Fall 2022 World Bank Group Publications and eProducts

Page 1


Flagship Titles.............................................. 1

International Development in Focus..............24

Featured Titles........................................... 13

International Development in Practice..........25


Systematic Country Diagnostic.................... 25

Latin America and the Caribbean ...............19

Online Resources........................................ 26

East Asia and Pacific....................................20

World Bank eLibrary Sales Agents............... 27

South Asia....................................................21

Index......................................................... 28

Translated Titles...........................................22

World Bank Publications Distributors.......... 29

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POVERTY AND SHARED PROSPERITY 2022 Fiscal Policy for an Inclusive Recovery By the World Bank

The COVID-19 pandemic has triggered the most pronounced setback in the fight against global poverty since World War II. Hopes for a recovery for many low- and middle-income countries have yet to be realized. High indebtedness and rising food and energy prices—fueled in part by the war in Ukraine and climate shocks among the world’s biggest food producers—have compounded the challenges. 2020 marked a turning point—an era of global convergence gave way to global divergence as the world’s poorest people were hardest hit. The income losses experienced by the poorest were more than double those faced by the richest, widening the income gap. The poorest then began to recover from the pandemic at a slower pace than the richest. The shock and patchy recovery underscore the pressing need to revamp tax and spending policies to put the world back on course to reducing poverty and inequality. The triple challenges of the past two years—COVID-19, climate, and conflict—have delayed progress toward the goal of eliminating extreme poverty. A range of policies and actions is critical to a resilient recovery from the pandemic. Fiscal policies can help promote long-term growth and stability, but achieving the right balance is tricky. This report provides new data on the stark reversal of progress in the fight against global poverty. It explores how to optimize fiscal policy and identifies policies that can help correct course. The risk of future crises is not going away, so this report also addresses how to better protect progress against future shocks and what types of fiscal policies can facilitate a much-needed period of higher growth that boosts the incomes of poor people.


POVERTY AND SHARED PROSPERITY October 2022. 250 pages. Stock no. C211893 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1893-6). US$49.50

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GLOBAL ECONOMIC PROSPECTS July 2022. 194 pages. Stock no. C211843 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1843-1). US$48.50

The world economy continues to suffer from a series of destabilizing shocks. After more than two years of the pandemic, Russia's invasion of Ukraine and its global effects on commodity markets, supply chains, inflation, and financial conditions have steepened the slowdown in global growth. In particular, the war is leading to soaring prices and volatility in energy markets, with improvements in activity in energy exporters more than offset by headwinds to activity in most other economies. The war has also led to a significant increase in agricultural commodity prices, which is exacerbating food insecurity and extreme poverty in many emerging market and developing economies. Numerous risks could further derail what is now a precarious recovery. Among them is, in particular, the possibility of stubbornly high global inflation accompanied by tepid growth, reminiscent of the stagflation of the 1970s. This could eventually result in a sharp tightening of monetary policy in advanced economies to rein in inflation, lead to surging borrowing costs, and possibly culminate in financial stress in some emerging market and developing economies. A forceful and wide-ranging policy response is required by policy makers and the global community to boost growth, bolster macroeconomic frameworks, reduce financial vulnerabilities, provide support to the vulnerable population groups, and attenuate the longterm impacts of the global shocks of recent years. Global Economic Prospects is a World Bank Group Flagship Report that examines global economic developments and prospects, with a special focus on emerging market and developing economies, on a semiannual basis (in January and June). Each edition includes analytical pieces on topical policy challenges faced by these economies.


GLOBAL ECONOMIC PROSPECTS, JANUARY 2023 January 2023. 236 pages. Stock no. C211906 (ISBN: 9781464819063).


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COLLAPSE AND RECOVERY How the COVID-19 Pandemic Eroded Human Capital and What to Do about It By Norbert Schady, Alaka Holla, Shwetlena Sabarwal, Joana Silva, and Andres Yi Chang

The COVID-19 pandemic has dealt a severe blow to human capital. This report presents new evidence and analysis to provide a comprehensive diagnostic of the effects of the pandemic on human capital outcomes and identify promising policy responses for governments faced with the task of rebuilding human capital in the wake of the pandemic. The report identifies the mechanisms through which COVID-19 affected the human capital of people at different points in the life cycle and provides estimates of the magnitude of these losses. This analysis underlines differences in impact across countries and groups within countries to understand how the reported blow on human capital has been unequal, exacerbating existing gaps and creating new ones. Grounded in the diagnostic, the report discusses policy responses that attend to afflicted groups in the short-term as well as the medium- to long-term agenda to build back better human capital and make systems more resilient. The longterm policy discussion recognizes COVID-19 as an inflection point, using the opportunity to reimagine systems and institutions, thinking in a completely different way about some key issues. In conclusion, the report reflects on what we have learned from failed policy responses as well as the innovations that proved successful across sectors in preventing or mitigating human capital losses associated with the COVID-19 crisis, and how these lessons can be incorporated across sectors going forward.


November 2022. 150 pages. Stock no. C211901 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1901-8). US$43.95

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The world needs urgent action to confront the challenges of human-induced climate change. Climate change is impacting developing countries hard, and these impacts are only expected to get worse. The past few decades have witnessed big demographic shifts, including aging and migration, and turbulent social changes—trends that are partly related to and have implications for climate change. The challenges posed by climate change have been compounded by the COVID-19 pandemic, further exacerbating rising inequality and poverty. Cities are increasingly central to the war against extreme poverty and climate change, because cities are where most people live and work. Cities also face a wide variety of stresses that arise from the congestion and crowding associated with urbanization. Within any given country, a city is part of a wider system of cities that is interlinked through flows of trade, labor, capital, and ideas. Stresses felt by one city can therefore be expected to have impacts on other cities. When poorly managed, the stresses that cities face may also feedback to further exacerbate climate change and the erosion of natural capital. August 2022. 300 pages. Stock no. C211832 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1832-5). US$54.95

This report informs policies for green, resilient, and inclusive urban development. The objective of this report is to help cities not merely survive, but to thrive under the changing climate stressors.


