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F R O M T H E P U B L I S H E R I hope you have been enjoying The Wisdom Journal. We have another great issue for you with insights drawn from a number of our latest Buddhist books and translations. Here are a few of my favorite moments from this issue: We are honored to publish a third book from Kathleen Dowling Singh, who sadly passed away this October. Kathleen leaves us all with so much wisdom for all aspects of the human experience: living, aging, and dying. In an excerpt from Unbinding: The Grace Beyond Self, Kathleen entices us out into the world to walk in the woods in wonder as she shares with us a contemplation in which we imagine ourselves as a stream to find that “grace increasingly shines in and through us as the fog of who we had believed ourselves to be dissipates, as the congested density thins into clear spaciousness,” and she reminds us that “awareness is an endless continuum” (page 12).  In his translation of the The Rhinoceros Horn (Khaggavisāna Sutta), Bhikkhu Bodhi makes available to us in English the Buddha’s advice to ascetics: “like a lion unalarmed among sounds, like the wind not caught in a net, untainted like a lotus by water, one should live alone like a rhinoceros horn” (page 39). His Holiness the Dalai Lama, in an excerpt from Science and Philosophy in the Indian Buddhist Classics—one of his heart projects—tells us how beneficial it is for the science of mind to take a more expansive and detailed perspective (page 4).

Cover photo by Suizou Osaka

In Words of Advice for Lhawang Tashi, Kongtrol Rinpoche cautions us, “Without contentment in your mind, acquire what you may—you’ll still be like a beggar” (page 8).  In the long-awaited fifth and final volume of Steps on the Path to Enlightenment, Geshe Sopa dives into the depths of Tsongkhapa’s sophisticated explication of the unique feature of the Madhyamaka system, the noncontradiction of the two truths, clarifying how ultimate analysis does not undermine conventional reality (page 32).  In an excerpt from my Wisdom Podcast interview with Joanne Cacciatore, she describes the deep relationship between love and grief, explaining that we only grieve for that which we love (page 10).  His Holiness Sakya Trichen reveals how reflecting on impermanence and death helps us to lead a meaningful life (page 35). Andy Rotman’s translation of a Divine Story teaches about the best course of action for the next time you find yourself face-toface with a great sea monster (page 29)!  And there is so much more… enjoy! Daniel Aitken, Publisher Wisdom Publications


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B U D D H I S M , S C I E N C E , A N D P H I L O S O P H Y His Holiness the Dalai Lama The spiritual leader’s rumination on the essence of our physical world and the human mind, drawn from Science and Philosophy in the Indian Buddhist Classics.

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E D D I E S I N T H E S T R E A M Kathleen Dowling Singh An invitation to forgo suffering and immerse yourself in grace and nature with the author of Unbinding.

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The forty-first head of the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism shares his advice on motivation and receiving teachings in an excerpt from Freeing the Heart and Mind, Part Two: Chögyal Phagpa on the Buddhist Path.

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Andy Rotman

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A look at what’s next for Wisdom Publications

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An interview with Joanne Cacciatore

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Teachings from the Pāli Canon, translated by Bhikkhu Bodhi

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A selection of our favorite books from the Tibetan, Theravada, and Zen traditions, as well as perennial bestsellers and new releases

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Photo by Olivier Adam


Buddhism, Science, and Philosophy By His Holiness the Dalai Lama

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n Buddhism in general, and for the Nālandā masters of classical India in particular, when it comes to examining the nature of reality, the evidence of direct perception is accorded greater authority than both reason-based inference and scripture. For if one takes a scripture to be an authority in describing the nature of reality, then that scripture too must first be verified as authoritative by relying on another scriptural testimony, which in turn must be verified by another scripture, and so on, leading to an infinite regress. Furthermore, a scripture-based approach can offer no proof or rebuttals against alternative standpoints proposed by opponents who do not accept the validity of that scripture. Even among scriptures, some can be accepted as literal while some cannot, giving us no reliable standpoints on the nature of reality. It is said that to cite scripture as an authority in the context of inquiring into the nature of reality indicates a misguided intelligence. To do so precludes us from the ranks of those who uphold reason. In science we find a similar approach. Scientists take experimentation and the logic of mathematics as arbiters of truth when it comes to evaluating the conclusions of their research; they do not ground validity in the authority of some other person. This method of critical inquiry, one that draws

inferences about the unobservable, such as atomic particles, based on observed facts that are evident to our direct perception, is shared by both Buddhism and contemporary science. Once I saw this shared commitment, it greatly increased my confidence in engaging with modern scientists. With instruments like microscopes and telescopes and with mathematical calculations, scientists have been able to carefully analyze phenomena from atomic particles to distant planets. What can be observed by the senses is enhanced by means of these instruments, allowing scientists to gain new inferences about various facts. Whatever hypothesis science puts forth must be verified by observation-based experiments, and similarly Buddhism asserts that the evidence of direct perception must ultimately underpin critical inquiry. Thus with respect to the way conclusions are drawn from evidence and reasoning, Buddhism and science share an important similarity. In Buddhism, however, empirical observation is not confined to the five senses alone; it has a wider meaning, since it includes observations derived from meditation. This meditationbased empirical observation grounded in study and contemplation is also recognized as part of the means of investigating reality, akin to the role scientific method plays in scientific inquiry. Since my first visit to the West, a trip to Europe in 1973, I have had the opportunity to engage in conversations with great scientists, including the noted twentieth-century philosopher of science Sir Karl Popper

and the quantum physicist Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, who was the brother of the last West German president and also a colleague of the famed quantum physicists Werner Heisenberg and David Bohm. Over many years I have had the chance to engage in dialogues with scientists on a range of topics, such as cosmology, neurobiology, evolution, and physics, especially subatomic-particle physics. This latter discipline of particle physics shares methods strikingly similar to those found in Buddhism, such as the Mind Only school’s critique of the external material world that reveals that nothing can be found when matter is deconstructed into its constitutive elements, and similarly the statements found in the Middle Way school treatises that nothing can be found when one searches for the real referents behind our concepts and their associated terms. I have also on numerous occasions had dialogues with scientists from the fields of psychology and the science of mind, sharing the perspectives of the Indian tradition in general, which contains techniques of cultivating tranquility and insight, and the Buddhist sources in particular, with its detailed presentations on mind science. Today we live in an age when the power of science is so pervasive that no culture or society can escape its impact. In a way, there was no choice but for me to learn about science and embrace it with a sense of urgency. I also saw the potential for an emerging discourse on the science of mind. Recognizing this, and wishing to explore how science and its fruits can become a constructive force in the world and serve the basic human drive for happiness, I have engaged in dialogue with scientists for many years. My sincere hope is that these dialogues across cultures and disciplines will inspire new ways to promote both physical and mental well-being and thus serve

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humanity through a unique interface of contemporary science and mind science. Thus, when I engage in conversations with scientists, such as in the ongoing Mind and Life dialogues, I have the following two aims. The first concerns expanding the scope of science. Not only is the breadth of the world’s knowledge vast, advances are being made year by year that expand human knowledge. Science, however, right from its inception and especially once it began to develop quickly, has been concerned primarily with the world of matter. Unsurprisingly, then, contemporary science focuses on the physical world. Because of this, not much inquiry in science has been made into the nature of the person—the inquirer—as well as into how memory arises, the nature of happiness and suffering, and the workings of emotion. Science’s advances in the domain of the physical world have been truly impressive. From the perspective of human experience, however, there are dimensions of reality that undoubtedly lie outside the current domain of scientific knowledge. It is of vital importance that the science of mind takes its place among the current fields of human investigation. The brain-based explanations in contemporary science about the different classes of sensory experience will be enriched by incorporating a more expanded and detailed understanding of the mind. So my first goal in my dialogues with scientists is to help make the current field of psychology or mind science more complete. Not only do Buddhism and science have much to learn from each other, but there is also a great need for a way of knowing that encompasses both body and mind. For as human beings we experience happiness and suffering not only physically

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but mentally as well. If our goal is to promote human happiness, we have a real opportunity to pursue a new kind of science that explores methods to enhance happiness through the interface of contemporary science with contemplative mind science. It is my belief that, while acknowledging the great contribution that science has made in advancing human knowledge, our ultimate aim should always be to help create a comprehensive approach to understanding our world. This takes us to the second goal behind my dialogues with scientists— how best to ensure that science serves humanity. As humans, we face two kinds of problems, those

IT IS O F VITAL IMPOR TAN CE THAT THE S CIE N CE O F M IN D TAKES ITS PL ACE AMONG THE C U RREN T F IELDS O F HU M AN INVESTIG ATIO N . that are essentially our own creation and those owing to natural forces. Since the first kind is created by we humans ourselves, its solution must also be within our human capacity. In contemporary human society, we do not lack knowledge, but the persistence of problems that are our own creation clearly demonstrates that we lack effective solutions to these problems. The obstacle to solving these problems is the presence in the human mind of excessive

self-centeredness, attachment, anger, greed, discrimination, envy, competitiveness, and so on. Such problems also stem from deficits in our consideration of others, compassion, tolerance, conscientiousness, insight, and so on. Since many of the world’s great religions carry extensive teachings on these values, I have no doubt that such teachings can serve humanity through helping to overcome the human-made problems we face. The primary purpose of science is also to benefit and serve humanity. Discoveries in science have brought concrete benefits in medicine, the environment, commerce, travel, working conditions, and human relationships. There is no doubt that science has brought great benefits when it comes to alleviating suffering at the physical level. However, since mental suffering is connected with our perception and attitude, material progress is not enough. Even in countries where science has flourished greatly, problems like theft and violent disputes persist. As long as the mind remains filled with greed, anger, conceit, envy, and so on, no matter however perfect our material facilities, a life of genuine happiness is not possible. In contrast, if we possess qualities like contentment and loving-kindness, we can enjoy a life of happiness even without great material facilities. Happiness in life is primarily a function of the state of the mind.

