Page 1

Master Plan for Angkor Airport City prepared for

by Wallace Roberts & Todd, LLC and ERA | AECOM December 2009

Lees Aviation and Airport Co.,

Master Plan for Angkor Airport City Final Report prepared for

Lees Aviation and Airport Co., Ltd.

by Wallace Roberts & Todd, LLC and ERA | AECOM December 2009

Table of Contents Executive Summary ........................................................ 1

Creative Industry ........................................................... 57

An Extraordinary Opportunity

Creating an Opportunity

Creating a New Airport City

A New Vision for Cambodia

The Master Plan

Developing Creative Industries at Angkor Airport City

Development Theme, Program and Phasing

Making the Vision a Reality – AIFACC

Regional Market Research and Demand Forecast

Building to Support the Creative Industries Experiencing the Creative Industries

Site Development Framework .................................... 13

Sustainable Development Principles ......................... 71

Need for a New Airport

Designing a Model for Sustainable Development in Cambodia

Development Site

Sustainable Landscape Design

Site Access

Sustainable Building Design

Regional Ecology

Sustainable Stormwater Management

Site Hydrology Development Concept

Implementation ............................................................. 79 Development Parcels and Programs

Master Plan .................................................................... 25

Phasing Strategy Development Phasing Plan

Land Use Plan Site Circulation Water Management System Visual Axes, View Corridor and Focal Elements Development Sub-areas Town Center Lakefront Resorts

Phase One Development Plan .................................... 95 Development Strategy Analysis by Parcel

Angkor Water Park Resort Golf Course Communities Forest Village Second Life Community Airport Plaza Complex Economic Development Zone Model Village

Appendix ...................................................................... 105 Angkor Airport City Interim Report



A new gateway to the global economy tourist destination in Siem Reap anchor industry for the nation reason to visit, work and live in Cambodia



An Extraordinary Opportunity Siem Reap’s New Airport and New City The new, relocated international airport serving Siem Reap in

historic masonry structures.

Cambodia will serve as a major gateway to the global economy for

The runway of the new airport will be located just to the east of flood

this developing nation and as an additional tourist destination that will

plains on the fringes of the Tonle Sap ecological system. The location for

encourage longer visits to the area, greatly benefitting the local economy.

the new airport features available adjacent land, 4,040 hectares to the

Siem Reap-Angkor International Airport’s proximity to the UNESCO

northwest of the runways; this along with cargo capacity in passenger

World Heritage Angkor Wat Historical Park currently limits tourism and

planes makes the airport a good location for value-added industries

business growth potential





Cambodia’s economy. As




these industries mature,




the cargo flights needed

structures. Due to these

to support them can also

restrictions, a new airport is

be accommodated by the

being built in an agricultural

new airport. The airport

area east of Siem Reap,

is also a good location for

outside of the UNESCO-

international conferences



and trade shows. Over time,




an economic development



zone at the airport can


Reap the












terminal at the existing

park comparable to those

airport has recently been


completed, the position of

and Taiwan.

the runway at the existing


Aerial view of Town Center

airport requires planes to take off over the historic monuments



Wat. As this is not permitted, primarily because of noise




Angkor Airport City will capitalize on necessary infrastructure investments to build a world-class city

concerns, planes must take

Singapore to



zone, land around the new airport can be developed into






properties that people,

particularly families, visiting

off in the opposite direction, unless there are special meteorological

Angkor Wat to plan to stay for several days or a week, rather than the

conditions, a restriction that diminishes safety and efficiency. The

rushed one-day visits typical of international package tours today. There

current runway is also not long enough to accommodate the largest

is also the opportunity to create world class Second Life and second-

international passenger planes. In addition, there is concern that the

home communities, which have convenient access to the airport and

continued impacts of planes touching down on the runway so close to

on-site attractions, plus Siem Reap City and the Angkor Wat Historical

the historic monuments will have a negative effect on the stability of the




Creating a New Airport City Angkor Airport City is envisioned to be a new model for development

tourism development of Siem Reap City, which will continue to attract

in Cambodia. Tourism, following the climatic shifts of the region,

tourists because of the nearby Angkor Wat temples. While tourism will

fluctuates and is not a reliable, sustainable economic driver. Though

be one of its components, it also features a large Economic Development

it is expected that tourism will continue to play an important role in

Zone and be the center for Creative Industry, a new anchor industry.

Cambodia’s growing economy, diversification will help to achieve the

Angkor Airport City will serve as an incubator for this new economic

national economic goals set by the Royal Government of Cambodia

driver, which will provide a boost to the national economy and attract

(RGC). This project, therefore, is intended to complement the continuing

investors, residents and businesses.

Aerial view of Angkor Airport city looking towards the southeast






2.0 km


The Master Plan The Angkor Airport City Master Plan is divided into two major

At the heart of Angkor Airport City is a 113 hectare site dedicated to

new airport and a resort city with a town center farther to the north.

the creative industry concept, which is to be a new economic driver for

The plan uses the unique ecology of the Tonle Sap region to capture and

both the city and the region. Artists’ studios in this area will allow visitors

store water year-round, providing a lush, green setting for resorts and

to see the art in progress while, on a larger scale, manufacturing facilities

residential communities.

will produce crafts for domestic and international distribution. An art

The Master Plan’s Economic Development Zone reserves 928 hectares



institute will help train both Cambodians and international students in


a variety of creative arts,

to the airport that can




creative industry center.

as sites are needed for

Located near the center will

business or airport-related

be the Center for Angkor

uses. The Airport Access


Boulevard will serve as the

for Arts, Creativity and

main thoroughfare of the

Cultural Heritage (AIFACC).



In addition, within the












location for international

museums, performing art



centers and art galleries

road, a golf course with

featuring traditional and

housing will be available

contemporary Cambodian

for executives and upper





with the airport and nearby businesses. There will also be an area suitable for research and development facilities and ample space for manufacturing. For some of the project’s employees, 133 hectares are reserved for their housing needs.


it to the Airport Plaza Complex.

components – the Economic Development Zone directly adjacent to the




host regular public events Town Center market place

to increase visibility and

Ample recreation, beautiful resorts, distinctive neighborhoods, creative industry and an economic development zone will create an environmentally sustainable, self-sustaining community

interest in local art. The city will be built around two stream systems that run through the site, permitting



of lakes, reservoirs and a




attractive including

The Master Plan proposes a design for the airport terminal that

golf course communities, lake-front hotels and a Town Center filled

is pedestrian-friendly and welcoming, allowing people to move from

with residences, hotels, restaurants and shops, as well as a traditional

portions of the terminal outside of secure areas directly to an outdoor

Cambodian market, attractive parks and a promenade along a lake.

shopping mall and hotel complex. Nearby will be an outlet shopping

Across the lake from the Town Center will be a convention center

center located in the business park that offers a different shopping

and hotel as well as a botanical garden and folk village. There will

experience from that in the Town Center. Visitors will have the unusual

also be schools, hospitals and other institutions needed to sustain the

chance to be able to travel to the outlets by a waterway that connects



Development Theme, Program and Phasing Four themes have been identified to shape the Angkor Airport City.

The overall concept is to develop a town center, tourist

The first is to create a world-class destination with a unique identity,

accommodations, residential and industrial land uses near the new

so that it will be a first choice location for vacations and also an ideal

airport. The significant investments in infrastructure that support

place to own a second home or start a business. The second theme is

the airport will make the subject site available for development and

to build a sustainable development that is in harmony with the natural

significantly increase its value. The proposed development concept is

landscape of Cambodia and with an understanding of Cambodia’s

designed to maximize the potential value that will be made available by the airport and infrastructure investments. It also both expands the existing primary economic base of tourism and seeks to diversify the

Development Themes Create a unique world-class destination

economy by developing industrial uses and a new anchor industry. The development program for the Angkor Water City includes 8,120 residential units and 4,930 hotel rooms in accordance with the following table:

Build a sustainable development in harmony with Cambodian traditions Provide a balanced community Offer myriad amenities and support facilities

architectural traditions. Easy access to Angkor Wat from this location will be important, but the experience of being in this place should also be distinctly Cambodian. Third, the project should provide a balanced community with a full range of uses, integrating a new international airport, airport city and new industry. It should offer a variety of experiences and a full range of activities while also serving to attract investors and businesses that will contribute to the local economy. Finally, the city should provide for a luxurious private lifestyle, supported by all the elements, like medical care, education, spas, recreation and leisure activities, expected in such a community. The sizing and phasing of the development program is based on the projections of supportable space, positioning recommendations, overall strategy for the project and the capacity of development parcels. The recommended development program and a detailed phasing scenario for each land use was established by WRT and ERA. The phasing strategy, which is comprised of five phases over almost 25 years, is based on the layout of the property, infrastructure investments, financial returns and the development strategy of the project.

OVERVIEW TotalPlanningArea(ha) ResidentialCommunities(includingTownCenter) GolfCourses Hotels HotelRooms

4,040 9 3.5 13 4,930

RESIDENTIALPROGRAM LargeLots MediumLots SmallLots MultiͲfamilyUnits Townhouses VacationCondos VacationHomes SecondLifeLotsandUnits TotalResidentialUnits TotalEmployeeHousing

515 2,905 940 1,780 1,140 100 240 500 8,120 4,800

NONRESIDENTIALPROGRAM(ha) RetailLandArea CreativeIndustriesLandArea OfficeLandArea IndustrialLandArea

10 55 22 242



Regional Market Research and Demand Forecast Regional Tourism Trends

Hotel Market Analysis

Southeast Asia’s ASEAN nations expect continued consistent growth

ERA surveyed several of the highest-end hotel and resort offerings in

in tourism over the next decade.

According to the World Tourism

Siem Reap. In terms of hotels and resorts, Siem Reap is by far the most

Organization, visitation to ASEAN countries will nearly triple by 2020.

developed region in Cambodia. Siem Reap now offers a wide range of

The UNWTO reported that international tourism growth has experienced

hotels – including several five-star hotels, dozens of mid-range lodgings

a rapid slowdown since mid-2008. However, the latest UNWTO World

and many budget guesthouses. A summary the surveyed hotels and

Tourism report from September 2009 confirmed that tourism arrival data

resorts are presented in Table I - 2.

has indicated a “flattening due to the crisis we are in.” International tourism for 2009 is forecast to decrease by -6 to -4 percent. On a regional level, Asia-Pacific experienced arrivals slightly better than the global average and a slow recovery is expected in 2010.

Table I - 1: Projected International Tourism to Cambodia and Siem Reap

International Tourism to Cambodia and Siem Reap

ERA Projections Cambodia Siem Reap % Siem Reap

Based on regional tourism trends and historic visitor arrival data for Cambodia and Siem Reap, ERA projected international visitation to Siem







2,125,465 1,062,733 50.0%

2,809,414 1,376,613 49.0%

4,442,698 2,088,068 47.0%

6,229,470 2,865,556 46.0%

7,361,890 3,312,850 45.0%

6.4% 5.8%

Source: Economics Research Associates, 2009

Reap through 2028. ERA anticipates tourism growth in Cambodia to continue to be slow through 2010, start to rebound in 2011 and grow at an average annual rate of nearly nine percent for the next ten years,

Table I - 2: Summary of Siem Reap Resort Hotel Characteristics

through 2021. From 2021 through 2028, the growth rate is expected

Hotel Name

to taper off to an average annual growth rate of approximately four percent. ERA anticipates the share of visitors to Cambodia that go to Siem Reap to decline slightly to 45 percent by 2028 as competing tourist destinations in the country develop, particularly along the coast.

