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ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO: AIR

William Zeng 363773

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Contents

CONTENTS PART A: EOI I: CASE FOR INNOVATION XX. INTRODUCTION A1. ARCHITECTURE AS DISCOUSE A2. COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE A3. PARAMETRIC MODELING A4. ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATIONS A5. CONCLUSION A6. LEARNING OUTCOME

PART B: EOI II: DESIGN APPROACH B1. DESIGN FOCUS B2. CASE STUDY 1.0 B3. CASE STUDY 2.0 B4. TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT B5. TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES B6. TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL B7. ALGORITHMIC SKETCHEES B8. LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES

PART B: EOI III: DESIGN APPROACH C1. GATEWAY PROJECT: DESIGN CONCEPT C2. GATEWAY PROJECT: TECTONIC ELEMENTS C3. GATEWAY PROJECT: FINAL MODEL C4. ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES C5. LEARNING OBJECTIVE AND OUTCOMES

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Introduction to Myself

About myself Hello everyone, my name is Bixiang Zeng, William is the prefer name I used. I’m from China and this is my third year of Architecture in Melbourne University. I have just finished a two months intership with MarchesePartners back in Guangzhou. I’ve done some of the CAD drawings and sketchup models for some projects in Sydney. One of the most interesting subjects about digital design was Virtual Environment as I’ve learnt a bit of digital design during the course.

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Virtual Environment

Project in Virtual Environment These were some of the photos of my project in Virtual Environment. These works has engaged to digital design to some degree and obviously, digital design now is the indispensable way to architecture design. Digital tools always give people a bigger range to create as it could model thing much quicker and precise. People could create some very interesting surface on the building such as the commerce building for RMIT. A new approach can be found in digital modeling.

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A.1 Architecture As Discourese

ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE Through enormous period of time, people have shifted

social or political impact on this building as Schumacher has

their views about architecture from a shelter to a piece of

said that:

art, then from a simple art to an art that could effects the surrounding atmosphere. According to Richard Williams, architecture is the most public of the arts. In his words, architecture communi-

“Architecture discourse is reflected architecture’s social and political impact and responsibility.” -----Schumacher, Patrik3

cates with people and the surrounding area all the time as

In this course, during the gateway project, how to engage the

“...architecutre is as much a philosophical, social or professional realm as it is a material one, and it is through the consideration of architecture as discourse that one can engage with it as visual culture.”1

project with the brief that can express the attitude towards the

The difinition of the term discourse from dictionary

and representation.

social and political reponse without harming the shape of art has become one of the most important things. In this part, two public buildings will be used to demonstrate how architecture reflects its social or political impacts through several aspects, namely framing views, engagement with public

is: ‘To discribes, a formal way to thinking that can be expressed through talks and words’.2 However, in this case, architecture has become a language that telling the interaction between the shape of the builidng and the

1.Cited from: Architecture and Visual Culture: Definitions, Concepts, Contexts. (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), P.103 2. Dictionary.com 3. Cited from: The Autopoiesis of Architecture: A New Framework for Architecture (Chichester: Wiley),P. 18 5


A.1 Architecture As Discourese

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A.1 Architecture As Discourese

PRECEDENTS DUTCH EMBASSY REM KOOLHAAS

The first public building that would illustrate the argument would be the Netherlands Embassy in Berlin. It is designed by Rem Koolhaas and the building was opened in 2004. Some people may argue that the embassy should be a political building rather than a public building. However, it is considered as a semi-public political building. First of all, the reason why this embassy stands out from other embassy building is it frames views. Unlike the other embassy, which the view would be the building itself, the Dutch Embassy in Berlin frames views for people to view at. By having views for people, people would accept the building as it is part of the surrounding environment easily. This would illustrate how well the building is communicating with the surrounding environment through the views that it frames. Moreover, similar with some Rem’s works later in his career, engaging with the public is one of his main themes. Surprisingly, a public space for people to rest is located on the ground floor of this embassy. This act changes surrounding atmosphere. An embassy should be solemn and strictly controlled. However, its engagement with people around makes the embassy integrated into the surrounding office

Figure 1

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A.1 Architecture As Discourese

environment. This building does not engage with public by only having the ground floor as a public space, it also allow people to explore the inside as well. People can view things happening inside the building as glass is widely used in this building. Some have said that the most important thing that this building engaged with people is the Ambassador’s office as

“… has a cantilevered black box that serves as a meeting room …… at the eight level above the void” ----OZAN AVCI1 from this quote, the location of the main office has again, integrated with surrounding environment and less solemn atmosphere. Furthermore, this building has represented the nation of Netherlands and Germany by the composition of the building. The embassy consists of an L-shaped and a cube building. These two buildings are connected with each other, which representing these two nations are deeply cooperating regardless of the past.2 Besides, the building also representing Rem himself as the way the building is designed is full of his own style, such as ramp, disruption of orders.