AN EXCERPT FROM

SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY IN THE INDIAN BUDDHIST CLASSICS VOLUME 1: THE PHYSICAL WORLD CONCEIVED BY HIS HOLINESS THE DALAI LAMA C O N T I N U E R E A D I N G AT

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HOW M E D I TAT I O N TECHNIQUES WORK TOGETHER AN EXCERPT FROM B E A R AWA R E N E S S BY AJAHN BRAHM

I G ET CO N F U S ED BY THE N AM ES O F DIF F EREN T M EDITATIO N TEC HN IQ U ES . WHAT ARE ĀN ĀPĀN AS ATI, VIPAS S AN Ā, AN D S AM ATHA?

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nāpānasati is “breath meditation,” vipassanā is “insight,” and samatha is “calm.” But there’s no difference between them—they’re all the same. Here’s a story I tell on every retreat. Once there was a married couple. The guy’s name was Sam (samatha), and his wife was called Vi (vipassanā). After lunch one day Sam and Vi decided to go for a walk up Meditation Mountain with their two dogs. One dog was called Mettā and the other dog was called Ānāpāna (ānāpānasati). Sam wanted to go to the top because it was so peaceful there, and he just loved the stillness. Vi went up for the view. She took her new camera, which could take incredible insight shots over great distances. Mettā went because it’s good fun walking up Meditation Mountain. And Ānāpāna went for a breath of fresh air. Halfway up it started to become peaceful and still, and Sam was delighted. But because he had eyes, he also enjoyed the view. Vi was already snapping photos because she could see so far. But she was also enjoying the peace. Mettā was wagging her tail, because even halfway up there was so much love and kindness. And Ānāpāna was breathing calmly—the air was so good and rich that he only needed to breathe very softly. But the two dogs enjoyed the peace and the view as well. When they got to the top, it was utterly still. Nothing moved on top of Meditation Mountain, and Sam had reached his goal. But he also enjoyed the view—he could see forever, the whole universe spread out before him. Vi hadn’t seen such amazing views before—the insights were all around her. But she also enjoyed the peace. And Mettā was incredibly happy, because in addition to peace and views, there was also the sheer joy and love of deep meditation. As for Ānāpāna, he had disappeared! They didn’t know where he was. This is because the breath disappears on the top of Meditation Mountain.

BEAR AWARENESS QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS O N TA M I N G Y O U R W I L D M I N D BY AJAHN BRAHM C O N T I N U E R E A D I N G AT

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That’s how all these techniques work together. There’s no difference between vipassanā, samatha, mettā, and ānāpānasati. There’s only one type of meditation, and that’s “letting go.” The various names for meditation are just different ways of saying the same thing. So let go however you want. The only meditation I don’t teach is ānā-pain-a-sati—mindfulness along with pain. It was not taught by the Buddha. If it hurts, do something about it.

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Words of Advice for Lhawang Tashi by Jamgön Kongtrul Lodrö Thayé Translated by John Canti An Excerpt from A Gathering of Brilliant Moons: Practice Advice from the Rimé Masters of Tibet Edited by Holly Gayley and Joshua Schapiro

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go for refuge to the Lotus Guru. By the blessings of the masters of the instruction lineage, may those with faith direct their minds to Dharma, and take the path to irreversible freedom.

Atiśa, Lord of the Land of Snows, condensed his advice into these two points: “When with others, watch your speech, but when with no one, watch your mind.”

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The root of wrongdoing is, indeed, the mind, and most wrongdoing happens using words; so both need guarding, always. Sam . sāra and nirvān.a are but your own mind— there’s not a speck that comes from somewhere else. All joy and sorrow, right and wrong, the noble and the lowly— such things are merely notions in the mind.


If you purify your mind, it’s buddhahood, the place you are becomes a buddhafield; do what you will, it’s all within the ultimate nature, and all that appears is the detail of wisdom’s display. If you fail to purify your mind, you find faults even with a buddha, you get angry even with your parents, and most of what appears seems hostile.

You need not search outside to find a teacher; mind itself is the enlightened teacher. You need not fear you’re missing out on some practice; being free of distraction is the essence of all practice. You need not purposefully get rid of each distraction; apply mindfulness and vigilance, and on their own distractions will subside.

In endless waves of hoping, fearing, lusting, hating, your human years of useless human life run out.

You need not be afraid of the defilements arising; for, taken as their very nature, they are wisdoms.

Whoever you’re with, you don’t get on; wherever you are, you don’t feel happy; whatever you have, it’s never enough; the more you get, the more you need.

Apart from this momentary mind of yours, there is no other sam . sāra or nirvān.a that exists— so I beg you, be constantly on watch over your mind!

As life’s apparent dramas take you first this way, then that, some thought of practicing Dharma may occur to you— but while you’re still about to do it, life will just run out.

WH E N W ITH OTHERS , WAT CH Y OUR SPEECH, BUT WH E N WITH NO ONE, WAT CH YOUR MIND. When first you feel a fresh determination to be free, whatever it may take, you’re ready for it all; but then you harden, and can’t even give away a needle. When the devotion you feel is still new, you think of nothing but the teacher; but then time passes and you see him with perverted views.

Unless you tame your mind within, there’ll be no end to enemies without. But if you tame hostility within, you’ll be at peace with all the enemies on earth. Without contentment in your mind, acquire what you may—you’ll still be like a beggar. But with renunciation, a person who’s content inside is always rich without possessions. The propensities of joy arising in your mind when rightfully engaged in ordinary affairs, in Dharma practice, or in meritorious deeds will bring you rebirth in the higher realms; yet that’s impermanent and still sam . sāra, while if you look at the very nature of that joy, to see it’s empty is the basis of the path to liberation.

When your faith and inspiration are still new, on top of one practice you take up yet another; but as you age they all just fade away. When first you find a suitable companion, you treasure his life far more than your own; but then you lose interest and treat him with aversion. At root in all these instances is to be led along by a mind you’ve not made self-sufficient. Once capable of mastering your mind: You need not seek an isolated place elsewhere; when thoughts are absent, that’s an isolated place.

A G AT H E R I N G O F BRILLIANT MOONS:

PRACTICE ADVICE FROM THE RIMÉ MASTERS OF TIBET E D I T E D B Y H O L LY G AY L E Y AND JOSHUA SCHAPIRO C O N T I N U E R E A D I N G AT

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n a recent episode of the Wisdom Podcast, publisher Daniel Aitken interviewed Dr. Joanne Cacciatore, author of Bearing the Unbearable. A Zen priest and leader in the field of traumatic grief, Joanne speaks of her connection to animals and how grief and love are related in the condensed conversation below.

Daniel Aitken: When you encountered Buddhist teachers, it resonated with something that was already important to you rather than discovering something new? Joanne Cacciatore: Absolutely. I mean, it was who I was. It was what I lived. I thought, well, nothing is more in alignment that I have found in terms of current practices that really resonated with me. The early mystics, the desert fathers and desert mothers, really resonated with me as well. John of the Cross and Teresa of Avila, Saint Francis of course, with the animals, going out into the forest and preaching to the birds, you know. It’s a really interesting thing—I’ve had some strange encounters with animals through my life, where wild animals just sort of come up to me and hang out.

Photo by Kevin Sturm

BEARING THE UNBEARABLE An Interview with Joanne Cacciatore

Just the other day, a wild bird was tapping on my guest window. I was cleaning the room, it was nighttime, and this bird was just tapping on the window. I was like, “What’s that noise?” and I looked around and no one was in the room and it kept tapping. I look over and there’s a little bird tapping on the window, and I’m like, “You’ve got to be kidding.” I went over and I tapped back, and the bird tapped back, and I tapped back and the bird tapped back. I opened the window really gently and I just put my hand out, and the bird hopped right in my hand. DA: Are you kidding me? He actually just needed to say hello? JC: Yeah. He hung out in the room with me for a little while, and then I said, “You’ve got to go outside, man.”


DA: Wow, that’s incredible. Is this something that has happened throughout your life, this connection with animals? JC: Yeah. In fact, almost two years ago I rescued a horse that was being very badly abused and beaten and starved, and he was working in a particular region that I’d wanted to hike for a long, long time. It’s sort of a numinous experience, because I can remember being ten years old and wanting to go to this place, but I never had a chance to go. Then it was my fiftieth birthday and I had a chance to go. I was three minutes into the trail, at this place where I’d wanted to go for forty years, and this horse had fallen down. He was working, and he was being beaten by his handler because he had fallen. He was bleeding.

W HE N WE T U RN AWAY AND W E CA N’T LO OK AT OUR GRIEF, THE N IT A L S O CUTS US OFF FR O M THE LOVE. DA: This is Chemakoh, is it? JC: Chemakoh, yeah, my beautiful guy. You know, forty years I’d wanted to do this, and I’d made plans but they’d never followed through. I feel like that moment in time between him and I was supposed to happen, because when I looked in his eyes, I really felt this deep connection to this being that wasn’t even the same species. I knew that saving him was just like saving myself, and saving him was just like saving the world. He was in my path in that moment for a reason. If we all do the good we can do with compassion and love in your heart, with what’s in our range and our reach, then the world would be a very different place—if we all said, “Yes, I will make a difference with what I can.” It’s easy to get overwhelmed if, like Avalokiteshvara, you hear the cries of the suffering in the world. But if you think, “Whatever crosses my path, I will act with compassion,” then we all do a little bit—and it’s incredible what can happen from that. DA: Why did you notice Chemakoh, the horse’s suffering, and then more than that, what was it within you that decided to take action? JC: There is within me, because I have suffered, I have suffered deeply—I call it the dark night of the soul, as John of the Cross did. It’s because I stay connected to my deep, deep trauma and pain that happened twenty-three years ago that has made me able to connect with the suffering of other beings in a deeper way than I even could when I was younger. When I looked in that horse’s eyes I started to weep when I saw the condition he was in. His handler left because I was