THE HIDDEN WEALTH OF CITIES Creating, Financing, and Managing Public Spaces February 2020. 450 pages. Stock no. C211449 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1449-5). US$55.00


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ENVIRONMENTALLY HARMFUL SUBSIDIES By Richard Damania, Esteban Balseca, Joshua Gill, Kichan Kim, Jun Rentschler, Jason Russ, and Esha Zaveri

Government subsidies make up enormous shares of public budgets and are likely larger shares of public spending today than at any point in human history. While these subsidies are well intentioned, they are often counterproductive, failing to achieve their stated goals and causing harmful spillovers on the economy, the environmental, and human health. This report examines subsidies' impacts on the world's stock of foundational natural capital—air quality, agriculture, and fisheries—that are critical for human health and nutrition and underpin much of the economy. In doing so, the report presents new research, data, and methods to answer three key questions: i. How large is the magnitude of total subsidies in the natural resource space? ii. What are the impacts of these subsidies on equity, efficiency, and the environment, and the gains from reforming or eliminating them entirely? iii. Which subsidy reform methods are the most effective and politically feasible?

October 2022. 250 pages. Stock no. C211900 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1900-1). US$49.50


THE CHANGING WEALTH OF NATIONS 2021 Managing Assets for the Future December 2021. 500 pages. Stock no. C211590 (ISBN: 978-1-14648-1590-4). US$60.50


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THE PATH TO 5G IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD Planning Ahead for a Smooth Transition to the Fifth Generation of Mobile Technology By Rami Amin, Niccolo Comini, Vivien Foster, Natalija Gelvanovska-Garcia, Kay Kim, Hyea Won Lee, Maria Claudia Pachon, Je Myung Ryu, and Zhijun William Zhang

The global race for 5G has seen countries riding a new wave of wireless technology. 5G is the next-generation mobile communication technology that enables a significantly higher level of performance over 4G mobile communications and provides a new layer of connectivity to support innovative, data-intense applications. With the estimated impact of 5G on global GDP in the trillions of US dollars, 5G will drive job creation, productivity, and competitiveness across a range of sectors. For some countries, 5G services may seem a distant future given the costs of infrastructure deployment and expensive handsets, while for others, it is an onramp to the Fourth Industrial Revolution and has been folded into national strategy planning. 5G trials, pilots, and deployments have been progressing across the world, but most deployments are in high-income countries. There remain significant barriers for developing countries, threatening to further widen the digital divide and limit access to the economic opportunities that 5G connectivity enables.

October 2022. 200 pages. Stock no. C211604 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1604-8). US$48.50


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What does this mean for developing countries, and how could they respond? This flagship report surveys the technical capabilities of 5G and explores how it can help countries reach connectivity goals and broader development objectives by using 5G as a layer of connectivity alongside 4G and other modalities of connectivity. It also provides a guide for policy makers to better understand the opportunities, challenges, and risks posed by 5G, so they can plan for an enabling policy and regulatory ecosystem that supports the path to infrastructure deployment and adoption.




For thousands of years, migration has been a source of social and economic well-being for people living on different shores of the Mediterranean Sea. Whether through higher earnings for migrants, access to labor for receiving countries, or remittances for sending communities, migration has been an important driver of development in the Mediterranean region. The COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic has severely disrupted this complex web of movements, raising questions about whether migration will continue to be an important driver of the region's well-being. As time passed, it became clear that the drivers of migration are so strong that mobility restrictions can only reduce movements, not halt them entirely.

Building Resilient Migration Systems in the Mediterranean Region: Lessons from COVID-19 presents evidence on the implications of the COVID-19 pandemic on mobility in the region to inform policy responses that can help countries restart migration safely and better respond to future shocks. While some of the challenges that emerged during the pandemic are specific to public health crises, others are common to different types of shocks, including those related to economic, conflict, or climate-related factors. To inform this reform process, this book suggests a set of actions that can help Mediterranean countries to maximize the benefits of migration for all people living in the region, while at the same time ensuring the sustainability of migration flows. As a whole, these proposed policy actions point to a vision of migration resilience that, even during crises, can address key labor shortages, keep both migrant and native populations safer, sustain household incomes, and ameliorate blows to economic growth.

July 2022. 164 pages. Stock no. C211855 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1855-4). US$43.95

The COVID-19 pandemic has created momentum for policy reforms. Whether this crisis can illuminate the way toward better adapting migration systems to future crises will depend on learning its lessons.


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The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is the most water-scarce region in the world. The region is home to 6 percent of the world’s population but has just 1 percent of the world’s freshwater resources. In 2011, over 60 percent of the region’s population lived in areas with high or very high surface water stress, compared with a global average of about 35 percent. Over 70 percent of the region’s gross domestic product is generated in areas with high to very high surface water stress, compared with a global average of about 22 percent. Accelerating economic and population growth, combined with climate impacts, call for a new burst of innovation to solve the problem of water scarcity. Unsustainable volumes of water are being withdrawn, degrading ecosystems and aquifers. Weakening trust in social and political institutions has become a constraint to pursuing reforms to address the problem of unsustainability. The challenge of coping with water shortages is fueling further distrust and social frustration that boils over onto the streets, which is particularly the case in the countries affected by conflict and fragility. September 2022. 300 pages. Stock no. C211739 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1739-7). US$43.00

The unprecedented global economic shock of the COVID-19 pandemic is posing challenges to the water sector in MENA. The pandemic-induced disruption of global supply chains and the need to create jobs in rural areas may also create incentives for countries to move away from trade to selfsufficiency in food production, with implications for water use in agriculture. This report uses an economics lens to understand the institutions through which scarce resources are allocated and managed across competing needs. The lessons learned from this analysis will enable external partners to help policy makers and their societies strengthen legitimacy and trust for judicious management of the complex trade-offs involved in defining water policy.


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LAND MATTERS Can Better Governance and Management of Scarcity Avoid a Looming Crisis in the Middle East and North Africa? By Anna Corsi and Harris Selod

Across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region, land is a scarce and valuable resource. The projected increase in land demand due to demographic trends coupled with decreasing land supply due to climatic and governance factors indicate a looming crisis happening at a time when the region is also facing dramatic social and political transformation. Reserves for land cultivation are almost exhausted, while total built-up area will need to expand to accommodate high demographic growth. Yet, land remains inefficiently, inequitably, and unsustainably used. There are strong barriers to accessing land for both firms and individuals. Firms resort to political connections to access land, resulting in land misallocation. Women are 2 to 3 times more likely to fear losing their property in the case of spousal death or divorce and their rights are not sufficiently supported by institutions and genderimbalanced social norms. Refugees also face difficult access to land, with conflict in the region causing displacement of millions of people who lack necessary housing, land, and property rights. This report identifies and analyzes the economic, environmental, and social challenges associated with land in MENA countries, shedding light on policy options to address them. It focuses on two main constraints—scarcity of land and weak land governance—and how they affect land use and access, the resulting inefficiencies and inequities, and associated economic and social costs. It highlights the need for MENA countries to think about land more holistically and to reassess the strategic trade-offs involving land while minimizing land distortions and serving economic development. It is also an attempt to fill the major data gaps and promote a culture of open data, transparency, and inclusive dialogue on land. These efforts are important steps that will contribute to renewing the social contract, accompany economic and digital transformation, and facilitate recovery and reconstruction in the region.