Raffles Grand D'Angkor


Raffles Grand Hotel D'Angkor Sofitel Royal Angkor Amansara Hotel De La Paix

Star- Number of Year level Rooms Opened 5 5 5 5

131 238 24 107

1997 2000 2002 2005

Rates (US$)

$230 - $2,500 $280 - $1,800 $750 - $1,000 $330 - $720

Occupancy Rate (%) High Low Annual Season Season Average 95 - 100 75 100

Source: Individual Hotels; Economics Research Associates, 2009

Sofitel Angkor Phokeethra Golf and Spa Resort

Swimming pool terrace at Sokha

30 - 70 45 70

60 55 85


Siem Reap Real Estate Market Analysis Cambodia, like other nations in the region has certain restrictions

Commercial and Industrial

on real property ownership. Cambodia’s private sector has urged the

government to revive the amendment to allow foreign ownership

Rents for retail and office space in Siem Reap vary widely depending on location and amenities.

of buildings. Foreign land ownership is prohibited. Similar to other

countries in Southeast Asia, foreign investors have only been permitted

The rents range from US$3.50 to nearly US$16 per square meter per month with an average of approximately US$7.

to buy on a leasehold tenure of up to 99 years - an option which has proved popular with buyers seeking to invest in the region. Sale prices


and rental rates for residential, commercial and industrial properties are

summarized below:

US$5 per square meter per month.

Residential •

On average, industrial warehouse space in Phnom Penh rent for

Single family villas in Siem Reap average 300 square meters in

Industrial land at the Phnom Penh SEZ is listed for sale at US$50 per square meter.

size and list prices roughly range from US$400 to US$1,440 per square meter, averaging US$850 per square meter. •

Condominium units average 180 square meters in size and US$720 per square meter.

The average list price for residential lot sales is approximately US$190 per square meter.

Villa in Siem Reap listed for $800,000

Villa in Siem Reap listed for $200,000

Condo listed for $180,000

Condo listed for $65,000



Hotel and Golf Demand Based on the tourism projections presented above, ERA estimated supportable hotel rooms in Siem Reap. Projections of supportable rooms

Table I - 3: Estimated Supportable Hotel and Golf Demand in Angkor City Through 2028 Phase One 2013

assume an average of two persons per room and a targeted occupancy rate of 65 percent. Table I - 3 shows a summary of supportable hotel rooms and golf courses in Angkor through 2028. These estimates

Hotel Rooms 18-Hole Golf Courses

Phase Two Phase Three 2018 2023

Phase Four 2028









represent the potential magnitude of development over time that could be appropriate and supportable at Angkor City. Table I - 4: Estimated Supportable Residential Demand in Angkor City Through 2028 Phase One 2013

Residential Demand Residential demand in Angkor City is driven by estimated on-site




















Permanent Residential Population Upper Management Units

informal settlements surrounding the site and ensure the development is beneficial to the region. In addition to the housing units to accommodate permanent residents, ERA also projects demand for up to 600 vacation and second home units and 500 second-life / retirement units. A summary of supportable residential units is presented in Table I - 4. As with all larger master planned projects, market shifts will dictate adjustments to be made in future years. This input is a preliminary road map for planning and phasing the residential components of the project. More specific recommended general development strategies are elaborated subsequent sections of this report.



2nd-Life (Retirement) Units

target market for the residential real estate will primarily be management be important to provide some worker housing on-site as well to prevent

Phase Four 2028

Vacation / Second Home Units

employment including the New Siem Reap International Airport. The level employee households, affluent Cambodians and expatriates. It will

Phase Two Phase Three 2018 2023

Middle Management Units Worker Housing Units





Sub-total Resident Population Units











Commercial Demand Retail and Restaurant Space

Table I - 5: Estimated Supportable Retail and Restaurant Demand in Angkor City Through 2028

Three available market segments were identified for the retail and

Phase One 2013

restaurant components of the Angkor City development. The three available market segments each represent a specific consumer type with

Located in Town Center 3,500



Local-serving Retail / Restaurant (m2)





On-site hotel guests: people who will be staying at the hotels

Sub-total in Town Center





within Angkor City.

Located Outside Town Center 4,900








Nearby hotel guests: people who will be staying at hotels outside Angkor City.

Phase Four 2028

Tourist-serving Retail / Restaurant (m2)

different spending habits. These three markets include: •

Phase Two Phase Three 2018 2023

Local-serving Retail / Restaurant (m2) TOTAL RETAIL / RESTAURANT (m2)


Residents: permanent on-site residents of all incomes.

For each of these markets, ERA estimated the average daily expenditures and capture of total spending in Angkor City to project the total amount

Table I - 6: Estimated Supportable Office and Industrial Demand in Angkor City Through 2028 Phase One 2013

of supportable retail and restaurant space through 2028, as shown in Table I - 5. ERA recommends a concentration of restaurant and retail space in the Town Center to create a lively, commercial destination with substantial draw.

Phase Two Phase Three 2018 2023

Phase Four 2028

Government and Private Office (m2)





Industrial and Manufacturing (m2)









Creative Industries (m2)

Office, Industrial and Creative Industry Space Supportable government and private office, industrial and creative industry space was estimated based on employment projections. A summary of supportable office and industrial space is presented in Table I - 6.




Need for the New Airport Angkor Wat and its associated temples, a remarkable group of religious buildings dating from the 12th century, are UNESCO World Heritage Sites and they have made the adjacent city of Siem Reap an international tourist destination. The airport at Siem Reap is situated close to the historic sites and the routes for flights in and out have been restricted to minimize impacts on the historic monuments. Despite the fact that a new terminal at the existing airport has recently been completed, the inadequacies of the facilities require that Siem Reap build a new airport. The position of the runways at the existing airport directs planes to take off over the historic monuments at Angkor Wat. However, as this is not permitted, primarily because of noise concerns, planes must take off in the opposite direction, unless there are special meteorological conditions. The resulting plane movements are not

Regional Map of Siem Reap Province

optimal for prevailing wind conditions, a restriction which diminishes safety and efficiency. The current runways are also not long enough to accommodate the largest international passenger planes. In addition, there is concern that the continued impacts of planes touching down on the runways so close to the historic monuments will have a negative effect on the stability of the historic masonry structures. The site for the new airport has been chosen for its orientation and viability for take-offs and landings and is located to the east of Siem Reap City in an agricultural area beyond a 30 kilometer minimum distance from Angkor Wat and Angkor Thom mandated by UNESCO. The current location of the runways is on a rise of land just to the east of flood plains on the fringes of the Tonle Sap ecological system.


0 10





Regional Map showing the City of Siem Reap and the Project Site 0



20 km



Site Access Current road conditions in Downtown Siem

Development Master Plan, there are plans to

Reap vary. NR 6 is a well-paved road that

improve NR 6 as well as 2-digit National Roads

connects to Phnom Penh to the east and to

64-2 and 66-1 that will eventually connect to

the existing Siem Reap International Airport to

improved NR 66-2, 78-1 and 78-2, creating

the west. Route 63, which runs north-south,

a connection between Siem Reap to Vietnam

is another paved road in good condition

and allowing for an increase in tourism

that connects Angkor Wat to Tonle Sap

and international commerce. Additionally,

Lake. While the quality of major roads has

improvements to north-south 2-digit National

significantly improved in recent years, regional

Roads will strengthen connections to the

roads in Siem Reap Province are not as well

Thai border. When the Road Master Plan is

developed. Route 65 is mostly paved and

complete in 2020, tourism and commercial

Route 66 is currently a dirt road that is not

traffic will move freely in all directions.

used. According to the 2009 Road Network

Plan for Pl f C Cambodia’s b di ’ international i t ti l road d network t k (JICA 2006)

Distance from Airport to Major Points Angkor Wat: 35 km Banteasy Srei: 30 km Provincial Government: 30 km Bakong: 25 km Beng Mealea: 10 km Preah Vihear: 123 km

Project location and international road connections



NR 6 is a well-traveled road in good condition,

the primary point of access with be via NR

so a connection from this route to Angkor

6 to reach the Airport Access Boulevard.

Airport City is critical for ease of access.

Eventually, as the provincial roads become

Nearby are Routes 65 and 66, but they have

more viable paths for travel, Angkor Airport

not yet been improved, so in its initial phases

City will connect to them.

Access to NR 6, Route 65 and Route 66



Regional Ecology Geology The study area is located on the high plain(between 25 and 70 m) which forms the Old Alluvium composed mostly of sand, silt, clay and laterite with few layers of gravel. These were deposited in the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, with the upper horizons extending up to the early Tertiary Age (Garami & Kertai, 1993) Soils Various soil types occur in the Angkor region. The most common soil type is red-yellow podzols. The study area consists of red-yellow podzols on the east and alluvial lithosoils on the west along the stream parallel to exisitng road.

Hydraulic zones of Angkor region. From north to south: Collector zone (Mountain area and upper plain), Temple zone, and Drainage zone (Upper


drainage zone and floodplain). (DMA, 1963; Certeza, 1964; JICA, 1999b; and

The site is part of a larger regional hydrologic pattern that is related to the Tonle Sap Lake as shown in this diagram derived from map information.

Evans, 2002).

This map of regional hydrology shows that the airport site is close to what the map calls the collector zone for water in Siem Reap. The hydrology on the site can become the basis for creating a natural framework that can enclose all development in a distinctive environment Groundwater Groundwater stages depending on the depth of the bedrock and the characteristics of the soil types The Angkor area has large ground water storage with bedrock situated about 50-60 meters below the ground surface (JICA, 2000). The upper two layers, Younger and Older Alluvium aquifer have very good ground water potential.







Climate The climate in the study area is tropical, being dominated by seasonal winds or monsoons. he wet southwest monsoon arrives around May with heavy clouds and thundershowers, and usually continues until November, with rain occurring almost daily during this season. The dry northeast monsoon normally starts from November and continues until April (JICA, 1999a). Annual rainfall in Siem Reap town varies between 900 and 1,800 mm/year with an average of 1,425 mm/year (data from 35 years, 19222002; MRCS, 2003). The wet season (mid April to October) brings on average some 88 % of the annual rainfall in the Siem Reap region. T

Source: The Natural Environment and Historical Water Management of Angkor, Cambodia by Matti Kummu of the Helsinki University of Technology. Precipitation isolines for the study area (Yearly average precipitation data from years 2001-2002 have been used. The measurement stations presented). Hatched area indicates the peak of the year 2000 flood.


(DMA, 1963; Certeza, 1964; MRCS, 2003; and Evans, 2002).




Site Hydrology Water acts as both a critical amenity and resource. In order for the development to become an internationally competitive resort destination and attract businesses and investors, it needs to have retained water all year, especially during the dry season. Year-round water management has the potential to greatly improve the agricultural yield of the area, for example by permitting rice cultivation all year, and not just in the rainy season, as is the case today. Regional water retention is in the interests not just of creating the Angkor Airport City, but also of improving farming

Stream flow during dry season

Stream flow during wet season

throughout the area. The Economic Development Zone will also be more competitive in attracting international businesses if there is year-round water in the landscape and an assured water supply for operations.

Regional rivers and project location



Development Site The proposed development is located on a 4,040-hectare site adjacent to the new Siem Reap International Airport in Cambodia. The construction of the New Siem Reap International Airport and the accompanying development of the Angkor Airport City will result in a new business, residential and resort center approximately 35 kilometers east of Siem Reap City in what is now a predominantly rural area. The Angkor Airport City site is located to the north and east of the proposed airport. The location of the runways is currently determined by being more than 30 kilometers from Siem Reap and at least 10 kilometers away from Boeng Mealea, plus orientation for safe takeoffs and landings while creating the minimum impact possible on existing villages. Site photo - July 2009

The site is a valley, with its two defining ridge lines running approximately north to south on either side. In the center of the valley is another smaller ridge, also running north to south, which subdivides the site into two stream systems. Tree cover and other vegetation are sparse, as much of the land is in agricultural use, The current population lives in villages along the roads around the site, predominantly just to the west, but also in some villages to the north and south.

