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ЕВРОПА И ЦЕНТРАЛЬНАЯ АЗИЯ

ПОВЫШЕНИЕ ЭФФЕКТИВНОСТИ СИСТЕМ ТЕПЛОСНАБЖЕНИЯ В СТРАНАХ ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОЙ И ВОСТОЧНОЙ ЕВРОПЫ И РЕСПУБЛИКАХ БЫВШЕГО СОВЕТСКОГО СОЮЗА Документ Всемирного банка Информационный центр в России

инфраструктура и транспорт


JOINT UNDP / WORLD BANK ENERGY SECTOR MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME (ESMAP) PURPOSE The Joint UNDP/World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme (ESMAP) is a special global technical assistance program run as part of the World Bank's Energy, Mining and Telecommunications Department. ESMAP provides advice to governments on sustainable energy development. Established with the support of UNDP and bilateral official donors in 1983, it focuses on the role of energy in the development process with the objective of contributing to poverty alleviation, improving living conditions and preserving the environment in developing countries and transition economies. ESMAP centers its interventions on three priority areas: sector reform and restructuring; access to modern energy for the poorest; and promotion of sustainable energy practices. GOVERNANCE AND OPERATIONS ESMAP is governed by a Consultative Group (ESMAP CG) composed of representatives of the UNDP and World Bank, other donors, and development experts from regions benefiting from ESMAP's assistance. The ESMAP CG is chaired by a World Bank Vice President, and advised by a Technical Advisory Group (TAG) of four independent energy experts that reviews the Programme's strategic agenda, its work plan, and its achievements. ESMAP relies on a cadre of engineers, energy planners, and economists from the World Bank to conduct its activities under the guidance of the Manager of ESMAP, responsible for administering the Programme. FUNDING ESMAP is a cooperative effort supported over the years by the World Bank, the UNDP and other United Nations agencies, the European Union, the Organization of American States (OAS), the Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE), and public and private donors from countries including Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Finland, France, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. FURTHER INFORMATION An up-to-date listing of completed ESMAP projects is appended to this report. For further information, a copy of the ESMAP Annual Report, or copies of project reports, contact: ESMAP c/o Energy and Water The World Bank 1818 H Street, NW Washington, DC 20433 U.S.A.


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Copyright Š 2001 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/THE WORLD BANK 1818 H Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20433, U.S.A. All rights reserved Manufactured in the United States of America First printing August 2000 ESMAP Reports are published to communicate the results of the ESMAP's work to the development community with the least possible delay. The typescript of the paper therefore has not been prepared in accordance with the procedures appropriate to formal documents. Some sources cited in this paper may be informal documents that are not readily available. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirely those of the author(s) and should not be attributed in any manner to the World Bank, or its affiliated organizations, or to members of its Board of Executive Directors or the countries they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this publication and accepts no responsibility whatsoever for any consequence of their use. The Boundaries, colors, denominations, other information shown on any map in this volume do not imply on the part of the World Bank Group any judgement on the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. The material in this publication is copyrighted. Requests for permission to reproduce portions of it should be sent to the ESMAP Manager at the address shown in the copyright notice above. ESMAP encourages dissemination of its work and will normally give permission promptly and, when the reproduction is for noncommercial purposes, without asking a fee.


"ESMAP Values your Feedback If you have found this report useful, or would like to provide comments on our reports and services, please log on to our website at www.esmap.org and leave your feedback. In this way we can better understand our audience's needs and improve the quality of our knowledge products. Thank you. ESMAP Management"


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................................................................................................................................ 195 PLic. D-2 KOCBEHHOE nOJKmOHEHWE L4T (K PAVMATOPAM, COEF4HEHHb1M nAPAJ1JlEnbHo)

.............................................. 195

PLc. F-1 TEnmOHAnP9>KEHHOCTb L APXLTEKTYPA CET ... .............................. 220 PLC. F-2 L.HBECT14LMOHH61E 3ATPATbl L TEnfOonOTEPL KAK 4YHKL,ifl5 OT AMAMETPA

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........................................................

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.........................................................

vii

221


Pmc. F-4 OpeH6ypr: 06L4erogoBbie 3aTpaTbl Ha TennOBYIO 3Heprn*o Ha )Krli4JLLe c y'-eTOM 1 223 6e3 3aTpaT Ha oxpaHy oKpy>Katou4ev cpeAbi ................................. Puc. F-5 Bpo4,naB: 06LLeroAoBbie 3aTpaTbl Ha TennOBYIO 3Hepn4lO Ha >KmnwL4e c y'eTOM A 223 6e3 3aTpaT Ha oxpaHy OKpy)K2atI4e~i cpeAbi ................................

viii


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llpHBeCTH BCe 3TH HHBeCTIHIUIHH rIOg o6UH KOHTeKCT peCTpYKTYPH3aiUiH CeKTOpa. OH OCHOBaH Ha npoeiTe ESMAP "rIoBEiiueHHe 344eKTHBHOCTH CHCTeM TeCaJoCHa6KeHHS B

IJBE/lBCC", a Taioie Ha OrpOMHOM oribiTe pa6oTE,I B cdepe ueHTpaJI30BaHHoro (U{T) Kay B 3anaaHoR EBpone, TaK H B LUBE/BCC.

TerU[OCHa6weHHSA

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O

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KaK HHCTHTYItHOHanbHaS cpeza AOJDKHa H3MeHHTh>CA C TeM, tITo6bI cnoco6cTBoBaTB 3KOHOMIqHOA cHcTeMe ipe=oKCeHHA TerIJ1oBori 3HeprCH H cupoca Ha Hee?

O

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LUT ABjiseTCA ZOMHHHpy oLLez TexHojiorHeHl TeImoCHa6)KeHHIA.

B HccjiezoBaHHslx eeCTH rOpo0oB HCnOJIL3oBanIH oHHaKoByio MeTo,oAorHio, KKoTopaA genaiia yIIOp Ha alaJIH3 o67eMa 3aMeHbI OaHorO BHza TOnJIBa AipyrHM, BbI6HpaS MexKIy LIT H aABTepHaTHBaMH, TaKHMH KaK BHyTpHAIoMOBbIe HJIH KBaPTHPH6ie KOTJHI C HCIIOJib3OBaHHeM npHpoAHoro ra3a. Bonpoc KOHKypeHIIHH MeexJy BHaaMH TonJIHBa, Ho BCeil BHIHMOCTH,

He,0CTaTOqHLM 06pa3oM peiuaeTCA BO MHorHX TeXHHKO-3KOHOMHHeCKHX o6oCHOBaHHAX (T3O) CHcTeM LIT, KOTopibie 6E TH BbIIonHeHE.I paHee. MeTo,AonorHIx TaKoKe no gepKHy.na Ba)KHOCT.b

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Ho H3yqaeMEiM ripMmepaM H OCBeILIaOTCA KJInOtieB6Ie BOIIpOCEI, C KOTOpLIMH CTaJIKHBaIOTCS ripoitecc MOAePHM3auH CHCTeM LIT, KoMMepIxHaMlH3a x KOMnIaHHII B CeKTope TenrIOCHa6)KeHHSI Ir Tpe6oBaHHAI nojiHT1HNecKHx H3MeHeHHA. B HeM rIpegCTaBJIeH61 IpiHMep]61 HaHJiyxInef ripaKTHKH npH IIpOBe,aeHHH

pe4OpM

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ix

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KOTOPie 3aHHMaIOTCSI npo6JIeMaMH peCTpyKTYPH3aiXH ceKTopa TeIIIOCHa6)KeHHS o6ocHoBaHIHf iiO H (3) KOHCYJThTaHTaM IIpH IIoarOTOBKe TeXHHKO-3KOHoMiecKHx HHBeCTHIIHSM B ceKTope TenjiocHa6KeHHA.

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x


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XaTITHepa, MaypHiLa XeHKeMaHca, Top,a XonbMcTpoMa, rIaBna KaMHHCKH, OMHHHKa JIaiMaHa, JlacJIo JIOBeH, CaAMOH MaAIHeT, xiHMa My3a, MaHTaca HoruHyca, APTO HYOPKHBH, 3pHKa IleTepcoHa, H4OHyT IypHia, JH HiliHrnepa, KOHCTaHTHHa CKOPHKa, r3pH CTarFHHca, rOCH YTHMYPY, flerrH YHJIbCOH HaCTOAsIH

H CairmaHa 3axeepa.

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a TaKwoe uIpaBHTeJ1BCTBaM

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xi


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Mex(gyHapoAHas3 ¢HaHCoBaa KoPrIoPaI1HA HH3Koe aaeneHHe He3aBHCHMIMf ripOH3BOAHTejU, 3J1eKTpO3HeprHH 0T01HTeJIbHBIe KOTeiibHBIe npe,geJhHEIe H3gep KKH XIHTejibHoro

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cpe2AHee gawBeHHe CHCTeMa IjeHTPajiH30BaHHoro TeriJIocHa6>KeHHIA TAxcejioe TOnO0HOe MacJIo (ma3yT)

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xii


H3MepeHM5I

EgtHHI14A6

UTE BPHTaHcKaA TeIIJIOBa. eaRHHHua rKanI

rHraxajiopHs (OqHH MHJIMHOH KHJIoKaopHW{)

r,A

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KHJIOBaTi.

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'ac

MeraBaTT. 'ac

M3 meraBaTT 3JieKTPHieCKHM MT MeraBaiT TepMaiBHbMi TCY TOHHBI cTaHnxapTHorO yrZi TePauPKOYJIE

TAX

flepeBoc4 3HepreTL*iecKIlx ecUHHl4 IETE = 1,05506 Kg)K 1 FKaJI = 1,16 MBT.tq= 4,19 17)x= 1,75 napoBbie TOHHbI /Tiac 1 rL7x

= 0,278 MBT.ti== 0,239 FKai = 0,42 napOBrie TOHHrI /Mac

1 MBT = 0,86 FKaA = 3,6 fAxc= 1,52 iapOBbIe 1 m3 ippOHaHbir ra3

TOHHBI /ac = 8,5 MKaA (HH3=ik

TerIJIOTBOPHOCTH)

ripegen = 35,86 MNK = 9,88

KBT.Tq

1 TCY = 7 FKaii = 29,3 FAAc= 8,15

MBT.1l

BanloTHble 3KBHBanJeHTbI KypCE,I BaHjOT no oTHoueHHO K 1 zonuapy CLIA (CpegHHri 3a nepHo;z): EoArapHA

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(nieB)

(py6nm,)

YKpaHHa (rpiiBHa)

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1996 r.

178

4,0

2,70

3084

1999 r.

5067

2peXHHi 3a

1,84

1,83

4,0

3,97

15333

24,62

4,13

xiii


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KpyrrHuie UeHTP1IH3OBaHHbie CHCTeMbI IJT CTaIH riofyJIASPHBI B 50-x rogaX KaK cpeacTBo An.A yiiyqiimeHHA Bceo6wero 3HepreTHiecKoro 6ariaHca 6inaroaaps HCnOJib3OBaHOHIo Tennia TOIO'qHiiX ra3OB, o6pa3yiouuIxcA ITPH BbIpa6oTKe 3jieKTpo3HeprHH. TenJIoBbIe Harpy3KH npeAocTaBjisAnH B03MO)KHOCTE 3KCIIJIYaTaXHH rpeHMyIecTB xoM6HHHpoBaHHoro IIpOH3BOACTBa 3JieKTpo3HeprHH H TennIa. KT 3JIHeKTpOCTaHUHH C KOM6HHHpOBaHHLIM n1POH3BOACTBOM MOKeT oCTHmra,T 90 % E 6onee. TaKoe KoM6HHHpoBaHHoe ripOH3BOaCTBO

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HI 3ieKTpHtieCKORi (T3L1) ripegrparaeT cyWecTBeHHE,Ie BMIrOaI,I IIO CpaBHeHHIO C THI1HEHIM KIl,Z ripH BbIpa6oTKe 3IieKTpO3HeprHH HipHMepHO B 35 % Ha TeIJIOBLIX KoH,eHCaIIHOHHIAX 3eIKTpoCTaHimiX H IpH OTgeiiEHoM IIpOH3BOgCTBe Tenna OTOIIHTeJIEHbIMH KOTeJI,HEBIMH.

B cTpaHax IUBE/BCC npemyiecTBo T3Lt

6E,IH peanjH3OBaHbI iHIubE Ha CKPOMHOM ypOBHe, Ha HmeCOLUHik5Ir OTeHLHaii LIT. KaK npaBHnio, TOJIbKO He6oJIEuiasA 'aCTb, 3HeproCHa6)KeHHA[ B o6iueHaujOHaimHoM MacdTa6e HIPOH3BO,ZTCA Ha T3J. Hap3iAy c OTCYTCTBHeM Texo6CRy)CHBaHHA H E HHaHCHpOBaHHI TexHonorimecicoro ycoBepmeHcTBoBaHHIA, CHCTeMa UJT H riOEIKIo4eHHbe 3 aHHs B UBE/FCC CTaiiH cKopee CHMBOijaMH pacrpaTEi 3HeprHH, xeM 3HepreTwiecKoki 3c1MFeKTHBHOCTH. HoTpe6HTeirn He HeCMOTpq

MOryT KOHTPOJIHPOBsaTE, oTpe6JIeHHe Teiila, H pearHpyeT Ha rieperpeB, oTKpLiBaA oyHa, aaxKe 3HMObI. B pe3yjibTaTe BwIcoKHe H3,epxKH CHCTeM LIT CTaJIH IBHEIMH B Haqajie 90-x rozoB, KOrga ijeHbI Ha iTepBHqHbIe 3HeprOHOCHTeJIH B 3THX CTpaHaX BEIpOChIH O YpOBHei MHpOBEIX pEIHKOB.

BcJIe,cTBHe 3TOrO, 3anpamI Ha TenfjioBy1o 3HeprHio CTa&IH COCTaBISITb 3Ha'qHTeJE6HLie IHpOrOpLIHH OT AOXOJOB CeMEH H MYHHUHI1aE,EHbiX 6ion)eToB. Bgo6aBoK, BO MHOrHX ropoAax IIPOH3Bo.IcTBeHHbe MOLHOCTH LT BMeCTe c apyrHMN ( opMaMH HH.IHBHAyaJIbHOrO

OTOniieHHS IIpHBOAAT K 3arPS3HeHHiO BO3AyXa H CepEe3HO BJIHSEOT Ha 3nOpOBbe ropoacKHx )KHTeiieri. BCeMHpHEbIi BaHK, TaK 2Ke KaK H Apyrme MeICyHapOnHbIe H ABYCTOPOHHHe HHCTHTYTBI pa3BHTHS, ABjS1eTCA Ba)KHLIM HCTOxmHHKOM 4HHaHCHpoBaHHIA HHBeCTHUHIM B MoaRepHH3nauo ceKTopa TeriuOCHa6teHHA B LIBE/BCC. HaCTOAWHil OTHeT CTaBHT UeJIbIO IIpHBeCTH BCe 3TH HHBeCTHIIHH IIO,4 o6fHI KOHTeKCT peCTpyKTYPH3aIjH CeeKTOpa. OH OCHOBaH Ha ripoeKTe ESMAP "IlOBbnIIIeHHe 34FeKTHBHOCTH CHCTeM TeniOCHa6)IeHHA B [TBE/BCC" a TaKwe Ha orpOMHOM orinrre pa6oTEmI B c4epe gieHTpaiiH3oBaHHoro TerninoCHa6weHHs (ITT) KaK B 3ana,aHorI EBpone, TaK H B LIBE/FCC.

1


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27

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28

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TOrLIHBOM M0oKeT CJIY)KHT6 IIpHPOgHEIi ra3, KOMMYHanjEHi6i ra3, Ma3yT, yrOJIb, JIHrHHT HJIH, 6MmTB B HeKOTOpEIX pegKHx cnasAx, 6HoMacca. B HCKJInOHTTehHL1X CJIYtaqx TaKHCe Mo)KeT Ha3HaqeHHA: KOMMyHaji6Ho-6LITOBOrO TOIIJIHBO iierKoe HCIOJIb3OBaHO B HCIIOJTh3yeTCA He enie oTXogoB MycopocxraTenIHEe 3awogbI nio uepepa6oTKe "T lIOTOMY LIBE/BCC . IoJsL HCIIOJIE3oBBaHHA ra3a AoCTaToqHO BbICOKa H yBeiHtIHBaeTCSI, Oco6eHHO Iipe,nIrIOTaiOT 3TO TOIJIHBO ra3 OTjiHTaeTCSI qHCTOTOEIH JIerKoCT6io lpHmeHeHEH. B He6oJIbInHx KoTeJibHbIX. B HeCKOJ16KHX cTpaHax KpyrlHLIe TenIIfoueHHTpaiiH no 3aKOHY xaouixHibi pa6oTaTm Ha KoM6HHaL=HH ra3a H Ma3yTa HJIH apyrHx KoM66HHau:HAX, 'TO6MI CHH3HTE, 3aBHCHMOCTL ropoga H CTpaHEI OT Kaxoro-nH6o TOIJIHBa. Bo Bcex HcCiegOBaHHErx ropoxtax iipHOpogHLi ra3 SIBJiLeTcCs OCHOBHEIM BHgOM ToIUiHBsa AJIA TelljIoiteHTpaIieH, 3a HcKJnoTieHHeM

BpouiaBa H THMHmoapEi, rge COOTBeTCTBeHHO ripeo6uiaaaIOT yroJIE H nIHrHHT.

3.1.3.2

CucmeMa mpaHcnopmupoeKu UpacnpedeneHuR

CHcTeMa TpaHcriOpTHPOBKH Tenra KpyIIHori ceTH LIT BTopiHHoro

pacnpeeeieHms. THn4wmasq ceTE 1T

COCTOHT H3

COCTORT H3

HepeAatM,

nepBHqHOrO H

CiapeHHEIX Tpy6 nOaBog=eA H

un6o no 6eTOHHBIM o6paTHoA JHHHH W EILHpKy3MIHH ropsAeM BO,ZI, KaHailaM, ni6o no nOBePXHOCTH 3eMJIH. CHCTeMa nepega'H COCTOHT H3 MarHcTpaieii, HIYIMHX OT IeHTpamHOk T3WOK. 06brHo JIHHHES nepe.aaH HMMeeT aocieAOBaTeIbHjIe ripOzOxceHHrIX

KoHeit iHHHH nepeAaqH Ei Haqano oTBeTBJIeHHA Ha nepBHlfHyWo ceTEm pacupegeuieHmE. CHCTeMLIpacnpeAeAeHHs onpeaeuAeTcsA npoH3BoJE6HO. rIepBHtHas

CHCTeMa

pacnpeaeuieHHA

iipOJiO)KeHHLIX OT nmrHnH BMecTe cHcTeMbi iiepeAa'I

16

COCTOHT

H3

IOABOZtEUHX

Tpy6orpoBoxOB,

nepegaqH go

(ileHTpaTIHLIX HMJ KBapTaniBHEIX) TeHJIotIyHKTOB. H riepBH-Horo pacnpeeieneHHs COCTaBBJIAIOT rIepBHtHyio ceTb.

MycopociraTeawmHe 3aBoAbi ,xnu ioKpEiTHA 6a3HCHofi Harpy3KH TerLUIocHa6xceHxR HMeiOTCA B 3anaAHOiU EBpone H6onime Bcero Hx BO DpaHiU. (24 %). B 6rnixaHmeM 6yzWmeM BLIBEAICC HX He co6HpaloTCSi CTPO}ITB H3-3a BbICOKIHX HHBeCTHXMHOHHIX 3aTpaT. Ho B aaiHekmefi nepcneicrBe c)KHraHHe Ha T3L1, KaK o)KH,aaeTcR, 3aMeHHT CBanKH.