Can Better Governance and Management of Scarcity Avoid a Looming Crisis in the Middle East and North Africa? A NNA CORSI H A RRIS SEL OD

August 2022. 128 pages. Stock no. C211661 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1661-1). US$48.50


LAND MATTERS French Edition September 2022. 160 pages. Stock no. C211890 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1890-5). US$43.95

LAND MATTERS Arabic Edition September 2022. 128 pages. Stock no. C211889 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1889-9). US$43.95


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JOBS UNDONE Reshaping the Role of Governments toward Markets and Workers in the Middle East and North Africa By Asif M. Islam, Dalal Moosa, and Federica Saliola

A decade since the spark of the Arab Spring, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region continues to suffer from limited creation of more and better jobs. Youth face idleness and unemployment. For those who find jobs, informality awaits. Few women attempt to enter the world of work at all. Meanwhile, the available jobs are not those of the future. These labor market outcomes are being worsened by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.

July 2022. 156 pages. Stock no. C211735 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1735-9). US$48.50

Jobs Undone: Reshaping the Role of Governments toward Markets and Workers in the Middle East and North Africa explores ways to break these impasses, drawing on original research, survey data, wide-ranging literature, and young entrepreneurial voices from the region. The report finds that a prominent reason behind MENA's unmet jobs challenge is a lack of market contestability in the formal private sector. Few firms in the region enter the market, few grow, and those that exit are not necessarily less productive. Moreover, firms in the region invest little in physical capital, human capital, or research and development, and they tend to be politically connected. At the macro level, economic growth has been mediocre, labor productivity is not being driven by structural change, and the growth of the stock of capital per capita has declined. New evidence generated for this report shows that the lack of dynamism is due to the prevalence of state-owned enterprises (SOEs). They operate in sectors where there is little economic rationale for public activity and they enjoy favorable treatment—flouting the principles of competitive neutrality. Meanwhile, labor regulations add to market rigidity, while gendered laws restrict women's potential. To change this reality, the state must reshape its relationship toward markets, toward workers, and toward women. The region must create a level playing field between SOEs and the private sector, replace labor rigidities with appropriate social protection and labor market programs, and remove barriers to women's economic participation. Governments can also foster new sectors and occupations, gradually propelling market contestability and job creation. All reforms will have to rely on improved data capacity and transparency to create a new social contract between governments and the people of the region.


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A DIGITAL ECONOMY FOR AFRICA Opportunities and Challenges for More Productive and Inclusive Growth By the World Bank

Africa is characterized by an urgent need to boost productivity and more inclusive growth. Low digital access and use, combined with affordability challenges and limited competition, prevent digital technology (DT) adoption from playing its role in addressing Africa's productivity and inclusion challenges. This report highlights characteristics specific to the region: (1) Africa has a "youth bulge" phenomenon—it is the region with the fastest growing labor force yet the lowest levels of human capital; (2) Africa has a large number of countries afflicted by fragility, conflict, violence, and climate shocks; (3) emerging DT innovations are starting to address some of Africa's specific challenges; and (4) Africa is home to all 10 economies worldwide where more adults have a mobile money account than a financial institution account. This report is intended to provide conceptual and empirical findings to help support the ongoing implementation of a continent-wide Digital Transformation for Africa initiative that will span to 2030. These specific features of the African continent, elaborated below, motivate this report. The continent-wide initiative seeks to support policies and investments across five pillars of the digital economy: (1) digital infrastructure, (2) digital skills and literacy, (3) digital entrepreneurship, (4) digital financial services, and (5) digital platforms.


October 2022. 200 pages. Stock no. C211737 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1737-3). US$48.50

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Air pollution exposure is the second-most important risk factor for ill health in South Asia, contributing to between 13 percent and 22 percent of all deaths. In addition, approximately 58 million disability adjusted life years (DALYs) are lost through chronic and acute respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses. Of the top 30 cities in the world with the poorest air quality in 2016, 17 are in South Asia. The impact of air pollution transcends boundaries. While countries have introduced promising initiatives in recent years, comprehensive health-centered strategies are lacking. The multiplicity of sources and modes of exposure adds complexity to the problem of air pollution in South Asia. In addition to a rapidly growing road transport sector, factories and power plants, as well as agricultural and solid waste, contribute to air pollution.

SOUTH ASIA DEVELOPMENT MATTERS October 2022. 200 pages. Stock no. C211831 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1831-8). US$49.50

Many measures are often discussed to deal with air pollution, including transitioning to a low-emissions fleet, increasing public transportation, updating fuel emissions standards and improving traffic flow management, and better management of landfills and agricultural waste. The challenge is that implementation of these measures would require a better understanding of the spatial dimensions of pollution and underlying sources, as well as costs and benefits associated with deployment of several instruments. Governments are often confronted with these difficult questions: Which interventions are warranted? Up to what cost? Where and when should they be implemented? Attaining better information and managing risks effectively will help policy makers deal with the host of uncertainties without compromising on their broader objectives of economic growth and poverty reduction. This report aims to identify and map air pollution hotspots in South Asia in terms of concentration and exposure, understand the various sources of pollution in hotspot areas (from Kabul to Dhaka), and help categorize policy actions and interventions based on a systematic analysis of costs and benefits.


