Page 1

2020 Kaulana Mahina


The Hale o Hina for wāhine (women) at the YWCA and Hale Mua for kāne (men) projects were developed from a

legislative task force and use the ancient practice of the pu‘uhonua (sanctuary) to “ground” cultural concepts and values into former pa‘ahao (prisoners) of Native Hawaiian descent. With cultural values and beliefs “planted” as part of their self-identity, they are less likely to recidivate, reoffend and return to jail and would ho‘okanaka (become people of worth). These projects used the kaulana mahina (lunar calendar) as a key guide for program and curriculum development. Specific phases of the moon, as well as their cultural significance, are used to disseminate the lessons. The goal was to achieve a holistic balance and well-being of body, mind and spirit. Out of the works of the Hale o Hina, the women’s group at the YWCA had the opportunity to collaborate with the Council on the 2019 Kaulana Mahina (Hawaiian Lunar Calendar). The mo‘olelo (story) of the Hale o Hina as well as stories of Hina (a goddess) and Hawaiian value for each month were “birthed” out of the collaboration. The stories of Hina illustrate the ancient nurturing and strength, values and aloha of wāhine kanaka (Native Hawaiian women) and their roles in culture, ‘ohana (family) and ‘āina (land), which pa‘ahao wāhine (women prisoners) and all wāhine benefit from knowing and following. I have used the 2019 Kaulana Mahina for its mo‘olelo and cultural concepts to teach some of the groups I facilitate (parenting, conflict resolution, domestic violence) and have produced similar kinds of awakening and awareness. Even though the 2019 Kaulana Mahina is pau (finished), its content and information are timeless and I will be using it for a long time to come. I believe that this calendar was meant to be as “fruit” from the Hale o Hina and the women who committed to change by following the ancient practice of following Hina, the moon, the mahina. —Vernon Viernes Submitted by Vernon Viernes, Queen Lili‘uokalani Trust, www.onipaa.org

The "He Mu Oia" chant is performed with hand motions that symbolize cleansing and preparing for the Makahiki opening ceremonies. This is done in front of the Makahiki Lele (altar) and the Akua Loa and Akua Poko banners. PHOTO: JOSIAH KEKOANUI PATTERSON

Lili‘uokalani Trust is a private operating foundation founded in 1909, for the benefit of orphan and destitute children with preference given to Native Hawaiian children. The trust serves approximately 10,000 children annually through direct services and reaches thousands more through collaborations with community partners.

(Editor’s Note: The mo‘olelo and values for each month are available online as short videos: www.wpcouncil.org/2019-hawaii-lunar-calendar)


Kā‘elo 25 SAT

R S

6

07:58 19:18 N

6

26 SUN

R S

6

08:40 20:09 N

6

Kūkahi

27 MON 6

R S

Kūlua

09:18 20:59 N

6

28 TUE

R S

6

09:53 21:48 N

Kūpau

Kūkolu

6

29 WED 6

R S

10:26 22:37 N

6

30 THU

R S

6

‘Olekūkahi

10:59 23:26 N

6

31 FRI

R

6

11:33 N

6

‘Olekūlua

FEBRUARY

Hoaka

JANUARY

Hilo

‘Ianuali 25–Pepeluali 23, 2020 1

SAT

S R 6

00:15 12:08 N

6

‘Olekūkolu

2

SUN

S R 6

01:08 12:45 N

6

‘Olepau

3

MON 6

S R

02:01 13:27 N

6

3 2 1 0 -1

Huna

4

TUE

S R 6

Mohalu

02:57 14:14 N

6

5

WED 6

S R

Hua

03:55 15:06 N

6

6

THU

S R 6

Akua

04:54 16:05 N

6

7

FRI

S R 6

Hoku

05:52 17:07 N

6

8

SAT

S R 6

Māhealani

06:47 18:13 N

6

9

SUN

S R 6

07:39 19:19 N

6

Kulu

10 MON 6

S R

Lā‘aukūkahi

08:27 20:23 N

6

11 TUE

S R

6

09:12 21:26 N

6

Lā‘aukūlua

12

WED 6

S R

09:55 22:28 N

6

Lā‘aupau

13 THU

S R

6

10:37 23:29 N

6

3 2 1 0 -1

‘Olekūkahi

14 FRI

6

S

‘Olekūlua

11:20 N

6

15 SAT

6

R S

‘Olepau

00:29 12:04 N

6

16 SUN

6

R S

Kāloakūkahi

01:29 12:50 N

6

17

MON 6

R S

02:28 13:39 N

6

Kāloakūlua

18 TUE

6

R S

03:25 14:31 N

6

Kāloapau

19

WED 6

R S

Kāne

04:19 15:24 N

6

20 THU

6

R S

Lono

05:09 16:19 N

6

21 FRI

6

R S

Mauli

05:55 17:12 N

6

22 SAT

6

R S

Muku

06:37 18:05 N

6

23 SUN

6

R S

07:16 18:53 N

6

3 2 1 0

OBSERVATIONS

-1

ho‘onui (waxing) poepoe (full moon) emi (waning)

www.wpcouncil.org


Hawaiian Moon Phase Chant and Hand Game

Mele Helu Pō

Kamali‘i ‘ike ‘ole i na helu pō Little children who do not know the moon phases Muku nei, Muku, ka malama Muku is here, Muku the dark moon Hilo nei, kau ka Hoaka Hilo is here, followed by Hoaka ‘Eha Ku, ‘Eha ‘Ole Four Ku, Four ‘Ole Huna, Mohalu, Hua, Akua Huna, Mohala, Hua, Akua Hoku, Māhealani, Kulu Hoku, Māhealani, Kulu ‘Ekolu Lā‘au, ekolu ‘Ole, ‘ekolu Kāloa Three Lā‘au, three ‘Ole, three Kāloa Kāne, Lono, Mauli, Pau! Kāne, Lono, Mauli, Done! To learn the hand movements, search for Mele Helu Pō on YouTube.

Students from Halau Ku Mana Charter School perform the Mele Helu Pō. Halau Ku Mana is located in Maunalaha valley of Makiki. The school seeks to instill Hawaiian values in their students with curricula that support Hawaiian ways of learning. Its vision is to facilitate individual and community healing and empowerment by fostering lifelong learners who think, feel and act in ways that are pono (righteous) and recognize strengths and address challenges as they seek positive, systemic change in their local, regional and global communities.


Kaulua 24

MON

R S

6

Hoaka

07:52 19:43 N

6

25 TUE

R S

6

Kūkahi

08:26 20:31 N

6

26

WED

R S

6

Kūlua

08:59 21:20 N

6

27

THU

R S

6

09:32 22:09 N

Kūpau

Kūkolu

6

28 FRI

R S

6

10:06 22:59 N

6

29 SAT

‘Olekūkahi MARCH

FEBRUARY

Hilo

Pepeluali 24–Malaki 24, 2020 R S

6

10:42 23:51 N

6

1

SUN

R 6

11:21 N

6

‘Olekūlua

2

MON 6

S R

00:46 12:04 N

6

‘Olekūkolu

3

TUE

S R 6

01:41 12:53 N

6

‘Olepau

4

WED

S R 6

02:38 13:47 N

6

3 2 1 0 -1

Huna

5

THU

S R 6

Mohalu

03:35 14:16 N

6

6

FRI

S R 6

Hua

04:31 15:50 N

6

7

SAT

S R 6

Akua

05:24 16:55 N

6

8

SUN

S R 6

Hoku

06:14 18:01 N

6

9

MON 6

S R

Māhealani

07:01 19:06 N

6

10 TUE

S R

6

07:45 20:10 N

6

Kulu

11

WED 6

S R

Lā‘aukūkahi

08:29 21:14 N

6

12 THU

S R

6

09:13 22:17 N

6

Lā‘aukūlua

13 FRI

S R

6

09:58 23:19 N

6

Lā‘aupau

14 SAT

S

6

10:45 N

6

3 2 1 0 -1

‘Olekūkahi

15 SUN

6

R S

‘Olekūlua

00:21 11:35 N

6

16

MON 6

R S

‘Olepau

01:20 12:27 N

6

17 TUE

6

R S

Kāloakūkahi

02:16 13:20 N

6

18

WED 6

R S

03:08 14:14 N

6

Kāloakūlua

19 THU

6

R S

03:55 15:08 N

6

Kāloapau

20 FRI

6

R S

Kāne

04:37 16:01 N

6

21 SAT

6

R S

Lono

05:16 16:52 N

6

22 SUN

6

R S

Mauli

05:52 17:42 N

6

23 MON 6

R S

Muku

06:26 18:31 N

6

24 TUE

6

R S

07:01 19:16 N

6

3 2 1 0

OBSERVATIONS

-1

ho‘onui (waxing) poepoe (full moon) emi (waning)

www.wpcouncil.org


The Native Hawaiian Church uses the Hawaiian lunar calendar

in its Makahiki Season of Peace programs at the Halawa and Waiawa Correctional Facilities on O‘ahu. The Church develops programs that emphasize Hawaiian history, language and culture and have positive rehabilitative and restorative attributes for the pa‘ahao (inmates) who will one day re-enter the community to embrace new life!

