Spring 2022 World Bank Group Publications and eProducts

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UBLICATION

20 22 WORLD BANK GROUP PUBLICATIONS & ePRODUCTS JANUARY–JUNE 2022


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Annual Flagship Titles.................................. 1

International Development In Focus............ 28

Featured Titles........................................... 12

Online Resources........................................ 30

Africa......................................................... 20

World Bank eLibrary Sales Agents............... 31

Middle East and North Africa...................... 24

Index......................................................... 32

Europe & Central Asia / East Asia & Pacific. 25

World Bank Publications Distributors.......... 33

South Asia................................................. 26

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ANNUAL FLAGSHIP TITLES

WORLD DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2022 Finance for an Equitable Recovery By the World Bank

The World Development Report 2022 is a practical guide to help low-and-middle-income countries develop strategies to strengthen financial markets for a more equitable recovery from the COVID-19 economic crisis. Grounded in research and real-world experience, the report assesses the financial and economic impacts of COVID-19 on households, businesses, banks, and governments, and provides recommendations for addressing fragilities as nations rebuild. Chapter 1 begins with an overview of the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on households and small- and medium-sized businesses and documents the governmental actions taken early in the crisis to contain the economic fallout. It highlights the impact of the crisis on preexisting fragilities that will require structural reforms and investments in the financial sector to enable recovery. Chapters 2 and 3 provide blueprints for action to facilitate recovery and address structural gaps in legal and governance rules. Chapter 2 focuses on the policies needed to support banks and avoid a credit crunch that could derail recovery, as financial support programs are scaled back and loan defaults increase. Chapter 3 addresses the critical role of formal and informal bankruptcy provisions in helping households and small businesses reduce their debt burdens and pursue debt workouts in an orderly manner, mitigating the risks that excessive debt levels pose for recovery. Chapter 4 explores the WORLD DEVELOPMENT REPORT role of technology as both a component of the recovery and as a April 2022. 240 pages. Stock no. C211730 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1730-4). US$48.50 tool that must be actively managed to ensure it serves to expand access, opportunity, and transparency in the crisis recovery. The report concludes with insights on unwinding government supports and addressing accumulated sovereign debts, while highlighting the questions that will require ongoing, targeted research.

ALSO AVAILABLE IN HARDCOVER WORLD DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2022: FINANCE FOR AN EQUITABLE RECOVERY April 2022, 240 pages, Stock no. C211759, (ISBN 978-1-4648-1759-5-1). US$65.00

ALSO AVAILABLE WORLD DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2021: DATA FOR BETTER LIVES June 2021, 346 pages, Stock no. C211600, (ISBN 978-1-4648-1600-0). US$53.95 Paperback August 2021, 346 pages, Stock no. C211607, (ISBN 978-1-4648-1607-9). US$72.00 Hardcover WORLD BANK PUBLICATIONS AND ePRODUCTS

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ANNUAL FLAGSHIP TITLES

GLOBAL ECONOMIC PROSPECTS, JANUARY 2022 By the World Bank A World Bank Group Flagship Report

JANUARY 2022

Global Economic Prospects

GLOBAL ECONOMIC PROSPECTS

Although the global economy is emerging from the collapse triggered by COVID-19, the recovery is likely to be subdued, and global GDP is projected to remain well below its prepandemic trend for a prolonged period. Several risks cloud the outlook, including those related to the pandemic and to rapidly rising debt. The pandemic has further diminished already-weak growth prospects for the next decade. Decisive policy actions will be critical in raising the likelihood of better growth outcomes while warding off worse ones. Immediate priorities include supporting vulnerable groups and ensuring a prompt and widespread vaccination process to bring the pandemic under control. Although macroeconomic policy support will continue to be important, limited fiscal policy space amid high debt highlights the need for an ambitious reform agenda that bolsters growth prospects. To address many of these challenges, global cooperation will be key. Global Economic Prospects is a World Bank Group Flagship Report that examines global economic developments and prospects, with a special focus on emerging market and developing economies, on a semiannual basis (in January and June). The January edition includes in-depth analyses of topical policy challenges faced by these economies, while the June edition contains shorter analytical pieces.

January 2022. 234 pages. Stock no. C211758 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1758-8). US$48.50

ALSO FORTHCOMING GLOBAL ECONOMIC PROSPECTS, JUNE 2022 June 2022, 194 pages, Stock no. C211843, (ISBN 978-1-4648-1843-1). US$48.50

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ANNUAL FLAGSHIP TITLES

MAKING CITIES GREEN, RESILIENT, AND INCLUSIVE By the World Bank

The world needs urgent action to confront the challenges of human-induced climate change. Climate change is impacting developing countries hard, and these impacts are only expected to get worse. The past few decades have witnessed big demographic shifts, including ageing and migration, and turbulent social changes—trends that are partly related to and have implications for climate change. The challenges posed by climate change have been compounded by the COVID-19 pandemic, further exacerbating rising inequality and poverty. Cities are increasingly central to the war against extreme poverty and climate change, because this is where most people live and work. Cities also face a wide variety of stresses that arise from the congestion and crowding associated with urbanization. Within any given country, a city is part of a wider system of cities that is interlinked through flows of trade, labor, capital, and ideas. Stresses felt by one city can therefore be expected to have impacts on other cities. When poorly managed, the stresses that cities face may also feed back to further exacerbate climate change and the erosion of natural capital. This report informs policies for green, resilient, and inclusive urban development. The objective of this report is to help cities not merely survive, but to thrive under the changing climate stressors.

April 2022. 300 pages. Stock no. C211832 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1832-5). US$54.95

ALSO AVAILABLE HIDDEN WEALTH OF CITIES: CREATING, FINANCING, AND MANAGING PUBLIC SPACES February 2020, 450 pages, Stock no. C211449, (ISBN 978-1-4648-4648-5). US$55.00

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ANNUAL FLAGSHIP TITLES

THE ECONOMICS OF WATER SCARCITY IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA Institutional Solutions By Dominick Revell de Waal

The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is the most water scarce region in the world. The region is home to 6 percent of the world's population but has just 1 percent of the world's freshwater resources. In 2011, over 60 percent of the region's population lived in areas with high or very high surface water stress, compared with a global average of about 35 percent. Over 70 percent of the region's gross domestic product is generated in areas with high to very high surface water stress, compared with a global average of about 22 percent. Accelerating economic and population growth, combined with climate impacts, call for a new burst of innovation to solve the problem of water scarcity. Unsustainable volumes of water are being withdrawn, degrading ecosystems and aquifers. Weakening trust in social and political institutions has become a constraint to pursuing reforms to address the problem of unsustainability. The challenge of coping with water shortages is fueling further distrust and social frustration that boils over onto the streets, which is particularly the case in the countries affected by conflict and fragility.

June 2022. 150 pages. Stock no. C211739 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1739-7). US$43.00

The unprecedented global economic shock of the COVID-19 pandemic is posing challenges to the water sector in MENA. The pandemic-induced disruption of global supply chains and the need to create jobs in rural areas may also create incentives for countries to move away from trade to self-sufficiency in food production, with implications for water use in agriculture. This report uses an economics lens to understand the institutions through which scarce resources are allocated and managed across competing needs. The lessons learned from this analysis will enable external partners to help policy makers and their societies strengthen legitimacy and trust for judicious management of the complex trade-offs involved in defining water policy.

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THE FIFTH GENERATION OF MOBILE TECHNOLOGY 5G as an Opportunity to Leapfrog Development By Rami Amin, Niccolo Comini, Vivien Foster, Natalija Gelvanovska-Garcia, Kay Kim, Hyea Won Lee, Maria Claudia Pachon, Je Myung Ryu, and Zhijun William Zhang

The global race for 5G has seen countries riding a new wave of wireless technology. 5G is the next-generation mobile communication technology that enables a different level of performance and innovative applications from the 4G mobile communication that is currently in use by most people in the world. For some countries, 5G services may seem to be in a distant future, for others, it's the initiation into the Fourth Industrial Revolution. With estimated impact of 5G on global GDP in the trillions of US dollars and global job additions in the millions in the next decade, 5G has the potential for immense impact on job creation, productivity, and competitiveness. When fully implemented, the disruptive potential of 5G threatens to make irreversible the digital divide between early and late adopters. Should countries that have yet to turn off 3G services be concerned? Emerging markets have unique characteristics that set them apart from frontier economies: rapid growth in mobile connectivity, nascent markets for fixed infrastructure, and a younger population. These factors are poised to increase adoption of mobile broadband and demand for better connection and services. In other words, 5G may be a powerful force that will help countries leapfrog technologies and accelerate towards meeting their Sustainable Development Goals. SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE April 2022. 200 pages. Stock no. C211604 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1604-8). US$48.50

SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE The Sustainable Infrastructure series covers a wide range of policy topics related to network infrastructure services, including energy, multimodal transportation, information and communication technologies and development, water and sanitation, and urban and rural infrastructure, as well as irrigation and flood management

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AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION AND PUBLIC HEALTH IN SOUTH ASIA By Mani S. Muthukumara

Air pollution exposure is the second-most important risk factor for ill health in South Asia, contributing to between 13–22 percent percent of all deaths. Also, approximately 58 million disability adjusted life years (DALYs) are lost through chronic and acute respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses. Of the top 30 cities in the world with the poorest air quality in 2016, 17 are in South Asia. The impact of air pollution transcends boundaries. While countries have introduced promising initiatives in recent years, comprehensive health-centered strategies are lacking. Multiplicity of sources and modes of exposure add complexity to the problem of air pollution in South Asia. In addition to a rapidly growing road transport sector, factories and power plants, as well as agricultural and solid waste contribute to air pollution.