weeping and drawing a lot of attention. The horse—I sat on the ground and I went to touch his face, and he closed his eyes and turned his head as if he was afraid I was going to strike him. It brings me to tears still. I started apologizing to him for what humans had done to him, and I said, “I’m so sorry.” I felt his head lay on my lap, and he turned his head and looked at me with these big, incredibly deep eyes, and I saw in him myself, twenty-three years earlier when my child died. I knew that if I left him on that trail and didn’t take action, it would be like leaving myself on the trail. DA: One of the things that struck me in your work is your message about how love and grief are related. I was hoping you could tell us a little bit about that. JC: Well, we grieve for that which we love, right? We don’t grieve when we don’t love. The reality is when we disconnect from our grief, when we feel like I can’t handle it—and certainly there’s a lot that goes with handling it, so it’s not just the individual. It’s the individual in a family system, in a culture, in a society—so we need everybody on board for support. When we turn away and we can’t look at our grief, then it also cuts us off from the love, because you can’t feel the love for someone who died without also feeling pain when they’re not there. When we can learn how to stay with the pain of grief, and we learn to just create more space in our hearts, in our minds, for that grief to be what it is, and when we have compassionate others around us, upholding us and giving us the time and space we need to do that, then we learn that we can grieve and love at the same time. We learn that we can grieve and feel happy at the same time. We learn that we can grieve and feel content and joy at the same time. They’re not mutually exclusive. I live a very joyful, big life, and there is not a single day when I’m not grieving the absence of my dead child, period. DA: This is an important message. You know, it seems in our world that they’re opposing emotions, joy and grief. JC: My sense about our culture is a lot of our macro issues come from our inability to make space for grief in our everyday lives, and not understanding that it can be integrated into family holidays, into birthdays, into Mother’s Day, into every day, into every moment. Because then you live bigger too, and then you see opportunities. If you see a horse that’s being abused, it’s my connection to my grief that allows me to get involved. Listen to the full interview and others with guests Bhikkhu Bodhi, Dan Harris, and more at wisdompubs.org/podcast.

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EDDIES IN THE STREAM A N

E X C E R P T F R O M U N B I N D I N G : T H E G R A C E B E Y O N D S E L F B Y

K A T H L E E N

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solitary walk in the woods can deliver any of us to the hushed, enlivened experience of wonder—bare wonder, free from elaboration. As our feet step atop the thick carpet of sheddings returning to the earth, our face registers warmth when narrow rays of sunlight filter their way down through the million-leaved canopy. Thoughts quiet in the stillness of the woods. Self-reference diminishes in the simplicity of our seclusion. We become more present. Attention increasingly attends—to the chatter of a squirrel, the snap of a 12

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twig crunched underfoot, the scent of moss and native flowers, the refreshment of the ionized air around a nearby stream. I have been blessed many times to walk through woods on this beautiful planet of ours. These hours of wonder and gratitude and peace gave rise to a spontaneous meditation, one that led to some understanding. It’s one I’ve contemplated often since, letting the imagery wash over me, time and time again. Let me share this contemplation.


Imagine, if you will, a small woodland stream, fresh and freely flowing. The atmosphere around it is moist and clean and aerated. The stream’s waves bubble and crisscross, rising and falling, and the rises and the falls make their lovely babbling sounds. The small stream flows along, past the boulders and exposed roots on its banks, over the rocks and stones on its uneven bed—the deposits of a passing glacier a million years ago. An uneven rock ledge juts out a bit from the water, just enough to create a little waterfall as the stream drops over it. As the water rushes over the ledge, some is pushed over to the side in the stream level below. It gives rise to a small eddy in an indentation of the bank. The eddy circles, around and around, remaining fixed in its position. It becomes “backwater,” while the water of the rest of the stream flows by. Inside the circle of the eddy, the circular movement continues its swirl, its rounds—over and over and over. Inside the eddy, momentum concentrates and moves inward to the pattern of circling. Imagine, if you will, that attention turns away from the fresh and freely flowing stream and is drawn into the centripetal force of the circular patterning. The eddy is defined by the circular pattern. Imagine, too, that it identifies inside its circled boundary as something and as something separate from the freely flowing stream. We can imagine that, with this identification, the eddy checks its circular motion well and often, monitoring it carefully so as to circle well, to remain in the comfort of the familiar. It compares itself to neighboring eddies, judging and evaluating. It imputes itself as separate, as independent, as needing to be protective of its own circularity. It comes to cherish its swirling—the dynamic that creates its tiny universe. It comes to cherish all the debris caught within the swirls with a sense of personal reference about each of the particles trapped inside its muddied orbit. Its view becomes myopic. It forgets all about the rounded, ancient mountain down which the stream flows. It forgets the centuries of melting snows and summer rains that create the stream, the mass of tree roots and the rutted animal paths that determine the course of the stream as it flows down the sloped terrain and through the woods. It forgets all about the small ledge of stone that creates the waterfall above it. It forgets all the immeasurable causes and conditions that give rise to its appearance. Not looking—ignoring—the eddy assumes itself according to its ignorance. It ignores that its patterning never for a moment holds the same water. It does not look and it does not see that, in each new moment, new water is recruited, unquestioned, into the familiar circling pattern by virtue of its momentum.

Holding itself as eddy only—as an isolated phenomenon—it remains ignorant of the fact that nothing exists independently of the conditions giving rise to it, that all of life leads to each arising. It loses sight of its inseparability from the fleeting co-arising of stream and squirrel and mountain and cloud and wind and planet and galaxy, a snapshot of a moment in cosmic time. Unaware, not looking, it ignores its fragile impermanence. A small rabbit, a fox, could cross upstream at any moment, dislodging a waterlogged twig at the crest line of the fall, ever so slightly changing the course of the stream. The eddy would be gone in an instant, leaving no trace in the water, as if it were never there.

AWAREN ES S IS AN EN DL ES S C O N TIN U U M . IT EX TEN DS F RO M TRAPPED TO F REE, F RO M C O N F U S IO N TO CL ARITY, F RO M BO U N D TO U N BO U N D. Unaware, not looking, the eddy clings to the circled fabrication. It ignores its essential nature, never realizing that its separation from the living water is only imagined. Beyond assumed identities and limitations, everything is already interconnected in all aspects. Awakening is a growing illumination. Grace increasingly shines in and through us as the fog of who we had believed ourselves to be dissipates, as the congested density thins into clear spaciousness. Awareness is an endless continuum. It extends from trapped to free, from confusion to clarity, from bound to unbound. Our clinging to an egoic self-sense keeps us in a limited point of reference on that endless continuum.

UNBINDING: THE GRACE BEYOND SELF B Y K AT H L E E N D O W L I N G S I N G H C O N T I N U E R E A D I N G AT

W I S D O M P U B S . O R G / W J FA L L 1 7

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The Wisdom Podcast The Wisdom Podcast is a Buddhist podcast that features interviews with leading thinkers from the Buddhist world. Each episode takes you on a fascinating exploration of Buddhism and meditation as our guests share stories and discuss life-changing practices, timeless philosophies, and new ways to think and live. Subscribe now via your favorite podcasting app, and let us know what you think!

BHIKKHU BODHI The Buddha on Social Harmony

GESHEMA KELSANG WANGMO Becoming the First Female Geshe

GHARWANG RINPOCHE The History of the Zurmang Kagyu Tradition

JOANNE CACCIATORE Bearing the Unbearable

LING RINPOCHE The Training of a Tulku

THUBTEN CHODRON An American Buddhist Abbess

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I N T E G R I T Y: A CHALLENGING PRACTICE IN CHALLENGING TIMES

AN EXCERPT FROM AWAKENING TOGETHER: THE SPIRITUAL PRACTICE OF INCLUSIVITY AND COMMUNITY B Y L A R RY YA N G


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ven in the confusion and complexity of our times, there is still wisdom that underlies our experience from generation to generation. One of these aphorisms states, “Integrity is doing the right thing, even when no one is watching.” Without integrity, mindfulness is morally meaningless. Without integrity, metta is either wishful thinking or a spiritual bypass. Both mindfulness and metta require the actions of conscience motivated by an ethical barometer. We see many forms of this lack of integrity present, even with mindfulness. One subtle form of this is our cultural conditioning in our market economy to get away with as much as we can, while giving as little as possible. A more acute form of this dearth of morality is our ever-quickening slide into a postfactual, post-ethical world, where truth is not respected and deliberately made to be confusing and obscure. When there is less or zero external accountability in our larger culture, there emerges an indispensable spiritual imperative to redouble our internal efforts and concentration to have a moral barometer: this is the integrity of mindfulness. The integrity of mindfulness requires we be of benefit to our collective humanness, not simply to our personal being. I would broaden the scope of integrity: • Integrity is doing the wise and compassionate action when no one agrees with us. • Integrity is walking our highest path, even if it is painful and arduous and long. • Integrity is acting on behalf of others when we do not have to because we have some benefit, privilege, power, or entitlement that protects us. • Integrity is standing actively (and not “bystanding”) in solidarity with those whose voices and abilities have less volume or impact than yours.

• Integrity is being kind when everyone and everything around you is not kind. • Integrity is loving when you do not feel loved yourself. • Integrity is having ethics in unethical and amoral times—having a moral compass when others around you do not have a clue to what that means and/or disparage the very intentions of ethical behavior. • Integrity is placing a higher value on the greater good of all, rather than the gain of an individual or selected individual groups. • Integrity is holding to these principles, even when there are an infinite number of distractions, seductions, and judgments that seek to weaken and obliterate those principles.

“I DON’T S EE HO W AWAKENIN G TO G ETHER COULD BE BETTER… I KNOW I WIL L BE READING IT F O R YEARS TO C O M E.” — A L I C E W A L K E R , A U T H O R O F T H E C O L O R P U R P L E

In sum, integrity provides the vision, the aspiration, and the guide to any actions of mindfulness and kindness. Where is your moment-to-moment practice of integrity in a world that wants us to compete primarily to benefit the gain of the privileged, the powerful, and the lucky few, instead of working for the equity and elevation of our human condition for the many?