End of Makahiki Season of Peace

In the prison Makahiki programs, the pa‘ahao learn about the three anahulu (period of 10 days) of the Hawaiian lunar month and the names of the 30 moon nights. The Hawaiian lunar calendar created by the Council and the research and materials of the Polynesian Voyaging Society are important resources. The pa‘ahao learn that each phase of the moon has special significance and meaning and helps the men to feel the connections and rhythms of life as in the days and nights of old.

At the Waiawa Correctional Facility, on the high ridge of Waiawa overlooking Pu‘uloa, the moon rises are spectacular in the evening skies. The pa‘ahao make every effort to identify the names and to associate a meaning or tradition related to fishing, planting, the tides and the rhythms of life. The pa‘ahao also apply the traditional meanings and management wisdoms of the lunar cycles to their own passing of time and to the daily process of restoration and rehabilitation in the prisons. At the end of the Makahiki Season, the pa‘ahao reinterpret rituals and chants that relate to Lono returning to Kahiki—the gardens and fishing grounds are restored and the kapu (ancient Hawaiian code of conduct) and temples are reinstated. This is a time for them to consider their kuleana (responsibility) of feeding themselves and their family and providing for the journey of life and the voyage of discovery.

The carved figure of Lono of the Makahiki season (in photo) is removed from the top of the Akua Loa (banner) at the Waiawa Correctional Facility's Makahiki ceremony. The Akua Loa was carried in procession around the island in the days of old. PHOTO: JOSIAH KEKOANUI PATTERSON

Submitted by Dr. Kahu Kaleo Patterson, Native Hawaiian Church www.hawaiianchurch.wordpress.com The Makahiki Season of Peace programs by the Native Hawaiian Church encourage the development of culture-based programs for the incarcerated in Hawai‘i’s prisons.

(Editor’s Note: Makahiki is the traditional Hawaiian celebration of the harvest and a time of rest and renewal that lasts about four months, usually beginning mid-November (see Welehu). The highlight for most Makahiki-goers was the traditional Hawaiian games like heihei kūkini (racing), mokomoko (boxing), hākōkō (a wrestling style similar to sumo), pūhenehene (a skilled game of deception) and kōnane (a board game most resembling chess). Source: https://apps.ksbe.edu/ kaiwakiloumoku/node/601)


Nana 25

WED

R S

6

07:33 20:05 N

6

26 THU

R S

6

08:07 20:55 N

6

Kūkahi

27

FRI

R S

6

Kūlua

08:42 21:46 N

6

28

SAT

R S

6

09:19 22:39 N

Kūpau

Kūkolu

6

29 SUN

R S

6

10:01 23:34 N

6

30

R

MON 6

‘Olekūkahi

10:46 N

6

31

TUE

‘Olekūlua APRIL

Hoaka

MARCH

Hilo

Malaki 25–‘Apelila 22, 2020 S R

6

00:29 11:37 N

6

1

WED 6

S R

01:25 12:32 N

6

‘Olekūkolu

2

THU

S R 6

02:19 13:32 N

6

‘Olepau

3

FRI

S R 6

03:12 14:35 N

6

3 2 1 0 -1

Huna

4

SAT

S R 6

Mohalu

04:01 15:38 N

6

5

SUN

S R 6

Hua

04:48 16:43 N

6

6

MON 6

S R

Akua

05:33 17:47 N

6

7

TUE

S R 6

Hoku

06:17 18:52 N

6

8

WED 6

S R

Māhealani

07:01 19:56 N

6

9

THU

S R 6

07:46 21:01 N

6

Kulu

10 FRI

S R

6

Lā‘aukūkahi

08:34 22:05 N

6

11 SAT

S R

6

09:24 23:08 N

6

Lā‘aukūlua

12 SUN

S

6

10:17 N

6

Lā‘aupau

13

MON 6

R S

00:08 11:12 N

6

3 2 1 0 -1

‘Olekūkahi

14 TUE

6

R S

‘Olekūlua

01:03 12:08 N

6

15

WED 6

R S

‘Olepau

01:53 13:03 N

6

16 THU

6

R S

Kāloakūkahi

02:37 13:57 N

6

17 FRI

6

R S

03:17 14:48 N

6

Kāloakūlua

18 SAT

6

R S

03:54 15:39 N

6

Kāloapau

19 SUN

6

R S

Kāne

04:28 16:28 N

6

20 MON 6

R S

Lono

05:01 17:16 N

6

21 TUE

6

R S

Muku

05:34 18:05 N

6

22 WED 6

R S

06:07 18:54 N

6

3 2 1 0

OBSERVATIONS

-1

ho‘onui (waxing) poepoe (full moon) emi (waning)

www.wpcouncil.org


At the 2018 ‘Aimalama conference (which focused on studying Hawaiian practices and the natural lunar cycles in our lives), of Reawakening for Women), a program of Fernhurst YWCA, turn to the mahina (moon) participants shared about a tree sap study. When the moon is full, the sap of a tree is at to self-assess and identify our emotions. We the top. When there is no moon and during observe which moon phases are present and the ho‘ēmi (waning moons) phases, the sap how our emotions relate to them as women. is at the root. The body is primarily water, and Hilo, the new moon, is a time to braid in new women have a natural cycle and are connected things into our life. In Hoaka, we prepare for to each moon phase. the Kū moons—those moons are the time of the upright energy. We get ready, stretch and start to identify our energy needs.

We, the women and staff of Ka Hale Ho‘āla Hou No Nā Wāhine (The Home

Our Emotions and the Mahina Following this are the ‘Ole moons, which is a time of reflection because soon the four full moons (Akua, Hoku, Māhealani and Kulu) will be here and that is a time of high energy, behavior and action. Following the full moons are the Lā‘au moons that signal a time of healing, self-care, rest and the gathering of medicine. ‘Ole moons come again—a time to rest. The Kāloa moons are the time to plan for desires, and all is solidified through ceremonies in the Kū, Kane and Lono periods. Each person is grounded spiritually and ready for the next Hawaiian moon cycle. The last day is Muku (to cut). We cut anything that isn’t serving us well. It could be eating too many desserts or releasing a negative experience. Each individual determines this. Submitted by Talia Cardines, J. Māhealani Ka‘awa, La Vonne Richardson and Hi‘ilani Shibata, Fernhurst YWCA, www.ywcaoahu.org/fernhurst YWCA O‘ahu has been a place of shelter, safety and hope for women since 1911. Ka Hale Ho‘āla Hou No Nā Wāhine is a community-based furlough program in the Fernhurst facility, dedicated to empowering women to successfully transition from prison back into the community (www.ywcaoahu.org/furlough).