View towards the east on project site



Site analysis diagram



Development Concept While Angkor Airport City will host world-class residential communities and luxury hotels, it is also intended to be an important driver for the regional economy. The site is divided by function into the Economic Development Zone, Town Center and the Resort City. The Town Center is located at the juncture of the Economic Development Zone and Resort City, creating a node that serves the needs of both development areas. The creative industries initiative distinguishes the development as a unique economic opportunity, drawing upon and augmenting the existing skills of the Cambodian people. Because of its importance, the creative industry center is located adjacent to the Town Center, the development’s most prominent area. Not all businesses in Angkor Airport City will involve creative industries, but as the project’s anchor industry, it will serve to generate investment and attract related businesses that will help to improve the region’s economy and provide employment for Cambodians. The different zones, including the residential communities, the Town Center, the Creative Industry Center and the Economic Development Zone with model village, will all support each other and contribute to making Angkor Airport City a thriving, self-sustaining city.



Residential Communities

Residential Communities

Town Center and Creative Industry

Model Village

Wellness Village Economic Development Zone




Land Use Plan Angkor Airport City features a wide variety of amenities, housing options, hotels and business and industry space. While tourism is expected to provide some of the initial demand for the development, as business and industry portions of the project become established, particularly the Creative Industry concept, there will be people living and working in Angkor Airport City full-time. The site has two airport hotels, two lakeside resorts, one water resort hotel and eight hotels in the Town Center, including the convention hotel. Housing alternatives include single family lots in the Resort City, which range from small to large and are either lots in the golf course communities or in the Forest Village. Some multi-family housing is available in those communities as well, though the main bulk of the multi-family units are located within or near the Town Center with the aim of creating a vibrant community there. A model village area is included in the Economic Development Zone to provide an affordable housing option for some of the project’s employees. Schools and other institutional facilities, like the regional hospital will all help to make Angkor Airport City a self-sustaining community. In addition to the housing for year-round residents, there will be vacation homes and a Second Life community.





Site Circulation Access to the site is likely to be primarily to and from Siem Reap for

of major global companies located in the Economic Development

some time to come. A new connection to the National Route 6, the

Zone. The arterial road leading from Route 66 winds past reservoirs

Airport Access Boulevard, is planned from the airport and will join

and the Resort Lake to eventually terminate at the west side of the

NR 6 about halfway between the airport and Siem Reap. Once the

Town Center. An arterial along the eastern portion of the site that

northwestern portions of the site are developed, additional major

runs through the Forest Village similarly ends at the north side of the

vehicular access will be from Route 66. As Angkor Airport City

Town Center.

becomes more established, there will be additional connections to Route 66 along the property’s north edge, providing those traveling

The Town Center is located so that it is clearly visible from the Airport

from the east convenient access points.

Access Boulevard and oriented towards an existing stream that will be dammed to create the Town Center Lake. As the heart of Angkor

The road organization on the site responds to the two principal

Airport City, it is accessible to both the residential communities and the

means of connection to Siem Reap, the Airport Access Boulevard

Economic Development Zone, including the Creative Industry Center.

connecting to NR 6 and Route 66. Equally important, the road system

Each of the residential neighborhoods is accessed at several points

is an integral part of the water system, acting as dams throughout

from loop roads that connect to the main roads through the site.

the site to create reservoirs and lakes. The Airport Access Boulevard runs through the lower southwestern portion of the site, alongside the south edge of the Town Center and past the business parks and golf course directly to the new airport and the Airport Plaza Complex. Frontage along this arterial road will be ideal for showcasing buildings

View of Airport Access Boulevard from airport approaching Town Center



6 te 6
















to NR 6






Town Center circulation diagramt

Major circulation routes from airport to the west and northeast


Major circulation routes from northwest of site




Airport Access Boulevard section

Connector road section

Town Center connector road section

Town Center local road section

Local residential road section



Water Management System Site Design Water as a site feature and amenity will help to make Angkor Airport City an attractive, distinctive place. The majority of the site falls within two different watersheds – the west watershed encompasses 10,300 ha, while the east watershed is comprised of 5,500 ha. The project has the best opportunity to manage and retain water in the east watershed since it runs through the middle of the property. Due to its

West Watershed Land Cover (10,300 hectares) Agricultural use


Phnum Kulen National Park Forest




Settlement and dirt roads


relatively small size, though, sources from the west watershed will also have to be tapped to create the proposed water bodies.

East Watershed Land Cover (5,500 hectares) Watershed “B” Agricultural use


Reservoirs which can store large volumes of water are necessary to

Phnum Kulen National Park Forest


supply the lakes, provide water for the project and support year-round



agriculture downstream. In the monsoon season, precipitation will be plentiful; during the dry season, however, maintaining the lakes at a constant water level will be a challenge. Sources for the reservoirs are existing on-site streams as well as stormwater collected from the airport terminal and runways. The reservoirs are expected to fluctuate in volume due to the differences in seasonal precipitation, but they each have a reserve volume to ensure that some water is always present. An integral component of this storage system is the road

West watershed

network, which is strategically located so that major roads act as dams to contain and control the water in both lakes and reservoirs.

The streams located in the west watershed will flow into reservoirs R-1 and R-2, which will then feed the Resort Lake (L-1). Overflow water from both the Resort Lake and reservoir R-1 will be the sources for reservoir R-3, the main supply for the Town Center Lake (L-3) and canal. The streams in the east watershed will be dammed to create two reservoirs, R-4 and R-5, that supply Forest Lake (L-2). Forest Lake will discharge into an existing stream channel that leads to the Town Center Lake and Angkor Water Resort Lake (L-4), which will serve as the setting for a water amusement park and resort conveniently located near the Town Center and Creative Industry Center. Runoff collected from the airport provides water for the Airport Plaza Complex water feature and Angkor Water Resort Lake. From the Angkor Water Resort Lake, water is finally discharged into a receiving stream to flow off site. Watersheds diagram


East watershed


Airport Plaza Complex Water Feature

Water system diagram combined reservoirs, lakes, streams and canals



Resort Lake (L-1)

Reservoir (R-3) and channel connecting to Town Center canal





Water Quality As one of Angkor Airport City’s most important features, water will

Aeration circulates stored water in lakes and reservoirs, preventing

need to be both retained and maintained. Water bodies on site

algae blooms and preventing mosquito reproduction. This can be

need to be safe for recreational use, especially during the dry season.

achieved using an underwater bubbler system, which moves cooler,

Forebays located at the reservoir inlets help to minimize the amount of

oxygen-deprived water from below to the top. Fountain jets with

sediment in the water, but other strategies are necessary to treat the

lighting can aerate water while also creating a more dramatic effect,

water as it moves through the site. This can be accomplished through

which may be an appropriate application for some of the lakes. For

a variety of different means, which may be combined to provide

large-scale circulation, systems may include a floating solar-powered

optimum water quality. The first involves ensuring sufficient water

device that draws water from below up to the surface. Additionally,

circulation; reservoirs will need to constantly replenish the lakes with

floating wetlands can contribute to water quality improvements.

fresh water to avoid stagnation.

These constructed features can provide habitat for wildlife, remove pollutants from water and be intriguing spots for people to visit.

Section A: North shore of Town Center Lake and lakefront development





Section key plan

Section B: South shore of Town Center Lake and convention hotel



Water Edge Design Because of the prominence of water in the design of Angkor Airport

Center canal will offer people an opportunity to experience the water’s

City, the design of the edges of lakes, the Town Center canal and

edge. Three meters down from the street level, people can watch

reservoirs are important. Lakes, which must maintain a constant water

boats moving along the canal and stroll along the pedestrian-only

level throughout the year, will have edges that welcome people and

linear park.

encourage them to use the water for recreation. In the Town Center, visitors and residents can enjoy the lake on the street-level promenade,

The water levels of the reservoirs are intended to fluctuate as they

with shopping and dining at lakefront retail, restaurants and cafĂŠs. A

store water during the rainy season and drain over the course of the

lower lake level esplanade will allow people to get closer to the water

dry season. Though exact calculations have not been performed, it

and paddle on the lake in a canoe or kayak.

is possible that the reservoirs will be mostly empty by the end of the dry season. Locating housing some distance away from the edge and

On the south side of the Town Center Lake, the lakeshore will

planting a forested buffer in between is the best treatment for the

be vegetated, in contrast to the hard edge of the Town Center

reservoirs since they cannot be considered a year-round amenity. Still,

promenade. This naturalistic edge can be explored via the site-

jogging and bike trails through the buffer areas can make them a

wide trail system, allowing people access to a different waterfront

potential recreational resource.

environment just across the lake from the Town Center. The Town

View of Town Center canal



Section C: Multi-family residential, canal and Town Center

Section D: Airport Access Boulevard, canal and Town Center



Water Use Angkor Airport City allows residents and guests to experience natural beauty and quality of water to the greatest degree possible. The Town Center Lake, Resort Lake, Forest Lake and Angkor Water Resort Lake will all provide people with different ways of actively interacting with water. As stated previously, maintaining water quality will be extremely important so that the water bodies can be safely used for recreation. Some of the potential water activities are as follows:




Kite Surfing




Water Skiing


Personal Watercrafting

Dragon Boat Racing


Jet skiing

Kite surfing

Canal boat tours

View of Town Center waterfront promenade




Visual Axes, View Corridors and Focal Elements Major access points for the planning area have helped determine the development framework. The main road system is directed along one primary visual axis: along the Airport Access Boulevard from NR 6 to the Town Center. This road is oriented towards a high point off-site as it approaches Angkor Airport City. The road then curves to the southeast directing the view towards the Town Center and then onto the airport terminal. The main focal elements are the two major centers: the Town Center and the Airport Plaza Complex, but they have different characters. The Town Center is an evocation of Southeast Asian Cities before World War II, while the Airport Plaza Complex is a modern business center. The systems of streams and lakes that cross the planning area also create vistas and view corridors. Views from the resort on the south side of the Resort Lake to the north will not only offer visitors with views of the lake but also they will be able to see the Kulen Mountains in the distance to the north. From the East Village Sub-center, people will have a 180 degree view of the lake, providing them with a beautiful, memorable experience.

High point to the east

View of Phnom Kulen National Park to the north





Development Sub-areas The master plan provides a full range of land uses for both economic and resort development. It is anticipated that Angkor Airport City will draw international conferences and the Economic Development Zone will provide sites for value-added industries that make use of the air freight capacity of passenger planes, which will be helpful during startup phases. In conjunction with the Town Center, the creative industry center will be the core of the project, both physically and economically. The Resort City consists of golf-course communities, the Forest Village and the Wellness Center. There are also separate tourist attractions, including Angkor Water Park, plus extensive public open space and recreation areas. The following section details some of the major sub-areas within Angkor Airport City, including the Town Center, the different residential communities and the Economic Development Zone.




45 0



2.0 km


Aerial view of Town Center



Town Center Angkor Airport City’s Town Center will be a lively, energetic place for

evening studio and gallery tour, and art fairs will draw people from the

tourists and residents alike. As the centerpiece of the project, it will

region to the Town Center, further distinguishing the development at

be a prominent landmark that people see as they approach the new

Angkor Airport City.

airport from Siem Reap City. The center, located next to a constructed lake and surrounded by a moat on three sides, features a lakeside

Across the Town Center Lake, connected by a bridge, are the

promenade lined with three luxury hotels and a variety of shops and

convention center and an associated convention hotel, which can be

restaurants. From the Airport Access Boulevard, a welcome center

viewed from the lakeside promenade. A botanical garden and folk

and government buildings mark the entrance into the Town Center.

village occupy part of the lakeshore, which has a soft edge in contrast

Within the Town Center are four more hotels, traditional markets,

to the urban condition of the Town Center promenade. People will

restaurants, cafes, shops and apartments. The arts will have a strong

be able to rent boats to explore the lake and dock at different parts

presence throughout the Town Center, which will have two performing

of the shore. Also on this island is located the AIFACC Headquarters

arts centers, art museums and galleries. These will introduce people

for the creative industries. This facility may provide administrative and

to both traditional and contemporary Cambodian art and help fuel

logistical support for individuals and businesses seeking to establish

the project’s creative industries. Events such as First Fridays, a monthly

themselves in the Creative Industry Center adjacent.

