

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Opposite: "Aunt Liza," a former slave, engaging in a staged activity. (circa 1940s) 20 W ORM S L O E 2 0 1 0


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Opposite: An eastern red cedar appears to reach out into the marsh. Cedars were prized for shipbuilding by early colonials. R e-en vision in g

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Opposite: Front view of the estate house stripped of Victorian embellishments. 26 W ORM S L O E 2 0 1 0


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Above: One of the estate house walled-gardens with wrought iron embellishments. 28 W OR M S L O E 2 0 1 0


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Above: Concrete Dock with Bell's Point in the distance

30 W ORM S L O E 2 0 1 0

Opposite: Ecological diversity on site ranges from a champion old growth tulip poplar to naturalized swamp lilies which grow along drainage ditches.


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Above: Civil War Artillery Earthwork and rifle pit.

Opposite: Ruins of the colonial-era fortified tabby house.

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CHAPTER

02 Project Dir ective

T

he initial program for the site called for infrastructure improvements necessary to accommodate an annual visitation increase of 50,000

to 150,000 patrons. A new visitor center has been proposed along with complementary research and dormitory buildings. Additionally, the owners seek to establish Wormsloe as a leading contributor in field of environmental history through research and educational opportunities.

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Guiding Principles + Objectives

D

esign strategies took a comprehensive and holistic approach accounting for cultural, economic, and environmental factors. A strategic framework

was established for re-envisioning the cultural landscape in accordance with the Wormsloe Foundation’s goal “to conserve the natural, historic, and archaeological features of the site thereby contributing to public education, research, inspiration, and enjoyment.” Economics+ Self-Supporting Infrastructure

Projects of similar size or scope were referenced as a basis for establishing diversified programming. Design strategies focused on connecting to a broad range of users and stakeholders, while incorporating infrastructure improvements necessar y to accommodate a regenerative economic model. Cultural Landscape Report

An initial investigation revealed Wormsloe’s listing on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). Consequently, the proper ty’s unique histor y suppor ts pursuing National Historic Landmark status. A Cultural Landscape Report facilitates this process. The initial development of the repor t shall constitute a basis for design operations, yielding critical information relevant to site and program development. Additionally, the report promotes low-impact development, minimizing loss to historically significant features, while promoting a greater understanding of associations between layers.

Opposite: Precedent case studies served as a model for program development. 36 W OR M S L O E 2 0 1 0


STON, SC

SC

JONES ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH CENTER: NEWTON, GA

MIDDLETON PLACE PLANTATION: CHARLESTON, SC

IMAGES

IMAGES

1. 2. 3. 4.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Long-leaf Pine Ecosystem Management Wildlife Education Sustainable Forestry Practices Aquatic Ecology

PROGRAM ELEMENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Connectivity to Ecological Systems Native Restoration Prescribed Burns/Firebreak Management Conservation Mindset Educational Opportunities for Private Landowners Quantifying Ecological Relationships

SHELLBURNE FARMS: SHELLBURNE, VT IMAGES 1. 2. 3. 4.

Instructional Programs Sustainable Farming Practices Functional Landscape Functional Landscape

Equestrian Trails On-site Restaurant On-Site Nursery Contemporary Architecture Kayak Tours Restored Gardens

PROGRAM ELEMENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Wedding Venue Patron Newsletter Monthly Events Garden Market Biking, Equestrian, Walking Trails Ashley River Kayak Tours Restaurant w/Culturally Significant Recipes Plantation Days Civil War Encampment Summer Wine Strolls Interactive Rice Cultivation Interactive Rice Harvest Holiday Yuletide Spoleto Finale Independence Day Celebrations War Horses

PROGRAM ELEMENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Educational Programming Living History Demonstrations Environmental Summer Camp Market Garden and Restaurant Wedding venue Retreat for Poets/Writers Artist-In-Residence Restoration of Historical Structures Green Technology: biodiesal, organic food, local food sourcing 10. Sustainable Forestry Practices

FORT KING GEORGE: DARIEN, GA IMAGES 1. 2. 3. 4.

Living History Demonstrations Restoration of Historic Structures Restoration of Historic Structures Archaeological Remnants

PROGRAM ELEMENTS 1. Colonial Coast Birding Trail 2. Remnant Structures

BOONE HALL PLANTATION: CHARLESTON, SC IMAGES 1. 2. 3. 4.