Welo 23

THU

R S

6

06:43 19:42 N

6

24 FRI

R S

6

Kūkahi

07:20 20:35 N

6

25

SAT

R S

6

Kūlua

08:00 21:30 N

6

26

SUN

R S

6

08:44 22:26 N

Kūpau

Kūkolu

6

27 MON 6

R S

09:33 23:21 N

6

28 TUE

R

6

‘Olekūkahi

10:26 N

6

29

WED 6

S R

00:15 11:23 N

6

‘Olekūlua

30

THU

‘Olekūkolu

MAY

Hoaka

APRIL

Hilo

‘Apelila 23–Mei 22, 2020 S R

6

01:06 12:23 N

6

1

FRI

S R 6

01:55 13:24 N

6

‘Olepau

2

SAT

S R 6

02:41 14:26 N

6

3 2 1 0 -1

Huna

3

SUN

S R 6

Mohalu

03:25 15:28 N

6

4

MON 6

S R

Hua

04:08 16:31 N

6

5

TUE

S R 6

Akua

04:50 17:34 N

6

6

WED 6

S R

Hoku

05:34 18:39 N

6

7

THU

S R 6

Māhealani

06:20 19:44 N

6

8

FRI

S R 6

07:10 20:49 N

6

Kulu

9

SAT

S R 6

Lā‘aukūkahi

08:02 21:52 N

6

10 SUN

S R

6

08:58 22:51 N

6

Lā‘aukūlua

11 MON 6

S R

09:56 23:45 N

6

Lā‘aupau

12 TUE

S

6

10:53 N

6

3 2 1 0 -1

‘Olekūkahi

13

WED 6

R S

‘Olekūlua

00:33 11:49 N

6

14 THU

6

R S

‘Olepau

01:16 12:42 N

6

15 FRI

6

R S

Kāloakūkahi

01:54 13:33 N

6

16 SAT

6

R S

02:29 14:23 N

6

Kāloakūlua

17 SUN

6

R S

03:02 15:12 N

6

Kāloapau

18

MON 6

R S

Kāne

03:35 16:00 N

6

19 TUE

6

R S

Lono

04:08 16:49 N

6

20 WED 6

R S

Mauli

04:42 17:39 N

6

21

THU

6

R S

Muku

05:18 18:31 N

6

22

FRI

6

R S

05:58 19:25 N

6

3 2 1 0

OBSERVATIONS

-1

ho‘onui (waxing) poepoe (full moon) emi (waning)

www.wpcouncil.org


Teaching Preschool Students about the Moon

PART 1

In our classroom, we talked daily about what moon phase it was and introduced the basic concepts of waxing and waning. We posted each month’s page from both the Council’s 2019 Kaulana Mahina (Hawaiian Lunar Calendar) and the Hawaiian fishermen’s calendar so that keiki (children) could watch the progression. We discussed how the phase of the moon might affect fishing and farming, and keiki sometimes included the moon in their drawings. What was amazing about introducing the kaulana mahina to our keiki was how much more cognizant they were of the lewa (sky) and how much more apt they were to kilo (observe) not only the mahina but also the ao (clouds) and the manu (birds) while we were outside for piko (protocol) or to play. Taking the learning outside our campus, we took our keiki to the ‘Imiloa Astronomy Center, and ‘Anakala (Uncle) Punawai Rice explained to our keiki about how the moon has a light side and a dark side, how the light side is always facing the sun, and how that figures into how the moon goes through its phases. Submitted by Kimi Brown, Nā Kula Kamali‘i ‘o Kamehameha ma Keaukaha, Big Island of Hawai‘i, Preschool for children ages 3–4 https://blogs.ksbe.edu/preschool/main PHOTOS: NĀ KULA KAMALI‘I ‘O KAMEHAMEHA MA KEAUKAHA


Ikiiki 23

SAT

R S

6

06:42 20:21 N

6

24 SUN

R S

6

07:29 21:17 N

6

Kūkahi

25

MON

R S

6

Kūlua

08:22 22:12 N

6

26

TUE

R S

6

09:18 23:05 N

Kūpau

Kūkolu

6

27 WED 6

R S

10:17 23:54 N

6

28 THU

R

6

‘Olekūkahi

11:17 N

6

29

FRI

S R

6

00:39 12:18 N

6

‘Olekūlua

30

SAT

S R

6

01:23 13:18 N

6

‘Olekūkolu

31

SUN

‘Olepau JUNE

Hoaka

MAY

Hilo

Mei 23–Iune 20, 2020 S R

6

02:04 14:18 N

6

1

MON

S R 6

02:45 15:19 N

6

3 2 1 0 -1

Huna

2

TUE

S R 6

Mohalu

03:27 16:21 N

6

3

WED 6

S R

Hua

04:10 17:24 N

6

4

THU

S R 6

Akua

04:57 18:29 N

6

5

FRI

S R 6

Hoku

05:47 19:33 N

6

6

SAT

S R 6

Māhealani

06:42 20:35 N

6

7

SUN

S R 6

07:40 21:33 N

6

Kulu

8

MON 6

S R

Lā‘aukūkahi

08:38 22:25 N

6

9

TUE

S R 6

09:36 23:11 N

6

Lā‘aukūlua

10 WED 6

S R

10:32 23:52 N

6

Lā‘aupau

11 THU

6

S

11:25 N

6

3 2 1 0 -1

‘Olekūkahi

12 FRI

6

R S

‘Olekūlua

00:28 12:16 N

6

13 SAT

6

R S

‘Olepau

01:02 13:05 N

6

14 SUN

6

R S

Kāloakūkahi

01:35 13:54 N

6

15

MON 6

R S

02:07 14:42 N

6

Kāloakūlua

16 TUE

6

R S

02:41 15:32 N

6

Kāloapau

17

WED 6

R S

Kāne

03:16 16:23 N

6

18 THU

6

R S

Lono

03:55 17:16 N

6

19 FRI

6

R S

Muku

04:37 18:12 N

6

20 SAT

6

R S

05:24 19:08 N

6

3 2 1 0

OBSERVATIONS

-1

ho‘onui (waxing) poepoe (full moon) emi (waning)

www.wpcouncil.org


I have been fishing on Kaua‘i since I was a child, gill netting, throw netting,

diving and pole fishing, but not much off of boats. The knowledge I learned from my elders and my own experiences have enabled my productive fishing. I have used the ocean tides and moon phases to dictate when I fish and if I have a successful venture or not. I find it best to fish during the week prior to and during the new moon phase. Submitted by Myles Emura, Fisherman from Kaua‘i

ILLUSTRATION: OLIVER KINNEY

Akule net harvest.

PHOTO: DEAN SENSUI

Ulua

PHOTO: NOAA


Ka‘aona Hoaka

JUNE

Hilo

21

SUN

R S

6

06:15 20:07 N

6

22 MON 6

R S

Iune 21–Iulai 20, 2020

Kūkahi

07:11 21:01 N

6

23

TUE

R S

6

Kūlua

08:10 21:52 N

6

24

WED

R S

6

09:11 22:39 N

Kūpau

Kūkolu

6

25 THU

R S

6

10:12 23:23 N

6

26 FRI

R

6

‘Olekūkahi

11:12 N

6

27

SAT

S R

6

00:04 12:12 N

6

‘Olekūlua

28

SUN

S R

6

00:45 13:11 N

6

‘Olekūkolu

29

MON

S R

6

01:25 14:11 N

6

‘Olepau

30

TUE

S R

6

02:06 15:12 N

6

3 2 1 0 -1

Mohalu

JULY

Huna

1

WED 6

S R

02:50 16:14 N

6

2

THU

S R 6

Hua

03:38 17:17 N

6

3

FRI

S R 6

Akua

04:29 18:19 N

6

4

SAT

S R 6

Hoku

05:25 19:19 N

6

5

SUN

S R 6

Māhealani

06:23 20:13 N

6

6

MON 6

S R

07:22 21:03 N

6

Kulu

7

TUE

S R 6

Lā‘aukūkahi

08:19 21:46 N

6

8

WED 6

S R

09:14 22:26 N

6

Lā‘aukūlua

9

THU

S R 6

10:07 23:02 N

6

Lā‘aupau

10 FRI

S R

6

10:57 23:35 N

6

3 2 1 0 -1

‘Olekūkahi

11 SAT

6

S

‘Olekūlua

11:46 N

6

12 SUN

6

R S

‘Olepau

00:06 12:35 N

6

13

MON 6

R S

Kāloakūkahi

00:39 13:24 N

6

14 TUE

6

R S

01:13 14:14 N

6

Kāloakūlua

15

WED 6

R S

01:50 15:06 N

6

Kāloapau

16 THU

6

R S

Kāne

02:30 16:00 N

6

17 FRI

6

R S

Lono

03:15 16:56 N

6

18 SAT

6

R S

Mauli

04:06 17:53 N

6

19 SUN

6

R S

Muku

05:01 18:50 N

6

20

MON

6

R S

05:59 19:46 N

6

3 2 1 0

OBSERVATIONS

-1

ho‘onui (waxing) poepoe (full moon) emi (waning)

www.wpcouncil.org


The Hanalei River Heritage Foundation (Kaua‘i,

Hawai‘i) uses the wa‘a kaulua (Hawaiian double-hull canoe) as a mobile classroom to teach about reef ecosystems. Traditional fishing practices are not consistently taught by elders and practitioners to Native Hawaiian youth as in the past. Part of the Native islander identity is having a strong bond with ocean resources. Not long ago, fishing was taught as an integral part of growing up on Kaua‘i.