Performing Arts Center Outdoor Performance Center Canal Waterfront Hotel (typ.)

Outdoor performance

Hotel (typ.) Outdoor Exhibition Area Convention Hotel Convention Center


(PH 2: 20,000 sm; PH 3: 40,000 sm; PH 4: 40,000 sm)

Center for AIFACC Botanical Garden and Folk Village Art Museum and Park Convention center

Civic Center Gateway Feature (typ.) Arts Avenue

Waterfront Promenade

Gallery Walk

Art Parks

Las Ramblas, Barcelona



View of lakefront resort



Lakefront Resorts At the northwestern corner of the site, a new lake offers incredible water frontage and is the location for two resort hotels and lakefront vacation condos. Views across the lake towards the mountains will be a feature of the hotel on the south side of the lake, while the other resort on the north shore looks across the water to the south. The hotels have associated cottage colonies for longer stays or for larger groups. The resort on the south also features access to the nearby 27hole golf course as well as the commercial sub-center.

Angkor Water Park Resort To the southwest, across from the Airport Access Boulevard from the Town Center, is Angkor Water Park Resort, a hotel with an associated water amusement park. This resort hotel, situated on the edge of Angkor Water Resort Lake, is easily accessible from the Access Boulevard and acts as an eye-catching landmark as people travel to and from the airport. Similar to the Atlantis Water Park in the

Lakefront resorts

Bahamas, this naturalistic water amusement park will feature unique rides and attractions with a Cambodian theme. Its location adjacent to the lake helps to define the setting and create an entertaining, memorable atmosphere.

Angkor Water Park Resort

Atlantis Aquaventure Water Park

Water resorts



View of golf course community



Golf Course Communities

Forest Village

Angkor Airport City features two golf course communities with

The northeast section of the site is characterized by existing forest,

three and a half golf courses woven through single family lots. The

which has been incorporated into the design. Using this extant

communities offer myriad amenities for residents focused not just

resource and adding additional forested area will serve to establish

on golf, but also on other active lifestyle amenities. These include

choice development sites for houses set in large lots in the midst of

kayaking along streams, jogging and bicycling on a site-wide trail

the forest and stream corridors. Around 1,300 house sites will be

system and a clubhouse with athletic facilities such as a driving range

available in this section, which is convenient to golf courses, a lake and

and tennis courts. Each 18 hole golf course is integrated into the

a commercial sub-center. This area also has immediate access to Route

residential landscape so that houses will have spectacular views of

66, which suggests that some of the lots may be purchased as first

fairways, water features and forested buffers. Each golf community

or second homes by professionals or executives from the Siem Reap

has adjacent hotels; a proximity that offers a mutually beneficial

area. The Forest Village offers a unique and exotic living experience

relationship – hotel guests can play the golf courses while residents

that brings residents close to nature while maintaining the luxuries of

can use hotel services to manage their homes.

first-class first, second or retirement homes. Residents also have access to active lifestyle features such as kayaking along streams, jogging and

There are four main housing types offered in the golf course

bicycling on an expansive trail system and access to a nearby 18 hole

communities. Small, medium and large single family lots together with

golf courses.

multi-family condominium units offer a range of housing options that respond to different markets of home buyers. Each housing unit is sited with unique amenities so that every resident can take advantage of features that cater to his or her specific needs. The two golf communities total 2,120 residential units. Near the golf communities are commercial sub-centers, one to the west and the other to the east. These will provide retail for residents as well as some restaurants and cafĂŠs.

Golf Course Community, Forest Village and East Village Sub-Center



Second Life Community To the northeast of the Town Center is a Second Life Community, containing multi-family housing, single-family lots and public spaces to encourage interaction amongst the residents. The Town Center will be easily accessible to residents of this community, so that they can take advantage of its conveniences and attend myriad events and performances at its theaters and galleries. Though catering to the specific needs of retirees, who will likely require high-quality health care at the nearby regional hospital, the Second Life Community will be a hub of activity. Opportunities to interface with the Creative Industry Center will be available, allowing these more experienced members of the Angkor Airport City community to participate in the development of this new economic driver. Second Life Community


Cedar Crest - WRT project

Senior living community




Airport Plaza Complex As the entrance of the new airport, the Airport Plaza Complex will be the first part of Angkor Airport City to greet arriving passengers. This area will feature two airport hotels, an office building and the initial offices the Center for AIFACC, the creative industry headquarters. Retail along the central portion of the complex will include traditional and contemporary Cambodian arts and crafts, as well as some dining options that differ from those available in the airport. A water feature, to be fed by runoff collected from the airport, will make the commercial zone attractive and unique. Also, people will be able to conveniently travel from the complex to the nearby outlet mall in the Economic Development Zone via a waterway.

Airport Plaza Complex

View of Airport Plaza Complex



View of the Economic Development Zone



Economic Development Zone The new airport will be an important Cambodian gateway to the global economy. While initial service will be mainly passenger planes, large, modern passenger aircraft also have substantial freight capacity, which will be more efficiently utilized if the area near the airport becomes a location for importing and exporting freight. The Economic Development Zone proposed in the master plan will be a location for freight forwarding and will help bring value-added manufacturing, and later, business parks supporting research and development, to Cambodia’s economy, which right now is heavily dependent on tourism for foreign exchange. The Economic Development Zone itself is modeled on business parks in Singapore and the Hshinchu Science-Based Industrial Park in Taiwan. Prime, high-visibility sites for major companies are located along the Airport Access Boulevard. There are over 200 hectares set aside for mixed light-industrial uses, 192 hectares for airport related uses such as freight forwarding and an additional series of high-visibility locations located along a street that connects the airport district with the Town Center comprising 99 hectares.

Model Village Learning from the Jurong Town Corporation’s experience in Singapore, which found that large single-use industrial districts created problems for recruiting workers, the Economic Development Zone includes a 132 hectare district for model villages, schools and support retail as well as a direct connection to the mix of residential, retail and tourist activities in the Town Center. This area, which offers an affordable housing option for about 20 percent of Angkor Airport City’s employees, will have about 4,800 units. Altogether the Economic Development Zone comprises approximately 750 hectares.



beauty uncommon




UNIQUE drama




skill evolving



“The creative is the place where no one else has ever been. You have to leave the city of your comfort and go into the wilderness of your intuition. What you’ll discover will be wonderful.” – Alan Alda


research sustainability






Creative City

tive Industry

Educat ion

tive Resear c


a re

ive eat Cr





Creating a New Opportunity Major



level economic growth desired by the RGC.

including roads, water and electricity, will

Diversification will help Cambodia

necessarily accompany the construction of the

create employment for its citizens and attain

new Siem Reap airport, making land adjacent to

the goals presented in the RGC’s Rectangular

the airport ideal for development. Developing

Strategy addressing Private Sector Development

near the airport maximizes the use of this initial

and Employment Generation and Capacity

investment in new infrastructure and also offers

Building and Human Resource Development.

an opportunity for businesses to use the extra

Value-added industries and other businesses

cargo capacity of passenger planes. Siem Reap

will benefit from the convenient location near

Province, despite the popularity of Angkor Wat

an international airport for shipping and ease

and other archaeological sites near Siem Reap

of access. While these components of Angkor

City, ranks as the second most impoverished

Airport City’s Economic Development Zone will

province in Cambodia. Because tourism is

do much to assist Cambodia’s economy, a more

vulnerable to seasonal fluctuations, natural

innovative approach that works in conjunction

disasters, economic downturns and illness-

with these conventional methods can further

related crises, it will not be able provide the

advance the effort.

Performing Arts



Fashion Design


Share of economic groups in world exports of creative goods (sectors strongly representated by developing countries are highlighted)

evolves based on creative assets that can generate economic growth and development.

fosters income generation, job creation and export earnings while promoting social inclusion, cultural diversity and human development.

embraces economic, cultural and social aspects which incorporate technology, intellectual property and tourism objectives.

consists of knowledge-based economic activities that work at both macro and micro levels in the overall economy.

calls for innovative multidisciplinary policy responses and interministerial action.

centers upon the creative industries. From UNCTAD, Creative Economy Report 2008






Basket weaving

Music and crafting instruments




Silk crafts


A New Vision for Cambodia New Trends: Creative Economy, Creative City, Creative Industry industries, etc.

Based on Cambodia’s existing cultural

due to advances in computer technology. The

heritage and resources, both human and

creative sector, however, has not been fully

However, with launching Angkor Airport

natural, it has the potential to develop a core

developed yet and represents a growth area

City in 2015, demand for a combination of arts

engine to activate a new central industry

possible for all countries. There are ethical,

and culture, ecology, agriculture and tourism

appropriate for the knowledge-based creative

social and cultural implications associated

is expected to increase. This calls for a change

and cultural economy of the twenty first century.

with technological advancement as it involves

of a point of view towards culture, industry,

This effort will be assisted by establishment of

developing systems and products that replicate

knowledge and economy.

a new city that will attract massive investment

and alter the functions of nature and people

from foreign countries and connecting it with

through genetic engineering and robotics.

domestic industries.

Progress in creativity, in contrast, does not

Growth of developed countries in the

pose as many risks and has the added potential

twenty first century is expected to occur in two

for being a more sustainable approach, yet a

areas – advanced scientific and technological

practical method for its activation is nearly

innovation (genetics, nanotechnology and

absent. In terms of arts and culture, most of

robotics [GNR] revolution) and cultural and

people adhere to traditional twentieth century

artistic creativity. Progress in the science and

strategies for popularizing existing culture and

technological fields is rapidly accelerating

art creation, activation of cultural and tourism



Developing Creative Industries at Angkor Airport City While Siem Reap City is expected to rely

Airport City will be a lively, exciting place to live

new airport in the first phases of development;

upon tourism as its economic base because of

and work that will also be a regional tourism

later, a larger building will function as the

the proximity of Angkor Wat, Angkor Airport

hub. The creative industries are envisioned as

creative industry base in the Town Center.

City will look towards the future of Cambodia’s

an important economic

development. The creative economy represent


an alternative strategy for addressing the

that will contribute to

country’s urgent economic needs. Instead of

alleviating the extreme

following the standard model for developing

poverty in Siem Reap

economies, which are labor-intensive and


resource-based, the creative industries foster






and augment existing talents of Cambodians

economy, Cambodians can


reduce their dependence





educational opportunities. Investment, both


private and public, in this sector will contribute

develop new skills to

to greater self-sufficiency for the country and


improve the livelihoods of its people.

preserve and celebrate

This economic driver has the potential to






income; heritage

create a dynamic center within Angkor Airport

while also adapting to

City that spurs investment and development,

new technologies; and

benefitting the larger region while also giving


the new city a unique identity. The diversity


of jobs in a well-connected, world class


environment will attract talent from throughout

are usually marginalized

Cambodia and the world. As a result, Angkor

in traditional economies.






This effort is an important


use creativity and intellectual capital.

generate revenue from trade and intellectual property rights.

produce tangible products and intangible intellectual or artistic services.

lie at the intersection among the artisan, services and industrial sectors.

constitute a new dynamic sector in world trade. From UNCTAD, Creative Economy Report 2008





Evolution of creative industries (adapted from UNCTAD)


that will provide many benefits to society

In order for the creative industries to

and help Cambodia develop in the most

achieve a firm footing in Cambodia, they will

sustainable manner – socially, economically

require an individual or group of individuals

and environmentally – possible. At


with strong international ties to the creative

Airport City, the creative industries will begin

community who can help to attract the

with a few key organizations and institutions

necessary interest and investment to support

that will provide the impetus for further growth

further development. Established professionals

of the industry. The Center for AIFACC (Angkor

in artistic fields who could act as patrons and

International Foundation for Arts, Creativity

spokespeople for the initiative would do much

and Cultural Heritage) will serve as the creative

to raise its, and Angkor Airport City’s, profile.



