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ЕВРОПА И ЦЕНТРАЛЬНАЯ АЗИЯ

ПОВЫШЕНИЕ ЭФФЕКТИВНОСТИ СИСТЕМ ТЕПЛОСНАБЖЕНИЯ В СТРАНАХ ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОЙ И ВОСТОЧНОЙ ЕВРОПЫ И РЕСПУБЛИКАХ БЫВШЕГО СОВЕТСКОГО СОЮЗА Документ Всемирного банка Информационный центр в России

инфраструктура и транспорт


JOINT UNDP / WORLD BANK ENERGY SECTOR MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME (ESMAP) PURPOSE The Joint UNDP/World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme (ESMAP) is a special global technical assistance program run as part of the World Bank's Energy, Mining and Telecommunications Department. ESMAP provides advice to governments on sustainable energy development. Established with the support of UNDP and bilateral official donors in 1983, it focuses on the role of energy in the development process with the objective of contributing to poverty alleviation, improving living conditions and preserving the environment in developing countries and transition economies. ESMAP centers its interventions on three priority areas: sector reform and restructuring; access to modern energy for the poorest; and promotion of sustainable energy practices. GOVERNANCE AND OPERATIONS ESMAP is governed by a Consultative Group (ESMAP CG) composed of representatives of the UNDP and World Bank, other donors, and development experts from regions benefiting from ESMAP's assistance. The ESMAP CG is chaired by a World Bank Vice President, and advised by a Technical Advisory Group (TAG) of four independent energy experts that reviews the Programme's strategic agenda, its work plan, and its achievements. ESMAP relies on a cadre of engineers, energy planners, and economists from the World Bank to conduct its activities under the guidance of the Manager of ESMAP, responsible for administering the Programme. FUNDING ESMAP is a cooperative effort supported over the years by the World Bank, the UNDP and other United Nations agencies, the European Union, the Organization of American States (OAS), the Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE), and public and private donors from countries including Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Finland, France, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. FURTHER INFORMATION An up-to-date listing of completed ESMAP projects is appended to this report. For further information, a copy of the ESMAP Annual Report, or copies of project reports, contact: ESMAP c/o Energy and Water The World Bank 1818 H Street, NW Washington, DC 20433 U.S.A.


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Copyright Š 2001 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/THE WORLD BANK 1818 H Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20433, U.S.A. All rights reserved Manufactured in the United States of America First printing August 2000 ESMAP Reports are published to communicate the results of the ESMAP's work to the development community with the least possible delay. The typescript of the paper therefore has not been prepared in accordance with the procedures appropriate to formal documents. Some sources cited in this paper may be informal documents that are not readily available. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirely those of the author(s) and should not be attributed in any manner to the World Bank, or its affiliated organizations, or to members of its Board of Executive Directors or the countries they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this publication and accepts no responsibility whatsoever for any consequence of their use. The Boundaries, colors, denominations, other information shown on any map in this volume do not imply on the part of the World Bank Group any judgement on the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. The material in this publication is copyrighted. Requests for permission to reproduce portions of it should be sent to the ESMAP Manager at the address shown in the copyright notice above. ESMAP encourages dissemination of its work and will normally give permission promptly and, when the reproduction is for noncommercial purposes, without asking a fee.


"ESMAP Values your Feedback If you have found this report useful, or would like to provide comments on our reports and services, please log on to our website at www.esmap.org and leave your feedback. In this way we can better understand our audience's needs and improve the quality of our knowledge products. Thank you. ESMAP Management"


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................................................................................................................................ 195 PLic. D-2 KOCBEHHOE nOJKmOHEHWE L4T (K PAVMATOPAM, COEF4HEHHb1M nAPAJ1JlEnbHo)

.............................................. 195

PLc. F-1 TEnmOHAnP9>KEHHOCTb L APXLTEKTYPA CET ... .............................. 220 PLC. F-2 L.HBECT14LMOHH61E 3ATPATbl L TEnfOonOTEPL KAK 4YHKL,ifl5 OT AMAMETPA

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........................................................

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.........................................................

vii

221


Pmc. F-4 OpeH6ypr: 06L4erogoBbie 3aTpaTbl Ha TennOBYIO 3Heprn*o Ha )Krli4JLLe c y'-eTOM 1 223 6e3 3aTpaT Ha oxpaHy oKpy>Katou4ev cpeAbi ................................. Puc. F-5 Bpo4,naB: 06LLeroAoBbie 3aTpaTbl Ha TennOBYIO 3Hepn4lO Ha >KmnwL4e c y'eTOM A 223 6e3 3aTpaT Ha oxpaHy OKpy)K2atI4e~i cpeAbi ................................

viii


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llpHBeCTH BCe 3TH HHBeCTIHIUIHH rIOg o6UH KOHTeKCT peCTpYKTYPH3aiUiH CeKTOpa. OH OCHOBaH Ha npoeiTe ESMAP "rIoBEiiueHHe 344eKTHBHOCTH CHCTeM TeCaJoCHa6KeHHS B

IJBE/lBCC", a Taioie Ha OrpOMHOM oribiTe pa6oTE,I B cdepe ueHTpaJI30BaHHoro (U{T) Kay B 3anaaHoR EBpone, TaK H B LUBE/BCC.

TerU[OCHa6weHHSA

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O

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KaK HHCTHTYItHOHanbHaS cpeza AOJDKHa H3MeHHTh>CA C TeM, tITo6bI cnoco6cTBoBaTB 3KOHOMIqHOA cHcTeMe ipe=oKCeHHA TerIJ1oBori 3HeprCH H cupoca Ha Hee?

O

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LUT ABjiseTCA ZOMHHHpy oLLez TexHojiorHeHl TeImoCHa6)KeHHIA.

B HccjiezoBaHHslx eeCTH rOpo0oB HCnOJIL3oBanIH oHHaKoByio MeTo,oAorHio, KKoTopaA genaiia yIIOp Ha alaJIH3 o67eMa 3aMeHbI OaHorO BHza TOnJIBa AipyrHM, BbI6HpaS MexKIy LIT H aABTepHaTHBaMH, TaKHMH KaK BHyTpHAIoMOBbIe HJIH KBaPTHPH6ie KOTJHI C HCIIOJib3OBaHHeM npHpoAHoro ra3a. Bonpoc KOHKypeHIIHH MeexJy BHaaMH TonJIHBa, Ho BCeil BHIHMOCTH,

He,0CTaTOqHLM 06pa3oM peiuaeTCA BO MHorHX TeXHHKO-3KOHOMHHeCKHX o6oCHOBaHHAX (T3O) CHcTeM LIT, KOTopibie 6E TH BbIIonHeHE.I paHee. MeTo,AonorHIx TaKoKe no gepKHy.na Ba)KHOCT.b

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Ho H3yqaeMEiM ripMmepaM H OCBeILIaOTCA KJInOtieB6Ie BOIIpOCEI, C KOTOpLIMH CTaJIKHBaIOTCS ripoitecc MOAePHM3auH CHCTeM LIT, KoMMepIxHaMlH3a x KOMnIaHHII B CeKTope TenrIOCHa6)KeHHSI Ir Tpe6oBaHHAI nojiHT1HNecKHx H3MeHeHHA. B HeM rIpegCTaBJIeH61 IpiHMep]61 HaHJiyxInef ripaKTHKH npH IIpOBe,aeHHH

pe4OpM

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ix

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KOTOPie 3aHHMaIOTCSI npo6JIeMaMH peCTpyKTYPH3aiXH ceKTopa TeIIIOCHa6)KeHHS o6ocHoBaHIHf iiO H (3) KOHCYJThTaHTaM IIpH IIoarOTOBKe TeXHHKO-3KOHoMiecKHx HHBeCTHIIHSM B ceKTope TenjiocHa6KeHHA.

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x


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XaTITHepa, MaypHiLa XeHKeMaHca, Top,a XonbMcTpoMa, rIaBna KaMHHCKH, OMHHHKa JIaiMaHa, JlacJIo JIOBeH, CaAMOH MaAIHeT, xiHMa My3a, MaHTaca HoruHyca, APTO HYOPKHBH, 3pHKa IleTepcoHa, H4OHyT IypHia, JH HiliHrnepa, KOHCTaHTHHa CKOPHKa, r3pH CTarFHHca, rOCH YTHMYPY, flerrH YHJIbCOH HaCTOAsIH

H CairmaHa 3axeepa.

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a TaKwoe uIpaBHTeJ1BCTBaM

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xi


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Mex(gyHapoAHas3 ¢HaHCoBaa KoPrIoPaI1HA HH3Koe aaeneHHe He3aBHCHMIMf ripOH3BOAHTejU, 3J1eKTpO3HeprHH 0T01HTeJIbHBIe KOTeiibHBIe npe,geJhHEIe H3gep KKH XIHTejibHoro

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cpe2AHee gawBeHHe CHCTeMa IjeHTPajiH30BaHHoro TeriJIocHa6>KeHHIA TAxcejioe TOnO0HOe MacJIo (ma3yT)

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xii


H3MepeHM5I

EgtHHI14A6

UTE BPHTaHcKaA TeIIJIOBa. eaRHHHua rKanI

rHraxajiopHs (OqHH MHJIMHOH KHJIoKaopHW{)

r,A

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KHJIOBaTi.

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'ac

MeraBaTT. 'ac

M3 meraBaTT 3JieKTPHieCKHM MT MeraBaiT TepMaiBHbMi TCY TOHHBI cTaHnxapTHorO yrZi TePauPKOYJIE

TAX

flepeBoc4 3HepreTL*iecKIlx ecUHHl4 IETE = 1,05506 Kg)K 1 FKaJI = 1,16 MBT.tq= 4,19 17)x= 1,75 napoBbie TOHHbI /Tiac 1 rL7x

= 0,278 MBT.ti== 0,239 FKai = 0,42 napOBrie TOHHrI /Mac

1 MBT = 0,86 FKaA = 3,6 fAxc= 1,52 iapOBbIe 1 m3 ippOHaHbir ra3

TOHHBI /ac = 8,5 MKaA (HH3=ik

TerIJIOTBOPHOCTH)

ripegen = 35,86 MNK = 9,88

KBT.Tq

1 TCY = 7 FKaii = 29,3 FAAc= 8,15

MBT.1l

BanloTHble 3KBHBanJeHTbI KypCE,I BaHjOT no oTHoueHHO K 1 zonuapy CLIA (CpegHHri 3a nepHo;z): EoArapHA

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(nieB)

(py6nm,)

YKpaHHa (rpiiBHa)

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1996 r.

178

4,0

2,70

3084

1999 r.