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Figure 2


A.1 Architecture As Discourese

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A.1 Architecture As Discourese

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A.1 Architecture As Discourese

PRECEDENTS Guangzhou Opera House Zaha Hadid

The Opera House in Guangzhou, China is designed by Zaha Hadid and the building was opened on May, 2010. This building sits with the riverside location and it is at the heart of Guangzhou’s cultural development. There are some reasons why this building would identified as one of the buildings that shows strong sence of discourse. First of all, the building itself did not frame views, however, the allocation of these two parts of the building frames a view for people. Different from the Dutch Embassy designed by Rem Koolhaas, the view of this building is more natural. The Pearl River, which crosses the city of Guangzhou, can be viewed through the pathway between these two parts. People could experience the discovery of Pearl River through this pathway. Secondly, this engagement with public is also very important while talking about discourse. It is said that this Opera House was influenced by river valleys – and they way which the exterior are transformed.3 By doing so, it provides a approach that could merge this building into the harmony environment. Moreover, engaging with

Figure 3

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A.1 Architecture As Discourese

public also means how or who would more likely to use it. Unlike the other public building, where only one type of user could more likely to use, wide range of users can use this building. Furthermore, as the opera house is surrounded by office buildings, it has become one of recreational place for the workers. People can relax on the bench outside the building or go into the building and have a walk. It has perfectly engaged with people and enrich the activities for those who work nearby. Lastly, for this building, it is not only a representation of Zaha herself, but also a representation of the city. The building itself has illustrated how different cultures can come together and merge as one. Two separate parts but functioning as one. As one has said that:

“The Opera House design is ... exploration of contextual urban relationships, combining the cultural traditions that have shaped Guangzhou’s history, with the ambition and optimism that will create its future.” ---- ArchiDaily4

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Figure 4


A.1 Architecture As Discourese

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A.2 Computational Architecture

COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE

Figure 5

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“Ability to frame the problem in a manner that will make it amenable to solution” ----Yehuda E. Kalay5


A.2 Computational Architecture

Throughout enormous period of time, the way of designing has changed from using hand drawing with pencil and easier to use computer to conduct digital experience. Some people believe that

“design computation is still only seen by many as ‘just a tool’ abd renite frin tge reak vysubess if creatuve desugb […]” ---Frazer, John H.6 However, using computation as a tool is not computational architecture, it is just computerization. Computational Architecture is that computation or computing as a computer-based design tool. It would be a new way to approach building design and it also becomes one of the most important parts of digital design.

etries has increased as well. However, as the technology level of reality world is limited by the development of the industry, the increase in achievable range is slower than the increase in conceivable. Nevertheless, computation brings a brighter future of the shape of the building. Façade is no longer a flat wall that distinguish the exterior and interior, it has another function that is to decorate the building as well. In the past, decoration is installed separately on the façade. However, computation allows people to pre-fabricate the façade through modeling on it. This has save not only the budget, but also the time commitment on the building during the construction.

By having computation, design process has been reshaped; the order of the process is no longer linear. The order may be disorder. Two photos were shown on the lecture slides that the order of project phases could be varies.7 By having changes on the order of project phases, more critical aspect could be covered during the design or construction period. Computation can also brings more dynamic shapes for designer to choose. No doubt that it has increases the range of conceivable geometries and enhance designer’s creativity. By doing so, the range of achievable geom

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A.2 Computational Architecture

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A.2 Computational Architecture

PRECEDENTS RMIT NEW ACADEMIC BUILDING LYONS ARCHITECTS

The RMIT new Academic Building was designed by LYON ARCHITECTS at March 2009 on Swanston Street. One of the reasons why this RMIT new Academic Building would become my precedent is because the construction period is very short. 10 stories multifunctional teaching space had been built within two years. The reason why construction could be finished in such a short time is due to the use of pre-fabricate material. Computation allows the designer to estimate the Secondly, colorful surface is one of its symbols that differ from other buildings. The striking multi-coloured geometric facade which features on all sides of the building. By using computation, it allows people to give functional activities for these geometric faรงade. These triangular windows and sun shades provide the bold and colourful identity which connects with the RMIT architectural branding.8

FIgure 6

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A.2 Computational Architecture

Furthermore, irregular shapes of windows are located on every faรงade. Computation gives architect a way to calculate the area of the window and send these figures to the manufacture. In this way, windows can be installed to the building as soon as it arrived the site. If people are not using computation, windows need to be cut on site and it would waste not only the money, but also increase the workload.

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Figure 7


A.2 Computational Architecture

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A.2 Computational Architecture

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A.2 Computational Architecture

PRECEDENTS HARPA CONCERT HALL AND CONFERENCE CENTER Olafur Eliasson This Harpa concert hall and conference center was designed by Henning Larsen Architects in co-operation with Olafur Eliasson. It opened on May 4th, 2011. The location of the building gives the building a sense of changing, as the building is isolated. The building itself stands between the sea and the land. How to get into the environment harmony become one of the biggest things for the architects.9 Changing the natural lighting level is one of the way that would help this building to merge into this atmosphere easily. Glass façade is a good way to start. The whole building was designed within a steel frames. However, the panels around are irrgular. Only one way to create this is to use computation. Like the rest of the building its design draws on nature, particularly that of crystalized basalt which is evident in the geometrical pattern of the structure’s skin.10

Figure 8

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A.2 Computational Architecture

By using computationing, the shapes of the glasses could be set easily compared to those methods used in the old days. Glasses panels in different colours in different shapes are hard to controlled as each single glass panel has its unique shapes.

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Figure 9


A.2 Computational Architecture

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A.3 Parametric Modelling

PARAMETRIC MODELLING

Figure 10

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A.3 Parametric Modelling

“Parametric Modelling is to marks parts of a design, relate and change together in a coordinated way.� ---Woodbury, Robert11 Parametric modeling is underlying the principle of con-

By having parametric modeling, mathematical thinking needs

nectivity of elements. By using the parametric modeling,

to be used. Architects or designers need to know the relation-

architects need to identify all the relationship between

ship between two elements.

different elements, different groups. The reason why parametric modelling is unique is because of the idea of

It is always important to think the impact of having the para-

explicit relationship between parameters and a geometry.

metric modeling. Parametric modeling can be learnt by any

Designer can control the value of each groups or even

one, as long as they know the relationship between the elements

elements to create complex surfaces and curve. There are

that are going to be used. More and more architects will use

three main approaches to parametric modelling, Graph-

parametric modeling as their design method. In such a digital

based, Logic-based and Algebraic approach.

age, the crucial things for a good architecture should be context. The building should be able to express the architect’s idea

Each of these three approaches have its own advantages.

through the building itself.