Slave Cabin Restoration Gullah Theater Equestrian Facilities Oak Allee

PROGRAM ELEMENTS 1. Lowcountry Strawberry Festival 2. Starlight Pops Concert 3. Boone Hall Summer Concert Series 4. Boone Hall BBQ Championship 5. Scottish Games/Highland Championship 6. Fright Nights 7. Pumpkin Patch 8. Living History Field Trip 9. Taste of Charleston 10. Wine Under the Oaks 11. Boone Hall Christmas 12. Oyster Roast 13. Gullah Theater

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landscape features

natural systems -topography -vegetation -water features

spatial relationships -circulation -vistas -historic references

structures -site furnishings -materials

cultural landscape report Fig. 1.1. Cultural Landscape Assessment

CulTuRAl lAndsCAPE REPORT: A B A s i s f o r D e v e l o p m e n t In order to be considered a National Historic Landmark, the property must undergo a Cultural Landscape Report. The report yields critical new information relevant to future program development. The report fosters non-destructive methods and promotes low-impact development.

38 W ORM S L O E 2 0 1 0


program focus + layering program focus + layering

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ARCHAEOlOGY AnAlYsIs: i n c r e m e n t A l p r o g r A m p h A s i n g

r rve Se er o v t r Se Upload to

The archaeological process shall be included in the educational experience. Supplemental programs provide a richer understanding of the landscape. Additionally, portable audio devices can be utilized on site to gain access to previous exhibits, enabling individuallytailored experiences.

incremental program phasing (ex: field restoration)

incremental program phasing (ex: field restoration)

Show Archaeological Process Show Archaeological Process

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Initial Installation Initial Installation

Mobile work stations permit archaeologists direct and efficient access to site excavation, safequarding sensitive areas from disturbance.

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Additional Program Focus Additional Program Focus

1

1

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2 etri valudio R trie A e R Audio

Choose Experience Choose Experience Fig. 1.2. incremental Program Phasing

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portable audio device portable audio device

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African Native American

1 1

The bateau,a shallow draft, flatbottomed boat, was used along the eastern coast by colonists to carry cargo along tidal tributaries.

2

Nearby Skidaway Island was once a ceremonial and hunting ground of the Timucua Indians. Artifacts, including this pottery shard, provide details of their extensive trade networks.

3

A company of marine boatmen under the command of Noble Jones were stationed at Wormsloe to guard the southern approach to Savannah against Spanish invasion.

4

Free-range cattle once grazed on site vegetation, including marsh grasses. This would have had a noticeable effect on site ecology.

Colonial

2

Ecological

3

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Fig. 2 .1. narrative threads

40 W ORM S L O E 2 0 1 0


+ tidal alterations of Jonesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; narrows + bird migration + native american + oyster harvesting

+

+ long Island + smooth cordgrass spartina alterniflora

tidal alterations smooth cordgrass spartina alterniflora

Fig. 2 . 2 . Augmenting visitor Experiences

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Main Visitor Center -orientation to site -pavillion for groups -bike rental -shuttle service -field restoration

Information InformationKiosk Kiosk

Information Kiosk

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Vehicular Access to Site Bipasses Allee

Shuttle ShuttleService ServiceLimits Limits Impact ImpacttotoHistoric HistoricAllee Allee

Shuttle Service Limits Impact to Historic Allee

Shuttle Service Limits Impact to Historic Allee

Trail Extension

Dormitories -researchers -graduate students -archaeologists

Trail TrailNetwork NetworkProvides Provides Connectivity ConnectivitytotoSite SiteEcology Ecology

D

Dormitories/Research Dormitories/Research Complex Complex

DD RR

Trail Network Provides Connectivity to Site Ecology

Dormitories/Research Complex Main MainVisitor VisitorCenter Center -limited -limitedimpact impacttotosite site -pavillion -pavillionforforgroups groups

D R

VV

Main Visitor Center

Living LivingHistory History Demonstration DemonstrationArea Area

-limited impact to site -pavillion for groups

Living History Demonstration Area

V

Gullah-Geechee Gullah-Geechee& & Agro-History Agro-HistoryArea Area

Research Facility -museum -research labs -trial gardens -plant nursery

Gullah-Geechee & Agro-History Area Wildlife WildlifeViewing Viewing Area Area Fortified FortifiedHouse House Ruins Ruins Wildlife Viewing Area