5067

2peXHHi 3a

1,84

1,83

4,0

3,97

15333

24,62

4,13

xiii


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KpyrrHuie UeHTP1IH3OBaHHbie CHCTeMbI IJT CTaIH riofyJIASPHBI B 50-x rogaX KaK cpeacTBo An.A yiiyqiimeHHA Bceo6wero 3HepreTHiecKoro 6ariaHca 6inaroaaps HCnOJib3OBaHOHIo Tennia TOIO'qHiiX ra3OB, o6pa3yiouuIxcA ITPH BbIpa6oTKe 3jieKTpo3HeprHH. TenJIoBbIe Harpy3KH npeAocTaBjisAnH B03MO)KHOCTE 3KCIIJIYaTaXHH rpeHMyIecTB xoM6HHHpoBaHHoro IIpOH3BOACTBa 3JieKTpo3HeprHH H TennIa. KT 3JIHeKTpOCTaHUHH C KOM6HHHpOBaHHLIM n1POH3BOACTBOM MOKeT oCTHmra,T 90 % E 6onee. TaKoe KoM6HHHpoBaHHoe ripOH3BOaCTBO

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HI 3ieKTpHtieCKORi (T3L1) ripegrparaeT cyWecTBeHHE,Ie BMIrOaI,I IIO CpaBHeHHIO C THI1HEHIM KIl,Z ripH BbIpa6oTKe 3IieKTpO3HeprHH HipHMepHO B 35 % Ha TeIJIOBLIX KoH,eHCaIIHOHHIAX 3eIKTpoCTaHimiX H IpH OTgeiiEHoM IIpOH3BOgCTBe Tenna OTOIIHTeJIEHbIMH KOTeJI,HEBIMH.

B cTpaHax IUBE/BCC npemyiecTBo T3Lt

6E,IH peanjH3OBaHbI iHIubE Ha CKPOMHOM ypOBHe, Ha HmeCOLUHik5Ir OTeHLHaii LIT. KaK npaBHnio, TOJIbKO He6oJIEuiasA 'aCTb, 3HeproCHa6)KeHHA[ B o6iueHaujOHaimHoM MacdTa6e HIPOH3BO,ZTCA Ha T3J. Hap3iAy c OTCYTCTBHeM Texo6CRy)CHBaHHA H E HHaHCHpOBaHHI TexHonorimecicoro ycoBepmeHcTBoBaHHIA, CHCTeMa UJT H riOEIKIo4eHHbe 3 aHHs B UBE/FCC CTaiiH cKopee CHMBOijaMH pacrpaTEi 3HeprHH, xeM 3HepreTwiecKoki 3c1MFeKTHBHOCTH. HoTpe6HTeirn He HeCMOTpq

MOryT KOHTPOJIHPOBsaTE, oTpe6JIeHHe Teiila, H pearHpyeT Ha rieperpeB, oTKpLiBaA oyHa, aaxKe 3HMObI. B pe3yjibTaTe BwIcoKHe H3,epxKH CHCTeM LIT CTaJIH IBHEIMH B Haqajie 90-x rozoB, KOrga ijeHbI Ha iTepBHqHbIe 3HeprOHOCHTeJIH B 3THX CTpaHaX BEIpOChIH O YpOBHei MHpOBEIX pEIHKOB.

BcJIe,cTBHe 3TOrO, 3anpamI Ha TenfjioBy1o 3HeprHio CTa&IH COCTaBISITb 3Ha'qHTeJE6HLie IHpOrOpLIHH OT AOXOJOB CeMEH H MYHHUHI1aE,EHbiX 6ion)eToB. Bgo6aBoK, BO MHOrHX ropoAax IIPOH3Bo.IcTBeHHbe MOLHOCTH LT BMeCTe c apyrHMN ( opMaMH HH.IHBHAyaJIbHOrO

OTOniieHHS IIpHBOAAT K 3arPS3HeHHiO BO3AyXa H CepEe3HO BJIHSEOT Ha 3nOpOBbe ropoacKHx )KHTeiieri. BCeMHpHEbIi BaHK, TaK 2Ke KaK H Apyrme MeICyHapOnHbIe H ABYCTOPOHHHe HHCTHTYTBI pa3BHTHS, ABjS1eTCA Ba)KHLIM HCTOxmHHKOM 4HHaHCHpoBaHHIA HHBeCTHUHIM B MoaRepHH3nauo ceKTopa TeriuOCHa6teHHA B LIBE/BCC. HaCTOAWHil OTHeT CTaBHT UeJIbIO IIpHBeCTH BCe 3TH HHBeCTHIIHH IIO,4 o6fHI KOHTeKCT peCTpyKTYPH3aIjH CeeKTOpa. OH OCHOBaH Ha ripoeKTe ESMAP "IlOBbnIIIeHHe 34FeKTHBHOCTH CHCTeM TeniOCHa6)IeHHA B [TBE/BCC" a TaKwe Ha orpOMHOM orinrre pa6oTEmI B c4epe gieHTpaiiH3oBaHHoro TerninoCHa6weHHs (ITT) KaK B 3ana,aHorI EBpone, TaK H B LIBE/FCC.

1


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27

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28

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TOrLIHBOM M0oKeT CJIY)KHT6 IIpHPOgHEIi ra3, KOMMYHanjEHi6i ra3, Ma3yT, yrOJIb, JIHrHHT HJIH, 6MmTB B HeKOTOpEIX pegKHx cnasAx, 6HoMacca. B HCKJInOHTTehHL1X CJIYtaqx TaKHCe Mo)KeT Ha3HaqeHHA: KOMMyHaji6Ho-6LITOBOrO TOIIJIHBO iierKoe HCIOJIb3OBaHO B HCIIOJTh3yeTCA He enie oTXogoB MycopocxraTenIHEe 3awogbI nio uepepa6oTKe "T lIOTOMY LIBE/BCC . IoJsL HCIIOJIE3oBBaHHA ra3a AoCTaToqHO BbICOKa H yBeiHtIHBaeTCSI, Oco6eHHO Iipe,nIrIOTaiOT 3TO TOIJIHBO ra3 OTjiHTaeTCSI qHCTOTOEIH JIerKoCT6io lpHmeHeHEH. B He6oJIbInHx KoTeJibHbIX. B HeCKOJ16KHX cTpaHax KpyrlHLIe TenIIfoueHHTpaiiH no 3aKOHY xaouixHibi pa6oTaTm Ha KoM6HHaL=HH ra3a H Ma3yTa HJIH apyrHx KoM66HHau:HAX, 'TO6MI CHH3HTE, 3aBHCHMOCTL ropoga H CTpaHEI OT Kaxoro-nH6o TOIJIHBa. Bo Bcex HcCiegOBaHHErx ropoxtax iipHOpogHLi ra3 SIBJiLeTcCs OCHOBHEIM BHgOM ToIUiHBsa AJIA TelljIoiteHTpaIieH, 3a HcKJnoTieHHeM

BpouiaBa H THMHmoapEi, rge COOTBeTCTBeHHO ripeo6uiaaaIOT yroJIE H nIHrHHT.

3.1.3.2

CucmeMa mpaHcnopmupoeKu UpacnpedeneHuR

CHcTeMa TpaHcriOpTHPOBKH Tenra KpyIIHori ceTH LIT BTopiHHoro

pacnpeeeieHms. THn4wmasq ceTE 1T

COCTOHT H3

COCTORT H3

HepeAatM,

nepBHqHOrO H

CiapeHHEIX Tpy6 nOaBog=eA H

un6o no 6eTOHHBIM o6paTHoA JHHHH W EILHpKy3MIHH ropsAeM BO,ZI, KaHailaM, ni6o no nOBePXHOCTH 3eMJIH. CHCTeMa nepega'H COCTOHT H3 MarHcTpaieii, HIYIMHX OT IeHTpamHOk T3WOK. 06brHo JIHHHES nepe.aaH HMMeeT aocieAOBaTeIbHjIe ripOzOxceHHrIX

KoHeit iHHHH nepeAaqH Ei Haqano oTBeTBJIeHHA Ha nepBHlfHyWo ceTEm pacupegeuieHmE. CHCTeMLIpacnpeAeAeHHs onpeaeuAeTcsA npoH3BoJE6HO. rIepBHtHas

CHCTeMa

pacnpeaeuieHHA

iipOJiO)KeHHLIX OT nmrHnH BMecTe cHcTeMbi iiepeAa'I

16

COCTOHT

H3

IOABOZtEUHX

Tpy6orpoBoxOB,

nepegaqH go

(ileHTpaTIHLIX HMJ KBapTaniBHEIX) TeHJIotIyHKTOB. H riepBH-Horo pacnpeeieneHHs COCTaBBJIAIOT rIepBHtHyio ceTb.

MycopociraTeawmHe 3aBoAbi ,xnu ioKpEiTHA 6a3HCHofi Harpy3KH TerLUIocHa6xceHxR HMeiOTCA B 3anaAHOiU EBpone H6onime Bcero Hx BO DpaHiU. (24 %). B 6rnixaHmeM 6yzWmeM BLIBEAICC HX He co6HpaloTCSi CTPO}ITB H3-3a BbICOKIHX HHBeCTHXMHOHHIX 3aTpaT. Ho B aaiHekmefi nepcneicrBe c)KHraHHe Ha T3L1, KaK o)KH,aaeTcR, 3aMeHHT CBanKH.


IloBEbimeHHe 3#1eITHBHOCTH CHCTeM Ten1OCHa6fKeHHA B CTpaHaX LgeHTpajihHOA H BOCTO'HHOUi EBPOrmxI H pecny6iixax 6lBimero CoBeTcKoro C0o03a

39

Tpy6oIHpOBO.zbI OT UeHTpaYibHLIX TeIIJIOnYHKTOB CHa6)iaioiiIHe HeCKOJIBKO 3gaHHi, COCTaBJSOT BTOPHWqHYIO pacnpezenIHTeJIHYIO CHCTeMy. B CHCTeMe C npSiMbIM TpaHCfiOPTOM TenRa B 3ZaHM pa3geaeHHe MexJy nIepBH'1HOrl H BTOPHqHEIM paCripeae.ieHHeM ABJ1IeTCq

HPOH3BOJhH6IM.

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noIl1OTaBfIHBaeTCA B TeIIJ1OIIYHKTe m COOTBeTCTBeHHO BTOpHHHa5

(FBKEB) o6LrbHo CeTB OCHaiiieHa Tpex- HIiH peiiieHHA TennionyHKTOB

CHCTeMoH (CM. PHc. 3-1). TexHHwecKHe pa3iHmaIOTCA rIo CTpaHaM. B PYMMIHHH, rge OHI CHa62KaiOT 6onbiEIoe KOjiH tIeCTBO 3R(aHH7, 9JIHHa OTBeTBjieHHi& BTOpHxIHOH CHCTeMbi BeCbMa BeniHKa (HHorga aJIHHHee riepBHt1HOr CHCTeMBI). B BojirapHIr 60JIBMHHCTBO TeIIJIOIIYHKTOB 6BIJIH C03ZaHBI B OTeJIRbHbIX 31gaHHMX KaK B 3anaAlHoeBponeAcKHx CHCTeMaX, HO 6e3 CJIOKHBIX YCTPOiCTB KOHTpOIAS H 4eTBipexTpy6HOF

yperyJIHpoBaHHAs (CM. TaK)iKe Ta6n.