SOUTH ASIA DEVELOPMENT MATTERS April 2022. 200 pages. Stock no. C211831 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1831-8). US$49.50

Many measures are often discussed to deal with air pollution, including transitioning to a low emissions fleet, increasing public transportation, updating fuel emissions standards and improving traffic flow management, closing old inefficient plants or retrofitting existing coal fired plants, a switch to cleaner fuel and more efficient production in industries, and better management of landfills and agricultural waste. The challenge is that implementation of these measures require a better understanding of the spatial dimensions of pollution and underlying sources, as well as costs and benefits associated with deployment of several instruments. Governments are often confronted with these difficult questions: Which interventions are warranted? Up to what cost? Where? When? Attaining better information and managing risks effectively will help policy makers deal with the host of uncertainties without compromising on their broader objectives of economic growth and poverty reduction. This report aims to identify and map air pollution hotspots in South Asia in terms of concentration and exposure, understand the various sources of pollution in hotspot areas (from Kabul to Dhaka), and help categorize policy actions and interventions based on a systematic analysis of costs and benefits.

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JOBS UNDONE How the Middle East and North Africa Region Can Recover its Lost Decades By Asif Islam, Dalal Moosa, and Federica Saliola

The report aims to stimulate structural reforms in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) that allow the region to spur sufficient and decent job creation as well as to leapfrog into the new industrial revolution. Job creation is one of the most important, if not existential, issues facing the MENA region. Much of the frustrations that have boiled over to become the Arab Spring were sparked by scant job opportunities, meager incomes, and limited future prospects for the region's youth. At the heart of this job creation issue is a labor market that suffers from deficiencies on all fronts: labor supply is limited in both in quantity and quality; labor demand is slow, uncompetitive, and widely informal; and the channels of matching supply and demand are fragmented and at times inexistent. These challenges surface at a time when the region should be primed to seize its demographic boom and transform it into a demographic dividend, like its neighbors to the east. They come at a time when the large numbers of youth, more educated and better trained than their parents and grandparents, enter the labor force in pursuit of productive jobs and income. They come at a time when the public sector can no longer be the primary provider of jobs in light of its fiscal constraints. For the MENA region to move past its current state of turbulence, jobs must be created in sufficient numbers and with decent quality. These jobs cannot be created without structural reforms that allow for firm creation and firm growth.

February 2022. 176 pages. Stock no. C211735 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1735-9). US$48.50

ALSO AVAILABLE CONVERGENCE: FIVE CRITICAL STEPS TOWARD INTEGRATING LAGGING AND LEADING AREAS IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA February 2020, 438 pages, Stock no. C211450, (ISBN 978-1-4648-1398-6). US$26.65

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THE UPSIDE OF DIGITAL FOR THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA How Digital Technology Adoption Can Accelerate Growth and Create Jobs By Ana Paula Cusolito, Clément Gévaudan, Daniel Lederman, and Christina A. Wood

The argument that digitalization fosters economic activity has been strengthened by the global COVID-19 pandemic. Because digital technologies are general-purpose technologies that are usable across a wide variety of economic activities, the gains from achieving universal coverage of digital services are likely to be large and shared throughout each economy. However, the Middle East and North Africa region suffers from a digital paradox: the region's population uses social media more than expected for its level of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita but uses the internet or other digital tools to make payments less than expected. This book presents evidence that the socioeconomic gains of digitalizing the economies of the region are huge: GDP per capita could rise by more than 40 percent; manufacturing revenue per unit of factors of production could increase by 37 percent; employment in manufacturing could rise by 7 percent; tourist arrivals could rise by 70 percent, creating jobs in the hospitality sector; long-term unemployment rates could fall to negligible levels; and female labor force participation could double to more than 40 percent.

February 2022. 94 pages. Stock no. C211663 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1663-5). US$48.50

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To reap these gains, universal access to digital services is crucial, as is their widespread use for economic purposes. The book explores how fast the region could approach universal coverage, whether targeting the rollout of digital infrastructure services makes a difference, and what is needed to increase the use of digital payment tools. Targeting underserved populations and areas can accelerate the achievement of universal access, while fostering competition and improving the functioning of financial and telecommunications sectors can encourage the adoption of digital technologies. In addition, building societal trust in the government and in related institutions such as banks and financial services is critical for fostering the increased use of digital payment tools.

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A DIGITAL ECONOMY FOR AFRICA Opportunities and Challenges for More Productive and Inclusive Growth By the World Bank

Africa is characterized by an urgent need to boost productivity and more inclusive growth. Low digital access and use, combined with affordability challenges and limited competition, prevent digital technology (DT) adoption from playing its role in addressing Africa's productivity and inclusion challenges. This report highlights characteristics specific to the region: (1) Africa has a “youth bulge” phenomenon—it is the region with the fastest growing labor force yet the lowest levels of human capital; (2) Africa has a large number of countries afflicted by fragility, conflict, violence, and climate shocks; (3) emerging DT innovations are starting to address some of Africa’s specific challenges; and (4) Africa is home to all 10 economies worldwide where more adults have a mobile money account than a financial institution account. These specific features of the African continent motivate this report. This report is intended to provide conceptual and empirical findings to help support the ongoing implementation of a continentwide “Digital Transformation for Africa” initiative that will span to 2030. The continentwide initiative seeks to support policies and investments across five pillars of the digital economy: (1) digital infrastructure, (2) digital skills and literacy, (3) digital entrepreneurship, (4) digital financial services, and (5) digital platforms.

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April 2022. 200 pages. Stock no. C211737 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1737-3). US$48.50

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ANNUAL FLAGSHIP TITLES

LAND MATTERS Toward Efficiency of Use and Equity of Access in the Middle East and North Africa By the World Bank

In the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), the vast majority of land is desert. Only 4.7 percent of its total land area is arable, making MENA the region in the world where land is most scarce. There are only 0.12 hectares of arable land per person in the region, a ratio that is between four and five times smaller than in North America. These figures are the result of a continuous and intensifying pattern of land degradation in the region, which is being caused by a variety of factors. Factors include climate change but also overgrazing, urbanization, the exploitation of natural resources, and the failure of resource management policies. While land in MENA is becoming more scarce, the region’s population is projected to grow at a fast pace over the next three decades, with an expected 40 percent increase between 2020 and 2050. By then, the region will host at least 660 million people. Because of this massive population growth and possible rise in incomes, the demand for food and derived agricultural land will increase tremendously.

April 2022. 220 pages. Stock no. C211661 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1661-1). US$48.50

A manifestation of how tense the issue of agricultural land scarcity has become is the global rush for agricultural land that followed the 2008 world food price crisis. This led investors from land-scarce countries concerned with food insecurity to search abroad for large tracts of land suitable for cultivation. A much less discussed issue, however, is that the demand for urban land is also poised to significantly increase to accommodate projected urbanization and urban expansion in MENA countries.

ALSO AVAILABLE EXPECTATIONS AND ASPIRATIONS: A NEW FRAMEWORK FOR EDUCATION IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA October 2019, 584 pages, Stock no. C211234, (ISBN 978-1-4648-1234-7). US$29.65

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ANNUAL FLAGSHIP TITLES

BOOSTING PRODUCTIVITY IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA Policies and Institutions to Promote Efficiency By César Calderón

The rising concentration of extreme poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa over the past quarter century can be attributed to the fact that economic growth has been slow, productivity levels are still low, and growth has not been inclusive enough to put a big dent in poverty. What explains the dismal performance on labor productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa compared with the rest of the developing world? This report argues that first, physical capital is scarce and economic activities in the region have low capital intensity relative to other regions. Second, although human capital levels were relatively similar in Sub-Saharan Africa relative to a group of East Asian Pacific countries in 1960, insufficient investment and poor outcomes led not only to relatively lower levels but also to low quality of human capital. Finally, scarce resources, compounded by the inefficiencies in their allocation across productive units (with different levels of productivity), translated into low aggregate labor productivity. Sub-Saharan Africa needs policies to boost productivity across all sectors of economic activity, especially in those sectors in which most poor people make their living. The region needs policies that improve productivity in the agriculture sector, foster rural development, and create jobs for youth who are joining the labor force.

