Princeton Magazine, February 2019

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F E B R UA RY 2 01 9

Tammy Murphy New Jersey’s Activist First Lady is also a Big Fan of Drumthwacket



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New Jersey’s activist first lady is also a big fan of Drumthwacket

Curriculum innovator at Princeton Academy of the Sacred Heart





20, 22

PU alum Bob Surace guides the Tigers to a perfect season

A Well-Designed Life



Fashion designer Ann Lowe








Engagement and wedding ring design trends

Black history lives between covers, from Douglass to Obama 62



From nature to STEM, area camps offer an abundance of options 44

ON THE COVER: New Jersey First Lady Tammy Murphy in her office with the painting, Skyway Breakdown, by Peter Homitzky (1975). Photo by Tom Grimes.





Presidential power and the Constitution 66



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| FROM THE EDITOR Welcome to the first issue of Princeton Magazine in 2019. Our goal is to publish stories that are informative, thought provoking, and culturally relevant, and present them in sophisticated, well-designed layouts. I believe we have gotten off to a good start, and hope you enjoy this issue as much as we enjoyed creating it. We are honored to have New Jersey’s First Lady Tammy Snyder Murphy on the cover. She spoke with us about a range of issues important to her such as maternal and infant mortality, community service, climate change, and family. Her efforts as an environmental activist earned her a position with the Climate Reality Action Fund founded by former Vice President Al Gore. She has proven through her work to be an effective advocate for many causes and is an inspiration to women looking to make a difference. Keeping on the subject of politics, Donald Gilpin’s article “The President Who Would Not Be King: Presidential Power and the Constitution” was triggered by the Tanner Lectures at Princeton University. The lectures were given by constitutional law experts and everyone in attendance received a pocket-sized copy of the U.S. Constitution. The story is timely given the daily drama coming out of Washington, and is complemented by a clever illustration created by our graphic designer, Matthew DiFalco. February marks the beginning of wedding season and Valentine’s Day is a popular day to get engaged, which brings me to Taylor Smith’s story on 2019 trends in engagement and wedding ring designs. Read about mixed metals, gray diamonds, yellow diamonds, one-of-a-kind pieces, and the importance of conflict free diamonds as noted by Princeton’s own Hamilton Jewelers. February is also when parents begin researching summer camp options. The sheer number of camps available in the Princeton area can be overwhelming, and Laurie Pellichero’s article highlights some in categories including active, art and STEM, education, and nature. Football enthusiasts will appreciate Bill Alden’s interview with Bob Surace, Princeton University’s head football coach who guided the Tigers to a perfect season. Surace is a PU alum and formerly worked for the NFL. He found his dream job at the University, and his heart is in Princeton with his wife Lisa, who is head of the Lower School at PDS, and their two children. In honor of Black History Month, we have an article celebrating the talents of African American fashion designer Ann Lowe. Although she received very little recognition, her gowns were worn in the 1950s by the wealthy elite and made the pages of Vogue. Her most famous gown was the wedding dress worn by Jacqueline Bouvier when she married John Fitzgerald Kennedy. Her gowns were sold at Neiman Marcus, Henri Bendel, and Saks Fifth Avenue, and she had her own boutique in New York City and employed a staff of dressmakers at a time when it was unusual for African American women to be entrepreneurs. Some of our readers may not be aware of the many African American entrepreneurs in Princeton’s past, and I would like to take this opportunity to mention just a few. The most glamorous was Christine Moore Howell, a Paris-trained beautician with a line of cosmetics and accessories, and author of a book

Photography by Charles R. Plohn

Dear Readers,

on hair care. Her beauty shop, Christine Vanity Parlors, was located at 12 Spring Street in the 1920s. Going back to the 1840s, Anthony Simmons was the owner of Anthony’s Oyster Bar and Confectionery Shop. It was a popular spot for Princeton University students and was located on Nassau Street at the site of the current day Labyrinth Books. My personal favorite was former slave James Johnson, who proudly sold peanuts, candy, and fruit out of a wheelbarrow that he pushed through the Princeton University campus. In 2018, the University honored Johnson by naming the arch in East Pyne Hall after him. In closing, Bob Hillier and I would like to congratulate Monica Sankey on her promotion to Advertising Director of Witherspoon Media Group. Monica brings a wealth of experience and enthusiasm to the role.

James Johnson




Respectfully yours,

Lynn Adams Smith Editor-In-Chief

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Tammy Snyder Murphy became aware of climate action some 24 years ago while living in Frankfurt, Germany, where her husband worked in financial services. “I was stunned,” she recalls. “People took cloth bags to grocery stores. They recycled trash, just as a matter of course. It opened my eyes.” The personal commitment to sustainability was a lesson that is still with her today, as first lady of New Jersey. In fact, Tammy Murphy is a passionate advocate for several key issues, the environment among them.


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The Trenton skyline. (Photo courtesy of


ince her husband, New Jersey Gov. Phil Murphy, took office just over a year ago, Murphy has channeled a “can do” attitude, which she attributes to her parents, to support the agenda of her husband and Lt. Gov. Sheila Oliver. She sees herself as a “convener,” and says, “There are four people in this office,” referring to three staff members and herself. “Tell us what you need. We’ll help get it done.” Nevertheless, there are some things that are close to her heart. In addition to the environment, Murphy has been front and center on the issues of maternal and infant mortality. She is present at events and visible on social media (check Twitter: @FirstLadyNJ). In her office down the hall from Gov. Murphy’s — now at 225 West State Street, while the statehouse is undergoing renovation — she spoke about where she can make a difference, including her passion for making Drumthwacket, the official governor’s residence, a symbol of a state that welcomes diversity. The modest office features art she selected from the New Jersey State Museum, such as the colorful Skyway Breakdown (1975) by Peter Homitzky from Hoboken, and the pastoral Farmer’s Field by George A. Herquet Jr., of Penn’s Neck. A model of the state bird, the American goldfinch, sits on some books, and a sofa pillow with a small map of New Jersey reads “Home.” The office has been her working home for the past year, a base from which to cover the state.

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Murphy delivered the keynote address last fall at a Princeton University Andlinger Center for Energy and Environment conference, “Accelerating Climate Action in the United States: What Are We Doing and What More Can Be Done?” She said she and Gov. Murphy want New Jersey to become a “magnet for innovations and solutions” in climate action. She also spoke at the Governor’s Environmental Excellence Awards in Trenton last December. All environmental issues are on the table. “I’m interested in it all,” she says. “I’m tangentially involved in all that is going on in environmental issues, at the intersection of how we fix clean energy on one hand, and involve social justice on the other. To lay out the table for future generations, you can’t just attack one piece.” She has considered issues from solar energy to horseshoe crabs as endangered species. New Jersey, she points out, had pulled out from Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, but has now started the process of rejoining. The state has also joined the U.S. Climate Alliance, opposes offshore drilling, and has a goal of 100 percent clean energy by 2050. “It’s not true that being green means more expense, as some have said,” Murphy points out. Economic benefits go hand in hand with environmental protection efforts, she says. For every $1 invested in offshore wind, New Jersey will realize $1.83. Moving to an offshore wind economy will

create more than 4,300 jobs and a total economic impact of $700 million, she notes. Murphy has some credentials here. For more than a decade she has been secretary and a charter member of the Climate Reality Action Fund founded by former Vice President Al Gore. The Climate Reality Project, a nonprofit organization involved in education and advocacy related to climate change, was established in July 2011 after the joining of two environmental groups, The Alliance for Climate Protection and The Climate Project, both of which were founded in 2006 by Gore. In the early 2000s, when the Murphys were holding dinners in their Middletown home, they connected with Al Gore. Gore soon invited Tammy Murphy to join the Climate Reality Project. She has spoken on the organization’s behalf and is excited about its progress. “We are training the next generation of leaders who can change the world,” she says. “We trained [in] more than 150 countries so far.” FAMILY INFLUENCE

Her interest in community service probably goes back to her paternal grandmother, who was “always involved in something in Virginia.” Her British mother, who she describes as a “force to be reckoned with,” told her, “never let anyone tell you no.” “I never felt impeded,” Murphy says. She is the youngest of five siblings. Her father, Edward B. Snyder, died this past fall, and the funeral program lists some 75 diverse organizations he

Drumthwacket, the official governor’s residence. (Photo by Edwin J. Torres)

(Photos By Tom Grimes)

Interior at Drumthwacket. (Photo by Edwin J. Torres) FEBRUARY 2019 PRINCETON MAGAZINE

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supported in some way, from the American Red Cross to the Boy Scout of America, from the March of Dimes to several health centers, along with museums and cultural organizations. Growing up in Virginia Beach, Va., (where she then aligned with the Republican party), Murphy thought she might have a career in media after she graduated in 1987 from the University of Virginia with a degree in English and communications. But she became interested in finance, and was hired by Goldman Sachs. She later worked in Europe for Investcorp. She became friends with Phil Murphy, but it wasn’t until seven years later that they went on a date and became engaged. They are the parents of four children, ages 21, 19, 17, and 15, and she emphasizes that she is “a mom first” and tries to communicate with her family throughout the day. POVERTY AND HEALTH ISSUES

Because of her interest in family, Murphy is also highly involved in the issues of maternal and infant health and mortality. She noted that New Jersey is 45th out of 50 states in mortality. “It is particularly bad if you are a black child,” she says. “Your chances of dying in the first year of life are three times greater, and for black women, the maternal mortality rate is more than four times higher than it is for white women.” Murphy has crisscrossed the state meeting with coalitions, doulas, foundation members, and other

stakeholders. “I’ve learned that the problem is not just prenatal care but poverty, a lack of access to transportation and medical care, opiate use, and much more.” It’s a problem that is so large and complicated, she said, that originally the health department was involved and “now there are 13 cabinet members involved in this issue.” Murphy proudly reports that the New Jersey Black Maternal & Infant Health Leadership Summit last October at Drumthwacket resulted in 120 guests communicating with each other and brainstorming short- and long-term solutions. “It was pretty effective,” she said. But she notes that “one of the biggest challenges is connecting people with resources.” Family festivals, such as one held in Trenton in December, are an effort to bring residents and resources together. The first was in Paterson and there were 60 providers and some 300 community residents. More than 90 providers were on hand in Trenton, and some 500 people attended. The next one will be held in March in Camden. DRUMMING UP DRUMTHWACKET

As an activist first lady, Tammy Murphy explains that she and Gov. Murphy “have always been a team. We have always brought our combined perspectives. There are so many areas that can use a little bit of help. I’m all in.”