IloBEbimeHHe 3#1eITHBHOCTH CHCTeM Ten1OCHa6fKeHHA B CTpaHaX LgeHTpajihHOA H BOCTO'HHOUi EBPOrmxI H pecny6iixax 6lBimero CoBeTcKoro C0o03a

39

Tpy6oIHpOBO.zbI OT UeHTpaYibHLIX TeIIJIOnYHKTOB CHa6)iaioiiIHe HeCKOJIBKO 3gaHHi, COCTaBJSOT BTOPHWqHYIO pacnpezenIHTeJIHYIO CHCTeMy. B CHCTeMe C npSiMbIM TpaHCfiOPTOM TenRa B 3ZaHM pa3geaeHHe MexJy nIepBH'1HOrl H BTOPHqHEIM paCripeae.ieHHeM ABJ1IeTCq

HPOH3BOJhH6IM.

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noIl1OTaBfIHBaeTCA B TeIIJ1OIIYHKTe m COOTBeTCTBeHHO BTOpHHHa5

(FBKEB) o6LrbHo CeTB OCHaiiieHa Tpex- HIiH peiiieHHA TennionyHKTOB

CHCTeMoH (CM. PHc. 3-1). TexHHwecKHe pa3iHmaIOTCA rIo CTpaHaM. B PYMMIHHH, rge OHI CHa62KaiOT 6onbiEIoe KOjiH tIeCTBO 3R(aHH7, 9JIHHa OTBeTBjieHHi& BTOpHxIHOH CHCTeMbi BeCbMa BeniHKa (HHorga aJIHHHee riepBHt1HOr CHCTeMBI). B BojirapHIr 60JIBMHHCTBO TeIIJIOIIYHKTOB 6BIJIH C03ZaHBI B OTeJIRbHbIX 31gaHHMX KaK B 3anaAlHoeBponeAcKHx CHCTeMaX, HO 6e3 CJIOKHBIX YCTPOiCTB KOHTpOIAS H 4eTBipexTpy6HOF

yperyJIHpoBaHHAs (CM. TaK)iKe Ta6n.

3-3).

Koppo3Is

ABjiSeTCA OCHOBHO:R iipO6IIeMOH PSI TenuIoceTeRi, IIOTOMY 'ITO BbI3BIBaeT 6ojanBHe IIOTePH BOAEJ H coKpaniaeT CpOK TeXHHIIeCKO cJIy)Kf6I. B CHCTeMax, KOTopeIe OTJIH'aioTCS BEICOKHMH IIOTeP1MR BO2Li, riOCTOAHHO Tpe6yeTcSq o6aBJSTb, nOqrnHTO'HyIO BOgy; HHorga 6o0iee 100 pa3 B ro,. B 3anagHof& EBporie COBpeMeHHEie TeXHOJIOrHH He Tpe6yloT (HanpHMep, B (DHHAsHaHH) 6onee oaHoro HJIH AByx flOIIOflHeHHi B roRt. rIOMHMO arpeCCHBHMIX riog3eMHBIX BOa, noriagaIOEHX B 6eToHHMie KaHaJIIE, nOAtnHTOqHaq Boga nLoxoro Ka'eCTBa B3nSeTCS1 OCHOBHOM ripHxiHHOii KOPpO3HH Tpy6. TiaCTO MOIIHOCTH YCTaHOBOK 110no rOTOBKe BOblI, KOTopBIe o6bmno HaXOZSTCS Ha TeppHTOpHH TellJIOueHTpaJIek, HegOCTaTOmHbi, XIA TOrO, xrro6E 6opOTmCA C TaKHMH OrpOMHbIMH

rIOTepfMH BO,LI.

KaK B 3ana,lHoeBponieAcKHx npeo6na,4aioLueA cpe.ozrr o6LMO TOJILKO u1 riogax'

cTpaHax,

TaK

H

B

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us

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nepega'M Teniia H ero pac1ipeaejieHHA; nap HC11Ojib3yeTCA npoMbIuJeHHbIM noTpe6HTeIsAM. Aaice eciiH nap 11pOH3BO2iHTCA rIO(aM'H HeiTpOMbEeHHbiM rioTpe6HTeniM, OH ripeo6pa3yeTCs B ropsAylo BO,Ay, TaKHM ni o6pa30M, BLI3LmBa 3HatITejiEHme noTepH 3HeprHH.

3.1.3.3

3KcnnyamaUuR U peeynupoeaHue cemeui

LJT B 1IBE/SCC 6bm KpexHM YCTazHOBHBsIerocS B 3araIHoeBporierCKHx CHCTeMax 1pHMeHAeTCA pe)HM HeYCTaHOBHBiDeroCA Te1eHHAL (CM. Pa3zei 3.1.6). B OCHOBHOM ycTaHOBHBmeecS TeHeHHe O3Ha'aeT, 'iTO TenniOCHa6XKeHHe H TenJIonoTpe6IieHHe peryniHpyeTcsi nyTeM H3MeHeHHS1 TemnepaTyp I TeqeHIHA (06EdHHO B ,Hana3OHe 70 - 130 0 C). Bao6aBoK, OCHOBHLIM

peXIHMOM 3KCn1UyaTa9WH

CHCTeM

TexieHHA

B03MO)KHO

OipaHzHeHHoe

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HacocBi,

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repBHxIH9IX

reHepHpyioiflHx YCTaHOBKaX, nepeKa-iHBaIoT BOAy WIS ceTeH, a (KBapTajnbHEie) Teriu1oriyHKThI nepeKaxiHBaioT ee BO Ha


40

floBbllleHUe 34ceKTHBHOCTH CHCTeM TenrocHa6x(eHHA B CTpaHaX LUeHTpaJI6HOH z BOCTOHqHOfi EBPOnml H pecny6fntax 6blBmero COBeTCKoro CofO3a

BTOPIHHY1O ceTm. BcdoMoraTeJ,HuIe HacocHi6Ie CTaHL4HH MOrYT 6E,ITE, PaCriOjOKeHbI B pa3JIHxIH],IX TOIKaX CeTH AJIA KOMneHCauHH rIOTepb gaBjieHHA.

,IpyrHM pa3JIHnHeM B 3KCiifYyaTaMHH ABJiAeTCH TO, 'ITO OTOnineHHe rOpOAcKHX iOMeIUIeHHf4 B CHCTeMaX 1IBE/BCC 06bMHO BKjUOIoaeTCS JIHIIIb TOJILKO BO BpeMS OTOrIHTeZJTHOrO ce3OHa.

OH HalHHaeTCS KOrga cpegHeCYTOiHaAs TeMriepaTypa nagaeT ,0 oripegeneHHOrO noporOBOrO YPOBHS (8 - 10 0C) IIpHMepHO B TeHeHHe nITHa Herl niogpg H 3aKaHMBsaeTCS Korga cpeZJHA TemrepaTypa

CTOHT

BbIlnle

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IIPHMePHO

B

TeIeHHe

InITH

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pel'HOHOB

iiOMeIeHHIi H IBKEB 0OCTYIIHEM B TeCIeHHe Bcero roga. TexHiecIKH He 6yqeT npo6neMbI AY, B TOM xiHcjie H JI OTOnIU[eHSH noMeigeHHk, BHe ofHgHaJIbHoro noxaBaTb ropAsiyBo OTOrIHTeJILHoro nepHo,a B LWBE/ECC. KOMI1aHHH LIT B 3anajaHok EBporoii CTaPaEOTCSI ,ao6HTnCA BE,ICOKOii Harpy3KH IieTOM, T.K. 3TO yfy'aeT 3KCIImyaTaJLHIO arperaTOB KOM6HHHPOBaHHOrO nPOH3BOXACTBa H Be,=eT K I1OBI6iIeHIMO rpoga)K 3neKTpo3HeprHH.

3.1.3.4

Tennonepedaia u o6opydoeaHue nompe6umeneu

TenMoniepega,Ia Ha TeIIJIOnyHKTaX MOKeT 6E,ITE "npSAMol" HiiH "KOCBeHHOH". "KocBeHHas" 03HalqaeT, qTo Tenno nepegaeTcsA iepe3 TeIuIoo6MeHHHKH OT nepBH'IHOrI K BTOpHiIHOH ceTH; 3aTeM CHCTeMBI rH,paBnHxiecKH pa3,qeJMIlOTC2. KaK lipSMaS, Tax KOCBeHHEbie CHCTeMbi moryr B 1JBE/BCC gawe B OLtHOR H TOii we ceTH. B napanieimHo 3CIIJIYaTHnOBaThCAS 3aiia,gHOeBpOeiiCKHX cTpaHax npeo6fa,naeT KOCBeHHaS CHCTeMa (CM. rIPHnox)KeHHIe D). TOJI6KO B He6ojTiiiHx CHCTeMax ipHMeHSieTcA iipSiMaS TeIffonepeRaaa.

HaLeneHa Ha H3MeHeHHIA pa6o0mx napaMeTpoB, T.e. 3KCIJIyaTTHpyeTCI IPH TeMnepaTypi H 2aaBjieHHX. B TO BpeMSI KaK nepBHxlHaS cem 0o6bLEHo 7 6onee BLICOKHX TemnepaTypax (HanpHMep, 135 / 65 C)1 , BTOpHqHble TerIjioceTH CHcTeMa KOcBeHHOAi TeimonepexaW

3KCI1JIYaTHSPYOTCI

rIPH TaKHX

2Ke

HH3KHX

TeMriepaTypax, xrTO H BHYTpeHHHe CHCTeME,I B

0 3,4aHH3LX (HanpHmep, 95/75 C).

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O

nIyTeM OTaeieHRHA ceref OT

o6OPY,AOBaHHs

no'rpe6nTeiefi, BpeaHoe BO3,IeACTBie,

B3ATHAI o6ycjiOBYieHHoe oce,aioHM, 3arps3HeHHeM, He3aKOHHLiM UorIKjIoxieHHeM H36eHcaTn. MO)KHO T.,., H (IIO,anIHTO'nHOl) BOAbI, nionagaHHeM BOAbI nioxoro Ka'eCTBa

TaKHm o6pa3oM, aoporocToxmee nepBH'Has ceTm Mo)KeT 6EbIT, nyqIue 3aiiHnieHa OT KOppO3HH.

O

KoCBeHHaA

Tennonepegaia

nO3BoJSAeT

6ojiee

344eKTHBHO

nPOH3BOXHTE

peYJIEpHOBaHHe ceTH.

17

kepBaa u.Hpa o3HamaeT TemnepaTypy noxAoaa,

a BTOpaA TeMnepaTypy o6paTHorO TeruOHOcHTenix.


rIoBbniuieHHe 34feKTHBHOCTH CHCTeM Tern1OCHa6)XeHHSl B CTpaHaX

I.eHTpalibHOA

H BOCTOHHOHi EBPOBIi H

41

pecny6Mmxax 6bxBmero CoBeTcKoro C0ol3a KaK IIOKa3aHO Ha PHC. 3-1 CyiLgeCTByIOT pa3jiHIbIe KOHIlefIHHH CTaHlHZi TenJoInepega-IH: TemnoriepeAaHa MO)eT

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cjiyqae

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TerIJIOIYHKT

BHYTPH 32gaHHA

HanIPZMYIO

B

nogKinoliaeTcs

B OTHOIIeHHe

pacnooceHHA

MaIeHBKHX TenjIIOHyHKTaX. B K

BHYTPHIAOMOBOrf

CHCTeMe

pacIIpe,AeneHHsA. Temnoriepega'a MOweT IIpOHCXOAHTb B OTJXeJIBHO9 CTpyKType, KOTOpaS B CBOIO oqepem o6cJIyHXMBaeT HeCKOJIIKO 3,aHam4. CooTBeTCTBeHHO TeII1IO rIogaeTCS OT

O

BTOpHRHOfi

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B CHCTeMy BHYTpHAOMOBOrO

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pacipeae.neHHIA; OTCYTCTByeT

,I

OTOnIIeHHA I1OMeefeHHil. rIO.rOTOBKa rBKI3B MO)KeT 6bIm ripOBegeHa ueHTPaRR30BaHHO Ha CTaHuHH nepezaI, ITO Tpe6yeT HaIH'mA TpexHIiH qeTmIpexTpy6HOfi CHcTeMbI. 14nZ OHa MO)KeT 6bITB AeUeHTpaJHZ3BaHa B OTAeJIbHbIX 3ZaHHMX, TaKHM o6pa3oM rpe6ys HaJimHe TerLJoo6MeHHHKa B Kia)lOM 32IaHHH. O

TerinonepeRaaIa

MO)KeT IIPOHCXO,ZHTB B OTZeJTHOR CTpyKType,

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14eM

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B

CTaHilHX TemonepenaaH H AUHHHee BTOpHIqHaS KOCBeHHOti CHCTeMe, KOTOpbIe MOHO H4CHOJTb3OBaTb.

ceT,

TeM

MeHbIlie

Ho-BHnHMOMy, 6o0iHHcTBo CHCTeM UT B UBE/BCC HmeIOT IIYHKT KOCBeHHOH TernonepeAa,H r,Ze-TO B ceTx 1112. ToJsIIO He3HaTeJIbHO HX KOIqeCTBO IIOCTaBJSOT TeIIJIO IIP3IMO OT TeriIofleHTpaiei BO BHYTPHAOMOBbIe pacIlpe[eflHTejIbHmIe CHcTeMbI. B OCHOBHOM AnIA KOCBeHHOz Termuonepega' 6bmi Bbi6paH 6o0iee tIeHTpaJIH3OBaHHbIHl BapHaHT; 3T0 03Haqaer o6cnyxcHBaHHe 6o0mmero H HeIIOCTOSHHoro IHcna 3a3aHRA BMeCTO oTAenjbHMx 3L1aHH9. HCIIOJI63oBaHHe TeXHOJIOrHH paCpeIeJIeHH51 TerIa B meciTH ropozax NOKa3aHO B

Ta6n. 3-3. B 3anangHori EBpone npeo6ra,gaeT KocBeHHaS TelIAonepe,a'Ia c

HCHOfIb3OBaHHeM

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3.1.3.5 3

daHuR u o6opydo6aHUR nompe6umeneuj 19

ropoga B UBE/BCC 6BulH c poeKTHpoBaHLi c pacieToM Ha iIeHTPaJIH3OBaHHoe TenjrocHa6IeHHe H ropAee BOAOcHa6)KeHHe. BOJTh6MHHCTBO ropoAcKHx xKHTeJieH- 1KByT B 6ojiniuHx MHOrOKBapTHPHbIX noMax, KOTOpBIe MOryT HMeTb OT Tpex A0 ABalaTH H 6oiee 3TaxKer4. B 50-60-e ro,g1I 60JImHHCTBO IIOCTpOeHHbIX MHOrOKBapTHpHBIX aOMOB 6buiH camoe 6omianee =I5TH3TaKH)me. 103AHee B 70-x H 80-x IIOA1BHJIOC6 MHioro 11eBATH- H meCTHa,Z=IaTH3Ta)KHBIX 3AaHHA, qaCTO B KHJIE1X pagoHax Ha oKpaHHax ropoAoB HJIH Ha 18 19

lpHnojeHHe D aaeT 3TOT

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Pa3z1eu

24, (BawUHrTOH, OKpyr KonyM6wq, BCeMIUPHblI BaHK, 1997 r. Transition 24, Washington, DC, The World Bank, 1997, pp. 7-91

C.

7-9) [Studies of Economies in


42

rIOBbImeuHe 344eKTHBHOCTH CHCTeM TeriocHa6feHHA B cTpaHax 1jeHTpanbHoii H BOCTOIHOfr EBpOnLI H pecny6nHxax 6blBrnero CoBeTcKoro Co0O3a

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iipegeiiamH rOPO.OB. 3Ta cxema Pa3BHTHAI B HeKOTOpi6lX

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qeM

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B CaMHX

째20,21

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H

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Bojiibmasi

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20

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TunutiHbiu pa3Mep (MBm3,

+ MBm

(/)

TunuiHbze UHweCMUUyu

o0Hbie

mep))

3ampambi

(N) 90

42

48

500

CLIIA/IBm) 1400

90 90

38 28

52 62

100 20

1600 1200

90

35

55

150

750

94

48

46

T3I c ra3oeH3jEhHuM ABHraTenem 85 45 a. OnpeaeeseTcB RKa ((MBT3 ,+MBTT.p)/MBT pacxo, TonJIHBa).

200

950

40

2

1200

KoHaeHcaUIoHHo-Termo4HKaxuaoHHaR T3I Ha yrnie rIpoTHBonaaneHqecKaA T3U Ha yrne T3U c He6oJnlEUHMH ra3OBbIMH Typ6HHaMH

T3I c 6oAbinERvH

m3nOBMH

Typ6HHaMH

T3U c napora30oBoH Typ6HHofi C icoM6HHHpoBaHHbIM LIKJOM (nrTKJ) Hcmo0wuK: COTPYIHHMH BceMHpHoro EaHKa.

3.1.4.3

i4Heecmu4uu

C

U,enbio

CHuWKeHUSI

epedHbIX

ebi6pOCOe

om

mennoaneKmpom4eHmpaneu Cami6rl BacHbrig 3KojiorH[ecKHA acnieKT B ceKTope LIT OTHOCHTCS K 3arpS3HeHHio BO3)yXa B pe3yjiBTaTe IHCIIOJIb3OBaHHA yriis H ma3yTa, Ka=KfbIf H3 KOTOPIX o6bmIHo HMeeT BMICOKoe

cepocoaepwKaHHe. (Bonee iioXpo6Hbif aHWaH3 3KojiorHqecK4x npo6neM IIpHBeqeH B Pa3zlene 4.3, rnaBa 4.). 'IaCTo aziiHTeYLbHoe HCIIOJIB3OBaHHe 3THX BHAOB TOnJIHBa He COBMeCTHMO C MeCTHbIMH HoPMaMH H CTaHZapTaMH KaqecTBa Bo3Xyxa. rIpe,4IUpH3ITHIo [JT ripHiuJIocB 6bI HHBeCTHPOBaTT B o6opyAoBaHie nIo xecyrn4ypaijHH HIiH nepeEiTm4 Ha npHpOZHLrIa ra3. EciiH IIPOZOJM Tej3THocTh 3KOHoMHIeCKO )KH3HH T3IVOK He ripeBmiiaeT 10-12 neT, He HmeeT cMEIcJia ycTaHaBJIHBalT o6opyAoBaHHe zisi aecyjIIypaiuHH. Korua rIpHXOlaHTCS pemaTm BOIIpOC HHBeCTHIIEI4H B HOByiO T3LI, BBI6op TPOH3BO4HTCS Mee=y ra3oBoA Typ6HHoA C KOM6HHHPoBaHHMLM IJHKIOM (FTK0 H HOBbIM COBpeMeHHBiM T3LJ Ha yrJie, OCHaijJeHHBIM

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3KOHOMHWIHbIM

xmaecyjTbh4ypa1UHH. B BpoinaBe iiepBbri BapHaHT oKm3ajcH

(FJIaBa

4). 3aecb, KaK H BO MHorHX roponax IlojuiH, HCrIoJIE30sBaHHe yrjsI B AOMOBEbIX KOTjiaX HJIH OK, KOTOpBIe cHa6)KaioT TenriOM He6ojibiuHe H30IHPOBaHHbIe CeTH, CHCTeMaTH'eCKH cHH)KaeTcs, .1H60 6narogaps HcriOJIb3oBaHHIo ipHpo,aHoro ra3a JIH6o rIoAKIIIoqeHHio H30JIHPOBaHHbIX ceTeH K 6ROKHpOBaHHO9 CHCTeMe LIT.