Project Wa‘a Kupono: Canoe Restoration & Traditional Ocean Food Systems Torrential rains in April 2018 caused floods that devasta­ted traditional fishing grounds on Kaua‘i. The Foundation used it as a reason for the local Native community to come together to talk story about traditional fishing and repair canoes in order to teach fishing. The group came up with Project Wa‘a Kupono as an appropriate way for the Native community to respond to the natural disaster and threats to the tradi­tional fishing practices and subsistence lifestyle. Hinaia‘ele‘ele is the month in 2019 when the Foundation was makaukau (ready) to start its canoe restoration project. This is a perfect time to teach about fish migration patterns, fishing practices and traditional foods associated with the dry season. According to some kupuna (elders), this is a good time for catching weke (goatfish), moi (Pacific threadfin), uhu (parrot fish), akule (bigeye scad) and he‘e (octopus).

Submitted by Kamealoha Hanohano-Smith, Hanalei River Heritage Foundation and Ka‘imi Hermosura, The Konohiki Restoration Project, www.hanaleiriverheritagefoundation.org Established in 2009, the Foundation partners with the Native Hawaiian community to increase opportunities for Native youth to learn and study traditional knowledge and environmental stewardship and has served over 1,000 youth since 2009.

Above: Project Wa‘a Kupono participants gather in front of the canoe halau (long house). Once canoes are repaired, the group will sail to traditional open ocean fishing grounds to study environmental stewardship. Left: A Youth Leader instructs students in proper canoe repair and restoration after it was damaged by the April 2018 floods on Kaua‘i. PHOTOS: KAMEALOHA HANOHANO-SMITH Background: A school of weke, or yellow-tailed goatfish (Mulloidichthys flavolineatus). PHOTO: FLICKR/DR. DWANE MEADOWS, NOAA/NMFS/OPR


Hinaia‘ele‘ele Hoaka

JULY

Hilo

21

TUE

R S

6

07:01 20:35 N

6

22 WED 6

R S

Kūkahi

08:03 21:21 N

6

23

THU

R S

6

Iulai 21–Aukake 18, 2020

Kūlua

09:05 22:04 N

6

24

FRI

R S

6

10:06 22:45 N

6

Kūpau

Kūkolu

25 SAT

R S

6

11:06 23:25 N

6

26 SUN

R

6

‘Olekūkahi

12:06 N

6

27

MON 6

S R

00:06 13:06 N

6

‘Olekūlua

28

TUE

S R

6

00:48 14:07 N

6

‘Olekūkolu

29

WED

S R

6

01:34 15:08 N

6

‘Olepau

30

THU

S R

6

02:23 16:09 N

6

3 2 1 0 -1

31 FRI

Mohalu

Hua

AUGUST

Huna

S R

6

03:16 17:09 N

6

1

SAT

S R 6

04:12 18:04 N

6

2

SUN

S R 6

Akua

05:10 18:55 N

6

3

MON 6

S R

Hoku

06:08 19:41 N

6

4

TUE

S R 6

Māhealani

07:04 20:22 N

6

5

WED 6

S R

07:58 20:59 N

6

Kulu

6

THU

S R 6

Lā‘aukūkahi

08:49 21:34 N

6

7

FRI

S R 6

09:39 22:07 N

6

Lā‘aukūlua

8

SAT

S R 6

10:28 22:39 N

6

Lā‘aupau

9

SUN

S R 6

11:16 23:13 N

6

3 2 1 0 -1

‘Olekūkahi

10

MON 6

S R

‘Olekūlua

12:05 23:47 N

6

11 TUE

6

S

‘Olepau

12:56 N

6

12

WED 6

R S

Kāloakūkahi

00:24 13:49 N

6

13 THU

6

R S

01:07 14:43 N

6

Kāloakūlua

14 FRI

6

R S

01:54 15:39 N

6

Kāloapau

15 SAT

6

R S

Kāne

02:47 16:36 N

6

16 SUN

6

R S

Lono

03:44 17:31 N

6

17

MON 6

R S

Muku

04:45 18:23 N

6

18 TUE

6

R S

05:47 19:14 N

6

3 2 1 0

OBSERVATIONS

-1

ho‘onui (waxing) poepoe (full moon) emi (waning)

www.wpcouncil.org


it into Kamehameha Schools. They both invited nā wāhine (the women) to come to Uluhaimalama. Their ‘ohana (family) are caretakers of this special place. Uluhaimalama is one of Queen Lili‘uokalani’s special gardens.

On the night of the Māhealani moon phase (a night

good for all work), the women of Ka Hale Ho‘āla Hou No Nā Wāhine (The Home of Reawakening for Women) at Fernhurst YWCA, prepared to watch a moon rise and journal their observations. To get mākaukau (prepared and ready), they gathered their maps, lanterns and water for this adventure. The Māhealani moon phase is one of the four full moons of the Hawaiian lunar month. At the time, they had no idea if they were going mauka (inland) to Pu‘u Ualaka‘a (“sweet potato rolling hill,” commonly known as Tantalus or Round Top), makai (seaward) to Waikīkī or to Uluhaimalama in Pauoa Valley. As they were driving out, the kāhea (call) that they waited for came in—it was their ‘Anakē (Auntie) La Vonne Richardson and her cousin, ‘Anakala (Uncle) Kaipo Hale. ‘Anakē has dedicated more than 20 years to support and advocate on behalf of pa‘ahao (prisoners). Her cousin, ‘Anakala, dedicated his career to teaching Hawaiian culture as well as integrating

One part of the Queen’s story that was significant to nā wāhine is summed up in a quote by Queen Lili‘uokalani herself; “The feelings of one who has been imprisoned, politically or otherwise, can only be understood by a person who has passed through the ordeal.1” As soon as ‘Anakala finished the mo‘olelo (stories), nā wāhine looked up, gasped and then smiled. They saw all the beauty of the Māhealani moon as it rose. This was their introduction to Hina, the Hawaiian moon goddess. 1. Hawaii's Story by Hawaii's Queen by Liliuokalani, Queen of Hawaii (1838–1917). Boston: Lee and Shepard, 1898. Submitted by Talia Cardines, J. Māhealani Ka‘awa, La Vonne Richardson and Hi‘ilani Shibata, Fernhurst YWCA, www.ywcaoahu.org/fernhurst YWCA O‘ahu has been a place of shelter, safety and hope for women since 1911. Ka Hale Ho‘āla Hou No Nā Wāhine is a community-based furlough program in the Fernhurst facility, dedicated to empowering women to successfully transition from prison back into the community (www.ywcaoahu.org/furlough).

PHOTO : FLICKR/CERLIN NG

Uluhaimalama Gardens: a Symbol of Hope

Upon arrival to Pauoa Valley, our host ‘Anakala Kaipo said, “Hele mai, hele mai (come, come in, welcome)! Please come in and sit.” He pointed out the valley boundaries and its ridges and beautifully sang “Pauoa Liko Ka Lehua.” He invited nā wāhine to this wahi pana (special, sacred place). They all listened intently during the pō (the night) as they learned that while Queen Lili‘uokalani was imprison­ed, her most cherished and loyal supporters would gather flowers and send them to her wrapped in newspaper. Although goings-on outside the palace were kept from the Queen, the newspapers told her much more than her captors wanted her to know. Nā Wāhine also learned about a very significant flower planting ceremony held there Oct. 11, 1894. The Queen of the Hawaiian Kingdom had graced these very spaces in which they were invited to sit.