For example, Graph-based is more reliable, the speed and the clarity of the solution. The sequence of this approach is directed by the arrows to nodes.12 However, once the direction was wrong, the outcome will become disaster.

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A.3 Parametric Modelling

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A.3 Parametric Modelling

PRECEDENTS THE WATERCUBE PTW ARCHITECTS

Aviva Stadium in Dublin is designed by Populous and engineered by Buro Happold in 1878.13 In this project, it illustrate that parametric modeling can engage in multi-disciplinary approach in entire design process and construction phase. The digital model of this building has been shared with different parties and refinements were made. In this case, parametric modeling acts as a bridge that connects those suggestions. During the lecture, it is said that parametric modeling provides control to establish a rational and stable structure. It has enabled the control of geometries form in this stadium. For example, the cladding system on the rooftop, which is slopped with angle and changes in dimensions as well, is controlled by the parametric modeling.

Figure 11

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A.3 Parametric Modelling

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A.3 Parametric Modelling

PRECEDENTS MICHAEL SCHUMACHER WORLD CHAMPION TOWER L-A-V-A MICHAEL SCHUMACHER TOWER is designed by L-A-V-A, (Laboratory for Visionary Architecture). It is the first building that branded after a formula 1 champion.14 The tower is designed as 250 meters structural high. However, if buildings have excess a certain height, wind loads become a critical problem to the building. The designers have used parametric software to create the shape of the tower so that the geometric forms can obtain an efficient structure.15 Prefect shape of the tower could be easily determined compared to the traditional way of design, as equations were used to define all the possibility outcomes. These parameters would calculated through all sets of functions to create the most rational curve or shape of the tower.

Figure 12

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A.4 Algorithmic Explorations

ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATIONS

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A.4 Algorithmic Explorations

These are some of the screen shots of my model. It has a very complex surface. However, the surface is achievable in real life. Spiraling points were created before the curves. After having these points, lines are connected to with two points coordinately. Having two curves that spiraling in 3 dimensional, command of lofting could be used. Since the Oc Tree command requires a geometry shape and populate geometry, the curve that created before could be appointed as geometry. Therefore, we could connect the geometry with the populate geometry, then connect the Oc Tree command. Boxes or rectangular shapes appears on the side of the spiraling curve surface. The reason why I choose these sketches is because it represent a new technology to resolve or achieve the shape that people could not done before. By using parametric modeling, shapes that are ridicules can still be modeled. Therefore, these images could inspire me to explore more in parametric modeling.

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A.5 Conclusion

CONCLUSION As images are shown before, the sketch model of my design is based on a volcanic shape. Hollow inside the building, which provides an extremely large interior space. Rooms or patterns are located on the surface of the volcanic shape. The way it innovates is how rooms can be piled up together to create a large space. The gateway project requires a project on the highway. It is important to provide enough space for cars to go through and stable structure. Technique that used in this sketch model provides a way to do so. Therefore, it would be a good way to start practicing a solution towards a large traffic flow. Moreover, by using the parametric modeling to finish this project, it could provide a new view for people from other discipline that architecture. People may experience a new technology through driving pass. Structures, patterns may be a brand new idea for them.

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A.6 Learning Outcomes

LEARNING OUTCOME Computational architecture has become very familiar to us. Starting at year 1, virtual environment, digital fabrication has become one of the fast fabrications I have ever met. The term of parametric modeling is strange for me at the first time, however, through the research and exercise that we’ve done in the first week, I’m now interested in how far can parametric modeling goes. What would be the boarder of it. Possibility is one of the key words of computational architecture. Through the computer programming or parametric modeling, different approaches could solve one problem. However, while facing multiple options, people must deeply considered before making the conclusion or decision.

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B.1 Design Focus

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B.1 Design Focus

DESIGN FOCUS: TESSELATION The Western Gateway installation should provide an entry statement and arrival experience, and become a new identifier for the municipality. THe installation should create a focal point fo iconic scale and presene and encourage a sense of pride within the local community. The Western Gateway should propose new, inspiring and brave ideas, to generate a new discourse. The main stream of our group is tesselation. According to the understanding, tesselation is to construct a 3-dimensional objects by using 2-dimensional plane geometry. The object that we built would be a self-standing sructure with complex surface. In order to create such surface, analyzing the precedent work would be essential. Voussoir Cloud’ by IwamotoScott with Buro Happold would be one of the precedent that related to our group project. IwamotoScott was trying to express the light and shadow effects during the different times within a day. It would be interesting to explore the possibility of having ever changing with light and shadows by doing computational scripts.

Figure 13

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B.2 Case Studey 1.0

CASE STUDY 1.0 Among the provided Grasshopper difinitions, ‘Voussoir Cloud’ by IwamotoScott with Buro Happold was chosen as a case study. The reason why this would be the case study 1.0 is because of its shape. The object itself was formed in dome shape with patterns on it and self-standing. The most critical point of this case study would be the self-standing part as the elements act as a structural element to support this object. It would have very interesting outputs if imputs are vary as the definition would manipulate the imputs to achieve a fantastic output. In order to know more about the Grasshopper commands, the definition was rewrited by changing the variables. By changing these factors, different shapes was created.