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Not one to shy away from involvement, Murphy has served on the boards of several schools and organizations, including the board of visitors at the University of Virginia, the advisory board of Tisch College at Tufts University, Phillips Academy Andover (Mass.), the Monmouth Medical Center Foundation, Rumson Country Day School, the Monmouth Conservation Foundation, and the Count Basie Center for the Arts. As president of the Drumthwacket Foundation, another major initiative is the effective use of the official governor’s residence in Princeton as a symbol of a New Jersey that people want to invest in, and a source of pride for state residents. As such, she sees herself as a caretaker for the “incredible history” and for inspiring state citizens to appreciate the culture and history of the residence. Look for rotating exhibits by New Jersey artists, and for only New Jersey wines served at functions. Last year events hosted by the Murphys at Drumthwacket included a Black History Month reception, a Women’s History Month reception, a Passover Seder, an Asian American Pacific Islander Month reception, a Pride event, the recent the Marine Corps anniversary, and menorah lighting. Drumthwacket saw its first Diwali celebration, a Hindu festival, this past fall. Murphy says she was taught that “everyone is worthwhile. Someone always brings something to the table. Everyone deserves to have his voice heard.” Between multitasking and a whirlwind schedule, Tammy Murphy intends to keep listening.

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An Uncredited Career: Fashion Designer

ANN LOWE By Anne Levin


John F. Kennedy and Jacqueline Bouvier on their wedding day, 1953. (Photo by Toni Frissell; Wikimedia Commons)

the annals of the accomplished whose work has gone largely unrecognized because of their race, Ann Lowe occupies a prominent spot. Lowe was an African American fashion designer whose lavish creations were coveted by the rich and socially prominent. While she earned such distinctions as Couturier of the Year and made the Who’s Who in American Women list, she rarely received the attention she deserved. In 1953, Lowe designed the ivory silk taffeta gown that Jacqueline Bouvier wore for her wedding to John Fitzgerald Kennedy. The dress featured trapunto, a layering of fabrics to create a dimensional effect — a technique for which Lowe was known in fashion circles. But the future first lady is said to have credited “a colored woman” with creating the famous gown, neglecting to identify her by name. Lowe’s designs made the pages of Vogue, Town & Country, and other popular fashion magazines. Her skill and artistry impressed French designer Christian Dior. At one point in her career, she had her own label and a store on New York’s Fifth Avenue. Her dresses were sold at Neiman Marcus, Henri Bendel, and Saks Fifth Avenue, where she was the head designer of a special boutique with a privileged clientele. Yet her genius was rarely recognized. “Ann Lowe was highly respected by the fashion industry, but the custom nature of her work made her little known publicly,” writes Margaret Powell,

the curatorial assistant of decorative arts and design at the Carnegie Museum of Art in Pittsburgh, Pa., in an email. Powell is writing a book about Lowe, to be published by Simon and Schuster in 2021. “Some designers expanded their work to capture a lower price point, but Ann didn’t want to do that,” Powell continues. “She just wanted to make her gorgeous dresses.” Lowe was born in Alabama in 1898 to a family of seamstresses. She learned to sew from her mixed-race grandmother and her mother, who made dresses for Southern society women. Her mother’s sudden passing left 16-year-old Lowe with the challenge of creating four ball gowns for the first lady of Alabama. She succeeded, and her career was launched. Focused on making it in the fashion industry, Lowe left her first husband to become an in-house seamstress to a wealthy woman in Tampa, Fla. She was given the opportunity to study, for six months, at a design school in New York. “Ann had a wide range of very specific skills from the Civil War period, notably to conserve fabric while making ornament for the gowns, plus the more traditional services of a northern seamstress,” said Powell. “This combination was unusual. One of her most successful themes — silk roses in different states of bloom, winding around a silk gown — was something she had developed for a Tampa gasparilla [pirate] queen in 1928. They were made from scraps off the workroom floor.” Lowe had to endure racist attitudes during her training. “She was


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An ivory dress (left) decorated with swirls of handmade fabric rose vines. The variety of rose depicted on the dress is the American Beauty, which has led to it being called the “American Beauty” dress. A pink satin and organza dress (middle). Pale green teal silk sari gown (right) designed by Ann Lowe. (Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the Black Fashion Museum founded by Lois K. Alexander-Lane)

segregated in her New York school, after being allowed to attend at all, since they had never had a black student and this was 1927,” says Powell. “This was frustrating for her. She was put at a desk in a hallway near the bathroom. As her teachers saw the high quality of her work, they were actually bringing people out to show them her techniques. And she had worse problems [later] in New York. Any time she would have a salon, she would need to have a white business partner. Because a black person would not be able to rent in these areas.” Lowe, who died in 1981, was not often written about during her lifetime. But she gave an interview to Ebony magazine in 1966 and made a television appearance on The Mike Douglas Show around the same time. The Saturday Evening Post profiled her. Recent decades have seen an interest in her life and work. A Google search reveals numerous articles detailing her talent and her struggles. Lowe was prominently featured in a 2016 exhibit by the Museum at New York’s Fashion Institute of Technology, focused on the impact of designers of African descent. The same year, a show highlighting Lowe’s work was mounted at the National Museum of African American History and Culture in Washington, D.C. Among the designer’s most famous creations was the dress Olivia de Haviland wore to accept her Oscar for the

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1946 film To Each His Own. But Lowe’s name wasn’t on the label. The Bouvier/Kennedy nuptials received considerable press. The dress Lowe designed was described in detail by The New York Times and other publications, without mention of her name. Also not mentioned was a flood in Lowe’s studio that destroyed the original gown and bridesmaids’ dresses. In ten days, Lowe and her team recreated what had originally taken them months to make. Despite the high prices of the dresses she designed, Lowe never made much money. According to the Ebony interview, at one point in her career she was able to turn out an average of 1,000 gowns a year, had a staff of 35, and grossed $300,000 a year. But by 1963, she was forced to declare bankruptcy. “One morning I work up owing $10,000 to suppliers and $12,800 in back taxes,” she said. “Friends at Henri Bendel and Neiman-Marcus loaned me money to stay open, but the Internal Revenue agents finally closed me up for non-payment of taxes. At my wits end, I ran sobbing into the street.” Rumor has it that Lowe’s IRS bill was finally paid by Jacqueline Kennedy when she learned of the designer’s troubles. No two designs by Lowe were alike. Her clients had names like Rockefeller, DuPont, Auchincloss, and Biddle. She was a snob, and proud of it. “I love my clothes and I’m particular about who wears them,” Ebony “I am not interested she told Ebony. in sewing for cafe society or social climbers. I do not cater to Mary

Ann Lowe designed this dress for Pauline “Polly” Carver Duxbury for her 1967 debutante ball. (Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the Black Fashion Museum founded by Lois K. Alexander-Lane.)

and Sue. I sew for families of the Social Register.” Lowe lived in an apartment in Harlem for nearly five decades. After her son Arthur Lee, who served as business partner, died in a car accident in 1958, she relied on her sister, who served as Lowe’s eyes when she was partially blinded by glaucoma. She was 82 when she died after a long illness, having spent the last five years at the home of her daughter in Queens. Lowe’s story continues to fascinate those interested in fashion and African American history. Five of her designs are held at the Costume Institute of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. “I think there is a renewed interest in Ann,” says Powell. “It’s because of people like Henrietta Lacks [whose cancer cells were taken without her knowledge in 1951] and Hidden Figures [the film about three African American women who made brilliant discoveries at NASA in the 1950s] — stories of other black women who contributed so much to history, but received little in return.”


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All That Glitters Engagement and Wedding Ring Design Trends By Taylor Smith

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The Prince Harry and Meghan Markle wedding carriage procession through the streets of Windsor. Markle’s ring features popular yellow gold.

ngagement and wedding ring influencers like Gurki Basra, senior heart and realize that like all things en vogue, trends do come and go. buyer of jewelry and watches at Barneys New York, say that the In addition to new wedding dress and diamond styles, pre-owned stones may top 2019 trends in engagement ring styles include colored stones, be another appealing path. Stunning pre-owned diamonds, emeralds, rubies, and multiple bands, and a mix of metals. Gray diamonds in particular more are available for purchase at most major jewelers and at auctions. In fact, have begun to emerge as a style statement as younger brides become more many jewelers have made a successful business of reworking antique jewelry adventurous in their choices. for the modern bride and groom. If you’re drawn to an edgier look, but worry about your tastes changing CONFLICT FREE DIAMONDS down the road, jewelers advise that you can always reset your ring. Raw diamonds or uncut diamonds are another option for unique engagement rings. Both Hamilton Jewelers of Princeton and Brilliant Earth pride themselves in Raw diamond styles range from ultra-contemporary to minimal and organic in going above and beyond the current industry standards to offer Beyond Conflict shape. They also tend to be slightly more affordable since they’re unpolished. Free Diamonds that “have been selected for their ethical and environmentally In addition, no two raw diamonds are alike, fulfilling another engagement trend sustainable origins.” The diamonds are sourced from particular mine operations of one-of-a-kind pieces. The brilliance of a raw diamond is also something or countries that maintain their commitment to internationallyto behold, as they are warm in hue and contain a vast color recognized labor, environmental, and trade standards. These spectrum, making the diamond look as though it is lit from countries include (but are not limited to) Russia, Canada, within. and Botswana Sort. As far as mining practices and standards The challenge of finding the right combination of metals, are concerned, Beyond Conflict Free does not finance rebel diamonds, gemstones, and setting is challenging for any bride movements, protects against human rights abuses, minimizes or groom. Many jewelers recommend that buyers keep the environmental degradation, maintains safe and responsible metal and stone in the same color family. For example, yellow labor practices, and supports community development (www. gold dramatically captures the luminescence of a yellow Collet front, Ashley Zhang Jewelry diamond. Similarly, a chocolate-colored diamond in a yellow As stated on its website, “Hamilton Jewelers supports the United Nations’ gold setting generates a warm, luxurious feel. Complementary colors can also efforts to stop the sales of diamonds from any country where rebel forces use create an unexpected effect, such as a rose gold setting matched with a green diamonds to finance acts of war and terror.” The company is also committed to gemstone. the Jewelers of America Code of Ethics, which obliges “all transactions to be Fashion insiders predict that the era of the snow-white wedding gown will conducted in an ethical and professional manner. We expect our suppliers to gradually recede as brides take chances on muslin and tea-stained colored comply with their national labor and environmental laws and regulations and to gowns. Silver palettes are also on the rise for wedding dresses as brides seek respect the fundamental International Labor Organization conventions, as well the dramatic sparkle that recalls fabric styles of the 1920s and 30s. Also popular as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.” are platinum silks, fern-colored green tones, blushing pinks, icy lavenders, and Noteworthy engagement ring styles from Hamilton Jewelers include the more. With all the options nowadays, it is important that brides-to-be attempt to 18K Gold and Radiant Cut Diamond Engagement Ring, 18K Rose Gold and navigate the line between tradition and trend (a cabernet-colored gown may be Diamond Engagement Ring, Centennial 18K Gold and Pear Shape Diamond a regrettable choice). While it might be refreshing for guests to see a palette of Engagement Ring, and Heritage Platinum 1.51 Carat Diamond Engagement shimmery pastels during the wedding ceremony, some brides may be purists at FEBRUARY 2019 PRINCETON MAGAZINE