Mahoe Mua Hoaka

AUGUST

Hilo

19 WED

R S

6

06:51 19:59 N

6

20 THU

R S

6

Kūkahi

07:54 20:41 N

6

21

FRI

R S

6

‘Aukake 19–Kepakemape 17, 2020

Kūlua

08:56 21:23 N

6

22

SAT

R S

6

09:58 22:05 N

6

Kūpau

Kūkolu

23 SUN

R S

6

10:59 22:48 N

6

24 MON 6

R S

‘Olekūkahi

12:01 23:33 N

6

25

TUE

R

6

13:03 N

6

‘Olekūlua

26

WED 6

S R

00:21 14:04 N

6

‘Olekūkolu

27

THU

S R

6

01:12 15:03 N

6

‘Olepau

28

FRI

S R

6

02:07 15:59 N

6

3 2 1 0

Huna

29 SAT

S R

6

Mohalu

03:03 16:51 N

6

30 SUN

S R

6

Hua

04:00 17:37 N

6

31 MON 6

S R

Akua

SEPTEMBER

-1

04:56 18:19 N

6

1

TUE

S R 6

Hoku

05:50 18:58 N

6

2

WED 6

S R

Māhealani

06:42 19:33 N

6

3

THU

S R 6

07:32 20:06 N

6

Kulu

4

FRI

S R 6

Lā‘aukūkahi

08:22 20:39 N

6

5

SAT

S R 6

09:10 21:12 N

6

Lā‘aukūlua

6

SUN

S R 6

09:59 21:46 N

6

Lā‘aupau

7

MON 6

S R

10:49 22:22 N

6

3 2 1 0 -1

‘Olekūkahi

8

TUE

S R 6

‘Olekūlua

11:40 23:01 N

6

9

WED 6

S R

‘Olepau

12:33 23:45 N

6

10 THU

6

S

Kāloakūkahi

13:28 N

6

11 FRI

6

R S

00:34 14:23 N

6

Kāloakūlua

12 SAT

6

R S

01:28 15:17 N

6

Kāloapau

13 SUN

6

R S

Kāne

02:27 16:10 N

6

14

MON 6

R S

Lono

03:28 17:00 N

6

15 TUE

6

R S

Mauli

04:32 17:47 N

6

16

WED 6

R S

Muku

05:35 18:32 N

6

17 THU

6

R S

06:38 19:16 N

6

3 2 1 0

OBSERVATIONS

-1

ho‘onui (waxing) poepoe (full moon) emi (waning)

www.wpcouncil.org


The Hawaiian lunar calendar is one of the best

examples of place-based learning. Every district of each island compiled knowledge through observation of the natural cycles and seasons of the environment and the activities of living organisms within the environment. Over time, tried and improved practices were incorporated to efficiently fish, farm and work with the natural rhythms of the environment in a sustainable manner.

Loko I‘a Observation Log This observation log was created so that a fishpond observer can begin to record and compare correlating activities with the environment, season, plant, animal and fish activities with the lunar phase and the lunar month. Learning the lunar cycle assists us in reconnecting ourselves with our environment. Limu huluhuluwaena (Grateloupia filicina) PHOTO: UNIVERSITY OF HAWAI'I, BOTANY DEPARTMENT

Each data log requires the observer to record the date, time, lunar month and lunar phase. Weather activity is also noted to begin to observe climate and seasonal changes. Growth processes and cycles among the listed animal, fish and plants are pertinent to begin to see the correlating activities. Please note that the observation log lists common organisms at Hale O Lono fishpond at Keaukaha in the ahupua'a (land division, usually from the mountains to the sea) of Waiakea. Each district will have slight to dramatic differences. Please make adjustments accordingly.

g ion Lo ): servat Month b O Lunar nn ia ‘a ai e): a (Haw n Phas Loko I Malam ian Moo ai ina (Haw

Po Mah

Date: Time:

le Notab

er Weath

Rain:

y:

Activit

Other:

nar aiian lu Wind: The Haw the best Cover: is one of /Cloud calendar e based ns: Clouds of plac rvatio es pl exam strict of /Obse di y er . Ev ctivity A Count: a d n learning t le u Fa mpi rling) Mulle land co a (Finge t: each is Pua‘Am ugh d habita dge thro l Preferre ra tu knowle na e ion of th Other: observat s of the on as t: d se th) Coun cycles an the d Leng ent and a (Han sms t: environm Kahah g organi d habita of livin es Preferre iti t. tiv en ac ronm the envi Other: within and e, tried Count: were Over tim ches) actices a (8 in pr ed bitat: ‘Ama‘am improv ha ficiently d ef re to Prefer ated ith incorpor work w rm and Other: s of the fish, fa hm yt Count: ral rh the natu es +) sustainent in a (12 inch bitat: ‘Anae ha environm d re Prefer anner. able m Other: was g lo n Count: servatio rver This ob the obse t: so that ‘O‘opu d habita and re created er rd ef co Pr gin to re can be elating : rr er th co O re ncompa e enviro with th Count: imal activities ant, an le ason, pl t: the holeho ith A ment, se w d habita es Preferre h activiti r fis na d an the lu ase and Other: e lunar ph th ng . Learni Count: month sts us in cle assi lunar cy rselves bitat: Puhi red ha ting ou er ec ef nn Pr reco nment. r enviro with ou Other: the Count: quires ta log re te, ito Fish Each da rd the da Mosqu habitat: d to reco re er er rv Pref obse th and nar mon time, lu ther Other: ase. Wea lunar ph ted to Count: no so is al e at activity im cl t: observe ‘Opae d habita begin to Preferre anges. ch al on d and seas esses an Other: oc pr th Grow listed Count: ong the e cycles am and plants ar ai/Wı , fish bitat: Hapaw e the animal erred ha n to se ef gi Pr be nt to . Please pertine : activities er g th in O at n correl servatio s Count: at the ob note th organism common at Manu log lists habitat: hpond d fis re er no u: Pref O Lo ua‘a ‘Auku‘ at Hale e ahup ha in th Other: Keauka district ea. Each ic at Count: am of Waiak dr ight to sl ve e will ha se mak bitat: Kolea: es. Plea erred ha nc ef y. re Pr gl ffe in di cord ents ac adjustm ther: of rsions tronic ve hich For elec n log, w servatio ob other r is th ized fo custom can be go to , please i`a ko lo u.org. hamok www.a

O

Honu

g size: Est. av or: Behavi g size: Est. av or: Behavi g size: Est. av or: Behavi

Loko I‘a Ob servatio

n Log

g size: Est. av or: Behavi

Flora Activ ity/Obser

vations:

g size: Est. av Niu or: Behavi

Height: Fruit/seed col or:

Fruit/seed cou nt: Flower count:

: or: Flowe col g sirze Est. av Leafor : : fall Behavi

Leaf color: Other:

Hala

g size: Height: Est. av Fruit/seed: col or: or Behavi Flower color:

Fruit/seed cou nt: Flower count:

Leaf fall:

Leaf color:

g size: Est. av : havior False KaBe mani Height : Fruit/seed col or: : avg size FlowerEs t. or: col vior: Leaf fallBe : ha

Fruit/seed cou nt: Flower count: Leaf color: Other:

: avg size Est.Hei ght: vior: Fruit/seed Be colha or: Flower color:

t:

Milo

Count:

Fruit/seed cou nt: Flower count:

g size: Est. av or: Behavi

Leaf fall:

Leaf color: Other:

Height:

Fruit/seed col

t:

d habita

Fruit/seed cou nt: Flower count:

or:

Flower color:

Other:

Leaf fall:

Leaf color: Other:

La‘ı

Notable Wa ter Activity : High/Rising: Low/Falling:

Other:

Naupaka

d habita

Preferre

PHOTO: NATIONAL PARK SERVICE/RYAN HARRY

g size: Est. av or: Behavi

Count:

Preferre

‘Ama‘ama (Mugil cephalus) striped mullet

g size: Est. av or: Behavi

habitat:

Other:

Other

g size: Est. av or: Behavi

Count:

d Preferre Other:

‘A‘ama

g size: Est. av or: Behavi

Height:

Fruit/seed col

Fruit/seed cou nt: Flower count:

or:

Flower color: Leaf fall:

Leaf color:

Height ______

Salinity(ppt): Water flow: Water color: Temperature: pH: Dissolved oxy

gen (O2) (mg /L): Carbon dioxid e (CO2) (mg/L) : Phosphorous (PO4-3) (mg/L) : Nitrogen-Am monia (NH3) (mg/L): Nitrogen-Nit rate (NO3) (mg /L): Bacteria cul tures: Medium (%) : E. coli coloni es (%): Coliform col onies (%):

Other Param

eters:

Other:

Laukahi

Height: Fruit/seed col or: Flower color:

Fruit/seed cou nt: Flower count:

Leaf fall:

Leaf color: Other:

Limu

Evidence of Possible Correlations in Growth Processes & Cycles:

Height:

Fruit/seed col

or:

Flower color: Leaf fall:

Fruit/seed cou nt: Flower count: Leaf color: Other:

Kupukupu Height:

Patch area: Spore presen

ce:

Other:

Laua‘e

Copies of the log can be downloaded at: www.wpcouncil.org/wp-content/ uploads/2019/05/Loko-Ia-Observation-log.pdf

‘A‘ama (Grapsus tenuicrustatus)

Height:

Patch area: Spore presen

ce:

Other:

PHOTO: FLICKR/ANITA GOULD

Kōlea (Pluvialis fulva) Pacific Golden Plover PHOTO: FLICKR/CARLA KISHINAMI

http://www .wpcouncil.or g http://www .ahamoku.or g

_ft


Mahoe Hope Kepakemapa 18–‘Okakopa 16, 2020 SEPTEMBER

Hilo

18 FRI

R S

6

Hoaka

07:42 19:59 N

6

19 SAT

R S

6

Kūkahi

08:46 20:42 N

6

20 SUN

R S

6

Kūlua

09:50 21:28 N

6

21

MON

R S

6

10:54 22:17 N

Kūpau

Kūkolu

6

22 TUE

R S

6

11:57 23:09 N

6

23

R

WED 6

‘Olekūkahi

12:58 N

6

24

THU

S R

6

00:03 13:56 N

6

‘Olekūlua

25

FRI

S R

6

00:58 14:49 N

6

‘Olekūkolu

26

SAT

S R

6

01:55 15:37 N

6

‘Olepau

27

SUN

S R

6

02:51 16:20 N

6

3 2 1 0

28 MON 6

Mohalu

Hua

AUGUST

Huna

S R

03:45 16:58 N

6

29 TUE

S R

6

04:38 17:34 N

6

30 WED 6

Akua

Hoku

OCTOBER

-1

S R

05:28 18:07 N

6

1

THU

S R 6

06:17 18:40 N

6

2

FRI

S R 6

Māhealani

07:06 19:12 N

6

3

SAT

S R 6

07:55 19:46 N

6

Kulu

4

SUN

S R 6

Lā‘aukūkahi

08:44 20:21 N

6

5

MON 6

S R

09:35 20:59 N

6

Lā‘aukūlua

6

TUE

S R 6

10:27 21:40 N

6

Lā‘aupau

7

WED 6

S R

11:20 22:26 N

6

3 2 1 0 -1

‘Olekūkahi

8

THU

S R 6

‘Olekūlua

12:14 23:17 N

6

9

FRI

S 6

‘Olepau

13:08 N

6

10 SAT

6

R S

Kāloakūkahi

00:13 14:00 N

6

11 SUN

6

R S

01:12 14:49 N

6

Kāloakūlua

12

MON 6

R S

02:12 15:36 N

6

Kāloapau

13 TUE

6

R S

Kāne

03:14 16:21 N

6

14

WED 6

R S

Lono

04:17 17:04 N

6

15 THU

6

R S

Muku

05:20 17:47 N

6

16 FRI

6

R S

06:25 18:30 N

6

3 2 1 0

OBSERVATIONS

-1

ho‘onui (waxing) poepoe (full moon) emi (waning)

www.wpcouncil.org


The Fernhurst YWCA leadership and program employees use the 2019 Kaulana Mahina (Hawaiian Lunar Calendar) to become aware of how we’re feeling, understand our emotions and improve our decision-making. It helps us to better accept our feelings and what’s happening inside of us as well as to plan and make sense of what’s going on in our lives. In general, we know that certain moons are good for planting and fishing. When it comes to our feelings, the process is personal and individualized. The calendar empowers each of us to figure out our own interrelationship between our emotions and the moon phases.

—Talia, Māhealani, La Vonne and Hi‘ilani

Hale o Hina Nā Wāhine U‘i (The Beautiful Women) in the

Fernhurst program use the mahina (moon) as a bridge to connect them to nature and as a pathway to the ‘āina (land). Using the 2019 Kaulana Mahina created by the Council and the YWCA, Nā Wāhine U‘i gather to consider the stories of Hina, the Hawaiian moon goddess. Hale o Hina meets one hour per month at the Laniākea YWCA in downtown Honolulu. For na wāhine in this program, this area was not a safe space for them. There are triggers and addictions all around. Meeting at night helps to heal and shift the energy so that downtown is a safe space again. Laniākea is also a historical space that ties them back to the Hawaiian Kingdom. Nā wāhine unite in a non-competitive spirit to safely talk about women-driven issues. Hale o Hina provides the same essential support that a traditional Hale Pe‘a did. A Hale Pe‘a was a gathering space for women when they had their monthly menses. Submitted by Talia Cardines, J. Māhealani Ka‘awa, La Vonne Richardson and Hi‘ilani Shibata, Fernhurst YWCA, www.ywcaoahu.org/fernhurst YWCA O‘ahu has been a place of shelter, safety and hope for women since 1911. Ka Hale Ho‘āla Hou No Nā Wāhine is a community-based furlough program in the Fernhurst facility, dedicated to empowering women to successfully transition from prison back into the community (www.ywcaoahu.org/furlough).

Top right: O Māui ka Lawai’a ‘o Hina ka Malama (Māui the Fisherman, Hina the Moon). ILLUSTRATION: A. R. KUPIHEA

Hi’ilani Shibata shares the stories of Hina, the Hawaiian moon goddess, with the women in the Fernhurst program.


‘Ikuwā Hoaka

OCTOBER

Hilo

17 SAT

R S

6

‘Okakopa 17–Nowemapa 14, 2020

07:29 19:18 N

6

18 SUN

R S

6

08:36 20:07 N

6

Kūkahi

19 MON

R S

6

Kūlua

09:42 20:59 N

6

20

TUE

R S

6

10:47 21:55 N

Kūpau

Kūkolu

6

21 WED 6

R S

11:48 22:52 N

6

22 THU

R S

6

‘Olekūkahi

12:45 23:49 N

6

23

FRI

R

6

13:35 N

6

‘Olekūlua

24

SAT

S R

6

00:46 14:20 N

6

‘Olekūkolu

25

SUN

S R

6

01:41 15:00 N

6

‘Olepau

26

MON

S R

6

02:34 15:36 N

6

3 2 1 0

Huna

27 TUE

S R

6

Mohalu

03:25 16:10 N

6

28 WED 6

S R

Hua

04:14 16:42 N

6

29 THU

S R

6

Akua

05:03 17:14 N

6

30 FRI

S R

6

Hoku

05:51 17:47 N

6

31 SAT

S R

6

NOVEMBER

-1

06:40 18:22 N

6

1

SUN

Māhealani

S R 6

07:31 18:58 N

6

Kulu

2

MON 6

S R

Lā‘aukūkahi

08:23 19:39 N

6

3

TUE

S R 6

09:16 20:23 N

6

Lā‘aukūlua

4

WED 6

S R

10:10 21:12 N

6

Lā‘aupau

5

THU

S R 6

11:03 22:05 N

6

3 2 1 0 -1

‘Olekūkahi

6

FRI

S R 6

‘Olekūlua

11:55 23:01 N

6

7

SAT

S R 6

‘Olepau

12:44 23:59 N

6

8

SUN

R S 6

Kāloakūkahi

00:00 13:30 N

6

9

MON 6

R S

00:59 14:14 N

6

Kāloakūlua

10 TUE

6

R S

01:59 14:56 N

6

Kāloapau

11

WED 6

R S

Kāne

03:00 15:37 N

6

12 THU

6

R S

Lono

04:02 16:19 N

6

13 FRI

6

R S

Muku

05:06 17:02 N

6

14 SAT

6

R S

06:12 17:49 N

6

3 2 1 0

OBSERVATIONS

-1

ho‘onui (waxing) poepoe (full moon) emi (waning)

www.wpcouncil.org


Na poe kahiko (the people of old Hawai‘i) would track the seasons, months and

days by following the varying positions of the rising and setting of the sun, the movement and phases of the moon, and the traveling of the stars across the heavens. This attention to the universe of life that includes the heavens can be seen expressed in the opening lines of “Na ‘Aumakua,” a chant documented by David Malo: Na ‘Aumakua mai ka la hiki a ka la kau, mai ka ho‘oku‘i a ka halawai … To all the ancestors and gods, from the rising to the setting of the sun, from the zenith in the heavens to the horizon …