48

rIOBBImeHHe 34XeKrHBHOCTH CHCTeM TerlMIOCHa6feHMsi

B cTpaHax UeHTpanbHOiN H BOCTOHONi EBPOIII H

pecyiy6ncKax 6EIBmero CoBeTcKoro CoIo3a

3.1.5 1lHeemuL4uu a L4eJX CHu)KxeHUs mexHu'eccux nomepb npu nepeaaie u pacnpeedeneHuu27 Tpy6onpo6odHbie mexHonoauu

3.1.5.1

B CHcTeMax LIT B cTpaHax IJBE/BCC IIpesHMyieCTBeHHo HCIIOJIb3yeTCS TexHojiorHS, r.e BaTo1 Him nIeHo6eTOHOM. Tpy6bi o6u6iHo CTaJIHE,Ie Tpy6bI H30JIHYIoTCS MHHepaiiEHO uIpOKmaI,aIBaEOTCS IIOa 3eMjieii B 6eTOHHE,IX Kopo6ax, KOTOpbIe 3a1HHiaEOT Tpy6orDpOBOa OT . Ha HeKOT0pEJX yxiacTKax BHe]nHero gaBsneHHA H IIo3BOJITIoT gpeHHPOBaT]T BOA.y Tpy6oupoBoxHog CeTH, oco6eHHO B CHCTeMe riepe,awuI, Tpy6wI iipojio0xeHLI Hag rIOBepXHOCTM,O 3eMJIH.

rIpe,ZBapHTeJIhHO

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HeriOCpeACTBeHHO Ha rpyHT, CTanIH

AOMHHHpyioiiIeii TexHojiorHefi B 3anaWofi EBPOne, H HaqaiHE IInpHMeHSThCS B CHCTeMaX IUT B LIBE/BICC c KOHiua 80-x roroB. OHH COCTOST H3 BHyTpeHHefl CTajThHOH Tpy6EI, riojiHypeTaHOBOfi H30JHHH H BHemiHero Ko)Kyxa H3 B,ICOKOnJIOTHoro iiojiH3THneHa, KOTOPEJH He HYx<gaeTTC B 6eTOHHOM KOpo6e. HO HIOCKOJIEKY TeXHOlorHIS C npeABapITenIbHOi 3onIgHek Tpy6 o6xoAHTcM gopoxe, 'eM TexHoflor-RA co CTaJIbHOH Tpy6ori, ilocJieAHAq IIpOgofl)KaeT HaXOAHTB IpHMeHeHHe. CHTyalAHsI H3MeHHTCS, Korga 6yAyT YCTaHOBJIeHUI rioKpOKpEITHS peaJMHbIX paCXOgOB Ha 6eToH, CTajTh, MHHepaJIbHyiO BaTy H pwIHotIHwIe UeHI Z TpyAOBwIe pecypcbI6.

nomepu menna UeOdbI

3.1.5.2

MO)KHO OileHRTh o6luee OCyLueCTBJieHHI iipOr-paMME6I MOZePHH3auHH H KaTeCTBO CHCTeMMI pacripe,ejieHsA. 29I;o peKoHcTpyKuHH, 60JIBnmHCTBO cHcTeM 1xT IUBE/13CC xapaKTepH3oBaJIHCL BEICOKHMH B 1IOTePS1MH BOAbI H 3HeprHH, IO CpaBHeHHIO C CHCTeMaMH 3arlazHoeBpo1efiCKHX ropogax. Ta6n. 3-3 C 3aIIazuHoeBpoIIeACKHMH CTaHgapTaMH CpaBHHBaiOTCA 11OTepH TeIIJIi H BOALbI B iiiCTH HCCneZOBaHHEIX ropoxax. TeiIrnioTepH OieHHBaK)TCs 1IpH6JIH3HTeJIIEHo H3-3a TOrO, t qTO B 60o,ImIHCTBe CHICTeM IT HmeeTcA JIHIIU He3HaIHTeJThHoe KoJIHqeCTBo nIpH60poB yqeTa TerIna. BonbmasA qaaCm MoIL1HoCTe2 nO B,Ipa60TKYH TeJIfOTEI 3aMepSeT (c 6onEImer HJIH MeHEimeH TORHOCTLIO) Telnno, noraBaeMoe Ha CHCTeMy paciipe;xejieHHA. Bce 6oimiiee qHcj]o CBOe o6opyxOBaHHe, HO H3-3a OTCYTCTBHA 1ieHTPaZJTHLIX TeIIIOI1YHKTOB o6HOBft SeT nPH6opoB yqea TenIIa B3gaHHAx, IIoTepH BTOPHqHOg CeTH He MOryT 6En,B 3aMepeHEbI. I4, Kax

rIyTeM

oiipeaejieHHA nOTeph TenIia H BOA2TI

IIpaBHJIO,

HOBEIe

COBpeMeHHEIe

H

TeIIOnIYHKlTh,

qaCTOTLI aBapHi

KOTOPIme

o6biqHo

YCTaHaBBjHBaiOTCA

B

OTXeZJIBHBIX 3AaHHRX, OCHaIIXeHbI ipH6opaMH yieTa Tenna.

C 06cUINM HHABeHepHbwMH KoH4jHrypawmMH CHCTeM UT B UBE/BCC, a Taxoe pe)KHM4MH TeMnepaTypbI, ABaieHHS H pa6oTbi CM. lpwio)KeHHe. D. nOaJDKHa 66ITb BeHTHnsAXHA KpoMe TOrO, =A 6opb61C BRna)KHOCTEO lacToTa aBapHA Mo)KeT AaTb liHuEb pNH6jiH3HTejibHylo KapTHHy COCTOAHHA CHCTeMbI. He cyiecTByeT CTaH,apTHOrO onpeAeneHHs TepMHHa "aBapHsA". Ee3 KnaCCH4HIKaLaHH aBapKH TaKoKe He ACHO, ABJISeTCB JIH perHctpatuo OHa KpynHoN NHn He6oAbuioA. OzxHaKo, npeAnonaraM, *TO npeanpHATue LUT 6yaeT BecTH aBapHi cOr.naCHO HeH3MeHHbLiM paBHnaM, AHHaMHKa aBapNH Ha flpOTADKeHHH HecKojThKHx ineT ,aCT o3HaKoMjneHH 27 A1M

28 29

nofle3HYIO KHHcopMauHIO 0 COCTOS0HHH CHCTeMbi.


rIoBEJIleHHe 3c4eKTHBHOCTH CHCTeM TeflnOCHa62ReHHA B CTpaHaX UIeHTPaBJbHOf H BOCTOHHOHi EBpomVI H

49

pecny6AHKax 6bxBiuero CoBeTcKoro Co0I3a

B Ta6J. 3-3

IoiKm3aHLI BbICOKHe rIOTepH B CHCTeMaX LIT B I|BE/FBCC iio cpaBHeHHIO C CHCTeMaMH LIT B 3anaaHoR EBporie. OHa TamoKe oTpa)KaeT HaTIHxHe HeaOCTaTKOB y IIepBHIqHbIX CHCTeM pacnpez:eJieHHA, 1o CpaBHeHHIO C BTOpHITHbIMH. I4MeeTcI HeCKOJ1bKO npHxIHH 3TOMY. TernoIIOTepH 3aBHCST OT Te,ieHHAs BOabI, TemnepaTypbi ropAeH BOZbI (Ha

BXoge H B o6paTHoM Tpy6OIIpoBOae), Temnepaiypbi oKpy)Kwaoiero Bo3,yxa, 11OBepXHOCTH Tpy6, XIHHbI Tpy6 H cFH3xiecKIx CBOHICTB HC1IOIEb3yeMbIX MaTepHajOB. I4Horza KaKOiiHH6yA2b

)aKTOp CBOaEHT Ha HeT BO3geHCTBHe

,pyrHx;

HHorga OH YCHhIHBaeT HX. IIO0t3eMHbIe

BOAbI H.IH CTOIHbIe BO,jbI, IpOHHicaK)o1He B 6eToHHbue KOpO6bI, He6nIaronpHsTHo B03aeHCTBYIOT Ha CBOHCTBa H3010HOHHOrO MaTepHaIia, BI3bliBaS BLICOKHe TerIJIoflOTepH. He6ojinasa ,ZIHHa CeTH MO)KeT yMeHMIlHTb IIOTepH; KpyrIHaS CeTb MO)KeT YCH1IHTb BO3geHiCTBHe TeiiJionoTepb. Bojiee HH3KHe cpeqHHe TemnepaTypbi ropsAefl BOAbI BO BTOpHT4HLIX CeTAX BbI3LBalOT CpaBHHTeibHO MaAbIe IIOTepH, a BbICOKHe TeMnepaTYPbI B 1iepBHIqHbIX CeTsX OTHOCHTenjbHO BbICOKHe rlOTepH. QAHaKo 6o0iee HH3KHe 1IOTepH BO BTOPHWHEIX ceTAx MOryT 6b1m HeRTpaJIH3OBaHbI BO3AeACTBHeM qpyroro 4aKTOpa, TaKOrO KaK 60IblImH4 MaCCOBbfIH pacxoa. BuICOKHH YpOBeHb 11OTepb BOabI B 60JlbIHHcTBe CHCTeM IT B HCCJ1e2OBaHHAX yKa3bIBaeT Ha rIJIOxOe TeXHHxieCKOe COCTOAHHe TenIiOCeTefi, KOTOpb1ie CKJIOHHblI K KOppO3HH. fIOTepH BO,bI TaK)Ke CHJIbHO BJIHLIOT Ha BbiCOKHe TelIJIOrIOTepH. COCTOXIHHe BTOPHWIHOH paCripe,aeIHTe2bHOH ceTH xiaCTO IBJiLeTCA OCHOBHOH flpH1tHHOrf ,21JIA BbICOKOrO YPOBHA 11OTepb Teniia H BOp;bI B CHCTeMaX IUT B IUBE/BCC. TenulonoTepH go 25 % iaCTO MO2KHO

o6HapyXMTL BO BTOpHxIHOM pacnpeaeneH4H 1no cfiely1o1HM rpHxiHHaM:

Ta6num4a 3-3. CpasBHeHmS nOTep6 BOAbI u pac4eTHb;x noTepb Tenna npu nepega'4e M pacnpegenleHUU B UCCneAOBaHHbIX ropoAax 14 B 3anaAHoh EBpone

Fopoo

17omepu eo0b3 (nonoiueHue KO CceMy o6?eMy, KoJzu'IeCm6o

Temnonomepu (94 om eeo6uMozo menaa 6 cemb)

Tun emopuwnoa cucmeMbi

,AuHa cemeu, nepeutiHan / 6mopu4laR, KM

lIeTipexTpy6HaA npfMaA

89/ 296

repBHMHaA: 14% BTopHiHKaA: 24%

4eTIEpexTpy6HaA nppmaA

268 /102

rIepBHn'Hax: 9%a BTopHllHaA: 25%

MqeripexTpy6Ha (100%/o) npAMaA (70%)

103 310

aByxTpy6HaA

827 / 0

pacnpe6ewumeAbHou

paS e 2zo) biienponeTpoBcK KayHac

nlepBHtmam: 40 H/,a HlepBHqHaA: 40

OpeH6ypr

BTopHIMas: H/FI rIepBHHHaA: 40

BTopHHaA:

H/A rlepBmHHax: 40

BTopu'lHax:

CO4MA

rlepBHnHaA:

BTopu'iHaA:

H/lA

25%

Bcero: 20%

Bcero: 26 THMHlluoapa

BHYTPHAOMOBLie TennonyHKThI

rlepBn'IHaq: 29 BTopMMHas: 155

BpounaB

rIepBHqHaA:

40

MepBHHHax:

9%

'leTmipexTpy6HaA

BTopMMHas: 18%

npAMaq

88 / 302

KOCBeHHaA

Bcero: 24% Bcero: 11%

aByxTpy6Has

49/360

BHYTpHAOMOBlie

3ananHoemponercKa

Bcero: MaxcmmMajnHo

cHcTeMa H/.a: HeT zaHHb]x a. ToAaKo cHcTeMbi nepeAawlH; A

Hlcmo0inuU: ESMAP

1-5

paa

BTOpHWHaA BK=oiaeT ropoAoB.

Hcc.neAosaHHA

TenflOnyHKThi (60%)

repBHwHal: 5-10%

BHyTpH)IOMOBble

BTopHiHasA: 0%

TenjionyHKThI

nepBH'IHoe pacnpeaeneHme.

H/


50

noBlMieHHe 344eTKTHBHOCTH CHCTeM TennOCHa6)KeHHA B cTpaHax UIeHTPajThHOfl HBOCTO'IHOii EBPOnbI H pecny6iiHxax 61IBsmero CoBeTcKoro Co0o3a

L

KBapTaJbHIe TeIIJIoiyHxTbi, rge HCIIOJIb3yIOTCS

TeiIUoo6MeHHHKH

oTIeIieHHM

AJIAI

BTOpHIHOAi paciipeAenHTenIbHOr ceTH, rpeaHa3Ha&eHHOi 0Mo6orpeBa ioMeeLeHHH, OT flepBHIHOii, 'aCTO HMe1OT rpo6neMbi C IPOH3BOaCTBOM B HHX IIO=HTO%IHOMi BOAbI MoMeHT, KOTOpbIII CyiueCTBeHHO CHH?KaeT cpe=HHl CpOK cny)K6EI BTOpIHb1IX Tpy6 no CpaBHeHHI1O c Tpy6aMH B nepBHHHORi CeTH. Apyrok IIpHxIHHOi1 AJIA YCKOpeHHOf IBjiSieTCSl TO, HTo TeHeHHe BOg,1I BO BTOpHIHOA pacnpeAejiHTeJIbHor4 CeTH,

KOPpO3HE

o6orpeBa rioMeeieHHi, IipegHa3HapIeHHOA OTOlHTeJIE,HOrO ce3oHa. KW YpOBHS

TeIIJIoriepegatH

3acopeHHA TeIIoo6MeHHHKOB,

rIpeKpaiuaeTcs riocne OKOHIIaHHS HaCTO CHH)KaeTCSI H3-3a BbICOKOrO

BE,I3BaHHOrO MHHepaEJIJHEMH oTno)KeHHSMH.

MIeTEmpexTpy6Hb6Ie CHCTeME,I oco6eHHO Majio3b4eKTHBHE,I. B Ta6ni. 3-3 rIOKa3aHa H qeTKaM B3aHMOCBS36 Mee=Iy BJ.ICOKHM YPOBHeM nOTepE, IIPH TpaHCnOpTe TelJIOTEI lIeTi,IpexTpy6HLIX CHCTeM. rBKBB rIOCTOSHHO IUIPCYJIHpyeT B HCIIOJIhE3OBaHHH 30 CHCTeMe, TaimM o6pa3oM, B6I3bIBaA 6on6iHe Tenn[onoTepH KOTOpEIC yCHJIHBaEOTCS FBKEB BMICOKHMH IIOTeP1MH BOItI, B16I3BaHHIMH yCKOpeHHOi IcOppO3Hefl Tpy6 TexHH,IecIcIH CPOK cny)K6E6I Tpy6 rBKEB o6E.,tiHo cocTaBJIAeT 10 fieT, HO Mo)KeT COKPaTHTbCA go 2-3 ieT B 3aBHCHMocTH OT KaHeCTBa MaTepHaJIa, H3 KOTOpOFO H3roTOBJIeHLI Tpy6i6i. B HeKOTOpi6IX ropoxgax BCC, rie 4IHHaHCHPOBaHHe game

rBKRB

qaCTO He Texo6cnIy>xHBaHEHs qpe3BbiNIaIHO orpaHHIeHO, o6paTHme Tpy66I 6o.E,mme eIne CHcTeMEI 3aMeH3UOTCA H BOga He BO3BpamaeTCS. TaiKoi THUn "OTKpEIrro noBTI1uaeT IIOTepH BO>I H Tenna. rIoTpe6neHHe rBKIBB Ha ogHoro IIOTpe6HTeILi B CHCTeMax LT B 1uBEASCC MO)xeT B 6 pa3 ripeBbiIaTb Cpe=HHl YpOBeHE, B 3ana=HoeBponeAcKHx CHCTeMax I1T. ToJI,KO He6OJIbas qaCTb 3Toro o6yCnoBnIeHa cBepxnoTpe6JIeHHeM H3-3a OTCyTcTBHIA fipH6opOB y-IeTa; 6OEMUaHHCTBO o6ycnoBneHo

IIOTeplMH B CHCTeMe padnpeIejieHHA. 3

ceTE, OTKpLTa B TOM CMEIcJIe, 'ITO paCIIIHpeHHe BO,fBI KOMIIeHCHEpyeTCS OTKPbITLIM npytoM, pacno11oIKeHHLIM Ha BepxHeM 3TaTKe 3gaHHsA, rg,e iiepeJIHB nIOCTyIIaeT B IpeHaJKHYIO CHCTeMy (OTKplrrOe 0ioA paciuHpeHHe), a He pacmapHTenEbHiim 6awwoM, r,ze MeM6paHa H/HUH ra3

rOTepH

BO,BI IIpORCXOgAT TaK)Ke,

gaB2ieHHeM

Korga OTOIHTeJfHa

3aCTaBJiIeT BoAy paciuipsiTEcs (3aKpLiToe pacmHpeHHe). [IepBas CHCTeMa

6ojibine pacnpocTpaHeHa B 1JBE/BCC, a nocneHIAA B 3ana;HHor EBpone.

3.1.5.3

HemexHuqecKue nomepu menna UeodbI

paciipe,1eJIHTejT6Hbix ceTeik, TpagHiHOHHbIe cHcTeMm I1T B IjBE/BCC lOiABepiKeH6I ApyrHM, XOTS H MeHee KrpyrEHIM fOTeSAM BOXII H Tefiiia. uenefi, He ropsrnefl BO,D;bI zLn IIoTepH o6ycxioBneHuI OTBO,D;OM KoMMep'IecKHe npe,zHa3HatIeHHb>Ix giiA oToriIeHHA, B IIOMeLjeHHAX noTpe6HTeUSI. B3STHe BO,Z EJ H3 paamTOpOB npOHCXOHT B "nPS1MbIX" CHCTeMaX IIT, rge BHYTPHXAOMOBoe pacupexeneHHe e BbMYCK BO,11EJ TenIIa He oTZ;ejieHo OT pacnpeaeneiHsI IT 32. ,;O Tex nop, nIoKa riocTynneH HH LUT He 3aMepSeTCS Ha Bxoge 3AaHHSA, OTBO,3 Teriia OTHOCHTCs K CHCTeMHbIM rOTep3M. ,Dpyroz BHA 11OTepi6 o6yCUoBneH OTCYTCTBHeM npH60poB Wia perynHpOBaHHAs noxtBog1a TerIna rIOMHMO iuiaqeBHoro COCTOSHH

rlo 3TO 4 npHqHHe 31 32

Ha npeiHpiTRAx

4T PyMEHHUH rBKEB

nlOUlaeTCA

TOJbKO B TeqeHHe HeCKOjibKHX MaCOB

B AeHb. IOrIHTO'IHax BOAa He MOXCeT HcIIOmm3oBaThCR, T.K. zl noTpe6neHHA CnyKHUT MeUHbiX Tpy6 BMeCTO Kenje3H6tX HAM CTaJIbHbMX o6XoHTCSICIHIKOM zoporo. TaKHe CHCTeMbi HHorga Ha3baBIOTCSI OTKpblTb6IM CHcTeMaMH".

FBKEB, a

HcHoJI630BaHHe


rIoBblIeHHe 344exTHBHOCTH CHCTeM TeJliocHa6KeHHs B cTpaHax LjeHTpaJIBHOH H BOCTO0HOIr EBpOni} H

51

pecny6nHKax 6IIBIIero COBeTCKoro Co0O3a B IIOMeIIxeHHAX nioTpe6HTe.JiA. floTpe6HTem MoryT H36aBHTLCA OT H3JIHIIlHerO Teniia ZiuiHi OTKPbIB oKHa. rIOCKOJI,bKy HeTexH,iecKHe IIOTepH B OCHOBHOM B03HHIKaEOT BO BHYTpHaOM0BbIX CHCTeMaX, HCKJIIOtIHTelIbHO TpyaHo o0eHHHTh o6beM HeTexHHIeCKHx IlOTepb B CHCTeMaX C IIPIME,IMH CHCTeMaMH TeuIorIIepegatm.