Where do you stand when $21-billion walls of fear, fueled by racial bitterness, are being designed to separate nations, instead of creating bridges of understanding and actions fed by common human connection? When $21 billion can buy enough food to feed seven billion starving mouths, when $21 billion can create twice the clean water for every person living on this planet, when $21 billion can buy more than eight months’ worth of medication for every HIV patient in the world, when $21 billion can compensate more than a half million public school teachers with a full year’s salary—what choices would your integrity make? And what does your integrity ask of you when our government of the people, by the people, and for the people is based purely and only upon the self-interest and self-defined alternative facts of those few individuals and groups in positions of power? Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. reminds us, “There comes a time when one must take a position that is neither safe, nor politic, nor popular, but they must take it because conscience tells them it is right.” Integrity is not just a personal practice but a collective one that transforms our communities and our world. Only in an ethically wholesome society can we create a healthy system of social, economic, and political justice, not to mention spiritual freedom. And since society is made up of each of us, because each of us is part of that experience of being human, that ethical transformation begins here—with all of us awakening together with integrity.

AWAKENING TOGETHER THE SPIRITUAL PRACTICE OF INCLUSIVITY AND COMMUNITY B Y L A R R Y YA N G C O N T I N U E R E A D I N G AT

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s Patrul Rinpoche says many times in the Essential Jewel, all phenomena, including the self, are simply “empty appearances”—they are empty, but they are still appearances.

To experience ourselves in this way is an enormous conceptual and phenomenological challenge, for even when we seem to be able to take external phenomena to be empty of essence, interdependent, impermanent, and selfless, we often do so by implicitly taking ourselves to be the intrinsic ground of that mere imputation. No matter what we think about external phenomena, there is still a powerful cognitive instinct to take ourselves as the foundation of our experience; denying our own intrinsic existence seems, then, like cognitive suicide— like the denial of the reality of the very subject performing the denial. But it is not. It is simply to realize that we as subjects, like the objects we experience, exist only in interdependence and have an identity that is only conceptually imputed. To see subjectivity itself not as the primordial ground of reality but as one more groundless reality is the goal of a Madhyamaka understanding; the transformation of consciousness this realization entails is so profound as to be literally inconceivable until it has been achieved. Following the Dzogchen tradition, Patrul Rinpoche argues that to understand emptiness is to realize directly the emptiness of one’s own mind and mental constructs. “Your mind, nondually aware and empty,” Patrul Rinpoche tells us, “is the embodiment of truth” (v. 39). The Essential Jewel can be understood as deep personal instruction in recognizing the empty nature of one’s own mind (rig pa). In this text, Patrul Rinpoche often uses more phenomenological descriptions of emptiness, referring to clear, naked, nondual, empty awareness.

THE ESSENTIAL JEWEL OF H O LY P R A C T I C E T R A N S L A T E D B Y J A Y A N D E M I LY M C R A E

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These expressions characterize the experience of emptiness as opposed to emptiness itself. According to Patrul Rinpoche, because the nature of mind is empty, if we recognize that basic nature, we’ve recognized emptiness, and if we achieve a stable recognition of the nature of mind, we thereby achieve a stable understanding of emptiness. To understand the nature of mind, then, is to understand the nature of reality. To understand the nature of mind as clear, open, luminous, empty awareness is therefore radically transformative, and this transformation extends to one’s moral capacity and sensitivity. Recognizing the nature of mind allows our dysfunctional mental states to self-liberate: when we recognize the emptiness of our mental states, our attachment to them simply disappears. These dysfunctional states, which include confusion, aversion, attraction, and envy, are major obstacles to loving and compassionate care for other sentient beings. For this reason, the Dzogchen imperative to rest in the nature of one’s mind has profound moral power, since this way of being in the world allows one to spontaneously manifest the Mahāyāna commitment to care for all beings with love and compassion (karun.ā). Our innate dysfunctional states cause, maintain, and are maintained by egocentrism, which inhibits a more realistic, wholesome, productive mode of interpersonal experience and interaction. When we are in the grip of such states, not only do we fail to generate any love or compassion, but the love and compassion that we may already have can’t be utilized; for our loving care to be actualized it can’t be blocked, warped, or hijacked by egocentricity. A mind in which this kind of primal confusion and dysfunction does not take hold is a mind that can be sensitive to the needs to others and that can care for them. One of the major lessons of the Essential Jewel is that the recognition of the nature of mind is a moral accomplishment, a fact that is further emphasized by Patrul Rinpoche’s repeated encouragement to recite the six-beat mantra, the mantra of universal care.


༢༤

༢༧

དཀོན་མཆོག་ཀུན་འདུས་ངོ་བོ་སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས།།

དེ་སླད་ལུས་དང་ལོངས་སྤྱོད་དགེ་བའི་ཚོགས།།

མི་བསླུ་གཏན་གྱི་སྐྱབས་གཅིག་དཀོན་མཆོག་གསུམ།། ཁྱེད་ཤེས་བློ་གཏད་གཅིག་ལས་མི་འགྱུར་བའི།། ངེས་ཤེས་བློ་ཐག་ཆོད་ལ་ཡིག་དྲུག་སྒྲོངས།།

བདག་འཛིན་ཞེན་པའི་བློ་འདི་སྲིད་པའི་རྒྱུ།།

ཡར་མཆོད་མར་སྦྱིན་འཁོར་འདས་ཀུན་ལ་བསྔོ།།

གཅེས་འཛིན་རྒྱངས་ཀྱིས་སྐྱུར་ལ་ཡིག་དྲུག་སྒྲོངས།།

24.

27.

The only firm, nondeceptive refuge is the Triple Gem. The sole embodiment of the Triple Gem is Avalokiteśvara. With unwavering, steadfast confidence in his wisdom, with certainty and resolution, chant the six-beat mantra.

Your obsessive self-grasping mind only perpetuates samsara. So give everything—your body, your possessions, and your virtue— to those above and to those below, to all in samsara and all in nirvana, and casting off attachment, chant the six-beat mantra.

༢༥

ཐེག་ཆེན་ལམ་གྱི་རྩ་བ་བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས།།

༢༨

ལམ་བཟང་བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དང་མི་འབྲལ་ཤིང་།།

སྐུ་དྲིན་སངས་རྒྱས་ཀུན་ལས་ལྷག་པའི་མགོན།།

སེམས་མཆོག་རྒྱལ་བ་ཀུན་གྱི་བགྲོད་གཅིག་ལམ།། འགྲོ་ལ་སྙིང་རྗེའི་ངང་ནས་ཡིག་དྲུག་སྒྲོངས།། 25.

Bodhicitta is the sole foundation of the Mahāyāna path. This is the aspiration of every moral hero. Never leaving the high road of bodhicitta, with compassion for all beings, chant the six-beat mantra.

༢༦

སངས་རྒྱས་ཀུན་གྱི་ངོ་བོ་བླ་མ་རྗེ།།

བླ་མ་སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས་དང་དབྱེར་མེད་དུ།།

དད་པའི་གདུང་ཤུགས་སྐྱེད་ལ་ཡིག་དྲུག་སྒྲོངས།། 28. Your exalted teacher has the nature of all the buddhas, and of all the buddhas, he is the kindest. Since the teacher is inseparable from Avalokiteśvara, with great devotion, chant the six-beat mantra.

ཐོག་མེད་འཁོར་བར་འཁྱམས་ནས་ད་ཕན་ཆད།། ཅི་བྱེད་སྡིག་ཏུ་སོང་ནས་སྲིད་པར་འཁྱམས།།

སྡིག་ལྟུང་སྙིང་ནས་མཐོལ་ཞིང་བཤགས་སེམས་ཀྱིས།། སྟོབས་བཞི་ཚང་བའི་ངང་ནས་ཡིག་དྲུག་སྒྲོངས།། 26. Wandering in samsara from beginningless time, all your acts are vicious, so you keep roaming through more rebirths. From the depths of your heart, renounce your vices. Endowed with the four capacities, chant the six-beat mantra.

THE ESSENTIAL JEWEL O F H O LY P R A C T I C E B Y PAT R U L R I N P O C H E C O N T I N U E R E A D I N G AT

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S P I R I T U A L B Y PA S S A N

E X C E R P T F R O M U N S U B S C R I B E: O P T O U T O F D E L U S I O N , T U N E I N T O T R U T H B Y

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piritual practice is not a bypass that allows us to sidestep difficult feelings. We need to be able to sit with and hold even what is difficult. It’s not about being above it all; it’s about being with it all.