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THE GLOBAL FINDEX DATABASE 2021 Financial Inclusion, Digital Payments, and Resilience in the Age of COVID-19 By Asli Demirgüç-Kunt, Leora Klapper, Dorothe Singer, and Saniya Ansar

The fourth edition of Global Findex—the world's most comprehensive database on financial inclusion—offers a lens into how people accessed and used financial services during COVID-19, when mobility restrictions and health policies drove increased demand for digital services of all kinds. Published every three years since 2011, Findex is the only global demand-side data source allowing for global and regional cross-country analysis to provide a rigorous and multidimensional picture of how adults save, borrow, make payments, and manage financial risks. Findex 2021 data were collected from national representative surveys of about 130,000 adults in over 120 economies. The latest edition includes new series measuring financial health and resilience and contains more granular data on digital payments adoption, including merchant and government payments. The Global Findex is an indispensable resource for financial service practitioners, policy makers, researchers, and development professionals.

August 2022. 130 pages. Stock no. C211897 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1897-4). US$43.95


International Debt Statistics (IDS), a longstanding annual World Bank publication, featuring external debt statistics and analysis for around 125 low- and middle-income countries that report to the World Bank Debt Reporting System. IDS is internationally recognized as the premier publication for comprehensive cross-country comparable data on the external obligations of low- and middle-income countries; demand for IDS has been consistently high. IDS provides information on external debt stocks, flows and projected debt service payments, major economic aggregates, key debt ratios, average terms of new commitments, the currency composition of long-term debt and volume and terms of debt restructuring agreements. It also includes unique, highly disaggregated information by borrower, creditor type, and creditor country. The IDS coverage and content is continuously evolving to reflect changes in borrowing patterns and instruments and provide a comprehensive and timely account of the external debt obligations of each low- and middle-income country. These data aim to support debt management, institutional lending decisions and debt-related policy decisions and initiatives of the international community, and broad-based analysis of international capital flows.


INTERNATIONAL DEBT STATISTICS November 2022. 204 pages. Stock no. C211902 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1902-5). US$49.95

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BRIDGING THE TECHNOLOGICAL DIVIDE Technology Adoption by Firms in Developing Countries By Xavier Cirera, Diego Comin, and Marcio Cruz

Many of the main problems facing developing countries today and tomorrow—growth, poverty reduction, inequality, food insecurity, job creation, recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic, and adjustment to climate change—hinge on adopting better technology, a key driver of economic development. Access to technology is not enough: firms have to adopt it. Yet it is precisely the uptake of technology that is lagging in many firms in developing countries.

WORLD BANK PRODUCTIVITY PROJECT July 2022. 228 pages. Stock no. C211826 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1826-4). US$49.50

The COVID-19 pandemic drove a big uptake of technology, especially digital technologies. Bridging the Technological Divide: Technology Adoption by Firms in Developing Countries takes advantage of this shift to delve into which firms have adopted and use technologies and to what purpose. To do so, it proposes a new approach to measure and understand the adoption and use of technologies by firms. Specifically, it leverages a new data collection instrument, the Firm-level Adoption of Technology (FAT) survey, which provides a very rich characterization of the technologies used and the processes of adoption by firms in developing countries. This book helps open the "black box" of technology adoption by firms. The seventh volume in the World Bank Productivity Project series, it will further research and policy that can be used to support technology adoption by firms in developing countries.

TRADE THERAPY Deepening Cooperation to Strengthen Pandemic Defenses By the World Bank and the World Trade Organization

The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the upsides and downsides of international trade in medical goods and services. Open trade can increase access to medical services and goods (and the critical inputs needed to manufacture them), improve quality and variety, and reduce costs. But excessive concentration of production, restrictive trade policies, supply chain disruptions, and regulatory divergence can jeopardize the ability of public health systems to respond to pandemics and other health crises. This report, coordinated by Nadia Rocha and Michele Ruta at the World Bank and Marc Bacchetta and Joscelyn Magdeleine at the World Trade Organization, provides new data on trade in medical goods and services and medical value chains; surveys the evolving policy landscape before and during the pandemic; and proposes an action plan to improve trade policies and deepen international cooperation to deal with future pandemics. August 2022. 160 pages. Stock no. C211885 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1885-1). US$43.95


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PREVENTING MONEY LAUNDERING AND TERRORIST FINANCING, SECOND EDITION A Practical Guide for Bank Supervisors By Pierre-Laurent Chatain, Emile van der Does de Willebois, and Maud Bökkerink

Money laundering and terrorist financing undermine the integrity of financial systems and impact a jurisdiction’s economy. Challenges to their supervision and prevention were exacerbated by the 2008 financial crisis, as the need for funds undermined vigilance over their provenance. Money laundering and terrorist financing expose financial institutions and sectors to the risk of severe enforcement action by public authorities or the loss of relationship facilities by their private sector counterparts. This second edition reflects evolving challenges to the integrity and stability of financial systems, recent trends in enforcement, and changes to international standards emphasizing a risk-based approach. It provides:

Examples of money-laundering and terrorist-financing supervisory frameworks in a range of countries;

Best practices in supervising and enforcing money-laundering and terrorist-financing laws and regulations; Advice on how jurisdictions can incorporate enforcement of laws and regulations on money laundering and terrorist financing into their supervisory frameworks.

July 2022. 198 pages. Stock no. C211851 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1851-6). US$43.00

This guide will be of interest to bank supervisors and readers working in finance, corruption prevention, law, accounting, and corporate governance.

TAXING CRIME A Whole-of-Government Approach to Fighting Corruption, Money Laundering, and Tax Crimes By Jean-Pierre Brun, Ana Gomez, Rita Julien, Joy Ndubai, Jeffrey Owens, Siddesh Rao, and Yara Soto

This volume is an advocacy document that was drafted jointly by the World Bank–United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative (StAR) and the WU Global Tax Policy Centre. The study's main objective is to support policy makers in designing legal and operational frameworks and practices to enhance cooperation between tax authorities and law enforcement agencies (LEAs) at the domestic and international levels, and to build on synergies between investigations and enforcement in the context of tax crimes, money laundering, and corruption. The study draws upon the work of a joint WB, UNODC, and WU Global Tax Policy Centre project on Tax and Good Governance, and examples of how tax audits and investigations can lead to uncovering white collar crime, and how corruption investigations in turn can lead to prosecuting tax evasion or simply the recovery of unpaid taxes. It identifies existing gaps and provides practical recommendations to tax authorities and LEAs that are seeking to implement or refine their strategies. STAR INITIATIVE July 2022. 118 pages. Stock no. C211873 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1873-8). US$43.95


