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Please note that the following is a digitized version of White House History, Issue #45, originally released in print form in 2017. Single copies of this issue can be purchased online at No part of this book may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying,

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William Seale, Editor, White House History


Anita B. McBride

ANITA B. McBRIDE is an executive in residence at American University in Washington, D. C., directing programs and national conferences on the role and legacy offirst ladies of the United States. She was the second term chief of staff to First Lady Laura Bush and served in the White House for three United States presidents.


Linda J. Holden

LINDA J. HOLDEN worked as a White House aide during President Ronald Reagan's administration. She is the author of Presidents' Gardens (2013) and is an educator in Fairfax County, Virginia.



Elizabeth Dinschel

ELIZABETH DINSCHEL is education specialist at the Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum in Iowa City, Iowa.




Jean Baker

JEAN BAKER is an American historian and professor of history at Goucher College in Baltimore, Maryland.



CYNTHIA B. MALIN/CK is the chief cultural resources executive at the Girl Scouts of the USA and was previously senior director of sites stewardship at the National Trust for Historic Preservation.


Stewart D. McLaurin, President, White House Historical Association

Presidential inaugurations, state funerals, and the dedications of presidential libraries are among the many events that bring former first ladies together. In 1991, six first ladies gathered for a group photo (above) in the courtyard at the dedication of the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. Sitting (left to right): Lady Bird Johnson, Patricia Nixon; Rosalynn Carter, and Betty Ford; standing (left to right): Nancy Reagan and Barbara Bush. Surprised by a rain storm, first ladies past and present (opposite) head for the podium at the dedication of the William J. Clinton Presidential Center in Little Rock, Arkansas, November 2004. From left to right: Rosalynn Carter, Hillary Clinton, Laura Bush, and Barbara Bush.



The first first lady to hold a press conference in the White House Press Briefing Room, Laura Bush (above) encouraged the Burmese military regime to accept international aid following a 2008 cyclone as her chief of staff Anita McBride (far left) looked on. First Lady Melania Trump made her first White House podium appearance during a luncheon on International Women's Day, March 8, 2017 (opposite).

The Office of the First Lady Managing Public Duties, Private Lives, and Changing Expectations ANITA B .

�e the U.S. Constitution does not outline any official title or role for the first lady of the United States, this influential position has been shaped through history by individual character and personality, with first ladies embracing policy and political matters as well as the ceremonial tradition of White House hostess. Free from specific statutory responsibilities, each first lady can choose how to use her platform and how to put her unique stamp on the office. Some aspects of the first lady's role are diffi­ cult to control, especially the public's increasingly high expectations and the "media crucible" 1 each has faced since the country's founding. History has shown time and again that each first lady finds a way to operate within her own bound­ aries. When it was announced on November 20' 2016, that Mrs. Trump would not immediately move to the White House after her husband's inauguration so that the Trump's then 10-year-old son Barron could finish the school year in New York, 2 many were curious about how she would approach her new role. Melania Trump laid down an early marker that helped establish her tenure as the next first lady of the United States: "I will stay true to myself,"3 she said, and thus not defined by expectations others would have of her, the position of first lady, or the staffing of her office. Melania Trump was rarely seen on the campaign trail, but strategically deployed when she could add the most value to her husband. In her public remarks she spoke of her dream of becoming an American cit-


izen after having grown up in a communist country.4 In particular, at the Republican National Convention in July 2016, she referred to her citizenship as "the greatest privilege on planet Earth."' As only the second foreign-born first lady in American history, she is adapting to her new role by establishing her office on her own timetable while mindful of past traditions. Mrs. Trump did not follow past practice of hir­ ing a staff prior to the inauguration. When announc­ ing the initial appointments to her office on February 1, 2017, she stated that she was "putting together a professional and highly-experienced team, which will take time to do properly."6 In that announcement she also responded to any questions about her interest in the role, saying, "It has been an honor to take on the responsibility of the position of first lady, with its long history as an important representative of the

As the first lady's chief of staff, Anita McBride met with First Lady Laura Bush in the West Sitting Hall (below) on a regular basis. McBride accompanied Mrs. Bush on many trips in the United States and abroad, including three journeys to Afghanistan. In June 2008 they made their third and final trip, which included a side-trip to the Bamiyan Province, to bring attention to the need for continued international aid to the war-torn country. The first trip in March 2005 was a dangerous undertaking. Concerns about potential threats from the Taliban and al-Qaeda in the region meant the visit was kept secret until just before the first lady's plane landed at Bagram Air Base. McBride is seen with Mrs. Bush in this photo en route to Kabul in a U.S. Army CH-47D Chinook-a twin-rotor helicopter out.fitted for combat (right).