3.1.5.4

t4Heecmuquu e peKOHCmPYKL(UIO

U 3aMeHy

cemeu

OCHOBHaA ,ojiL "CBepXHopMaTHBHLIX 11OTepT" (no cpaBHeHrIO C 3aIIaaHOeBpOieAcKHMf CiCTeMaMH) o6yCdIOBJIeHa Cnei4iHqeCKHMH c.Ua6ocTSMH CHCTeM IT. HaerIeHHOCTm6 HHBeCTHIUOHHOII 1IpOrpaMMbI Ha ycTpaHeHHe 3THX y3KHX MeCT gaCT CyUJxCTBeHHOe CHHKIeHHe IIOTep]6, rIoTpe6oBaB JIHIB a0flH 3aTpaT OT CTOHMOCTH 3aMeHi6I BCe- CHCTeMbI. HaH6oJIee Ba)KHIme rIpIH-HHI 3THX He2OCTaTKOB oripeAesoTCs B CJeI4ylOIUHX pa3zxejiax. HaH6o0jee BaxKH]IMH KaTerOPHIAMH HIHBeCTHUH9& giSm 6opb6EI C nOTepSHM

IIBE/BCC IBJnIOTCS cnezyoIe:

B

CeTAX

L|T

B

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YrIoTHeHHe ceTerf rIyTeM YCTaHOBKHI KInIIaHOB

o

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o

YcTaHOBKa HOBBIX KoMiieHcaTopOB B CHcTeMax, KOTopEIe HClIOJh3YEOT TeiiecKo1IH'ecKHe KoMnieHcaTopEI," KOTopEIe CKnOHHBI K TeTI, IIpH YCJIOBHH, HITO CerMeHTbI Tpy6onpoBo2aa He 6yAyT 3aMeHSTbCSI Ha Tpy6bI C npeaBapHTeIE,HO H3oj=Hei!;

o

Ha Y"acTKax C BbICOKHM YPOBHeM rpyHTOBE,IX BO14 nH6o 3aMeHa Tpy6, repMeTH3am KaHaJIOB H Tfpy6 xTi 6opE,6EI c IIpOHHKHOBeHHeM BOA.

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xcwioii KBapTaJi

KoTeil Ha

OK CTOHMOCTB HHBecTHuHii (zonn.

CLiA

IMBT) KO344HuHeHT OXHOBPeMeHHOCTH

KoTeJ Ha 200

KBT

50 000

50 000

100 000

0,8

0,9

1

30 2200

25

2200

20 2200

2%

2,5%

3%

2.4

3.9

6.7

MHIOBOI Harpy3KH

CPOK cny)K66b1 B rogax 3KCnCuyaTawi C nOJ1HOri Harpy3KOU

,

'qaCOB B roa roJioBas CTOHMOCTb 3KcnEiyaTauHH H

Texo6CywKHBaHHS B % K HHBeCTHIHAM CTOHMOCTb 3KCninyaTax1HH (,AoJLT.

CILIA

/MBT.'I Tenria)

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EaHK, anpeiE 1998 r.)

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T3U, T3LWOK

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Typ6HHori, 6o0iee BExo2aHaS TemriepaTypa CHH)KaeT 3JIeKTpO3HepreTH4ecKyio MOIUHOCTb. 3aTpaTmi, cBu3aHHBIe C nOHHzxeHHO0I MOIHOCTE,RO npH BEIpa6OTKe 3jieKTpO3HeprHH, aOjDKHbi llOKpEIBaTbCSA UT. fO3TOMY 3TH jH1p3bI cIiegyeT paccmapHBaTb KaK IpH6J3HTejHEHbIe.

4.1.2.3

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KaK noiKa3aHO BIUe, H3-3a IIpoijecca COBMeCTHOrO

IIpOH3BOgCTBa

H

HCIIOjT3OBaHS1

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npeImyCecTBom HexoTopme,

HoJI3OBBaHHH OpH

r

B,IrO,>I

1peHMY1UeCTBO 3jIeKTpo3HeprHio,

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T31U

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T3LU, a He OK, IHmIIE, OTaaiOTCS

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B

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rio KpariHer Mepe,

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OT ypOBHA CHTyaUHeii Ha

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eCJIH,

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pbIHxaX 3nieKTpo3HeprHH. 5

B HeKOTOPBIX cTpaHax

ECC

Tpe6yeTcA 100 % Pe3ePBHax MOmIHOCTB AIRS BHYTPHAOMOBbIX KOTnOB. Haze)KHOcTH COBpeMeHHLIX ra3OB.IX KOTJIOB o6wxqHo cqtnTaeTC3 2aOCTaTO'qHOf pe3epBHaA MOIIIHOCTB B 10-15 %. ToRHee, Tpe6yeMaA pe3epBHaA MOIHOCT6 3aBHCHT OT KoIHYeCTBa arperaToB, BEIpa6aTMBaioHHX Tenno. TleM 6ojme arperaToB, TeM MmHaIle BO3AercTBmle aBapHH Ha BCIO cHcTeMy. EJiarozzaps3


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84

3KoHoMH,ecKaA ripo6neMa IIpH oripexenelHH 3aTpaT Ha o6a IipogyiKTa no TO ripoR3BOACTBeHHbIA

oTIIejibHOCTH, T.

e.

npoiecc asBJIAeTC

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o6a npogyKTa. HeKOTOpEIe H3 3aTpaT MOryT 6BITB teTKO IpHIHCaHBI K COOTBeTCTByIOIIHM npOryKTaM, TaxHe KaK riepeAaqa TeIUIOThI Ha llepBH'IHyIo ceTb. ,4pyrHe nioTpe6IsuoTCA COBMeCTHO, HaIIpHMep TOnJIHBO . B OCHOBHOM mno6oi MeToa rIo pacnpezejieHHIo 3THX o6mIIx 3aTpaT ABJi5eTCs rIpOH3BOJIbHbIM. locnie TorO KaK pIHHATO pemeHHe no MeTO Y H 4opMyJIa pacnpeaeneHHs 3aTpaT yCTaHOBjeHa, nerKo MO)KHO onpeaeJIHTb 3aTpaTbI Ha o6a

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C Io-Ka3aHa MeToAoJIorHA

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B

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B 3ana,=woiR

EBpone PYKOBOaCTBYEOTCSA

rpHHIHnOM

no

B 3anaAHoM EBpone

KOTOpOMY

T311 COCTaBJISeT

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KaK 4aKTHtIecKax, TaK H OIHTHMaIHaA 11O3TOMY

AOJIA

OT CHTYaJHH c 3jieKTpo3HeprHeAI

HCCfle,aOBaHHEIM =HTejibHoro

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cTpaHaM.

nepHo,Aa

TaM TaKwe

TenJIoCHa62KeHHSI OT T3L1, B o6I5ieM, 3aBHCHT

CTpaHe. B Ta6n. 4-3 AaH o630p no npeacTaBjieHEi OiUeHKH npeAeJm,HEx H3gep)KeK

B KOHKpeTHOfI

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3KOHOMHtecKHMH

3aTpaTaMH

no

Ha nIPOH3BOACTBO

cTpaHaM. B cTpaHax c 6onee Ao.iA KT3

3jieKTpO3HeprMHH

o66rIqHO BEme 5 7

Ami lneiierl

alHnH3a B HaCTOASIefi

rnaBe npegiioJIaraeTCAs,

ITo 3jieKTpHIeCKHH TapH4 (HJnI

npe,ejThH6Ie H3,epxKKKH xmTeniEHoro rnepHo,ga HIpOR3BOAcTBa 3JIeKTpo3HeprHH) gOCTaTOtIHO BMiCOKH, rTO6MI nepeHeCTH <«BCe»> CTOHMOCTHOe rpeHMyiieCTBo KnT9 Ha LIT. 3To iooTpe6yeT HaJIHe TapH4Ja Ha YPOBHe nIpHMepHO 0,04 xonn. CIIIA/KBT (pe3ynBTaTbi HCCnelOBaHA CM. Pa3aen 4.2). B pacreTax, ripHHASTIX B HHxcecjieqymowHx Ta6nHrxax H o6cyxcAeHHAx, IIpeAu1ojiaraeTcA, tITO CTOHMOCTE, HHBeCTHIIHr B OTBOA TeerJioTi Ha 1 MBT.HI Ta X(e CaMa3, qTO H CTOHMOCTL HHBecTHIHH B KOTJIEI, KOTOpIue HCIOJIb3ylOTC3I B KpyIHb16X OK. IlpH TaKHX y1pOIIeHHEX Inpe2IIono)KeHHs1X, B03ZAeRCTBHe CTOHMOCTH riOKa3aHO B Ta6n. KHT3, Koraa B 4-4. MaKCHManTHoe HC1IOJIb3OBaHHe 3KOHOMHqecKoro noTeHzHaiia ,ni

TotiHee

KaqecTBe TOrUIHBa HCHOJn63yeTcA ra3, yMeHMflaeT 3aTpaT]6I Ha HpOH3BO2CTBO Tennia Ha 5 xoju. CILIA/MBT.tq) rio CpaBHeHRIO C 3KCruyaTaiei OK TennioileHTrpax Ha 1/3 (HJmIo

5

pyrHe yCTaHOBiKH Tamice HCriOjTE3yEOTCS

cpeiorl 57

UiaLIT

JACeTCA ropmaA

BoxAa, a

coBMecTHo, HaripHMep, naposue KOTTI. OgHaKO o6blqHOR

IIpOH3BOMCTBO ropiNe

BOJII He

Tpe6yeT napOBLIx KOTjiOB.

Bo3HHKaeT Bonpoc, CTOHT nJH 3TH 3aTpaTm OTHOCHTB K LIT. ARA cpaBHeHHa, oioni Teniia, npoH3BeCeHHoro T3LU B (DHHnAHAHH

H JaHHl cocTaBnJeT 60nee 70 %. B Haqania nocTpoeHx KaK T3UI. c camoro 6bliH 3ieKTpOCTaHiuHH icpynHme Bce nieT 15 Te'ieHHe nocneaHHx

Pa3BHuHe

He6ojTLHu

(10-15

MBT)

aeCieHTPajiH3oBaHHuX

3xOHOMHy1eCKHMH CTHMYAaMH; B HacToAiiXee apeMs 3TO CTaJIO

T3LU

BHaqajie

3KOHoMHqecKH BbIrOJRHlIM

nOaAepwKHBaaCia

XejioM.


roBME.meHHe 344eKTMBHOCTH CHCTeM

TenrnocHa62KeHHA B cTpaHax LteHTpajihHOH H BOCTOMHOri EBponI 1H

85

pecny6nHKax 6bIBmero CoBeTcKoro C0103a

II IIOqTH Ha

2/3

rIpOH3BOgCTBa

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Teniia

14 ao.

CIIA/MBT.I) rio

CpaBHeHHIO CO CTOHMOCTMIO

BHYT-pHOMOBbIMH KOTJIaMH.

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H3AepxicKH

=i-rTe.)T6Horo nepuoga Ha rIpOH3BOACTBO 3iieKTp03HeprHH

Cmpana EonrapHA JIHTBa

(lIJ)dom. CIlA /KBm.,i 0,0335 (BEipa6oTica) 0,028

(3KcnopTHaa ueHa)

Bilpa6oTKca 3iieKTpo3HeprHH H AoJi KnIT3 3nexCrpO3HeprNH, ripOH3BOAHMOr1 Ha Ko33Io3yHcKoH aToMHoiH 3JieKTpocTaHUNH

45%

Eoonee 90% lieHTpaiiH3oBaHHoro

Tenna

B KayHace H Bmmnoce

npoIH3BoAHTCS OK. YcTaHoBneHHas MoIRHoCT6 ,AUs ripoH3BoAcTBa 3jeKTpO3HeprHH T3L 3OBOJT6HO HH3xa no CpaBHeHHfO CO CnPOCOM Ha MOmRHOcTE, reHepHpyioDimo TrenrTo. KpoMe Toro, OHa Majio HCnOJTL3yeTcsi, TaK KaK npOH3Bo,qcTBeHHOri

MOIUHOCTH HrHaBiHHCXOH aToMHOri 3JIeKTPOCTaHuNH Z(OCTaTOqHO AnA nOKpE.ITH3 Bcero BHyTpeHHero

crpoca Ha 3nieKTPO3HeprNEo, a Taoxe = KaiiHHaHrpa,a. MoUVIocTH

T3Lt no

3KcnOpTa B JlaTBHIO H

HpoH3BOACTBY

3jieKTpO3HeprHH CJrYXHT B xaqecTBe pe3epBHEIx,

Koraa

OaHH H3

3AepiHMX peaiTopOB OCTMHaBJ1HBalOT 1113POBePKH H1H Texo6cAymKHBaHms.

no.rmma

0,045

20-30% ueHVpaini3oBaHHoro Tenna H 10% 3.neKTpo3HeprmH npoH3BoAHTcA rlpH KoM6HHHpoBaHHOM rIpo3BOAcTBe. MHorHe

Tennio3i3eKTpOCTaH1WH pacroJI0KCHei B6JnN3H yronimHLx

maXT,

CjIIIuKOM aaJieKO OT rOpOACKHX ieHTpOB, 'qTo6ii 6EITL HCnOrIEO3oBaHHMMH I3T. PYMEIHNS

0,042

06iaa ycTaHOBjeIHHaA MOHIHOCTL nio BEipa6OTKe

3AeCKTpO3HeprHH cocTaBnAeT oKo00o 22 ycTaHoBj1eHHoH1 TeIuioBoI MOIIHOCTH,

noniy,4eHO

Tic.

MBT; 38% Bceri 14829,

cocTaBjiAEo1uer4

nlpH KOM6HHHpOBaHHOM npOH3BoacTBe.

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0,025

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arperaTamH KOM6HHHpOBaHHOrO npoH3BoCTBa, a BTopaB HOJIOBHHa OK. Tenno, nony"eHHoe rIPH xoM6HHHpOBaHHoM rlpo3BOcTBe, COCTaBJ13eT npHMepHo 26% scero

npoH3BBeeHHOro Terula; 3ieKTpo3HeprHA, Bbipa6oTaHHaA rnpH KoM6HHHpOBaHHOM IIpOH3BOMCTBe, CoCTaBj3eT ripHMepHO 30% BCerH Tenn1BO01 3HeprRH, npOH3BeaeHHOrN B PAO E3C POCCHH. OAHaKo H3-3a 3HaqHTeELbHoA m36LIToIqHor1 MOHIHOCTH,

YKpaHHa

ipe2xe3bHi6e 3aTpaTEI ARHTeJIbHOrO riepmoaa Ha ripo3Bo0cTBo 3JieKTpo3HeprHH CJIHMKOM HH3KH, WTo606 oripaBaar HH3eCTHIHH B HOBbIe cOBpeMeHHLie MOIUHOCTH KnT3. 0,035

Ha

YKpaHHe OTOnHTenLi6H6ie KOTJTn.1 HpOH3BOAST 6o0nee 2/3 1 HOBLIX MOuIHOCTeri KflT3 3aBHCHT OT

Teruia. O6ocHoBaHHe

cyAb6il aTOMHOR 3ieKT-ipocTaHiHH B T4epHo6Eme. HcmoviNuK: COTpYAHHrH BceMHpHoro Eamca.


86

H loBbLimeHHe 344eKTHBHOCTH CHCTeM TenIJOCHa6)KeHHA[ B CTPaHaX ICeHTpanbHoS H BOCTOqHori EBporIbl pecnry6iHxax 6bEsmero COBeTCKoro C0o03a

H3 Ta6ii. 4-4, 3aKmotjaeTcA B TOM, HTO IIT, HepBbrfi BbIBOa, KOTOpIR MOmKHO czenara C OCHOBaHHOe Ha OIITHMH3HPOBaHHOAi T3LI, pa6oTaioiueA Ha ra3e, - Mo2KeT KOHKYPHPOBaTB $BE/BCC AO Tex riop, rIOKa CTOHMOCTB BHYTpHIOMOBbIMH KOTJIaMH B CpeRHeM ropo=e B riepetarH Terma noTpe6HTeMO HHx)e 14 AoJIn. CIIIA/MBT.tq. BTOPOr BEIBOa 3aKXJOBaeTCS3 MecTa. TOM, HTO CTOHMOCTb IIPOH3BOXACTBa TeHiia CHRJbHO OTJIHtaeTCSI B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT B CIlIA xojn. 10 OT KoJle6neTCs TeIIna << OflIYCTHMa»>> CTOHMOCTh TpaHcIIopTa CpegH.u CHH>KaeT OpeH6ypre (rge HH3KxSa 3KOHOMHqeCKas3 CTOHMOCTE ra3a Ha rpaHHiue ropoaa

3HatIeHHe 3KOHOMHH 3arpaT) ,Ao 20

Ta6jnLta 4-4. CpaBH4TeJlbHaS

ztoITi. ClIIA BO BpoiiiaBe. CTOUMOCTb npOH3BOACTBa Tenia Ha

nlpeAnlplTST4

(Aonn. CWA /MBT.4) Pa3HHua B CTOHMOCTH Mexcy T3LI H BHYTpHAOMOBbIM KOTJIOM

TgHenponeTpoBc K

KayHac OpeH6ypr CO#As THMHrioapa

6om. CLLA

COOTHO

T3LW (153%) $7,7

KpynHaA OK

MeCTHaA OK

BHYTPH.OMOB Oil KOTeii

(KlW85Y) $12,1

(KUJ 85%) $15,4

(KTI 800o) $19,0

/lAm.u

(%/0)

$11,3

44

$8,6 $6,3 $9,9 $10,0

$13,7 $9,3 $16,1 $16,3

$17,6 $14,8 $19,5 $18,7

$21,2 $17,0 $24,7 $24,2

$12,6 $10,7 $14,8 $14,2

45 39 44 45

1ueHHe

36 $20,4 $30,3 $22,4 $16,1 $9,9 39 $14 $22,7 $18,1 $13,9 $8,7 a. nPOH3BO=vT 80% roaoBoro npoH3Bo0CTBa Tennia Ha T3U c KfIJ 170% (CM. Hpxno)XeHHe C) H 20% B OK rpH KIfL 85%. 1 fpHmexaHHe: H4pLi CTOHMOCTH, npmBeAeHHbie B Ta6nH.ie, xaHmI 6e3 y era TermonoTepi.. HcmotiuK: OueiH CoTpy,HoiaB BceMHpHoro EaHiKa Ha 6a3e: OHKpeTHIX HCciieZOBaHHH no nporpamme BpoUnaB B cpeAHeM

ESMAP C BHYTpHAOMOBbIMH KOTjiaMH ciexyeT HpHHI TIeUIOrIOTePH ripH riepeAaqe H pacripezejieHHi. 9TH TerIJIOfaOTepH Tpe6yIOT OT

nlpi cpaBHeHHHH 1T,pa6oTawouaeH OT T3I1, BO BHMaHHe8

KOjiHteCTBa IPOH3BOAHMOrO Teiilia, wTo6EfllO,aBaYT B 3gaHHA BHYTPHAOMOBE6IMH KOTflaMH. TerIJia, KOTOpOe rIOAaeTCs aCTE,1O 3aTpaT Ha TpaHCIIOPT Tenia; OHH aiHiaZj3HpyOTCq B Pa3gene

arperaToB L|T llOBbuIeHHOrO TO wKe camoe KOjIHIeCTBO Term[oiioTepH

ABJIfOTCSA

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B

CTOHMOCTH

T3L1

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H CHCTeMof, npOH3BoaCTBa. IIOBbiIeHHA ofbeMa

pa60TaioiueA

OT

BaeTCA aHaJIH30M BJHSIHHS YPOBHA TeHiijOi1OTePB

TeriHia Ha ripealpHATHH Mexmy

pa6oTaioneri

OT

OK, BKMEOTISa

CHCTeMOH,

HeO6XO,AIHMOCTE,


lOBmineHHe 3e4eKTHBHOCTH CHCTeM Ter1jioCHa6hceHHs B cTpaHax UeHipaJIBHOi H BOCTOMHOrl EBpOnli H pecny6inHax 6,BlBuero COBeTcicoro C0103a

87

PUC. 4-1. CPABHEHME L4EHTPAnM30BAHHOO TEnflOCHAS)KEHM5I C BHYTPMg,OMOBbIMM KOTnAMM: CTOUMOCTHOE rlPEUMYLLIECTBO HA YPOBHE ArPErATOB

15-

_______

10-

10-*

I--

_

0

'C

a0%/

_

_

_

L(THa 6a3e T34

:X

5 -

_

-m-wL(T Ha 63e CK

-

I

5% rkrepH

10% 15% 20% PIM

25%

ipmpre

HcmotiHuK: OJeHxH COTpyAiHHKoB BceMHpHoro BiaHKa Ha OCHOBe HCCiieAOBaHHH

ropo,oA

nro nporpamme ESMAP; CM. Ta6n. F-3

H

F-4 B rIpHnOKeHHH F.