Figure 14

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B.2 Case Studey 1.0

To hole all variables, besides the scale of the openning.

scale: 0.150

scale: 0.472

To hole all variables, besides the height of the openning.

height: -10.00

height: -5.27

To hole all variables, besides the control points of the model.

Points: 4 38

Points: 3


B.2 Case Studey 1.0

Having produced these matrixs, it helps me in understanding more about the Grasshopper. It allows me to change the outputs quickly through the modification of imput variables. Some interesting shapes were created through this process. More importantly, it has illustrated a fact that Kangaroo pulgin is to apply forces through certain points. Without these points, Kangaroo would never done on any surfaces or meshes.

scale: 0.918

For the first group of matrix, it was trying to experience how the overall model would change if the factor of scale for the opening would change. Having applied the Kangaroo plugin on the model, different scale was tried. As the outcomes have shown that the larger factor it has, the taller the model is.

height: -3.40

height: 0.00

Middle group of matrix shows the changing due to the height of the model. Different magnatudes were inputted to the Grasshopper and it has delivered different shapes of outcome. The last group of matrix shows that the control point of the model, which called fixed point as well, could affect the shape of model significantly. Shape could not be baked if the control point is less than 2.

Points: 2 39


B.2 Case Studey 1.0

Plan View

To hole all variables, besides the quantity of fixed points.

points: 4

points: 3

points: 4

points: 3

Prespective View

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B.2 Case Studey 1.0

Also, our group started to experience the possibilitiy of the surface. We were trying to make the surface in tension so that it would look like it was pulling up on edges. By doing this, it illustrates the possibility of having different forms of a rectangle. points: 2

points: 1

points: 2

points: 1

The matrix that created shows the proccess of making the surface in tension and tried to play around with the control point of the surface. Different quantity of points were tested and the surface could give people a sense of floating up towards the air.

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B.3 Case Studey 2.0

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B.3 Case Studey 2.0

CASE STUDY 2.0 For our group, FERMID is our inspiration precedent. FERMID was designed by Behhnaz Babazadeh. It is said that the inspiration of this precedent is a movement of breathing. The movement of this lantern gives us a sense of heart pumping. Therefore, our group arguement has been made throught this precedent is to create a architecture that represent or express the motion of heart pumping. There are a few possibilities for this light to made. There could be a sensor that linked with the other parts. Once there there is a object that broke into its range, the sensor would pull the bottom of the light so that it would be in tension and that part would pumped up like a heart pumping. There is another posibility that is forces may applied on certain part of the light so that it would change its shape through certain times.

BASE  FORM  

RADIUS   SHAPE  

FINISHED   FORM  

PATTERNS   BASE  POINTS   DIRECTION   FORCES  

MAGNATIDE   APPLY   POINTS  

Figure 15

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B.3 Case Studey 2.0

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1

2

4

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B.3 Case Studey 2.0

In this part, different definitions were tried in Grasshopper to reproduce the original definition for the case study. These images show how the patterns would be located on a sphere.

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1. the cone was placed on the sphere with a original height of the cone. After that, the number of points were increased and the height of the cone also incresed (2). By now, the object that created looks like a vairious. However, like 1, the cones were not only placed outwards, but also inwards. In order to make the cones towards outside of the sphere, more points could be created. However, as image 3-5 show, no mater to change the quantity of points of the height of the cones, some of the cones would still placed inwards. We believe that if the sphere needs to be identified the inside and outside throught the value of points. For example, the inwards area would be negative and outside would be positive so that we could control the the cones that placed only towards the positive sides.

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B.3 Case Studey 2.0

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B.3 Case Studey 2.0

The matrix that we baked regualry show the processing of another possibility of the original definition. The matrix was quite successful as we could produce similar outcome compared to the orignial project. The shape of the patterns which attached on the basic shape of the original project were quite similar as well. By having done so far, out group knows how to produce different patterns that could attached to different shapes of base object. The next move for our project could exploring the difinition to create a movable surface.

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B.4 Technique: Development

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B.4 Technique: Development

TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT HEART-PUMPING From case study 2.0, our group was amazed by the precedent FERMID, Behnaz Babazadeh. We were more likely to start looking at the technique that could provide movement to the object. Two apporaches were designed for the design theme, which is to capturing the movement and power of heart-pumping effect.

In order to achieve this outcome, a large quality of work should be done to search for a better outcome. After having the better outcomes, more needs to be considered and searching for another solution throught those better solution. Eventually, only one or two solution could be left and we could develop more on these two apporaches. For our group, two apporaches namely, Inflation and Motion were developed for expressing the idea of our design theme.

Figure 16

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B.4 Technique: Development

APPORACH 1: INFLATION

P-Wall was a precedent that inspire our apporach. Lumpiness surface was used to represent the frozen movement of a strong energy within a object. The way how it was presented seems to be interesting and unique if is would applied on the surface of a building or our project. In order to achieve this outcome, two plugins were used namely kangaroo and panelling tool. Unique elements on the surface are the key point of our design. In order to create the lumpiness of the surface, forces are applied on those modules by using kangaroo. After having the satisfied objects, we generated these elements into a selfstanding structure. Panelling tool was used for searching a better distribution of elements. Through this apporach, we wish to provide a feeling of excitement and dynamicity through the expression of the Gateway project installation, to introduce a ‘small pump’ as the starting of your fantastic journey in Melbourne City.