President, our family, and the traditions of our nation around the world."1 The new first lady inherits a structure that has evolved over time. The Office of the First Lady (OFL) is one entity within the White House Office (WHO), which is itself an agency of the larger Executive Office of the President (EOP). The OFL staff is accountable to the first lady and expected to support the first lady's traditional duties, her inter足 ests, and her efforts to engage in and advance the president's policy initiatives. The size of a first lady's staff typically depends on the extent of her activities. I remember my own experience of working with First Lady Laura Bush to assemble a team that would execute her priorities and support the presi足 dent and his goals for the country. While writing this article, I reflected on my own journey through White House history, which started with a volunteer posi足 tion on the 1980 presidential election campaign of 6 WHITE HOUSE HISTORY (Number 45)

Ronald Reagan and ultimately led to becoming chief of staff to First Lady Laura Bush twenty-five years later. The experiences over two decades and three administrations included roles in such offices as Presidential Correspondence for President Reagan; and positions as diverse as director of White House Personnel for Presidents Reagan and George H. W. Bush, as special assistant to the president for White House Management and Administration as well as White House liaison to the State Department for President George W. Bush, all of which prepared me for the role of policy strategist with overall manage足 ment of daily operations and long-range domestic and international planning that was expected of a senior White House aide and the first lady's chief of staff. The opportunity to serve the first lady in this capacity started with a conversation in November 2004, one week after President George W. Bush's re-

election. I had previously met Mrs. Bush a decade earlier when her husband was elected governor of Texas. I was familiar with her policy interests and activities as first lady of the United States, and I par­ ticularly admired her strength and ability to calm a shocked and grieving nation in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 9/11. In our meeting in the West Sitting Hall on the Second Floor in the White House residence, Laura Bush laid out a bold vision for her work in her hus­ band's second term. Listening to her, I recognized the first lady's office would not be the less intense milieu than the West Wing that I had envisioned. The Office of the First Lady that I led had six departments including Chief of Staff, Social Office, Projects and Policy, Communications and Press, Scheduling and Advance, and Correspondence. We worked closely with departments and agencies across the federal government, the National Security

Council, and other White House offices to lead the strategy and execution of Mrs. Bush's domestic and international events. We traveled the world and all fifty U.S. states. 8 I worked daily with the Residence staff on matters pertaining to preservation of the White House as a living [ok?] museum as well as the home of the first family. From my previous White House experiences, I saw firsthand how first ladies Nancy Reagan and Barbara Bush approached their roles and I appreciat­ ed the ways a first lady has influence on the presi­ dent, the White House, and the country. The ever­ increasing body of research and scholarship on American first ladies increases our understanding of their specific circumstances and contributions from the American Revolution to contemporary times.

The Office of the First Lady 7

From 1977 to 1978 First Lady Rosalynn Carter served as the honorary chair of the President's Commission on Mental Health. She is seen chairing a hearing in January 1978 (left) and with her assistant Madeline MacBean at work in the Office of the First Lady in 1977 (opposite). It was Mrs. Carter who officially established this office, which remains today on the second floor of the East Wing.

Rosalynn Carter and the Establishment of the Office of the First Lady That our first ladies have an office and special­ ized staff is owing to the contributions of First Lady Rosalynn Carter. When Jimmy Carter and his family moved into the White House in January 1977, the new first lady knew she wanted to continue the work she had dedicated herself to for a large portion of her public life: focusing people's attention on mental health. It was a natural transition for Mrs. Carter, who had made mental health her primary focus as first lady of Georgia. In Georgia, she was appointed to the Governor's Commission to Improve Services for the Mentally and Emotionally Handicapped, and the recommendations the commission made became state law. Mrs. Carter knew the issue well, not only from these executive and legislative experiences but also from her hands-on work as a volunteer at the Georgia Regional Hospital. Mrs. Carter cited "my work with the mentally ill" as one of her most rewarding achievements as first lady of Georgia.9 It would come as no surprise, then, once the Carters moved into the White House, that this work for such an important issue would continue. One month after his inauguration, President Jimmy Carter signed an executive order establishing the President's Commission on Mental Health, mirroring what they had done in Georgia. Who would chair this commission? Mrs. Carter, of course. That was 8