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WHERE IS THE VALUE IN THE CHAIN? Pathways out of Plastic Pollution By the World Bank

Where Is the Value in the Chain? Pathways out of Plastic Pollution aims to support policy makers in their efforts to address plastic pollution. By examining the economic and financial implications of plastic management, the report provides key recommendations on how to create a comprehensive approach to addressing plastic pollution and to help policy makers make informed decisions for plastic pollution management. The report brings together new evidence from three analytical undertakings:

July 2022. 100 pages. Stock no. C211881 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1881-3). US$43.95

Tackling Plastic Pollution: Toward Experience-Based Policy Guidance—A review of existing literature and a summary of findings from the ex post analysis of the effectiveness of plastics policies. The Plastic Substitution Tradeoff Estimator—An innovative model that estimates the external costs of 10 plastic products and their alternatives along their entire life cycle. The Plastic Policy Simulator (PPS)—A country-level, data-driven model for policy analysis to better describe the impacts of different policy instruments and policy packages on individual economic agents and on the plastic value chain at large.

REVISITING TARGETING IN SOCIAL ASSISTANCE A New Look at Old Dilemmas Edited by Margaret Grosh, Phillippe Leite, Matthew Wai-Poi, and Emil Tesliuc

Targeting is a commonly used, but much debated, policy tool within global social assistance practice. Revisiting Targeting in Social Assistance: A New Look at Old Dilemmas examines the well-known dilemmas in light of the growing body of experience, new implementation capacities, and the potential to bring new data and data science to bear.


The book begins by considering why or whether or how narrowly or broadly to target different parts of social assistance and updates the global empirics around the outcomes and costs of targeting. It illustrates the choices that must be made in moving from an abstract vision to implementable definitions and procedures, and in deciding how the choices should be informed by values, empirics, and context. The importance of delivery systems and processes to distributional outcomes are emphasized, and many facets with room for improvement are discussed. The book also explores the choices between targeting methods and how differences in purposes and contexts shape those.

June 2022. 574 pages. Stock no. C211814 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1814-1). US$73.00


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IMPROVING EFFECTIVE COVERAGE IN HEALTH Do Financial Incentives Work? By Damien de Walque, Eeshani Kandpal, Adam Wagstaff, Jed Friedman, Sven Neelsen, Moritz Piatti-Fünfkirchen, Anja Sautmann, Gil Shapira, and Ellen Van de Poel

In many low- and middle-income countries, health coverage has improved dramatically in the past two decades, but health outcomes have not. As such, effective coverage—a measure of service delivery that meets a minimum standard of quality—remains unacceptably low. This book examines one specific policy approach to improving effective coverage: financial incentives in the form of performance-based financing (PBF), a package reform that typically includes performance pay to frontline health workers, facility autonomy, transparency, and community engagement. This Policy Research Report draws on a rich set of rigorous studies and new analysis. When compared with business-as-usual, in low-income settings with centralized health systems PBF can result in substantial gains in effective coverage. However, the relative benefits of PBF—the performance pay component in particular—are less clear when PBF is compared with two alternative approaches: direct financing, which provides operating budgets to frontline health services with facility autonomy on allocation, but not performance pay, and demand-side financial support for health services such as conditional cash transfers and vouchers. Although PBF often results in improvements on the margins, closing the substantial gaps in effective health coverage is not yet within reach for many countries. Nonetheless, important lessons from the rollout of PBF over the past decade can guide health financing in the future. In particular, to be successful, health financing reform may need to pivot from performance pay while retaining the elements of direct facility financing, autonomy, transparency, and community engagement.

POLICY RESEARCH REPORTS May 2022. 288 pages. Stock no. C211825 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1825-7). US$49.50 French Edition September 2022. 362 pages. Stock no. C211879 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1879-0). US$49.50

IMPACT EVALUATION IN INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Theory, Methods, and Practice Edited by Paul Glewwe and Petra Todd

Impact evaluations are studies that attempt to measure the causal impact of a project, program, or policy on one or more outcomes. This book provides a comprehensive exposition of how to conduct impact evaluations. Part I provides an overview of impact evaluations and comprises five chapters that are accessible to readers who have few or none of the technical (statistical and econometric) skills that are needed to conduct impact evaluations. Parts II and III make use of statistical and econometric methods and are at a level similar to a graduate-student course but written to make them accessible to the ambitious reader whose skills are not at that level.

March 2022. 422 pages. Stock no. C211497 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1497-6). US$59.95


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MIGRANTS, MARKETS, AND MAYORS Rising above the Employment Challenge in Africa's Secondary Cities Edited by Luc Christiaensen and Nancy Lozano

In our rapidly urbanizing world, mayors often see migrants as a burden to their cities' labor markets and a threat to their development. Drawing on national household surveys and four secondary city case studies in Africa, this report finds that migrants— being younger, better educated, and complementary to the resident labor force—can strengthen the urban labor force.


Labor market outcomes for migrants generally are at least as good as those for residents. Migrants also contribute increasingly less to urban population growth. Secondary cities and towns are particularly well placed to leverage migration if they have good urban management that develops land and labor markets, prepares for growth, and benefits everyone, migrants as well as residents. Migrant-specific interventions are warranted when divisions between natives and migrants are deep. Strengthening the financial, technical, and planning capacity of towns and secondary cities to better integrate migrants is part and parcel of the good jobs agenda.

December 2022. 180 pages. Stock no. C211903 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1903-2). US$43.95

THE FUTURE OF RESOURCES IN AFRICA The Role of Extractives for Transformation under the Carbon Transition By James Frederick Cust and Boubacar Bocoum

Harnessing natural resource wealth to drive economic transformation is central to Africa’s economic future. However, the historical record suggests that the process will not be easy. The present situation is one of both challenges—including rising debt distress and unmet expectations—and opportunities, with new discoveries and large reserves waiting to be exploited. Looking ahead, there are new risks and prospects on the horizon. For instance, the transition away from carbon fuels will affect the demand for fossil fuels and increase the need for minerals and metals useful in the low-carbon economy. How can Sub-Saharan African countries prepare for this future, while learning the lessons of the past? Leveraging resources for economic transformation will require new approaches but will confront long-standing political economy pitfalls. AFRICA DEVELOPMENT FORUM November 2022. 200 pages. Stock no. C211743 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1743-4). US$48.50


This report examines the macro challenges and opportunities posed by nonrenewable resource wealth, while reviewing experience at the economy and sector levels that has helped or hindered the contribution from resource extraction for broad-based economic development.