3-3).

Koppo3Is

ABjiSeTCA OCHOBHO:R iipO6IIeMOH PSI TenuIoceTeRi, IIOTOMY 'ITO BbI3BIBaeT 6ojanBHe IIOTePH BOAEJ H coKpaniaeT CpOK TeXHHIIeCKO cJIy)Kf6I. B CHCTeMax, KOTopeIe OTJIH'aioTCS BEICOKHMH IIOTeP1MR BO2Li, riOCTOAHHO Tpe6yeTcSq o6aBJSTb, nOqrnHTO'HyIO BOgy; HHorga 6o0iee 100 pa3 B ro,. B 3anagHof& EBporie COBpeMeHHEie TeXHOJIOrHH He Tpe6yloT (HanpHMep, B (DHHAsHaHH) 6onee oaHoro HJIH AByx flOIIOflHeHHi B roRt. rIOMHMO arpeCCHBHMIX riog3eMHBIX BOa, noriagaIOEHX B 6eToHHMie KaHaJIIE, nOAtnHTOqHaq Boga nLoxoro Ka'eCTBa B3nSeTCS1 OCHOBHOM ripHxiHHOii KOPpO3HH Tpy6. TiaCTO MOIIHOCTH YCTaHOBOK 110no rOTOBKe BOblI, KOTopBIe o6bmno HaXOZSTCS Ha TeppHTOpHH TellJIOueHTpaJIek, HegOCTaTOmHbi, XIA TOrO, xrro6E 6opOTmCA C TaKHMH OrpOMHbIMH

rIOTepfMH BO,LI.

KaK B 3ana,lHoeBponieAcKHx npeo6na,4aioLueA cpe.ozrr o6LMO TOJILKO u1 riogax'

cTpaHax,

TaK

H

B

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us

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nepega'M Teniia H ero pac1ipeaejieHHA; nap HC11Ojib3yeTCA npoMbIuJeHHbIM noTpe6HTeIsAM. Aaice eciiH nap 11pOH3BO2iHTCA rIO(aM'H HeiTpOMbEeHHbiM rioTpe6HTeniM, OH ripeo6pa3yeTCs B ropsAylo BO,Ay, TaKHM ni o6pa30M, BLI3LmBa 3HatITejiEHme noTepH 3HeprHH.

3.1.3.3

3KcnnyamaUuR U peeynupoeaHue cemeui

LJT B 1IBE/SCC 6bm KpexHM YCTazHOBHBsIerocS B 3araIHoeBporierCKHx CHCTeMax 1pHMeHAeTCA pe)HM HeYCTaHOBHBiDeroCA Te1eHHAL (CM. Pa3zei 3.1.6). B OCHOBHOM ycTaHOBHBmeecS TeHeHHe O3Ha'aeT, 'iTO TenniOCHa6XKeHHe H TenJIonoTpe6IieHHe peryniHpyeTcsi nyTeM H3MeHeHHS1 TemnepaTyp I TeqeHIHA (06EdHHO B ,Hana3OHe 70 - 130 0 C). Bao6aBoK, OCHOBHLIM

peXIHMOM 3KCn1UyaTa9WH

CHCTeM

TexieHHA

B03MO)KHO

OipaHzHeHHoe

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HacocBi,

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repBHxIH9IX

reHepHpyioiflHx YCTaHOBKaX, nepeKa-iHBaIoT BOAy WIS ceTeH, a (KBapTajnbHEie) Teriu1oriyHKThI nepeKaxiHBaioT ee BO Ha


40

floBbllleHUe 34ceKTHBHOCTH CHCTeM TenrocHa6x(eHHA B CTpaHaX LUeHTpaJI6HOH z BOCTOHqHOfi EBPOnml H pecny6fntax 6blBmero COBeTCKoro CofO3a

BTOPIHHY1O ceTm. BcdoMoraTeJ,HuIe HacocHi6Ie CTaHL4HH MOrYT 6E,ITE, PaCriOjOKeHbI B pa3JIHxIH],IX TOIKaX CeTH AJIA KOMneHCauHH rIOTepb gaBjieHHA.

,IpyrHM pa3JIHnHeM B 3KCiifYyaTaMHH ABJiAeTCH TO, 'ITO OTOnineHHe rOpOAcKHX iOMeIUIeHHf4 B CHCTeMaX 1IBE/BCC 06bMHO BKjUOIoaeTCS JIHIIIb TOJILKO BO BpeMS OTOrIHTeZJTHOrO ce3OHa.

OH HalHHaeTCS KOrga cpegHeCYTOiHaAs TeMriepaTypa nagaeT ,0 oripegeneHHOrO noporOBOrO YPOBHS (8 - 10 0C) IIpHMepHO B TeHeHHe nITHa Herl niogpg H 3aKaHMBsaeTCS Korga cpeZJHA TemrepaTypa

CTOHT

BbIlnle

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IIPHMePHO

B

TeIeHHe

InITH

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pel'HOHOB

iiOMeIeHHIi H IBKEB 0OCTYIIHEM B TeCIeHHe Bcero roga. TexHiecIKH He 6yqeT npo6neMbI AY, B TOM xiHcjie H JI OTOnIU[eHSH noMeigeHHk, BHe ofHgHaJIbHoro noxaBaTb ropAsiyBo OTOrIHTeJILHoro nepHo,a B LWBE/ECC. KOMI1aHHH LIT B 3anajaHok EBporoii CTaPaEOTCSI ,ao6HTnCA BE,ICOKOii Harpy3KH IieTOM, T.K. 3TO yfy'aeT 3KCIImyaTaJLHIO arperaTOB KOM6HHHPOBaHHOrO nPOH3BOXACTBa H Be,=eT K I1OBI6iIeHIMO rpoga)K 3neKTpo3HeprHH.

3.1.3.4

Tennonepedaia u o6opydoeaHue nompe6umeneu

TenMoniepega,Ia Ha TeIIJIOnyHKTaX MOKeT 6E,ITE "npSAMol" HiiH "KOCBeHHOH". "KocBeHHas" 03HalqaeT, qTo Tenno nepegaeTcsA iepe3 TeIuIoo6MeHHHKH OT nepBH'IHOrI K BTOpHiIHOH ceTH; 3aTeM CHCTeMBI rH,paBnHxiecKH pa3,qeJMIlOTC2. KaK lipSMaS, Tax KOCBeHHEbie CHCTeMbi moryr B 1JBE/BCC gawe B OLtHOR H TOii we ceTH. B napanieimHo 3CIIJIYaTHnOBaThCAS 3aiia,gHOeBpOeiiCKHX cTpaHax npeo6fa,naeT KOCBeHHaS CHCTeMa (CM. rIPHnox)KeHHIe D). TOJI6KO B He6ojTiiiHx CHCTeMax ipHMeHSieTcA iipSiMaS TeIffonepeRaaa.

HaLeneHa Ha H3MeHeHHIA pa6o0mx napaMeTpoB, T.e. 3KCIJIyaTTHpyeTCI IPH TeMnepaTypi H 2aaBjieHHX. B TO BpeMSI KaK nepBHxlHaS cem 0o6bLEHo 7 6onee BLICOKHX TemnepaTypax (HanpHMep, 135 / 65 C)1 , BTOpHqHble TerIjioceTH CHcTeMa KOcBeHHOAi TeimonepexaW

3KCI1JIYaTHSPYOTCI

rIPH TaKHX

2Ke

HH3KHX

TeMriepaTypax, xrTO H BHYTpeHHHe CHCTeME,I B

0 3,4aHH3LX (HanpHmep, 95/75 C).

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O

nIyTeM OTaeieHRHA ceref OT

o6OPY,AOBaHHs

no'rpe6nTeiefi, BpeaHoe BO3,IeACTBie,

B3ATHAI o6ycjiOBYieHHoe oce,aioHM, 3arps3HeHHeM, He3aKOHHLiM UorIKjIoxieHHeM H36eHcaTn. MO)KHO T.,., H (IIO,anIHTO'nHOl) BOAbI, nionagaHHeM BOAbI nioxoro Ka'eCTBa

TaKHm o6pa3oM, aoporocToxmee nepBH'Has ceTm Mo)KeT 6EbIT, nyqIue 3aiiHnieHa OT KOppO3HH.

O

KoCBeHHaA

Tennonepegaia

nO3BoJSAeT

6ojiee

344eKTHBHO

nPOH3BOXHTE

peYJIEpHOBaHHe ceTH.

17

kepBaa u.Hpa o3HamaeT TemnepaTypy noxAoaa,

a BTOpaA TeMnepaTypy o6paTHorO TeruOHOcHTenix.


rIoBbniuieHHe 34feKTHBHOCTH CHCTeM Tern1OCHa6)XeHHSl B CTpaHaX

I.eHTpalibHOA

H BOCTOHHOHi EBPOBIi H

41

pecny6Mmxax 6bxBmero CoBeTcKoro C0ol3a KaK IIOKa3aHO Ha PHC. 3-1 CyiLgeCTByIOT pa3jiHIbIe KOHIlefIHHH CTaHlHZi TenJoInepega-IH: TemnoriepeAaHa MO)eT

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cjiyqae

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TerIJIOIYHKT

BHYTPH 32gaHHA

HanIPZMYIO

B

nogKinoliaeTcs

B OTHOIIeHHe

pacnooceHHA

MaIeHBKHX TenjIIOHyHKTaX. B K

BHYTPHIAOMOBOrf

CHCTeMe

pacIIpe,AeneHHsA. Temnoriepega'a MOweT IIpOHCXOAHTb B OTJXeJIBHO9 CTpyKType, KOTOpaS B CBOIO oqepem o6cJIyHXMBaeT HeCKOJIIKO 3,aHam4. CooTBeTCTBeHHO TeII1IO rIogaeTCS OT

O

BTOpHRHOfi

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B CHCTeMy BHYTpHAOMOBOrO

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pacipeae.neHHIA; OTCYTCTByeT

,I

OTOnIIeHHA I1OMeefeHHil. rIO.rOTOBKa rBKI3B MO)KeT 6bIm ripOBegeHa ueHTPaRR30BaHHO Ha CTaHuHH nepezaI, ITO Tpe6yeT HaIH'mA TpexHIiH qeTmIpexTpy6HOfi CHcTeMbI. 14nZ OHa MO)KeT 6bITB AeUeHTpaJHZ3BaHa B OTAeJIbHbIX 3ZaHHMX, TaKHM o6pa3oM rpe6ys HaJimHe TerLJoo6MeHHHKa B Kia)lOM 32IaHHH. O

TerinonepeRaaIa

MO)KeT IIPOHCXO,ZHTB B OTZeJTHOR CTpyKType,

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14eM

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B

CTaHilHX TemonepenaaH H AUHHHee BTOpHIqHaS KOCBeHHOti CHCTeMe, KOTOpbIe MOHO H4CHOJTb3OBaTb.