December 2021. 174 pages. Stock no. C211550 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1550-8). US$39.95

ALSO AVAILABLE ACCELERATING POVERTY REDUCTION IN AFRICA June 2019, 3088 pages, Stock no. C211232, (ISBN 978-1-4648-1232-3). US$45.00

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INTERNATIONAL DEBT STATISTICS 2022 By the World Bank

INTERNATIONAL DEBT STATISTICS November 2021. 204 pages. Stock no. C211800 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1800-4). US$43.95

International Debt Statistics (IDS), a long-standing annual publication of the World Bank, features external debt statistics and analysis for the 123 low- and middle-income countries that report to the World Bank Debtor Reporting System. IDS 2022 includes (1) an overview analyzing global trends in debt stocks of and debt flows to low- and middle-income countries within the framework of aggregate capital flows (debt and equity); (2) an evaluation of the volume of debt service deferred through the Debt Service Suspension Initiative (DSSI) in 2020 and the 2021 extension for participating eligible countries, as well as borrowing trends and debt service costs for DSSI-eligible countries that did not participate in the initiative; (3) tables and charts detailing debtor and creditor composition of debt stock and flows, terms of new commitments, and maturity structure of future debt service payments and debt burdens, measured in relation to gross national income and export earnings for each country; (4) one-page summaries per country, plus global, regional, and income group aggregates showing debt stocks and flows, relevant debt indicators, and metadata for six years (2010 and 2016–20); and (5) a user guide describing the tables and content, definitions and rationale for the country and income groupings used in the report, data notes, and information about additional resources and comprehensive datasets available to users online.

Unique in its coverage of the important trends and issues fundamental to the financing of low- and middle-income countries, IDS 2022 is an indispensable resource for governments, economists, investors, financial consultants, academics, bankers, and the entire development community.

WOMEN, BUSINESS AND THE LAW 2022 By the World Bank

Women, Business and the Law 2022 is the eighth in a series of annual studies measuring the laws and regulations that affect women's economic opportunity in 190 economies. The project presents eight indicators structured around women's interactions with the law as they move through their careers: mobility, workplace, pay, marriage, parenthood, entrepreneurship, assets, and pension.

WOMEN, BUSINESS AND THE LAW

Amid a global pandemic that threatens progress toward gender equality, Women, Business and the Law 2022 identifies barriers to women's economic participation and encourages reform of discriminatory laws. This year, the study also includes pilot research related to childcare and implementation of the law. By examining the economic decisions women make throughout their working lives, as well as the pace of reform over the past 50 years, Women, Business and the Law makes an important contribution to research and policy discussions about the state of women's economic empowerment. The indicators build evidence of the critical relationship between legal gender equality and women's employment and entrepreneurship. Data in Women, Business and the Law 2022 are current as of October 1, 2021.

March 2022. 134 pages. Stock no. C211817 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1817-2). US$43.95

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IMPROVING EFFECTIVE COVERAGE IN HEALTH Do Financial Incentives Work? By Damien de Walque, Eeshani Kandpal, Adam Wagstaff, Jed Friedman, Sven Neelsen, Moritz Piatti-Fünfkirchen, Anja Sautmann, Gil Shapira, and Ellen Van De Poel

In many low- and middle-income countries, health coverage has improved dramatically in the past two decades, but health outcomes have not. As such, effective coverage —a measure of service delivery that meets a minimum standard of quality—remains unacceptably low. This Policy Research Report examines one specific policy approach to improving effective coverage: financial incentives in the form of performance-based financing (PBF) or financial incentives to health workers on the front lines. The report draws on a rich set of rigorous studies and new analysis. When compared to business-as-usual, in low-income settings with centralized health systems PBF can result in substantial gains in effective coverage. However, the relative benefits of PBF are less clear when it is compared to two alternative approaches: decentralized facility financing, which provides operating budgets to frontline health services with facility autonomy on allocation, and demand-side financial support for health services (conditional cash transfers and vouchers). While PBF often results in improvements on the margins, closing the substantial gaps in effective health coverage is not yet within reach for many countries. Nonetheless, there are important lessons learned and experiences from the rollout of PBF over the past decade that can guide health policies into the future.

POLICY RESEARCH REPORTS March 2022. 200 pages. Stock no. C211825 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1825-7). US$49.50

THE CHANGING WEALTH OF NATIONS 2021 Managing Assets for the Future By the World Bank

It is now clear that a narrow focus on the growth of gross domestic product (GDP) is insufficient to achieve humanity's aspirations for sustainable prosperity. Well-functioning ecosystems and educated populations are requisites for sustainable well-being. These and other too-often neglected ingredients of national wealth must be addressed if the development path is to be sustainable. The Changing Wealth of Nations 2021: Managing Assets for the Future provides the most comprehensive accounting of the wealth of nations, an in-depth analysis of its evolution, and pathways to build wealth for the future. This report—and the accompanying global database—firmly establishes comprehensive wealth as a measure of sustainability and a key component of country analytics. This report provides a new set of tools and analysis to help policy makers navigate risks and to guide collective action. Wealth accounts can be applied in macroeconomic analysis to such areas of major policy concern as climate change and natural resource management. This report can be used to look beyond GDP, to gauge nations' economic well-being, and to promote sustainable prosperity. WORLD BANK PUBLICATIONS AND ePRODUCTS

December 2021. 500 pages. Stock no. C211590 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1590-4). US$60.50

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THE TRADE AND CLIMATE CHANGE NEXUS The Urgency and Opportunities for Developing Countries By Paul Brenton and Vicky Chemutai

While trade exacerbates climate change, it is also a central part of the solution because it has the potential to enhance mitigation and adaptation. This timely report explores the different ways in which trade and climate change intersect. Trade contributes to the emissions that cause global warming and is itself also affected by climate change through changing comparative advantages. The report also confronts several myths concerning trade and climate change.

October 2021. 138 pages. Stock no. C211770 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1770-0). US$43.95

The Trade and Climate Change Nexus: The Urgency and Opportunities for Developing Countries focuses on the impacts of, and adjustments to, climate change in developing countries and on how future trade opportunities will be affected by both the changing climate and the policy responses to address it. The report discusses how trade can provide the goods and services that drive mitigation and adaptation. It also addresses how climate change creates immense challenges for developing countries, but also new opportunities to promote trade diversification in the transition to a low-carbon world. Suitable trade and environmental policies can offer effective economic incentives to attain both sustainable growth and poverty reduction.

DEEP TRADE AGREEMENTS Anchoring Global Value Chains in Latin America and the Caribbean Edited by Michele Ruta and Nadia Rocha

The Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region has untapped potential for trade and global value chains (GVCs) to grow in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. This report, based on new data and evidence, shows that “deep” trade agreements can drive policy reforms and help the region overcome some of its disadvantageous fundamentals. Four priority areas of deep integration—trade facilitation, regulatory cooperation, services, and state support—can improve the GVC participation of LAC countries:

March 2022. 220 pages. Stock no. C211824 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1824-0). US$49.50

T rade facilitation can reduce border delays and ease problems stemming from the remoteness of LAC countries. Regulatory cooperation can help LAC countries access larger markets by reducing the costs of nontariff measures. Opening the service economy can compensate for factor endowment scarcity, facilitating access to skills and technology. Regulating competition and state support to state-owned enterprises can improve the quality of economic institutions.

These reforms are all the more important as global trade tensions persist and economies recover from the COVID-19 pandemic.

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EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY FOR SEXUAL AND GENDER MINORITIES By Clifton Cortez, John Arzinos, and Christian De la Medina Soto

Despite legal and social advances in the past two decades, sexual and gender minorities continue to face widespread discrimination and violence in many countries. This discrimination and violence lead to exclusion, which adversely impacts their lives, as well as the communities and economies in which they live. A major barrier to addressing this stigma and sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI)-based exclusion is the lack of SOGI-specific data. Robust, quantitative data on differential development experiences and outcomes of sexual and gender minorities— especially those in developing countries—is extremely thin. Equality of Opportunity for Sexual and Gender Minorities assesses the unique challenges that sexual and gender minorities face in six important areas: (1) criminalization and SOGI, (2) access to education, (3) access to the labor market, (4) access to public services and social protection, (5) civil and political inclusion, and (6) protection from hate crimes. December 2021. 182 pages. The first in a series of studies, the report will be expanded from the 16 countries Stock no. C211774 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1774-8). US$43.95 included here to a wider set of countries for a more in-depth quantitative analysis and to identify possible correlations with socioeconomic outcomes. It will seek to deepen knowledge, facilitate peer learning of good practices, and increase the inclusion of sexual and gender minorities.

REVISITING TARGETING IN SOCIAL ASSISTANCE A New Look at Old Dilemmas Edited by Margaret Grosh, Phillippe Leite, Matthew Wai-Poi, and Emil Tesliuc

Targeting is a commonly used, but much debated, policy within global social assistance practice. This book examines the well-known dilemmas in light of the growing body of experience, new implementation capacities, and the potential to bring new data and data science to bear. Chapter 1 presents factors that shape choices around how to target different parts of social assistance. Chapter 2 updates the global empirics around the costs of focusing benefits on the poor or vulnerable. Chapter 3 illustrates the options that must be made in moving to implementable definitions and procedures. Chapter 4 provides a treatment of delivery systems and processes and room for improvement. Chapter 5 discusses the choice between targeting methods and how differences in purposes and contexts shape those. Chapter 6 summarizes and updates the know-how with respect to the data and inference used by the different household-specific targeting methods. Chapter 7 contains a deep primer on measurement issues, explaining how better measurement can lead to clearer understanding of targeting issues. Chapter 8 explores machine learning algorithms for household-specific mechanisms for eligibility determination.