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DEEP TRADE AGREEMENTS Anchoring Global Value Chains in Latin America and the Caribbean Edited by Michele Ruta and Nadia Rocha

Using new data and evidence, this report shows that "deep" trade agreements can drive policy reforms and help the region overcome some disadvantageous fundamentals. Four priority areas—trade facilitation, regulatory cooperation, services, and state support—can improve the GVC participation of LAC countries:

Trade facilitation can reduce border delays and ease problems stemming from the remoteness of LAC countries.

Regulatory cooperation can help countries access larger markets by reducing costs of nontariff measures.

Opening the service economy can compensate for factor endowment scarcity, facilitating access to skills and technology. Regulating competition and state support to state-owned enterprises can improve the quality of economic institutions. As global trade tensions persist and economies recover from the COVID-19 pandemic, these reforms can create a more stable institutional environment for promoting the integration of LAC countries into global value chains.

August 2022. 276 pages. Stock no. C211824 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1824-0). US$49.50

THE FAST TRACK TO NEW SKILLS Short-Cycle Higher Education Programs in Latin America and the Caribbean By Mari­a Marta Ferreyra, Lelys Dinarte Díaz, Sergio Urzúa, and Marina Bassi

Higher education in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) has expanded dramatically in the new millennium, yet enrollment in short-cycle programs (SCPs) is still relatively low. Shorter and more practical than bachelor’s programs, SCPs can form skilled human capital fast. The economic crisis created by the COVID-19 pandemic has accentuated trends such as automation, the use of electronic platforms, and the need for lifelong learning. Addressing these demands requires the urgent upskilling and reskilling of the population—a task uniquely suited to SCPs. This book explores the labor market outcomes and returns of SCPs, examines providers, and identifies practices adopted by the best programs. Using data including a survey of SCP directors in five LAC countries, it finds that while SCPs generate good labor market outcomes, they vary in quality. SCP providers respond quickly and flexibly to local needs; the best employ practices related to faculty quality, job search help, and interaction with employers. The book discusses how to create an environment offering good programs to students with the interest and means to attend them, drawing attention to a higher education sector that has been overlooked in research and policy.


October 2021. 214 pages. Stock no. C211706 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1706-9). US$48.50

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FOUR DECADES OF POVERTY REDUCTION IN CHINA Drivers, Insights for the World, and the Way Ahead By the World Bank and the Development Research Center of the State Council, the People’s Republic of China

Over the past 40 years, the number of people in China with incomes below US$1.90 per day has fallen by close to 800 million. China has contributed to almost threequarters of the global reduction in extreme poverty. The speed and scale of China's poverty reduction is historically unprecedented. At the same time, a significant number of people remain vulnerable, with incomes below a threshold used to define poverty in upper-middle income countries. China has set a new goal of achieving progress towards common prosperity by 2035, which can help keep the policy focus on the vulnerable population over the coming decade. This report explores the key drivers for China's achievements in poverty alleviation over the past 40 years and the lessons of China's experience for other developing countries. It also puts forward suggestions for China's future policies. China's approach to poverty reduction was based on two pillars. The first aimed for broad-based economic transformation to open new opportunities and raise average incomes. The second was July 2022. 90 pages. the recognition that targeted support was nonetheless needed to alleviate persistent Stock no. C211877 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1877-6). US$35.00 poverty; support initially was provided to disadvantaged areas and later to individual households. China's economic development and the associated reduction of poverty benefited from effective governance, which helped coordinate multiple government agencies and induce cooperation from nongovernment stakeholders. To illustrate the role of broad-based economic transformation in reducing poverty, separate sections analyze growing agricultural productivity; incremental industrialization; managed urbanization and rural-to-urban migration; and the role of infrastructure. The evolution of China's approach to poverty alleviation, from placed-based to country-wide social protection policies, and targeted strategies implemented since 2012 are also reviewed.


Countries in middle-income East Asia and the Pacific were already experiencing a learning crisis prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-related school disruptions have only made things worse. Learning poverty—defined as the percentage of 10-year-olds who cannot read and understand an age-appropriate text—is as high as 90 percent in several countries. Many large Southeast Asian countries consistently perform well below expectations on adolescent learning assessments. This report examines several key factors affecting learning outcomes in the region, including teaching, the use of educational technologies (EdTech), and public spending on education. It also analyzes the political economy of education reform and presents recommendations on how countries in middle-income East Asia and the Pacific can recover COVID-related learning losses and build stronger education systems to enhance productivity, growth, and development in the region. November 2022. 150 pages. Stock no. C211904 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1904-9). US$43.95


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HIDDEN POTENTIAL Rethinking Informality in South Asia Edited by Maurizio Bussolo and Siddharth Sharma

Informality remains widespread in South Asia despite decades of economic growth. The low earnings and high vulnerability in the informal sector make this a major development issue for the region. Yet, there is no consensus on its causes and consequences, with the debate polarized between a view that informality is a problem of regulatory evasion and should be eradicated, and another which equates informality with economic exclusion. These views are at odds with the heterogeneity observed among informal firms. Recent advances in analyzing informality as the outcome of firm dynamics in distorted economic environments can help reconcile them. Building on these advances, the approach adopted in this volume clarifies that there are different types of informality, with different drivers and consequences. Using this approach, the report revisits old questions about the relationship of informality to regulation and taxation, and also pose new ones, such as how digital technologies and multifaceted policy designs can improve prospects in the informal sector.