ceT,

TeM

MeHbIlie

Ho-BHnHMOMy, 6o0iHHcTBo CHCTeM UT B UBE/BCC HmeIOT IIYHKT KOCBeHHOH TernonepeAa,H r,Ze-TO B ceTx 1112. ToJsIIO He3HaTeJIbHO HX KOIqeCTBO IIOCTaBJSOT TeIIJIO IIP3IMO OT TeriIofleHTpaiei BO BHYTPHAOMOBbIe pacIlpe[eflHTejIbHmIe CHcTeMbI. B OCHOBHOM AnIA KOCBeHHOz Termuonepega' 6bmi Bbi6paH 6o0iee tIeHTpaJIH3OBaHHbIHl BapHaHT; 3T0 03Haqaer o6cnyxcHBaHHe 6o0mmero H HeIIOCTOSHHoro IHcna 3a3aHRA BMeCTO oTAenjbHMx 3L1aHH9. HCIIOJI63oBaHHe TeXHOJIOrHH paCpeIeJIeHH51 TerIa B meciTH ropozax NOKa3aHO B

Ta6n. 3-3. B 3anangHori EBpone npeo6ra,gaeT KocBeHHaS TelIAonepe,a'Ia c

HCHOfIb3OBaHHeM

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3.1.3.5 3

daHuR u o6opydo6aHUR nompe6umeneuj 19

ropoga B UBE/BCC 6BulH c poeKTHpoBaHLi c pacieToM Ha iIeHTPaJIH3OBaHHoe TenjrocHa6IeHHe H ropAee BOAOcHa6)KeHHe. BOJTh6MHHCTBO ropoAcKHx xKHTeJieH- 1KByT B 6ojiniuHx MHOrOKBapTHPHbIX noMax, KOTOpBIe MOryT HMeTb OT Tpex A0 ABalaTH H 6oiee 3TaxKer4. B 50-60-e ro,g1I 60JImHHCTBO IIOCTpOeHHbIX MHOrOKBapTHpHBIX aOMOB 6buiH camoe 6omianee =I5TH3TaKH)me. 103AHee B 70-x H 80-x IIOA1BHJIOC6 MHioro 11eBATH- H meCTHa,Z=IaTH3Ta)KHBIX 3AaHHA, qaCTO B KHJIE1X pagoHax Ha oKpaHHax ropoAoB HJIH Ha 18 19

lpHnojeHHe D aaeT 3TOT

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Pa3z1eu

24, (BawUHrTOH, OKpyr KonyM6wq, BCeMIUPHblI BaHK, 1997 r. Transition 24, Washington, DC, The World Bank, 1997, pp. 7-91

C.

7-9) [Studies of Economies in


42

rIOBbImeuHe 344eKTHBHOCTH CHCTeM TeriocHa6feHHA B cTpaHax 1jeHTpanbHoii H BOCTOIHOfr EBpOnLI H pecny6nHxax 6blBrnero CoBeTcKoro Co0O3a

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iipegeiiamH rOPO.OB. 3Ta cxema Pa3BHTHAI B HeKOTOpi6lX

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qeM

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B CaMHX

째20,21

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H

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Bojiibmasi

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20

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TunutiHbiu pa3Mep (MBm3,

+ MBm

(/)

TunuiHbze UHweCMUUyu

o0Hbie

mep))

3ampambi

(N) 90

42

48

500

CLIIA/IBm) 1400

90 90

38 28

52 62

100 20

1600 1200

90

35

55

150

750

94

48

46

T3I c ra3oeH3jEhHuM ABHraTenem 85 45 a. OnpeaeeseTcB RKa ((MBT3 ,+MBTT.p)/MBT pacxo, TonJIHBa).

200

950

40

2

1200

KoHaeHcaUIoHHo-Termo4HKaxuaoHHaR T3I Ha yrnie rIpoTHBonaaneHqecKaA T3U Ha yrne T3U c He6oJnlEUHMH ra3OBbIMH Typ6HHaMH

T3I c 6oAbinERvH

m3nOBMH

Typ6HHaMH

T3U c napora30oBoH Typ6HHofi C icoM6HHHpoBaHHbIM LIKJOM (nrTKJ) Hcmo0wuK: COTPYIHHMH BceMHpHoro EaHKa.

3.1.4.3

i4Heecmu4uu

C

U,enbio

CHuWKeHUSI

epedHbIX

ebi6pOCOe

om

mennoaneKmpom4eHmpaneu Cami6rl BacHbrig 3KojiorH[ecKHA acnieKT B ceKTope LIT OTHOCHTCS K 3arpS3HeHHio BO3)yXa B pe3yjiBTaTe IHCIIOJIb3OBaHHA yriis H ma3yTa, Ka=KfbIf H3 KOTOPIX o6bmIHo HMeeT BMICOKoe

cepocoaepwKaHHe. (Bonee iioXpo6Hbif aHWaH3 3KojiorHqecK4x npo6neM IIpHBeqeH B Pa3zlene 4.3, rnaBa 4.). 'IaCTo aziiHTeYLbHoe HCIIOJIB3OBaHHe 3THX BHAOB TOnJIHBa He COBMeCTHMO C MeCTHbIMH HoPMaMH H CTaHZapTaMH KaqecTBa Bo3Xyxa. rIpe,4IUpH3ITHIo [JT ripHiuJIocB 6bI HHBeCTHPOBaTT B o6opyAoBaHie nIo xecyrn4ypaijHH HIiH nepeEiTm4 Ha npHpOZHLrIa ra3. EciiH IIPOZOJM Tej3THocTh 3KOHoMHIeCKO )KH3HH T3IVOK He ripeBmiiaeT 10-12 neT, He HmeeT cMEIcJia ycTaHaBJIHBalT o6opyAoBaHHe zisi aecyjIIypaiuHH. Korua rIpHXOlaHTCS pemaTm BOIIpOC HHBeCTHIIEI4H B HOByiO T3LI, BBI6op TPOH3BO4HTCS Mee=y ra3oBoA Typ6HHoA C KOM6HHHPoBaHHMLM IJHKIOM (FTK0 H HOBbIM COBpeMeHHBiM T3LJ Ha yrJie, OCHaijJeHHBIM

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3KOHOMHWIHbIM

xmaecyjTbh4ypa1UHH. B BpoinaBe iiepBbri BapHaHT oKm3ajcH

(FJIaBa

4). 3aecb, KaK H BO MHorHX roponax IlojuiH, HCrIoJIE30sBaHHe yrjsI B AOMOBEbIX KOTjiaX HJIH OK, KOTOpBIe cHa6)KaioT TenriOM He6ojibiuHe H30IHPOBaHHbIe CeTH, CHCTeMaTH'eCKH cHH)KaeTcs, .1H60 6narogaps HcriOJIb3oBaHHIo ipHpo,aHoro ra3a JIH6o rIoAKIIIoqeHHio H30JIHPOBaHHbIX ceTeH K 6ROKHpOBaHHO9 CHCTeMe LIT.


48

rIOBBImeHHe 34XeKrHBHOCTH CHCTeM TerlMIOCHa6feHMsi

B cTpaHax UeHTpanbHOiN H BOCTOHONi EBPOIII H

pecyiy6ncKax 6EIBmero CoBeTcKoro CoIo3a

3.1.5 1lHeemuL4uu a L4eJX CHu)KxeHUs mexHu'eccux nomepb npu nepeaaie u pacnpeedeneHuu27 Tpy6onpo6odHbie mexHonoauu

3.1.5.1

B CHcTeMax LIT B cTpaHax IJBE/BCC IIpesHMyieCTBeHHo HCIIOJIb3yeTCS TexHojiorHS, r.e BaTo1 Him nIeHo6eTOHOM. Tpy6bi o6u6iHo CTaJIHE,Ie Tpy6bI H30JIHYIoTCS MHHepaiiEHO uIpOKmaI,aIBaEOTCS IIOa 3eMjieii B 6eTOHHE,IX Kopo6ax, KOTOpbIe 3a1HHiaEOT Tpy6orDpOBOa OT . Ha HeKOT0pEJX yxiacTKax BHe]nHero gaBsneHHA H IIo3BOJITIoT gpeHHPOBaT]T BOA.y Tpy6oupoBoxHog CeTH, oco6eHHO B CHCTeMe riepe,awuI, Tpy6wI iipojio0xeHLI Hag rIOBepXHOCTM,O 3eMJIH.

rIpe,ZBapHTeJIhHO

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HeriOCpeACTBeHHO Ha rpyHT, CTanIH

AOMHHHpyioiiIeii TexHojiorHefi B 3anaWofi EBPOne, H HaqaiHE IInpHMeHSThCS B CHCTeMaX IUT B LIBE/BICC c KOHiua 80-x roroB. OHH COCTOST H3 BHyTpeHHefl CTajThHOH Tpy6EI, riojiHypeTaHOBOfi H30JHHH H BHemiHero Ko)Kyxa H3 B,ICOKOnJIOTHoro iiojiH3THneHa, KOTOPEJH He HYx<gaeTTC B 6eTOHHOM KOpo6e. HO HIOCKOJIEKY TeXHOlorHIS C npeABapITenIbHOi 3onIgHek Tpy6 o6xoAHTcM gopoxe, 'eM TexHoflor-RA co CTaJIbHOH Tpy6ori, ilocJieAHAq IIpOgofl)KaeT HaXOAHTB IpHMeHeHHe. CHTyalAHsI H3MeHHTCS, Korga 6yAyT YCTaHOBJIeHUI rioKpOKpEITHS peaJMHbIX paCXOgOB Ha 6eToH, CTajTh, MHHepaJIbHyiO BaTy H pwIHotIHwIe UeHI Z TpyAOBwIe pecypcbI6.

nomepu menna UeOdbI

3.1.5.2

MO)KHO OileHRTh o6luee OCyLueCTBJieHHI iipOr-paMME6I MOZePHH3auHH H KaTeCTBO CHCTeMMI pacripe,ejieHsA. 29I;o peKoHcTpyKuHH, 60JIBnmHCTBO cHcTeM 1xT IUBE/13CC xapaKTepH3oBaJIHCL BEICOKHMH B 1IOTePS1MH BOAbI H 3HeprHH, IO CpaBHeHHIO C CHCTeMaMH 3arlazHoeBpo1efiCKHX ropogax. Ta6n. 3-3 C 3aIIazuHoeBpoIIeACKHMH CTaHgapTaMH CpaBHHBaiOTCA 11OTepH TeIIJIi H BOALbI B iiiCTH HCCneZOBaHHEIX ropoxax. TeiIrnioTepH OieHHBaK)TCs 1IpH6JIH3HTeJIIEHo H3-3a TOrO, t qTO B 60o,ImIHCTBe CHICTeM IT HmeeTcA JIHIIU He3HaIHTeJThHoe KoJIHqeCTBo nIpH60poB yqeTa TerIna. BonbmasA qaaCm MoIL1HoCTe2 nO B,Ipa60TKYH TeJIfOTEI 3aMepSeT (c 6onEImer HJIH MeHEimeH TORHOCTLIO) Telnno, noraBaeMoe Ha CHCTeMy paciipe;xejieHHA. Bce 6oimiiee qHcj]o CBOe o6opyxOBaHHe, HO H3-3a OTCYTCTBHA 1ieHTPaZJTHLIX TeIIIOI1YHKTOB o6HOBft SeT nPH6opoB yqea TenIIa B3gaHHAx, IIoTepH BTOPHqHOg CeTH He MOryT 6En,B 3aMepeHEbI. I4, Kax

rIyTeM

oiipeaejieHHA nOTeph TenIia H BOA2TI

IIpaBHJIO,

HOBEIe

COBpeMeHHEIe

H

TeIIOnIYHKlTh,

qaCTOTLI aBapHi

KOTOPIme

o6biqHo

YCTaHaBBjHBaiOTCA

B

OTXeZJIBHBIX 3AaHHRX, OCHaIIXeHbI ipH6opaMH yieTa Tenna.