The drive to try to feel secure as often as possible, and to avoid what’s uncomfortable, is universal. But there’s no way to avoid aging, sickness, frustrating events, and eventual, but inevitable, separations from loved ones. If we don’t develop the wisdom to discern this, we’ll take measures to sidestep any and all of life’s unavoidable, painful experiences. Eventually our attempts to avoid the inevitable—such as resorting to substance abuse—backfire horribly, leaving people both wounded and dependent upon the damaging behaviors. On a less extreme level we may choose more socially acceptable though equally unskillful avoidance strategies. We manage loneliness with television viewing. We alleviate feelings of purposelessness with shopping. We manage feelings 20

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of emptiness by bingeing on food, and so forth. Of course these strategies fail to satisfy us. As we quickly habituate to them, we have to go to the well more often while feeling less and less satisfied. Ultimately we wind up more miserable and frustrated than in the beginning. We may even turn to apparently more skillful means of stress reduction, such as yoga, exercise, playing fetch with the dog, or learning to meditate. We may seek a spiritual escape from our emotions and mistake the initial elation as a form of emotional health. I know I did! Throughout the first twenty years of my practice I hoped meditation would provide some kind of spiritual immunity from frustration, anger, envy, or loneliness. When my depression first appeared, I even sought counsel from monks to see if perhaps I was meditating wrong. I know, as a meditation teacher, that I cannot claim that practice will lead to a life without frustration, sadness, or


disappointment. I can only claim that spiritual practice will help us hold our difficult emotions. The desire to be without core emotional experiences is just another form of craving. Using spiritual endeavor to bypass emotions is just another avoidance tendency, like workaholism, rumination, or escape through books, television, or video games. While spiritual bypasses may seem healthier than slamming back a few drinks to cope with the day’s stressful disappointments, all forms of bypass have the same ultimate goal: to disconnect us from feeling and holding difficult emotions. There’s nothing healthy about using spiritual practice to escape our feelings. It’s a form of self-harm to tell ourselves we shouldn’t feel. Many of our emotions are unpleasant, but they’re necessary nonetheless. There is anger, fear, and sadness in life, whether we like it or not. Attempting to circumvent these states creates even greater suppressive tendencies. The suttas tell us that emotions are founded on feelings (vedanas), which occur when objects are regarded as desirable or unpleasant. When I see a bagel lovingly smeared with cream cheese, a pleasant feeling (sukkha vedana) emphasizes the bagel’s desirability, compelling me toward it; if I stumble upon the bagel months later, now rotten with mold and decay, a felt sense of disgust (dukkha vedana) impels me to move away from it as a repellant object. Often such feelings are subtle or unconscious, but I am still moved by them. Throughout the course of each day I seldom have enough time or information to properly deliberate on every decision I make, and so relying on reasoning alone would be impractical. Instead, when I make a wise choice in life, it is often because I have noted and followed an underlying physical impulse. When I make an effort to

skip the junk food and eat a healthy, light meal with leafy green vegetables, my body feels good in the long term, which, over time, rewards me and encourages me to buy more in the future. There are also times when gut feelings and intuition can steer us in the wrong

NEGATI VE EM O TIO N S ARE OF TEN VITAL MESS EN G ERS CO N VEYIN G IMPOR TAN T TRU THS . direction. Perhaps in my early years, a grade schoolteacher wearing a brown cardigan shames me before a classroom of giggling students: I may well grow up to feel suspicious of everyone wearing a brown cardigan. Perhaps if I get food poisoning from one food or another, I’ll feel repulsed by it, forever after, even if I know it has been handled properly. Our unconscious behaviors are largely driven by associations, and associations can be misleading. Given that human beings are social animals and need interaction to help us regulate our emotions and to bounce our gut ideas off each other, it’s invariably a good idea to share our impulses with a wise friend for counsel.

path to liberation is taught to lead from disenchantment with clinging and craving to a state of tranquil dispassion, or viraga, and then to true freedom. It’s important not to downplay the contrast between our current psychological insights and the early Buddhist Dharma on this issue. This may be why some practitioners arrive at my classes hoping that they’ll be able to learn how to sidestep all the difficult feelings that arise throughout the course of day. But hoping to live without anxiety or anger is like wanting to paint without ever using dark colors on our canvas. I’m not surprised people so deeply believe there’s a spiritual bypass, searching for a way to meditate that will spare them feeling lonely, as many Buddhist teachers present themselves in a honeyed demeanor that suggests they have transcended anxious thoughts. Negative emotions—such as anger or sadness—are often vital messengers conveying important truths: we’re unhappy in our jobs, unfulfilled in our relationships, sensing something is amiss in our friendships. Putting aside feelings is no more preferable than ignoring the sounds of a smoke alarm in a burning building. Worse than that: repressing the awareness of feelings via distractions or soothing substances invariably leads to future calamities. During the years I repressed my social anxieties with alcohol, I wound up following far more detrimental impulses, which led me to further self-sabotaging behaviors, including poor romantic choices and reckless spending habits.

The Buddha didn’t seem to find much, if any, value in what gut feelings convey. In sutta after sutta feelings are referred to as baits of the world, impermanent, defiled, that which should be overcome on the way to reason. In the Nibbedhika Sutta the Buddha defines the eightfold path as “the way leading to the ending of feeling.” In the Vedana Sutta the Buddha asserts that any feelings are defileUNSUBSCRIBE ments, states OPT OUT OF DELUSION, TUNE IN TO TRUTH of awareness to be abandoned BY JOSH KORDA if the mind C O N T I N U E R E A D I N G AT is inclined to W I S D O M P U B S . O R G / W J FA L L 1 7 release and liberation. The

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L THE FOUR BOUNDLESS QUALITIES An Excerpt from The Path: A Guide to Happiness By Khenpo Sherab Zangpo

Mahayana Buddhism transcends the concepts of self and others, loved ones and strangers, friends and enemies.

ove, compassion, and sympathetic joy all place great emphasis on equality. In the context of Mahayana Buddhism, the practice of equality is not merely out of a demand for justice. It entails an open attitude to embrace and accept all beings without bias, since Mahayana Buddhism transcends the concepts of self and others, loved ones and strangers, friends and enemies. This mental openness is called the “boundless quality of impartiality� in Buddhism. Traditionally, the mind training in the four boundless qualities starts with impartiality. It is the starting point and foundation of love and compassion. As Patrul Rinpoche says in his Words of My Perfect Teacher, impartiality is like inviting everybody to a banquet where nobody will be rejected. The four boundless qualities, while being separately discussed for easier understanding, are essentially inseparable and interwoven. We call these qualities boundless because the beings these qualities benefit are vast and infinite, and the benefit they bring is immeasurable. Without impartiality, the other three of the four boundless qualities will lack true altruism and fail to be boundless; and without the other three, impartiality becomes apathy and indifference. With a mind supported by the four boundless qualities, we wish all sentient beings to attain complete enlightenment, to be happy and free of suffering. This altruistic wish is called bodhichitta in aspiration. We can aspire to attain enlightenment ourselves first before helping others achieve the same; or to be liberated from cyclic existence together with all sentient beings; or to be like the great bodhisattvas Samantabhadra and Kshitigarbha, who vow not to attain complete enlightenment until all sentient beings have become buddhas. The scope of our aspirations can be either big or small, depending on our individual conditions and capacities, but they are of no difference in terms of quality. Any honest aspiration driven by the genuine desire for the liberation of all sentient beings deserves our admiration. It is not necessary for us to pursue the ultimate vast attitude only for the sake of being a qualified Mahayana bodhisattva.

T H E PAT H A GUIDE TO HAPPINESS BY KHENPO SHERAB ZANGPO C O N T I N U E R E A D I N G AT

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HEART ADVICE AN EXCERPT FROM TRANSFORMING PROBLEMS INTO HAPPINESS BY LAMA ZOPA RINPOCHE

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he wise person, seeing that all happiness and suffering depend upon the mind, seeks happiness from the mind, not from anything external. The mind possesses all the causes of happiness, just as it possesses all the causes of suffering. You can see this in the practice of thought transformation, particularly when you use your sufferings in the path to enlightenment. If you do not think of the benefits of problems—of mixing problems with Mahayana thought transformation and using them on the path to enlightenment for the benefit of all beings—but think only of the shortcomings of problems, you label difficulties as problems, and thus they then appear to you as problems, as totally undesirable. In this way, your mind creates your problems. The cause of problems is your own mind; all problems come from your own mind. When you stop the thought of disliking problems and establish the thought of liking them, your problems appear as beneficial, wonderful things. Any happiness you feel comes from your own mind. Every pleasure you experience—from the pleasantness of a cool breeze on a hot day, all the way to the ultimate happiness of enlightenment—all this comes from your own mind. It is all manufactured by your own inner factory. All causes are there within your own mind. Since the thoughts within your mind are the causes of your happiness, seek happiness from your own mind. This is the most essential point of all the Buddha’s teachings. Practicing thought transformation is the clearest, most skillful way to seek happiness from your own mind. Your happiness does not depend on anything external. Even when someone is angry with you or acting maliciously toward you, by looking at them with compassion and loving-kindness from your heart, you can feel very warmly toward them, seeing them in the aspect of beauty. Using thought transformation, you can see that person as unbelievably precious and kind, as the most precious person in your life. Among all living beings, this angry, malicious person before you is the most precious, the most kind.

Photo by John Berthold

No matter what harm someone does to you with their body, speech, or mind—intentionally or unintentionally—by using thought transformation, you see what they are doing as only beneficial for developing your mind, and this makes you very happy. You can see very clearly that this happiness comes from your own mind; it does not depend on how others behave toward you or what they think of you. What you think is a problem comes from your own mind; what you think is joyful comes from your own mind. Your happiness does not depend on anything external. The foolish person seeks happiness outside, running around and keeping busy with that expectation. If you seek happiness outside yourself, you have no freedom, you always have problems, and you are never completely satisfied. You are unable to truly accomplish anything, unable to see reality clearly, and unable to judge correctly. If you seek happiness outside yourself, there are always so many problems. If you seek happiness outside yourself, there are always dangers, always enemies, always thieves. If you seek happiness from outside yourself, it is impossible to have complete satisfaction, complete success. By seeking happiness outside yourself, you will only become exhausted with suffering, which is without satisfaction and without end. Within the many hundreds of different teachings on how to practice the Dharma, this is the heart advice.

TRANSFORMING PROBLEMS INTO HAPPINESS B Y L A M A Z O PA R I N P O C H E C O N T I N U E R E A D I N G AT

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AVA L O K I T E Ś VA R A : EMBODIMENT OF C O M PA S S I O N ABOUT THE CENTERFOLD IMAGE

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his issue’s centerfold image of Avalokiteśvara is featured on the cover of the new book The Essential Jewel of Holy Practice, by Jay Garfield and Emily

Avalokiteśvara, or Chenrezik, as he is known in Tibetan, is the bodhisattva of compassion and patron deity of Tibet. He is the embodiment of universal care and of the “sixbeat mantra,” om . man.i padme hūm . , that Patrul Rinpoche exhorts us to recite in his Essential Jewel of Holy Practice. There he writes, “Avalokiteśvara is your sole protector and guardian, the great treasury of compassion, your foundation lama! The essence of his speech, the holy Dharma, is the six-beat mantra.” In taking up practices associated with him, we engage in transforming the mind so that we too may become compassionate like Avalokiteśvara.