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OJS engagement ring, Orion Jewelry Studio

Emerald diamond ring, Orion Jewelry Studio

Grace front, Ashley Zhang Jewelry M.Rings, Orion Jewelry Studio

the company appears to be perfecting its foundry process, productivity, and retail potential as it has made an effort to collaborate with a wide variety of diamond cutters and designers. Its “Real. Unique. World Positive” website slogan is accompanied by attractive images of engagement and wedding rings (loose diamonds are also available at Partnerships with New York City retailers include Clay Pot Nolita ( and Lori McLean Jewelry ( Diamond Foundry made a splash at a 2017 Paris Fashion Week launch event, at which the company headlined the Fashion Tech Lab presentation. Over ENGINEERED DIAMONDS 400 fashion luminaries including representatives from Chanel Fine Is there such a thing as a 100 percent authentic diamond created Jewelry, Balenciaga, Dior, Louis Vuitton, and Louboutin were in in a lab? Look no further than Santa Clara, Calif.-based startup attendance. Diamond Foundry ( Backed by over Of his support and belief in Diamond Foundry, DiCaprio posted to his personal Twitter page, “Proud to invest in a dozen wealthy investors including actor Leonardo DiCaprio, Diamond Foundry — a co reducing human & environmental Diamond Foundry is able to “grow” new diamonds by taking a culture of an original diamond and heating to temperatures toll by sustainably culturing diamonds.” of 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit (similar to the temperature of When it comes to engineered diamonds, some historic brands have been less enthusiastic. Companies like De Beers the sun). These layers of crystal are stacked, one on top of and Tiffany’s have cultivated their own iconic luxury brands the other, until a pure diamond is formed. The largest diamond under the notion that diamonds are rare, eternal, and exclusive. generated in the lab so far weighed in at 12 carats. Diamond McCabe, Orion Jewelry Studio In fact, De Beers’s slogan, “a diamond is forever,” perpetuates Foundry currently produces 1,000 carats per month, which is the idea that the only acceptable option is mined diamonds. approximately 150 to 300 gems from every two-week batch. Initially published in 1845, the Tiffany Blue Book was the first Natural diamonds are rated and tested for purity and authenticity collection of extraordinary jewelry available to newlyweds across the by the GIA (Gemological Institute of America). Color, cut, clarity, and carat United States by mail-order catalog. weight are examined by a GIA-trained gemologist. Diamond Foundry founder Deemed “a rare beauty,” Tiffany yellow diamonds “make a glamorous Martin Roscheisen assures that Diamond Foundry’s products have tested as statement for day or night.” Tiffany’s expertise in yellow diamonds dates back to true, pure jewelry white diamonds. 1878 when Charles Lewis Tiffany purchased the 287.42 carat Tiffany diamond. So how does the cost of a man-made diamond compare to those dug This rare specimen was then cut into a brilliant cushion-shape weighing in at out of the earth? According to Diamond Foundry’s website, their lab-grown 128.54 carats. Yellow diamonds continue to be a draw for the thousands of gemstones have an online price set at 10-15 percent below market price. An people who visit Tiffany’s flagship store in New York City every year. individual diamond from their online store costs from $305 for a 0.38 carat round-cut gem to $23,000 for a 2.30 carat gem. In addition to Roscheisen, the masterminds behind Diamond Foundry are largely engineers from Stanford, Princeton, and MIT. Since its launch in 2015, Ring. For a real show-stopper, be sure to take a look at the Platinum and 18K Gold Fancy Yellow Diamond Three Stone Ring. This stunning three-stone ring includes a cushion cut fancy yellow diamond center that is flanked by two emerald cut diamonds. The fancy yellow diamond totals 3.15 carats and the emerald cut diamonds total .87 carats. Handmade in 18K gold and precious platinum, this particular engagement ring is a stunning piece that will surely stand the test of time.

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Featured on Meghan Markle’s ring, yellow gold is on the rise for 2019. The bright metal complements almost any type of setting — from pear shaped to stacked and nested rings — and works with both diamonds and gemstones. Yellow gold metals can suit any bride’s ring style, such as vintage, modern, romantic, feminine, and/or classic. Brilliant Earth ( offers a wide selection of new yellow gold wedding band designs. As described on its website, yellow gold has the potential to “symbolize your love with the warm glow of yellow gold, a classic band, a vintage-inspired style or an ultra-glamorous design.” Noted as being “Ethical. Stunning. One-of-a-Kind,” Brilliant Earth allows users to shop diamonds by shape. Options include round, oval, cushion, princess, pear, emerald, marquise, asscher, radiant, and heart. From vivid blue sapphire to sparkling moissanite, Brilliant Earth’s selection of gemstone rings is sure to please. You can create your own individual ring by selecting a gemstone and pairing it with a setting of your choice. You can also shop by gemstone, with aquamarine, morganite, emerald, and sapphire being the particular standouts.

setting, it makes the stone really pop and also accentuates the yellow gold even more. It can be so subtle that people won’t event notice the white metal, or it can be more of a statement choice.” Another noteworthy design is Zhang’s Grace Emerald Cut Engagement Ring, inspired by Grace Kelly’s iconic engagement ring. The Grace is a classic emerald cut featuring a slim band tapered by baguette diamonds flanking the center emerald cut diamond. The ring can also be custom ordered with a different center stone of your choice. Does your bride have a theatrical flair? Then the Art Deco Jade Ring may be right for her. This stunning Art Deco-era ring is surrounded by a halo of subtly sparkly sing cut diamonds, set in platinum. The platinum shank is beautifully decorated with hand engraving. The ring is circa 1920 (www. THE RULES ARE OUT

In 2019, it appears that brides and grooms can play by their own rulebook. This extends beyond the ring and the dress to coeds on each side of the aisle and mismatched attendant attire (because, why not?). Embracing colors and color trends for 2019 could also include a floral design inspired by the Jade Cabochon, Pantone Color of the Year, Living Coral. Fresh palettes, pops of Ashley Zhang Jewelry bold color, and eclectic stationery are all ways for the happy couple to MIXED METALS express themselves. “Sociable and spirited” is how Pantone describes the juicy orange-golden shade on its website ( This “animating While mixed metals maybe de rigueur for an everyday stack, the engagement and life-affirming hue” could easily be incorporated into a bouquet filled with ring use of mixed metals is clearly a trend for 2019. As seen by the Ashley poppies or a chuppah strung with chrysanthemum flowers in various shades Zhang Collet Engagement Ring in Platinum and Yellow Gold with a Cushionof coral, yellow, orange, and pale pink. In short, there’s no end to the colorful Cut Diamond, the platinum basket on a gold band makes the cushion-cut 2019 wedding design trends. diamond really shine. Of the Georgian-inspired solitaire, Ashley Zhang told Brides magazine, “When you use a white metal like platinum for the diamond

Custom Designs and One of a Kind Engagement Rings Ethically Sourced and Responsibly Made Fine Jewelry

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609-737-6900/1597 609.730.1010 • 609.730.1010 609.730.1010 ••


We propose a toast. From cocktail hour, to the Champagne toast, we’re here for all your wedding beverage needs. Let our team help craft your perfect drink menu. We’ll save you time and money, and we can even deliver to your event location!*

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We now serve gluten-free pizza and pasta!

Open Daily 339 Witherspoon St, Princeton, NJ 08540

Photo courtesy of Arts Council of Princeton

Fun in the Summertime From Nature to STEM, Area Camps Offer an Abundance of Options By Laurie Pellichero


hile it might still be cold and wintry outside, summer will be here before we know it. Now’s the time to start thinking about where to send the kids to camp – and make those reservations before they fill up. Here is just a sampling of the many options right here in our area, each unique in its own way.

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Camp Shriver – Special Olympics New Jersey 1 Eunice Kennedy Shriver Way, Lawrenceville 609.896.8000; What began as a fun backyard summer camp known as Camp Shriver has grown into Special Olympics, a global movement that has been changing lives and attitudes for more than 50 years. Each summer, the Special Olympics New Jersey Sports Complex in Lawrenceville continues this tradition with its own Camp Shiver, a four-week sports camp experience in July for individuals with intellectual disabilities of all ages. The participants make new friends, enhance their sports skills, learn new sports, and attend educational sessions on health and wellness. The camp offers a range of options, including Day Camp, Twilight Camp, Unified Development Camp, and sessions at Rowan College at Gloucester County. All sports and education training sessions are led by qualified sports specialists, camp counselors, and volunteers.

Photo courtesy of JCC Abrams Camps


JCC Abrams Camps 148 Cedarville Road, East Windsor 609.606.7070;

Photo courtesy of Princeton Recreation Department

JCC Abrams Camps has been serving the greater Princeton Mercer Bucks community for more than 50 years. It was founded on and celebrates the principles of Jewish values, culture, and traditions. Executive Director Wendy Soos says “joining the JCC Abrams Camps is like joining a second family. Campers and families leave transformed from this memorable experience.” Their new, expanded campus now serves Middlesex and

Monmouth counties as well with air-conditioned bussing at centralized stops. Offered between June 24 and August 16, the day and teen travel camps (pre-K through 10th grade) promise to “take youth and teens on a magical journey of self-discovery in a place where they can feel safe, respected, and loved.” The Camps’ highly trained and compassionate staff enables each camper to grow in an atmosphere which promotes self-esteem, positive values, and good sportsmanship. The extensive list of activities includes aquatics, creative and performing arts, teamed sports, outdoor adventure, STEM and nature, Camp Idol, Camp Traditions, and more. It is their belief that campers of all ages and diverse backgrounds will walk away from their summer camp experience with their lives significantly impacted from learning life skills and making new friends in a warm, nurturing environment. Princeton Recreation Department Teen Travel Camp 380 Witherspoon Street, Princeton 609.921.9480; Offered from the end of June through the beginning of August and run by the Princeton Recreation Department, Teen Travel Camp is seven one-week sessions of daily adventures open to students entering grades six through 10 in September 2019. The trips are daily from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., unless otherwise noted, with staff onsite for drop off at 8:30 a.m. each day. A sample week might include Fireball Mountain Laser Tag in Wrightstown, followed by time back at Community Park Pool on Monday; Six Flags Great Adventure on Tuesday; a trip to the Adventure Aquarium in

Camden on Wednesday; Thursday at Dorney Park in Allentown, Pa.; and ending the week on Friday with fun on the boardwalk in Seaside Heights. A variety of different venues are offered throughout the summer.