Beginning of the Makahiki Season of Peace Acknowledging the expansive movements of the sun, as viewed from earth, and the benevolence petitioned, this chant is practiced today by many and is chanted by the pa‘ahao (inmates) in the men’s prisons on O‘ahu during the Makahiki season. This chant reminds the men to be mindful and aware of all things, mauka (inland) to makai (seaward) and ‘āina (land) to lani (heaven), and to feel and know the rhythms and harmonies of life. This awareness and mindfulness leads to humility, gratitude and service. The Hawaiian lunar calendar created by the Council is used by the Native Hawaiian Church in the prisons to teach the three anahulu (period of 10 days) and 30 phases of the lunar month—waxing, full and waning periods of the moon. For pa‘ahao incarcerated in the Waiawa Correctional Facility (CF), Halawa CF and Oahu Community Correctional Center (CC) prisons in Hawai‘i and the Saguaro CC in Arizona, the Hawaiian lunar calendar, the summer and winter solstice of the sun and the rising of stars are ancient traditions that are very important today to encourage and sustain positive cultural identity development, culture-based healing and cultural therapeu­tic approaches to rehabilitation. At the Halawa Correctional Facility, the kīhei (cloak) is worn at all ceremonies, symbolizing the kūpuna (elders, ancestors). The pa'ahao in the photo wear kihei that were a gift from Princess Abigail Kawananaka while performing one of the 12 Hula 'Aiha'a common to the Hawai'i prisons. PHOTO: KAI MARKELL

The pōhai (circle) represents the opening pule (prayer) at the opening or closing of the Makahiki ceremonies. Makahiki is a time to strengthen the inner spirit, recenter and focus in the journey of life. The circle reminds all of unity, oneness and harmony. PHOTO: KAI MARKELL

THE MAKAHIKI SEASON is determined each year by astronomical observations using the sun, moon and stars. On the island of Hawai‘i, when the Makali‘i (Pleiades) star cluster rises shortly after sunset, usually on November 17, the rising of the following first crescent moon marks the beginning of the season. On O‘ahu, one account is that Makahiki begins when Makali‘i rises above Pu‘u o Mahuka Heiau, as seen from Ka‘ena Point, or when the star ‘A‘a (Sirius) appears in conjunction with a particular landform high on a cliff. Another account will consider the first new moon after the Makali‘i is seen from Ka‘ena Point, rising out of Pu‘u o Mahuka Heiau just after sunset—this marks the beginning of Makahiki, the four months of the Hawaiian New Year. These old accounts reflect the keen obser­ vation of astronomical movement as a common cultural component.

Submitted by Dr. Kahu Kaleo Patterson, Native Hawaiian Church, www.hawaiianchurch.wordpress.com The Makahiki Season of Peace programs by the Native Hawaiian Church encourage the development of culture-based programs for the incarcerated in Hawai‘i’s prisons.


Welehu NOVEMBER

Hilo

15 SUN

R S

6

Hoaka

07:18 18:44 N

6

16

MON 6

R S

Nowemapa 15–Kēkēmapa 14, 2020

Kūkahi

08:26 19:39 N

6

17 TUE

R S

6

Kūlua

09:32 20:38 N

6

18 WED

R S

6

10:33 21:37 N

Kūpau

Kūkolu

6

19 THU

R S

6

11:28 22:36 N

6

20 FRI

R S

6

‘Olekūkahi

12:16 23:33 N

6

21

SAT

R

6

12:59 N

6

‘Olekūlua

22

SUN

S R

6

00:27 13:37 N

6

‘Olekūkolu

23

MON

S R

6

01:20 14:11 N

6

‘Olepau

24

TUE

S R

6

02:10 14:44 N

6

3 2 1 0

Huna

25 WED 6

S R

Mohalu

02:59 15:16 N

6

26 THU

S R

6

Hua

03:47 15:48 N

6

27 FRI

S R

6

Akua

04:36 16:22 N

6

28 SAT

S R

6

Hoku

05:26 16:58 N

6

29 SUN

S R

6

Māhealani

06:18 17:37 N

6

30 MON 6

S R

07:11 18:21 N

6

Kulu

DECEMBER

-1

1

TUE

S R 6

Lā‘aukūkahi

08:05 19:09 N

6

2

WED 6

S R

08:59 20:01 N

6

Lā‘aukūlua

3

THU

S R 6

09:52 20:56 N

6

Lā‘aupau

4

FRI

S R 6

10:42 21:54 N

6

3 2 1 0 -1

‘Olekūkahi

5

SAT

S R 6

‘Olekūlua

11:29 22:52 N

6

6

SUN

S R 6

‘Olepau

12:12 23:50 N

6

7

MON 6

S

Kāloakūkahi

12:53 N

6

8

TUE

R S 6

00:49 13:33 N

6

Kāloakūlua

9

WED 6

R S

01:48 14:12 N

6

Kāloapau

10 THU

6

R S

Kāne

02:48 14:53 N

6

11 FRI

6

R S

Lono

03:51 15:37 N

6

12 SAT

6

R S

Mauli

04:56 16:24 N

6

13 SUN

6

R S

Muku

06:03 17:17 N

6

14 MON

6

R S

07:09 18:19 N

6

3 2 1 0

OBSERVATIONS

-1

ho‘onui (waxing) poepoe (full moon) emi (waning)

www.wpcouncil.org


Teaching Preschool Students about the Moon PART 2 In our classroom, we’d do the mahina (moon) lesson as a transition from inside to outside. Last year the moon phase chart was up all year and we did the “Mele Helu Pō” (“Hawaiian Moon Phase”) chant daily and the accompanying hand motions. We identified the type of mahina for the day, then I’d read the characteristics of the particular mahina and we’d have a brief discussion.

Submitted by Christie Zimmer, Nā Kula Kamali‘i ‘o Kamehameha ma Keaukaha Big Island of Hawai‘i, Preschool for children ages 3–4, www.blogs.ksbe.edu/ preschool/main

We incorporated the kaulana mahina (lunar calendar) in two ways: (above) the keiki (children) did a sensorial tray activity where they drew a particular mahina, and (right) the class worked with partners to recite the chant. PHOTOS: NĀ KULA KAMALI‘I ‘O KAMEHAMEHA MA KEAUKAHA


Makali‘i DECEMBER

Hilo

15

TUE

R S

6

Hoaka

08:13 19:19 N

6

16 WED 6

R S

Kēkēmapa 15, 2020–‘Ianuali 12, 2021

Kūkahi

09:13 20:20 N

6

17

THU

R S

6

Kūlua

10:06 21:19 N

6

18

FRI

R S

6

10:52 22:16 N

Kūpau

Kūkolu

6

19 SAT

R S

6

11:33 23:09 N

6

20 SUN

R

6

‘Olekūkahi

12:10 N

6

21

MON 6

S R

00:01 12:44 N

6

‘Olekūlua

22

TUE

S R

6

00:53 13:17 N

6

‘Olekūkolu

23

WED

S R

6

01:41 13:49 N

6

‘Olepau

24

THU

S R

6

02:30 14:22 N

6

3 2 1 0

Huna

25 FRI

S R

6

Mohalu

03:19 14:57 N

6

26 SAT

S R

6

Hua

04:10 15:35 N

6

27 SUN

S R

6

Akua

05:03 16:16 N

6

28 MON 6

S R

Hoku

05:57 17:03 N

6

29 TUE

S R

6

Māhealani

06:52 17:54 N

6

30 WED 6

S R

07:46 18:50 N

6

Kulu

31 THU

Lā‘aukūkahi JANUARY

-1

S R

6

08:38 19:48 N

6

1

FRI

S R 6

09:27 20:47 N

6

Lā‘aukūlua

2

SAT

S R 6

10:12 21:46 N

6

Lā‘aupau

3

SUN

S R 6

10:54 22:44 N

6

3 2 1 0 -1

‘Olekūkahi

4

MON 6

S R

‘Olekūlua

11:33 23:42 N

6

5

TUE

S 6

‘Olepau

12:12 N

6

6

WED 6

R S

Kāloakūkahi

00:40 12:51 N

6

7

THU

R S 6

01:40 13:32 N

6

Kāloakūlua

8

FRI

R S 6

02:42 14:16 N

6

Kāloapau

9

SAT

R S 6

Kāne

03:46 15:05 N

6

10 SUN

6

R S

Lono

04:51 15:58 N

6

11 MON 6

R S

Muku

05:55 16:57 N

6

12 TUE

6

R S

06:57 17:58 N

6

3 2 1 0

OBSERVATIONS

-1

ho‘onui (waxing) poepoe (full moon) emi (waning)

www.wpcouncil.org


Maunalaha Gardens

Nā Wāhine U’i (The Beautiful Women) in Maunalaha Gardens.