Avalokita in Sanskrit literally means the act of looking at, or beholding. Martin Willson, Martin Brauen, and Robert Beer, authors of Deities of Tibetan Buddhism, explain that the bodhisattva’s Tibetan name holds a similar meaning—that his broad eyes always behold all sentient beings, with the nature of love combining in one the essence of the speech of all buddhas. In practice manuals, it is said Avalokiteśvara appears white in color like the rising sun on a snowy mountain. With one face and four arms, his first pair of hands join at the heart, holding a wish-fulfilling jewel symbolic of bodhicitta. In his other right hand he holds a crystal rosary and in the left an eight-petaled lotus flower. Appearing in a peaceful form, his eyes gaze forward compassionately. Often in other depictions the buddha Amitābha appears above his crown, marking his association with the Lotus family and connection to the Buddha of Infinite Light.

Illustration: Avalokiteśvara | From the private collection of Jay Garfield | Photo by Stephen Petegorsky.

BUDDHIST SYMBOLS

AN EXCERPT FROM BUDDHIST S Y M B O L S I N T I B E TA N C U LT U R E B Y D A G YA B R I N P O C H E

The Glorious [Endless] Knot (dpal be’u, Skt. śrīvatsa)

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or the Tibetans, the endless knot is the classic sign for tendrel, the way in which reality exists. The intertwining of the lines reminds us of how all phenomena are intertwined and dependent on causes and conditions. The whole is comprised of a pattern closed in on itself with no gaps, which at once expresses motion and rest, all in a representational form of great simplicity and fully balanced harmony. Since all phenomena are interrelated, the placing of the endless knot on a gift or on a greeting card is understood to establish an auspicious connection between the giver and the recipient. At the same time, the recipient is supposed to be linked up with favorable circumstances in the future, being reminded that future positive effects have their roots in the causes of the present.

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BUDDHIST SYMBOLS I N T I B E TA N C U LT U R E B Y D A G YA B R I N P O C H E L E A R N M O R E AT

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NEW IN CHILDREN’S BOOKS Share the importance of compassion, mindfulness, and equanimity with the children in your life. Visit wisdompubs.org/ childrens to explore all of our books that will delight young readers while helping them cultivate love and awareness.

ZIJI THE PUPPY WHO LEARNED T O M E D I TAT E BY YONGEY MINGYUR RINPOCHE AND TOREY H AY D E N I L L U S T R AT E D BY CHARITY LARRISON

YONGEY MINGYUR RINPOCHE

G E T T H E B O O K AT WISDOMPUBS.ORG/ZIJI Photo of Mingyur Rinpoche by Kevin Sturm

THE SECRET TO C L A R A’ S C A L M B Y TA M A R A L E V I T T

I L L U S T R AT E D B Y J E R E M Y B O N D Y G E T T H E B O O K AT WISDOMPUBS.ORG/CLARA


The Mindfulness in Plain English Collection

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o celebrate the life and teachings of one of America’s most beloved Buddhist teachers, we are happy to announce the release of The Mindfulness in Plain English Collection commemorating Bhante Gunaratana’s ninetieth year.

The Mindfulness in Plain English Collection offers the rich, full context for tapping into the true power of mindfulness, all with the signature warmth of Bhante G.’s masterful style. Included in this one compendium are three of his most treasured In Plain English books: • Mindfulness in Plain English • The Four Foundations of Mindfulness in Plain English • Beyond Mindfulness in Plain English This beautiful collector’s edition provides us an opportunity to see the full scope of Bhante G.’s wisdom so that we can integrate his transformative, practical advice for mindfulness into our lives. His teachings reveal what it is to befriend the mind, taking the reader all the way from basic mindfulness meditation to profound states of freedom.

“Be gentle with yourself. Be kind to yourself. You may not be perfect, but you are all you’ve got to work with. The process of becoming who you will be begins first with the total acceptance of who you are.” —Bhante Gunaratana

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FIVE HUNDRED MERCHANTS AND A SEA MONSTER A N E X C E R P T F R O M D I V I N E S T O R I E S : D I V YĀVA D Ā N A , PA R T 2 T R A N S L AT E D B Y A N D Y R O T M A N

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ow in the great ocean, creatures are dispersed across the three water levels. In the first level, creatures have bodies one hundred leagues long, though sometimes their bodies are two or three hundred leagues long. In the second level, they have bodies eight hundred leagues long, though sometimes their bodies are nine, ten, or up to fourteen hundred leagues long. In the third level, they have bodies fifteen hundred leagues long, though sometimes their bodies are sixteen hundred leagues long, or even up to twenty-one hundred leagues long.

And in the great ocean, these species of animals are intent on devouring each other. Those who live in the first level are eaten by those in the second level, and those who live in the second level are eaten by those in the third level. Now it was for this reason that . the sea creature Timingila arose from the third water level, brought himself to the uppermost water level, and began to roam about. Then he opened his jaws, and in that moment water from the great ocean was sucked into his mouth with great speed. Pulled by that mass of water, a great variety of sea creatures such as fish, tortoises, vallabhakas, crocodiles, and makara monsters flowed down through . his mouth and into his belly. As Timingila was doing this, his head from far away appeared to be separate from the rest of his body, like a mountain touching the sky. And his eyes from far away looked like two suns in the sky. The merchants reflected on this from far away, and as they reflected on the form of the great churning ocean, they began to think, “Friends, what is this? The rising of two suns?” As they were occupied with such thoughts, their . ship began to be swept toward Timingila’s mouth. Watching their ship being swept away and reflecting on the two suns that had arisen, they were panicked. “Friends,” they said to each other, “have you heard it said that seven suns will rise up at the destruction of an age? Well, now it seems that they have arisen.” Then the captain spoke to the men, engaged as they

were in such thoughts: “Friends, you have heard of the . sea monster Timitimingila. Well, this is the danger of . Timitimingila. Friends, look at that! What appears like a mountain rising from the water is his head. And look! Those dark ruby-red streaks are his lips. And see there! That dazzling white strip is a row of his teeth. And look at those two things that appear like suns from far away! Those are the pupils of his eyes.” Again the captain addressed the merchants. “Listen, my friends! There is no way now that we can save ourselves, no way to be free from this danger. Death stands before us all. So what should you do now? Each of you should pray to the god in whom you have faith. Perhaps by these prayers some deity will free us from this great danger. There is no other means of survival.” Those merchants, afraid as they were of dying, began praying to gods such as Śiva, Varun.a, Kubera, the great Indra, and Upendra to save their lives. Despite their prayers, nothing happened to save them from the mortal danger they faced. Just as before, their ship was being pulled by the current and carried off toward . the mouth of the Timingila monster. There was, however, a lay disciple of the Buddha on board. He said, “Friends, there is no escape for us from this mortal danger. Every single one of us will die. Still, let all of us raise our voices together and say, ‘Praise to the Buddha!’ If we have to face death, let us die with our awareness focused on the Buddha. This way there will be a good fate for us after death.” Then every single one of the merchants, with their hands respectfully folded, raised their voices together and said, “Praise to the Buddha!” Now the Blessed One, who was staying in the Jeta Grove, heard those words with his divine hearing, which is faultless and superhuman. And upon hearing them, the . Blessed One exercised his power so that the Timingila . monster could hear that outcry. When Timingila heard that cry “Praise to the Buddha!” an unease arose in his mind, and he became worried: “Oh no! A buddha has

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arisen in the world. It wouldn’t be right for me to eat any food after hearing an invocation of the Lord Buddha’s name.” Then he began to think, “If I close my mouth suddenly, this ship will be driven back by the swell and destroyed. Many people will lose their lives. I should close . my mouth gently and ever so slowly.” Then the Timingila monster closed his mouth gently and ever so slowly. Freed from the jaws of that great monster, the merchants’ ship found a favorable wind and soon arrived at shore. When the merchants came to shore, they loaded their goods on carts, camels, bulls, donkeys, and so on, and after passing through marketplaces, villages, towns, and trading centers, one after another, they arrived in Śrāvastī. Once there, they reflected, “It’s only proper that if a ship successfully completes its voyage because of the power of someone’s name, all its treasures should go to him. We really should give these treasures to the Lord Buddha.” Then they collected those treasures and went before the Blessed One. Having each, in turn, placed their heads in veneration at the Blessed One’s feet, they said to him: “Blessed One, we set sail on the ocean in a ship, and then . when our ship was being carried off by the Timingila monster and the end of our lives was before us, we spoke the name of the Blessed One, concentrating our awareness on him, and were thus freed from the jaws of that great monster. Now that we have successfully completed our voyage, Blessed One, we have come here, safe and sound. It’s only proper that if people successfully complete a voyage on a ship because of the power of someone’s name, the treasures of that ship should go to him. By speaking the name of the Blessed One, we escaped from that mortal danger. Therefore the Blessed One should take these treasures of ours.” The Blessed One said, “I have obtained the treasures of the [five] spiritual faculties, their corresponding powers, and the [seven] factors of awakening. What can ordinary gems do for the Tathāgata beyond this? My sons, if you want to go forth as monks in my order, come with me.” The merchants reflected, “Whatever life we have is completely due to the power of the Lord Buddha. Let us abandon these treasures and go forth as monks under the Blessed One.”