ART AND STEM Arts Council of Princeton Summer Programs 102 Witherspoon Street, Princeton 609.924.8777; Be creative and have some fun this summer! The Arts Council of Princeton offers a wide range of programs with the goal of making art experiences meaningful, instructive, fun, and accessible for all ages, backgrounds, and skill levels. From June 24 to August 30 they will offer 10 weekly options of arts camp programming for ages 5-16. The weekly sessions are intensive pursuits of wide-ranging visual arts from drawing and painting to sewing, digital filmmaking, pottery techniques, and STEAM projects. Camps and art studios are divided by ages 5-9, 10-12, and 13-16, and are designed to engage students and enhance their experience through individualized attention. In addition to offering multiple weeks of camp, the Arts Council of Princeton also provides flexibility in your summer planning with both before-care and after-care options. Located in downtown Princeton at the Paul Robeson Center for the Arts, campers will enjoy having access to state-of-the-art studio spaces, the perfect setting to nurture and stimulate creativity. All rooms are air-conditioned and studios are fully stocked with various mixed-media supplies sure to inspire one-of-a-kind masterpieces. FEBRUARY 2019 PRINCETON MAGAZINE

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EDUCATION Hun Summer Session American Culture and Language Institute The Hun School, 176 Edgerstoune Road, Princeton 609.921.7600;

NATURE Students will enjoy student-centered instruction in small classes, experienced teachers knowledgeable in student issues in cultural transition, experiential trips to sites like New York, Philadelphia, and elsewhere, and friendships with multicultural peers. All program components are available for day students including the weekday classroom instruction, local trips, and trips to historical sites. Activities like soccer (football), table tennis, basketball, and fitness training are also provided. This year’s programs run June 17 through August 9. The Hun School also offers sports camps including instruction and play in baseball, rowing, and basketball. Lawrenceville Summer Scholars The Lawrenceville School 2500 Main Street, Lawrenceville 609.620.6683 Held at The Lawrenceville School from July 7 to 27, Lawrenceville Summer Scholars provides an educational summer program Photo courtesy of The Hun School

The Hun Summer Session offers 30 credit and enrichment courses serving students from ages 1018. As part of the Hun Summer Session, students looking to improve their English comprehension can enroll in the American Culture and Language Institute (ACLI), a highly-regarded language immersion program. Balancing English instruction and cultural enrichment, ACLI is designed for international students wishing to improve English language skills while enjoying American culture and history.

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designed to engage emerging innovative leaders, breakthrough thinkers, and imaginative problem solvers. The classes challenge middle school and early high school students to learn in new ways, experience active inquiry and discussion-based classes, and the skills to develop a commitment to personal, environmental, and community responsibility. The limited enrollment and low student-to-teacher ratio ensures that each student receives individual attention in order to flourish in a safe and supportive environment. The faculty encourages scholars to learn and grow, to trust in their abilities, and to believe in themselves so that they all reach their full potential. The school day balances class time and outdoor fun, but in all activities, students will be encouraged to think critically, problem solve, collaborate, socialize, and discover their passions in order to leave the program with 21st century skills.

Lucky Dog Camp 24 Elm Ridge Road, Pennington 609.658.3958; Located on Overlooked Farm in Pennington, Lucky Dog Camp offers summertime adventures for children ages 4 to 11. The farm consists of 40 beautiful acres surrounded by protected and preserved open space. Owner Melita Wright said she came up with the concept of Lucky Dog Camp over 20 years ago, when her four children were younger. She said she was searching for a camp that reminded her of her summers as a kid. “Summertime to me means playing outside all day long, exploring the woods and streams, and relaxing in hammocks, playing in sprinklers, running through the fields with my dogs, and building forts with my brothers. I wouldn’t come inside until my mom rang the bell to come in for dinner. I wanted to recreate that for my children.” Wright has combined her training as an elementary and early childhood teacher with her love of animals and created a place for kids to just play in a safe and Photo courtesy of Lucky Dog Camp

Now in its third year, this immersive summer camp STEM program is open to children ages 5 to 16 who will be grouped by age and skill levels in weekly day camp sessions offered June 10 through August 30. Campers will learn to build, program, and fly drones and robots and learn to program computers, all while exploring virtual reality and making new friends. centertec features a learning system that teaches students how to code through the activities they already love: games and stories. Campers will learn the fundamentals of programming and design through their intuitive visual programming language without the frustrations of traditional syntax. The goal is to provide every child with a solid foundation in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) thinking abilities to prepare them for 21st century degrees and careers. No prior is experience is needed. The weekly camps run Monday through Friday, with drop off from 8 to 9:30 a.m. and pick up time from 4 to 6 p.m. Lunch and snacks are included.

Photo courtesy of centertec

centertec summerTEC Summer Camp Oxford Valley Mall, 2300 East Lincoln Highway, Langhorne, Pa. 800.705.8715;

Photo courtesy of Rambling Pines

greater adventures — including cookouts, camping, and day trips. The camp offers weeklong sessions July 8 through August 23, Monday through Friday from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. High school students may be interested in The Watershed Institute’s Counselor-inTraining sessions. Also offered in the summer, the Watershed Academy offers immersive courses in environmental science, engineering, and architecture. Topics include field science, clean water, green architecture, and climate change, as the students work alongside professors and professionals through hands-on activities, engaging in scientific techniques and actual conservation projects. Terhune Orchards — Summer Camps on the Farm 330 Cold Soil Road, Princeton 609.924.2310; summer-camp

Watershed Nature Camp has provided a fun mix of nature, science, play, and community for more than 45 years. The camp takes place at The Watershed’s 950-acre nature reserve, which features wildflower meadows, the serene Stony Brook, Wargo Pond, and acres of sheltering forests. Every day, youngsters will explore, engage, and experience the wild, natural world around them. Some of the campers’ favorite activities are hiking the trails, building shelters, meeting critters, and cooling off in streams. Older campers can experience even Photo courtesy of The Watershed Institute

Rambling Pines Day Camp 174 Lambertville Hopewell Road, Hopewell 609.466.1212;

Photo courtesy of Terhune Orchards

Watershed Nature Camp Watershed Academy The Watershed Institute 31 Titus Mill Road, Pennington 609.737.3735;;

seemingly unstructured environment. The camp is small and intimate with a high counselor/camper ratio, so the children can feel like they are playing all day as one big family. Lucky Dog gives kids an opportunity to play the old-fashioned way, outside, in a relaxed setting. There are trails to hike, the Stony Brook to explore, and fields to investigate. It is home to three dogs, seven retired horses, two donkeys, two barn cats, and chickens. This year’s day camp is offered in three sessions: one week from June 24 to 28; two weeks from July 8 to 19; and two weeks from July 29 through August 9.

Now marking its 44th summer of fun, Rambling Pines offers a plethora of programs for preschool, grade school, and teen campers. The family-owned day camp is located on 225 acres of fields and woods in the Sourland Mountains. It features four heated swimming pools, air-conditioned interior spaces, and plenty of activities for every child’s likes and abilities. Just a few of the activities include aquatics, athletics, creative arts, performing arts, boating fishing, horseback riding, Red Cross swim lessons, archery, and outdoor education. Rambling Pines is dedicated to the success of each child. Its owners and staff think that camp is an essential part of childhood, a place where children can make lasting friendships and mature socially, emotionally, intellectually, morally, and physically. Door-to-door transportation is available from the surrounding area, and lunch and snacks are provided.

Terhune Orchards welcomes children ages 7 through 12 to enjoy a unique, fun-filled week of summer camp on the farm. As a 200-acre working family farm, Terhune Orchards provides exciting, educational, and rewarding opportunities for campers. Campers will engage in hands-on activities in five one-week sessions that provide an understanding of how a farm operates. Campers can also explore Terhune Orchards’ beautiful surroundings, streams, nature trail, and fields, and get a closer look at its resident wildlife and barnyard friends. In addition to working in the Children’s Garden, campers will explore the farm, and harvest and sample the crops in season. Wagon rides are also a part of the camp experience. The activities and crafts blend learning, doing, and fun. Campers spend time both outside exploring the farm as well as inside engaged in activities in the Amish-built barn. Terhune Camps are certified by the State of New Jersey Youth Camp Standards. Be sure to register early, as space is limited.


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Tomato Patch 2019 Summer Arts Workshops Tomato Patch 2019 Tomato Patch 2019 Summer Arts Workshops

Summer Arts Workshops Theater • Dance • Music • Video • Visual Art Theater Theater •• Dance Dance••Music Music• •Video VisualArt Art Video• •Visual

SessionSession I Session II June 24 June -June July24 2412 July 12 12 -- July Grades 8-12 8-12 Grades 8-12 Grades 4-week session session 4-week 4-week session $ $ 875 $ 875 875 Session II II Session

July 22 -- Aug. Aug. 99 SessionJuly I I22 Grades 8-12 July 22 -Grades Aug. 8-12 9 3-week session 3-week session Grades 8-12 $ $ 725 3-week session 725 Master Class in Acting $ 725 Master July 22 - Class Aug. 9in Acting

July 22 - Aug. 9

Grades MasterGrades Class8-12 in Acting 3-week 8-12 session July 22 -3-week Aug. 9 $ 725 session $ Grades 8-12 725 Taught by professional artists, on the West Windsor Campus of Mercer County Community 3-week Taught session th by professional artists,now on the of Mercer Community College. Tomato Patch, in West its 46Windsor year, is Campus the longest running,County most successful $ th 725 multidisciplinary program central New Jersey. year, is the in longest running, most successful College. Tomato Patch, nowsummer in its 46arts multidisciplinary summer arts program in central New Jersey.

Taught Call by 609-570-3566 professional or artists, on the West Windsor Campus of Mercer County Community visit MCCC • 1200 Old Trenton Road NJ 08550 is the longest running, most successful College. Tomato Patch, now• West in itsWindsor, 46th year, Call 609-570-3566 or visit • MCCC • 1200 Old Trenton Road West Windsor, NJ 08550 in central New Jersey. multidisciplinary summer arts program

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S T N E D U T S Y A DD N A G N I D R A O •B 0 1 6 S E D A R G


Pennington Montessori School Premier Early Childhood Education 6 Weeks thru Kindergarten Acedemic Curriculum Music-Spanish-Outdoor Education

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Full-day and half-day programs for campers from PreK through high school

Join us for an OPEN HOUSE February 10 • 2:00–4:00pm at the Lisa McGraw ’44 Skating Rink

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4 Tree Farm Road, Pennington

Now Accepting Applications

Explore. Play. Learn. GirlSummer, Emma’s signature summer program, offers girls ages 6-14 enriching, personalized, and fun two- and four-week summer experiences. Each July, girls from a diverse range of states and countries come to Emma to choose from an expansive array of electives, allowing each girl to discover new pursuits or deepen personal interests. We welcome girls as day campers and, for rising 6th-9th graders, we offer the option of two- and four-week boarding programs: July 7-August 3, 2019.