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Figure 17


B.4 Technique: Development

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B.4 Technique: Development

Regular Distribution & Extrusion extrude: 0

Randomly Distribution & Extrusion extrude: 0

Morph Objects on Grids

grids number:

52

5x7


B.4 Technique: Development

extrude: 5

extrude: 10

extrude: 5

extrude: 10

grids number:

7 x 12

grids number:

9 x 17

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B.4 Technique: Development

Morph Objects on Grids & Extrusion

extrude: -9

extrude: 3

Morph Randomly Distributed Objects on Grids

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grids number:

5x7

grids number:

17 x 23


B.4 Technique: Development

extrude: -6

extrude: -3

extrude: 6

extrude: 9

grids number:

9 x 12

grids number:

12 x 17

grids number:

23 x29

grids number:

29 x 37

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B.4 Technique: Development

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B.4 Technique: Development

APPORACH 2: MOTION Figure 18

In order to achieve the idea of exploring the movement in living organisms, a movable and operable structure is introduced by sing a non-fixed joint for connecting elements. The gaps that formed by the elements could expand or contracted through the forces applied. In this way, seems like every elements within the system are full of life and energy. Through this apporach, we wish to provide a feeling of excitement and dynamicity through the expression of the Gateway project installation, to introduce a ‘small pump’ as the starting of your fantastic journey in Melbourne City.

57 Figure 19


B.4 Technique: Development

Rotating Opearable Objects on Grids rotation: -100

rotation: 50

Stretching Grids Shape

height: 30

58


B.4 Technique: Development

rotation: -50

rotation: 0

rotation: 100

rotation: 150

height: 40

height: 50

59


B.4 Technique: Development

Stretching Grids Shape

height: 50

Movable Objects & Extrusion

offset dinstance: 0

offset dinstance: -35

60

offset dinstance: 35


B.4 Technique: Development

height: 40

height: 30

offset dinstance: -15

offset dinstance: -25

offset dinstance: -45

offset dinstance: -55

offset dinstance: 45

offset dinstance: 55

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B.5 Technique: Prototypes

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B.5 Technique: Prototypes

TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES During the modeling making phase, more than 15 models were made to test the outcome of different material and different apporaches. First of all, photos on the left are demonstrating the supporting of wax. By melting the wax, we were trying to find a most organic form. However, since wax needs a surface or object to wax on, a bended closed object is created. The melted wax could now form on this object. In order to increase the speed of solidification, one of the group member was trying to blow some cold air. After around 10mins of pulling wax, a base shape was created. The wax has formed many driping track. This model was then taken for light effect as we are interesting the shadowing of models. The last model was very successful as it shown the shadow of the wax and a little bit of light transperancy. By doing this, we know that when gravity applied on our model, it would form a point load. Hence, the model would have sharpe edges or fins.

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B.5 Technique: Prototypes

64


B.5 Technique: Prototypes

In this section, we were trying to experience the light effect for a moving grid structure. However, in this section, different agles, as well as different distance of the light source were tested. As our group is interested in the everchanging shape of light and shadows. The distances of light source are different so that it would show the difference in shadows that produced The first row of the images show the light source was moving from left to right, the shadows were mving from a small shadow into a longer and expanded shadow. Light source was located on top of the model. As time goes, the light source would moved into the model. By having this, the shadows of the model expand to a further distance and the gaps of the shadows were larger.

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B.5 Technique: Prototypes

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B.5 Technique: Prototypes

Those photos on the right have documented the process of how the grid changes through the changes of the ballon. Since our main idea for the project is heart-pumping, to abstract the motion of the heart has become essential to use. When the ballon is blowing, the gird did not expand at very first begining as it has not reach the gird yet. However, when time goes on, the ballon was getting bigger and the gird started to expand. One of the problem that occured is how the gird would contract through the shrinkage of the ballon.

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B.5 Technique: Prototypes

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B.5 Technique: Prototypes

Those photos on the right illustrate how different patterns on the gird would vary the shading area. By changing the grid, the pattern itself has changed the size as well. As a result of that, the szies of the shadows have changed as well. It was so interesting that the outcomes of this shadows will never be perdictable as heaps of factors effects the outcome. Therefore, the ever changing light and shadows are the most interesting objective that our group is looking for. Models shown on the first two rows have preform in prefect conditions and achieved the target that we were looking for. However, the model that shown in the last three image was in poor condition as the patterns could not move when the gird was moved.

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B.5 Technique: Prototypes

70


B.5 Technique: Prototypes

Those photos on the right illustrate how different patterns on the gird would vary the shading area. By changing the grid, the pattern itself has changed the size as well. As a result of that, the szies of the shadows have changed as well. It was so interesting that the outcomes of this shadows will never be perdictable as heaps of factors effects the outcome. Therefore, the ever changing light and shadows are the most interesting objective that our group is looking for. The model was taken to experience different angle of light and different distances of light sources. Each of the image demonstrate a good shadow effect. Some of the images did not show an interesting shadow, for example, the last two images. Some of the images did show some fantastic shadow.

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B.5 Technique: Prototypes

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B.5 Technique: Prototypes

In this section, prototypes of the Inflation apporach were made. Those photos on the right illustrate the light and shadow affects and different materials applied on the surface of the model. Since the idea of inflation sits on a fixed gird, the way how it brings exciement to people is different. The skin of the inflation gives people a sense of wired and elastic feeling. The shadows that projected on the background look like a skull. Light was placed in different directions so that it would give more details about the shadows. Some of the image did not show such a good demosration of what we were looking for. The reason why this would occur might becasue of the quality of the image is not high enough. Moreover, the bottom group of image shows the components that could applied on the inflation apporach. elestic matrial such as ballon may used to create the surface in our porject.