Gullah-Geechee & Agro-History Area

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-gullah theatre -field restoration -slave cabin restoration

Fortified House Ruins

Kayak Launch

Civil CivilWar WarRuins Ruins

Wildlife Viewing Stations Shuttle Service Provides Acces to Full Site

Civil War Ruins

Civil War Ruins

Marsh Boardwalk

Trail Access to Long Island

Map MapKey Key

Map Key

visitor visitorcenter center

visitor center

Map Key

CONCEPT CONCEPT1:1:Light LightImpact Impact

dormitory dormitorycomplex complex

dormitory complex

visitor center research research facilities facilities

research facilities

water waterbodies bodies dormitory complex

research facilities

CONCEPT 1: Light Impact 42 W ORM S L O E 2 0 1 0

water bodies

CONCEPT 2: Moderate Impact

water bodies


CONCEPT11 CONCEPT

Main Visitor Center -orientation to site -pavillion for groups -bike rental -shuttle service -field restoration

CONCEPT 31 CONCEPT

Parking and Circulation

Bike Paths

V

Vehicular Access to Site Bipasses Allee

Trail Extension

CONCEPT 2 1 CONCEPT

Shuttle Service Limits Impact to Historic Allee

Vehicular Entry Drive Shuttle System Connection to Diamond Causeway Boardwalk Kayak Launch New Visitor Center

Dormitories -researchers -graduate students -archaeologists

Nature Trails

D

Primitive Camping Dormitory Complex Estate House Becomes Bed & Breakfast

Historic Pavillion -events -festivals

Museum

Bike Trail Network

Venue Space

Gullah-Geechee & Agro-History Area

Restaurant

Research Facility -museum -research labs -trial gardens -plant nursery

-theatre -guest houses -restored fields/gardens -restaurant

R

Bed and Breakfast

Human Experience

Research Facilities

Kayak Launch Wildlife Viewing Stations

Orientation Pavillion Interpretive Areas FortiďŹ ed House Reconstr. Wildlife Observation Preservation Areas

Security Booth/ Information Kiosk Vehicular Access to Diamond Causeway

-primitive camping

Map Key visitor center dormitory complex research facilities

CONCEPT 3: High Impact

Environment

Trial Gardens Trail Access to Long Island

Low Impact Development Stormwater Mngmnt Nursery

CONCEPTS CHART: B A S I S F O R D E S I G N D E V E L O P M E N T

water bodies

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Sustainable landscape design must do more than function or perform ecologically; it must perform socially and culturally. elizabeth meyer, Sustaining Beauty: The Performance of Appearance

Design need not be conducted in isolation, but through an understanding of the complexity of relationships which shape the cultural, political, and economic processes. Joan Woodard, Signature-Based Landscape Design


CHAPTER

03 Design Str ategies + progr am development

C

Site Connectivity + Infrastructure Improvements

onnectivity has been achieved while mitigating impact to archaeologically and environmentally-sensitive areas.

In particular, vehicular access

to the Live Oak alleĂŠ has been re-routed in favor of an eco-shuttle service. Practical phasing options provide a framework for continued development as necessitated by increased visitation levels.

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Ethnographic Programming

A

thorough historical analysis was instrumental in determining layers of interpretation. However, archaeology will also play a vital role in the future. The only authorized excavation