until the White House ran into more than a couple of roadblocks as the president tried to make this appointment. The Office of Legal Counsel at the Department of Justice (DOJ) rang the alarm. According to the Antideficiency Act of 1884, voluntary service in the government was virtually barred, with only a few exceptions. The DOJ "ruled that if a president's wife took on new responsibilities [as in the case of Mrs. Carter and the new commission], she would violate this law and be susceptible to legal challenge. [On the other hand,] if the first lady sought to avoid this problem by accepting a salary, she would violate the federal anti-nepotism law." 10 The DOJ's Office of Legal Counsel specifically said Mrs. Carter could not chair the commission because President Carter was prohibited from appointing a close relative to a civil­ ian position.11 The solution? Mrs. Carter was named "honorary chair" instead, 12 "as the two laws caught the first lady in a seemingly inescapable catch-22." 13 "Honorary chair" conjured up the image of someone who shows up for photo ops, and Mrs. Carter's knowledge on the topic extended far beyond doing something just for "show." Considering the depth of Mrs. Carter's experience in mental health reform, the dedication she had exhibited to the issue, and her success making meaningful change in Georgia, being labeled "honorary" did not reflect the weight of her carriage.

President Carter's efforts to install Mrs. Carter as the chair of the commission brought to the fore­ front a legal question: what can a first lady do and how can she be supported? Throughout history the first lady's role has changed, reflecting not only their interests but also the times in which they lived. But it was Mrs. Carter's dedication to mental health, which included testifying to Congress, and the president's recognition of her leadership on the issue, that shaped the Office of the First Lady as we know it today. What also shaped the office were the circum­ stances of the time. The nation was experiencing a period of turmoil in the late 1970s as the American people were still reeling from deci­ sions made to extend a war they did not want, Vietnam, and from the deepest scandal within the government anyone could have imagined, Watergate. Wide-ranging public distrust was the motivation behind the passage of the White House Personnel Authorization Act of 1978.It was adopted by Congress and signed into law ;; < by President Carter to bring transparency to the White House.Public opinion demanded more accountability in the federal government, Ig and this legislation addressed it for the first t;j time since the Pendleton Act of 1883 sought to [ ensure that jobs in the federal government were awarded on the basis of merit and competitive >­::; ::; =; exams, and not the "spoils system." Another consequence of the 1978 legislation was the legal clarity it brought to the first lady's office.The legislation specifically addressed the issue in Section 105(e): "Assistance and services authorized pursuant to this section to the President are author­ ized to be provided to the spouse of the President in connection with assistance provided by such spouse to the President in the discharge of the President's duties and responsibilities. If the President does not have a spouse, such assistance and services may be provided for such purposes to a member of the President's family whom the President designates."1• Budgetary allocations were made for staff and resources to support the first lady or spouse. The wording separated the spouse from other personnel as being "designated" (not hired, appointed, or nom­ inated).15

Essentially, by 1978, as Bradley H. Patterson has written, "the tradition of spousal duties had become so firmly established that Congress passed a statute that finally authorized a government-paid staff for the spouse." The statute made it clear, how­ ever, that it is the president's duties being helped, not the spouse's own.16 This was a historic moment for the Office of First Lady. Up until this point, first ladies had made their own staffing decisions one by one, each shaping the future of the office incrementally, as the occasion, the need, and the expectations grew in the historical circumstances they experienced.



The First Lady's Role in Historical Perspective: An Overview As the nation's first president and presidential spouse, George and Martha Washington had the burden of setting precedent as they began their life in these new roles. Martha Washington was known as "Lady Washington" or simply "Mrs. Washington," as the term "first lady" was not yet in common use.17 Expectations existed, however, about the proper tone for their public life.The Washingtons "decided to balance the seemingly irreconcilable goals of demo­ cratic simplicity, which befitted the new republic, with the need to make sure that the nation was seen to have proper credibility in the eyes of the world." 18 Some "grumblings surrounded [Martha Washington's] entertainments as she created the role of First Lady . ...But Martha Washington, like her The Office of the First Lady


Ellen Wilson devoted much of her time as first lady to humanitarian causes including improving housing for the poor in the District of Columbia. She would not live to see the effect of the passage of the bill she inspired to abolish slums in the city's alleys.