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B.6 Technique: Proposal

TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL For our group, we would love to give visitors a chance to explore or feel the notion of a pumping heart at the entry to metropolitan Melbourne. By having the design on site, the design is trying to provide an opportunity for visitors experience the energetic Melbourne City as well as a warm welcome from the heart of Melbourne. Matrail selection for this design is significantly important. Sharpe and shiny material could attract the people’s attations. Exposing the structural element on a high speed freeway could be interesting for visitors to experience. The picture on the right shows the Bird Nets stadium in Beijing. It has exploded its structural steel columns and beams. By having this action, it could really contrast with the building around it. Moreover, having the structural elements exploded in design could really provide a chance for the development of new architecture discourse.

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B.6 Technique: Proposal

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B.7 Algorithmic Sketches

ALGORITHMIC

height: 50

height: 40

SKETCHES

height: 30

For me, it was a great time for me to develop my parametric modeling skills. Unlike the studios that have done before, or even Virtual Environment, Studio Air provides a more comprehensive way of digital design. By using Grasshopper, my algorithmic logic has improved. Building some algorithm in Grasshopper would not be impossible for me any more. This subject also provide me another opportunity to see the real world. To see the process of design in architecture industry. Processes were changed from form designing to searching for form.

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B.8 Learning Objectives and Outcomes

LEARNING OUTCOME After the mid-semester crit, many valued suggestions were recieved from the tutors and friends. Our group design was very interesting as it represented the movement and motion of a pumping heart. Different materials have been used to tested the prototypes. However, most improvement could be done: For inflation apporach, the elastic surface is very interesting as it could contract and expand through the forces applied. However, it would be more interesting if it would combined with the motion apporach. In other words, the elastic surface could be installed on to the movable grids. For the motion apporach, it was very interesting to see the grid moved through the forces applied. However, as the heart is voilent, the material should elastic enough to expand and contract in a very short time. One of the problems that our group need to solve is how the grid could contract with the ballon when the ballon shirnk. Sticking the ballon with the grid will not be a good idea as it did not allow voids for light and shadowing. For the further development, combing these two apporaches would be sure. Ways of combining these two apporaches would be tested and solve within the group of three.

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C.1 Gateway Project: Design Concept

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C.1 Gateway Project: Design Concept

GATEWAY PROJECT: DESIGN CONCEPT The Western Gateway installation should provide an entry statement and arrival experience, and become a new identifier for the municipality. The installation should create a focal point fo iconic scale and presene and encourage a sense of pride within the local community. The Western Gateway should propose new, inspiring and brave ideas, to generate a new discourse. Having recieved the suggestions from the guest crit jury, we have decided to combine those two ideas together to create a more interesting design. In other words, both motion and inflation apporaches would be combined into one single idea. While considering the context of the site, we found out that in every morning and evening, Princes Freeway would suffer series of heavy traffic jams. Car pollution has been extermely higher than any other time. The way how this design could intergated with the site may be different from other groups. For example, a sculpture with some functions other than just provide a method of entertaining visit.

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C.1 Gateway Project: Design Concept

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C.1 Gateway Project: Design Concept

According to the site context, air pollution is the urgentest problem that occurs in Princes Freeway regions. By having this direction, our group have decided to cooperate with the site in a more environmentally friendly way. Another function that could applied on this sculpture is to filter the air. After the internet research, we found out that it is very easy to have air filtering in most of the place, even on the skin of a building. Some filter pads are required to filter the polluted air. Similar to the filters inside an air-conditional, the filter will be installed behind the outer skin of the structure. The diagram on the bottom has demonstrated how the digital model would be fabricated. Numbers of steps need to be done before having the printable file. Our group have chosen a faster way to assemble the model, which is to assemble it through stripes. It allows us to not using fablab as there were too many people waiting for their orders to process. It has given us a very good opportuinity to fastern our process.

FIND  INTERSECTION   POINT   FINAL  DESIGN  

5mm  DIAMETER   CRCLE  CENTERED  ON   INTERSECTION  POINT  

OFFEST  2mm  FOR   THICKNESS   TRANSFROM  THE   MODEL  INTO  STRIP   OFFSET  2mm  FOR   CUTTING    

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C.1 Gateway Project: Design Concept

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C.1 Gateway Project: Design Concept

It would be unrealistic to build this sculpture to move as a whole. However, it would be possible to build the surface of this sculpture or “building“ to fulfill this effect. It would be much easier for people to build an operatable surface. By having the main support of the building, the surface could be just overlaied on the supporting. The diagrams on the right have shown how air filtering would work. When the heart was slim, the lid which installed on top of the sculpture would be opened, so that the polluted air would go inside the sculpture. The lid would started to close when the heart starts to pump. The middle part of the sculpture starts to increase its radius when the heart start pumping. By doing this, a suction force would be created and the air would be sucked through the air filter pads. As time pass, when the radius of the sphere has reached the maximum, it started to contract again and the air would again pushed through the filter pads and the outer membrane skin. After this step, the air would be purified.

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C.2 Gateway Project: Tectonic Elements

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C.2 Gateway Project: Tectonic Elements

GATEWAY PROJECT: TECTONIC ELEMENTS In this part, it was a very good opportunity for our group to consider the possibility of the substructure of this building. Since the key effect of our design would highly depends on the workablity of the substructure In order to create the effect of inflation, some substructure must be used. In this case, our group have tried numbers of supporting that could create the effect of inflation. The diagrams on the left have shown the detail joint of the supporting. A overlapping joint was used to create the allowance for movement. Metal cleats are the major connection for these joints in reality. These cleats will be bolted together. By having these cleat bolted together, the joint could have movements. The bolt point will be rigid but the whole joint will be flexible. Water-proofing membance will cover the whole support. This support will be connected to the diamond grid. Therefore, when the diamond grid expands, the supporting will be in tension so that the overall effect will be more smooth. On another hand, when the grid contract, the support will also contract and the overall effect will be inflation.