took place in 1968-69; recent work has been limited to the 18th century rice mill. Programming focuses on presenting a holistic experience, bringing greater attention to associations across layers. A renewed focus has been placed on Pre-Columbian habitation by the Guale Indians as well as the cultural contributions Africans made in transforming the agrarian landscape. Fur thermore, contributions of African slaves at Wormsloe will connect to the proposed Gullah/ Geechee cultural heritage corridor along the Atlantic coast. Environmental Programming Environmental programming was centered on 4 principles: (1) restore functionality to ecosystems, (2) achieve species diversity (3) reconnect fragmented ecosystems, and (4) maximize educational oppor tunities. The goal of re-establishing ecosystem diversity on site was guided by the principle of sustainable land management practices, including the eradication of invasive species and the restoration of prescribed burns. Restoring functionality involved a bottom-up approach, designing to support natural ecosystems. The restoration of flow to Jonesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Narrows constitutes one example of reconnecting fragmented systems. Design strategies include removing excess fill, improving tidal flow, and incorporating wetland restoration strategies in order to ensure the vitality of salt mar sh communities. The promotion of healthy ecosystems, fostered by sustainable environmental stewardship strategies, safeguards the landscape in perpetuity. Educational Programming By siting the visitor center at the entrance of the proper ty, visitors are immediately oriented to the histor y of the site, and can proceed to their area of interest. A series of interpretive trails and contact nodes sited along the path system maximize visitor exposure to the temporal landscape. Additionally, por table audio devices can be utilized on site to gain access to previous exhibits, enabling individually-tailored experiences. Incremental program phasing provides added layers of complexity to the landscape. Fur thermore, a research center and dormitor y complex allow educators continued access to the site.

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firebreak (typ.)

natural systems firebreak site line to Bethesda orphanage trial gardens educational gardens structure additions

pedestrian path (typ.) vehicular path (typ.) shuttle path (typ.)

reconstructed fort dormitory complex overlook pavillion nursery restaurant slave cabins circulation systems shuttle access vehicle access road rear exit bike trails hiking trails kayak launch

rear exit

Eco-shuttle

sYsTEMs AnAlYsIs: s p A t i A l r e l A t i o n s h i p s

N

Fig. 3.1. Systems Analysis Diagram

Connectivity throughout the site has been achieved while minimizing impact to sensitive areas. Vehicular access has been contained in favor of maximizing the experiential quality of the landscape. This will allow for the recovery of natural systems. RE-E n viSion in G

A

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1) Initiate Cultural Landscape Report 2) Construct Research Dormitories + Research Facility 3) Initiate Archaeological Investigation of Property

2

3

3

3

PHASE I: ESTABLISH BASIS FOR DESIGN

PROGRAM KEY Program Key Program Key

1. FORTIFIED HOUSE RECONSTRUCTION EXPERIENCE ZONES EXPERIENCE ZONES

1

R

3. ECOLOGICAL DISCOVERY TRAIL 3. DISCOVERY TRAIL 4. ECOLOGICAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCOVERY TRAIL

3

4. AGRO HISTORY & GULLAH-GEECHEE CULTURE AREA 4. AGRO HISTORY & GULLAH-GEECHEE CULTURE AREA

1) Create Venue Space 2) Trail + Facility Enhancements to Core Areas 3) Reestablish Ecological Diversity + Invasive Removal 4) Establish Program Diversity 5) Reestablish Site Line to Bethseda as Fire Break 6) Provide Site Connectivity

I

V

E

R

2. HISTORIC ALLEE 3. HISTORIC AGRO HISTORY AND GULLAH CULTURE AREA 2. ALLEE

P E

1. FORTIFIED HOUSE RECONSTRUCTION 2. ECOLOGICAL DISCOVERY TRAIL 1. FORTIFIED HOUSE RECONSTRUCTION

2 4 5

H O

5. KAYAK LAUNCH

5. ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCOVERY TRAIL 5. ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCOVERY TRAIL

6

O F

6. BIRD HIDE

6. KAYAK LAUNCH 6. KAYAK LAUNCH I

R

E

L

S

I V E

7. SALTMARSH BOARDWALK

BIRD HIDE 7. BIRD7.HIDE

PHASE II: ESTABLISH REVENUE SUPPORTIVE INFRASTRUCTURE

R

8. BACKCOUNTRY HIKING TRAIL

O

O

N

8. SALTMARSH BOARDWALK 8. SALTMARSH BOARDWALK

N A R R O

N E S

W

9. BACKCOUNTRY EQUESTRIAN TRAIL TRAIL 9. BACKCOUNTRY HIKING TRAIL 9. HIKING

S

1

3

10.WAR CIVIL WAR EMBATTLEMENTS 10. EMBATTLEMENTS 10. CIVIL CIVIL WAR EMBATTLEMENTS

1) Reconstruct Fortified House 2) Establish Shuttle Service + Limit Vehicular Access at Sensitive Areas 3) Repurpose + Construct New Facilities as Determined by Visitation Level 4) Implement Sustainable Forest Management Practices 5) Trail Enhancements to Backcountry 6) Restore Flow of Jones Narrows

