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volume I Fruit aC t i n i di a de l i C i o sa


FOrward

Hello and welcome to the first volume of Macro, the publication utilizing photography to take a closer look at the subject in both form and meaning. This volume, titled Fruit, focuses on fruit you will find in most American grocery stores. Each subject is carefully sliced into sections, allowing for a detailed look inside. The quality of the imagery, coupled with the enlarged size, provides us with an unusual yet stimulating perspective of the subjects form. You will notice throughout this volume that the fruit appears both fresh, and rotten. From beauty to ugly, nutritious to poisonous, this natural process of biodegradation reveals what happens when the produce is wasted. The idea of wasted produce compelled us to put together this volume,

as it has become a major problem to those living in the United States. Millions of pounds of produce are wasted each year, both by retailers and consumers. The reason varies from overproduction, to the physical features of produce, to simple negligence. The absurdity of this situation is amplified when we juxtapose food waste to the impoverished and hungry, the environment, and the economy. Research into this problem proves how epic this problem is. Dana Gunders lays down some legitimate figures in her NRDC paper Aptly titled Wasted: How America Is Losing Up to 40 Percent of Its Food from Farm to Fork to Landfill. "Getting food to our tables eats up 10 percent of the total U.S. energy budget,


uses 50 percent of U.S. land, and swallows 80 percent of freshwater consumed in the United States. Yet, 40 percent of food in the United States today goes uneaten. That is more than 20 pounds of food per person every month. Not only does this mean that Americans are throwing out the equivalent of $165 billion each year, but also 25 percent of all freshwater and huge amounts of unnecessary chemicals, energy, and land. Moreover, almost all of that uneaten food ends up rotting in landfills where organic matter accounts for 16 percent of U.S. methane emissions. Nutrition is also lost in the mix—food saved by reducing losses by just 15 percent could feed more than 25 million Americans every year at a time when one in six Americans lack a secure supply

of food to their tables." A huge issue to say the least yet it is often slips by unnoticed. Maybe because wasted food at home is brushed off as an accident, or the immediate financial loss is not large, and the environmental impact isn’t that obvious, but the facts are out there, and we need to listen to them. We can make this problem a thing of the past, or at least begin to find solutions to solve it. The next time you're buying groceries, remember that what you waste is going to have a negative effect on you, those around you, the environment, and the economy.


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kiwi fruit AC t i n i di a del iC iosa

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The kiwifruit or Chinese gooseberry (sometimes shortened to kiwi) is the edible berry of a woody vine in the genus Actinidia. The most common cultivar group of kiwifruit is oval, about the size of a large hen's egg (5–8 cm (2.0–3.1 in.) in length and 4.5–5.5 cm (1.8–2.2 in.) in diameter). It has a fibrous, dull greenish-brown skin and bright green or golden flesh with rows of tiny, black, edible seeds. The fruit has a soft texture and a sweet but unique flavor. It is a commercial crop in several countries, such as Italy, New Zealand, Chile, Greece, and France.

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history

Kiwifruit is native to north-central and eastern China. Cultivation of the fuzzy kiwifruit spread from China in the early 20th century to New Zealand, where the first commercial plantings occurred. Although cultivars were called by a variety of Chinese names, such as yang tao, meaning "strawberry peach", "Chinese gooseberry" (because of the flavor and color of the flesh) became commonplace as a name among growers in England and New Zealand during the early 20th Centuryand during World War II when the fruit was popular with American servicemen stationed in New Zealand. The fruit was exported to California using the names "Chinese gooseberry" and "melonette". In 1962, New Zealand growers began calling it "kiwifruit" to give it more market

appeal, followed by a California-based importer also using the name, "kiwifruit", to introduce the fruit to the American market. Kiwifruit has since become a common name for all commercially grown fruit from the genus Actinidia.