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HUMAN DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVES

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVES March 2022. 500 pages. Stock no. C211814 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1814-1). US$73.00

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FEATURED TITLES

RESHAPING GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS IN LIGHT OF COVID-19 Implications for Trade and Poverty Reduction in Developing Countries By Paul Brenton, Michael J. Ferrantino, and Maryla Maliszewska

Global value chains (GVCs) have driven dramatic expansions in trade, productivity, and economic growth in developing countries. This book examines the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on GVCs and explores whether they can continue to be a driver of trade and development. The report reviews previous crises and what these tell us about the resilience of GVC firms to shocks. It then explores simulations from a global economic model of the potential longer-term impacts of COVID-19 on developing countries and other key factors shaping the global economy, including the evolving role of China, increasing trade restrictions, and policy responses to global warming.

March 2022. 184 pages. Stock no. C211821 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1821-9). US$43.95

The analysis shows that while there are risks associated with GVCs, especially those concentrated around key nodes and where opportunities to find alternative suppliers or buyers are limited, there are mechanisms by which GVCs maintain trade relationships during a crisis, paving the way for a strong trade-led recovery. Measures are identified that can enhance the resilience of GVCs in low-income countries.

This report finds that policies that maintain and enhance trade can contribute toward crisis management and recovery. Measures to meet climate change commitments will have profound impacts, leading to a shift away from carbon-intensive GVCs, while new opportunities for trade will arise in GVCs that are less carbon intensive.

WALKING THE TALK Reimagining Primary Health Care after COVID-19 By Enis Bariş,Rachel Silverman, Huihui Wang, Feng Zhao, and Muhammad Ali Pate

Very few topics in global health have been as controversial as primary health care since it was introduced half a century ago as the panacea for providing health care to the masses. In this book, the authors propose an innovative unifying framework bringing together four requirements to reimagine primary health care and ensure a transition from (1) a limited package of low-quality services to a broader range of higher-quality primary care and public health services; (2) fragmented care to person-centered integrated care; (3) inequity in access to fairness and accountability regardless of one's ability and willingness to pay; and (4) fragility to resilience, particularly in times of pent-up demand as seen during the COVID-19 pandemic.

February 2022. 224 pages. Stock no. C211768 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1768-7). US$43.95

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Schemes are presented to “walk the talk” for high quality, integrated, continuous, comprehensive, and community-oriented primary health care. Finally, the authors indicate how the World Bank Group and its development partners could join efforts to help countries deliver on reimagined primary health care through technical advice and financial assistance for global- and country-level dialogue for advocacy.

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FEATURED TITLES

BRIDGING THE TECHNOLOGICAL DIVIDE Firm Technology Adoption in Developing Countries By Xavier Cirera, Diego Comin, and Marcio Cruz

Technology is a key driver of economic development. However, the extent to which firms adopt and use technologies and to what purpose is poorly understood. From a technological standpoint, firms largely remain black boxes. This report proposes a new approach to measure and understand the adoption and use of technologies by firms. Specifically, it leverages a new data collection instrument, the Firm-Level Adoption of Technology (FAT) survey, which provides a very rich characterization of the technologies used and the processes of adoption by firms in developing countries. The first section of the report presents the FAT survey. Section 2 describes the patterns of technology adoption across countries and firms. It uncovers new unexplored findings on the variation of technology sophistication across business functions within firms. Section 3 focuses on sector differences in technology sophistication and the challenges to leapfrog technologies. Section 4 shows that technology is positively associated with productivity, employment growth, and wage premiums. Section 5 describes the acceleration of the digital transformation during the COVID-19 pandemic. The last part of the report focuses on barriers for adoption (section 6), including the role of infrastructure and management quality, and the key policy instruments that can be used to support firm technology adoption in developing countries (section 7).

WORLD BANK PRODUCTIVITY PROJECT June 2022. 300 pages. Stock no. C211826 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1826-4). US$54.95

PLACE, PRODUCTIVITY, AND PROSPERITY Revisiting Spatially Targeted Policies for Regional Development By Arti Grover, Somik V. Lall, and William F. Maloney

The spatial dimension of productivity and inclusive growth has moved to center stage. While the geographic concentration of economic activity has boosted productivity, growing disparities between prospering places and those left behind have polarized countries, while rapid urbanization has often led to dysfunctional cities. In response, governments have put forward a variety of spatial policies that include special economic zones, business incentives, transport corridors, revival of lagging areas, and development of new urban centers.

WORLD BANK PRODUCTIVITY PROJECT

Place, Productivity, and Prosperity develops a framework for thinking through such February 2022. 240 pages. spatially targeted policies and assessing their social value, while presenting new Stock no. C211670 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1670-3). US$48.50 evidence on key empirical issues. It highlights the constraints imposed by path dependence and coordination failures in reorienting the spatial economy, as well as the role of complementary policies, including market institutions, in enhancing the benefits and managing the downside risks with spatially targeted interventions. The framework is applied to evaluate several popular spatial interventions.

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FEATURED TITLES

INNOVATIONS IN TAX COMPLIANCE Building Trust, Navigating Politics, and Tailoring Reform By Roel Dom, Anna Custers, Stephen Davenport, and Wilson Prichard

Recent decades have witnessed important progress in strengthening tax systems in developing countries. Yet many areas of reform have remained stubbornly resistant to major improvements; overall revenue collection still falls short of what is needed to support effective governance and service delivery. Tax collection is too often characterized by high rates of evasion among large corporations and the rich, and disproportionate, often hidden, burdens are on lower-income groups. As countries around the world deal with large COVID-19-induced debt burdens, a focus on strengthening tax systems is especially timely.

January 2022. 236 pages. Stock no. C211755 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1755-7). US$53.95

Innovations in Tax Compliance draws on recent research and experience to present a new conceptual framework to guide more effective approaches to reform. Building on the achievements of recent decades, it argues for an expanded focus on the overlapping goals of building trust, navigating political resistance, and tailoring reform to unique local contexts through a focus on identifying the most binding constraints on reform. This focus, it argues, can lead not only to greater compliance, increased fairness, and higher revenues, but can also contribute to the building of state capacity, sustained political support for further reforms, and stronger fiscal contracts between citizens and governments.

THE LONG SHADOW OF INFORMALITY Challenges and Policies Edited by Franziska Ohnsorge and Shu Yu

A large percentage of workers and firms operate in the informal economy, outside the line of sight of governments in emerging market and developing economies. This may hold back the recovery in these economies from the deep recessions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic—unless governments adopt a broad set of policies to address the challenges of widespread informality. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of the extent of informality and its implications for a durable economic recovery and for long-term development. It finds that pervasive informality is associated with significantly weaker economic outcomes— including lower government resources to combat recessions, lower per capita incomes, greater poverty, less financial development, and weaker investment and productivity.

February 2022. 350 pages. Stock no. C211753 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1753-3). US$53.95

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FEATURED TITLES

IMPACT EVALUATION IN INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Theory, Methods, and Practice By Paul Glewwe and Petra E. Todd

This comprehensive volume by pioneering researchers in the field is an invaluable guide to the theory and practice of impact evaluation, covering a range of statistical methodologies and topics from sample design to dissemination of results. It will be of tremendous use to researchers planning impact evaluations. Michael Kremer Professor, The University of Chicago; Nobel Prize in Economics 2019

This book is the most rigorous and comprehensive text for evaluating social programs in developing countries. It presents up-to-date methodology and a thorough guide to the empirical problems that arise in real-life evaluations. James J. Heckman Professor, The University of Chicago; Nobel Prize in Economics 2000

Paul Glewwe and Petra Todd’s book on impact evaluation is accurate and well written and would be of substantial value to readers, particularly development practitioners hoping to rigorously evaluate their programs and looking to gain insights into the purpose, theory, and mechanics of impact evaluation methods. Jeffery Tanner Senior Economist, The World Bank Group

This book is a valuable and comprehensive compendium of the major approaches to impact evaluation, as well as related issues ranging from ethical considerations to the importance of costs as well as benefits. Development analysts and practitioners alike will benefit substantially from the thorough, systematic coverage and from the many insights on conducting impact evaluations. Jere R. Behrman Professor, University of Pennsylvania Rigorous, comprehensive but still accessible, this guide to impact evaluation will be useful for students, practitioners, and applied researchers alike. Stefan Dercon Professor, University of Oxford

ISBN 978-1-4648-1497-6

Glewwe & Todd

Parts II and III make use of statistical and econometric methods and are at a level similar to a graduate-student course but written to make them accessible to the ambitious reader whose skills are not at that level. Part II presents a comprehensive discussion of the use of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to conduct impact evaluations. Part III presents the main nonexperimental methods that are used to implement impact evaluations when RCTs are not feasible or not recommended.

Impact Evaluation

in International Development

in International Development

Paul Glewwe and Petra Todd have produced an essential reference. Their book combines technical rigor and a wealth of practical advice, born from decades of experience evaluating social programs. Whether it’s understanding the theory behind a crucial technique, choosing the sample size, designing a survey, or deciding how to engage with policy makers, Glewwe and Todd have the answers. This will be the musthave book for impact evaluation amateurs and experts alike. David Evans Senior Fellow, Center for Global Development

Part I provides an overview of impact evaluations, which are accessible to readers who have few or none of the technical (statistical and econometric) skills that are needed to conduct impact evaluations.