B

TO BpeMS KaK TerIUOIiOTePH B 304eKTHBHOA CHCTeMe IJT, paCiOIOoKeHHOfl B 3OHe BoiCOKOrl njIoTHocTH cripoca, COCTaBJIsIOT MeHee 10%, MeHee 344eKTHBHbIe CHCTeMbI HAH 344eKTHBHbIe CHCTeMbi, pacnIojioKeHHbIe B 3OHax C MeHbieEI ITMOTHOCTBEO cIpoca, 6yzgeT

HMeTbrnoTepH

go 35%. Ha PHC. 4-1 IIOKa3aHO CpaBHHTeJIbHO orpaHHIeHHoe BO3gerICTBHe

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4.1.3

TpaHCIopTa

OaKmopb,, enuoLLoulue Ha cmouMoCmb pacnpedeneHuR mennocou

3HePBUU

4.1.2.4 Pa3MepbI,

CmpyKmypa u pacnpedeneHue cnpoca Ha mennoeyo 3Hepauio CTpyKTypa

H pacrIpeAejieHHe

TeIrIOBOr

Harpy3KH

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cocToxinHe H3 KoTfloB H neqeik, pa6oraoIwHx Ha yr.ne, coc-raBnEoT 6onee 30 % Bbl6pOCOB yoBYOKHCH cep6I (SO2 ) H cynuecTBeHHyio acT6 oKHceri a3oTa (NOx) H MB3JIOTCA OCHOBHbIMH HCTOqHHKaMH TBepaux 1acTHU H OxHCH yrnepoaa (CO). 3TH HCTOwHHKH OKa3bwBaIOT 6o0nee cHibHoe Bo3AerlcTBHe, qeM HCTO0?HHKH, HMeioiiHe BIJCOKHe AbiMoBbIe Tpy6b, Ha Ka'eCTBO BO3Ayxa 3HMOH, oco6eHHo B ijeHTpaxbHo3 wacTH rOpOQOB, rAe IOCTTYI K CeTH IIeHTpaAH3oBaHHoro OTOruiemfs enie OTCyTCTByeT. Hcciie2oBaHHA HCTOqHHKOB Bbl6pOCOB, H4ynH= OT HH3KO pacnoAo;KeHHbMx AIbMOBbLX Tpy6, npoBeaeHHoe KpaKOBcKHM 6iopo ropoACKoro rUIaHHpOBaHHI, BblXBHllO OKOJIO 130 Tbic. yroibHbix ne4eHI H npHMepHO 1300 He6ojib[nHx KoTeIibHbIx, pa6oTalomnx Ha yrne. Sonee 50 % H3 HHx pacnono)KeHiI B ieHfpe r. KpaKoBa. YxIynlleHHe KaqecTBa Bo03yxa MorJo 6blTb OCTTrHyTO 65naroaapA cneaymonUIM MepaM, npHHTbIlM B ieHTpe r. KpaKoBa: iiHKBHAaUiHH MeCTHbIX KoTeibHbIX H nOaKjUO'eHHA K CHCTeMe LeHTPaiH3OBaHHoro TennocHa6fKeHHS (npHmepHo 54 % OT MO=HOCTH KOTJOB), nepexoa Ha HCHOJTh30BaHHe ra3a (21 O/o) H Ma3yTa (9 %), H nepeo6opyaoBaHHe KOTJOB (15 %). 3TH Mepbi TaKoKe cnoco6cTBoBaAH 6ibi cHHJKeH1o Bbl6pOCOB C0 2.(CM. S. Adamson, R. Bates, R. Laslett, and A. Pototschnig (1996), Energy Use, Air Pollution and Environmental Policy in Krakow [World Bank Technical Paper Number 308, Energy Series, Washington, D.C.]) <<HiCInoJI30BaHHe 3HeprHH, 3arpA3HeHHe B03ayxa H noJIHTHKa B o6nacTH oKpyxca2oLuerl cpeCbl B KpaKoBe" (TexHi-rqecKHHi AOKyMeHT Ns 308 BceMHpHoro EaHKa, cepHA `3HepreTHKa', BamHnwroH). KOHLieHTpauH ripOH3BOAcTBa Ha oaHOM MeCTe TaK)Ke o6nerqaeT KOHTpOJIE 3a B6lnOJIHeHHeM

3aK0H0AaTejncTBa o6 oxpaHe oKpyxKaToieg cpeau. 6

67

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qaCTHU

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WTO

Ha

Kpyrnbix

BHyTpHAOMOBLie KOTnI


102

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Taicoe Ke MO)KeT

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68

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rIOBEImeHHe 344eKTHBHOCTH CHCTeM Teru=OCHa6feHH

B cTpaHax LleHTpajBHOff H BOCTOqHOIi EBpOnI6l H

103

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344eKTiHBHocTH 3TEX TexHojiorHIH, HpeaCTaBjieH B Ta6n. 4-10. rIpe,IIonoxeHIHA o6 3 44eKTHBHOcTH B Ta6JIHLje OTHOC1TCS K CoBpeMeHHIMM peaUE,Ho HCnOJIb3yeMMLM TexHOjiOrHMM. Ha IpavKTHKe MOXCHO Ha6n0ogaTb gaxce 6onee BM6CoKHf B CHCTeMax uT 3anaaHoi EBpori61 H CHCTeMaX nO ytaJieHHHI0 TBepzEiX qacTHa H SO 2 (cooTBeTcTBeHHO 99% H 95%). 34MeKTHBHOCTL TeXHojiorFH LIT, HCI0JI163yeMmx B HacToAee BpeMS B [BE/ECC HH)Ke, leM ripeacTaBjieHO B Ta6n. 4-10.

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75/80a

KnllO pa3nm4H6IX TeXHonoruu (B %)

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0,42 0,252

0,24 0,141

H/J

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NO,X 2400 240

CO2 20-50 10

HCMOtrHUK: EC: "PyKOBOaCTBO no oKpy)Kaloiuei cpeae =AE pa3BHTHS 3HepreTmqecKoro ceKTopa" (CM. http://www.worldbank.org/htnl/fpd/em);

rlpeaBapxTeJmiEHie

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132

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B pamKax npoeKTa BceMHpHoro BSaHa no IUT r. KHeBa 6bLTo npoBegeHo o6ciiegoBaHHe 1997 r. B Cpe,XHeM HaceneHHe, nooKnIOqeHHoe K UIT, rpaTKno 6% CBOHX pacxo,gOB Ha UT, 4% Ha ropAqyio Bo,Ay, Bcero 10% (c BblqeTOM CKH,AOK H cy6cHgHR). rIPH 3TOM 3Ta uH4pa

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no

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paCXOOB Ha xKHjbe cocTaBmeIT 10% OT ,zOXO,AOB ceMbH H 20-25% y 6e,HeriwHx ceMer. o6cne,zoBaHHe cemeH no 3HepreTmKe B J[HTOBCKHX ropo,Aax BHimEnoce H KayHace B Haqane 1995 r., npeAnpHHmTbie KaK 'acTm npoeK-ra ESMAP 88 zano cnexyIoIUHe Pe3yJILTaTl: B CpeZHeM AOMOxO3URCTBa TPaTHRH 11% Ha 3HeprEHo (UT npHMepHO cocTaBjAeT 50% OT 3TOH w mpbI),CeMwH C HH3KHMH goxoAaMH go 20%. Bo3MeiueHHe 3aTpaT Tor,a COCTraBnO lI1HpoKoMacurra6Hoe

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85

86

Cp. "Russian Federation: Affordability of Cost Recovery in Housing and Conimunal Services" (Draft Report, Washington, D.C.: World Bank, March 1999). (<PoccHHcKaS (D)eepaua: 0ocTynHoCTb BO3MeCIIeHHA 3aTpaT Ha 2KHAiHuiHo-KoMMyHajibHbme yCJayrH>> (npoexT oTqeTa, BamHHrroH: BceMHpHbir1

EaaHx, MapT 1999 r.). B naqane 1998 r. pacnpeAeneHHe 3aTpaT Ha T3J, notaioLuinx Tenno B CHCTeMY LUT KHeBa, m3MeHHJIocb, qTo zano cHmmeHue TapHf)OB c 22 Aonn. CWATKan Ao 17 aoni. CIUAIFKan. CM. Ukraine: Kiev District flpoeICT 1998).."YKpaMHa: Report (April Heating Improvement Project, Staff Appraisal rrPanBOBaHHOrO TernwocHa6)KeHHS B r. KHeBe. OiueHoqriwr oTTeT COTPYaHHKOB COBepmeHcTBOBaHHSi

BaHxa" (anpenb 1998 r.). 87

Russian Federation: Enterprise Housing Divestiture Project, Staff Appraisal Report (Washington, D.C.: World Bank, April 1996.) "PoccHItcKan (DeaepaiH: flpoeKT no oTAneneHmo 2KuHnmHoro 4oHga ripegnpwrrHrIl, OueHOIqHOf oTqeT coTpyaHHKoB BaHKa (BamHHrToH: BceMnpHuri BaHi, anpens 1996).

88

Josephine Arpaillange, The Buildings and the People: Lithuania Household Energy Survey, Building Assessment Study, and Homeowner Association Study, Consultant Report for ESMAP (Washington, D.C.: World Bank, June 1995). XK03e4HH ApnaAHic "3aaHMi H niOAH: HccneAioBaHHe no 3HepreTuKe A[OMOX03fiCTB B JIHTBe, HccJTeAoBaHHe oueHKH 3AaHHA H HccjieaoBaHHe accoIxHaixHH OTqeT KOHcynjTTaHTa anA ESMAP (BaiIUHrTOH: BCeMHpHblU BaHK, HOHb 1995 r.).

AoMoBnaaeabueB".


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nporpaMMHoe o6ecneieHHe

,i uenerl ynpaBneHHiA npoeKToM, nepecMoTp TapH4POB Ha TernioByio 3HeprmH1o_

HX CTPYKTYPb

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174

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ICOneiomoeT6 COCTOHHe

(Ha 1998

r.)

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35/30

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TEIIUIOCHAS *

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HOBoro rnpegnpHATHs TennocHa6)KeHHA

1998 - 2000 rr. POCC5A

*

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?/100

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3aeM BCTYnHT B CHny B 2001

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TernoceTei H/HiH nepeBo,

TEIIJIOCHAB

Ha

OTenJTHbIe KOTJIbI B 3gaHHAx, a TaKice B MePbI

ACEHI1iE 1998 - 2002 lIATBHA1

Ha cTopoHe Harpy3KH

rr.

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*

?/30

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cm6wImH3auHHm npeAnpamiHi UT

IKEL

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*

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E 3HEPFETHM ECKOFO KII,ZI IIKII,Z; T EOJ1FAPHA

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B ropoax rlepHHK *

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(Man. ,Qonn.

CElA)

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?/30

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o6opyzAoBaHHs B UKOaX H 60nbHHUax Br. KHeBe c

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Lxenlb1O HOBmiueHHA

3,D;Am B r. KIIEBE C IJEJIBEO IIOB6IUEHH

3KOHOMHH 3meKTPO3HePHHI

3HEPrETHI ECKOrO KII, 1998 - 2002 rr. CYMMA 3AIIMOB IIO IIPOEKTAM HA CTA,7H IIOT OTOBK HI (C)

795

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176 fIoBuLmeHHe 344eKTHBHocTH CHCTeM TenriocHa6fteHHS3 B CTpaHaX qeHrpanibHOH

H BOCTO'Hori EBpOnIbl H

pecny6nHKax 6biBmero COBeTCKoro C0o03a

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no LeHTpanN30BaHH0MY TennocHa6mKeHI1o B nOnbwe

K HacTosLeMwy BpeMeHu pe3ynbTaTbi no npoeKTaM TennOCHa6)KeHuI4 B nlOnbCKHX ropoAax rAaHbCKe, rAbIHe, KaTOBILAe, KpaKOBe H BapwaBe nony.4eHbi BeCbMa yAoBneTBoPU1Te.nbHbie. Peant3ai4.q nporpamm onTIMm3aiLAm B 3TLX nqTi4 ropogax C

1992 r.

gario: 24% OT IHX YPOBHA 1992 r.;

O

cHHnKeHHe o6iuHx noTepb TenJiOBO2 3HeprHH Ha 15

O

cHH)KeHHe rlOTepE BOIbI zo 28-62% OT YPOBHS Ao Haqajia npoerTa; H

o

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-

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3HeprHH B

o

rIOaTH 100% 3aKynaeMoIl TeMnOBOHi 3HeprHH, a TaKwKe KpynHa3 Aoa HacToAsUee BpeMA 3aMepAnOTCA.

o

KorAa K 3arpsA3HeHHe BO3Ayxa cyIuecTBeHHo CHH3HJIOCb B pe3ynjETaTe AocTHrHyTofl 3KOHOMHH 3HeprHH KOTeCJbHbIX, CTaJIH Hcnonb3OBaTb BMecTo He6ojn6mHxX, pa6oTaiolnx Ha yrne, He3 "eKTHBIx MarHCTpaEJILHLe TeCruoceTH, JIH6o nepemnI Ha HCnOJIi3oBaHHB ra3a.

O

B peSyibTaTe

B HacTo5rnuee IOCTHrHyTOi4 3KOHOMHH 3HeprHH, HCTOHEHHKH TenniOBOri 3HeprHH (T39L BpeMSA HCnEIThlB1aOT CHHAKeRHe npo,awK TeruiOBOHi 3HeprHH. 3To fo3BOJIHJIO 3aKpEITL ycTapeamHe npoH3BoAcTBeHHRIe MOEIEHOCTH HJH, KaK B HeKOTOPEX ropoAax, npOTsIHyTh TenioceTH B Te parYoH1I,

rAe UT KOHKypeHTOCnOCO6HO H3IH npoAnonKHTE6

niKBHaa4MO KOTejnbHEix.

rlpeAnpHluTHs

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IUT cyiieciBeHHo ynyimquIH CBOH KommepMecme nOKa3aTeaH 6naroAaps CHHlleHHlO HpeBiMeHnMo qHHaHcoBwx ge6HTOpCKO2 3aAonJxeHHocTH, a B HeKOTOpEIX cny"aax 6naroAap3I Tpe6oBaHHrH 3aHMOB 6o0nee qeM Ha 100%.

O

'TO KacaeTCA oTpacneBori nOj¶HTHKH, TO rip3imme Cy6CH2xHH noTpe6HTeJLqM B 2KHnHumHoM ceicrope cHH3HnHcb c noqTH 80% CTOHMOCTH 1991 r. Ao npHMepHo 6%, B cpeAHem ARI flOnHJIrH B uenIoM H cHH)KeHHe cy6CHAHrH CTHMYJIHpyeT 4 aKTHqeCKH Ao HyJTA B BLImeyKa3aHHbmx nATH ropoAax. TaKoe BHeApeHHe mep no nOBEUmeHHO 3HepreTuqeCKoro K,l H COXpaHeHHO 3HeprHH Ha ypOBHe KOHeCiHOrO

noTpe6HTeJIA. 1UeHoBbIe cy6cUuHm,

npewae npeaocTaB meMme HeKOTOp6IM )KHAHIUHLiM KoonepaTHBaM

Ha ixeHTpaJiH3oBaHHoe TenhiocHa6xKeHHe, B HacToAimee BpeMS HcrOJTIb3YIOTCA XIA ynyjqmeHH B oTAejibHoM 3AaHHH H ynjy1meHHe COCTOSHHA (H3MepeHHm 3aHHai 3HepreTHqecxoro KnIgJ BHyTpHAOMOBb6X Tenno3HepreTHqecKoro o6opyAoBaHHA H BHemHeHl H3O3IAIHH 3AaHHs). HHKenpHBeAeHHbie KoHKpeTHble pe3ynbTaTbi no oAHomy H3 nObJCKHX 3aeMmHxoB (,aaHHibe 6a3HpyloTcsl Ha cTaHAapTH3oBaHHbmx rpa1yco-fAHax): 3aKiynOK TenJIOBOfl 3HeprHH, HcKjnoqaA pe3yAbTaTEI 3KOHOMHa 3HeprHH (3aMepeHHas KaK CHHCKeHHe B nepHoA C 1994 no 1996 rr. COCTaBHAna 15% H KoTejibHLx) oToreHTCi6Himx inHKBiAaLunH nporpammbi AocTHrHeT, no MeHbmert Mepe, 25% KO BpeMeHH 3aBepmeHmi npoeKra a 1998 r. YcoBepmeHcTBoBaHHe ceTH

aano npHMepHo oaHy TpeT6 3TOHl 3KOHOMHH, a Mepbi no coxpaHeHmo 3HeprHH Ha ypOBHe TermOnyHKTOB OCTaiTHbie 2/3. CHHweHHe Bbl6pOCOB 6naroAapsI iHKBHnauHH owonwreanmbHx KoTeJnbHLix, pa6oTaioEux Ha yrnie (He cqHTaR

cHHx(eHHA Bbl6pOCOB, B pe3ynbTaTe yMeHbmeHHB noTpe6HOCTH B HacocHbMx yCTaHOBKaX Ha 33%, H CHHACeHHA 3aKynOK Tenria y HCTO'qHHKOB TenAOBOfl 3HeprHH), BiflRnSAHT cneAyIowiHM o6pa3oM:

SO2 :

15 %

HCTOqHHK: PauTHa

NOx:

10%

3o0na:

Bemeecaya, 1997, HApTo HyOPKHBH, 1998

22 %

CO2

16 %


fIpHao)KeHHe A

PaMKa A -2. nlpoeKT no rpoeicT no

IUT

L4eHTpa.nM30BaHHOMY TennocHa6fteHm*O B J1aTBI*u.

B EnraBe, JIaTBHSI, HaajiCSA B

1995

r. OH nponBHraeTcA xOpoImo, C onepe)Kalou.HMH TeMnaMH

H C MeHbUIHMH 3aTpaTaMH, EieM 3aJIo?KeHO B cMeTe. Ha moJIB 80%. rIIOSBHIHCb HeKOTopj6e BOOBYIyIeBmEsloLUHe pe3yJThTaTEI:

0

3KOHOMU5

177

1997

r. npoeiT 6bmi peanIH3OBaH npHMepHO Ha

pe3ynbmame a6moMamu3azfuu. fIpHmepHo floJIoBHHa 3AaHHrl B HacTosAnee BpeMA HMeeT 3To npHBeno ripHMepHO K 25%-My CHH)KeHHiO Io'rpe6JieHmA TerLia B aBToMaTH3HpoBaHHb6x 3gaHHAX, rge 3KOHOMHA noxoanma no 40%. FOpOACKO0 COBeT pemai 6

aBToMaTHqecKHe TerLJIOflyHICT6I.

pacnpe(eiinHT

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O

CHuiceHue nomepb e cemu u mpy6onpoBo6ax. Ilociie Toro KaK peajH3agHA 3aInaHHpoBaHHoH1 nporpaMMBi no Tpy6onlpoBoaaM COCTaBHna ripHMepHO 60% (npM4epHo 1/3 OT nepBOHaqajTbHorl anHHBI ceTeri npeanpHATHA), noTepH BOui 6binH cHHXleHbl lpHMepHO Ha 60%, a noTepH Tenna Ha 37%. KoppO3HA Tpy6onpoBogHog ceTH CHH3HniacB c 14% B roa no MeHee 5% R3-3a yAyIluIeHNA KatecTBa BHyTpeHHell BOgbI H, npeaBapHTeiBHo H3OJIHpOBaHHbnX Tpy6.