Explore GirlSummer at

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Q&A with Greson Torchio, Curriculum Innovator at Princeton Academy of the Sacred Heart Photos courtesy of Princeton Academy of the Sacred Heart

Interview by Laurie Pellichero

Describe the mission and campus of Princeton Academy of the Sacred Heart At Princeton Academy of the Sacred Heart, our mission is to inspire young men to become creative, compassionate, and courageous leaders of a just society. We strive to give them the skills, empathy, and knowledge needed to make a difference in our world today. Each day our boys come to a beautiful 50-acre campus to learn, explore, and grow. Our Princetonian stone buildings contain a vibrant community with students who bring their whole self to school. State-of-the-art science labs, athletic center, and MakerSpace are some of the many dynamic spaces at Princeton Academy. Our campus has both solar and geothermal powered systems which support our ongoing sustainable practices and initiatives. What is your role at the school and what is your history there? I lead curriculum innovation as well as teach Middle School math and science. I joined the Princeton Academy community in 2017 after over a decade of teaching in independent schools in the San Francisco Bay Area. I grew up in Hopewell and I am a 2001 graduate of nearby Princeton Day School. Discovering Princeton Academy in my return to Princeton has been both professionally and personally fulfilling. The community has welcomed my family with open arms and I am honored to join them in our efforts to impact the lives of our boys. What are the Learning Principles for Boys? Princeton Academy’s Learning Principles for Boys are research-based best practices that support our mission and philosophy. These five statements serve as a compass for our curricular program: Boys learn best when they are navigators of their own learning. Boys learn best deductively. Boys learn best when given clear goals and feedback. Boys learn best when they are not afraid of failure. Boys learn best through relational experiences.

promotes risk-taking as a healthy part of the learning process. We believe that building strong relationships with their teachers inspires our boys to believe in themselves and become lifelong learners. What new programs are offered at the school? In our STEAM program, we place an emphasis on interdisciplinary, studentcentered, mission-driven work. We follow the design-thinking process as our students learn to think like engineers and become creative problem solvers. New STEAM initiatives include the construction of Pumpkin Catapults, Rube Goldberg Machines, Marine Engineering, Boat Building, and other project-based learning that focuses on sustainability and stewardship. We integrate technology and innovation throughout with 3D printing, coding, and film. In staying true to Princeton Academy’s mission and Sacred Heart Goals, our social justice program centers around building awareness that impels to action. Through research, inquiry, and instruction our students learn about global challenges facing our world today and the brave individuals and organizations leading the efforts for a better future. With this increased awareness, the boys think creatively and critically to come up with new solutions as the innovators of tomorrow. The UN Sustainable Development Goals help guide our efforts in this important work. Other new programs include mindfulness and yoga practice, speech and debate, and a Middle School Ethics Bowl Team. How does an all-boys education prepare students for the future? At Princeton Academy, we look to provide an experience that gives boys the tools, mindset, and confidence to graduate as their best self. We aim to redefine masculinity through empathy, compassion, and a strong sense of identity. We build relationships which are a necessary part of engaging boys in the learning process. And our boys learn that respect, resilience, and strong character are not only valued in our community, but needed in our future.

In other words, we believe boys learn best by doing. Our curricular program is designed to provide hands-on, collaborative learning experiences in a setting that FEBRUARY 2019 PRINCETON MAGAZINE

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(Photo by Charles R. Plohn)

he office of Princeton University football head coach Bob Surace on the second floor of Jadwin Gym is pleasantly cluttered, with a pile of football tomes on one table, motivational books spread out on another, and signed footballs throughout the room. On the wall across from Surace’s desk is a framed No. 64 Princeton jersey, the number that he wore during his years as an All-Ivy League performer for the Tigers in the late 1980s. This past fall, the number 64 took on a deeper significance as Surace guided the Princeton football squad to a 10-0 record, the program’s first perfect campaign since the legendary 1964 team went 9-0. As he wrapped up his time as a Princeton student in 1990, Surace made a connection with some members of the 1964 team, developing relationships that helped him guide this fall’s team to perfection. “I got to work their reunion and I bonded with those guys,” says Surace, 50, who played for the Tigers from 1987-89 and earned All-Ivy honors in his senior year as a 6’2, 235-pound center for a league championship team. “Little do you know that I would become the head coach in late December 2009 and they would be some of my closest allies and supporters of our program.” Surace did know from an early age that he loved sports, tagging along with his father, Tony, a decorated high school baseball and football coach in

Millville, N.J., who has been inducted in several halls of fame. “I was involved in everything — football, basketball, wrestling, baseball — you name it, we played it,” says Surace, with his voice rising in enthusiasm. “It was partly because my dad loved it. I was the bat boy in baseball. In football, I was the guy who rode the buses and put the motivational signs in the locker room. When I was 7 years old, I put the playbooks in binders.” Once he was at Millville High, Surace gravitated to baseball and football. “I loved playing, the friendships, and the people; the guys coaching me were my dad’s best friends, the guys he worked with,” recalls Surace, a star linebacker and center in football. When it came time to go college, Surace had decided to play football at the next level, centering his focus on the service academies along with Patriot League and Ivy programs. Initially concerned about the elitist image of the Ivy school across the state from him, Surace found a home when he made his official campus visit to Princeton. “One of my hosts put a mattress up in his room and we did tackling drills into his mattress,” says the affable Surace, chuckling at the recollection in his high-pitched laugh. “I am a football coach’s son — this place is for me.”

With freshmen not allowed to play varsity in those days, Surace was able to develop confidence by going against other first-year college players. “I had a good freshman year. It was like being a PG, you only played other freshman,” says Surace, who started lifelong friendships that year with the Garrett brothers — John, Judd, and Jason — the latter of whom is the head coach of the Dallas Cowboys. “It helped the acclimation to football; I was 210 pounds as a freshman. At the end of the year, I got to move up to practice against the varsity.” Once Surace moved up to varsity in the fall of 1987, he continued that progress, seeing plenty of action as a sophomore and then becoming a fixture in the starting lineup as a junior. Princeton associate head coach/defensive coordinator Steve Verbit, who has been on the Tiger staff since the mid-1980s, saw qualities in Surace the player that led to his coaching success later in life. “Bob loved football, he loved competing,” recalls Verbit. “He was a grinder. He came to work each and every day and he is tough as tough can be. Many of the same traits he portrayed many years ago in 1987, ’88, and ‘89, he portrays today.” In Surace’s senior year, things worked out very well for the Tigers as they went 7-2-1 overall and 6-1 Ivy, earning the program’s first league crown in two decades. “The team my senior year was the closest team FEBRUARY 2019 PRINCETON MAGAZINE

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and the hardest working team,” says Surace. “Instead of just having one leader, like Matt Whalen or Jason Garrett, everybody jelled and we stayed healthy. In my junior year and sophomore year, we got hit by injures. There were a lot of things that happened. In my senior year, everything jelled and it was a great season. It was so much fun, we had the first Ivy League title in 20 years for Princeton football.” Having written a senior thesis that examined management’s role in the integration of Major League Baseball, Surace was looking to stay around athletics after graduation. “At the end of the day, you have to find your passion. I knew my passion was sports,” says Surace, who found another passion at Princeton as he started dating Tiger women’s soccer player Lisa Tanners ’92, who later became his wife. “I wasn’t sure what side of sports I wanted to be on. I didn’t know if I wanted to be on the management side or on the coaching side.” In order to figure out his future path, Surace headed to New England, going to Springfield College where studied for a master’s degree in sports management and served as a running backs coach in 1990. “I ended up running a sports camp for football in Shippensburg, Pa., and I got to move around to some other different locations,” says Surace. “That was all coaching, it was running coaches. Right then and there I knew that my love was coaching.” From there, Surace took a winding road as he moved up the coaching ladder. He took a job as an offensive line coach at Maine Maritime in 1993, and served as an assistant for the Shreveport Pirates of the Canadian Football League in 1994. He returned to the college ranks as an offensive line coach at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in 1995 and then took a job as offensive coordinator at Western Connecticut State in 1999. He was elevated to head coach at Western Conn the next year and guided the Colonials to an 18-3 record, including a run to the second round of the NCAA Division III playoffs in 2001. With an assist from former Princeton teammate John Garrett, Surace hit the summit of football, landing a job in the NFL as an offensive assistant with the Cincinnati Bengals in 2001. Garrett had joined the Bengals staff the previous year and received a promotion, and saw his college friend as a good fit for the resulting opening. “He recommended me to the owner, he calls me up and says ‘are you interested in the NFL?’” says Surace. “I said ‘yeah sure,’ and he said ‘good, because you are on a flight tomorrow at 8 a.m.’ He went over things with me, saying be prepared for this, this, and this.” Surace took that flight and had a marathon session on the whiteboard with head coach Dick LeBeau, going through plays and responding to defenses to demonstrate his football acumen. Surace got the job as an offensive assistant. LeBeau was fired the next year and new coach Marvin Lewis retained him on the staff. Lewis had a great influence on Surace, who was eventually promoted to assistant offensive line coach. “I loved working with him; so many things that we do now — how we organize practice, how we

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meet — I learned from him; he was the first guy I ever worked for who brought the coaching staff together,” says Surace, noting that he holds dinners each Sunday evening during the season with his coaches and their families to help build that spirit of togetherness. “You don’t realize when you take a new job that the wives know nobody. We are all married and you come to a new situation and they are moving to a new town. Marvin was the first guy who got everybody together.” In late 2009, Surace got the chance to come home to Princeton as the Tiger head coaching position opened up and he got the job. “It was surreal, we love Princeton,” says Surace,