C 06cUINM HHABeHepHbwMH KoH4jHrypawmMH CHCTeM UT B UBE/BCC, a Taxoe pe)KHM4MH TeMnepaTypbI, ABaieHHS H pa6oTbi CM. lpwio)KeHHe. D. nOaJDKHa 66ITb BeHTHnsAXHA KpoMe TOrO, =A 6opb61C BRna)KHOCTEO lacToTa aBapHA Mo)KeT AaTb liHuEb pNH6jiH3HTejibHylo KapTHHy COCTOAHHA CHCTeMbI. He cyiecTByeT CTaH,apTHOrO onpeAeneHHs TepMHHa "aBapHsA". Ee3 KnaCCH4HIKaLaHH aBapKH TaKoKe He ACHO, ABJISeTCB JIH perHctpatuo OHa KpynHoN NHn He6oAbuioA. OzxHaKo, npeAnonaraM, *TO npeanpHATue LUT 6yaeT BecTH aBapHi cOr.naCHO HeH3MeHHbLiM paBHnaM, AHHaMHKa aBapNH Ha flpOTADKeHHH HecKojThKHx ineT ,aCT o3HaKoMjneHH 27 A1M

28 29

nofle3HYIO KHHcopMauHIO 0 COCTOS0HHH CHCTeMbi.


rIoBEJIleHHe 3c4eKTHBHOCTH CHCTeM TeflnOCHa62ReHHA B CTpaHaX UIeHTPaBJbHOf H BOCTOHHOHi EBpomVI H

49

pecny6AHKax 6bxBiuero CoBeTcKoro Co0I3a

B Ta6J. 3-3

IoiKm3aHLI BbICOKHe rIOTepH B CHCTeMaX LIT B I|BE/FBCC iio cpaBHeHHIO C CHCTeMaMH LIT B 3anaaHoR EBporie. OHa TamoKe oTpa)KaeT HaTIHxHe HeaOCTaTKOB y IIepBHIqHbIX CHCTeM pacnpez:eJieHHA, 1o CpaBHeHHIO C BTOpHITHbIMH. I4MeeTcI HeCKOJ1bKO npHxIHH 3TOMY. TernoIIOTepH 3aBHCST OT Te,ieHHAs BOabI, TemnepaTypbi ropAeH BOZbI (Ha

BXoge H B o6paTHoM Tpy6OIIpoBOae), Temnepaiypbi oKpy)Kwaoiero Bo3,yxa, 11OBepXHOCTH Tpy6, XIHHbI Tpy6 H cFH3xiecKIx CBOHICTB HC1IOIEb3yeMbIX MaTepHajOB. I4Horza KaKOiiHH6yA2b

)aKTOp CBOaEHT Ha HeT BO3geHCTBHe

,pyrHx;

HHorga OH YCHhIHBaeT HX. IIO0t3eMHbIe

BOAbI H.IH CTOIHbIe BO,jbI, IpOHHicaK)o1He B 6eToHHbue KOpO6bI, He6nIaronpHsTHo B03aeHCTBYIOT Ha CBOHCTBa H3010HOHHOrO MaTepHaIia, BI3bliBaS BLICOKHe TerIJIoflOTepH. He6ojinasa ,ZIHHa CeTH MO)KeT yMeHMIlHTb IIOTepH; KpyrIHaS CeTb MO)KeT YCH1IHTb BO3geHiCTBHe TeiiJionoTepb. Bojiee HH3KHe cpeqHHe TemnepaTypbi ropsAefl BOAbI BO BTOpHT4HLIX CeTAX BbI3LBalOT CpaBHHTeibHO MaAbIe IIOTepH, a BbICOKHe TeMnepaTYPbI B 1iepBHIqHbIX CeTsX OTHOCHTenjbHO BbICOKHe rlOTepH. QAHaKo 6o0iee HH3KHe 1IOTepH BO BTOPHWHEIX ceTAx MOryT 6b1m HeRTpaJIH3OBaHbI BO3AeACTBHeM qpyroro 4aKTOpa, TaKOrO KaK 60IblImH4 MaCCOBbfIH pacxoa. BuICOKHH YpOBeHb 11OTepb BOabI B 60JlbIHHcTBe CHCTeM IT B HCCJ1e2OBaHHAX yKa3bIBaeT Ha rIJIOxOe TeXHHxieCKOe COCTOAHHe TenIiOCeTefi, KOTOpb1ie CKJIOHHblI K KOppO3HH. fIOTepH BO,bI TaK)Ke CHJIbHO BJIHLIOT Ha BbiCOKHe TelIJIOrIOTepH. COCTOXIHHe BTOPHWIHOH paCripe,aeIHTe2bHOH ceTH xiaCTO IBJiLeTCA OCHOBHOH flpH1tHHOrf ,21JIA BbICOKOrO YPOBHA 11OTepb Teniia H BOp;bI B CHCTeMaX IUT B IUBE/BCC. TenulonoTepH go 25 % iaCTO MO2KHO

o6HapyXMTL BO BTOpHxIHOM pacnpeaeneH4H 1no cfiely1o1HM rpHxiHHaM:

Ta6num4a 3-3. CpasBHeHmS nOTep6 BOAbI u pac4eTHb;x noTepb Tenna npu nepega'4e M pacnpegenleHUU B UCCneAOBaHHbIX ropoAax 14 B 3anaAHoh EBpone

Fopoo

17omepu eo0b3 (nonoiueHue KO CceMy o6?eMy, KoJzu'IeCm6o

Temnonomepu (94 om eeo6uMozo menaa 6 cemb)

Tun emopuwnoa cucmeMbi

,AuHa cemeu, nepeutiHan / 6mopu4laR, KM

lIeTipexTpy6HaA npfMaA

89/ 296

repBHMHaA: 14% BTopHiHKaA: 24%

4eTIEpexTpy6HaA nppmaA

268 /102

rIepBHn'Hax: 9%a BTopHllHaA: 25%

MqeripexTpy6Ha (100%/o) npAMaA (70%)

103 310

aByxTpy6HaA

827 / 0

pacnpe6ewumeAbHou

paS e 2zo) biienponeTpoBcK KayHac

nlepBHtmam: 40 H/,a HlepBHqHaA: 40

OpeH6ypr

BTopHIMas: H/FI rIepBHHHaA: 40

BTopHHaA:

H/A rlepBmHHax: 40

BTopu'lHax:

CO4MA

rlepBHnHaA:

BTopu'iHaA:

H/lA

25%

Bcero: 20%

Bcero: 26 THMHlluoapa

BHYTPHAOMOBLie TennonyHKThI

rlepBn'IHaq: 29 BTopMMHas: 155

BpounaB

rIepBHqHaA:

40

MepBHHHax:

9%

'leTmipexTpy6HaA

BTopMMHas: 18%

npAMaq

88 / 302

KOCBeHHaA

Bcero: 24% Bcero: 11%

aByxTpy6Has

49/360

BHYTpHAOMOBlie

3ananHoemponercKa

Bcero: MaxcmmMajnHo

cHcTeMa H/.a: HeT zaHHb]x a. ToAaKo cHcTeMbi nepeAawlH; A

Hlcmo0inuU: ESMAP

1-5

paa

BTOpHWHaA BK=oiaeT ropoAoB.

Hcc.neAosaHHA

TenflOnyHKThi (60%)

repBHwHal: 5-10%

BHyTpH)IOMOBble

BTopHiHasA: 0%

TenjionyHKThI

nepBH'IHoe pacnpeaeneHme.

H/


50

noBlMieHHe 344eTKTHBHOCTH CHCTeM TennOCHa6)KeHHA B cTpaHax UIeHTPajThHOfl HBOCTO'IHOii EBPOnbI H pecny6iiHxax 61IBsmero CoBeTcKoro Co0o3a

L

KBapTaJbHIe TeIIJIoiyHxTbi, rge HCIIOJIb3yIOTCS

TeiIUoo6MeHHHKH

oTIeIieHHM

AJIAI

BTOpHIHOAi paciipeAenHTenIbHOr ceTH, rpeaHa3Ha&eHHOi 0Mo6orpeBa ioMeeLeHHH, OT flepBHIHOii, 'aCTO HMe1OT rpo6neMbi C IPOH3BOaCTBOM B HHX IIO=HTO%IHOMi BOAbI MoMeHT, KOTOpbIII CyiueCTBeHHO CHH?KaeT cpe=HHl CpOK cny)K6EI BTOpIHb1IX Tpy6 no CpaBHeHHI1O c Tpy6aMH B nepBHHHORi CeTH. Apyrok IIpHxIHHOi1 AJIA YCKOpeHHOf IBjiSieTCSl TO, HTo TeHeHHe BOg,1I BO BTOpHIHOA pacnpeAejiHTeJIbHor4 CeTH,

KOPpO3HE

o6orpeBa rioMeeieHHi, IipegHa3HapIeHHOA OTOlHTeJIE,HOrO ce3oHa. KW YpOBHS

TeIIJIoriepegatH

3acopeHHA TeIIoo6MeHHHKOB,

rIpeKpaiuaeTcs riocne OKOHIIaHHS HaCTO CHH)KaeTCSI H3-3a BbICOKOrO

BE,I3BaHHOrO MHHepaEJIJHEMH oTno)KeHHSMH.