DIVINE STORIES D I V YĀ VA D Ā N A , PA R T 2 T R A N S L AT E D B Y A N D Y R O T M A N L E A R N M O R E AT

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UNIVERSE AND

EMBODIMENT AN EXCERPT FROM SEXUALITY IN CLASSICAL SOUTH ASIAN BUDDHISM BY JOSÉ I. CABEZÓN

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he Buddhist cosmogonic narratives we are about to examine are found in a series of Pāli and Sanskrit works dating to the first centuries of the Common Era, but as with many such texts, the material that they contain may be from much earlier. The basic storyline found in these texts is very similar, suggesting strong intertextuality or mutual influence. They are tales about how the universe came into being and how human beings became embodied and sexual. This literature generally presumes that there is no single, first creation. Indeed, the very word “creation” is seldom used to describe the universe’s coming into existence. One of the earliest Buddhist cosmological narratives, found in the Pāli-language Aggañña Sutta, employs the terms . samvat.t.ati and vivat.t.ati—“passing away” and “coming into being,” respectively—to designate the creation and destruction of the world. Unlike the English verbs “to create” and “to destroy,” these Pāli verbs are intransitive. No transcendental agent (God) creates or destroys (verb) the universe (object). The universe’s cyclical destruction and reconstitution is, instead, a natural, causal process that does not involve the agency of a supreme being. As the Kośalokaprajñapti states, “The destruction, reconstitution, and persistence of the world is due to the changing karma of sentient beings. No one else is responsible.” According to our texts, the world comes into being and passes away over and over in an endless cycle that has no beginning. However, the Aggañña Sutta tells us that at the end of a particular cycle all of the beings in a given human world die and are reborn into a kind of heavenly realm called the Radiant (Ābhassara). After the eviction of its inhabitants, the human world is destroyed. A long time passes, and the human realm reemerges as a world of water. The beings of Ābhassara then die and are reborn into the newly reconstituted human world, repopulating it. However, the human beings who reinhabit the world (our world) have undergone a transformation. They are now as highly evolved as they were in their previous Radiant homeland. Although considered human, they have perfect physical bodies “made of mind” (manomaya), they do not eat ordinary food, surviving instead on rapture or joy (pītibhakkha), and they are self-luminous (sayampabha). Most important for our purposes, these beings have no sex: they are “neither male nor female” (na itthipuma). They are, as the text states, “beings who are just beings” (sattā sattātveva). 

SEXUALITY IN CLASSICAL SOUTH ASIAN BUDDHISM BY JOSÉ I. CABEZÓN L E A R N M O R E AT

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T DEPENDENT ARISING AND EMPTINESS An Excerpt from Steps on the Path to Enlightenment: A Commentary on Tsongkhapa’s Lamrim Chenmo Volume 5: Insight By Geshe Lhundub Sopa with Dechen Rochard

he special quality of the Madhyamaka system is that it not only propounds emptiness, it also upholds conventional reality. In teaching emptiness the Madhyamaka specifies what is negated and then shows what is left over—conventional reality. In fact the Madhyamaka clearly explains conventional reality, ultimate reality, and the necessary connection between them better than any other philosophical system. What is this necessary connection? We can express it as: “Everything is empty of inherent existence because of being dependent, and everything is dependent because of being empty of inherent existence.” Both permanent and impermanent things are dependent: the former depend on their parts and on being imputed by the mind on a suitable basis; the latter depend on those two as well as on causes and conditions. It is because everything is empty of inherent existence that causation, change, and existence itself are possible. Therefore those who genuinely understand the emptiness of inherent existence also accept dependent arising. According to the great master Nāgārjuna, no phenomena have even a particle of essentially existent inherent nature. Nothing exists from its own side at all. If things were inherently existent, none of the teachings about causality, samsara, nirvana, and so on could be established. It would be foolish not to accept causality and so on, because they do in fact exist. In order to allow for these phenomena, we must accept that things do not exist by way of their own nature. Tsongkhapa now addresses some earlier scholars who claim to be Mādhyamikas yet misunderstand the correct view. They say, “If things have no essentially existent inherent nature, then what else is there? It is not necessary to apply a qualifying term like ‘ultimately’ to the reasoning negating production, cessation, bondage, and liberation, for they are negated by the reasoning


negating inherent existence.” In brief, these earlier so-called Mādhyamikas say that if things do not inherently exist, they do not exist at all. Tsongkhapa points out that according to the genuine Madhyamaka view, bondage and liberation, cause and effect, arising and disintegration, and so on are established only in the total absence of inherent existence. These scholars do not acknowledge this relationship, so they contradict the actual Madhyamaka position. Therefore he urges them to consider how not to negate this special quality of the Madhyamaka.

E V E RYTHING IS E M PT Y OF INHERENT E XISTE NCE BECAUS E OF BE IN G DEPENDENT, A N D E V ERYTHING IS D E PE ND ENT BECAUSE OF BE ING EMPTY OF INHE R E NT EXISTENCE. These scholars reply that, just like Nāgārjuna and Candrakīrti, they assert that samsara and nirvana, bondage and liberation, and their causes are established only conventionally. Therefore their position is not incorrect; they do not have the fault that Tsongkhapa levels at them. But it turns out they are incorrect. Candrakīrti’s view is that inherent existence is not only nonexistent ultimately, it does not exist conventionally either. Inherent existence is like a rabbit horn; it is totally nonexistent. It has to be negated on every level. Candrakīrti’s point is that the same logic negates inherent existence both ultimately and conventionally. If these scholars admit to accepting Candrakīrti’s rational analysis negating inherent existence, then they should reject inherent existence ultimately and conventionally. They should reject inherent bondage, inherent liberation, an inherent path, inherent causes, and so on even conventionally. This is very clear in Candrakīrti’s view. In brief, either these scholars consider that the absence of inherent existence contradicts the establishment of causality, samsara, nirvana, and so on, or they do not. If they do, then having accepted the emptiness that is the lack of inherent existence, it becomes impossible for them to establish causality and so on in terms of either of the two truths. Thus they repudiate the unique special quality of the Madhyamaka system: the noncontradiction of the two truths. If they do not consider that the absence of inherent existence contradicts causality, then they have no good reason to say that causality and so on are negated by the reasoning disproving inherent existence, where there has been no need to apply any special qualification, such as “ultimately,” to the object

of negation. Since these scholars, having accepted the lack of inherent existence, consider that the reasoning disproving inherent existence negates causality, they negate arising and ceasing. This makes their position no different from the Realists’ argument against the Mādhyamikas summarized in the twenty-fourth chapter of Nāgārjuna’s Fundamental Treatise: If all these things are empty, There can be no arising and no destruction. According to you it must follow That the four noble truths do not exist. These earlier scholars object to being characterized as Realists similar to the Vaibhās.ikas and Sautrāntikas, but their view does not differ from another Realist argument as presented in Nāgārjuna’s Refutation of Objections: If all things in every case Do not inherently exist, Then even your words do not inherently exist And so cannot refute inherent nature. An opponent objects: “In both cases—whether things are empty of inherent existence or not—causality cannot be accepted; however, since we do not accept either inherent existence or its emptiness, this problem does not arise for us.” These people too are misguided, for this is another misunderstanding of the Madhyamaka view. Simply to not accept anything is not the meaning of the Madhyamaka texts. These scholars incorrectly assert that both positions—inherent existence and the emptiness of inherent existence—are at odds with causality, so they are not going to accept either one. This approach is completely wrong. Candrakīrti’s Clear Words demonstrates that not only do we Mādhyamikas not succumb to the fault that arising, ceasing, and so on are unacceptable, but we are also able to accept the four noble truths and so on as correct. Also, Nāgārjuna’s Fundamental Treatise shows that everything—arising, ceasing, and so on—is acceptable within the context of the emptiness of inherent existence, and that none of these are acceptable from the point of view of inherent existence.

STEPS ON THE PATH to ENLIGHTENMENT A Commentary on Tsongkhapa’s

Lamrim Chenmo Volume 5: insight

Geshe Lhundub Sopa with Dechen Rochard

Foreword by His Holiness the Dalai Lama

S T E P S O N T H E PAT H T O E N L I G H T E N M E N T: A C O M M E N TA R Y O N T S O N G K H A PA’ S L A M R I M C H E N M O VOLUME 5: INSIGHT B Y G E S H E L H U N D U B S O PA WITH DECHEN ROCHARD L E A R N M O R E AT

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Coming Soon O N

T H E

H O R I Z O N

A T

W I S D O M

We are honored to be publishing the second volume in His Holiness Sakya Trichen’s series Freeing the Heart and Mind: Chögyal Phagpa on the Buddhist Path. This latest book by the former Sakya lineage holder is a landmark piece for his commentary on the work of an important early figure in the history of the Sakya school. This spring we will also be publishing the latest volume in the Library of Tibetan Classics series: The Tibetan Book of Everyday Wisdom: Collections of Sage Advice. Translated by Beth Newman and introduced by Thupten Jinpa, this anthology of writings known as “wise sayings” touches on the secular and spiritual and contains powerful advice that will surely resonate with modern audiences. We are also happy to announce the publication of our first book with the celebrated scholar Bhikkhu Anālayo, Rebirth in Early Buddhism and Current Research. This fascinating work explores Buddhist doctrine—and debates—on rebirth, and also dives into modern case studies, such as that of one intriguing child who at two years old was able to recite Pāli suttas from memory.

F R E E

This spring Alan Wallace’s newest translation of classic Dzogchen texts will be released: Open Mind: View and Meditation in the Lineage of Lerab Lingpa. This book will be a welcome addition to his previous translations of Düdjom Lingpa and is a boon for English-speaking practitioners of the Great Perfection, as it contextualizes the tradition within the wider scope of Tibetan Buddhism. Among the other new books slated for the spring are I Wanna Be Well: How a Punk Found Peace and You Can Too, the first book by Miguel Chen of Teenage Bottlerocket fame; Before Buddha Was Buddha: Learning from the Jataka Tales, Rafe Martin’s Zen-infused retelling of the past-life stories of the Buddha and guidance for what these tales can teach us; Sanctuary: A Meditation on Home, Homelessness, and Belonging, by Zenju Earthlyn Manuel, a beautifully written work of poetic prose exploring otherness and belonging—and what it means to be truly at home; Being-Time: A Practitioner’s Guide to Dōgen’s Shōbōgenzō Uji, by Shinshu Roberts, which offers incredible guidance for awakening; and, of course, there are many more books we can’t wait to share with you. Stay tuned! Yours in the Dharma, Brianna Quick and the Wisdom editorial team

E B O O K

The Dalai Lama

On Compassion Learn compassion from a master with these four powerful teachings: • • • •

Compassion’s Effects in Our Daily Lives Generating Compassion The Benefits of Compassion The Power of Compassion

Download now at wisdompubs.org/dalai-lama-compassion

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Creating the Right Motivation An Excerpt from Freeing the Heart and Mind, Part Two: Chögyal Phagpa on the Buddhist Path by His Holiness Sakya Trichen

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henever you receive teachings, the first thing that you should do is create the right motivation. Receiving teachings with the wrong motivation is like receiving the wrong medical treatment for an illness—it will cause more problems than benefits. If you have greed or anger, for example, then it will be very harmful. If you don’t have any particular motivation, or if you are merely curious, wanting to know more about the subject and treating it as general knowledge, it will not be of much benefit to you. If, however, you have the right motivation, then even a single line of teaching will be of tremendous benefit.