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C.2 Gateway Project: Tectonic Elements

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C.2 Gateway Project: Tectonic Elements

In this section, those photos on the left have shown the process of the fabrication of supporting. The supporting contains two major parts connected with a bolt. First of all, a 5mm diameter hole has to be made so that the top part of the bolt could get through. After thatm the second part of the supporting needs to go through the same process as the first half. Having finished all these two steps, a metal ring is need to placed on to the bolt. A metal temporary supporting has to placed underneath the bolt. Another metal puncher will put on top of the metal ring. Hammering the matal puncher would make the matal bolt bolts into the ring so that we would have a very strong connection for the supporting.

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C.2 Gateway Project: Tectonic Elements

In this section, it shows the materials that would applied on the model. It was a very good practice for us to know more about the proporties of different materials.

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C.2 Gateway Project: Tectonic Elements

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C.3 Gateway Project: Final Model

GATEWAY PROJECT: FINAL MODEL

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C.3 Gateway Project: Final Model

This photo has shown the 3d printed version of our design model. Due the technology, 3d printing now could not be flexible which means it wouldn’t allow the model to move. It must be a forzen shape of the model. The motion that we have chosen is when the sphere has its largest radius. By having this model printed out, it clearly shows the inflation effect that our group have emphazied for a long time.

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C.3 Gateway Project: Final Model

FINAL MODEL:

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C.3 Gateway Project: Final Model

ACTUAL SCALE

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C.3 Gateway Project: Final Model

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C.3 Gateway Project: Final Model

In this section, those photos on the left have shown the process of the fabrication of the final model. Main structure and the supporting elements are printed on a 2mm thick screenboard as screenboard is relavtively easier to cut and stronger than other paper while having the same thickness. As it has been introduced before, supportings were assembled and connected with the main strcutre. From the photos, as we could find out that the thicknest part of this model would be the middle part connection as there would be four different conponents joining together. In order to find a long enough pin to connect, we found out the paper pins that sells in Uni Book shop have enough length for the thickness. By using these pins, it could tell people straight away where will be the most important connection in this model. Our group were looking for some rubber that shares similar property with a balloon. However, there weren’t have any rubber that is large enough for our model. Therefore, we satered to search for substitutions. Lycar is the fabric that we have found as an answer. Lycar is elastic enough to expand and contract during the heart pumping. The effect that we were trying to create has finally came out.

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C.3 Gateway Project: Final Model

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C.3 Gateway Project: Final Model

In this photo, it has shown the texture of the lycar perfectly. When we started to make the model in tentions, the sub-supporting structures pulled up the lycar, which leads to a tearing effect that would be viewed as inflation. The paper pins also help to hold down the lycar in place as lycar is very elastic, it would create a force that uplifes the pins. Therefore, the performance of the pin is very good.

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C.3 Gateway Project: Final Model

In this photo, it has shown the connection joints behind the structure. All these paper pins were clipped in two directions which would stablize the connection point.

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C.3 Gateway Project: Final Model

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C.3 Gateway Project: Final Model

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C.3 Gateway Project: Final Model

A micro-pollution detector would installed onto the surface of the sculpture, which would be made out of water-proofing membance. The detector would automatically detect the pollution degree. If the pollution has excess certain level, the skin color would changed from white to grey. For those photos on the left have shown how the color would changed when temperature changes. However, the reason why we would use temperature as a factor is because it would show the effect of color changing.

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C.3 Gateway Project: Final Model

FINAL MODEL:

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C.3 Gateway Project: Final Model

LIGHT EFFECT

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C.3 Gateway Project: Final Model

RENDERING DAY

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C.3 Gateway Project: Final Model

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C.3 Gateway Project: Final Model

RENDERING NIGHT 106


C.3 Gateway Project: Final Model

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C.4 Algorithmic Sketches

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C.4 Algorithmic Sketches

ALGORITHMIC

SKETCHES

For our project, it is a ridiculously big, eyecatching sphere that stands beside the freeway. This installation has provided an opportunity for people to experience the excitement through the movement of the heart. It is also a representation of innovation since architectures seldom provide a function on outer skin of the building. Our project has integrated with the site via the air purification function. We believe that the method that we applied on this design could be applied to other buildings in the future, as architecture could have functions in every detail. It wouldn’t be hard for people to apply this on buildings as the parametric design could change all the parameters easily. Therefore, we have not only provides an sculpture for Wyndham city, but also a view for future environmental design.

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C.5 Learning Objectives And Outcomes

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C.5 Learning Objectives And Outcomes

LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES Overall, it seems that our project is quite successful in both of the presentation and the fabrication outcome. The effect that we pursued has finial appeared. Nevertheless, during the presentation, the crit jury was disagree with us about the actual effect that the moving grid would create. They believe that it is impossible to have the moving gird effect on a sphere, but on a sylinder. In order to defend our design, we started to make some prototypes after the presentation. Photos on the right recorded the process of how the dimond grid would move on a sphere. They have been very precious evidences that could prove our design’s workabllity. After all, having communicated with computational design for one semester, it has taught me a lot more than expected. I wouldn’t say self-learning is the best way of learning, but it is a great opportunity for us to explore the opportunity of unpredictable outcomes in digital design. Grasshopper has given me a very good chance to have a taste of digital design which I love. One of the amazing things that I am fascinated is the fabrication. It had amazed me that only one or two commands could layout the whole model and with precise measurements. It has saved a lot of work for those who love making models. Therefore, I recommend people to do this subject as it gives you a chace to experience the unpredictability of computational design.