Impact Evaluation

Impact evaluations are studies that attempt to measure the causal impact of a project, program, or policy on one or more outcomes. This book provides a comprehensive exposition of how to conduct impact evaluations.

THEORY, METHODS, AND PRACTICE Paul Glewwe and Petra E. Todd

SKU 211497

January 2022. 570 pages. Stock no. C211497 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1497-6). US$59.95

Part IV considers more practical issues when conducting impact evaluations, including designing questionnaires, data collection methods, and survey management. Finally, Part V addresses two topics in impact evaluation: qualitative methods for conducting impact evaluations and cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis.

QUALITY EARLY LEARNING Nurturing Children's Potential Edited by Maria Magdalena Bendini and Amanda E. Devercelli

Multiple fields of inquiry, including neuroscience, developmental and cognitive psychology, education, and economics, have been building evidence to inform the design of early childhood education (ECE) programs. Yet, by and large, this evidence is not produced or systematized in ways that can readily inform program design, and the potential synergies from considering this evidence in a unified, cross-disciplinary, manner are not realized in policy design. This report is written by a group of leading ECE academics and policy practitioners. It synthesizes the latest relevant knowledge from multiple disciplines on how young children learn and it identifies the crucial elements of quality, effective ECE. The volume documents the latest evidence from multiple fields on how young children learn most effectively, what skills they need to succeed in school, and how ECE programs can foster these skills and harness children's ability and motivation to learn. The ultimate goal is to provide key stakeholders, including policy makers and practitioners, with actionable, evidence-based, and cost-effective strategies for the delivery of quality ECE at scale.

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HUMAN DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVES February 2022. 230 pages. Stock no. C211795 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1795-3). US$48.50

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AFRICA

AFRICA AND CHINA IN THE 21ST CENTURY Economic Engagement, Experiences, and Opportunities Edited by Shuilin Wang and Albert G. Zeufack

This book contributes to the understanding of the complexities and dynamics that underlie the relationship between Africa and China, and how to make this relationship truly mutually beneficial. It makes practical suggestions as to how the continent could best leverage China's continued involvement and how Chinese investments could better support African development. The book focuses on four thematic issues: investment and infrastructure, technology and digital innovation, structural transformation, and poverty reduction and human capital development. These issues all played an important role in China's rapid economic modernization and are fundamental to sustainable development and economic transformation in Africa. The chapters are based on research and analyze the experience of China and African countries in each of the thematic issues, as well as the impact of Chinese investments in Africa on both China and African countries. The book also highlights the importance of leveraging partnerships in support of African development. May 2022. 400 pages. Stock no. C211823 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1823-3). US$60.50

MAKING THE MOST OF THE AFRICAN CONTINENTAL FREE TRADE AREA Leveraging Trade and Foreign Direct Investment to Boost Growth and Poverty Reduction By Roberto Echandi, Maryla Maliszewska, and Victor Steenberg

This volume expands on the analysis presented in the 2020 World Bank book, The African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA): Economic and Distributional Effects. That study showed that the AfCFTA could potentially increase real income in Africa by an additional 7 percent by 2035, over and above what would otherwise have been achieved by then. These gains would come from increased intraregional trade, and would bring 40 million people out of extreme poverty and raise the incomes of 75 million others who live on less than US$5.50 per day—after factoring in the number of people pushed into poverty because of the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors examine the potential dynamic gains from trade, factoring in the foreign direct investment (FDI) that is expected to follow greater trade openness (both intraand extra-regional FDI). Accounting for the expected impact of the continental free trade area in boosting FDI, the AfCFTA FDI “Broad” scenario could generate a further 0.8 percent boost to real income, reaching about 8 percent in 2035, compared to the April 2022. 190 pages. baseline without AfCFTA. Adding the gains from deeper integration, the AfCFTA FDI Stock no. C211827 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1827-1). US$49.50 “Deep” scenario would bring these gains up to 9 percent. Extreme poverty would fall further under the more ambitious trade liberalization and deeper integration envisaged under the AfCFTA FDI Broad scenario and AfCFTA FDI Deep scenarios, respectively. The AfCFTA can catapult Africa's development. However, unlocking these potential gains will not be automatic, but will require implementation of a set of parallel actions. 20

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AFRICA

SOCIAL CONTRACTS FOR DEVELOPMENT Bargaining, Contention, and Social Inclusion in Sub-Saharan Africa By Mathieu Cloutier, Bernard Harborne, Deborah Isser, Indhira Santos, and Michael Watts

Sub-Saharan Africa has achieved significant gains in reducing the levels of extreme poverty in recent decades. Yet, the region continues to experience challenges across the development indicators, including energy access, literacy, delivery of services and goods, and jobs skills, as well as low levels of foreign direct investment. Exacerbating the difficulties faced by many countries are the sequelae of conflict, such as internal displacement and refugee migration. Social Contracts for Development: Bargaining, Contention, and Social Inclusion in Sub-Saharan Africa builds on recent attention to the real-life social and political economy factors that underlie the power dynamic and determine the selection and implementation of policies. Applying a social contract approach to development policy, the authors provide a framework and proposals on how to measure such a framework to strengthen policy and operational engagements in the region. The key message is that Africa’s progress toward shared prosperity requires looking beyond technical policies to understand how the power dynamics and citizen-state relations shape the menu of implementable reforms. A social contract lens can help diagnose constraints, explain outbreaks of unrest, and identify opportunities for improving outcomes.

AFRICA DEVELOPMENT FORUM January 2022. 122 pages. Stock no. C211662 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1662-8). US$43.00

THE FUTURE OF RESOURCES IN AFRICA The Role of Extractives for Transformation under the Carbon Transition By James Frederick Cust and Boubacar Bocoum

Harnessing natural resource wealth to drive economic transformation is central to Africa's economic future. The situation is one of both challenges—including rising debt distress and unmet expectations—and opportunities, with new discoveries and large reserves waiting to be exploited. How can Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries prepare for the future, while learning the lessons of the past? Three key trends underpin the importance of addressing this challenge:

The majority of countries in SSA are now categorized as resource-rich. Meanwhile, Africa remains relatively underexplored by global standards. Under the right circumstances, Africa may receive a disproportionate share of exploration in the future. By 2030, almost 90 percent of the world’s poor will live in the Africa region, and almost 75 percent of the world’s poor will be located in resource-rich countries. Poverty eradication is therefore becoming a disproportionately resource-rich country and Africa-region problem. The world has emerged from a broadly long commodity price boom (2003–14) and a relative slump, especially for petroleum (2014–18). Despite this boom and bust cycle, few African countries made progress to shift their economies away from resource dependence. WORLD BANK PUBLICATIONS AND ePRODUCTS

AFRICA DEVELOPMENT FORUM March 2022. 200 pages. Stock no. C211743 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1743-4). US$48.50

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AFRICA

INDUSTRIALIZATION IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA Seizing Opportunities in Global Value Chains By Kaleb G. Abreha, Woubet Kassa, Emmanuel K. K. Lartey, Taye A. Mengistae, Solomon Owusu, and Albert G. Zeufack

Industrialization drives the sustained growth in jobs and productivity that marks the developmental take-off of most developed economies. Yet, academics and policy makers have questioned the role of manufacturing in development for late industrializers, especially in view of rapid advancements in technologies and restructuring of international trade. Concurrently, industrialization and structural transformation are integral to the African Union's Agenda 2063 and the development strategies of several countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Given this renewed interest in industrialization across the region, a central question is not whether SSA countries should pursue industrialization as a potential path to sustainable growth but how to promote the prospects of industrialization.

AFRICA DEVELOPMENT FORUM December 2021. 200 pages. Stock no. C211673 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1673-4). US$43.00

Industrialization in Sub-Saharan Africa: Seizing Opportunities in Global Value Chains addresses this question by reassessing the prospects for industrialization in SSA countries through integration into global value chains. It also examines the role of policy in enhancing these prospects. The report emphasizes the role of policy in maintaining a competitive market environment, promoting productivity growth, and investing in skills development and enabling sectors such as infrastructure and finance.

AFRICA IN THE NEW TRADE ENVIRONMENT Market Access in Troubled Times Edited by Souleymane Coulibaly, Woubet Kassa, and Albert G. Zeufack

Africa represents a small share of global production and trade, while hosting half of the extreme poor worldwide. To catch up with the rest of the world, there is no alternative: the continent needs to link its production and trade to the global economy to take advantage of unlimited demand and innovation along the supply chain.

January 2022. 350 pages. Stock no. C211756 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1756-4 US$53.95

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The book presents a strategy to bolster Africa's market access in the current global environment. It explores three key areas: the impact of trade agreements with traditional partners (the European Union and the United States) and a way forward; the role of new market frontiers in Asia both from the perspective of restructuring economies in the region as well as changing global value chains and their implications for Africa; and finally an inward examination of the promise and challenges of regional trade and value chains. The book meticulously explores ways to maximize Africa's access to the two leading world markets—the European Union and the United States—while at the same time diversifying market access to the emerging Asian market. In troubled times, it calls for the continent to anchor its market access strategy to deeper regional integration.