(Photo by Charles R. Plohn)

referring to his wife Lisa and their daughter, Alison, and son, A.J. “We have been back on campus every year. Whether it was just walking our kids through or whether it was reunions, there had not been one year where the two of us hadn’t come back on campus. Whether it was to spend the day and walk on campus or eat at Hoagie Haven, this was our place.” Surace’s dream job turned into a bit of a nightmare as the Tigers posted back-to-back 1-9 seasons in 2010 and 2011. Coming into his third season at the helm, the upbeat Surace believed the program was on the verge of turning the corner. “We are going in the right direction, we have the right people,” says Surace, recalling his message to an officer of the program’s Friends group after the second season. “We have to continue to recruit and get better in that end and continue to be better in the weight room, but if we take these positive strides, we are headed in the right direction.” Verbit concurs, seeing success on the horizon despite the steady diet of losing. “You didn’t see the results in wins and losses, but you can feel it on the

classroom, you can feel it on the practice field, you can feel it in the winter workouts and you could see it when you watch the game video,” says Verbit. “We knew we had a chance, we knew we were moving in the right direction. He was the same guy. He continued to teach and really stress the fundamentals...the techniques. He stressed work ethic and commitment to the game and good things are going to happen.” Good things started to happen in 2012 when the Tigers went 5-5, setting the stage for an Ivy League title campaign the next fall when Princeton went 8-2 overall and 6-1 Ivy, tying Harvard for the league title. “This is a great league, it is so hard to win this league,” maintains Surace. “The teams are just continuing to get better. What you saw was that we built a foundation, our culture got better, our captains were now taking over.” That foundation yielded another title in 2016 as Princeton posted an 8-2 overall record and a 6-1 league mark, sharing the crown with Penn. Coming into this past fall, Surace sensed that 2018 team had a championship culture. “This was a great group to coach, whether we were going to go 5-5 or be undefeated,” says Surace. “I knew it from December when I saw that the rising seniors were such a strength. I felt so comfortable that this group understood work ethic, understood commitment, understood teamwork more than any other team at any level, I played on or coached. They had that ‘it’ factor.” The players displayed a daily commitment to excellence, focusing on process rather than results. “Their expectation was ‘let’s just be good today, let’s just have fun today.’ They got it,” says Surace. “They understood what Princeton is all about. You don’t need to have straight As to go on and be successful, you just need to embrace things.” Tiger offensive coordinator and quarterback coach Sean Gleeson credited Surace with getting the players to take greater ownership. “It is like a light touch, he is very consistent; I think this year was unique because he tried to put it in the players’ hands from day one,” says Gleeson. “The guys were more compelled to talk before the game instead of other years. There was lot of player buy-in this year, that was intentional by him.” Surace’s even-keeled approach helped keep the players on track this fall as the wins piled up and talk mounted of a perfect season, particularly in the wake of a 14-9 win in a showdown with then-undefeated Dartmouth that left Princeton 8-0 and in the driver’s seat for the title “Each week is a new competition, you have got to respect every single opponent,” says Verbit, assessing a season which saw the Tigers rise to No. 8 in the FCS (Football Championship Subdivision) Coaches Poll and set an Ivy League record for total points (470) in a season and produced a defense that limited seven of 10 opponents to 10 points or fewer. “That is what Bob’s personality is all about. He kept our players grounded throughout the process.” There was some fire and enthusiasm provided by Surace to spice up things. “He has got the grit and everyday he is on,” adds Verbit. “Every day he is around you and around our players and in the meeting room or the weight room, you can feel it. You can see it in his step, he walks a

(Photos by Charles R. Plohn) FEBRUARY 2019 PRINCETON MAGAZINE

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little faster. It is encouragement, it is a little bit louder when he is around.” In the view of Princeton senior linebacker and co-captain Mark Fossati, Surace’s Princeton background helps encourage the players to go the extra mile for him. “If you don’t love who you are playing for, you are going to have a tough time there,” says Fossati. “I think that is why you see a lot of kids committed to the program throughout their four years here, because coach Surace becomes a father figure for the guys. Him being a student here, he gets what we have to go through. He knows the people that we need to talk to to get through this.” Another senior stalwart, star defensive lineman and co-captain Kurt Holuba, got to see Surace’s mentoring in a different context as he suffered a season-ending knee injury weeks before the opener and became a de facto line coach. “I went from Kurt the player to coach K. It was kind of weird at first, adopting this role as a coach, but I really embraced it as time went on,” says Holuba. “Coach Verbit and coach Surace both encouraged it. I was more hands on with the defensive line than any other position. I got to sit in on some meetings, have a little family dinner time on Sundays. I got involved in that process, which was awesome. I think the No. 1 quality of coach Surace that just permeates the program and the reason why he has had so much success is that genuine caring for everybody.

He embedded that sense when he recruits you and through my five years.” That genuineness shines through to Surace’s coaching colleagues across campus, according to men’s soccer coach Jim Barlow, a 1991 Princeton alum who knew him in passing during their college years. “Bob is so well respected, he has time for everybody,” says Barlow. “He is engaged, He obviously has a million things on his mind but when you talk to him, you get the feeling that you are the only thing that is important right now to him. He has the ability to really focus and be engaging. He has got so many friends and is so popular in the department.” In the heat of battle on Saturdays, Surace shows a special level of focus, according to Gleeson. “He is an incredible game day coach; he really does not meddle at all with the offense or the defense,” says Gleeson. “He is really, really sharp. I have never seen him make a bad decision about a timeout. I never seen him make a poor decision about when to go for it.” As Surace reflects on Princeton’s incredible campaign this fall, he is proud that the team will join the 1964 squad as having a special place in program lore. “At the end of the day, your legacy is different; you go in as historic in this place,” says Surace, recalling his message to his players before they defeated Penn 42-14 in the season finale to culminate the perfect season.

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“There is 150 years of Princeton football. It is the first team to ever play, but there have only been so many undefeated teams. At the end of the day, we can still be a championship team. I played on one of them, or you can separate yourselves from the others.” With Surace having been selected as the Ivy Coach of the Year for a second time and getting named as Maxwell Football Club’s Andy Talley TriState Coach of the Year this fall, he plans to stay at Princeton and add to the legacy he is creating at his alma mater where he has posted a 48-42 record in his first nine years at the helm. “I am an alum, I love this,” says Surace, whose wife is currently the associate head of school at Princeton Day School and whose children are both students there. “I love that my teammates are coming back. I am part of the community. My wife is part of the community. My daughter is a freshman in high school. For the most part, it is hired guns in the NFL. It is not the same as this. You look at the front row at one of our games this fall and it is my son’s baseball team. In two weeks, I am going out to dinner with my son’s coaches. I love being part of a community that way and colleges allow that, especially Princeton. I am not bigger than the president.” But after what Surace accomplished this fall, he is getting to be a pretty big deal.

Winter Blues

Photos courtesy of RSM Psychology Center;

By Dr. Rosemarie Scolaro Moser


or many of us, this is the time of year when the highs of the holidays are memories and we sink into the doldrums of long, gloomy, dark nights. We may feel sluggish, down, and moody. We may struggle with weight gain and fatigue. We may feel less motivated. Some call this the Winter Blues. The Winter Blues is actually not a medical term, but a mild sub-type or “sub-syndrome” of Seasonal Affective Disorder or SAD. SAD is an “atypical” major depression that usually occurs in the winter months, recurring yearly. The Winter Blues and SAD are considered chronobiological disorders, meaning that our physical internal clocks are off due to the change in daylight exposure as we enter a new season. Moving into the winter months results in fewer hours of daylight affecting our hormones, such as serotonin, which modulates happiness, and melatonin, which regulates sleep. Due to the change in our daily rhythm and in these hormones, we may find ourselves sleeping more, feeling less mentally sharp, isolating ourselves, and craving carbs. Sounds like animal hibernation. SAD is thought to be four times more frequent in women and more frequent the farther north from the equator you go due to a reduction in daylight. It seems more likely to surface in adulthood, although adolescents can also suffer from it. According to the American Academy of Family Physicians, up to 20 percent of the population suffers from the mild form of Winter Blues, whereas 4 to 6 percent suffer from SAD. What can be done to relieve the symptoms of Winter Blues? • Light therapy: Specifically, exposure to 10,000 lux of light for 30 minutes per day may be effective. Research has shown that use of a light box providing fluorescent light without UV wavelength may be essential in coping with SAD. Before purchasing or using a light box, talk to your physician. Side effects can include headache, eyestrain, retinal damage, and nausea, and some people don’t tolerate light exposure well. Do not look directly into the light, and avoid using it late in the day as the brightness may signal your body to stay wired rather than fall asleep at bedtime.

• Exercise: We know that physical exercise increases endorphin levels. Endorphins are neurotransmitters or hormones that improve mood and the feeling of well-being. In addition, exercise provides greater strength and energy as well as burns off the extra calories related to carb consumption. If exercise is performed outside, then there is also a benefit of natural light exposure! • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A landmark research study headed by Dr. Kelly Rohan at the University of Vermont published in 2015 in the American Journal of Psychiatry compared the use of six weeks of light therapy versus Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) in 177 individuals. CBT is a psychotherapy approach which is used to promote positive change by identifying and treating difficulties arising from irrational thinking, misperceptions, dysfunctional thoughts, and faulty learning. After two winters, follow up results from these individuals showed that 50 percent of those who were treated with light therapy had a recurrence of symptoms, compared to only 27 percent of those who were treated with CBT. It’s important to keep busy by scheduling pleasurable activities that YOU enjoy, and try something new. Reduce the chores and obligations if possible. Meet friends for lunch at a new restaurant, try a body massage, enroll in an adult education class, learn a new hobby, regularly schedule movie or theater or concert activities on the weekends, attend a local lecture, volunteer at a food pantry or soup kitchen, try yoga, or contact a relative with whom you haven’t been in touch. Plan your life with events to which you look forward, to help bridge you through the winter months and into spring. Rachel Carson’s words offer hope: “There is something infinitely healing in the repeated refrains of nature — the assurance that dawn comes after night and spring after winter.” The winter solstice, or shortest day of the year, has passed and by February we gain about two and a half minutes each day. The Winter Blues are temporary. Know that while they’re here, you don’t have to suffer with them.

• Pharmacotherapy: For some who experience an underlying depression to begin with, medications to address the symptoms of depression may reduce the symptoms of SAD as well as treat the yearround depression. Consult a primary care physician or psychiatrist to determine whether this is a reasonable treatment alternative.


Dr. Rosemarie Scolaro Moser is a board certified neuropsychologist and rehabilitation psychologist who received her PhD from the University of Pennsylvania and is the director of the RSM Psychology Center in Princeton, NJ, where she provides psychotherapy and evaluation services.