O

06wHni

K ;l TOnjinBa npH rpoH3BoaCTB renrmoBoi 3HeprHH B03pOC c 79% ao 85%. KoppO3Hs Tpy6onpOBonOB B KOTeCJEHbiX CHH3HfaCb C 33% no 8% B ron H KoTejuHBLe Tenepb pa6oTaioT Ha Ma3yTe, KOTOpEIri nocTaBBmeTCA KOHKYPHPOHWHMH KoMnaHm3MH, pa6oraionmH

ocHoBe, TaKHM o6pa3oM, cnoco6cTByA ra3ocHa6)Kaoliel KOMnaHHH.

0

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,iambneuwee cruuiceHue memnonomepb 6 pe3yn7bmame KoM6unupoeaHHowO npou3mo6cmea. Tenepb, Korna CHCTeMa LIT 6Eiia peKOHCTpyHpoBaHa H cTaiI B03MO)KHBIM noaBO Tenra c mo6oro HCTO1iHHKa, EnraBa x<euiaeT CHH3HTb 3aTpaTbI Ha npOH3BOnCTBO TeninOBOfl 3HeprHH eme 6ojiEime nyTem niy'niero HcnojiL3OBaHMA cyiuecTByiomez 'acTHoH T31U, KOTOpaS npoaaeT TennioByIo 3Heprmo CHCTeMe. flpennpmAHTe LIT roTOBO BCTynfHTI B aonrocpoxHoe coriiaieHHe no 3aKynKe Teriia, c yqeToM HHAeKCauHH, c T31U.

HcTro'HHK: rIeHTrH Apo, 1998 r.


i Ii


npHno)KeHme B OnpeAeneHme noTpe6HocTM B TennOBOI

3Heprim - AHanI3 pbIHKa

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O

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179


180

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He ripeBbimaeT eXHHHy -

o6bmuio npHMepHo 80 - 85% yXO,l;HT Ha oTonIieHHe noMeriieHHr, H iaaxce HH)e aJIA MBKMB, B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT TeXHOjiOrHH oIArOTOBKH ropANelk BOAEJ.

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170% (=0,85/0,5)

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Teniia

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4.

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5% (c 35 go 40)

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KrHI MO)KeT 6brrb BOCIIOJIHeHO 3TOiH ajibTepHaTHBHOH KOHLeHCaIjHOHHOA 3jieKTpOCTaHUHeA. fIpH KflI 40% norpe6nieHHe TOIIBa cocTaBJISeT 12,5 eaHHHII (5 e=HHHI.I, flpOH3BseaeHHEIX ripH Kfl,T 40%), HITO gaeT <«fJ4>> TeTioBoH 3HeprHH IpHMHepHO 440% (55/12,5). 3TOT pacTeeT HpeAnOJIaraeT, HITO Ha Tenrio OT Typ6HHbI YXOAHT TOJIbKO TO KOJIH'eCTBO TOrIHBa, 3aMeigeHHI HPOI3BOBaCTBa 1IOTepSHHOri 3neKTpo3HeprHH. flOCKOJIbKy KOTOpOe Tpe6yeTcsx X Teniia KOJle6jieTCs B TexieHHe roza, <<«K >> npOH3BOAcTBa TeIIJIOBOA ypOBeHb OTBOga 3HeprHH Ha KOHxIeHCaUHOHHO-TerInO4HKaUHOHHOii 3JeIKTpOCTaHItHH B ilejioM 3a roa HaMHoro

HHxe 400%.

6bTrrb IIpHMeHeHMI

JS HHBeCTHflHOHHbIX c6epe)KeHHIR B T3U iipH cpaBHeHHH c oTejbHEIMNH OTOIIHTeaJbHbIMH KOTejibHEIMH H CO CXO)KMH YPOBHSIMH BbIpa6OTKH TenIIa H 3JIeKTpO3HeprHH. 3JIeKTPOCTaHLH3MH Cy11ecTByioT cyIIuecTBeHHEIe pa3JImAX B HHBeCTHUIHOHHLIX 3aTpaTaX Ha T3LU (CM. Ta6Ji. 3.3 B OCHOBHOM OT'eTe). CTOHMOCTEinepeBoga KpyrIHoMacInTa6HOrl CymeCTByiOIeH HJIH Te wce caMbIe

3MHHpHiqeCiuHe

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600 MBT Ha T31U He6ojibIuas[; YCTaHOBKa ,AJ oTBoAa Teniombi o6m'Ho Ao6aBmLueT He 6o07ee 15 - 20% K CTOHMOCTH 3iieKTpOCTaHLiHH. CTOHMOCTb Ha YCTaHOBjieHHyio MOUHOCTh B MBT He6oYibumIo4 aeieHTpajiH3OBaHHOA T31I niiaHHpyeMori 3IieKTpocTaHUHH Ha 100

-

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Thetmie EBponeAcKoA KOMHCCHH, CM. BCEOM (1995 r.): Costeffective Technologies for Therno-Rehabilitation of Buildings in Lithuania. Consultant rioauepwKce

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Report (3KOHoMHtIHbIe TexHojiorFH no TepMOpeCKOHCTPYK1EHH KOHCyJILTaHTa).

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Ha 3aaHHe: Ha )HIune

aojm. CUJA AoM. CIlIA

41229,00 412,29

(HcmotHuK: KoHKpemHbie uccmeoo0aHua no a Opez6yp2y no npoapaxme ESMAPP) 3KOHOMHS TorlTBa paccqHThiBaeTca Ha ocHoBe caieay)owI rnpearionooeHHH: 24% 3KOHOMHH TeruiOBO1l 3HCprHH Ghna 6Ei noi"yeHa 3a cqeT OTOnUHTeBHMx KOTe1bHmmx 76% 3KOHOMHH TenriOBOIl 3HeprHH 6bua 6bl noinyqeHa 3a cqeT T3U ,goji, rioiryqaeMas 3a cqeT oTormTenmbH1x KOTeJnHBrx, B 2 pa3a BbmlIe, qeM npH HLIHemIlHer pa6oTe - TenuoBmme IIOTepH OCTaiOTCS TeMH XKe B a6COJUOTHOM BB6paxKeHHH. - 3HeprHS HaCOCOB OT pacnipeaenieHU TeniOBOwf 3HeprHH CHHKaeTCS UpOrOPIIHUOHBJTHO CHH)KeHHIO 3HeprHH. - 3HeprnA HaCOC0B cocTaBnsieT

25% OT co6cTBeHHOrO noTpe6jieHHI 3/CTaHIHH

- 3KoHoMwwecKHe H3,gepKKH Ha TonUHBo 1,226 aoiM. ClIAIFLR (npHpoatiH ra3): - 3KoHoMHqecKHe H3,epxKKu Ha 0,024 gonin. CUIA/KBT.q HPOH3BOACTBO 3nieKTp03HeprHH:

3KoHoMHs TOflHBa Mo)KeT 6blTb nerio pacclIHTana cneAyioniaiM

o6pa3oM: - 3KoHOMHA TOIIJIHBa B OTOnHTeJBHOA KoTe6bHOH: KOTenETHOR

- 3KoHoMHsA TonniHBa Ha

T3LU: 76%

,ZIpyrue npernonowKeHsA: - Krl)0 OTOrITem6HOrl 92,5 KoTeBH0O1: - KflJ T3J: 42,6 - 3HeprHA Hacoca: 4,5

24%

3KOHOMHS 3HeprmH

% % MBT.'q/ T,7J,x TenrioBofi

3HeprHH

3KOHOMHA 3HeprHH /

/ Krlg T3X

Kj;

OTorIHTeCJIEHOi

211


L I

i


np4no)KeHHe F 3KoHOMW4ecKaR CTOUMOCT6 TonilMBa, 3aTpaTbl Ha nfpOM3BO[CTBO

TennOBOA 3Hepril u pacnpegeneHHe, B03AeICTBHe CMCTeM TenJlocHa6)KeHHR Ha OKpy)KwaiUyo cpeAy 3KOHOMH4eCKas CTOUMOCTb TOnlJHBa

npupodHbUh ea3 3KoHoMHMecKaA ueHa iipHpo;xHoro ra3a BKmoqaeT:

O

LjeHy Ha

O

IIJIFOC

O

IIJEOC

ilpRpOaHi6i ra3 Ha rpaHH1e; B 1996 r. o66mmo ixeHa 6blna oKojio 78 zonmii. CILIA Ha 1000 Ky6. M.; CTOHMOCTE, 1Iepegatm, BKUO'1aA CTOHMOCTE, Ce3OHHOrO aKKYMYJIHPOBaHHA TeIJIOTEbI OT rpaH1ibI ro pOpOXCKHX BOpOT (paBHa TapH4y ui KpyIIHOH T30j); CTOHMOCTE,

11epBHtIHOrO

pacnpeaejieHHIX

(paBHa

TapH4y

pIA5 MecTHOR

OTOIIHTeJIbHOfi KOTeJThHoA);

O

ILIJOC CTOHMOCTE, BTOpHT1HOrO paCIpezeneHHA, BKJEOqas CTOHMOCT16 rOiogCJUOqeHHS 3AaHHM (paBHa TapH4¢y =nx KoTia B 3lAaHHH);

O

TapHclmI R aOMOXO3S1fCTB (nozaaa Ha YPOBeHL KBapTHp) euie BEine, TaK Kax OHH BKJ1O'qaEOT BBICOKY1O CTOHMOCTEb BEBIHC]b1BaHHM CReTOB Ha oriiiary H o6Cny>KHBaHHe MeJIKHX IIOTpe6HTeneA{.

cPuytaHCO6ble mapUqbl-MOryT OTJImqaTi,CA OT 3KOHOMHqeCKOrl CTOHMOCTH riOCTaBKH, TaK KaK KOMIIaHHA, pa6oTamoiuaS1 C IIpHpO,gHbIM ra3oM, aMeS MOHOIOJIinO Ha HOCTaBKH, nocTapaeTCA HC10JE3OBaTE, IIpHHIIHii ijeHoo6pa3oBaHRA Ha OCHOBe 3aMemeHHA TOnJiHBa, YCTaHaBjmHBa TaKylO LIeHy Ha ra3, MTO Jl.x KacxWoro Knacca norpe6HTeJu OH OCTaeTCA KOHKypeHTOCIIOCo6HBIM 110 CpaBHeHHO C apyrHMH BHzaMH TOIBa, HanpHMep, Ma3yTOM B npoMbnJeHHOM

ceKTope. Ho aaxce Torga cTpyKTypa 4HHaHCOBMIX TapH4OB 6yaeT HaIOMHHaT]6 CTpyKTypy 3KOHOMHaeCKO CTOHMOCTH. Ha ripaKTHKe B3HHO, HTO #HHaHCOBMi Tapm4 3a rIpHpOAmHE, ra3 rx HaceeieHHA ripHMepHO B 2 pa3a Bbime, qeM TapH4 UM KPYIIHLIX 11pOMLI=IeHHLIX IIOTpe6HTeJieft. 3To COOTHOileHHIe oTpaxcaeT COOTHOIIeHHIe ileH MeX1Qy Ma3yTOM H ierKIHM .gHCTHjuIITHLiM TOnIiHBOM (ueHoo6pa3oBaHHe Ha OCHOBe 3aMeIneHHA TOIJIIHBa). nO-BHAHMOMy, 3TO TaKwKe xopoio oTpa)KaeT pa3HHIY B 3KOHOMH-eCKOf CTOHMOCTI rIOCTaBOK ,BYM KaTeropHif rioTpe6HTeYieri. HeKOTopue H3 iieHOB6IX pa3j1HHi

T3IJ yCTaHOBOK, pa6oTaioIIIHX Ha Ma3yTe Prio ipOKpbnITE nHKOBOfif ioTpe6HocTH Ha Tenn1OBY1O 3HeprmEo. 3To BEapaBHHBaeT KpHByIO c1poca Ha ra3 6oJIE,ie, qeM B ciyiae c oTZeILHLIMH noTpe6HTeiAsMH, TaKHM o6pa3oM, coKpaLaA HHBeCTHIIHH B Tpy6onpOBODAbI H eMKOCTH 1l5 xpaHeHHAI. B OpeH6ypre, HanpHMep, o6ycnoBneHbl HCI1OJM3OBsaHHeM

3KOHOMHX1eCKaA CTOHMOCTE, ra3a WIS OTzeJILHE,IX KOTJIOB B KBaPTHPaX paCCTE,I0BaRaCb

213

no


214 IIOBblueHHe 344eKTHBHOCTH CHCTeM TennOCHa6fteHHA BcTpaHaax LeHpanbHOA H BOCTOxHO}R EBPOnbl H pecny6mHKax 6blmiero COBeTCKoro C0103a ileHe 9,6 aoim. CIIIA/ MBT.m; a CTOHMOCTb ra3a, HcIOJIb3yeMOFo Ha T3I, coCTaBJsiAia 61% OT 3TOii BeJIHqHHbI. rIpeMmyI1eCTBO B H3ZaepXcax gnA ipexgeJHOLe H3Zaep>KKH IIpH IIOCTaBKaX HM B TeMeHHe

cpege 6yxeT Ha6nioAaTicsI

B KOHKypeHTHOfi

KpyIIHMIX rioTpe6HTenefi, rIOCKOJE6KY

HeTKoe

RnHTenbHOrO nepHoAa HH)Ke. TeM He MeHee,

aeueHrpaJI3oBaHHbIe

TexHojiorHH

AOJDKHbI

6LImB ciioco6HuI CKOmneHCHpOBaTh HeAocTaTOK BMICOKHX 3aTpaT Ha pacnpeaejieHHe B 6ojunFix cHcTeMax LIT, TaK KaK TpaHCiOPT ropAmeg BOABI o6XoA2uTcsi 3HaqHTenJIhHO opoWe, MO)KHO rpeaLnojio2HTb, ro nowaia ropsAqej BO)bI .IeM rHpHpoAHoro ra3a. flpaKTHimecK, meHee MOm;HOrO orIIoJIHHTejibHme H3lIep)KKH Ha ra3 xM CTOHT B TpH pa3a 6obmie.

TeriIoreHepaTopa,

B

Hgeajie

npeAcTanJIoT

co6or XIIrOJIHHTeJIEHbMI

TpaHcllOPT ra3a OT

go MeCTa pacriojio)KeHHS MeCTa HaXOIeHHIA KpyIlHOfl YCTaHOBKH TenruoreHepaTopa. 3TO paCCTOSHHe paBHO paCCTOSHHIO noaaqH ropAmeMI BOabEI.

yKa3aHHoro

Ta6nHUa F-1 iTpeRCTaBjiAeT oieHKy 3KOHOMH-eCKOk CTOHMOCTH ra3a H COOTBeTCTByloiIHe EaeCTH rOpO(OB, HCCJIieOBaHHLIX B paMKaX IIpOrpaMMbI CTOHMOcTHMie KoMIoHeHThI ,nISi ESMAP.

Ta6nMtma F-1.

OLIeHKa 3KOHOMHqeCKOU CTOMMOCTU

npHpOAHoro ra3a Ha Bbe3Ae

B

ropoA, MiOnb 1996 r. 3KoHoMHqeciKaI

CTpaHa

Bbe3,

B ropo

33CTOHMOCTb Ha B6e3me B

T

ropo,

oo

Aonjm./100

AoJ1./l

xo.rui./1000

0 Ky6. M

000

Icy6. M

Ky6.

EonrapHs JlTBa

Co4HA KayHac

rIoEb.Iua

BpouiaB

an

M

103,8 1,3,4 81,5 8,9 8 102,6 3 99,8

11,0 1 4,0 5 15,0 12 15,0 11

114,8 85,5 117,6 114,8

2 6

0,0 10 3,3 7

45,0 83,3

PyMBIHm THMHmIloapa 45,0 OpeH6ypr Poccisi 80,0 YKPaHHa 1IHeriPOneTPOBCK HCTO'qHHI: COTPYpaHmKH BceMHpHoro EaHKCa

xaonnjruc 13

13,2 9,8 13,5 13,2 2

5,2 9,6

rIpHMeiaHHAs:

1.

ESMAP:

oionrapIAs

-

"IlpHpogHoMy

ra3:

1lo?IHTHKa HI BoIIpOCLI'=, oTqeT

N째

188/96 2.

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Ha

rpaHHrie

4oHIa OT npe=npHTHr

ra3a, anpejm 1996 r).

ropo,ga

(rlpoeKT

SAR oTaejneHHA

Ha OCHOBe npoeica no pacnpeAIeneHHIO


rIpHnoweHHe F 215

3.

1996 r.): 1,65 ,4ojrn. /1000 Ky6. M /100 KM. CpegHeB3BenIeHHaS IIHHa TpaH3HTHLIX .IIHHHi, paccqHTaHHaA YKpra3IipoeKToM, COCTaBJISeT 1190 KM. Bmiiiieyxa3aHHoe 3HaIeHHe HeMHOrO HH2Ke CTOHMOCTH 3a TpaH3HT, yCTaHOBneHHMIi4 YKpra3npOeKTOM, 1992 r. (22 %OJTI.); HeT CCbUIKH Ha ra3, iio.yHeHHbIii xKax pOJITH' OUeHKa BceMHpHOrO EaHKa ,aeT 3KOHoMieCKHe H3ZaepX(KH TpaH3HTa B 15 ,gojum./ 1000 Ky6. M ra3 B KaleICTBe po5UITI, COCTaBHJI 6EI IIpHMepHo 6,5% OT BeJIHIHHM>I ripOriyCKHOEI cioco6HocT, IIpHMepHo 6 Ao.ivi. /1000 Ky6. M. 06maq TpaH3HTHaS riiaTa rIJOC ra3 B KalleCTBe pOSAITH C HCIIOJIh3OBaHHeM TparHIHOHHoro MeTo4a COCTaBJia 6u 21 aojui./ 1000 Ky6. M.

4.

HIo PYMrIHHH: 4,0. B 1992 r. Bo.nrapHs onIiaTHIia

Ho YKpanHe: 19,8

Ha OCHOBe (Lovei, HEojE,

KOJIH-IecTBo ra3a, ocTaBiueecs B PYMEIHHI COCTaBHJIO HMIIOpTHpOBaHHOrO BojirapHeli H3 POCCHH.

TpaH3HT

HaTypoft:

4% OT o6feMa ra3a,

5.

B pacqeT

6.

(Lovei, inojiE

7.

Ha OCHOBe pacqeTa IIJIaTbI 3a TpaH3HT ();HelipoiieTpOBCK HaxOAHTCs3 B 200 KM

B3STO

(2 aonu./ 1000 Ky6. M ./100 KM)

*

200

KM

1996 r.)

OT pOCCHEiCKOEi rpaHHUIb B HoBoncKoBe).

8.

ra3 npogaeTcA Ha rpaHHfie iMmropTepa. Ha OCHoBe pacqeToB riiiaTI 3a TpaH3HT A YKpaHHEII H TpaH3HT qIepe3 Be.napycE, o6omejics 6bi npHMepHO B 9 gojn./ 1000 xy6. M (nHHa rpy6oupoBoga no BenapycH 500 KM). Io Bceii BHXHMOCTH, Hlojbma niiaTHT HaMHOrO 6onmue, HeM JIHTBa.

9.

(Nocius, Hiojib 1996)

10.

OpeH6ypr pacnonoxeH 6JIH3KO K KPYIIHoMy ra3OBOMy MeCTopo2keHHIo. CTOHMOCTh TpaHcIopTa He paccmaTpHBaeTcq.

11.

Cpezi

CTOHMOCTb TpaHcnopTa 1epe3 PyMEIHHiO nIe)HT B npezeniax 11 - 15

,aonn./ 1000 Ky6. M (ESMAP: CrpaTerHLS B oTHomeHHH HPHPOAHoro ra3a ,IsA PYMMIHHH, ioJm 1996 r.). Bionbmee 3HaqeHHe HPIHH3TO H3-3a pacrojio)KeHHA r. THMHiuoapa Ha CaMOM 3anaIHOM KOHUe CTpaHmI. CTOHMOCTB ra3a Ha BXoae B ropo,l MO)eT H3MeHHTLCA, eCJIH THmHIMoapa 6yaeT CHa6wKaTECsl qepe3 BeHrpHIO.