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AFRICA

THE QUALITY OF HEALTH AND EDUCATION SYSTEMS ACROSS AFRICA Evidence from a Decade of Service Delivery Indicators Surveys By Roberta Gatti, Kathryn Andrews, Ciro Avitabile, Ruben Conner, Jigyasa Sharma, and Andres Yi Chang

For the past decade, the World Bank's Service Delivery Indicators (SDI) surveys have collected nationally representative data in countries across Africa to measure the quality of services where they meet citizens: in schools and health facilities. The Quality of Health and Education Systems Across Africa: Evidence from a Decade of Service Delivery Indicators Surveys sheds light on how service delivery may foster or stunt human capital accumulation. SDI surveys show that schools and health clinics across Africa are still falling short in some critical areas. Many health facilities lack the basic necessities to provide proper care, such as essential medicines, basic diagnostic equipment, and adequate water and sanitation. Learning is low, and, not unlike health care, levels of student learning vary significantly across countries: less than half of grade 4 students can recite a simple sentence or perform basic mathematical operations. By studying data from thousands of facilities, this book offers important insights for how countries can strengthen health and education systems and build back better in the wake of the massive disruptions brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic.

December 2021. 166 pages. Stock no. C211675 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1675-8). US$43.00

INSECT AND HYDROPONIC FARMING IN AFRICA The New Circular Food Economy By Dorte Verner, Nanna Roos, Afton Halloran, Glenn Surabian, Edinaldo Tebaldi, Maximillian Ashwill, Saleema Vellani, and Yasuo Konishi

While current agri-food production models rely on abundant supplies of water, energy, and arable land, past practices point toward more affordable and sustainable paths. Different forms of insect farming and soilless crop farming, or hydroponics, have existed for centuries. In this report, the authors make a persuasive case that frontier agriculture, particularly insect and hydroponic farming, can complement conventional agriculture. As the report shows, insect and hydroponic farming can create jobs, diversify livelihoods, improve nutrition, and provide many other benefits in African and fragile, conflictaffected countries. Together with other investments in climate-smart agriculture, these technologies are part of a promising menu of solutions that can help countries move their land, food, water, and agriculture systems toward greater sustainability. This book is the World Bank's first attempt to look at insect and hydroponic farming as possible solutions to the world's climate and food and nutrition security crisis and may represent a new chapter in the Bank's evolving efforts to help feed and sustain the planet.

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AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SERIES December 2021. 280 pages. Stock no. C211766 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1766-3). US$53.95

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MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA

BLUE SKIES, BLUE SEAS Air Pollution, Marine Plastics, and Coastal Erosion in the Middle East and North Africa By Martin Philipp Heger, Lukas Vashold, Anabella Palacios, Mala Alahmadi, Marjory-Anne Bromhead, and Marcelo Acerbi

This book shows how virtually all forms of natural capital, but particularly “blue” natural capital—skies and seas—has been degrading in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region over the past three decades, and focuses on the three challenges of air pollution, marine plastics, and coastal erosion. MENA's cities are on average more than five times as air-polluted as recommended by the WHO guidelines, and not a single MENA city, which reported data, meets them. This natural capital degradation has effects on people and the economy, which are assessed in this book. In terms of health impacts, ambient air pollution causes about 270,000 premature mortalities each year and is responsible for about 60 days of disease over the lifetime of the average MENA resident. The economic damages from the three priority areas—air pollution, marine plastics, and coastal erosion—are estimated to amount to about 3 percent of regional GDP every year. MENA DEVELOPMENT REPORT February 2022. 290 pages. Stock no. C211812 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1812-7). US$53.95

Policy recommendations for getting to clean blue skies and blue seas elaborate on (1) how monitoring the degradation and providing information about its sources can be improved, (2) how market-based incentives for more sustainable blue resource use can be designed, (3) the kinds of regulatory reforms needed to strengthen institutions, and (4) the types of investments needed to move towards blue skies and blue seas.

DISTRIBUTIONAL IMPACTS OF COVID-19 IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA REGION Edited by Johannes G. Hoogeveen and Gladys Lopez-Acevedo

COVID-19 is one of multiple crises to have hit the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region in the decade following the Arab Spring. War, oil price declines, economic slowdowns, and now a pandemic are tearing at the social fabric of a region characterized by high rates of unemployment, high levels of informality, and low annual economic growth. Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, MENA was the only region in the world experiencing increases in poverty and declines in life satisfaction. Distributional Impacts of COVID-19 in the Middle East and North Africa Region investigates how COVID-19 changed the welfare of individuals and households in the region. This report's results show that, in the short run, poverty rates in MENA will increase significantly and inequality will widen. A group of “new poor” is likely to emerge that may have difficulty recovering from the economic consequences of COVID-19.

MENA DEVELOPMENT REPORT December 2021. 278 pages. Stock no. C211776 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1776-2). US$49.5

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The report adds value by analyzing newly gathered primary data, along with projections based on newly modeled micro- and macrosimulations, and by identifying key issues that policy makers should focus on to enable a quick, inclusive, and sustained economic recovery.

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EUROPE & CENTRAL ASIA / EAST ASIA & PACIFIC

EUROPE 4.0 Addressing the Digital Dilemma By Mary Hallward-Driemeier, Gaurav Nayyar, Wolfgang Fengler, Anwar Aridi, and Indermit Gill

With digital transformation accelerating, can everyone, everywhere, benefit? A first step is to recognize how the underlying dynamics—and economic impacts—differ across types of digital technologies. New evidence reveals that Europe, given its current performance with digital technologies, faces a dilemma if the continent wants to achieve its triple objective of competitiveness, inclusion, and convergence. The technologies help European firms using them become more competitive. However, the technologies in which European firms' performance is strongest (for example, smart robotics) are also those that concentrate activities in larger firms and leading regions. Conversely, European firms have both lower rates of creation and take-up for those technologies with the greatest potential opportunities for smaller firms and lagging regions (for example, platforms or cloud computing). The COVID-19 pandemic is reenforcing the urgency of addressing this dilemma. Europe 4.0: Addressing the Digital Dilemma builds on two previous World Bank April 2022. 180 pages. Stock no. C211674 reports—Golden Growth and Growing United—which focused on Europe's convergence (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1674-1). US$48.50 machine and on new sources of stress facing the continent. This latest volume provides a framework, evidence, and recommendations on how to attain a dynamic and inclusive digital economy. Europe 4.0 is possible—and Europe should take the chance.

DIVERSE PATHS The Dynamic Evolution of Social Protection in Asia Pacific By Philip B. O'Keefe, Puja Vasudeva Dutta, Harry Moroz, and Robert Palacios

Over the past two decades, social protection systems in much of developing Asia Pacific have been fundamentally transformed. Due to factors including rising country income levels, increased exposure to macroeconomic and climatic shocks, demographic and structural change, and changing expectations of the state from citizens, social protection systems in many parts of Asia Pacific have been expanding in terms of range of programs, level of public spending, and coverage of population. But the building of robust and inclusive social protection systems remains incomplete, and in subregions of Asia Pacific is at best nascent. This report charts the transformation of social protection systems in the East Asia and Pacific and much of the South Asia regions in the areas of social assistance, social insurance, employment programs, and delivery systems. It highlights the major diversity of social protection systems across the region, and the remaining challenges of consolidating, expanding, and in some cases building them. It also suggests directions for deepening social protection reforms that reflect the diversity of country situations.

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June 2022. 350 pages. Stock no. C211542 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1542-3). US$49.95

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SOUTH ASIA

INFORMALITY IN SOUTH ASIA Increasing Productivity and Job Quality in the Informal Sector By the World Bank

In South Asia, most workers and firms are in the informal sector. Informal firms constitute almost 99 percent of all firms, but account for a much smaller share of total output and employment. These firms remain stunted due to limited access to capital and other resources, and lack the means or the incentive to invest in upgrading their technological and managerial capabilities. The share of total employment outside of the formal sector reaches higher than 80 percent in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan. Informal workers lack access to high-quality, productive jobs; they are also vulnerable to shocks because they are not covered by the social protection and labor-market regulations that exist in the formal sector.

SOUTH ASIA DEVELOPMENT FORUM

Policy makers in South Asia need better evidence to design policies addressing the persistent developmental challenges of low productivity, high vulnerability, and weak taxation that are posed by the vast informal sector. As the informal sector has been hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic, addressing these issues will also be critical for COVID relief and recovery.

April 2022. 150 pages. Stock no. C211834 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1834-9). US$43.95

FROM JOBS TO CAREERS Apparel Exports and Career Paths for Women in Developing Countries By Stacey Frederick, Gladys Lopez-Acevedo, Raymond Robertson, and Mexico A. Vergara Bahena

An oft-cited strategy to advance economic development is to further integrate developing countries into global trade, particularly through global value chains, bolstered by the expansion of female-intensive industries to bring more women into the formal labor force.

SOUTH ASIA DEVELOPMENT FORUM December 2021. 178 pages. Stock no. C211803 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1803-5). US$43.95

In recent decades, the apparel industry has shifted production to low-wage developing countries, increasing the demand for women, closing male-female wage gaps, and bringing women into the formal labor force from agriculture and informal work. But is an apparel-led export strategy sufficient to induce a broader transition from jobs women do to survive to careers promising stable employment and a sense of identity? From Jobs to Careers answers this question by focusing on seven countries where apparel plays a vital role in their export baskets: Bangladesh, Cambodia, the Arab Republic of Egypt, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Turkey, and Vietnam. It finds that the apparel industry indeed can serve as a launching pad to bring more women into the labor market. For this approach to work, however, complementary policies must tackle the barriers that hinder women's pursuit of long-term workforce participation and better-paid occupations. Key policy recommendations include increasing the participation of female production workers in export-oriented apparel manufacturing and associated industries, upgrading within manufacturing-related industries, boosting access to education, and breaking glass ceilings.