SOUTH ASIA DEVELOPMENT FORUM September 2022. 150 pages. Stock no. C211834 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1834-9). US$43.95

PRIVATE CITIES IN SOUTH ASIA Implications for Urban Policy in Developing Countries By Yue Li and Martin Rama

Private cities are an emerging reality in developing countries and are particularly important in South Asia. Weak urban governments are at the root of some of the challenges faced by cities in developing countries. In most of South Asia, for example, urbanization has been "messy" and congestion has severely undermined the benefits of agglomeration. The shortage of empowered and accountable local government is the key challenge underlying these problems. Addressing this institutional failure remains the main priority of the urban agenda in most developing countries. This report explores how political economy constraints have made the reform of urban governance an arduous and often-frustrating undertaking. Only focusing on addressing weak urban governance could result in many missed opportunities over the coming decades. Given the contribution cities make to economic development, this conceptually ideal approach could slow down economic growth and poverty reduction. SOUTH ASIA DEVELOPMENT FORUM August 2022. 200 pages. Stock no. C211833 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1833-2). US$49.50


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SOURCEBOOK ON THE FOUNDATIONS OF SOCIAL PROTECTION Edited by Kathy Lindert, Tina George Karippacheril, Inés Rodríguez Caillava, and Kenichi Nishikawa Chávez

This Sourcebook synthesizes real-world experiences and lessons learned of social protection delivery systems from around the globe. It takes a broad view of social protection, covering various intended populations such as poor or low-income families, unemployed workers, persons with disabilities, and individuals facing social risks. It discusses many types of interventions that governments provide to individuals, families, or households, including categorical programs, povertytargeted programs, labor benefits and services, disability benefits and services, and social services. The Sourcebook seeks to address concrete "how-to" questions, including: How do countries deliver social protection benefits and services? How do they do so effectively and efficiently? How do they ensure dynamic inclusion, especially for the most vulnerable and needy? How do they promote better coordination and integration—not only among social protection programs but also among programs in other parts of government? How can they meet the needs of their intended populations and provide a better client experience? The delivery systems framework elaborates on the key elements of that operating environment. The framework is anchored in core implementation phases along the delivery chain. Key actors, including people and institutions, interact all along that delivery chain. Those interactions are facilitated by communications, information systems, and technology. This framework can apply to the delivery of one or many programs and to the delivery of adaptive social protection.

FRENCH EDITION August 2022. 590 pages. Stock no. C211861 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1861-5). US$62.50

SPANISH EDITION August 2022. 590 pages. Stock no. C211883 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1883-7). US$62.50


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INDUSTRIALIZATION IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA (FRENCH EDITION) Seizing Opportunities in Global Value Chains By Kaleb G. Abreha, Woubet Kassa, Emmanuel K. K. Lartey, Taye A. Mengistae, Solomon Owusu, and Albert G. Zeufack

Some have questioned the role of manufacturing in development for late industrializers in view of technological advancements and restructuring of international trade. Yet industrialization and structural transformation are integral to the African Union’s Agenda 2063 and the development strategies of several countries Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). A central question is not whether countries should pursue industrialization as a path to sustainable growth but how to promote the prospects of industrialization. This book examines the prospects for industrialization in SSA countries through integration into global value chains and the role of policy in enhancing these prospects, finding that:

SSA has not experienced premature deindustrialization, witnessing growth in manufacturing jobs though the contribution of manufacturing value-added to GDP has not improved.

The region’s integration into manufacturing global value chains is reasonably high but is dominated by exports of primary products and engagement in low-skill tasks.

Global value chain integration has led to job growth, and backward integration is associated with more job creation.

June 2022. 228 pages. Stock no. C211875 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1875-2). US$43.95

The report emphasizes the role of policy in maintaining a competitive market environment, promoting productivity growth, and investing in skills development and enabling sectors such as infrastructure and finance.

THE FUTURE OF WORK IN AFRICA (FRENCH EDITION) Harnessing the Potential of Digital Technologies for All Edited by Jieun Choi, Mark A. Dutz, and Zainab Usman

The Future of Work in Africa focuses on the key themes of creating productive jobs and addressing the needs of those left behind. It highlights how global trends, especially the adoption of digital technologies, may change the nature of work in Sub-Saharan Africa by creating new opportunities and challenges. It argues that, contrary to global fears of worker displacement by new technologies, African countries can develop an inclusive future of work, with opportunities for lower-skilled workers. Harnessing these opportunities is, however, contingent on implementing policies and making productive investments in four main areas. These policies include enabling inclusive digital technologies; building human capital for a young, rapidly growing, and largely low-skilled labor force; increasing the productivity of informal workers and enterprises; and extending social protection coverage to mitigate the risks associated with disruptions to labor markets. April 2021. 254 pages. Stock no. C211685 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1685-7). US$48.50


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This book provides the basis for a strategic approach to rethinking, diversifying, and reorienting the Philippines participation in global value chains. It provides policy recommendations, including strengthening foreign direct investment attractiveness and motivating operators to develop domestic skills. INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN FOCUS

August 2022. 100 pages. Stock no. C211848 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1848-6). US$41.95.

ARTISANAL SMALL-SCALE GOLD MINING A Framework for Collecting Site-Specific Sampling and Survey Data to Support Health-Impact Analyses By Katherine von Stackelberg, Pamela R. D. Williams, and Ernesto Sánchez-Triana

This framework document provides a practical approach for designing representative studies and developing uniform sampling guidelines to support estimates of health outcomes that are explicitly linked to exposure to land-based contaminants from artisanal small-scale gold mining activities.

MANAGING COUNTY ASSETS AND LIABILITIES IN KENYA Postdevolution Challenges and Responses By Mihaly Kopanyi and Abdu Muwonge

This book helps readers understand the basic concept of asset management; explains systems, tools, and procedures; and provides models and guidance for strategically managing assets, establishing systems and asset registers, and applying life-cycle-based asset operation and maintenance. INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN FOCUS

August 2022. 364 pages. Stock no. C211880 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1880-6). US$52.95.

OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY IN SAUDI ARABIA Consequences and Solutions Edited by Tagred Algaith, Reem Alsukait, Hussah Alghodair, Mohammed Alluhaidan, Meera Shekar, and Christopher H. Herbst

Overweight and obesity are a major challenge in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The aim of this book is to provide new evidence and analysis in order to support planning efforts on obesity prevention in the country.



June 2022. 124 pages. Stock no. C211819 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1819-6). US$41.95.

July 2022. 234 pages. Stock no. C211828 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1828-8). US$47.5.

DEVELOPING CHINA'S PORTS How the Gateways to Economic Prosperity Were Revived


By Bernard Aritua, Hei Chiu, Lu Cheng, Sheila Farrell, and Peter de Langen

How can countries develop their ports to become gateways for economic prosperity? Despite being endowed with natural coastlines, many countries in Africa and Asia have struggled to translate this competitive advantage into vehicles for economic transformation. What China achieved can be informative.

By Laurent Bossavie and Daniel Garrote-Sanchez



June 2022. 118 pages. Stock no. C211849 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1849-3). US$41.95.