Also critical to the endeavor is education. The

establishing, coordinating and disseminating

creative industries are knowledge intensive,

the concept. Its initial location will be near the

necessitating specific skills and high-level





incremental. The creative industry center at

phases, the addition of an arts institute, linked

a prominent supporter will give the creative

Angkor Airport City will serve as an incubator

to an internationally based school, will help

industries its starting momentum, Cambodians

for this new economic driver, allowing it

to increase the variety of creative industries,

will require high-quality schools and higher

to take many different forms as it gains

which may include architecture, archaeology,

education facilities so that they have a strong

momentum. Its initial stages are anticipated


foundation with which to continue developing

to be focused on expanding and enhancing

Eventually, Cambodia will be able to support

the effort on their own.

extant Cambodia creative skills, such as fashion

more technology-intensive disciplines such as

design, handicrafts and performing arts. In later

film, publishing and interactive games.

qualifications of their workforce.

Growth of the creative industries will be





Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) Analysis STRENGTHS


• • • •

• • • •

Tourism resources with high potential Abundant natural resources High potential in human resources Low wages and the government’s strong motivation for new development

Vulnerability of industrial infrastructure Lack of experts Severe unemployment due to underdevelopment Unpleasantly hot and humid climate


1. Unreliability of mid and long-term plans due to international economic conditions --> Create a detailed and flexible master plan


Rising interests in developing a new tourism area due to saturation of existing tourism in worldwide Increase of interests in the effect of connecting ecology, culture and tourism


• •

2. Extreme poverty of Cambodia and lack

Unpredictable investment environment due to global economic crisis Remnant of negative image of Cambodia Possible conflicts with NGOs

of worldwide recognition --> Resolve by hosting international cultural events 3. Involvement of over 1,000 active domestic

unemployment, particularly among the

and international NGOs in Cambodia

1. Cambodia possesses an incredible wealth

younger demographic. The government

--> Coexistence and partnerships with

of cultural heritage with Angkor Wat

also is highly motivated to attract new

grassroots movements

and surrounding structures – these are



remnants from a middle age Eastern Asian culture combined with Indo-Aryan culture.

Taking the above into consideration, there Weaknesses and

Especially in more advanced countries, such

gained greater recognition and since

infrastructure --> Resolve by building AAC

disadvantages can be mitigated through the

the mid-1990s, it has drawn increasing

2. Need for educated experts --> Resolve

promotion of adventure tourism. Challenges

numbers of tourists. This trend is expected

gradually by operating schools of creative


to continue.


transportation can become selling points for

Due to its uniqueness, Angkor Wat has

1. Insufficient

are more advantages than disadvantages. modern





2. Current industries of Cambodia include

3. Unpleasantly hot and humid climate -->

those interested in travelling off the beaten

agriculture and arts and crafts, particularly

Resolve by establishing a new program

path. For middle-class Europeans and residents

needlework, and travel services, allowing

suitable for both the dry and rainy seasons

of Northeast Asia, there is also a rapidly

its traditions and culture to be preserved. In the case of human resources, there is a high potential of continuing and developing handicraft techniques of former industry generation. 3. It has low wages and a high rate of

expanding interest in Second Life communities Opportunities 1. Rising interests in a new area due to saturation of existing tourist destinations 2. Increasing interests in connecting ecology,

that include ecological and cultural aspects that improve life quality, in contrast to those communities in the industrialized nations that offer more meager experiences.

culture and tourism



Angkor Airport City as a Creative City industrial,

to a strategy that aims to create a synergistic

that will eventually influence the character of

educational and cultural infrastructure as well

effect between all three using a positive feed-

the entire city.

as experts in Cambodia, in order to equip

back loop. In 1920s, the Bauhaus, using such

Additionally, because Angkor Airport City

Angkor Airport City with a new economic driver

a system, was highly successful despite outside

has relatively low land costs as compared to

that will become the core of the new creative


similar new city projects in Asia, it presents






economy of Cambodia, it must provide new

Since the Angkor Airport City project

an opportunity to develop a residential model

contents and services essential for the global

began as a by-product of the need to relocate

that features a lifestyle incorporating the new

knowledge-based, culture economy of the

Siem Reap’s airport to protect remnants of the

concept. In Europe, Japan and South Korea,

twenty first century. The absence of established

ancient Khmer cultural heritage, preservation

some people reaching retirement age are

Creative Research

Advance research system for the creative synergy of cultural heritage-arts-science and technology

Creative Education

A new educational system based on the Bauhaus approach bringing together traditional handicrafts (19th century) – modern art (20th century) – digital technology (21st century)

Creative Industry

Reconstructed creative industry with modernized traditional crafts, textiles, arts, performance, etc. based on traditional models

Creative City

Augment creativity of the entire city through cultural education of the Second Life and local residents

Creative Economy

Develop a new model of the creative industry for Eastern Asia and the future economy of Cambodia Angkor



ERB Virtuous Cycle

educational and industrial systems can be used



seeking an affordable alternative to the high

to the project’s advantage by moving beyond

globalization of its cultural traditions comprise

costs of living in their home countries. By

traditional development models. Developed

the core identity of this creative city. Thus, it

establishing a residential complex equipped

countries, such as Japan and South Korea, have

is differentiated from other future-oriented

with a new cultural education program that

spent vast sums of money and time to overcome

creative cities. Angkor Airport City’s goal is to

can connect Second Life communities with

internal obstacles in an effort to update their

creatively combine aspects of the past – the

Khmer heritage and the natural environment

entrenched education and industrial systems.

great heritage of 7th -14th century – with

of Cambodia, Angkor Airport City will be a

Angkor Airport City has the rare opportunity

those of the future – digital technology.

model for a new creative city that also fulfills

to begin with a tabula rasa, which is how the

Given this context, in order to form the

the needs of its older population. For such

United States overtook Europe to become a

identity of Angkor Airport City, a center for

reasons, Angkor Airport City is envisioned to

leader in innovation and invention.

creative research dedicated to studying and

have three different hubs of activity that will

Development of the creative city requires

developing a model for the combination of the

all contribute to forming its unique identity –

successively more complex levels of effort

Middle Age, Modern Age and the advanced

Creative Arts and Science Center / University

and investment, each laying the groundwork

culture of future needs to be established.

of Creative Industry and Arts, Creative Industry

upon which the next will be built. Rather than

Simultaneously, taking this concept as its point

Complex and Second Life Village.

having research, education and industry act as

of departure, the ERB model will be used to

separate systems, the ERB virtuous cycle refers

determine the course of the creative industries


AIFACC – Making the Vision a Reality The Role of AIFACC

Premise Realizing the vision for the Creative

The coordinator, which will represent the

government and various NGOs in Cambodia

Research and Education - Creative Industry

interests of different stakeholders, such as the

to organize and establish the Creative ERB

– Second Life Creative City will require effort

government, grass-roots groups, businesses

System, a complex network of hardware,

on multiple levels. Challenges include a lack

and investors, should be an international

software, contents ware and human ware,

of infrastructure and capital, international

public foundation rather than a temporary

which will act as the new economic engine for

experts and the absence of the people seeking

committee or enterprise. As a permanent

Angkor Airport City and, eventually, for the

this new life style that will be the core of city

public organization, it will be able to provide

entire country.

development in Cambodia. Thus, the priority

consistent direction to the effort over the long








Coordinator (AIFACC)


establishing mid and long term plans, which

Cambodia as Creative Industry Leader




Excellent Integrity


Fine Handicraft Skills

be achieved quickly. The process will require



Abundant Potential

t en


Unique Cultural Heritage



Cambodia Strengths

Gov er n

ambitious undertaking, these goals will not De v




Diagram illustrating role of AIFACC as creative industry coordinator

will include the vision and mission for a term of approximately 10 to 20 years. These will need to be adjusted as the project evolves over the years to incorporate new research and input from workshops and forums, which will bring together experts in every field. Additionally, a clear action plan will be crucial for the successful

will be to find a strategy for overcoming such

term, which will be critical for its success. It

implementation of the vision as appropriate,

deficiencies and provide an engine that will

will capitalize on the international publicity

depending on domestic and international

build and support the new city.

of the Angkor Wat World Heritage Site,

economic conditions, the investment climate

Conditions are hospitable for initiating

assigned by UNESCO, and its focus will be

and the RGC’s capacity to provide assistance.

this new economic driver in Cambodia. The

to make the new city profitable. In order to

RGC is highly motivated to reduce poverty and

accomplish this, it must enlist the cooperation

investors are interested in promising mid- and

of various international organizations to attract

long-term investment plans. Yet, to develop a

participants and overcome obstacles.

new creative city and creative industry, along

This international foundation will be named

with such macroscopic plans, a strong corporate

AIFACC (Angkor International Foundation

body including grass-roots civil activity and

for Arts, Creativity & Cultural Heritage), a

creative business activity at a microscopic

broad designation designed to include myriad

level will be necessary. There is a need for a

disciplines. It will consist of domestic and

coordinator to create a single corporate entity

international experts with a wide variety of

that works to strengthen the existing elements

abilities and strong potential for spearheading

and mitigate weaknesses.

the initiative. They will work with the

AIFACC’s role will be to •

research demands and variables of the Greater Angkor Region (GAR).

create a model for the economic development of Angkor Airport City.

synthesize interests of major stakeholders to achieve city development goals.

act as a rudder to guide the progress of the ERB (Education-Research-Business) Complex, the heart of creative industry at Angkor Airport City.



Building to Support the Creative Industries The Creative Industry Center of Angkor AIFACC Plaza Complex (Tourism & Creative Industry Experience)

Airport City is a complex of creative industries, schools and institutes that will complement


and help support the businesses located in

Education, Research & CI Incubator

both the Town Center and Business Park. Near

CI Manufacturing

the convention center will be the headquarters for the creative industries, the Center for AIFACC (Angkor International Foundation for

Town Center

Arts, Creativity and Cultural Heritage), the

Model Village

coordinating body for the initiative. Workshops and studios invite people to visit artists and watch as they make their arts and crafts. An art institute, a branch of an established worldwide institute, will offer students a variety of artsoriented coursework. Areas of study include fashion design, textiles, painting, jewelry design, metal work, music and ceramics.

Recreation (Water Park & Golf Course)

Research is also an important component of this

Connection with Business Parks

center. Angkor Airport City is near a number of other ancient temple sites, which receive far less attention than those at Angkor Wat. Thus, there may be archaeological research facilities that could contribute to a greater understanding of historic Khmer culture. In order to promote entrepreneurship, a

Creative Industry (CI) and interrelationships with other major project elements

business development center will provide the necessary support and assistance. All of the elements of the creative industry center are envisioned as tools for facilitating Cambodian


Folk village and botanical garden

Art institute

Arts and crafts manufacturing facilities

Fashion shows

Artists’ studios and workshops

Training facilities

housing complexes, including a small Second

Performing arts venues

R & D center

Life Community. While outside of the Town

Museums and art galleries

Business development center

Historic restoration

Web design and marketing

Archaeological studies

Arts-themed residential communities

economic growth and independence while also attracting investors and businesses to Angkor Airport City. Also in this area are multi-family

Center proper, these residences are close to its conveniences and have the added benefit of a beautiful lakeside setting.