2

E

R

J

O

R I V

D N

4

I

W A Y

L

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PROGRAM AnAlYsIs: s t A t i o n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s S

3

I D A

5

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W C A U S E

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S K

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Program development was facilitated by formulating a design approach, which melded human and environmental interaction while preserving the site’s historic fabric. Practical phasing options provide a framework for additional development D I A Y on site while mitigating its impact. A M O

6

PHASE III: ACCOMODATION FOR FUTURE GROWTH


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0 1 2

Scale 1/4” = 1’-0”

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North

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WORMSLOE:fFORMAL GARDENS wormsloe: ormal g a r d e n s PLANT p l a n tSCHEDULE schedule QTY

SIZE

TREES

4 1

2-4" 4-6'

SCIENTIFIC NAME

COMMON NAME

Persea borbonia Symplocos tinctoria

Red Bay Horse Sugar

SHRUBS

11 96 3 7 6 20 7 21 6 3

PERENNIALS

11 19 8 19 16 30 10 11 6 6 3 14 3 22 8 23

CONDITION B&B Cont.

24-30" 10-12" 3-4' 24-30" 3-4' 3-4' 24-30" 15-18" 3-4' 18-24"

Buxus sempervirens 'Newport Blue' Buxus sempervirens 'Suffruticosa' Calycanthus floridus Ceanothus americanus Hydrangea arborescens 'Annabelle' Leucothoe auxillaris Rhododendron atlanticum Rhododendron flammeum Sabal minor Sarcococca hookeriana var. humilis

English Boxwood Dwarf Boxwood Sweetshrub New Jersey Tea Annabelle' Hydrangea Coast Leucothoe Coast Azalea Piedmont Azalea Dwarf Palmetto Sweetbox

Cont. Cont. Cont. Cont. Cont. Cont. Cont. Cont. Cont. Cont.

18-24" 10-12" 18-24" 18-24" 18-24" 18-24" 18-24" 18-24" 10-12" 15-18" 10-12" 18-24" 18-24" 10-12" 15-18" 15-18"

Agapanthus praecox Lily of the Nile Amsonia ciliata Bluestar Athyrium filix-femina Lady Fern Baptisia alba White False Indigo Digitalis purpurea 'Alba' White Foxglove Echinacea purpurea 'Double Delight' Double Delight' Coneflower Eryngium yuccifolium Rattlesnake Master Eupatorium rugosum White Snakeroot Helleborus argustifolius'Silver Lace' Silver Lace' Lenton Rose Hosta x tardiana 'Halcyon' Halcyon' Hosta Iris fulva Louisiana Iris Monarda didyma 'Raspberry Wine' Beebalm Peltandra virginica Arrow Arum Penstemon australis Beardtongue Pycnanthemum muticum Hoary Mountain Mint Stachy byzantina Lamb's Ear

Cont. Cont. Cont. Cont. Cont. Cont. Cont. Cont. Cont. Cont. Cont. Cont. Cont. Cont. Cont. Cont.

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Historical restoration: E s t a b l i s h i n g h i s t o r i c a l c o n n E c t i v i t y

Historical programming focuses on presenting a holistic experience, infusing the natural landscape with the built environment. A renewed focus has been placed on integrating the cultural influences Africans made at Wormsloe in transforming the landscape while providing a broader connection to the proposed Gullah/Geechee heritage corridor along the Atlantic coast.

Gullah/Geechee Heritage Corridor

SOUTH CAROLINA

Charleston GEORGIA

canopy

Savannah

ATLANTIC OCEAN

Jacksonville

sea lavender

saw palmetto

wax myrtle

estuarine

slave cabin

maritime forest

site ecosYsteMs: s E c t i o n t h r o u g h s l a v E c a b i n s a n d s a l t m a r s h not to scalE