In early 2016, a kaulana mahina (lunar calendar) was gifted to Maunalaha Gardens. From generations of passed-down knowledge, the kūpuna (elders) there planted and harvested by the moon and still do today. With this calendar, the kūpuna and the women of Ka Hale Ho‘āla Hou No Nā Wāhine (the Home of Reawakening for Women) began deepening their knowledge of each moon phase. They learned that the best time to clear the ‘āina (land) of weeds was during the ‘Ole moons. It was said that the weeds won’t grow back right away. They were also taught to harvest early in the morning when all the mana (power) is reaching to the sky. They were taught the best days to plant, especially on the four full moon days because they draw the plants out of the ground.

PHOTO: KALĀ

Fernhurst Gardens In the Fernhurst Gardens, the women learn to till the soil at the beginning of their stay. They learn the best time to plant the underground plants such as ‘ōlena (turmeric) and when to observe how the fish behave in the aquaponics system. They learn the difference between growing and harvesting plants deep in the mountain valley of Maunalaha versus at Fernhurst, an urban area surrounded by the effects of too many buildings and cars. The women observe that, when they are tilling soil, it’s time to rest. Certain moon phases were not recommended for planting, and it is on those days that they prune the plants as their ancestors did. Submitted by Talia Cardines, J. Māhealani Ka‘awa, La Vonne Richardson and Hi‘ilani Shibata, Fernhurst YWCA, www.ywcaoahu.org/fernhurst YWCA O‘ahu has been a place of shelter, safety and hope for women since 1911. Ka Hale Ho‘āla Hou No Nā Wāhine is a community-based furlough program in the Fernhurst facility, dedicated to empowering women to successfully transition from prison back into the community (www.ywcaoahu.org/furlough).


Kā‘elo Hoaka

JANUARY

Hilo

13 WED

R S

6

‘Ianuali 13–Pepeluali 11, 2021

07:52 19:02 N

6

14 THU

R S

6

08:42 20:01 N

6

Kūkahi

15 FRI

R S

6

Kūlua

09:26 20:57 N

6

16 SAT

R S

6

10:05 21:50 N

Kūpau

Kūkolu

6

17 SUN

R S

6

10:41 22:41 N

6

18

MON 6

R S

‘Olekūkahi

11:15 23:31 N

6

19 TUE

R

6

11:47 N

6

‘Olekūlua

20

WED 6

S R

00:20 12:20 N

6

‘Olekūkolu

21

THU

S R

6

01:11 12:54 N

6

‘Olepau

22

FRI

S R

6

02:01 13:30 N

6

3 2 1 0

Huna

23 SAT

S R

6

Mohalu

02:53 14:10 N

6

24 SUN

S R

6

Hua

03:47 14:55 N

6

25 MON 6

S R

Akua

04:41 15:44 N

6

26 TUE

S R

6

Hoku

05:36 16:38 N

6

27 WED 6

S R

Māhealani

06:30 17:36 N

6

28 THU

S R

6

07:20 18:36 N

6

Kulu

29 FRI

S R

6

Lā‘aukūkahi

08:08 19:37 N

6

30 SAT

S R

6

08:52 20:37 N

6

Lā‘aukūlua

31 SUN

S R

6

09:33 21:36 N

6

Lā‘aupau

FEBRUARY

-1

1

MON 6

S R

10:12 22:35 N

6

3 2 1 0 -1

‘Olekūkahi

2

TUE

R S 6

‘Olekūlua

10:51 23:34 N

6

3

WED 6

S

‘Olepau

11:32 N

6

4

THU

R S 6

Kāloakūkahi

00:35 12:14 N

6

5

FRI

R S 6

01:37 13:00 N

6

Kāloakūlua

6

SAT

R S 6

02:41 13:51 N

6

Kāloapau

7

SUN

R S 6

Kāne

03:44 14:46 N

6

8

MON 6

R S

Lono

04:45 15:45 N

6

9

TUE

R S 6

Mauli

05:42 16:46 N

6

10

WED 6

R S

Muku

06:33 17:46 N

6

11 THU

6

R S

07:19 18:44 N

6

3 2 1 0

OBSERVATIONS

-1

ho‘onui (waxing) poepoe (full moon) emi (waning)

www.wpcouncil.org


About This Calendar The 2020 Kaulana Mahina (Hawaiian Lunar Calendar) features community groups, educators and fishermen who teach or use lunar calendars. It was produced by the Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council and includes an observational space for each anahulu (traditional 10-day period) with hopes that others will take up the practice of using the calendar as well..

The literal meaning of kaulana mahina is position of the moon. In the traditional Hawaiian calendar, each malama (month) was determined by the 29.5-day cycle of the mahina and divided into three anahulu. The first period was called ho‘onui (growing bigger), beginning when the first crescent moon was visible to the naked eye. The second anahulu was poepoe (round or full). The last anahulu was emi (decreasing). Traditionally, nā pō mahina (lunar phases) are used to determine when specific activities should take place, such as fishing times and spawning times when harvesting of some species was limited. Moon phase and moon month names could vary by island and moku (district). This calendar uses the moon phases for O‘ahu listed in the Hawaiian Almanac by Clarice Taylor (1995. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing). The tide charts with moon rise and set times were provided by OceanFun Publishing, NZ. The lunar months, moon phases, and traditional calendar months are given in Hawaiian.

Hawai‘i Contacts Council Vice Chair Edwin Watamura Phone: (808) 538-6031 Email: watafishing@gmail.com Council Member Michael Goto Phone: (808) 536-2148 Email: mgoto@unitedfishingagency.com Council Member Suzanne Case Hawai‘i Department of Land & Natural Resources Phone: (808) 587-0401 Email: suzanne.case@hawaii.gov Front cover: Hula 'Aiha'a, a low-style dance accompanied with the chant "E Ku Mau Mau," is performed for the Makahiki Opening Ceremony at the Waiawa Correctional Facility. PHOTO: JOSIAH KEKOANUI PATTERSON

Special mahalo to calendar contributors including Talia Cardines, J. Māhealani Ka‘awa and Hi‘ilani Shibata, Fernhurst YWCA; Dr. Kahu Kaleo Patterson, Native Hawaiian Church; Kimi Brown and Christie Zimmer, Nā Kula Kamali‘i ‘o Kamehameha ma Keaukaha; Vernon Viernes, Queen Lili‘uokalani Trust; Myles Emura, Fisherman; Kamealoha Hanohano-Smith, Hanalei River Heritage Foundation; and Ka‘imi Hermosura, The Konohiki Restoration Project. For an electronic version of this calendar, go to www.wpcouncil.org/educational-resources/lunar-calendars.

About the Council The Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council has worked with communities in Hawai‘i, American Samoa, Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands since 2006 to produce traditional lunar calendars to promote ecosystembased fisheries management, support indigenous fishing and management practices, and enhance community involvement in the fisheries management decision-making process. In Hawai‘i, the Council strongly supports the traditional ‘aha moku system of natural resource management, which recognizes the traditional moku (districts) as a basis for cultural and community consultation, adaptive management, education, general knowledge and a code of conduct. More information and the ‘aha moku system can be found at www.wpcouncil.org and www.ahamoku.org. If your moku is interested in working with the Council on a future calendar, please send an email to info@wpcouncil.org.

Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council 1164 Bishop Street, Suite 1400 Honolulu, Hawaii 96813 Phone: (808) 522-8220 Fax: (808) 522-8226 Email: info@wpcouncil.org Web: www.wpcouncil.org Published in the United States by the Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council under NOAA Award NA15NMF4410008. © 2019, Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council ISBN 978-1-944827-52-6

Profile for Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council

2020 Kaulana Mahina (Hawaiian Lunar Calendar)  

The 2020 Kaulana Mahina (Hawaiian Lunar Calendar) features community groups, educators and fishermen who teach or use lunar calendars. It wa...

2020 Kaulana Mahina (Hawaiian Lunar Calendar)  

The 2020 Kaulana Mahina (Hawaiian Lunar Calendar) features community groups, educators and fishermen who teach or use lunar calendars. It wa...

Profile for wpcouncil
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