The report also seeks to shift the paradigm of how we think of women in the labor force by stressing the importance of their transition from jobs to careers—the so-called “quiet revolution.” 26

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SOUTH ASIA

REGIONAL INVESTMENT PIONEERS IN SOUTH ASIA The Payoff of Knowing Your Neighbors By Sanjay Kathuria, Ravindra A. Yatawara, and Xiao’ou Zhu

Regional economic engagement within South Asia may gain increasing importance owing to several factors that are currently in play, including strategies to diversify global value chains and locate such value chains nearer home. These developments offer South Asia a chance to enhance its low levels of regional economic engagement and capitalize on significant unrealized development opportunities. This report shows that examining intraregional investment and knowledge connectivity enhances our understanding of the low levels of intraregional trade and limited regional value chains in South Asia. Creating a new and unique data set for South Asian investment, this report provides a detailed and nuanced understanding of the drivers of outward investment, both regional and global, for South Asian firms. Regional Investment Pioneers in South Asia provides key considerations for policy makers in South Asia, which remain particularly relevant in the aftermath of the pandemic. This report follows on, and is complementary to, the earlier World Bank report, A Glass Half Full: The Promise of Regional Trade in South Asia.

SOUTH ASIA DEVELOPMENT FORUM December 2021. 258 pages. Stock no. C211534 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1534-8). US$45.00

PRIVATE CITIES IN SOUTH ASIA Implications for Urban Policy in Developing Countries By Yue Li and Martin Rama

Private cities are an emerging reality in developing countries and are particularly important in South Asia. Weak urban governments are at the root of some of the challenges faced by cities in developing countries. In most of South Asia, for example, urbanization has been “messy” and congestion has severely undermined the benefits of agglomeration. The shortage of empowered, resourced, and accountable local government is the key challenge underlying these problems. Addressing this institutional failure remains the main priority of the urban agenda in most developing countries. At the same time, political economy constraints have made the reform of urban governance an arduous and often-frustrating undertaking. All of this calls for a rethinking of the role of nongovernment actors in the city formation process. In theory, large private land developers can internalize local externalities and, provided that they can reach a sufficiently large population size, build efficient cities. Their incentive to do so is to maximize the value of the land they develop. In equilibrium, land prices should be closely linked to the (discounted) future stream of value added that can be generated on that land. It is therefore in the interest of developers to maximize agglomeration effects and minimize congestions cost in the area they own. WORLD BANK PUBLICATIONS AND ePRODUCTS

SOUTH ASIA DEVELOPMENT FORUM March 2022. 200 pages. Stock no. C211833 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1833-2). US$49.50

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27


INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN FOCUS ONLINE RESOURCES

GOVTECH MATURITY INDEX The State of Public Sector Digital Transformation By Cem Dener, Hubert Nii-Aponsah, Love E. Ghunney, and Kimberly D. Johns

The GovTech Initiative was launched in 2019 to assist practitioners in the design of new digital transformation projects. The GovTech Maturity Index measures the maturity of four GovTech focus areas: supporting core government systems, enhancing service delivery, and mainstreaming citizen engagement and GovTech enablers. November 2021. 164 pages. Stock no. C211765 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1765-6). US$41.95.

MANAGING FOR LEARNING (Spanish edition) Measuring and Strengthening Education Management in Latin America and the Caribbean By Melissa Adelman and Renata Lemos

How can countries make sustainable gains in student learning at scale? This is a pressing question for Latin America and the Caribbean—and the developing world more broadly—as countries seek to build human capital to drive sustainable growth. November 2021. 114 pages. Stock no. C211762 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1762-5). US$41.95.

DIGITAL SENEGAL FOR INCLUSIVE GROWTH Technological Transformation for Better and More Jobs By Marcio Cruz, Mark A. Dutz, and Carlos Rodríguez-Castelán

Adoption of better technologies can generate better and more jobs for Senegal's growing population. This book recommends policies to ensure availability of affordable digital infrastructure and to promote use of better technologies by firms as well as to narrow deepening digital divides across enterprises and households.

CLIMATE AFFLICTIONS By Iffat Mahmud, Wameq A. Raza, and Md Rafi Hossain

Deteriorating climatic conditions will likely increase the occurrences of infectious diseases and mental health issues. This book, using data from Bangladesh, explains how changes in the weather can cause diseases to spread faster, while making people more anxious and depressed. November 2021. 146 pages. Stock no. C211764 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1764-9). US$41.95.

ORDERS WITHOUT BORDERS Direct Enforcement of Foreign Restraint and Confiscation Decisions By Stefano Betti, Vladimir Kozin, and Jean Pierre Brun

This book provides an analysis of the complex issue of enforcing foreign confiscation and restraint orders, a crucial step in the process of asset recovery. It further outlines related challenges and offers practical recommendations. The study will be a useful tool for law enforcement, justice, and asset recovery practitioners. January 2022. 176 pages. Stock no. C211830 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1830-1). US$41.95.

ACHIEVING THE DEMOGRAPHIC DIVIDEND IN THE ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT Choice, Not Destiny Edited by Sameh El-Saharty, Heba Nassar, Sherine Shawky, Amr Elshalakani, Mariam Hamza, and Yi Zhang

The Arab Republic of Egypt was well on the path to achieving its demographic dividend at the turn of this century but has gotten temporarily off-track due to a reversal in its earlier fertility decline. Fortunately, the country has the political will, resources, and capacity to secure this dividend in the next decade.

January 2022. 148 pages. Stock no. C211687 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1687-1). US$41.50.

January 2022. 156 pages. Stock no. C211811 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1811-0). US$41.95.

DIGITAL SENEGAL FOR INCLUSIVE GROWTH (French edition) Technological Transformation for Better and More Jobs

GETTING DOWN TO EARTH Are Satellites Reliable for Measuring Air Pollutants That Cause Mortality in Low- and Middle-Income Countries?

By Marcio Cruz, Mark A. Dutz, and Carlos Rodríguez-Castelán

By the World Bank

Adoption of better technologies can generate better and more jobs for Senegal's growing population. The book recommends policies to ensure availability of affordable digital infrastructure and to promote use of better technologies by firms as well as to narrow deepening digital divides across enterprises and households.

Outdoor air pollution accounts for an estimated 4.2 million deaths worldwide, caused predominantly by exposure to fine aerosols. This report investigates the performance of satellites for predicting outdoor concentrations of PM2.5, the most harmful air pollutant to human health, in low- and middle-income countries.

January 2022. 162 pages. Stock no. C211688 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1688-8). US$41.50.

January 2022. 192 pages. Stock no. C211727 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1727-4). US$47.00.

28

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INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN FOCUS

THE GLOBAL HEALTH COST OF PM2.5 AIR POLLUTION A Case for Action Beyond 2021

AIR POLLUTION AND CLIMATE CHANGE From Co-Benefits to Coherent Policies

By the World Bank

By Grzegorz Peszko, Markus Amann, Yewande Awe, Gary Kleiman, and Tamer Samah Rabie

This report stimates of the global, regional, and national costs of health damage from exposure to PM2.5 ambient and household air pollution in 2019. While recognizing the various costs of air pollution to society, this report focuses on the cost of morbidity and premature death from air pollution, the world's leading environmental health risk.

While many countries pledge to phase out fossil fuels in 30–40 years, 6–7 million people die each year from air pollution. This report shows how to design coherent policies that harness synergies and manage tensions between air quality and climate mitigation and that put people's health first while paving the way for long-term decarbonization.

January 2022. 86 pages. Stock no. C211816 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1816-5). US$35.00.

February 2022. 132 pages. Stock no. C211835 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1835-6). US$41.95.

ARTISANAL SCALE GOLD MINING A Framework for Collecting Site-Specific Sampling and Survey Data to Support Health-Impact Analyses

ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES FOR GREEN GROWTH AND POVERTY REDUCTION A Country Environmental Analysis for the Lao People's Democratic Republic

By Katherine von Stackelberg, Pamela R. D. Williams, and Ernesto Sánchez-Triana

This framework document provides a practical approach for designing representative studies and developing uniform sampling guidelines to support estimates of health outcomes that are explicitly linked to exposure to landbased contaminants from ASGM activities. January 2022. 100 pages. Stock no. C211819 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1819-6). US$41.95.

RECYCLING OF USED LEAD-ACID BATTERIES Guidelines for Appraisal of Environmental Health Impacts By Katherine von Stackelberg, Pamela Williams, Ernesto Sánchez-Triana, and Santiago Enriquez

This framework document provides a practical approach for designing representative studies and developing uniform sampling guidelines to support estimates of health outcomes that are explicitly linked to exposure to landbased contaminants from ULAB activities. January 2022. 130 pages. Stock no. C211820 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1820-2). US$41.95.

OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY IN SAUDI ARABIA Consequences and Solutions Edited by Tagred Algaith, Reem Alsukait, Hussah Alghodair, Mohammed Alluhaidan, Meera Shekar, and Christopher H. Herbst

Overweight and obesity are a major challenge in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this book is to provide new evidence and analysis in order to support planning efforts on obesity prevention in the country. February 2022. 234 pages. Stock no. C211828 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1828-8). US$47.50.

Edited by Ernesto Sánchez-Triana, Bjorn Larsen, Santiago Enriquez, and Jack Ruitenbeek

This book reveals strong linkages among environmental quality, economic growth, and social well-being of the nation's 7 million inhabitants. The urgent message of the report is that all identified issues must be—and can be—systematically addressed. Benefit-cost analyses help to identify efficient interventions. March 2022. 352 pages. Stock no. C211829 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1829-5). US$52.95.

HEALTH FINANCING REFORM IN UKRAINE Progress and Future Directions By Caryn Bredenkamp, Elina Dale, Olena Doroshenko, Yuriy Dzhygyr, Jarno Habicht, Loraine Hawkins, Aleksandr Katsaga, Kateryna Maynzyuk, Khrystyna Pak, and Olga Zeus

This report reviews the progress of the implementation of the health financing reform in Ukraine, in particular the funding, purchasing, and governance of the Program of Medical Guarantees (PMG). March 2022. 94 pages. Stock no. C211840 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1840-0). US$35.00.

TOWARD SAFER AND MORE PRODUCTIVE MIGRATION FOR SOUTH ASIA Edited by S. Amer Ahmed and Laurent Bossavie

This book shows that there is great potential to reduce the risks and maximize the benefits of temporary migration from South Asia. Building on rigorous analytics, it proposes policies to reduce vulnerability and enhance the benefits of temporary migration for migrants themselves, their families, and the home economy. March 2022. 172 pages. Stock no. C211841 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1841-7). US$41.95.

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ONLINE RESOURCES

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31


INDEX

A Digital Economy for Africa...........................................9

International Debt Statistics 2022.................................12

Achieving the Demographic Dividend in the Arab Republic of Egypt.................................................28

Jobs Undone................................................................... 7

Africa and China in the 21st Century.............................20

Making Cities Green, Resilient, and Inclusive................. 3

Africa in the New Trade Environment...........................22 Air Pollution and Climate Change.................................29

Making the Most of the African Continental Free Trade Area............................................................20

Ambient Air Pollution and Public Health in South Asia....6

Managing for Learning (Spanish edition)......................28

Artisanal Scale Gold Mining..........................................29

Orders without Borders................................................28

Blue Skies, Blue Seas...................................................24

Overweight and Obesity in Saudi Arabia......................29

Boosting Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa.................. 11

Place, Productivity, and Prosperity................................17

Bridging the Technological Divide.................................17

Private Cities in South Africa......................................... 27

Climate Afflictions.........................................................28 Deep Trade Agreements................................................14 Digital Senegal for Inclusive Growth.............................28 Digital Senegal for Inclusive Growth (French edition)...28

Land Matters................................................................. 10

Quality Early Learning................................................... 19 Recycling of Used Lead-Acid Batteries.........................29 Regional Investment Pioneers in South Asia................ 27 Reshaping Global Value Chains in Light of COVID-19... 16 Revisiting Targeting in Social Assistance...................... 15

Distributional Impacts of COVID-19 in the Middle East and North Africa Region............................24

Sénégal numérique et croissance inclusive..................28

Diverse Paths................................................................25

Social Contracts for Development.................................21

Environmental Challenges for Green Growth and Poverty Reduction..................................................29

The Changing Wealth of Nations 2021...........................13

Equality of Opportunity for Sexual and Gender Minorities......................................................... 15

The Economics of Water Scarcity in The Middle East and North Africa..................................................................... 4 The Fifth Generation of Mobile Technology....................5

Europe 4.0....................................................................25

The Future Of Resources In Africa.................................21

From Jobs to Careers...................................................26

The Global Health Cost of PM2.5 Air Pollution................29

Getting Down to Earth..................................................28

The Long Shadow of Informality....................................18

Global Economic Prospects, January 2022....................2

The Quality of Health and Education Systems Across Africa............................................................................23

GovTech Maturity Index................................................28 Health Financing Reform in Ukraine.............................29 Impact Evaluation in International Development.......... 19 Improving Effective Coverage in Health........................13

The Trade and Climate Change Nexus...........................14 The Upside of Digital for the Middle East and North Africa.....................................................................8

Industrialization in Sub-Saharan Africa.........................22

Toward Safer and More Productive Migration for South Asia...............................................................29

Informality in South Asia...............................................26

Walking the Talk............................................................ 16

Innovations in Tax Compliance......................................18

Women, Business and the Law 2022.............................12

Insect and Hydroponic Farming in Africa......................23

World Development Report 2022....................................1

32

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SWITZERLAND Planetis Tel. +41 (0) 223665177 info@planetis.ch www.planetis.ch

SWEDEN Bokus Tel. +46 (1) 07441047 elin.karlsson@bokus.com www.bokus.com

MIDDLE EAST & NORTH AFRICA

EASTERN EUROPE Sales Representative Jacek Lewinson Tel. +48 502603290 jacek@jaceklewinson.com

WORLD BANK PUBLICATIONS AND ePRODUCTS III www.worldbank.org/publications • books@worldbank.org

NIGERIA Citrax Tel: +234 8022243515, info@citraxcompany.com TANZANIA Matthews Books and Stationery Tel. +255 (0) 222861281 ipyanam@yahoo.com

SOUTHERN AFRICA Sales Representative Guy Simpson Africa Connection guy.simpson@africaconnection. co.uk Sales Agents and Booksellers BOTSWANA Botsalo Books Tel. +267 (0) 3912576 botsalobooks@botsnet.bw SOUTH AFRICA Van Schaik Boekhandel Tel. +27 (0) 219188437 vsorders@vanschaik.com www.vanschaik.com

EAST ASIA JAPAN PRINCIPAL DISTRIBUTOR Far Eastern Booksellers Tel : 81-3-3265-7532 Fax : 81-3-3265-4656 info@kyokuto-bk.co.jp www.kyokuto-bk.co.jp Sales Agents and Booksellers CHINA; HONG KONG, SAR, CHINA; TAIWAN, CHINA China Publishers Marketing Tel. +86 2154259557 benjamin.pan@cpmarketing. com.cn REPUBLIC OF KOREA Impact Korea Tel. +82 (0) 222960140 impactkr@kornet.net BRUNEI, MALAYSIA, SINGAPORE PMS Publishers Services Pte Ltd Tel. +65 62565166 raymondlim@pms.com.sg CAMBODIA, EAST TIMOR, INDONESIA, LAO PDR,, MYANMAR, PHILIPPINES, THAILAND, VIETNAM Alkem Company (Singapore) Pte Ltd Tel. +65 62656666 Fax. +65 62617875 enquiry@alkem.com.sg

CENTRAL ASIA AFGHANISTAN, AZERBAIJAN, KAZAKHSTAN, KYRGYZSTAN, TAJIKISTAN, TURKMENISTAN, UZBEKISTAN Sales Representative Marc Bedwell Regional Manager, Asia-Pacific & Latin America Eurospan Tel. +44 (0) 2078450811 Fax. +44 (0) 2073790609 marc.bedwell@eurospan.co.uk

SOUTH ASIA INDIA PRINCIPAL DISTRIBUTOR Viva Books Pvt Ltd 4737/23 Ansari Road Daryaganj New Delhi-110002 Tel: + 91-11- 42242200 Fax: + 91-11-42242240 vivadelhi@vivagroupindia.net

NEPAL Everest Media International Services (P.) Ltd. Tel: +977-1-4417048 emispltd@wlink.com.np Bazaar Tel: 977-1-4427098, sales@bazaarint.com PAKISTAN Pak Book Corporation Tel: +92-42-6363222; 6360885 pbc@brain.net.pk SRI LANKA Marga Institute Tel: 94-11-2888790/1 nfernando@margasrilanka.org

AUSTRALIA & NEW ZEALAND Sales Agent and Bookseller Eurospan c/o TL Distribution Pty Limited Tel: + 61 (0)2 8778 9999 Fax: + 61 (0)2 8778 9944 orders@tldistribution.com.au

LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN MEXICO Valher Promociones y Representaciones Tel: +52-55 5613 1293 valherpyr@prodigy.net.mx TRINIDAD & TOBAGO AND THE CARIBBEAN Systematics Studies Ltd. Tel: +868-645-8466 systematicsssl@flowtrinidad.com

NORTH AMERICA CANADA Renouf Publishing Co. Ltd. Tel: +613-7452665 order.dept@renoufbooks.com www.renoufbooks.com

UNITED STATES (AND COUNTRIES NOT LISTED) World Bank Publications Tel: 1-800-6457247; 703-6611580 Fax: 703-6611501 books@worldbank.org

BANGLADESH Micro Industries Development Assistance and Services (MIDAS) Tel: +880-2-8116094-5 midas@aitlbd.net

WORLD BANK PUBLICATIONS 33III phone +1 (703) 661 1580 • in the U.S. phone +1 (800) 645 7247 • fax +1AND (703)ePRODUCTS 661 1501


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