52 W ORM S L O E 2 0 1 0

slave cemetary

saltmarsh

smooth cordgrass

southern red cedar

hackberry

live oak

live oak sabal palm

groundcover

laurel oak

FLORIDA

u n d e r s t o ry


wormsloe: Re-envisioning a Cultural Landscape

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Erosion Control

Storm Buffer

Observation

Replanting

Research

Breeding Grounds

Culvert Installation

educational

Nesting Grounds

ecological

Siltation

Restoration Methods

environmental

Channel Regrading

Diamond Causeway

Focus Area Salt Barren Lower Intertidal

Supratidal

Upper Intertidal

Subtidal

Sandy Substrate

Muddy substrate Salt marsh Cord Grass (tall form) Sea Lavender

Marsh Aster Marsh Pink Marsh Sedge Milkwood Vine Salt Marsh Cord Grass (short form) Sea Lavender Sea Ox-Eye

Glasswort Salt Grass Seabeach Orach Sea Bite

SALTMARSH RESTORATION: M e t h o d s + R e s t o R a t i o n + B e n e f i t s

The construction of the Diamond Causeway in 1972 had devastating impacts on the surrounding salt marsh communities, increasing siltation levels and choking off sections to tidal flow. Restoration efforts aid in reestablishing this important ecosystem, incurring ecological, environmental, and educational benefits. 54 W ORM S L O E 2 0 1 0

Wax Myrtle Yaupon Holly Greenbriar Marsh Elder Marsh Mallow Marsh Pennywort Salt Meadow Hay Seaside Goldenrod

Awareness

Propagation


wormsloe: Re-envisioning a Cultural Landscape

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ECOLOGICAL DIVERSITY + RESTORATION: E s t a b l i s h i n g E c o l o g i c a l c o n n E c t i v i t y

Restoring ecological diversity constituted a bottom-up approach, initially focusing on functioning members of selected ecosystems before connecting to a much broader systems network focusing on green space connectivity and wildlife corridors. Atla ntic M igratory Flyw ay

CHATHAM COUNTY

Nature Conservancy

iles

m 100

Open Green Space

20

s mile

50

s mile

LOCATION

iles

10 m

State Protected Land

Wassaw Island LOCATION LOWER COASTAL PLAIN REGION Atlantic Ocean

Raccoon Key

+ Succession (Yrs) MICROSYSTEMS: (Succession + Target Species + Biological Diversity)

trail

maritime forest

LOCAL NATURAL SYSTEMS: (Open Green Space + River Systems)

bird hide

SITE ECOSYSTEMS: s E c t i o n t h r o u g h b i r d h i d E a n d l o n g i s l a n d not to scalE

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Atlantic Ocean Ossabaw Island

saltmarsh

+ REGIONAL NATURAL SYSTEMS: (Ecoregions + Protected Land + Bird Migration)

intercoastal waterway

saltmarsh

long island

pine savannah


wormsloe: Re-envisioning a Cultural Landscape

Stationing Opportunities Establishing Ecological Awareness

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wormsloe: Re-envisioning a Cultural Landscape

Treatment Options: Mulch With Rope Fencing

Treatment Options: Seeded Turf With Rope Fencing 58 W OR M S L O E 2 0 1 0


wormsloe: Re-envisioning a Cultural Landscape

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wormsloe: Re-envisioning a Cultural Landscape

Treatment Options Skidaway Road Rehabilitation Treatment Looking Toward Wymberley Subdivision

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wormsloe: Re-envisioning a Cultural Landscape

Treatment Options Skidaway Road Rehabilitation Looking Toward Sandfly

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Conclusion

Sustainable design at Wormsloe enhances the cultural legacy initiated by Noble Jones in 1736. Creating a teaching landscape experience that respects the many historic layers of the site, its resilience, and its adaptability, will serve both the landscape and the human experience there. Moreover, engendering a sense of place creates a framework for building connectivity and strengthening cultural identity.


CREDITS + ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to acknowledge those individuals involved who have contributed towards making my experiences here so memorable. First and foremost is my wife, whose tireless devotion has kept me grounded and focused in my studies. Your words of encouragement to â&#x20AC;&#x153;finish strongâ&#x20AC;? have enabled me to be proud of my accomplishments here. Additionally, I would like to extend my appreciation to the group of individuals whose company has made this journey so meaningful and worthwhile. I have truly enjoyed our time spent together over these last three years. I could not have done this without you all.