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C.6 Acknowledgement

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C.6 Acknowledgement

Figure 21

Thank you to our lovely tutors, Chris & Rosie. As a Group, we choose the same photo as an ending. Thnak you, Kinglam & Linn. We have done it! Bravo!

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REFERENCE 1. OZAN AVCI, 15th International Planning History Society Conference, P. 07.

11. Woodbury, Robert, Elements of Parametric design, (London: Routledge), 2010, pp.5

2. CHASLIN, FRANCOIS (2004): The Dutch Embassy in Berlin by OMA / Rem Koolhaas, NAi Publishers, Rotterdam. P. 90.

12. Woodbury, Robert, Elements of Parametric design, (London: Routledge), 2010, pp.7

3. ArchDaily, Guangzhou Opera House. (Digital Cities, Mar/01/2011), <http://www.archdaily.com/115949/guangzhou-opera-housezaha-hadid-architects/>

13. Sebastian Jordana, Aviva Stadium Opens Day in Dublin, (Digital Cities, 16/may/2010), <http://www.archdaily.com/60213>

4. ArchDaily, Guangzhou Opera House. (Digital Cities, Mar/01/2011), <http://www.archdaily.com/115949/guangzhou-opera-housezaha-hadid-architects/> 5. Frazer, John H, The Generation of Virtual Prototypes for Performance Optimization, 2006, p.30

6. Terzidis, Kostas, Algorithmic Architecture (Boston, MA: Elsevier), 2006, p. xi

7. Week Two Lecture Slides, Introduction to Computation, p. 42 8. The Red and Black Architect, Review RMIT New Academic Building, (Digital Cities, 27/August/2012) < 1. http://theredandblackarchitect.wordpress.com/2012/08/27/ the-red-black-review-swanston-academic-building-building80-rmit/ > 9. ArchDaily, Harpa Concert Hall and Conference Centre, (Digital Cities, 26/July/2011), <http://www.archdaily.com/153520/harpa-concert-hall-andconference-centre-henning-larsen-architects/> 10. Andrea db, henning larsen architects: harpa concert hall and conference centre nears completion, (Digital Cities, 30/ Mar/2011), <http://www.designboom.com/architecture/henning-larsenarchitects-harpa-concert-hall-and-conference-centre-nearscompletion/>

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14. David Basulto, Michael Schumacher World Champion Tower in Dubai, (Digital Cities, 07/Oct/2008), <http://www.archdaily.com/7240> 15. PNYG:COMPANY, (Digital Cities, 2012) <http://www.mswct.com/michael-schumacher-tower/>


Figure 1: Dutch Embassy, Rem Koolhass Photo by: Achim Raschka, < http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:Be_Dutch_Embassy_01.JPG >

Figure 16, 3D Motion Heart. Saw, <http://www.beyondhollywood.com/uploads/2010/08/ saw-3d-motion-heart.jpg>

Figure 2: Dutch Embassy, Rem Koolhass Photo by: OMA, < http://www.oma.com/projects/2003/netherlands-embassy >

Figure 17,Andrew Kudless: P-Wall. WeWantToLearn.net, <http://wewanttolearn.wordpress. com/2011/10/05/andrew-kudless-p-wall/>

Figure 3 & 4: Guangzhou Opera House, Zaha Hadid Photo by Iwan Baan, < http://www.archdaily.com/115949/guangzhou-opera-house-zaha-hadid-architects/ >

Figure 18, 3D Motion Heart. Protecting Your Heart, <http://www.discount-supplements.co.uk/ bolg/wp-content/uploads/protect-heart.jpg>

Fiure 5: Computational design, <icd.uni-stuttgart.de>

Figure 20, Bird Nest, World Press, < http://beijingbirdsnest.wordpress.com/birds-nestfacts/ >

Figure 6: RMIT New Academic Building, LYONS ARCHITECTS <http://www.lyonsarch.com.au/rmit-university-swanston-academic-building/?b=1> Figure 7: RMIT New Academic Building, LYONS ARCHITECTS < www.designcityliving.com >

Figure 21, Group 6 Presentation, Photo by David Lister, < http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbi d=10152917185600503&set=oa.554108697961541&type=1&thea ter >

Figure 8 & 9: Harpa concert hall and conference center, Henning Larsen Architects in co-operation with Olafur Eliasson Photo by, David K. < http://plusmood.com/2011/04/harpa-concert-conference-centre-henning-larsen-architects/ > Figure 10: Parametric Model, Patrik Schumacher, < www.patrikschumacher.com > Figure 11, Aviva Stadium, global architects Populous and Dublinâ&#x20AC;? based architects, Photo by -banneduser-, <http://hdrcreme.com/photos/45024Aviva-Stadium> Figure 12, Michael Schumacher World Champion Tower, L.A.V.A, Al Hilal, < http://www.architecturelist.com/2008/10/14/dubainever-stop-michael-schumacher-world-champion-tower-new/ > Figure 13 & 14, Voussair Cloud, IwamotoScoot, Archivenue, <http://archivenue.com/voussoir-cloud-by-iwamotoscott-with-buro-happold/> Figure 15 & 19, Behnaz Babazadeh, FERMID, Design Playgrounds, <http://designplaygrounds.com/deviants/ fermid-by-ehnaz-babazadeh/>

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Studio Air Final Journal