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Black History Lives Between Covers, From Douglass to Obama BY STUART MITCHNER


only problem with “Black History Month” is in the way “history” implicitly detracts from the ongoing immediacy of the African American experience. “Lives” in my title can be read both as a reference to the lives of people and to the force that lives in the present, which happens when we listen to Charlie Parker or Billie Holiday, read James Baldwin or Frederick Douglass, admire a painting by Jacob Lawrence or a photograph by Gordon Parks, or go online to watch First Lady Michelle Obama’s stirring speech at the 2016 Democratic Convention. The good news is that millions of people have been reading Obama’s memoir, Becoming (Crown $32.50), and David W. Blight’s Frederick Douglass: Prophet of Freedom (Simon and Schuster $37.50). Blight’s landmark biography begins with President Barack Obama’s September 24, 2016 dedication speech at the National Museum of African American History and Culture, in which he delivered “a clear-eyed view” of the “tragic and triumphant” experience of “black Americans in the United States.” After referring to “the infinite depths of Shakespeare and scripture” in black history, Obama paid tribute to “the fight for our freedom ... a lifetime of struggle and progress and enlightenment ... etched in Frederick Douglass’s mighty leonine gaze.” The face on the cover of Prophet of Freedom commands attention with a force reflected in the book’s primary epigraph, Douglass’s declaration, “There is a prophet within us, forever whispering that behind the seen lies the immeasurable unseen.” Blight brings Douglass and Obama together again on the occasion of the 11th anniversary of Lincoln’s assassination, April 14, 1876, when the former slave spoke before an audience including President Ulysses S. Grant and leaders from every branch of government; according to Blight, “No African American speaker had ever faced this kind of captive audience, composed of all the leadership of the federal government in one place and no such speaker would ever again until Obama was inaugurated in January 2009.”

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Michelle Obama’s “When they go low, we go high” moment at the Philadelphia convention, where she charmed her audience even as she challenged it, resonates in the down to earth style of the opening pages of Becoming. For her, the White House is “where our two girls played ball in the hallways and climbed trees on the South Lawn,” where “Barack sat up late at night, poring over briefings and drafts of speeches in the Treaty Room, and “where, Sunny, one of our dogs, sometimes pooped on the rug.” Reviewing Becoming in the New York Times, Isabel Wilkerson says, “In finally telling her story, Obama is doing several things with this book. She is taking the country by the hand on an intimate tour of everyday African American life and ambition, while recounting her rise from modest origins to the closest this country has to nobility.” “A CHILD’S STORY FOR ADULTS”

Little Man, Little Man (Duke Univ. Press $22.95) is a book James Baldwin (1924-1987) wrote expressly for his nephew TJ, aka Tejan Karefa-Smart, who notes in his foreword how the book, first published in 1976, has “managed to travel with me through those childhood years and into my adult life.” Referring to “the very real people, places, circumstances, and life events that TJ encounters in this story of childhood,” Karefa-Smart says the “everyday ‘Music up and down the street,’ has become for me the rhythm of my own movement through a colorful, wild world.” Nicholas Boggs and Jennifer DeVere Brody’s introduction discusses Baldwin’s friendship with the illustrator Yoran Cazac as well as tracing the highlights of black children’s literature from W.E.B. Du Bois’s monthly children’s magazine, The Brownie Book (1920-21) and Langston Hughes’s The Pasteboard Bandit (1935) to Toni Morrison’s The Big Box (1999). What makes Little Man, Little Man “so noteworthy for its time is its self-aware

Olymia, Édouard Manet, 1863. Oil on canvas, Musée d’Orsay, Paris. Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

presentation as a ‘child’s story for adults’ that tackles such mature themes as poverty, police brutality, crime, intergenerational relations, addiction, racism, and social marginality through the voice and vision of a black child.” THE BLACK MODEL

Exhibition curator Denise Murrell’s Posing Modernity: The Black Model from Manet and Matisse to Today (Yale Univ Press $50) examines the legacy of Édouard Manet’s Olympia (1863), arguing that this “radical painting marked a fitfully evolving shift toward modernist portrayals of the black figure as an active participant in everyday life rather than as an exotic ‘other.’” Exploring the little-known interfaces between the avant-gardists of 19th-century Paris and the post-abolition community of free black Parisians, Murrell “traces the impact of Manet’s reconsideration of the black model into the twentieth century and across the Atlantic, where Henri Matisse visited Harlem jazz clubs and later produced transformative portraits of black dancers as icons of modern beauty.” Also discussed is the urbane “New Negro” portraiture style by which Harlem Renaissance artists like Charles Alston and Laura Wheeler Waring “defied racial stereotypes.” The book concludes with an observation of the ways Manet’s and Matisse’s depictions influenced Romare Bearden and continue to resonate in the work of such global contemporary artists as Faith Ringgold, Aimé Mpane, Maud Sulter, and Mickalene Thomas. DEPICTING THE COLOR LINE

W.E.B. Du Bois’s Data Portraits: Visualizing Black America by Whitney BattleBaptiste and Britt Rusert (Princeton Architectural Press $29.95) collects the colorful charts, graphs, and maps DuBois presented at the 1900 Paris Exposition, offering a view into the lives of black Americans, by conveying a literal and figurative representation of “the color line.” As Maria Popova has observed, these data portraits shaped how “Du Bois himself thought about sociology, informing the ideas with which he set the world ablaze three years later in The Souls of Black Folk.”


Philip Brookman’s Gordon Parks: The New Tide: Early Work: 1940-1950 (Steidl/Gordon Parks Foundation/National Gallery of Art $48) examines Gordon Parks’s transformation in the decade preceding his tenure as the first black staff photographer at Life magazine. Born into poverty and segregation in Fort Scott, Kansas in 1912, Parks worked as a brothel pianist and railcar porter, among other jobs, before buying a camera at a pawnshop, training himself, and becoming a photographer. Beginning as a photographer for the Farm Security Administration, Parks also eventually found success as a film director, writer, and composer. He received numerous awards, including the National Medal of Arts, and more than 50 honorary degrees. The book was timed to accompany the recent Gordon Parks exhibit at the National Gallery, which was curated by Brookman; there are additional essays by Sarah Lewis, Deborah Willis, Richard J. Powell, and Maurice Berger. FREEDOM EVERYWHERE

In Baltimore, Frederick Douglass, then a 12-year-old slave named Frederick Bailey, found “the book that changed his life.” The Columbian Orator was a compendium of prose, verse, plays, and political speeches by famous orators from Cicero and Socrates to John Milton, George Washington, and Benjamin Franklin. The used copy he bought with the 50 cents he’d earned doing odd jobs around the shipyard at Fells Point became “a noble acquisition” and was his “constant companion and sole worldly possession” when at the age of 20 he escaped to freedom, finally achieving the objective he envisions in the 1845 Narrative: “I saw nothing without seeing it, I heard nothing without hearing it, and felt nothing without feeling it. It looked from every star, it smiled in every calm, breathed in every wind, and moved in every storm.” Like Douglass’s “noble acquisition,” books born of the African American experience can change lives, transcend history, bridge divides, and break down walls.


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LLL: Sloane Crosley: Look Alive Out There: Essays


Writing & Illustrating Picture Books: Laurie Wallmark, Barbara DiLorenzo, & Airlie Anderson: Hedy Lamarr’s Double Life



All events are held at 6:00 pm in Labyrinth’s downstairs event space, unless otherwise noted. More information and a complete calendar at

LLL: Tim Hampton & Nigel Smith (Faculty, English) Bob Dylan’s Poetics: How the Songs Work


Michael Dickman (Faculty, English) & Nomi Stone (Faculty, Anthropology): Days & Days: Poems and Kill Class: Poems


LLL: Jane DeHart: Ruth Bader Ginsburg: A Life


LLL:* Briallen Hopper & Bill Gleason (Faculty, English): Hard to Love


LLL: Sam Lipsyte: Hark: A Novel


Stanley Corngold (Faculty, Comparative Literature) Walter Kaufmann: Philosopher, Humanist, Heretic


Michael Walzer: Political Action: A Practical Guide to Movement Politics, Power, and Academic Freedom


In Memory of James Cone: Elaine Pagels (Faculty, Religion), Eddie Glaude (Faculty, Religion) & Chris Hedges Said I Wasn’t Gonna Tell Nobody


Rachel Heng & Jared Stark: Suicide Club: A Novel About Living A Death of One’s Own: Literature, Law, and the Right to Die


Joe Fischel & Regina Kunzel (Faculty, History) Screw Consent: A Better Politics of Sexual Justice


Paul Steinhardt (Faculty, Physics): The Second Kind of Impossible: The Extraordinary Quest for a New Form of Matter


Joan Scott & Carolyn Rouse (Faculty, Anthropology) Knowledge, Power, and Academic Freedom


Dieter Thomä & Jan-Werner Müller (Faculty, Politics) Troublemakers: A Philosophy of Puer Robustus


LLL at 4 pm: Ashton Applewhite: A Manifesto Against Ageism



Marianne Farrin: From Berlin to Hollywood—And Beyond

LLL: Pico Iyer (Faculty, Journalism) Autumn Light: Season of Fire and Farewells



Murad Idris, Dan-el Padilla Peralta (Faculty, Classics) and Andrew Cole (Faculty, English): War for Peace: Genealogies of a Violent Ideal in Western and Islamic Thought

Elaine Pagels (Faculty, Religion) & Wallace Best (Faculty, Religion): Why Religion: A Personal Story

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Maxine Gordon & Richard Lawn Sophisticated Giant: The Life and Legacy of Dexter Gordon


Events continue in May! Get announcements and up-to-date info in our weekly events email at *Library Live at Labyrinth (LLL) events are co-sponsored with the Princeton Public Library

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o question is more crucial to the state of our nation, and no question is more dominant in the news media, than the question of presidential power. Who makes the decisions that determine the fate of our country, its people, and so many others around the world? We pride ourselves on our democratic government, with power vested in the people themselves. From the time of the American Revolution and the founding of the United States of America, the country has rejected the idea of a king or an imperial president. “The power under the Constitution will always be in the people,” George Washington wrote in a letter to his nephew. The notion of a monarch or a dictator in the White House continues to be anathema to most Americans. Over the centuries since the drafting of the Constitution in 1787, however, the power of the executive branch has steadily grown, even though checks and balances and the separation of powers among the three branches of government (executive, legislative, judicial) are fundamental to our system of government and to the essence of our exceptionality as a nation. From George Washington through Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Harry Truman, up to Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, Barack Obama, and Donald Trump, presidents have frequently exercised their prerogative powers. Particularly in times of emergency, they have unilaterally acted without seeking approval of Congress to resolve disputes or manage crises, and they have justified their actions based on their reading of the Constitution and the necessity for action. Some of these unilateral presidential actions have been controversial, depending on partisan views. Many have not. The question of executive power and its limits under the U.S. Constitution was the topic of the 2018 Tanner Lectures on Human Values at Princeton University, held on November 28 and 29, as several of the most prominent constitutional scholars in the country gathered to wrestle with the difficult issue. The event was titled “The President Who Would Not Be King,” but if such a president ever existed, he was not mentioned in the far-ranging discussion of chief executives exercising and expanding their powers from the 18th century to the present. Recent months have seen numerous attempts by the Oval Office to exercise prerogative powers and increasing controversy in Washington and beyond. Has the modern government, with its unilateral actions and executive orders, completely overridden the system of checks and balances and defied the intentions of the Constitution? “Prerogative” power, the right or privilege of the president to act on his own independent judgement apart from the legislature or the people, is included and circumscribed in the Constitution, but President Trump’s notion of the chief executive’s prerogative power no doubt derives from his life experience as the head of a familyowned business, with few checks or limits on what he can do.