Streamside Residential Community Creative Industry Plaza Cultural Center & Conservatory Center for AIFACC Art institute

Botanical Garden and Folk Village Art Institute (CI Education and Incubator) Artists’ Workshops Artists’ Studios Research and Development Center

Artist's workshop

Cana in the folk village Lakeside Residential Community Manufacturing Facilities

Folk village in botanical garden

Cultural festival

Art fair

Canal in the folk village



Experiencing the Creative City In conjunction with the Town Center, the Creative Industry Center will bring to Angkor

aspects of traditional Khmer culture. Together,

access to water sources for rice cultivation.

these elements, along with the recreational opportunities, resorts and natural environment,

Airport City a unique destination that will

The Town Center will act as the major

be a magnet for tourists, entrepreneurs and

retail and institutional component for the


residents. As a new development, the project

creative industries with galleries, the folk

experience to visitors and residents.

aims to combine elements of both contemporary

village, museums and other arts-oriented

and traditional Cambodian design. The Town

shops. Education, research and manufacturing

Center west of the lake will have a distinctive

will be based in the Creative Industry Center

urban character, surrounded by a moat and

where visitors will see the creative economy

organized on a grid with tree-lined streets

at work and engage with Cambodian artists

punctuated by a variety of small parks, a design

and artisans. The built environment of these

inspired by the form of Angkor Wat. Across the

core areas will be of critical importance.

lake, the design for the botanical garden and

Street furniture, lighting, paving, planting and

folk village will be akin to that of traditional

building design will reinforce the message of

Cambodian villages. These villages are located

sustainability, entertainment, innovation and

and organized in such a way as to provide

creativity while also incorporating and adapting

Activities in the Town Center


maximal microclimatic benefits and convenient




Arts District in the Town Center



View of Town center and Creative Industry Center

View from Promenade in the Town Center towards Creative Industry Center across Lake



Brand Identity Strategy The long-term goals for Angkor Airport City are founded on four pillars that will be incorporated into the brand identity concepts. These include: becoming a tourism hub for ASEAN, developing an ASEAN center for Creative Industry, acting as an agricultural innovation test bed, and providing infrastructure to support the region.

These pillars will

ultimately help to achieve the development vision of becoming ‘The new economic engine

Four Pillars for brand identity Concepts

of Cambodia.’

Process to draw brand essence

Forming of brand essence

Forming a brand identity The brand identity, Creating Wonders, was forged through the operations illustrated above of strengthening, adding, and weakening. Brand Identity: Creating Wonders This brand identity illustrates a city that engenders invigorating wonders by reflecting on the remarkable Angkor heritage. Through the city’s dynamic nature, the heritage will be reinterpreted in a creative way for a unique and exciting experience. A possible slogan to create a vivid impression of the city could be: The City of Live Wonders

Images of brand identity: Creating Wonders



. Brand Proposition For the three groups of target customers of the city—tourists, business people, and residents—the essence of this brand identity is enhanced to encompass three propositions: wonderful experience for tourists, wonderful opportunity





people, and wonderful life for residents. The Communication Wheel pictured to the right further subdivides these propositions.

Brand proposition

Brand communication wheel

Image of wonderful experience

Image of wonderful opportunity

Image of wonderful life



Brand Communication Strategy Angkor Airport City will express its creative identity from its largest to smallest aspect so that its core concepts are reflected at all levels. Site furnishings, public art and landscape features will all contribute to making this


Furnishings, fountain points

creative city an exciting, fun place to explore.


Functional lighting, decoration lighting

Sustainable materials will be used as much as


Vending machine, street stand


Sign, phone booth, mailbox, kiosk


Bus stop, taxi stop, guard rail


Planting, fountain, paving, sculpture

possible and elements of Khmer culture will pervade the development to provide it with a distinctive sense of place. These materials will also need to be extremely durable to withstand the Cambodian climate, easily maintainable and economical. The following are examples of furniture, lighting and other elements that have been used in other cities as part of their brand communication strategy. WATER

REST • •

Matches the landscape and feels convenient to users. Expresses heritage with its materials and patterns.

New York

Image of Angkor heritage


Shanghai Pudong Zhangjiang Hi-tech Park

Provides information on trekking in the front.

Provides information to users and design for accessibility.

Sweden Kalmar Main Town Square

Berlin Trash Receptacle

London Trash Receptacle


LIGHTING • Environmentally-friendly and economic with use of LED and solar cells • Creative and sculptural while also inspired by cultural heritage

Vienna Solar Trees

LED Fixtures

SALES • Fun, playful elements • Sustainable materials

Award-winning furniture by Pendlewood

INFORMATION • Highly visible and entertaining • Reminiscent of the city’s heritage


Hong Kong Kensington

New York Information Kiosk

London Information Kiosk

Dubai Bus Stop

Metropolitan TriBeCa

TRANSIT • Consider fun factor when used. • Economic in installation and operation.

Curitiba Bus Stop

Brazil Bike Park

LANDSCAPE • Creative, fun design • Incorporates Khmer patterns and art Note: Images as well as brand communication strategy were provided by Moravian Basel Consulting Group. Specific furnishings and fixtures are not intended to be used for the Angkor Airport City project. Manhole, Heyri, Paju, Korea

Paving - Rio de Janeiro sidewalk

Public art - Singapore





Designing a Model for Sustainable Development in Cambodia As part of its efforts to be a groundbreaking project in Cambodia, Angkor Airport City is envisioned to be not only an important economic driver in the Siem Reap region but also an model for innovative, sustainable development. Increased awareness of the consequences of people’s actions on the global climate provides the impetus for minimizing Angkor Airport City’s impact on the environment. Cambodia’s underdevelopment and weak economy are rightly the focus of current government efforts, but sustainable development should form the backbone of the RGC’s long-term strategy. By developing according to sustainable principles, Cambodia will have the opportunity to avoid many of the costly mistakes made by

Sustainable Forest and Agricultural Management Integrated management of land, water, forest and agricultural fields should maintain and enhance biodiversity, productivity and regenerative capacity. Sustainable agriculture replenishes the soil, limits fertilizer use, uses agricultural wastes and protects water resources.

developed countries during the course of their own advancement, the most notable of which is the dependence upon non-renewable energy sources. The following sections present various strategies for curtailing use of fossil fuels, improving and protecting the site’s existing natural resources and limiting depletion of groundwater while also providing residents and visitors with a unique world-class experience.

Sustainable Design Principles


Reduce energy demand

Limit carbon emissions

Promote sustainable agricultural practices

Increase renewable energy use

Collect and reuse stormwater and greywater for irrigation and water features

Protect and recharge groundwater supplies

Improve and enhance biodiversity

Plant native or adapted species

Preserve and maintain native soils

Build using local materials

Habitat Restoration and Creation Wetlands at the edges of water bodies improve water quality, create important wildlife habitat and offer recreational and educational opportunities. Reforestation will increase carbon sequestration capacity and provide possible corridor connections to other forested areas.

Sewage Treatment Wetland Partially cleaned sewage will flow from the treatment plant into the wetlands, which will absorb pollutants and cleanse the water. The treated water will then be returned into the existing stream system.

Greywater Reuse for Golf Course Irrigation Greywater from the golf course communities will be collected, treated and reused for golf course irrigation. Treatment will include a dechlorination system and an oxidation system to ensure proper chemical and organic matter balance.

Renewable Energy Solar water heaters will reduce residential energy demand and photovoltaic arrays on houses will help augment residents’ energy supply.

Alternative Transportation Electric motor vehicles will allow residents and visitors to easily move throughout the development without producing harmful emissions or using fossil fuels. A project-wide bike path will connect communities to the Town Center and Economic Development Zone.



Sustainable Landscape Design Angkor Airport City’s landscape design is driven by the site’s

Reforestation of the northeast portion of the site will restore some of

existing topography and hydrological systems. As much as possible,

its original landscape character. Expanding the forest cover can help form

the project seeks to minimize site disturbance, thus lowering

continuous habitat corridors, which could connect beyond the property to

construction costs and reducing development impact. Where fill is

Phnom Kulen National Park and potentially other protected areas in the

needed, as is the case for building the 3.5 km airport runways, cut

Province and beyond. To protect trees from being cut down and used for

from the excavation for the water system will be used. The master plan

firewood or sold for lumber, partnerships with local organizations will be

proposes reforesting upland areas of each watershed and the retention

necessary, and these efforts need to extend beyond the site boundaries.

of water all year through the construction of dams to create reservoirs

It will be critical to engage local participation and acceptance in the tree

and lakes. Water retention will permit year-round rice cultivation in

planting effort, which will allow the trees to become established before the

low-lying areas, helping to increase productivity. Additionally, areas

planned areas are fully developed and can be effectively policed.

within the project dedicated to agriculture in the early phases will help

Increasing tree cover not only provides habitat for wildlife, it also

to diversify Cambodian agricultural products, an effort that will assist

prevents soil erosion and landslides and improves soil permeability, allowing

local farmers to generate more income and eventually contribute to

for greater groundwater recharge. In a much larger context, the loss of

making the country more self-sufficient.

forest cover may result in changes to precipitation patterns; deforestation

Only native or adapted trees, shrubs and grasses will be used

in the Amazon River basin has been shown to increase the region’s dry

for the whole development, including the golf courses. On the main

season. Additionally, trees are an important carbon sink, absorbing carbon

boulevards and streets of the Town Center, street trees will provide

dioxide so that it cannot add to the burgeoning quantity already adversely

shade and create a distinct sense of space. It will be surrounded

affecting the world’s climate.

by a moat, a traditional design strategy in Cambodia that helps to

While forests are generally the most prominent feature in the

mitigate effects of the hot climate. Abundant vegetation will also

landscape, wetlands are another vital habitat type that provide important

help to reduce the intensity of the heat, especially during the dry

ecological services. They host a wide variety of flora and fauna and are

season. Preserving a significant amount of open space will create a

some of the most productive habitats in the world. Creating wetlands

lush landscape for visitors and residents to enjoy while also facilitating

along the lake and reservoir edges will both increase the site’s biodiversity

groundwater recharge.

and add scenic/recreational value. Attractive, ecologically-beneficial, diverse and creative landscape vocabularies for the streetscapes, parks, hotels and residential communities will all serve to enhance the Cambodian landscape experience.

Examples of Sustainable Landscape



Existing forested areas of Angkor Airport City and surrounds

Recommended reforestation plan

Cambodia has lost around 20 percent of its forest cover since 1990. Illegal logging and agricultural practices continue this downward trend. Deforestation in Cambodia



Sustainable Building Design Reducing the demand for electricity and water are two important

Sustainable Wastewater Management Sustainable water management strategies center on integrating

factors that will go a long way towards making Angkor Airport City a

water supply, stormwater management and wastewater management

sustainable development. Buildings should be designed so that they

functions. Water resources exists within a closed system, the hydrologic

are oriented to minimize the need for air-conditioning through the use

cycle, including water supply, stormwater and wastewater. The project

of roof overhangs to protect from direct sunlight, enhanced natural

should incorporate integrated water resource management strategies

ventilation and roof-water or gray-water pools around buildings that

and its component parts – the decentralized concept of “waste� water

will provide microclimatic benefits. Photovoltaic arrays can be used

management, low-impact development stormwater management

to power hot-water heaters for all individual houses and apartments.

and using rainwater harvesting as water supply. Decentralization of

This is an established technology widely used throughout Southeast

wastewater management will work well with the phased development

Asia. Though renewable energy sources alone will not be able to meet

of the Angkor Airport City project. It may also be more fiscally and

the needs of residents, individual residences can still harness solar

environmentally responsible than conventional practices because decentralization involves many small treatment centers in the place of a few large facilities. In this system, wastewater will first be treated and then reused, where practical, as close as possible to its source to eliminate the need for a costly pipe network that does little but move pollution from one place to another. This readily lends itself to a management system focused on maximizing reuse potential, thus reducing stress on regional water resources as the population of this area continues to grow. The residential community can be developed with an array of dispersed small treatment centers supplying irrigation water, toilet flushing and other non-potable demands. Highly stable biofiltration plants will

Sustainable building concept section

receive the flow, moving by gravity via an effluent sewer system, from

energy to help offset some of the demand. New types of photovoltaic systems exist that can blend with the design of roofs so that they are unobtrusive. Sustainable practice also entails maintaining the level of the groundwater table. All buildings should collect and store rainwater in cisterns or other storage systems for reuse. Greywater from sinks, showers and bath tubs can easily be treated so that it may be used for irrigation and for flushing toilets. Blackwater from toilets will require tertiary sewage treatment in the form of separate decentralized wastewater management facilities which use natural systems, which is discussed in the following section. In order to re-use graywater, all buildings will need to have pipe systems that can deliver potable water while also separating gray and black wastewater. The initial cost of these additional pipes will be more than conventional plumbing, but the investment will pay off in much lower overall water usage. 78