, · , ,

Roosevelt, the youngest president in U.S. history, and moving into the White House with a large family to balance, Mrs.Roosevelt was also faced with the difficult task of handling the duties of first lady after the sadness of William McKinley's assassination. Her predecessor, Ida McKinley, had had a limited public role due to her debilitating illness. These circum­ stances did not hamper Edith Roosevelt's vision for the office.She was the first to hire a social secretary and broke new ground by managing press coverage of her children. She realized early on that "she could not deny the public's curiosity" and, as Betty Caroli writes, "decided to satisfy it on her terms. Raised in a society that dictated that a lady's name should appear in print only at her birth, her marriage, and her death, she had to cope with being a First Lady whose activities the public wanted to see in print every day. By supplying posed photographs of herself and her children, she solved most of the problem.... Edith Roosevelt instituted changes to increase, not lessen, the distance between her brood and the pub­ lic. "21 Mrs. Roosevelt institutionalized other aspects of her role as well, including delegating the responsi­ bility of preparing food for official dinners to hired

Measure to Abolish Capital's Slums Is Now a Law.

WASHINGTON, Sept. !:!5.-1.-Irs. Wood­ row Wilson's dyh1g wish that thG alloy slums in �-ashington be abolished was finally realized today when the Pres1dent signed the blll clearing alleys of dwelling plaCE-:5. On her deathbed l\Ir8. Wilson expres!-led the hope that the bill would be passed and both houses of Congress acted. Although it diffc>rf"'d in some pR.rti<:.­ ulars from the measure as Mrs. ,vnson originally championed it, the President decided it ac-com.plished the pr!n�ipal purposes sought.

caterers, continuing the presidential china collection started by Caroline Harrison, and hanging a first ladies portrait gallery in the White House, so that presidents' wives-"myself included"-could have memorials.28 One first lady in particular stands out for her influence: Ellen Wilson, the first wife of Woodrow Wilson, who served as first lady briefly, for only one year, 1913-14, due to her untimely death. She used her position "to advance a specific social and politi­ cal agenda," explains Barbara Klaczynska."She led people down to the slums of Washington and urged them to tear these decrepit buildings down and build decent housing."29 Washington's slums were in the back alleys where mostly blacks and recent immi­ grants lived, and the high mortality rates thwarted her first visit due to a smallpox outbreak. The first lady "popularized concern for the poor and support­ ed this effort with money she earned with her paint­ ings."30 She took an issue that was in the back alley, literally, and brought it to the forefront despite sig­ nificant hurdles. Ellen Wilson became active in organizations that enacted legislation to address the problem.The urgency she felt gained momentum The Office of the First Lady


requested to be photographed with two uniformed the issues she focused on and in terms of how she communicated about them. Mrs. Roosevelt "spent a African American male honor guards as escorts. She lot of time touring around the country" as these even went so far as to resign from the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) in 1939 when it unannounced trips "would become her trademark "refused to rent its auditorium to the internationally 'eyes and ears' inspection tours," 33 particularly to known black contralto Marian Anderson. She then inspect various New Deal programs. Her commit­ ment naturally "led her into acting as an unofficial announced her decision in her newspaper column, thereby transforming a administration spokesper­ local act into a national son, not so much for FDR as for herself, and she made disgrace."37 Four that clear."34 She was con­ months later, she invit­ l'ebruary 2&, 19�9. troversial, but also effec­ ed Marian Anderson to tive. As Eleanor Roosevelt sing at the White House stumped "for the New for the king and queen �in�� JVl. Jly dear Urs."Robert: .k of England. Deal, she debated so dis­ armingly that critics were Mrs. Roosevelt's X an afrald that I h� never been a very ·uaetuJ. mober of the7P&ughtePa or ihe 35 call for equality was often left confounded." American Re�.._-strr i.iiow it, wur iliiie very lnue>DHerenoe to you whether She used the information important in President I resign or 'Ail.ether l oont1nue to be a Roosevelt's decision to she gathered from these member or! your organization. trips to report her find­ issue Executive Order Boweve�, I a.111 1n oo=plete diaagi-eement v1th the attitude taken 1n rerusing ings to the president or to 8802 to create a Fair Const1tut1on Hall to a great artist. Employment Practices relevant staff or agency You have set an example w!lich Bj!ems to me untortun11t&, I reel ob11ged to Committee (FEPC) in heads so they could send in to you my resignation. You had &n op,porttm1ty to lea.d 1n an enligh­ 1941. It banned employ­ address the problems. Her tened v:ay and 1t seems to me that your organ1u tlon �a tailed. goal was also to bring the ment discrimination based on "race, creed, terrible conditions to the I real.11.e· that many peopl• ..,111 not agree with �e� but feeling ae I do this aeema color, or national ori­ public's attention. She to' me tne only procedure to follow. was invited by Congress gin" by both the federal government and defense to testify on these condi­ Very sincerely yours. tions and became the first contractors. Although the FEPC was operative first lady to testify before Congress on February 9, 1940. only until 1946, many of its concerns are addressed today by the Equal Employment Opportunity In addition to using her voice to draw attention to issues, Eleanor Roosevelt knew images would also Commission. Throughout her time as first lady, Eleanor be powerful to convey her commitment to equality. Not only did she choose to travel to Birmingham, Roosevelt communicated with the public in a way no Alabama, in 1938, for a Southern Conference for other first lady had before, but in a manner in which she had always been comfortable presenting her Human Welfare, but she used the event to highlight her strong opposition to segregation laws. When she views. She had had experience as a radio commenta­ was not allowed to sit with educator and civil rights tor before becoming first lady, and she continued her activist Mary McLeod Bethune because a city ordi­ radio addresses while in the White House, despite criticism. She also toured the country giving lectures nance prohibited integrated seating, Eleanor Roosevelt "requested a chair and placed it squarely on her life as first lady. Hundreds turned out to hear in the aisle between the groups, highlighting her dis­ her, and she gave whatever fees she received to chari­ pleasure with Jim Crow policies," writes Allida M. ties.38 Her syndicated daily newspaper column, "My Black. 36 In 1936, when she was invited to Howard Day," appeared in newspapers throughout the coun­ University in Washington, D.C., Eleanor Roosevelt try and was read by millions.