Lawn in front of the White House, Washington, D.C. (Photo courtesy of

Can a president simply decide that every situation, domestic or foreign, is a crisis warranting the use of prerogative powers, a presidential fiat, and unilateral action regardless of Constitutional limitations and the wishes of Congress, the courts, and the people themselves? What are the constraints on these prerogative powers? One effective constraint over the years, in spite of rapidly growing presidential authority, has been the power of Congress, under Article I of the Constitution, to oversee spending. The president either signs a budget approved by Congress, or he vetoes, after which Congress can attempt to override that veto. With the question of the Trump border wall, however, the president suggested that he might declare a national emergency and proceed with the building of the wall despite Congress’s explicit refusal to appropriate funds. With a Supreme Court unlikely to rein in the president’s power, the meanings of presidential prerogative and executive power seem to be expanding beyond previously recognized boundaries. The thought of a Democrat in the White House sometime in the future wanting to exercise similar prerogative powers to declare a national emergency and, say, ban all guns or spend billions of dollars to combat climate change, should make a concern over abuses of presidential power a bipartisan issue. Thomas Friedman, in a January 16 New York Times op-ed, praised Supreme Court Chief Justice John Roberts for speaking out in favor of “an independent judiciary … something we should all be thankful for.” Friedman stated that judges “should be loyal only to the Constitution and their interpretation of it,” and he warned about the kinds of governments “where the arbitrary whims of the leader or his party are the basis of all decisionmaking, not the rule of law, built on independent institutions.” Trump, however, Friedman argued, “appreciates none of this. I don’t think Trump ever took civics. I don’t think he ever understood the

separation of powers or the meaning of independent agencies. That’s why the shutdown doesn’t bother him. His instincts are those of a banana republic dictator.” THE TANNER LECTURES

At the Tanner Lectures, Constitutional Law Professor Michael W. McConnell, former judge of the U.S. court of appeals for the tenth circuit, director of the Constitutional Law Center at Stanford Law School, and a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution, was the featured speaker both days. He discussed “Executive Power and the Constitution” in his first lecture, with responding commentary by government professors Eric Nelson from Harvard and Jeffrey Tulis from the University of Texas at Austin. McConnell discussed “Executive Power at Home and Abroad” on the second day, with followup observations by law school professors Gillian Metzger from Columbia Law School and Amanda Tyler from University of California, Berkeley School of Law. Each of the approximately 200 people, many themselves Constitutional scholars, who attended the sessions each day in Princeton University’s Friend Center was provided with a handy pocketsized copy of the U.S. Constitution. All the speakers made frequent references to the 1787 document, and the discussion focused as much on James Madison, Charles Pinkney, George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and the Kings of England as it did on Trump, Obama, Bush, and Clinton. McConnell set out an elaborate new framework for assessing the Constitutional legitimacy of exercising power, a new way of thinking about the relationship of the three branches of the federal government. He provided a vivid description of key moments at the Constitutional Convention and the drafting and redrafting of Article 2, which delineates presidential powers. “The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America,” states the first sentence of Section 1 of Article II of the document, and then in Section 3, near the end of Article II, “he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed.” But between those stipulations lies much room for uncertainty and debate. FEBRUARY 2019 PRINCETON MAGAZINE

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From left, Professors Eric Nelson, Michael McConnell, and Jeffrey Tulis at the Tanner Lectures. (Photo courtesy of Anita Chevres Photography)

Appointed by George W. Bush and serving as Tenth Circuit Judge from 2002 to 2009, McConnell is considered a conservative judge, but he has won wide respect in the academic community and across the political spectrum for his numerous publications on Constitutional law. He has argued 15 cases in the Supreme Court, and in the past 10 years, his work has been cited in opinions of the Supreme Court second most often of any legal scholar. “Our last three presidents have been unusually assertive concerning the power of the president,” McConnell noted. He cited Bush’s extreme interrogation techniques after 9/11. “Obama promised to scale back executive power,” McConnell said,” but he was no less assertive than his predecessor, maybe more so, using the pen and the phone to make public policy.” McConnell mentioned the Libya air war, environmental regulations, and suspension of immigration laws as examples of Obama’s assertion of prerogative power. “Trump is, at least rhetorically, more aggressive than his predecessors,” McConnell said. “He is not shy about the use of executive power.” To resolve disputes over legality, McConnell repeatedly urged a return to the text of the original document and a closer look at the proceedings at the 1787 Constitutional Convention. He noted the “uncertainty of the text of the Constitution,” in which the powers of the presidency are “radically incomplete,” unlike the powers of Congress that are much more clearly and thoroughly set forth in Article I. There are no details concerning the president’s power to make foreign policy and conduct foreign affairs. The powers to make war and peace and to make treaties and alliances were prerogative powers held by King George III but allocated to Congress in the U.S. Constitution. The Founding Fathers wanted there to be no chance of their president becoming a military dictator or resembling a powerful king like George III. The framers, McConnell argued, had reasons for specifically enumerating certain powers; they wanted to limit those powers. McConnell went on to outline his framework for determining the legality of presidential actions based on whether those actions fall into the category

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of prerogative powers, delegated powers, or residual powers, according to the Constitution. He suggested that the Supreme Court over the past 60 years has often gone astray on this issue. Nelson applauded McConnell’s attempts to clarify the limits of presidential power. He argued that “the unitary executive of our Constitution, armed with extensive prerogative powers, embodies some of the core principles of the royalist constitution of the Stuart monarchs,” with the American president’s powers going beyond those of George III — not monarchy light, but monarchy plus. FEAR OF DEMAGOGUERY

Speaking next, Tulis contended that the boundaries of the powers of the three branches of federal government are fundamentally indeterminate. He called for less focus on defining powers and more focus on the structures of the three branches of government. “To limit abuses of power, we should look to Constitutional politics: agonistic struggle among the branches, in which Congress should be playing a more vigorous role,” he said. “It’s not so much a separation of powers, but separate institutions sharing powers, each involved in the business of the other two, armed with powers to contest and check abuses of power in the other branches.” Moving quickly from the founders to the present, Tulis continued, “Demagoguery is the most worrisome pathology to fear in a democracy, and the separation of powers is the way to preclude demagoguery. We are now living in a political world in which that fear has come true.” Acknowledging abuses of power on both sides, McConnell decried the current polarization of politics and the failure of Congress to stand up to the president. “There’s been an abdication by Congress,” he said, making the role of the judiciary crucial. “If we don’t have the Court, we have

nothing, and the president is going to automatically prevail. Legalism is the only thing we have that might restrain a president who is misbehaving.” Continuing on the second day of the Tanner Lectures, McConnell discussed a number of recent controversial examples of the exercise of presidential power. The cases involved powers — in foreign affairs, war, immigration, public lands — that, according to the Constitution, could be allocated to either the executive or the legislative branch. Obama issued a presidential proclamation creating a national monument of more than a million acres in Southern Utah, under the statutory authority of the Antiquities Act (1906). Trump, after taking office, rescinded much of that action by the same sort of proclamation. These decisions required no public hearings or consultation with Congress, and were not subject to judicial review. In a more controversial example, Trump banned entry into the U.S. by the residents of eight named foreign countries, mostly majority Muslim. The Supreme Court upheld that decision. On the issue of recent trade wars, McConnell questioned, “How can the president increase tariffs without going to Congress,” when the Constitution gives Congress, not the president, authority to regulate commerce with foreign nations? The answer, he said, lies in the fact that statutes passed by Congress often delegate power to the president to make exceptions. The Trade Expansion Act of 1962 in this case gives the president such power in the interests of national security. But who decides what constitutes a matter of national security? This is a question that has caused much dispute. McConnell’s examples of executive authority clashing with Congressional statutes also included Obama’s transfer of Guantanamo detainees to the U.S., Bush-era interrogation practices, and Trump’s policy on processing asylum claims outside ports of entry. “Just looking at the text of the Constitution and a little bit of history, we can go a great distance towards resolving what are regarded as quite thorny and difficult separation of powers arguments of considerable importance to us today,” McConnell concluded. COMPLEXITY AND MURKINESS

In her response, Metzger noted much that she admired in McConnell’s framework for assessing presidential powers, but she claimed that framework to be problematic in its simplicity. “Too much clarity about the powers of the president is a source of concern,” she said, noting complexities in the founders’ views and in the current status of the debate.

“Over time we have constructed the modern presidency in response to Congress, the courts, and practical necessity,” she added. “Not only is this process building out the presidency legitimately, it is necessary for Constitutional doctrine to speak to lived reality. We live in a world vastly different from that of the founders.” She went on to emphasize the importance of engaging with the practical imperatives of diplomacy and the nature of foreign affairs practices over the last 230 years, noting the dominant role in foreign affairs played by the president. She added that it is essential to include historical precedent that has developed over the years as well as practical need and to “acknowledge overtly and transparently the murkiness about presidential power and its scope.” Tyler also, in her remarks, agreed with McConnell that the Constitution was drafted with the idea of creating an executive that would not be like a king, but she noted, “It’s a more complex story.” She proceeded to review the history, from 17thcentury English kings to present-day U.S. presidents, of leaders claiming the power to suspend the right of habeas corpus, detaining unilaterally suspected domestic enemies of the state. She mentioned Lincoln during the Civil War, Franklin D. Roosevelt during World War II, and George W. Bush during the war on terrorism, among others. Tyler pointed out a trend in Constitutional law, “a movement away from fairly well settled understandings of how the separation of powers based on the structure of the Constitution was

At the Tanner Lectures were, third from right, Princeton University President Christopher L. Eisgruber, himself a constitutional law scholar; featured speakers, from left, Eric Nelson, Gillian Metzger, Amanda Tyler, Michael W. McConnell, and Jeffrey Tulis; and Tanner Committee Chair Stephen Macedo. (Photo courtesy of Anita Chevres Photography)

supposed to work toward a modern blurring of the lines of authority. And all of this has been bolstered by a judiciary that has been unwilling to police some of these longstanding assumptions or understandings.” She continued, “By blurring the lines of accountability and allowing, or at least not policing, the expansion of executive power to fill the void

of legislative inaction, the state of the modern presidency is far removed from that envisioned by those who wrote our Constitution.” Claiming that the problem is exacerbated by the dysfunctions of Congress, Tyler warned, “The result, I fear, is we are now left with an executive who looks a little too much like a king in the old style.”

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