MIeTEmpexTpy6Hb6Ie CHCTeME,I oco6eHHO Majio3b4eKTHBHE,I. B Ta6ni. 3-3 rIOKa3aHa H qeTKaM B3aHMOCBS36 Mee=Iy BJ.ICOKHM YPOBHeM nOTepE, IIPH TpaHCnOpTe TelJIOTEI lIeTi,IpexTpy6HLIX CHCTeM. rBKBB rIOCTOSHHO IUIPCYJIHpyeT B HCIIOJIhE3OBaHHH 30 CHCTeMe, TaimM o6pa3oM, B6I3bIBaA 6on6iHe Tenn[onoTepH KOTOpEIC yCHJIHBaEOTCS FBKEB BMICOKHMH IIOTeP1MH BOItI, B16I3BaHHIMH yCKOpeHHOi IcOppO3Hefl Tpy6 TexHH,IecIcIH CPOK cny)K6E6I Tpy6 rBKEB o6E.,tiHo cocTaBJIAeT 10 fieT, HO Mo)KeT COKPaTHTbCA go 2-3 ieT B 3aBHCHMocTH OT KaHeCTBa MaTepHaJIa, H3 KOTOpOFO H3roTOBJIeHLI Tpy6i6i. B HeKOTOpi6IX ropoxgax BCC, rie 4IHHaHCHPOBaHHe game

rBKRB

qaCTO He Texo6cnIy>xHBaHEHs qpe3BbiNIaIHO orpaHHIeHO, o6paTHme Tpy66I 6o.E,mme eIne CHcTeMEI 3aMeH3UOTCA H BOga He BO3BpamaeTCS. TaiKoi THUn "OTKpEIrro noBTI1uaeT IIOTepH BO>I H Tenna. rIoTpe6neHHe rBKIBB Ha ogHoro IIOTpe6HTeILi B CHCTeMax LT B 1uBEASCC MO)xeT B 6 pa3 ripeBbiIaTb Cpe=HHl YpOBeHE, B 3ana=HoeBponeAcKHx CHCTeMax I1T. ToJI,KO He6OJIbas qaCTb 3Toro o6yCnoBnIeHa cBepxnoTpe6JIeHHeM H3-3a OTCyTcTBHIA fipH6opOB y-IeTa; 6OEMUaHHCTBO o6ycnoBneHo

IIOTeplMH B CHCTeMe padnpeIejieHHA. 3

ceTE, OTKpLTa B TOM CMEIcJIe, 'ITO paCIIIHpeHHe BO,fBI KOMIIeHCHEpyeTCS OTKPbITLIM npytoM, pacno11oIKeHHLIM Ha BepxHeM 3TaTKe 3gaHHsA, rg,e iiepeJIHB nIOCTyIIaeT B IpeHaJKHYIO CHCTeMy (OTKplrrOe 0ioA paciuHpeHHe), a He pacmapHTenEbHiim 6awwoM, r,ze MeM6paHa H/HUH ra3

rOTepH

BO,BI IIpORCXOgAT TaK)Ke,

gaB2ieHHeM

Korga OTOIHTeJfHa

3aCTaBJiIeT BoAy paciuipsiTEcs (3aKpLiToe pacmHpeHHe). [IepBas CHCTeMa

6ojibine pacnpocTpaHeHa B 1JBE/BCC, a nocneHIAA B 3ana;HHor EBpone.

3.1.5.3

HemexHuqecKue nomepu menna UeodbI

paciipe,1eJIHTejT6Hbix ceTeik, TpagHiHOHHbIe cHcTeMm I1T B IjBE/BCC lOiABepiKeH6I ApyrHM, XOTS H MeHee KrpyrEHIM fOTeSAM BOXII H Tefiiia. uenefi, He ropsrnefl BO,D;bI zLn IIoTepH o6ycxioBneHuI OTBO,D;OM KoMMep'IecKHe npe,zHa3HatIeHHb>Ix giiA oToriIeHHA, B IIOMeLjeHHAX noTpe6HTeUSI. B3STHe BO,Z EJ H3 paamTOpOB npOHCXOHT B "nPS1MbIX" CHCTeMaX IIT, rge BHYTPHXAOMOBoe pacupexeneHHe e BbMYCK BO,11EJ TenIIa He oTZ;ejieHo OT pacnpeaeneiHsI IT 32. ,;O Tex nop, nIoKa riocTynneH HH LUT He 3aMepSeTCS Ha Bxoge 3AaHHSA, OTBO,3 Teriia OTHOCHTCs K CHCTeMHbIM rOTep3M. ,Dpyroz BHA 11OTepi6 o6yCUoBneH OTCYTCTBHeM npH60poB Wia perynHpOBaHHAs noxtBog1a TerIna rIOMHMO iuiaqeBHoro COCTOSHH

rlo 3TO 4 npHqHHe 31 32

Ha npeiHpiTRAx

4T PyMEHHUH rBKEB

nlOUlaeTCA

TOJbKO B TeqeHHe HeCKOjibKHX MaCOB

B AeHb. IOrIHTO'IHax BOAa He MOXCeT HcIIOmm3oBaThCR, T.K. zl noTpe6neHHA CnyKHUT MeUHbiX Tpy6 BMeCTO Kenje3H6tX HAM CTaJIbHbMX o6XoHTCSICIHIKOM zoporo. TaKHe CHCTeMbi HHorga Ha3baBIOTCSI OTKpblTb6IM CHcTeMaMH".

FBKEB, a

HcHoJI630BaHHe


rIoBblIeHHe 344exTHBHOCTH CHCTeM TeJliocHa6KeHHs B cTpaHax LjeHTpaJIBHOH H BOCTO0HOIr EBpOni} H

51

pecny6nHKax 6IIBIIero COBeTCKoro Co0O3a B IIOMeIIxeHHAX nioTpe6HTe.JiA. floTpe6HTem MoryT H36aBHTLCA OT H3JIHIIlHerO Teniia ZiuiHi OTKPbIB oKHa. rIOCKOJI,bKy HeTexH,iecKHe IIOTepH B OCHOBHOM B03HHIKaEOT BO BHYTpHaOM0BbIX CHCTeMaX, HCKJIIOtIHTelIbHO TpyaHo o0eHHHTh o6beM HeTexHHIeCKHx IlOTepb B CHCTeMaX C IIPIME,IMH CHCTeMaMH TeuIorIIepegatm.

3.1.5.4

t4Heecmuquu e peKOHCmPYKL(UIO

U 3aMeHy

cemeu

OCHOBHaA ,ojiL "CBepXHopMaTHBHLIX 11OTepT" (no cpaBHeHrIO C 3aIIaaHOeBpOieAcKHMf CiCTeMaMH) o6yCdIOBJIeHa Cnei4iHqeCKHMH c.Ua6ocTSMH CHCTeM IT. HaerIeHHOCTm6 HHBeCTHIUOHHOII 1IpOrpaMMbI Ha ycTpaHeHHe 3THX y3KHX MeCT gaCT CyUJxCTBeHHOe CHHKIeHHe IIOTep]6, rIoTpe6oBaB JIHIB a0flH 3aTpaT OT CTOHMOCTH 3aMeHi6I BCe- CHCTeMbI. HaH6oJIee Ba)KHIme rIpIH-HHI 3THX He2OCTaTKOB oripeAesoTCs B CJeI4ylOIUHX pa3zxejiax. HaH6o0jee BaxKH]IMH KaTerOPHIAMH HIHBeCTHUH9& giSm 6opb6EI C nOTepSHM

IIBE/BCC IBJnIOTCS cnezyoIe:

B

CeTAX

L|T

B

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YrIoTHeHHe ceTerf rIyTeM YCTaHOBKHI KInIIaHOB

o

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o

YcTaHOBKa HOBBIX KoMiieHcaTopOB B CHcTeMax, KOTopEIe HClIOJh3YEOT TeiiecKo1IH'ecKHe KoMnieHcaTopEI," KOTopEIe CKnOHHBI K TeTI, IIpH YCJIOBHH, HITO CerMeHTbI Tpy6onpoBo2aa He 6yAyT 3aMeHSTbCSI Ha Tpy6bI C npeaBapHTeIE,HO H3oj=Hei!;

o

Ha Y"acTKax C BbICOKHM YPOBHeM rpyHTOBE,IX BO14 nH6o 3aMeHa Tpy6, repMeTH3am KaHaJIOB H Tfpy6 xTi 6opE,6EI c IIpOHHKHOBeHHeM BOA.

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xcwioii KBapTaJi

KoTeil Ha

OK CTOHMOCTB HHBecTHuHii (zonn.

CLiA

IMBT) KO344HuHeHT OXHOBPeMeHHOCTH

KoTeJ Ha 200

KBT

50 000

50 000

100 000

0,8

0,9

1

30 2200

25

2200

20 2200

2%

2,5%

3%

2.4

3.9

6.7

MHIOBOI Harpy3KH

CPOK cny)K66b1 B rogax 3KCnCuyaTawi C nOJ1HOri Harpy3KOU

,

'qaCOB B roa roJioBas CTOHMOCTb 3KcnEiyaTauHH H

Texo6CywKHBaHHS B % K HHBeCTHIHAM CTOHMOCTb 3KCninyaTax1HH (,AoJLT.

CILIA

/MBT.'I Tenria)

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EaHK, anpeiE 1998 r.)

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T3U, T3LWOK

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Typ6HHori, 6o0iee BExo2aHaS TemriepaTypa CHH)KaeT 3JIeKTpO3HepreTH4ecKyio MOIUHOCTb. 3aTpaTmi, cBu3aHHBIe C nOHHzxeHHO0I MOIHOCTE,RO npH BEIpa6OTKe 3jieKTpO3HeprHH, aOjDKHbi llOKpEIBaTbCSA UT. fO3TOMY 3TH jH1p3bI cIiegyeT paccmapHBaTb KaK IpH6J3HTejHEHbIe.

4.1.2.3

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KaK noiKa3aHO BIUe, H3-3a IIpoijecca COBMeCTHOrO

IIpOH3BOgCTBa

H

HCIIOjT3OBaHS1

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npeImyCecTBom HexoTopme,

HoJI3OBBaHHH OpH

r

B,IrO,>I

1peHMY1UeCTBO 3jIeKTpo3HeprHio,

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T31U

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T3LU, a He OK, IHmIIE, OTaaiOTCS

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B

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rio KpariHer Mepe,

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OT ypOBHA CHTyaUHeii Ha

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eCJIH,

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pbIHxaX 3nieKTpo3HeprHH. 5

B HeKOTOPBIX cTpaHax

ECC

Tpe6yeTcA 100 % Pe3ePBHax MOmIHOCTB AIRS BHYTPHAOMOBbIX KOTnOB. Haze)KHOcTH COBpeMeHHLIX ra3OB.IX KOTJIOB o6wxqHo cqtnTaeTC3 2aOCTaTO'qHOf pe3epBHaA MOIIIHOCTB B 10-15 %. ToRHee, Tpe6yeMaA pe3epBHaA MOIHOCT6 3aBHCHT OT KoIHYeCTBa arperaToB, BEIpa6aTMBaioHHX Tenno. TleM 6ojme arperaToB, TeM MmHaIle BO3AercTBmle aBapHH Ha BCIO cHcTeMy. EJiarozzaps3


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84

3KoHoMH,ecKaA ripo6neMa IIpH oripexenelHH 3aTpaT Ha o6a IipogyiKTa no TO ripoR3BOACTBeHHbIA

oTIIejibHOCTH, T.

e.