12.

KaK H EI PymInHHH (BpowiaB pacnoiioiKeH B 3anaa,HoA wacTH Ilonbum). Tpe6yeT nepepa6OTKHl.

13.

Ha OCHoBe 1IKy6. M= 8700 Kxani (HH3UIuA npeIen TenjiOTBOpHOCTi).

To we camoe 3HaHeHHe,

3KOHOMUiecKue U3depNKU Ha dpyeue sudbi monnuea B OTHOIImeHHH 3KOHOMHIeCKHX H3laep)KeK Ha .pyrHe BHABI TOHJIHBa, nOMHMO npHpoaHoro ra3a, no 6 H3yqeHH6IM ropoaam ESMAP CM. Ta6n. F - 2.


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u Ma3yTa B CBE I 6CC

OCHOBHbie napameTpbi )nIJHKOHKpeTHblX npHMepoB: 3KOHOMHMeCKHe H3nepwICH HO BHA,aM TOnHJHBa Ba3HCHbliH rOI: 1995 POCCH51

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5500

5500

4500

5000

1700

1600

30

99

42

9

16

13

16

20

3

3

10

10

12

25

8

17

20

10

43

112

54

34

24

29

36

30

60

109

69

43

37

40

148

131

8,6

15,6

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6,2

5,3

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6000

6000

6000

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no cTpaHe

3KOHOMHqecCaH CTOHMOCTb AOJU.

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CepocoJep)KaHHe, (%) 3onbHocTr,

0,7-0,9%

0,8-1,0% 21%

(%)

5-7%

YroJIb, HMnOpT

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6000

6000 HeT naHHbIX

5500

HeT

HCT

HeT

AaHHbIX

AaHHbIX

JaHHbIX

napiTeT HmnopTa 3HepreTHqeCKorO yrai =

UeHa

48

35

50

50

48

10

15

22

32

5

45

58

50

72

82

53

53

68

64

84

96

62

7,5

9,7

9,1

12,0

13,7

8,8

4,5

3,5

3,35

4,2

2,8

ZOJn.

Ha rpaHHUe

CmIA/T CTOHMOCTH TpaHCnOpTHPOBKH

jAoJLI.

no cTpaHe

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3KoHoMHxiecKag CTOHMOCTb

jo-ru.

npH TenJIOTBOpHOCTH

CIIUA/T 7000 Aojioi.

CLIAJT .onn. ClUA/icani 3AeITpo3HeprHsi HpeCeJIbHbie H3JePKicH

IeHTOB/ICBT.q

JAJIHTeCJbHoro nepHoAa 4CTOqHHK: COTPYrHHUcH BceMHpHoro SaHKa

2,5


frlpHoxeHHe F

217

3KOHOMWmeCKaR CTOUMOCTb. npON3BOACTBa Tenria CpaBHeHHe 3aTpaT Ha IIpOH3BO.ACTBO TeIjioBoH 3HMeprFH Ha T3U H B OTOnIHTeJIbHLIX KOTeJIE,HbIX, IHOAaEOIIHX TeIInjO B TeIlnIOCeTh, CO CTORMOCTbIO npOH3BOZCTBa TerUlOBOfi 3HeprIHH KOTJIaMH B 3taHHAX, HYAaeTCA B nOrpaBKe Ha TefJIOIoOTepH IpH nepegaTIe H pacdipe,eJIeHHH. 143-3a TeIInIIoTepb B CHCTeMax LIT CyIUeCTBYeT rIoTpe6HOCTE B 6onEbmIIer

Bbipa6oTKe TeIIJIOBOi

3HeprHH Ha yCTaHOBKax LT ARA fIoaaI TOrO ice KojiHiecTBa TerIIJOBOk 3HeprHH B 3,4aHHAI, KOTOpOe BbIpa6aTi,IBaeTCs KOTjiaMH B 3gaHHiX. TerjoriOTepH ABJIAIOTCS HacTmIEo CTOHMOCTH TerUTouIepeuanH, KOTOPaA aHaJIH3HpyeTCA B Pa3,aene 4.1.3. B aByX Ta6JIHIaX HH)Ke HOKa3aHbI pe3yJIBTaTEI aHaAH3a B03gefCTBHI YPOBHA TeHnjOnOTepb Ha pa3HHIXY B CTOHMOCTH rIIOH3BOACTBa TeIIJIOBOM 3HeprMH Ha BE,IxoOe C rIpe.JpHATH, ripH CpaBHeHHH CHCTeMwI Ha 6a3e T31J H CHcTeMbI, rpeaycMarPHBsaomeA KOTJIMI B 34aHmH, BKEolI10A norpe6HoCTB xis yBejiHqeHRA npOH3BOacTBa.

Ta6n. F- 3. Pa3HwLa BCTOUMOCTU4 npOH3BOACTBa TenlnOBOU 3HeprHH: T31-LIT nlpOTHB KOTenbHbiX B 3AaHHRX, KaK CIyHKLAM4 OT TeniolnOTepb floTepH

0%

10%

15%

20%

25%

,llHeiipOnIeTpOBCK

$11,3

$10,5

$10,2

KayHac OpeH6ypr CO4Hs

$9,8

$12,6 $10,7 $14,8

$9,4

$11,7 $1O,1 $13,8

$11,3 $9,8 $13,3

$10,9 $9,4 $12,8

THMHmoapa

$14,2

$13,2

$10,5 $9,1 $12,3

BpounaB B CPEaHEM CPEA. K030. CTOHMOCTH

$12,7

$12,2

$20,4 $14 39%

$11,7

$19,4 $13,1 42%

$18,9 $12,7 44%

$18,4 $12,2 46%

$17,9 $11,8 48%

I4CTOqHHK: COTpy1HHKH BceMHpHoro BaHca,

Ha OCHOBe

xOH1cpeTHbIX ilpHMepoB ESMAP

344eKTHBHaA cHcTeMa JIT, pacrIojio2leHHaA B paHoHe BbICOKOii IIIOTHOCTH clipoca, HMeeT TerIJIOrIOTepH IIPHMePHO 10%. MeHee 344eITHBHbIe cHcTeMMI HJH 394XeKTHBHbIe CHcTeMbi, pacrioo)KeHHi6ie B pafoHax C HH3KHMH rIOTHOCTSMH cupoca, 6yzyT IMeTB nOTePH rlpHmepHo 25%. B Ta6niHie F-3 noKa3aHo cpasBHHTeCJIHO orpaJ{HH-eHHoe B03,erICTBHe TeiljioIOTep]6 Ha ipeHmyrlecTBa 3aTpaT ipH <<OnTHMH3HpOBaHHOM rIPOH3BOaCTBe Ha T3I)>, H riOKa CTOHMOCTB Teiinonepegawu (KaHHTajBHwe H34epCXKH muuoc 3aTpaTbI Ha 3KcljinyaTaHUlO H Texo6CJIy)KHBaHHe

MHHYC CTOHMOCTh TenjioHoTepB)

6yAyT HH)Ke 11,8 ItT 6y.ieT KoHKypeHTocrioco6Hor. AJIs YCTaHOBOK OTOIHTeNJIhHMX KOTejiBHuX, KaK I1OKa3aHO B Ta6n. F-4, CHTYaUHA HaMHOrO MeHee 6iiaronpiATHasq. CTOHMOCTE TenrionepeRaam Toraa 4oJIDKHa 61mTE HHXCe 5,3 - 7,4 zoun. CIIIA. ,J,iA rpa4)H'IecKoro ripe.CTaBjieHHA CM. PHC. 4.1 B HaCTo3uieM OTqIeTe.

13,1 gouin.

CLIA/MBT.I, CHCTeMa


218

rloBbuweHHe 341eKTHBHocTH CHCT4M TerenocHa6)IeHHA

B CTpaHaX UeHTpam6HOf H BOCTOx*HO1r EBPOrmb

U

pecny6JiHKax 6blsBlero CoBeTCKOro C0o03a

Ta6n. F- 4. Pa3HMIa B CTOUMOCTm lpOI13BOACTBa TenlnlOBOUI 3HeprIU: OK-L4T npOTHB KOTenJHblX B 3AaHHMX, KaK CDyHKLAHq OT TenflOflOTepb IHOTepH

0%

10%

15%

20%

25%

)IHenpOIIeTpOBCK

$6,9 $7,5 $7,7 $8,6 $7,9 $14,2 $8,8 61%

$5,7 $6,1 $6,8 $7,0 $6,3 $12,6 $7,4 67%

$5,1 $5,4 $6,3 $6,2 $5,4 $11,8 $6,7 70%

$4,5 $5,8 $5,8 $5,4 $4,6 $10,5 $6,0 74%

$3,9 $4,1 $5,4 $4,6 $3,8 $10,2 $5,3 77%

KayHac OpeH6ypr CoRsx THMHnioapa BpoUiaB B CPE,HEM CPE,. KO30. CTO0IMOCTH

HcTotnHHmK: COTPYuHHKIH BceMHpHoro SaHKa,

Ha OCHOBe KOHKpeTHBIX

Hanpfl)ceHHOCT6 TennOBOIR Harpy3KN u M3AepM(KN CTOEIMOCTE, pacipeaenieHHM yHKgHIO

I

HanpAIKeHHOCTH

npHmepOB ESMAP

Ha pacnpeAerieHie y6EIBaiomyio HeCKOJIhKO onpegxeneHHir

TefnlOBOr4 3HeprHH o6i,rHo rIpezcTaBiser co6oi

TeiUiOBOri Harpy3KH. I4CHOOJIb3yeTCS

HarISAKeHHOCTH TeriLiOBOH Harpy3KH. <<HanpAIceHHoCTb TenjioeMKoCTH») Tpy6onpOBoaa, UpoioeiCHHorO B TpaHmee>> HJIH BLipaxeHa 1Iepe3

4JIS1 YCTaHOBJieHH

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06bFmqHo Mo0KeT 6m,TIb ipHMeHeH cJielyioIHri IIpHHIUHII: El

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220

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Puc.

F-1. TEnnOHAnPsIKEHHOCTb

TennoBaq Harpy3Ka 50 MBT ,q1nMHa ceTu 25 KM

TennoHanp.qK. = 2 MBT/KM TennoHanp,qK. =50 MBT/KM 2

U APXUTEKTYPA CETU

TennoBaA Harpy3Ka 50 MBT

TennoBaq Harpy3Ka 50 MBT QniHa ceTM 0 KM

qnMlHa ceTi 1 KM

TennoHanpsx. = 50 MBT/KM TennoHanpq)K. =50 MBT/KM 2

TennoHanpFix. = c TennoHanpnix. =50 MBT/KM

TY - Tenno3HepreTH.ecKaq ycTaHOBKa

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1

800 x

700

600 x co 500 E ic-400O 50 z

200 100 0 500

800 1200 1900 2300 2800

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222

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6bIBmero CCCP"

DNIEPROPETROVSKIUKRAINE. DUTCH TASK FORCE: TEBODIN/ECN/ENECO. JUNE 10, 1997. FINAL CONSULTANT REPORT. THE HAGUE. Kaunas/Lithuania. Dutch Task Force: Tebodin/ECN/Eneco. May 23, 1997. Final Consultant Report. The Hague. OrenburgiRussia. Stork Comprimo Consultants. March 1997. Final Consultant Report. Amsterdam. Sofia/Bulgaria. Mannheimer Versorgungs- und Verkehrsgesellschaft (MVV). April 1997. Final Consultant Report (Fieldwork carried out jointly with Sofregaz). With support from Kreditanstalt flir Wiederaufbau/French Consultant Trust Fund. Mannheim. Timisoara/Romania. MVV. April 1997. Final Consultant Report (fieldwork carried out jointly with Sofregaz). With support from Kreditanstalt flir Wiederaufbau/French Consultant Trust Fund. Mannheim. Wroclaw/Poland. Stork Comprimo Consultants. March 1997. Final Consultant Report. Amsterdam. );PYrHe MaTepNaSIi,

no,grOTOBw1eHHbme B PaMKaX nporpammm ESMAP "HoBblmeHNe Kr, CNCTeM TeEiocHa6fteHHsI B LReHTpaJI6Hofi H BocroqHoft EBpone, pecny6aHiKaX 6IBImero CCCP"

Arpaillange, Josephine. June 1995. Lithuania-TheBuildings and the People: Homeowner Association Profile, HouseholdEnergy Survey, Building Assessment Study. Main Report and List of Reports. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. BCEOM French Engineering Consultants. 1995. Cost-effective Technologiesfor ThermoRehabilitationof Buildings in Lithuania. Final Consultant Report; with support from the European Commission DG XVII THERMIE Program. Biomass Technology Group. May 30, 1995. "Household Fuel Appliance Assessment Study on Lithuania." Draft Report. Cherubin, Witold. September 1996. InstitutionalRequirementsfor Increasingthe Efficiency ofHeating in Poland. Final Consultant Report. Warsaw.

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236

flOBumeHHe 34xeKiHIBHOCTH CHCTeM TeTrDOCHa6fteHHAs B CTPaHaX LIeHTPanJbHOr M BOCTOqHOfl EBPOtmI H

CrpaHax ECC

Friedemann & Johnson Consultants/MVV. September 1995. "Increasing the Efficiency of the Heating Sector in Central and Eastern Europe: Definition of Methodology." Draft Consultant Report. With support from the European Commission DG XVII THERMIE Program and MVV (Mannheimer Versorgungs- und Verkehrsgesellschaft). Mostert, Wolfgang. December 1997. The HeatingSector in Centraland EasternEurope: Issues and Options. Final Consultant Report. Copenhagen. Oeko-Institut. March 1998. Increasingthe Efficiency of Heating Systems in Centraland Eastern Europe: Application of the Environmental ManualforPowerDevelopment. Final Consultant Report. Darmstadt. Pogorzelski, Jerzy, and Krzysztof Kasperkiewicz. October 1996. The Role ofEnergy Conservationin Increasingthe Efficiency of Heating in Poland. Final Consultant Report. Warsaw. Vine, Edward, Eduardas Kazakevicius, Lee Schipper, and Stephen Meyers. April 1997. ResidentialEnergy Use in Lithuania: The Prospectsfor Energy Efficiency. Final Consultant Report. Berkeley. AOnOnHIHTenbHbie MaTeplanbl

Martinot, Eric. 1997. "Investments to Improve the Energy Efficiency of Existing Residential Buildings in Countries of the Former Soviet Union." Studies of Economies in Transition 24 (Washington, D.C.: The World Bank). World Bank. April 1998. Profile of Energy Sector Activities of the World Bank in ECA. Washington, D.C.


Joint UNDP/World Bank

ENERGY SECTOR MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME (ESMAP) LIST OF REPORTS ON COMPLETED ACTIVITIES Region/Country

Activity/Report Title

Date

Number

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA (AFR) Africa Regional

Angola Benin Botswana

Burkina Faso

Burundi

Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Comoros

Congo C6te d'Ivoire

Anglophone Africa Household Energy Workshop (English) Regional Power Seminar on Reducing Electric Power System Losses in Africa (English) Institutional Evaluation of EGL (English) Biomass Mapping Regional Workshops (English) Francophone Household Energy Workshop (French) Interafrican Electrical Engineering College: Proposals for Shortand Long-Term Development (English) Biomass Assessment and Mapping (English) Symposium on Power Sector Reform and Efficiency Improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa (English) Commercialization of Marginal Gas Fields (English) Commercilizing Natural Gas: Lessons from the Seminar in Nairobi for Sub-Saharan Africa and Beyond Energy Assessment (English and Portuguese) Power Rehabilitation and Technical Assistance (English) Energy Assessment (English and French) Energy Assessment (English) Pump Electrification Prefeasibility Study (English) Review of Electricity Service Connection Policy (English) Tuli Block Farms Electrification Study (English) Household Energy Issues Study (English) Urban Household Energy Strategy Study (English) Energy Assessment (English and French) Technical Assistance Program (English) Urban Household Energy Strategy Study (English and French) Energy Assessment (English) Petroleum Supply Management (English) Status Report (English and French) Presentation of Energy Projects for the Fourth Five-Year Plan (1983-1987) (English and French) Improved Charcoal Cookstove Strategy (English and French) Peat Utilization Project (English) Energy Assessment (English and French) Energy Assessment (English and Portuguese) Household Energy Strategy Study (English) Energy Assessement (French) Elements of Strategy for Urban Household Energy The Case of Ndjamena (French) Energy Assessment (English and French) In Search of Better Ways to Develop Solar Markets: The Case of Comoros Energy Assessment (English) Power Development Plan (English and French) Energy Assessment (English and French) hnproved Biomass Utilization (English and French)

07/88

085/88

08/88 02/89 05/89 08/89

087/88 098/89

03/90 03/90

112/90 --

06/96 12/97

182/96 201/97

--

--

01/00 05/89 10/91 06/85 09/84 01/86 07/87 07/87 02/88 05/91 01/86 03/86 06/91 06/82 01/84 02/84

225/00 4708-ANG 142/91 5222-BEN 4998-BT 047/86 071/87 072/87 -132/91 5730-BUR 052/86 134/91 3778-BU 012/84 011/84

05/85 09/85 11/85 01/92 08/84 02/90

036/85 042/85 046/85 9215-BU 5073-CV 110/90

08/92

9898-CAR

12/93 01/88

160/94 7104-COM

05/00 01/88 03/90 04/85 04/87

230/00 6420-COB 106/90 5250-IVC 069/87


-2Region/Country Cote d'Ivoire

Ethiopia

Gabon The Gambia

Ghana

Guinea Guinea-Bissau

Kenya

Lesotho Liberia

Madagascar

Malawi

Mali

Activity/Report Title Power System Efficiency Study (English) Power Sector Efficiency Study (French) Project of Energy Efficiency in Buildings (English) Energy Assessment (English) Power System Efficiency Study (English) Agricultural Residue Briquetting Pilot Project (English) Bagasse Study (English) Cooking Efficiency Project (English) Energy Assessment (English) Energy Assessment (English) Energy Assessment (English) Solar Water Heating Retrofit Project (English) Solar Photovoltaic Applications (English) Petroleum Supply Management Assistance (English) Energy Assessment (English) Energy Rationalization in the Industrial Sector (English) Sawmill Residues Utilization Study (English) Industrial Energy Efficiency (English) Energy Assessment (English) Household Energy Strategy (English and French) Energy Assessment (English and Portuguese) Recommended Technical Assistance Projects (English & Portuguese) Management Options for the Electric Power and Water Supply Subsectors (English) Power and Water Institutional Restructuring (French) Energy Assessment (English) Power System Efficiency Study (English) Status Report (English) Coal Conversion Action Plan (English) Solar Water Heating Study (English) Peri-Urban Woodfuel Development (English) Power Master Plan (English) Power Loss Reduction Study (English) Implementation Manual: Financing Mechanisms for Solar Electric Equipment Energy Assessment (English) Energy Assessment (English) Recommended Technical Assistance Projects (English) Power System Efficiency Study (English) Energy Assessment (English) Power System Efficiency Study (English and French) Environmental Impact of Woodfuels (French) Energy Assessment (English) Technical Assistance to Improve the Efficiency of Fuelwood Use in the Tobacco Industry (English) Status Report (English) Energy Assessment (English and French) Household Energy Strategy (English and French)

Islarnic Republic Energy Assessment (English and French) of Mauritania Household Energy Strategy Study (English and French)

Date

Number

12/87 02/92 09/95 07/84 10/85 12/86 12/86 12/87 02/96 07/88 11/83 02/85 03/85 04/85 11/86 06/88 11/88 11/92 11/86 01/94 08/84

-140/91 175/95 4741-ET 045/85 062/86 063/86 -179/96 6915-GA 4743-GM 030/85 032/85 035/85 6234-GH 084/88 074/87 148/92 6137-GUI 163/94 5083-GUB