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APPENDICES

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SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND SITE HISTORY Birnbaum, Charles A. Protecting Cultural Landscapes: Planning, Treatment and Management of Historic Landscapes. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, National Park Service, 1994. Coleman, Kenneth. Georgia History in Outline. 3rd Revised Edition. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1979. Rice, Dan, Susan Knudson, and Lisa Westberry. "Restoration of the Wormsloe Plantation Salt Marsh in Savannah, Georgia." Edited by Kathryn J. Hatcher. 2005 Georgia Water Resources Conference. Athens, Georgia: Blackwell Publishing, Ltd., 2005. Swanson, Drew."Manuscript for History of Wormsloe": Wormsloe Institute for Environmental History. Athens, University of Georgia Press, 2011. Swanson, Drew. "Wormsloe's Belly: The History of a Southern Plantation through Food." Southern Cultures (University of North Carolina Press) XV, no. 4 (Winter 2009): 50-66. Wormsloe State Historic Site Concepts for the Wormsloe Museum Complex, 2009, Boston, MA: Lyons/Zaremba, Inc., for the Wormsloe Institute for Environmental History.

SALTMARSH PLANT COMMUNITIES AND RESTORATION Rice, Dan, Susan Knudson, and Lisa Westberry. "Restoration of the Wormsloe Plantation Salt Marsh in Savannah, Georgia." Edited by Kathryn J. Hatcher. 2005 Georgia Water Resources Conference. Athens, Georgia: Blackwell Publishing, Ltd., 2005. Wilson, Elizabeth J. "Guide to Salt Marsh Plants Common to North Carolina." Report for the Department of Environment, Heath, and Natural Resources,1981.

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MANUSCRIPTS Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Collection (Athens, GA) Craig Barrow Family Papers De Renne Family Papers (mss. 1064 & mss. 2819) De Renne Family Papers Oversize De Renne Historical Manuscripts John Abbotâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Notebook Noble Jones Family Papers Wymberly Wormsloe De Renne Family Papers

IMAGE CREDITS

PHOTOGRAPHS All site photographs completed by Wes Ryals

HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPHS All historic photographs part of the De Renne Collection

Case Studies Middleton Place Plantation http://www.travelingusa.com/art/article_art/middleton.jpg http://3547.voxcdn.com/photos/16/3/218496_l.jpg http://www.pressomatic.com/middletonplace/upload/Garden%20Market%20main.JPG http://farm1.static.flickr.com/157/349335854_b31a7011fa.jpg http://www.pressomatic.com/middletonplace/upload/DSCF5980.jpg http://www.pressomatic.com/middletonplace/upload/octagonal.png

Boone Hall Plantation http://www.flickr.com/photos/sterlingpickett/5343227370/ http://media.photobucket.com/image/boone%20hall%20gullah%20theater/baabaalisa/charlestonday2-4.jpg http://boonehallplantation.com/gallery.php http://farm5.static.flickr.com/4009/4438209398_d1c8a6bc74.jpg

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Jones Ecological Research Center http://www.jonesctr.org/images/clip_image002.jpg http://www.jonesctr.org/education_and_outreach/university_classes/maymester_wildlife_techniques.html http://www.jonesctr.org/research/wildlife_research/graphics/burn1.jpg http://www.jonesctr.org/education_and_outreach/educator_resources/eera.html

Shellburne Farms http://www.csmonitor.com/var/ezflow_site/storage/images/media/images/2009/0805/environmental-education-goes-global/ article_photo1.jpg/5811056-1-eng-US/article_photo1.jpg_full_600.jpg http://www.shelburnefarms.org/images/JoshMktGdn.jpg http://www.vermonter.com/images/summer/shelburne_farms2.jpg

Fort King George http://www.loweraltamahahistoricalsociety.org/Community/Fort_King_George.htm http://i.acdn.us/image/A1436/1436536/300_1436536.jpg http://www.gastateparks.org/FortKingGeorge http://www.flickr.com/photos/posrus/5129670717/

RENDERINGS All graphics and layout completed by Wes Ryals

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Wes Ryals, MLA Candidate ASLA, GAASLA Student Honor Award

Georgia Chapter, ASLA,

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Student Honor Award

Wormsloe: Re-envisioning A Cultural Landscape  

2010 ASLA Honor Award Recipient A compilation of work from my 2010 undergraduate terminal project as well as additional graduate fellowship...

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