npoiecc asBJIAeTC

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o6a npogyKTa. HeKOTOpEIe H3 3aTpaT MOryT 6BITB teTKO IpHIHCaHBI K COOTBeTCTByIOIIHM npOryKTaM, TaxHe KaK riepeAaqa TeIUIOThI Ha llepBH'IHyIo ceTb. ,4pyrHe nioTpe6IsuoTCA COBMeCTHO, HaIIpHMep TOnJIHBO . B OCHOBHOM mno6oi MeToa rIo pacnpezejieHHIo 3THX o6mIIx 3aTpaT ABJi5eTCs rIpOH3BOJIbHbIM. locnie TorO KaK pIHHATO pemeHHe no MeTO Y H 4opMyJIa pacnpeaeneHHs 3aTpaT yCTaHOBjeHa, nerKo MO)KHO onpeaeJIHTb 3aTpaTbI Ha o6a

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C Io-Ka3aHa MeToAoJIorHA

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B

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B 3ana,=woiR

EBpone PYKOBOaCTBYEOTCSA

rpHHIHnOM

no

B 3anaAHoM EBpone

KOTOpOMY

T311 COCTaBJISeT

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KaK 4aKTHtIecKax, TaK H OIHTHMaIHaA 11O3TOMY

AOJIA

OT CHTYaJHH c 3jieKTpo3HeprHeAI

HCCfle,aOBaHHEIM =HTejibHoro

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cTpaHaM.

nepHo,Aa

TaM TaKwe

TenJIoCHa62KeHHSI OT T3L1, B o6I5ieM, 3aBHCHT

CTpaHe. B Ta6n. 4-3 AaH o630p no npeacTaBjieHEi OiUeHKH npeAeJm,HEx H3gep)KeK

B KOHKpeTHOfI

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3KOHOMHtecKHMH

3aTpaTaMH

no

Ha nIPOH3BOACTBO

cTpaHaM. B cTpaHax c 6onee Ao.iA KT3

3jieKTpO3HeprMHH

o66rIqHO BEme 5 7

Ami lneiierl

alHnH3a B HaCTOASIefi

rnaBe npegiioJIaraeTCAs,

ITo 3jieKTpHIeCKHH TapH4 (HJnI

npe,ejThH6Ie H3,epxKKKH xmTeniEHoro rnepHo,ga HIpOR3BOAcTBa 3JIeKTpo3HeprHH) gOCTaTOtIHO BMiCOKH, rTO6MI nepeHeCTH <«BCe»> CTOHMOCTHOe rpeHMyiieCTBo KnT9 Ha LIT. 3To iooTpe6yeT HaJIHe TapH4Ja Ha YPOBHe nIpHMepHO 0,04 xonn. CIIIA/KBT (pe3ynBTaTbi HCCnelOBaHA CM. Pa3aen 4.2). B pacreTax, ripHHASTIX B HHxcecjieqymowHx Ta6nHrxax H o6cyxcAeHHAx, IIpeAu1ojiaraeTcA, tITO CTOHMOCTE, HHBeCTHIIHr B OTBOA TeerJioTi Ha 1 MBT.HI Ta X(e CaMa3, qTO H CTOHMOCTL HHBecTHIHH B KOTJIEI, KOTOpIue HCIOJIb3ylOTC3I B KpyIHb16X OK. IlpH TaKHX y1pOIIeHHEX Inpe2IIono)KeHHs1X, B03ZAeRCTBHe CTOHMOCTH riOKa3aHO B Ta6n. KHT3, Koraa B 4-4. MaKCHManTHoe HC1IOJIb3OBaHHe 3KOHOMHqecKoro noTeHzHaiia ,ni

TotiHee

KaqecTBe TOrUIHBa HCHOJn63yeTcA ra3, yMeHMflaeT 3aTpaT]6I Ha HpOH3BO2CTBO Tennia Ha 5 xoju. CILIA/MBT.tq) rio CpaBHeHRIO C 3KCruyaTaiei OK TennioileHTrpax Ha 1/3 (HJmIo

5

pyrHe yCTaHOBiKH Tamice HCriOjTE3yEOTCS

cpeiorl 57

UiaLIT

JACeTCA ropmaA

BoxAa, a

coBMecTHo, HaripHMep, naposue KOTTI. OgHaKO o6blqHOR

IIpOH3BOMCTBO ropiNe

BOJII He

Tpe6yeT napOBLIx KOTjiOB.

Bo3HHKaeT Bonpoc, CTOHT nJH 3TH 3aTpaTm OTHOCHTB K LIT. ARA cpaBHeHHa, oioni Teniia, npoH3BeCeHHoro T3LU B (DHHnAHAHH

H JaHHl cocTaBnJeT 60nee 70 %. B Haqania nocTpoeHx KaK T3UI. c camoro 6bliH 3ieKTpOCTaHiuHH icpynHme Bce nieT 15 Te'ieHHe nocneaHHx

Pa3BHuHe

He6ojTLHu

(10-15

MBT)

aeCieHTPajiH3oBaHHuX

3xOHOMHy1eCKHMH CTHMYAaMH; B HacToAiiXee apeMs 3TO CTaJIO

T3LU

BHaqajie

3KOHoMHqecKH BbIrOJRHlIM

nOaAepwKHBaaCia

XejioM.


roBME.meHHe 344eKTMBHOCTH CHCTeM

TenrnocHa62KeHHA B cTpaHax LteHTpajihHOH H BOCTOMHOri EBponI 1H

85

pecny6nHKax 6bIBmero CoBeTcKoro C0103a

II IIOqTH Ha

2/3

rIpOH3BOgCTBa

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Teniia

14 ao.

CIIA/MBT.I) rio

CpaBHeHHIO CO CTOHMOCTMIO

BHYT-pHOMOBbIMH KOTJIaMH.

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H3AepxicKH

=i-rTe.)T6Horo nepuoga Ha rIpOH3BOACTBO 3iieKTp03HeprHH

Cmpana EonrapHA JIHTBa

(lIJ)dom. CIlA /KBm.,i 0,0335 (BEipa6oTica) 0,028

(3KcnopTHaa ueHa)

Bilpa6oTKca 3iieKTpo3HeprHH H AoJi KnIT3 3nexCrpO3HeprNH, ripOH3BOAHMOr1 Ha Ko33Io3yHcKoH aToMHoiH 3JieKTpocTaHUNH

45%

Eoonee 90% lieHTpaiiH3oBaHHoro

Tenna

B KayHace H Bmmnoce

npoIH3BoAHTCS OK. YcTaHoBneHHas MoIRHoCT6 ,AUs ripoH3BoAcTBa 3jeKTpO3HeprHH T3L 3OBOJT6HO HH3xa no CpaBHeHHfO CO CnPOCOM Ha MOmRHOcTE, reHepHpyioDimo TrenrTo. KpoMe Toro, OHa Majio HCnOJTL3yeTcsi, TaK KaK npOH3Bo,qcTBeHHOri

MOIUHOCTH HrHaBiHHCXOH aToMHOri 3JIeKTPOCTaHuNH Z(OCTaTOqHO AnA nOKpE.ITH3 Bcero BHyTpeHHero

crpoca Ha 3nieKTPO3HeprNEo, a Taoxe = KaiiHHaHrpa,a. MoUVIocTH

T3Lt no

3KcnOpTa B JlaTBHIO H

HpoH3BOACTBY

3jieKTpO3HeprHH CJrYXHT B xaqecTBe pe3epBHEIx,

Koraa

OaHH H3

3AepiHMX peaiTopOB OCTMHaBJ1HBalOT 1113POBePKH H1H Texo6cAymKHBaHms.

no.rmma

0,045

20-30% ueHVpaini3oBaHHoro Tenna H 10% 3.neKTpo3HeprmH npoH3BoAHTcA rlpH KoM6HHHpoBaHHOM rIpo3BOAcTBe. MHorHe

Tennio3i3eKTpOCTaH1WH pacroJI0KCHei B6JnN3H yronimHLx

maXT,

CjIIIuKOM aaJieKO OT rOpOACKHX ieHTpOB, 'qTo6ii 6EITL HCnOrIEO3oBaHHMMH I3T. PYMEIHNS

0,042

06iaa ycTaHOBjeIHHaA MOHIHOCTL nio BEipa6OTKe

3AeCKTpO3HeprHH cocTaBnAeT oKo00o 22 ycTaHoBj1eHHoH1 TeIuioBoI MOIIHOCTH,

noniy,4eHO

Tic.

MBT; 38% Bceri 14829,

cocTaBjiAEo1uer4

nlpH KOM6HHHpOBaHHOM npOH3BoacTBe.

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0,025

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arperaTamH KOM6HHHpOBaHHOrO npoH3BoCTBa, a BTopaB HOJIOBHHa OK. Tenno, nony"eHHoe rIPH xoM6HHHpOBaHHoM rlpo3BOcTBe, COCTaBJ13eT npHMepHo 26% scero

npoH3BBeeHHOro Terula; 3ieKTpo3HeprHA, Bbipa6oTaHHaA rnpH KoM6HHHpOBaHHOM IIpOH3BOMCTBe, CoCTaBj3eT ripHMepHO 30% BCerH Tenn1BO01 3HeprRH, npOH3BeaeHHOrN B PAO E3C POCCHH. OAHaKo H3-3a 3HaqHTeELbHoA m36LIToIqHor1 MOHIHOCTH,

YKpaHHa

ipe2xe3bHi6e 3aTpaTEI ARHTeJIbHOrO riepmoaa Ha ripo3Bo0cTBo 3JieKTpo3HeprHH CJIHMKOM HH3KH, WTo606 oripaBaar HH3eCTHIHH B HOBbIe cOBpeMeHHLie MOIUHOCTH KnT3. 0,035

Ha

YKpaHHe OTOnHTenLi6H6ie KOTJTn.1 HpOH3BOAST 6o0nee 2/3 1 HOBLIX MOuIHOCTeri KflT3 3aBHCHT OT

Teruia. O6ocHoBaHHe

cyAb6il aTOMHOR 3ieKT-ipocTaHiHH B T4epHo6Eme. HcmoviNuK: COTpYAHHrH BceMHpHoro Eamca.