04/85

033/85

02/90 04/91 05/82 03/84 05/84 02/87 02/87 10/87 11/87 09/96

100/90 118/91 3800-KE 014/84 016/84 -066/87 076/87 -186/96

07/00 01/84 12/84 06/85 12/87 01/87 12/87 10/95 08/82

231/00 4676-LSO 5279-LBR 038/85 081/87 5700-MAG 075/87 176/95 3903-MAL

11/83 01/84 11/91 03/92

009/83 013/84 8423-MLI 147/92

04/85 07/90

5224-MAU 123/90


-3 Region/Country Mauritius

Mozambique

Namibia Niger

Nigeria Rwanda

SADC SADCC Sao Tome and Principe Senegal

Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa Republic of Sudan

Swaziland Tanzania

Activity/Report Title Energy Assessment (English) Status Report (English) Power System Efficiency Audit (English) Bagasse Power Potential (English) Energy Sector Review (English) Energy Assessment (English) Household Electricity Utilization Study (English) Electricity Tariffs Study (English) Sample Survey of Low Voltage Electricity Customers Energy Assessment (English) Energy Assessment (French) Status Report (English and French) Improved Stoves Project (English and French) Household Energy Conservation and Substitution (English and French) Energy Assessment (English) Energy Assessment (English) Energy Assessment (English) Status Report (English and French) Improved Charcoal Cookstove Strategy (English and French) Improved Charcoal Production Techniques (English and French) Energy Assessment (English and French) Commercialization of Improved Charcoal Stoves and Carbonization Techniques Mid-Term Progress Report (English and French) SADC Regional Power Interconnection Study, Vols. I-IV (English) SADCC Regional Sector: Regional Capacity-Building Program for Energy Surveys and Policy Analysis (English)

Energy Assessment (English) Energy Assessment (English) Status Report (English and French) Industrial Energy Conservation Study (English) Preparatory Assistance for Donor Meeting (English and French) Urban Household Energy Strategy (English) Industrial Energy Conservation Program (English) Energy Assessment (English) Electric Power System Efficiency Study (English) Energy Assessment (English) Energy Assessment (English) Options for the Structure and Regulation of Natural Gas Industry (English) Management Assistance to the Ministry of Energy and Mining Energy Assessment (English) Power System Efficiency Study (English) Status Report (English) Wood Energy/Forestry Feasibility (English) Energy Assessment (English) Household Energy Strategy Study Energy Assessment (English) Peri-Urban Woodfuels Feasibility Study (English) Tobacco Curing Efficiency Study (English) Remote Sensing and Mapping of Woodlands (English)

Date 12/81 10/83 05/87 10/87 12/94 01/87 03/90 06/96 06/97 03/93 05/84 02/86 12/87

Number 3510-MAS 008/83 070/87 077/87 3643-MAS 6128-MOZ 113/90 181/96 195/97 11320-NAM 4642-NIR 051/86 080/87

01/88 08/83 07/93 06/82 05/84 08/86 02/87 07/91

082/88 4440-UNI 11672-UNI 3779-RW 017/84 059/86 065/87 8017-RW

12/91 12/93

--

11/91

--

141/91

10/85 07/83 10/84 05/85 04/86 02/89 05/94 01/84 08/84 10/87 12/85

5803-STP 4182-SE 025/84 037/85 056/86 096/89 165/94 4693-SEY 021/84 6597-SL 5796-SO

05/95 05/83 07/83 06/84 11/84 07/87 02/87 10/97 11/84 08/88 05/89 06/90

172/95 003/83 4511-SU 018/84 026/84 073/87 6262-SW 198/97 4969-TA 086/88 102/89 --


-4 Region/Country Tanzania

Togo

Uganda

Zaire Zambia

Zimbabwe

Date

Number

Industrial Energy Efficiency Technical Assistance (English) Power Loss Reduction Volume 1: Transsmission and Distribution SystemTechnical Loss Reduction and Network Development (English) Power Loss Reduction Volume 2: Reduction of Non-Technical Losses (English) Energy Assessment (English) Wood Recovery in the Nangbeto Lake (English and French) Power Efficiency Improvement (English and French) Energy Assessment (English) Status Report (English) Institutional Review of the Energy Sector (English) Energy Efficiency in Tobacco Curing Industry (English) Fuelwood/Forestry Feasibility Study (English) Power System Efficiency Study (English) Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Brick and Tile Industry (English) Tobacco Curing Pilot Project (English)

08/90

122/90

06/98

204A/98

06/98 06/85 04/86 12/87 07/83 08/84 01/85 02/86 03/86 12/88

204B/98 5221-TO 055/86 078/87 4453-UG 020/84 029/85 049/86 053/86 092/88

02/89 03/89

Energy Assessment (English) Rural Electrification Strategy Study Energy Assessment (English) Energy Assessment (English) Status Report (English) Energy Sector Institutional Review (English) Power Subsector Efficiency Study (English) Energy Strategy Study (English) Urban Household Energy Strategy Study (English) Energy Assessment (English) Power System Efficiency Study (English) Status Report (English) Power Sector Management Assistance Project (English) Power Sector Management Institution Building (English) Petroleum Management Assistance (English) Charcoal Utilization Prefeasibility Study (English) Integrated Energy Strategy Evaluation (English) Energy Efficiency Technical Assistance Project: Strategic Framework for a National Energy Efficiency Inprovement Program (English) Capacity Building for the National Energy Efficiency Improvement Progranmme (NEEIP) (English) Rural Electrification Study

12/96 09/99 05/86 01/83 08/85 11/86 02/89 02/89 08/90 06/82 06/83 08/84 04/85 09/89 12/89 06/90 01/92

097/89 UNDP Terminal Report 193/96 221/99 5837-ZR 4110-ZA 039/85 060/86 093/88 094/88 121/90 3765-ZIM 005/83 019/84 034/85

Activity/Report Title

--

109/89 119/90 8768-ZIM

04/94

--

12/94 03/00

228/00

11/90 05/89 12/89 07/93

-101/89 105/89 156/93

11/94

168/94

EAST ASIA AND PACIFIC (EAP) Asia Regional China

Pacific Household and Rural Energy Seminar (English) County-Level Rural Energy Assessments (English) Fuelwood Forestry Preinvestment Study (English) Strategic Options for Power Sector Reform in China (English) Energy Efficiency and Pollution Control in Township and Village Enterprises (TVE) Industry (English)


Region/Couniry China

Fiji Indonesia

Lao PDR Malaysia Myannar Papua New Guinea

Activity/lReport Title Energy for Rural Development in China: An Assessment Based on a Joint Chinese/ESMAP Study in Six Counties (English) Improving the Technical Efficiency of Decentralized Power Companies Energy Assessment (English) Energy Assessment (English) Status Report (English) Power Generation Efficiency Study (English) Energy Efficiency in the Brick, Tile and Lime Industries (English) Diesel Generating Plant Efficiency Study (English) Urban Household Energy Strategy Study (English) Biomass Gasifier Preinvestment Study Vols. I & II (English) Prospects for Biomass Power Generation with Emphasis on Palm Oil, Sugar, Rubberwood and Plywood Residues (English) Urban Electricity Demand Assessment Study (English) Institutional Development for Off-Grid Electrification Sabah Power System Efficiency Study (English) Gas Utilization Study (English) Energy Assessment (English)

Energy Assessment (English) Status Report (English) Energy Strategy Paper (English) Institutional Review in the Energy Sector (English) Power Tariff Study (English) Philippines Commercial Potential for Power Production from Agricultural Residues (English) Energy Conservation Study (English) Solomon Islands Energy Assessment (English) Energy Assessment (English) South Pacific Petroleum Transport in the South Pacific (English) Thailand Energy Assessment (English) Rural Energy Issues and Options (English) Accelerated Dissemination of Improved Stoves and Charcoal Kilns (English) Northeast Region Village Forestry and Woodfuels Preinvestment Study (English) Impact of Lower Oil Prices (English) Coal Development and Utilization Study (English) Tonga Energy Assessment (English) Vanuatu Energy Assessment (English) Vietnam Rural and Household Energy-Issues and Options (English) Power Sector Reform and Restructuring in Vietnam: Final Report to the Steering Committee (English and Vietnamese) Household Energy Technical Assistance: Improved Coal Briquetting and Commercialized Dissemination of Higher Efficiency Biomass and Coal Stoves (English) Western Samoa Energy Assessment (English)

Date

Number

06/96

183/96

09/99 06/83 11/81 09/84 02/86

222/999 4462-FIJ 3543-IND 022/84 050/86

04/87 12/88 02/90 12/90

067/87 095/88 107/90 124/90

11/94 03/93 06/99 03/87 09/91 06/85

167/94 154/93 215/99 068/87 9645-MA 5416-BA

06/82 07/83 -10/84 10/84

3882-PNG 006/83 -023/84 024/84

12/93 08/94 06/83 01/92 05/86 09/85 09/85

157/93 -4404-SOL 979-SOL -5793-TH 044/85

09/87

079/87

02/88 08/88 10/89 06/85 06/85 01/94

083/88 --5498-TON 5577-VA 161/94

09/95

174/95

01/96 06/85

178/96 5497-WSO


-6 Region/Country

Activity/Report Title

Date

Number

SOUTH ASIA (SAS) Bangladesh

Bangladesh India

Nepal

Pakistan

Sri Lanka

Energy Assessment (English) Priority Investment Program (English) Status Report (English) Power System Efficiency Study (English) Small Scale Uses of Gas Prefeasibility Study (English) Opportunities for Conmmercialization of Nonconventional Energy Systems (English) Maharashtra Bagasse Energy Efficiency Project (English) Mini-Hydro Development on Irrigation Dams and Canal Drops Vols. I, II and III (English) WindFarm Pre-Investment Study (English) Power Sector Reform Seminar (English) Environmental Issues in the Power Sector (English) Environmental Issues in the Power Sector: Manual for Environmental Decision Making (English) Household Energy Strategies for Urban India: The Case of Hyderabad Energy Assessment (English) Status Report (English) Energy Efficiency & Fuel Substitution in Industries (English) Household Energy Assessment (English) Assessment of Photovoltaic Programs, Applications, and Markets (English) National Household Energy Survey and Strategy Formulation Study: Project Terminal Report (English) Managing the Energy Transition (English) Lighting Efficiency Improvement Program Phase 1: Commercial Buildings Five Year Plan (English) Energy Assessment (English) Power System Loss Reduction Study (English) Status Report (English) Industrial Energy Conservation Study (English)

10/82 05/83 04/84 02/85 12/88

3873-BD 002/83 015/84 031/85 --

11/88 07/90

091/88 120/90

07/91 12/92 04/94 06/98

139/91 150/92 166/94 205/98

06/99

213/99

06/99 08/83 01/85 06/93 05/88

214/99 4474-NEP 028/84 158/93 --

10/89

103/89

03/94 10/94

--

10/94 05/82 07/83 01/84 03/86

3792-CE 007/83 010/84 054/86

Natural Gas Policies and Issues (English)

10/96

188/96

Power Sector Reform in Selected Countries Increasing the Efficiency of Heating Systems in Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union (English and Russian) The Future of Natural Gas in Eastern Europe (English) Natural Gas Investmnent Study, Volumes 1, 2 & 3

07/97

196/97

08/00 08/92 12/97

234/00 149/92 199/97

Opportunities for Renewable Energy Development Energy Sector Restructuring Program Vols. I-V (English) Natural Gas Upstream Policy (English and Polish) Energy Sector Restructuring Program Establishing the Energy Regulation Authority

11/97 01/93 08/98

16855-KAZ 153/93 206/98

10/98

208/98

EUROPE AND CENTRAL ASIA (ECA) Bulgaria Central and Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe Kazakhstan Kazakhstan & Kyrgyzstan Poland


-7 Region/Country Portugal Romania Slovenia Turkey

Activily/Report Title Energy Assessment (English) Natural Gas Development Strategy (English) Workshop on Private Participation in the Power Sector (English) Energy Assessment (English) Energy and the Environment: Issues and Options Paper

Date

Number

04/84 12/96 02/99 03/83 04/00

4824-PO 192/96 211/99 3877-TU 229/00

10/96 03/84 01/86 07/95 10/98 02/99 05/86 09/88 04/89 06/90 03/90 02/92

189/96 4157-MOR 048/86 173/95 209/98 210/99 5822-SYR 089/88 099/89 115/90 -136/91

04/92 11/96 11/96 12/84 02/87 03/91

146/92 190A/96 190B/96 4892-YAR 6376-YAR 126/91

07/89

--

04/97

194/97

12/97

200/97

06/98 04/83 12/87 11/90

203/98 4213-BO -111/90

04/91 08/91 01/92 03/92 12/93 01/94

129/91 131/91 137/91 125/92 164/93 162/94

MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA (MNA) Arab Republic of Egypt

Morocco

Syria

Tunisia

Yemen

Energy Assessment (English) Energy Assessment (English and French) Status Report (English and French) Energy Sector Institutional Development Study (English and French) Natural Gas Pricing Study (French) Gas Development Plan Phase II (French) Energy Assessment (English) Electric Power Efficiency Study (English) Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Cement Sector (English) Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Fertilizer Sector (English) Fuel Substitution (English and French) Power Efficiency Study (English and French) Energy Management Strategy in the Residential and Tertiary Sectors (English) Renewable Energy Strategy Study, Volume I (French) Renewable Energy Strategy Study, Volume II (French) Energy Assessment (English) Energy Investment Priorities (English) Household Energy Strategy Study Phase I (English) LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN (LAC)

LAC Regional

Bolivia

Regional Seminar on Electric Power System Loss Reduction in the Caribbean (English) Elimination of Lead in Gasoline in Latin America and the Caribbean (English and Spanish) Elimnination of Lead in Gasoline in Latin America and the Caribbean - Status Report (English and Spanish) Harmonization of Fuels Specifications in Latin America and the Caribbean (English and Spanish) Energy Assessment (English) National Energy Plan (English) La Paz Private Power Technical Assistance (English) Prefeasibility Evaluation Rural Electrification and Demand Assessment (English and Spanish) National Energy Plan (Spanish) Private Power Generation and Transmission (English) Natural Gas Distribution: Economics and Regulation (English) Natural Gas Sector Policies and Issues (English and Spanish) Household Rural Energy Strategy (English and Spanish)


-8Region/Country Bolivia

Brazil

Chile Colomnbia

Costa Rica

Dominican Republic Ecuador

Guatemala Haiti

Honduras Jamaica

Mexico

Panama Paraguay

Peru

Activity/Report Title Preparation of Capitalization of the Hydrocarbon Sector Introducing Competition into the Electricity Supply Industry in Developing Countries: Lessons from Bolivia Energy Efficiency & Conservation: Strategic Partnership for Energy Efficiency in Brazil (English) Hydro and Thermal Power Sector Study Rural Electrification with Renewable Energy Systems in the Northeast: A Preinvestment Study Energy Sector Review (English) Energy Strategy Paper (English) Power Sector Restructuring (English) Energy Efficiency Report for the Commercial and Public Sector (English) Energy Assessment (English and Spanish) Recommended Technical Assistance Projects (English) Forest Residues Utilization Study (English and Spanish) Energy Assessment (English) Energy Assessment (Spanish) Energy Strategy Phase I (Spanish) Energy Strategy (English) Private Minihydropower Development Study (English) Energy Pricing Subsidies and Interfuel Substitution (English) Energy Pricing, Poverty and Social Mitigation (English) Issues and Options in the Energy Sector (English) Energy Assessment (English and French) Status Report (English and French) Household Energy Strategy (English and French) Energy Assessment (English) Petroleum Supply Management (English) Energy Assessment (English) Petroleum Procurement, Refining, and Distribution Study (English) Energy Efficiency Building Code Phase I (English) Energy Efficiency Standards and Labels Phase I (English) Management Information System Phase I (English) Charcoal Production Project (English) FIDCO Sawmill Residues Utilization Study (English) Energy Sector Strategy and Investment Planning Study (English) Improved Charcoal Production Within Forest Management for the State of Veracruz (English and Spanish) Energy Efficiency Management Technical Assistance to the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) (English) Power System Efficiency Study (English) Energy Assessment (English) Recommended Technical Assistance Projects (English) Status Report (English and Spanish) Energy Assessment (English) Status Report (English) Proposal for a Stove Dissemination Program in the Sierra (English and Spanish) Energy Strategy (English and Spanish)

Date

Number

12/96

191/96

08/00

233/00

01/95 09/97

170/95 197/97

07/00 08/88 12/86 11/94

232/00 7129-CH -169/94

06/96 01/84 11/84 02/90

184/96 4655-CR 027/84 108/90

05/91 12/85 07/88 04/91 11/92 08/94 08/94 09/93 06/82 08/85 12/91 08/87 03/91 04/85

8234-DO 5865-EC

11/86 03/88 03/88 03/88 09/88 09/88 07/92

061/86 --

08/91

138/91

04/96 06/83 10/84 09/85 09/85 01/84 08/85

180/96 004/83 5145-PA

02/87 12/90

064/87 --

----

11798-EC 12831-EC 12160-GU 3672-HA 041/85 143/91 6476-HO 128/91 5466-JM

---

090/88 088/88 135/92

--

043/85 4677-PE 040/85


-9 Region/Country Peru

Saint Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Sub Andean

Trinidad and Tobago

Activity/Report Title Study of Energy Taxation and Liberalization of the Hydrocarbons Sector (English and Spanish) Reform and Privatization in the Hydrocarbon Sector (English and Spanish) Energy Assessment (English)

Date

Number

120/93

159/93

07/99 09/84

216/99 5111-SLU

Energy Assessment (English) Environmental and Social Regulation of Oil and Gas Operations in Sensitive Areas of the Sub-Andean Basin (English and Spanish)

09/84

5103-STV

07/99

217/99

Energy Assessment (English)

12/85

5930-TR

GLOBAL Energy End Use Efficiency: Research and Strategy (English) Women and Energy--A Resource Guide The Intemational Network: Policies and Experience (English) Guidelines for Utility Customer Management and Metering (English and Spanish) Assessment of Personal Computer Models for Energy Planning in Developing Countries (English) Long-Term Gas Contracts Principles and Applications (English) Comparative Behavior of Firms Under Public and Private Ownership (English) Development of Regional Electric Power Networks (English) Roundtable on Energy Efficiency (English) Assessing Pollution Abatement Policies with a Case Study of Ankara (English) A Synopsis of the Third Annual Roundtable on Independent Power Projects: Rhetoric and Reality (English) Rural Energy and Development Roundtable (English) A Synopsis of the Second Roundtable on Energy Efficiency: Institutional and Financial Delivery Mechanisms (English) The Effect of a Shadow Price on Carbon Emission in the Energy Portfolio of the World Bank: A Carbon Backcasting Exercise (English) Increasing the Efficiency of Gas Distribution Phase 1: Case Studies and Thematic Data Sheets Global Energy Sector Reform in Developing Countries: A Scorecard Global Lighting Services for the Poor Phase II: Text Marketing of Small "Solar" Batteries for Rural Electrification Purposes A Review of the Renewable Energy Activities of the UNDP/ World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme 1993 to 1998 Energy, Transportation and Environment: Policy Options for Environmental Improvement

11/89 04/90

--

07/91

--

10/91 02/93

--

05/93 10/94 02/95

155/93 -171/95

11/95

177/95

08/96 05/98

187/96 202/98

09/98

207/98

02/99

212/99

07/99

218/99

07/99

219/99

08/99

220/99

11/99

223/99

12/99

224/99

152/93


- 10-

Region/Country Global

8/31/00

Activity/Report Title Privatization, Cornpetition and Regulation in the British Electricity Industry, With Imnplications for Developing Countries Reducing the Cost of Grid Extension for Rural Electrification

Date

Number

02/00 02/00

226/00 227/00


CES

MAD YII 11

The World Bank 1818 H Street, NW Washington, DC 20433 USA Tel.: 1.202.458.2321

Fax.: 1.202.522.3018

Internet: www.esmap.org Email: esmap@worldbank.org

A joint UNDP/ World Bank Programme

Повышение эффективности систем теплоснабжения  

В странах Центральной и Восточной Европы и республиках бывшего Советского Союза

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