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PrOductiOn

Kiwifruit exports rapidly increased from the late 1960s to early 1970s in New Zealand. By 1976, exports exceeded the amount consumed domestically. Outside of Australasia, all New Zealand kiwifruits are now marketed under the brand-name label Zespri. Over 70% of kiwifruit production is in Italy, New Zealand, and Chile. Italy produces roughly 10% more kiwifruit than New Zealand, and Chile produces 40% less. With these three main production centers, kiwifruit is produced for worldwide consumption roughly all year long. In the 1980s, countries outside New Zealand began to export kiwifruit. In Italy, the infrastructure and techniques required to support grape production have been adapted to the kiwifruit. This, coupled with being very close to

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the European kiwifruit market, led to Italians becoming the leading producer of kiwifruit. The growing season of Italian kiwifruit does not overlap much with the New Zealand or the Chilean growing seasons, therefore direct competition between New Zealand or Chile was not much of a factor. Although kiwifruit is a national fruit of China, until recently, China was not a major producing country of kiwifruit, as it was traditionally collected from the wild. In China, it is grown mainly in the mountainous area upstream of the Yangtze River, as well as Sichuan.


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Cultivation

Kiwifruit can be grown in most temperate climates with adequate summer heat. Where fuzzy kiwifruit (A. deliciosa) is not hardy, other species can be grown as substitutes.

Breeding Often in commercial farming, different breeds are used for rootstock, fruit bearing plants, and pollinators. Therefore, the seeds produced are crossbreeds of their parents. Even if the same breeds are used for pollinators and fruit bearing plants, there is no guarantee that the fruit will have the same quality as the parent. Additionally, seedlings take seven years before they flower, so determining whether

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the kiwi is fruit bearing or a pollinator is time consuming.Therefore, most kiwifruits, with the exception of rootstock and new cultivars, are propagated asexually.This is done by grafting the fruit producing plant onto rootstock grown from seedlings or, if the plant is desired to be a true cultivar, rootstock grown from cuttings of a mature plant.

Pollination Kiwifruit at flowering Most of the plants require a male plant to pollinate a female plant for the female plant to produce fruit (dioecious). For a good yield of fruit, one male vine for every three to eight female vines is


required. Other varieties can self pollinate, but they produce a greater and more reliable yield when pollinated by male kiwifruit vines. Kiwifruit is notoriously difficult to pollinate, because the flowers are not very attractive to bees. Some producers blow collected pollen over the female flowers. Generally, the most successful approach, though, is saturation pollination, where the bee populations are made so large (by placing hives in the orchards at a concentration of about 8 hives per hectare) that bees are forced to use this flower because of intense competition for all flowers

within flight distance. This is also increased by using breeds specifically developed for pollination. Maturation and harvest Kiwifruit is picked by hand, and commercially grown on sturdy support structures, as it can produce several tonnes per hectare, more than the rather weak vines can support. These are generally equipped with a watering system for irrigation and frost protection in the spring.

cane ages. Canes should be pruned off and replaced after their third year. In the northern hemisphere the fruit ripens in November, while in the southern it ripens in May. Four year-old plants can produce up to 14,000 lbs per acre while Eight year-old plants can produce 18,000 lbs per acre. The plants produce their maximum at 8 to 10 years old. The seasonal yields are variable, a heavy crop on a vine one season generally comes with a light crop the following season.

Kiwifruit vines require vigorous pruning, similar to that of grapevines. Fruit is borne on one-year-old and older canes, but production declines as each

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Imagery & Book Design Copyright Š William Pauley 2016 Forward by William Pauley with excerpt from Wasted: How America Is Losing Up to 40 Percent of Its Food from Farm to Fork to Landfill by Dana Gunders for NRDC, 2012. Main text originates from the Wikipedia article Kiwifruit, found at https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kiwifruit&oldid=713558938, which is protected under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Details of this license can be found at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Creative_Commons_Attribution-ShareAlike_3.0_Unported_License


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Macro - Volume 1 - Actinidia Deliciosa  

Hello and welcome to the first volume of Macro, the publication utilizing photography to take a closer look at the subject in both form and...

Macro - Volume 1 - Actinidia Deliciosa  

Hello and welcome to the first volume of Macro, the publication utilizing photography to take a closer look at the subject in both form and...

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