Integrated wastewater management system diagram


mains, usually more than making up for the cost of septic tanks that enable the use of effluent sewers. Because of these reduced costs, resources can be redirected to appropriate treatment and reuse opportunities. Reuse of reclaimed water can deliver added fiscal benefits, both to the individual user and to the community, by displacing potable water demands. Maintenance costs of decentralized systems are also lower. Little infiltration and inflow will enter effluent sewer systems, decreasing collection system maintenance costs and peak loading at plants, perhaps allowing some components to be downsized. Since these sewers do not carry solids, View of golf community using integrated water management system

sewer maintenance is also essentially eliminated.

all users. The treated water will help to fulfill the irrigation needs of golf courses, agricultural land and reforested areas. If no local reuse opportunity is available to utilize this reclaimed water, the effluent may be piped to a point for reuse or discharged into existing streams. Environmental Benefits Decentralized systems cause less environmental disturbance because their smaller collection system pipes are installed at shallow depths and have greater routing flexibility. They do not require large interceptor mains, which typically run in creek bottoms, avoiding disturbance of riparian environments. To expand capacity, new treatment centers will be built instead of routing increased flow to existing centers, a process that would require upgrading existing lines and further site disturbance. Reuse of effluent from this system reduces the demand on potable water, which will be drawn from either groundwater or the reservoirs. During the rainy season, irrigation needs will likely be minimal, but during the dry season, all potential sources of water will be required. Additionally, with smaller outflows, the decentralized approach will result in less of an impact upon the existing stream system, preserving healthy downstream channel morphology. Financial Benefits The major fiscal advantage of a decentralized system comes from eliminating much of the collection system infrastructure. Typically, most of the money budgeted for a conventional system is spent merely conveying wastewater from one point to another. In a decentralized system, no large interceptor mains and few, if any, lift stations are needed. The collection system that remains, employing small-diameter effluent sewers, will be less costly to install than conventional collector

Example plan of decentralized wastewater management in golf community




Development Parcels The site plan is divided into 15 development parcels, ten of which are the residential communities, including the Town Center, and the remaining five of which comprise the Economic Development Zone. The parcel boundaries were determined primarily by using the road system and existing streams. Each parcel has an assigned program that will be phased to meet market demand. Individual components are sited depending on space requirements, amenities and proximity to major roads.




83 0



2.0 km


Phasing Strategy Angkor Airport City will be developed in phases over a period of at

Development of both the economic development zone and the resort city will proceed simultaneously and independently, thus

least twenty-five years. The phasing plan is based on several principles.

assuring a balanced development program that will optimize •

economic return.

The phasing plan should be related to market demand for tourism, new housing and other program elements, based on

In general, development will proceed from south to north. This will allow the orderly phasing of infrastructure (roads and

The phasing plan should be based on the efficient, orderly and

utilities) and is responsive to the projected market demand for

timely provision of site infrastructure, including site access

hotels (to be located primarily adjacent to the town center and

and the internal road network, utilities (potable water, sanitary

the airport) versus the later demand for market-rate housing in

sewage, power) and the system of reservoirs and lakes.

the northern part of the site.

Minimizing the up-front costs associated with infrastructure is

the market analysis.

The water system of reservoirs and lakes will be constructed in

an important objective.

phases and is a determinant in the phasing of the residential

Each phase should provide a sense of completion.

areas of the site. The first major portion to be constructed will be on the west side, which includes the Resort Lake, associated

New communities, particularly those in undeveloped areas, face a dilemma, which is how to provide needed services, such as shopping, before there is sufficient on-site population to support these services.

reservoirs and the channel that will supply the Town Center Lake. The east side will be established at a later phase when there is projected demand for housing in that area.

This is problematic because services and amenities are needed to attract residents and others to locate on the site. In such cases, the

Five phases of development are planned for Angkor Airport City. The

developer must either wait for the population to grow in order to

new Siem Reap International Airport is scheduled to open in 2013;

support the services or, alternatively, these services must be subsidized

Phase One will be completed at the same time, with subsequent

in the early phases of development. In contrast, Angkor Airport City

phases to follow in five year increments as follows:

will benefit from its relationship to the new international airport, allowing the new city to capitalize on the presence of international

Phase One:


tourists and their needs for hotel rooms and other facilities from the

Phase Two:


Phase Three:


Phase Four:


Phase Five:

post 2028

earliest phase of development. In turn, these activities and services can help attract new residents and employers to the site.

The key concepts of the phasing plan for Angkor Airport City are as follows: •

The initial phase of development is located adjacent to the airport and the airport access boulevard to take advantage of the infrastructure needed to construct the airport and create an attractive setting for arriving air passengers, as well as to maximize the visual impact of this phase from the airport access boulevard.





Phase One – 2013 Initial construction on the site will include the new international airport

The following are the components included in Phase One:

(runway, terminal and support facilities) and related infrastructure including the temporary construction workforce housing, the new airport access road connecting to National Road 6 and site utilities.

• •

Phase One of Angkor Airport City is designed to build upon this base of new construction in order to maximize initial financial returns from this investment. This will be accomplished by providing facilities that

can capitalize on the presence of the airport, which will bring to the site an estimated 2.8 million passengers annually. These passengers and the proximity of the site to the airport will result in an initial demand for hotel rooms, businesses and related tourist facilities.

• • •

Therefore the first phase of construction on the Angkor Airport City will include an airport hotel, an outlet shopping mall, an 18-hole golf course and related residential development, and the initial phase of a business park adjacent to the airport, as well as the first resort hotel and water park. This initial phase of development, including the resort hotel, golf course and business park, will be adjacent to the airport access boulevard, maximizing the visual exposure of the development to vehicles using the road to and from the airport and providing a

• • • • •

Airport Access Road & Extension to NR 6 Development of Parcels: - P-2 - P-4 - P-C9 New Hotels - One 250 room Airport Hotel - One 500 room Resort Hotel New Residential – 500 units One 18 Hole Golf Course Temporary Agricultural Uses: - Flower Farm - Rice Paddy - Horticulture - Silk Farm - Nursery A small self-contained water system Temporary Construction Workforce Community Airport Plaza Complex and Mini Creative Industry Outlet Mall Economic Development Zone

sense of completeness for this early phase of development. The first phase in the site’s water system will also be constructed, using runoff

PhaseOne 2013

from the airport and runway to supply the water feature at the Airport Plaza and the Angkor Water Resort Lake.

OVERVIEW TotalResidentialPlanningArea(approx.haͲoverlapping) ResidentialCommunities(includingT.C.Ͳoverlapping) GolfCourses Hotels HotelRooms RESIDENTIALPROGRAM LargeLots MediumLots SmallLots MultiͲFamilyUnits Townhouses VacationCondos VacationHomes SecondLifeHomes TotalResidentialUnits TotalEmployeeHousing NONRESIDENTIALPROGRAM Retail(sm) CreativeIndustries(sm) Office(sm) Industrial(sm)


 370  3 1.0  2  750

 Ͳ  25  155  320  Ͳ  Ͳ  Ͳ  500  739

 13,421  Ͳ  36,018  63,993




Phase Two – 2018 • •

• • • •

• • • •

Major Arterial Road (Town Center East West Axis) Development of Parcels: - P-C6 - P-C7 - P-C5 - P-C8 - P-C10 - P-1 - P-3 - P-2 New Hotels - Four Town Center Hotels (1,600 rooms) New Residential – 2,200 units One 18 Hole Golf Course Temporary Agricultural Uses: - Flower Farm - Rice Paddy - Horticulture - Silk Farm - Nursery System of western reservoirs that will be transformed into lakes Temporary Construction Workforce Community Town Center Lake and Town Center – Partial Development Economic Development Zone

OVERVIEW TotalResidentialPlanningArea(approx.haͲoverlapping) ResidentialCommunities(includingT.C.Ͳoverlapping) GolfCourses Hotels HotelRooms


PhaseTwo 2018

Cumulative Total

 600 4 1.0 5 1,750

na na 2.0 7 2,500

 190  940  300  550  220  Ͳ  Ͳ

RESIDENTIALPROGRAM LargeLots MediumLots SmallLots MultiͲFamilyUnits Townhouses VacationCondos VacationHomes SecondLifeHomes TotalResidentialUnits TotalEmployeeHousing

2,200  1,819

190 965 455 870 220 Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ 2,700 2,558

NONRESIDENTIALPROGRAM Retail(sm) CreativeIndustries(sm) Office(sm) Industrial(sm)

 7,244 13,752  8,869 313,438

20,665 13,752 44,887 377,431

Phase 2A - Establishment of the west water system




Phase Three – 2023 • •

• • •

• • • • • • •


Major Arterial Road (Town Center North South Axis) Development of Parcels: - P-C6 - P-C5 - P-C4 - P-C7 - P-C10 - P-5 - P-1 - P-3 - P-2 New Hotels - Two Town Center Hotels (700 rooms) - Two Lakeside Resort Hotels (700 rooms) - One Airport Hotel (250 rooms) New Residential – 2,050 units One 9 Hole Golf Course Temporary Agricultural Uses: - Flower Farm - Horticulture - Silk Farm - Nursery System of lakes and reservoirs Canal system connecting eastern water system to Town Center Lake Temporary Construction Workforce Community Town Center – Partial Development West Sub-Center Economic Development Zone Creative Industry Center

PhaseThree 2023 OVERVIEW TotalResidentialPlanningArea(approx.haͲoverlapping) ResidentialCommunities(includingT.C.Ͳoverlapping) GolfCourses Hotels HotelRooms

Cumulative Total

 500 na 4 na  0.5 2.5 4 11 1,720 4,220

RESIDENTIALPROGRAM LargeLots MediumLots SmallLots MultiͲFamilyUnits Townhouses VacationCondos VacationHomes SecondLifeHomes TotalResidentialUnits TotalEmployeeHousing

190 1,610 690 1,400 520 Ͳ 340 Ͳ 2,050 4,750 1,207 3,765

NONRESIDENTIALPROGRAM Retail(sm) CreativeIndustries(sm) Office(sm) Industrial(sm)

14,532 20,970 49,486  200,729

 Ͳ  645  235  530  300  Ͳ  340

35,197 34,722 94,373 578,160




Phase Four – 2028 •

• • • •

• • • • • •

Development of Parcels: - P-C3 - P-C9 - P-C4 - P-C10 - P-5 - P-1 - P-3 - P-2 New Hotels - Two Town Center Hotels (900 rooms) New Residential – 1,500 units One 18 Hole Golf Course Temporary Agricultural Uses: - Flower Farm - Silk Farm - Nursery System of eastern reservoirs to be transformed into lakes Temporary Construction Workforce Community Town Center – Complete Development Economic Development Zone Creative Industry Center Second Life Village

PhaseFour 2028 OVERVIEW TotalResidentialPlanningArea(approx.haͲoverlapping) ResidentialCommunities(includingT.C.Ͳoverlapping) GolfCourses Hotels HotelRooms

Cumulative Total

600 na  3 na 1.0 3.5  2 13 650 4,900

Phase 4A - Establishment of the east water system RESIDENTIALPROGRAM LargeLots MediumLots SmallLots MultiͲFamilyUnits Townhouses VacationCondos VacationHomes SecondLifeHomes TotalResidentialUnits TotalEmployeeHousing NONRESIDENTIALPROGRAM Retail(sm) CreativeIndustries(sm) Office(sm) Industrial(sm)


100 530 210 160

290 2,140 900 1,560 520 Ͳ 340 500 500  1,500 6,250  1,060 4,825

 8,522  26,150  26,564 229,909

43,719 60,872 120,937 808,069




Phase Five – Post-2028 • •

• • • • •

Major Arterial Connection to Route 66 Development of Parcels: - P-C3 - P-C2 - P-C1 - P-5 - P-1 - P-2 New Residential – 1,500 units A System of Eastern Lakes and Reservoirs Town Center – Complete Development Tax Free Enterprise Zone Industry and Manufacturing

OVERVIEW TotalResidentialPlanningArea(approx.haͲoverlapping) ResidentialCommunities(includingT.C.Ͳoverlapping) GolfCourses Hotels HotelRooms RESIDENTIALPROGRAM LargeLots MediumLots SmallLots MultiͲFamilyUnits Townhouses VacationCondos VacationHomes SecondLifeHomes TotalResidentialUnits TotalEmployeeHousing NONRESIDENTIALPROGRAM Retail(sm) CreativeIndustries(sm) Office(sm) Industrial(sm)


PhaseFive Post2028

Cumulative Total

 750 4  Ͳ  Ͳ Ͳ

4,040 9 3.5 13 4,900

 275  845  Ͳ  380  Ͳ  Ͳ  Ͳ  Ͳ 1,500

565 2,985 900 1,940 520 Ͳ 340 500 7,750 4,825

43,719 60,872 120,937 808,069






Development Strategy The first five years of development at Angkor Airport City is critical because it will be instrumental in setting the course for the rest of the development. The construction of a new international airport in a currently undeveloped area will cause a radical shift of activity in the Siem Reap region. With the potential to create a massive positive impact, it will be necessary to successfully execute this initial phase so as to exceed the expectations of the Cambodian people, the Royal Government of Cambodia and the visiting world. Implementation of the first phase will proceed in three different steps in order to generate the maximum financial return and also create a distinctive destination in the short term to attract investors that will support the rest of the development. The following is a description of each of these steps.