FINANCING SOLUTIONS TO REDUCE NATURAL GAS FLARING AND METHANE EMISSIONS By Gianni Lorenzato, Silvana Tordo, Berend van den Berg, Huw Martyn Howells, and Sebastian Sarmiento-Saher

This study aims to raise policy makers' awareness of the business case for investing in gas flaring and methane reduction projects. It focuses on mid-sized flares that are too small to be prioritized by oil companies but represent 58 percent of global flare volumes. INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN FOCUS

May 2022. 154 pages. Stock no. C211850 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1850-9). US$41.95.


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This book analyzes the vulnerabilities and inefficiencies associated with international labor migration from the Kyrgyz Republic brought to light by the COVID-19 pandemic and proposes policy options to address them. August 2022. 100 pages. Stock no. C211905 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1905-6). US$41.95.

STRATEGIC INVESTMENT FUNDS Establishment and Operations By Shanthi Divakaran, Håvard Halland, Gianni Lorenzato, Paul Rose, and Sebastian Sarmiento-Saher

The book provides a reference for policy makers who are creating or strengthening the operations of strategic investment funds, particularly as governments examine the value of such funds as a policy instrument in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic. INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN FOCUS

June 2022. 334 pages. Stock no. C211870 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1870-7). US$52.95.



A GUIDING FRAMEWORK FOR NUTRITION PUBLIC EXPENDITURE REVIEWS By Huihui Wang, Kyoko Shibata Okamura, Ali Winoto Subandoro, Yurie Tanimichi Hoberg, Lubina Fatimah Qureshy, and Mamata Ghimire

Improving nutrition requires a multisectoral effort, which complicates the task of determining basic information, such as how much is being spent and on what. This book presents the key elements of a nutrition public expenditure review (NPER) and offers guidance and practical considerations, drawing upon good practices from past NPERs. INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN PRACTICE

May 2022. 82 pages. Stock no. C211853 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1853-0). US$35.

BOOSTING SHARED PROSPERITY IN CHAD Pathways Forward in a Landlocked Country Beset by Fragility and Conflict By Fulbert Tchana Tchana, Aboudrahyme Savadogo, and Claudia Noumedem Temgoua

Chad's economy has contracted since 2015, preventing poverty reduction and the improvement of development outcomes. This Systematic Country Diagnostic identifies key constraints on poverty reduction and recommends solutions. SYSTEMATIC COUNTRY DIAGNOSTIC

August 2022. 108 pages. Stock no. C211886 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1886-8). US$41.95.

BOOSTING SHARED PROSPERITY IN CHAD (FRENCH EDITION) Pathways Forward in a Landlocked Country Beset by Fragility and Conflict By Fulbert Tchana Tchana, Aboudrahyme Savadogo, and Claudia Noumedem Temgoua

Chad's economy has contracted since 2015, preventing poverty reduction and the improvement of development outcomes. This Systematic Country Diagnostic identifies key constraints on poverty reduction and recommends solutions. SYSTEMATIC COUNTRY DIAGNOSTIC

September 2022. 120 pages. Stock no. C211887 (ISBN: 978-1-4648-1887-5). US$41.95.


INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN FOCUS The International Development in Focus series comprises original, well-developed studies that highlight current development issues and are intended to influence programs and policy. These books result from research and analysis carried out as part of the World Bank’s operational work around the world.

INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN PRACTICE Books in the International Development in Practice series provide quality, practical (“how to”) guidance that can be applied by practitioners in the development arena. These books draw on experience and analysis gleaned from the World Bank’s operational work.

SYSTEMATIC COUNTRY DIAGNOSTIC Books in the Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) series result from the SCD process, which is conducted by World Bank Group staff in close consultation with national authorities and other stakeholders. SCDs identify the most critical constraints and opportunities facing countries as they work to end extreme poverty and promote shared prosperity in a sustainable manner.


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A Digital Economy for Africa.......................................... 11

Making Cities Green, Resilient, and Inclusive................. 4

A Guiding Framework for Nutrition Public Expenditure

Managing County Assets and Liabilities in Kenya.........24


Migrants, Markets, and Mayors.....................................18

A New Dawn for Global Value Chain Participation in the

Overweight and Obesity in Saudi Arabia......................24

Philippines....................................................................24 Ambient Air Pollution and Public Health in South Asia...12

Poverty and Shared Prosperity 2022...............................1 Preventing Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing,

Artisanal Small-Scale Gold Mining................................24

Second Edition.............................................................. 15

Boosting Shared Prosperity in Chad.............................25

Private Cities in South Asia............................................21

Boosting Shared Prosperity in Chad French Edition.........25

Reimagining Education in East Asia and Pacific in the

Bridging the Technological Divide.................................14

Wake of the COVID-19 Pandemic..................................20

Building Resilient Migration Systems in the Mediterranean Region.................................................... 7 Collapse and Recovery................................................... 3 Deep Trade Agreements............................................... 19 Developing China's Ports..............................................24 Environmentally Harmful Subsidies................................5 Financing Solutions to Reduce Natural Gas Flaring and Methane Emissions.......................................................24 Four Decades of Poverty Reduction in China................20

Revisiting Targeting in Social Assistance...................... 16 Safe and Productive Migration from the Kyrgyz Republic........................................................................24 Sourcebook on the Foundations of Social Protection French edition...................................................................22

Sourcebook on the Foundations of Social Protection Spanish edition............................................................... .22

Strategic Investment Funds..........................................24 Taxing Crime................................................................. 15 The Economics of Water Scarcity in Middle East and

Global Economic Prospects, June 2022.........................2

North Africa.....................................................................8

Hidden Potential............................................................21

The Fast Track to New Skills......................................... 19

Impact Evaluation in International Development...........17

The Future of Resources in Africa..................................18

Improving Effective Coverage in Health........................17

The Future of Work in Africa French edition......................23

Industrialization in Sub-Saharan Africa French edition......23

The Global Findex Database 2021.................................13

International Debt Statistics 2023.................................13

The Path to 5G in the Developing World.........................6

Jobs Undone................................................................. 10

Trade Therapy................................................................14

Land Matters...................................................................9

Where is the Value in the Chain?.................................. 16

Land Matters Arabic edition................................................9

World Bank eLibrary.....................................................26

Land Matters French edition...............................................9 28

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