Right motivation has many levels. Whether we are Buddhists or non-Buddhists, whether we are human beings or some other kind of sentient being, we all wish to be free from suffering and have happiness. In fact, everyone—every individual, every society, and every country—is running one after another for the sake of overcoming their suffering and achieving happiness. However, real happiness cannot be had unless we change our minds. Many people receive teachings in order to overcome suffering in this life, things such as physical pain, mental anxiety, legal problems, family problems, or relationship problems. There is great suffering in sam . sāra, or the worldly cycle of existence, and people seek spiritual help so that they can fulfill their worldly wishes for good health, a long life, prosperity, and so on. Although this is certainly a good motivation to have, it is still within the worldly cycle of existence and therefore is not the proper motivation for receiving the teachings. As it is said in Parting from the Four Attachments (Zhen pa bzhi bral), the famous teaching given by Mañjuśrī to Sachen Kunga Nyingpo, “If you have attachment to this life, you are not a Dharmic or religious person.” To be considered Dharmic, one’s motivation should at least be for results in the next life. After all, a human lifetime is very short. People almost never live to be even one hundred years old, and anything you might gain or acquire in life—fame, prosperity, or success—has no lasting benefit. Therefore, although it is very important for us, as ordinary

persons, to have a good life, it is not worth being attached to it. Life is like a bubble that floats on the surface of water. It can burst at any moment. Therefore receiving the teachings for the sake of this life is not a proper motivation. Then again, many people receive teachings realizing that life is impermanent and that sooner or later we all must leave this world. When we die, our physical bodies will be disposed of in one way or another, but consciousness cannot be disposed of in the same way as the body. The invisible mind cannot be destroyed like the physical body; consciousness will continue. According to the teachings, the deeds that we commit determine where we will go when our mental consciousness continues. Virtuous deeds will lead consciousness into the higher realms, and negative deeds will lead consciousness into the lower realms. If one falls into one of the three lower realms—the hell realm, the hungry ghost realm, or the animal realm—there one will find tremendous suffering. I am sure that many of you are already familiar with the descriptions of the sufferings that are experienced there. There is no way to bear such suffering. After all, we cannot bear the suffering that we experience in this world, so how could we possibly bear the sufferings of the lower realms?

FREEING THE HEART A N D M I N D , PA R T T W O : C H Ö G YA L P H A G PA O N T H E B U D D H I S T PAT H B Y H I S H O L I N E S S S A K YA T R I C H E N L E A R N M O R E AT

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Wisdom Holiday Gift Guide The ways to awaken are as varied as the people in our lives. Wisdom books reflect that, revealing a thousand different ways to be inspired by the Buddha’s teaching; to wake up; to radically transform your understanding of suffering and joy. If you’re looking for more meaningful gifts this year, we invite you to give Wisdom books to your loved ones. When you do, you support Buddhist thinkers and teachers, the creation of more Buddhist books, and the flourishing of the Dharma. Thank you! Get these books and more at wisdompubs.org.

HOW TO...

Practical guides to support your meditation practice.

POETRY FOR YOUR PRACTICE

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LERAB LINGPA, TREASURE REVEALER AN EXCERPT FROM MIND IN COMFORT AND EASE

B Y H I S H O L I N E S S T H E D A L A I L A M A | E D I T E D B Y PAT R I C K G A F F N E Y

A

s His Holiness explains, the Yang Nying Pudri is a terma treasure that was revealed by Lerab Lingpa. In the Nyingma tradition, the teachings are passed down through two transmissions: the long, continuous lineage of kama and the short lineage of terma, the treasures concealed by Guru Padmasambhava to be discovered later by the treasure revealers or tertöns, who are emanations of his close disciples. Tertön Sogyal, Lerab Lingpa (1856–1927), was the incarnation of Nanam Dorjé Dudjom, one of Padmasambhava’s closest disciples, who attained siddhis through his practice of Vajrakilaya and was able to move, unhindered, through space like the wind and to pass through solid rock. Tertön Sogyal was a prolific tertön, whose collected revelations fill twenty volumes. He was a student of Nyoshul Lungtok, Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, Mipham Rinpoche, and Jamgön Kongtrul and also received teachings from Nyala Pema Düdul and Patrul Rinpoche. His own disciples included the Thirteenth Dalai Lama Thupten Gyatso (1876–1933), the third Dodrupchen Jikmé Tenpé Nyima (1865–1926), and Jamyang Khyentse Chökyi Lodrö (1893–1959). Five volumes of his revelations are dedicated entirely to termas of Vajrakilaya; one of them, The Razor of the Innermost Essence— Yang Nying Pudri—was destined to become particularly renowned. Tertön Sogyal’s biography, which was written by Tulku Tsullo, describes how the terma was revealed. In the autumn of 1895, Tertön Sogyal went with Jamgön Kongtrul to Tsadra Rinchen Drak, a sacred site closely linked with both Jamgön Kongtrul and Chokgyur Dechen Lingpa, and

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one of the twenty-five holy places of east Tibet, representing “the wisdom mind of enlightened qualities.” There, high up on the hillside, Tertön Sogyal approached “The Cave that Delights the Awesome Heruka,” where, his biography recounts: The outline of the terma door stood out clearly in the rock face, and when he saw this, he became as if excited and flung a stone at it. At once the earth shook with a great crashing sound, as though a whole mountain were subsiding. An aperture in the

ping them carefully in silk so that no one might see, he placed them in the terma chest held by his consort. The terma trove in the rock was also full of amrita, but he said that it was not his to take and he would not remove it. However, his consort pleaded with him insistently, and to avoid disappointing her, he took some of this amrita, which liberates when tasted, and left the remaining treasure just as he had found it. He offered a substitute for the terma and closed the door and sealed it well. Then Jamgön Kongtrul Rinpoche approached the site, and together, in joyful gratitude, they all celebrated a tsok feast, offered tormas to please the terma guardians, and made prayers of dedication and auspiciousness on a grand scale, aspiring to benefit the Dharma and all living beings. You’ll be able to read more from Lerab Lingpa and Tulku Tsullo in Open Mind: View and Meditation in the Lineage of Lerab Lingpa, translated by Alan Wallace, coming in February 2018.

Lerab Lingpa

rock gaped open, and an exquisite fragrance flooded out to fill the air. Tertön Sogyal plunged his hand into the opening and withdrew a kutsap—a representation of Guru Rinpoche—in a striding posture and gripping vajra and phurba, and along with it, the casket containing the terma of Yang Nying Pudri. Wrap-

MIND IN COMFORT AND EASE THE VISION OF ENLIGHTENMENT I N T H E G R E AT P E R F E C T I O N BY THE DALAI LAMA L E A R N M O R E AT

W I S D O M P U B S . O R G / W J FA L L 1 7


In the Buddha’s Words A regular Wisdom Journal feature with passages from the Pāli Canon.

THE RHINOCEROS HORN ( K H A G G A V I S Ā N. A S U T T A ) Not arousing greed for tastes, not hankering for them; not nourishing others, walking for alms without skipping houses; with a mind unbound to this or that family, one should live alone like a rhinoceros horn. Having abandoned the five obstructions of mind, having dispelled all mental defilements, independent, having cut off affection and hatred, one should live alone like a rhinoceros horn. Having left behind pleasure and pain and previously [discarded] joy and dejection, having gained purified equanimity and serenity, one should live alone like a rhinoceros horn. With energy aroused to attain the supreme goal, with unsluggish mind and robust practice, firmly persistent, equipped with strength and power, one should live alone like a rhinoceros horn. Not neglecting seclusion and jhāna, always acting in accordance with the teachings, having explored the danger in states of existence, one should live alone like a rhinoceros horn. Yearning for craving’s destruction, heedful,  intelligent, learned, mindful,  having comprehended the Dhamma, fixed in destiny, vigorous in striving,  one should live alone like a rhinoceros horn. Like a lion unalarmed among sounds, like the wind not caught in a net, untainted like a lotus by water, one should live alone like a rhinoceros horn. Like the lion, king of beasts, who has fangs as its strength, who lives by attacking and overpowering, one should resort to remote lodgings; one should live alone like a rhinoceros horn. From The Suttanipāta | Translated by Bhikkhu Bodhi

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About Wisdom Wisdom Publications is the leading publisher of contemporary and classic books and practical works on Buddhism, mindfulness, and meditation. We trace our beginnings to the influential Tibetan teachers Lama Thubten Yeshe and Lama Zopa Rinpoche. Lama Yeshe’s vision of “publications for wisdom culture” led to the founding of Wisdom. We are a nonprofit charitable organization dedicated to • connecting you with Buddhist wisdom, • cultivating writers and teachers the world over, • advancing critical scholarship, • preserving and sharing Buddhist literary culture, • and helping people find and engage with the teachers, teachings, and practices for a wise and compassionate life. Publishers Tim McNeill Daniel Aitken

Production Ben Gleason Lindsay D’Andrea

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Wisdom Publications is affiliated with the Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition (FPMT). Catalog design by Amy Kunberger


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Godrapka | Translation by Cyrus Stearns from Hermit of Go Cliffs: Timeless Instructions from a Tibetan Mystic

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The Wisdom Journal, Fall/Winter 2017  
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