86

H loBbLimeHHe 344eKTHBHOCTH CHCTeM TenIJOCHa6)KeHHA[ B CTPaHaX ICeHTpanbHoS H BOCTOqHori EBporIbl pecnry6iHxax 6bEsmero COBeTCKoro C0o03a

H3 Ta6ii. 4-4, 3aKmotjaeTcA B TOM, HTO IIT, HepBbrfi BbIBOa, KOTOpIR MOmKHO czenara C OCHOBaHHOe Ha OIITHMH3HPOBaHHOAi T3LI, pa6oTaioiueA Ha ra3e, - Mo2KeT KOHKYPHPOBaTB $BE/BCC AO Tex riop, rIOKa CTOHMOCTB BHYTpHIOMOBbIMH KOTJIaMH B CpeRHeM ropo=e B riepetarH Terma noTpe6HTeMO HHx)e 14 AoJIn. CIIIA/MBT.tq. BTOPOr BEIBOa 3aKXJOBaeTCS3 MecTa. TOM, HTO CTOHMOCTb IIPOH3BOXACTBa TeHiia CHRJbHO OTJIHtaeTCSI B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT B CIlIA xojn. 10 OT KoJle6neTCs TeIIna << OflIYCTHMa»>> CTOHMOCTh TpaHcIIopTa CpegH.u CHH>KaeT OpeH6ypre (rge HH3KxSa 3KOHOMHqeCKas3 CTOHMOCTE ra3a Ha rpaHHiue ropoaa

3HatIeHHe 3KOHOMHH 3arpaT) ,Ao 20

Ta6jnLta 4-4. CpaBH4TeJlbHaS

ztoITi. ClIIA BO BpoiiiaBe. CTOUMOCTb npOH3BOACTBa Tenia Ha

nlpeAnlplTST4

(Aonn. CWA /MBT.4) Pa3HHua B CTOHMOCTH Mexcy T3LI H BHYTpHAOMOBbIM KOTJIOM

TgHenponeTpoBc K

KayHac OpeH6ypr CO#As THMHrioapa

6om. CLLA

COOTHO

T3LW (153%) $7,7

KpynHaA OK

MeCTHaA OK

BHYTPH.OMOB Oil KOTeii

(KlW85Y) $12,1

(KUJ 85%) $15,4

(KTI 800o) $19,0

/lAm.u

(%/0)

$11,3

44

$8,6 $6,3 $9,9 $10,0

$13,7 $9,3 $16,1 $16,3

$17,6 $14,8 $19,5 $18,7

$21,2 $17,0 $24,7 $24,2

$12,6 $10,7 $14,8 $14,2

45 39 44 45

1ueHHe

36 $20,4 $30,3 $22,4 $16,1 $9,9 39 $14 $22,7 $18,1 $13,9 $8,7 a. nPOH3BO=vT 80% roaoBoro npoH3Bo0CTBa Tennia Ha T3U c KfIJ 170% (CM. Hpxno)XeHHe C) H 20% B OK rpH KIfL 85%. 1 fpHmexaHHe: H4pLi CTOHMOCTH, npmBeAeHHbie B Ta6nH.ie, xaHmI 6e3 y era TermonoTepi.. HcmotiuK: OueiH CoTpy,HoiaB BceMHpHoro EaHiKa Ha 6a3e: OHKpeTHIX HCciieZOBaHHH no nporpamme BpoUnaB B cpeAHeM

ESMAP C BHYTpHAOMOBbIMH KOTjiaMH ciexyeT HpHHI TIeUIOrIOTePH ripH riepeAaqe H pacripezejieHHi. 9TH TerIJIOfaOTepH Tpe6yIOT OT

nlpi cpaBHeHHHH 1T,pa6oTawouaeH OT T3I1, BO BHMaHHe8

KOjiHteCTBa IPOH3BOAHMOrO Teiilia, wTo6EfllO,aBaYT B 3gaHHA BHYTPHAOMOBE6IMH KOTflaMH. TerIJia, KOTOpOe rIOAaeTCs aCTE,1O 3aTpaT Ha TpaHCIIOPT Tenia; OHH aiHiaZj3HpyOTCq B Pa3gene

arperaToB L|T llOBbuIeHHOrO TO wKe camoe KOjIHIeCTBO Term[oiioTepH

ABJIfOTCSA

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B

CTOHMOCTH

T3L1

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H CHCTeMof, npOH3BoaCTBa. IIOBbiIeHHA ofbeMa

pa60TaioiueA

OT

BaeTCA aHaJIH30M BJHSIHHS YPOBHA TeHiijOi1OTePB

TeriHia Ha ripealpHATHH Mexmy

pa6oTaioneri

OT

OK, BKMEOTISa

CHCTeMOH,

HeO6XO,AIHMOCTE,


lOBmineHHe 3e4eKTHBHOCTH CHCTeM Ter1jioCHa6hceHHs B cTpaHax UeHipaJIBHOi H BOCTOMHOrl EBpOnli H pecny6inHax 6,BlBuero COBeTcicoro C0103a

87

PUC. 4-1. CPABHEHME L4EHTPAnM30BAHHOO TEnflOCHAS)KEHM5I C BHYTPMg,OMOBbIMM KOTnAMM: CTOUMOCTHOE rlPEUMYLLIECTBO HA YPOBHE ArPErATOB

15-

_______

10-

10-*

I--

_

0

'C

a0%/

_

_

_

L(THa 6a3e T34

:X

5 -

_

-m-wL(T Ha 63e CK

-

I

5% rkrepH

10% 15% 20% PIM

25%

ipmpre

HcmotiHuK: OJeHxH COTpyAiHHKoB BceMHpHoro BiaHKa Ha OCHOBe HCCiieAOBaHHH

ropo,oA

nro nporpamme ESMAP; CM. Ta6n. F-3

H

F-4 B rIpHnOKeHHH F.

B

TO BpeMS KaK TerIUOIiOTePH B 304eKTHBHOA CHCTeMe IJT, paCiOIOoKeHHOfl B 3OHe BoiCOKOrl njIoTHocTH cripoca, COCTaBJIsIOT MeHee 10%, MeHee 344eKTHBHbIe CHCTeMbI HAH 344eKTHBHbIe CHCTeMbi, pacnIojioKeHHbIe B 3OHax C MeHbieEI ITMOTHOCTBEO cIpoca, 6yzgeT

HMeTbrnoTepH

go 35%. Ha PHC. 4-1 IIOKa3aHO CpaBHHTeJIbHO orpaHHIeHHoe BO3gerICTBHe

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4.1.3

TpaHCIopTa

OaKmopb,, enuoLLoulue Ha cmouMoCmb pacnpedeneHuR mennocou

3HePBUU

4.1.2.4 Pa3MepbI,

CmpyKmypa u pacnpedeneHue cnpoca Ha mennoeyo 3Hepauio CTpyKTypa

H pacrIpeAejieHHe

TeIrIOBOr

Harpy3KH

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cocToxinHe H3 KoTfloB H neqeik, pa6oraoIwHx Ha yr.ne, coc-raBnEoT 6onee 30 % Bbl6pOCOB yoBYOKHCH cep6I (SO2 ) H cynuecTBeHHyio acT6 oKHceri a3oTa (NOx) H MB3JIOTCA OCHOBHbIMH HCTOqHHKaMH TBepaux 1acTHU H OxHCH yrnepoaa (CO). 3TH HCTOwHHKH OKa3bwBaIOT 6o0nee cHibHoe Bo3AerlcTBHe, qeM HCTO0?HHKH, HMeioiiHe BIJCOKHe AbiMoBbIe Tpy6b, Ha Ka'eCTBO BO3Ayxa 3HMOH, oco6eHHo B ijeHTpaxbHo3 wacTH rOpOQOB, rAe IOCTTYI K CeTH IIeHTpaAH3oBaHHoro OTOruiemfs enie OTCyTCTByeT. Hcciie2oBaHHA HCTOqHHKOB Bbl6pOCOB, H4ynH= OT HH3KO pacnoAo;KeHHbMx AIbMOBbLX Tpy6, npoBeaeHHoe KpaKOBcKHM 6iopo ropoACKoro rUIaHHpOBaHHI, BblXBHllO OKOJIO 130 Tbic. yroibHbix ne4eHI H npHMepHO 1300 He6ojib[nHx KoTeIibHbIx, pa6oTalomnx Ha yrne. Sonee 50 % H3 HHx pacnono)KeHiI B ieHfpe r. KpaKoBa. YxIynlleHHe KaqecTBa Bo03yxa MorJo 6blTb OCTTrHyTO 65naroaapA cneaymonUIM MepaM, npHHTbIlM B ieHTpe r. KpaKoBa: iiHKBHAaUiHH MeCTHbIX KoTeibHbIX H nOaKjUO'eHHA K CHCTeMe LeHTPaiH3OBaHHoro TennocHa6fKeHHS (npHmepHo 54 % OT MO=HOCTH KOTJOB), nepexoa Ha HCHOJTh30BaHHe ra3a (21 O/o) H Ma3yTa (9 %), H nepeo6opyaoBaHHe KOTJOB (15 %). 3TH Mepbi TaKoKe cnoco6cTBoBaAH 6ibi cHHJKeH1o Bbl6pOCOB C0 2.(CM. S. Adamson, R. Bates, R. Laslett, and A. Pototschnig (1996), Energy Use, Air Pollution and Environmental Policy in Krakow [World Bank Technical Paper Number 308, Energy Series, Washington, D.C.]) <<HiCInoJI30BaHHe 3HeprHH, 3arpA3HeHHe B03ayxa H noJIHTHKa B o6nacTH oKpyxca2oLuerl cpeCbl B KpaKoBe" (TexHi-rqecKHHi AOKyMeHT Ns 308 BceMHpHoro EaHKa, cepHA `3HepreTHKa', BamHnwroH). KOHLieHTpauH ripOH3BOAcTBa Ha oaHOM MeCTe TaK)Ke o6nerqaeT KOHTpOJIE 3a B6lnOJIHeHHeM

3aK0H0AaTejncTBa o6 oxpaHe oKpyxKaToieg cpeau. 6

67

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qaCTHU

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WTO

Ha

Kpyrnbix

BHyTpHAOMOBLie KOTnI


102

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Taicoe Ke MO)KeT

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68

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rIOBEImeHHe 344eKTHBHOCTH CHCTeM Teru=OCHa6feHH

B cTpaHax LleHTpajBHOff H BOCTOqHOIi EBpOnI6l H

103

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344eKTiHBHocTH 3TEX TexHojiorHIH, HpeaCTaBjieH B Ta6n. 4-10. rIpe,IIonoxeHIHA o6 3 44eKTHBHOcTH B Ta6JIHLje OTHOC1TCS K CoBpeMeHHIMM peaUE,Ho HCnOJIb3yeMMLM TexHOjiOrHMM. Ha IpavKTHKe MOXCHO Ha6n0ogaTb gaxce 6onee BM6CoKHf B CHCTeMax uT 3anaaHoi EBpori61 H CHCTeMaX nO ytaJieHHHI0 TBepzEiX qacTHa H SO 2 (cooTBeTcTBeHHO 99% H 95%). 34MeKTHBHOCTL TeXHojiorFH LIT, HCI0JI163yeMmx B HacToAee BpeMS B [BE/ECC HH)Ke, leM ripeacTaBjieHO B Ta6n. 4-10.

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75/80a

KnllO pa3nm4H6IX TeXHonoruu (B %)

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0,42 0,252

0,24 0,141

H/J

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NO,X 2400 240

CO2 20-50 10

HCMOtrHUK: EC: "PyKOBOaCTBO no oKpy)Kaloiuei cpeae =AE pa3BHTHS 3HepreTmqecKoro ceKTopa" (CM. http://www.worldbank.org/htnl/fpd/em);

rlpeaBapxTeJmiEHie

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