Step One Development

Step One: Construction of the airport, Airport Access Boulevard and major infrastructure. The first phase will begin with the construction of the New Siem Reap International Airport, the Airport Access Boulevard and main infrastructure facilities (sewage treatment plant, power plant, potable water system, etc.), all of which will be constructed simultaneously. Within the project boundary, the Airport Access Boulevard provides direct access to seven parcels. Each of these parcels will contribute its share, either financially or physically, to the construction of this major road and requisite infrastructure facilities. Costs for this infrastructure are factored into the pro forma of the individual parcels.

Phase One Development



Step Two Development

Step Three Construction

Step Two: Accommodate tourism-related development demand, minimizing water infrastructure costs.

Step Three: Develop land uses that are dependent on a complete first phase water infrastructure.

Throughout the development of the larger site and especially in the

The third step within the first phase is to develop land uses that

short term, the Airport Access Boulevard will serve as the major artery

depend upon the completion of first phase water infrastructure. These

of commercial traffic on the site, carrying mostly tourism related traffic.

developments will include an 18 hole golf course in parcel P-4 and a

As a result, there will be strong pressures to construct tourism-related

lakeside resort in parcel P-C9.

development along this road – similar to development along NR6 and Route 63 in Siem Reap City. The second step will accommodate this immediate demand, with minimal water infrastructure costs, while also setting up a sustainable design framework for future development.

Targeted infrastructure investments will lay the groundwork for a world-class destination and greatly enhance the project’s property value.



Analysis by Parcel A key factor of the financial analysis is land sales. Sales of land subparcels within the first seven parcels to be developed will generate the funds needed for construction of Phase One and, more importantly, establish the profitability of the project. Additionally, the timing of these land sales ensure that the future phases proceed as shown in the overall implementation plan. ERA has calculated the amount of land to be sold and the amount of revenue anticipated from these sales. The following series of diagrams indicate the specific land sales for the seven parcels, accompanied by a description of their associated land use types as well as costs for the Phase One development of each parcel.

Step Three Construction and Land Sales



Parcel P-2 Construction and Land Sales

Parcel P-3 Construction and Land Sales

Parcel P-2: A 250-room airport hotel in Parcel P-2 will be the hotel

Parcel P-3: A 13,000 sm retail outlet mall will cater to the shopping

closest to the New Siem Reap International Airport. The hotel will be

needs of tourists traveling via the new international airport. A mini

located in the Airport Plaza Complex located at the entrance of the

Creative Industry Center, the initial headquarters for the AIFACC, will

Airport Terminal Building. A self-contained water system will draw

flank one side of the Airport Plaza Complex central water feature.

runoff water from the airport runway and collect it in a central water

The coupling of the outlet mall and mini Creative Industry Center will

feature. The following sub-parcels of land are projected to sell in the

create a tourist destination by the airport. The following sub-parcels of

first phase:

land are projected to sell in the first phase:

100,000 sm of industrial land

50,000 sm of office land

The sale of these sub-parcels of land in addition to the airport hotel will generate $10 million in funding sources in the first phase. This will be offset by $9.5 million in costs, most notably for land and road and sewage infrastructure. Parcel P-2 will have a net cumulative cash flow of $516,200 in Phase One.

220,000 sm of industrial land

10,000 sm of office land

The sale of these sub-parcels of land in addition to the sale of the outlet mall will generate $15 million in funding sources in Phase One. This will be offset by $9.9 million in land and infrastructure costs. Significant costs include $3.3 million for land, $1.9 million of Parcel P-3’s share of the Airport Access Road, $1.1 million in road infrastructure and $1.6 million in sewage infrastructure. Parcel P-3 will have a net cumulative cash flow of $5.2 million in Phase One.


SOURCES OF FUNDS Industrial Land Sales Net Cash


Industrial Land Sales Net Cash

Office Land Sales


Office Land Sales Net Cash


Outlet Mall Site Sale Net Cash Flow

Airport Hotel Total Sources of Funds


Total Sources of Funds

$8,912,000 $749,300 $5,402,600 $15,063,900


USES OF FUNDS Land and Common Costs


Land and Common Costs


In-Site Infrastructure


In-Site Infrastructure


Design Fee Total Uses of Funds Net Cash Cumulative Cash Flow

$540,700 $9,545,200 $516,200

Design Fee


Total Uses of Funds


Net Cash Cumulative Cash Flow




Parcel P-4 Construction and Land Sales

Parcel P-5 Construction and Land Sales

Parcel P-4: Parcel P-4 will be completely developed in the first phase.

Parcel P-5: 50,000 sm of Creative Industry land is projected to sell

About 30,000 sm of office buildings will be located prominently along

in the first phase in Parcel P-5. Sales of Creative Industry land will

the Airport Access Boulevard with a beautiful back view of an 18 hole

generate $1.6 million of funding sources in Phase One. This will be

golf course. Two pockets of multi-family residential communities will

offset by $4.2 million in land and infrastructure costs. Parcel P-5 will

be integrated into the golf course. The demand for these 320 units

have a net cumulative cash flow of -$2.6 million in Phase One.

will come from locals and ex-pats working in Angkor Airport City and foreigners looking for second homes. A golf club house will be located near the airport. Water features supplied by the Airport Plaza Complex will be integrated into the golf course. The following sub-parcels of land are projected to sell in the first phase: •

20,000 sm of office land

Site for a second phase of the airport hotel (250 rooms)

The sale of these sub-parcels of land in addition to the sale of the residential sites and the 18-hole golf course will generate $20.3 million in funding sources in Phase One. This will be offset by $7.7 million in land and infrastructure costs. Parcel P-4’s share of the Airport Access Road is $2 million. Parcel P-4 will have a net cumulative cash flow of $12.6 million in Phase One. SOURCES OF FUNDS Office Land Sales Net Cash Residential Site Sale

$1,589,900 $18,719,300

Golf Course Site Sale



Airport Hotel 2 Site Sale


Creative Industry Site Sales


Total Sources of Funds


Total Sources of Funds



USES OF FUNDS Land and Common Costs In-Site Infrastructure Design Fee Total Uses of Funds Net Cash Cumulative Cash Flow


$7,252,500 $0 (in resid. sales) $431,800 $7,684,300 $12,624,900

Land and Common Costs


In-Site Infrastructure


Design Fee


Total Uses of Funds Net Cash Cumulative Cash Flow

$4,188,000 -$2,598,100


Parcel P-C8 Construction and Land Sales

Parcel P-C9 Construction and Land Sales

Parcel P-C8: This is one half of a gateway to Angkor Airport City. Land for 1,230 multi-family, small, medium and large lot residential units

Parcel P-C9: This other half of the gateway into Angkor Airport City

will be sold in the first phase. These residential units will benefit from

will be mostly developed in Phase One. It will house the power plant,

easy access to the Airport Access Road and close proximity to a future

the sewage treatment plant, temporary workforce housing, 180

vibrant Town Center.

townhouse and small lot residential units and a 500 room resort hotel.

The sale of residential land in Parcel P-C8 will generate $91.6 million in funding sources in Phase One. Parcel P-C8 includes $10.1 million in land and infrastructure costs – the majority of which is in land ($9.5 million), road infrastructure ($2.2 million) and reservoir construction ($2.7 million). Parcel P-C8 will have a net cumulative cash flow of $81.5 million in Phase One.

The hotel will front a lake that sources its water from the golf course in P-4 and the Airport Plaza Complex; it will be a multi-generational resort with a water park, water recreational programs and lakeside spas. The following sub-parcels of land are projected to sell in Phase One: •

Site for a regional hospital

Remaining residential land (about 220 units)

Sales of this land along with the resort hotel will generate $40.7 million in funding sources in Phase One. This will be offset by $16.2 million in costs, most notably for land ($2.9 million), roads ($3.5 million), the lake ($1.3 million) and the power plant, substation and transmission lines ($6.1 million). Power infrastructure will be developed by Moha Nokor Power Plant (MPP). Parcel P-C9 will have a net cumulative cash flow of $24.5 million in Phase One. SOURCES OF FUNDS Hotel Site Sale Residential Site Sale

SOURCES OF FUNDS Residential Site Sale


Hospital Site Sale

Total Sources of Funds


Total Sources of Funds

In-Site Infrastructure Design Fee

$36,845,500 $1,271,900 $40,700,300


USES OF FUNDS Land and Common Costs


$9,544,200 $0 (in resid. sales) $555,000

Land and Common Costs In-Site Infrastructure Design Fee

$15,016,400 $0 (in resid. sales) $1,150,600

Total Uses of Funds


Total Uses of Funds


Net Cash Cumulative Cash Flow


Net Cash Cumulative Cash Flow








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Parcel P-C10 Construction and Land Sales

Parcel P-C10: P-C10 will be developed as a Town Center – the heart of activity at Angkor Airport City. Hotel and retail uses will be concentrated in this area. At full build-out, the town center will contain a mixture of residential, hotel, retail, governmental, cultural, institutional, and convention center uses. The Town Center will be enhanced with a surrounding canal and a 30 hectare lake. Due to the high costs of these infrastructural amenities, the town center will be developed incrementally in Phases Two to Four. The following subparcels of land are projected to sell in Phase One: •

Sites for two waterfront hotels

10,000 sm of retail land

The sale of these sub-parcels of land will generate $5.1 million in funding sources in the first phase. This will be offset by $3.7 million in land and infrastructure costs. Parcel P-C10’s share of land costs $2 million and its share of Airport Access Road costs $1.1 million. Parcel P-C10 will have a net cumulative cash flow of $1.4 million in Phase One. SOURCES OF FUNDS Town Center Hotel 1 Site Sale


Town Center Hotel 2 Site Sale


Town Center Retail Site Sales Total Sources of Funds

$617,400 $5,057,900

USES OF FUNDS Land and Common Costs In-Site Infrastructure Design Fee


$3,592,700 $0 (in resid. sales) $109,500

Total Uses of Funds


Net Cash Cumulative Cash Flow


NSRIA Highway Construction

NSRIA Highway: The NSRIA Highway is the portion of the Airport Access Road outside the boundaries of the project site. This road from the edge of the project boundary to its connection on National Road 6 is 20 km and is projected to cost $32.8 million. This road will be developed by the NSRIA Highway Company (NHC).


Phase One of Angkor Airport City is designed to minimize initial costs, maximize financial returns and generate a profit within the first five years of development.


Angkor Water City Report  

Angkor Water City Report