The Office of the First Lady


First Lady Nancy Reagan meets with her staff in the East Wing, 1985. Clockwise from left: Projects Director and architect of the Just Say No campaign, Ann Wrobleski; Advance Director Marty Coyne; Chief of Staff Jim Rosebush; Social Secretary Gahl Hodges Burt; Mrs. Reagan; and Press Secretary Sheila Tate.

The Modern Office of the First Lady Each of these steps by her predecessors set the stage for Rosalynn Carter's term in office and the long-lasting changes she made. Mrs. Carter "reorga­ nized and upgraded the functions and pay for her staff, which numbered about eighteen persons," says Beasley.40 Mrs. Carter also became the first presi­ dent's wife to maintain her own working space in the East Wing of the White House, now officially called the Office of the First Lady, rather than in the family quarters, where many first ladies had just placed a desk in their dressing room. Her work on behalf of mental health reform produced a report with recom­ mendations she lobbied for in both television appear­ ances and in testimony before Congress. Her Mental Health Systems Act was signed into law in 1980. Nearly fifteen years later another president asked his wife to take the lead on a key policy issue: President Bill Clinton named First Lady Hillary

Rodham Clinton to head a panel on health care reform. Mrs. Clinton herself made another historic move by establishing her own office in the West Wing, the only first lady ever to do so. But other than the West Wing office, Mrs. Clinton's framework for the Office of the First Lady mirrored that of her pred­ ecessors, and the staff she assembled was somewhat smaller than previous first ladies. While her predeces­ sor Nancy Reagan was the first to hire men as chief of staff to the first lady, Mrs. Clinton hired the first African American woman, Margaret Ann (Maggie) Williams, as her chief of staff. Yet it was her historic move to have an office in the West Wing for which she would be remembered. As they toured the White House in December 2000, before the Bushes moved in, Laura Bush recalls Hillary Clinton telling her that "if she had it to do all over again, she would not have had an office in the West Wing, that she seldom used it after the healthcare debate ended."41 The Office of the First Lady


First Lady Melania Trump meets with her chief of staff Lindsay Reynolds in the Blue Room (left) before a Mother's Day event to honor active-duty military and their spouses and mothers with a White House reception. Many thousands of guests are welcomed to the White House each year at public tours and events, orchestrated by the Visitors Office, whose staff works closely with the Office of the First Lady. Dating back to 1878, the annual Easter Egg Roll (seen below in 2017) is one of the oldest annual events in White House history hosted by American presidents and their families on the South Lawn.

NOTES I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. II. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Katherine A. S. Sibley, introduction to A Companion to First Ladies, ed. Sibley (West Sussex, L'K: John Wiley & Sons, 2016), 2. Maggie Haberman, "Melania and Barron Trump Won't Immediately Move to White House," New York Times, November 20, 2016, online at Quoted in Lesley Stahl, "President-Elect Trump Speaks to a Divided Country on 60 Minutes," 60 Minutes, November 13, 2016, online at An example of a campaign speech in which Melania Trump mentions this dream can be found in Julia Zorthian, "Read Melania Trump's Campaign Speech Addressing Cyberbullying," Time, November 3, 2016, online at The speech can be viewed at Will Drabold, "Watch Melania Trump's Speech at the Republican Convention," Time, Juiy 18, 2016, online at White House, "First Lady Melania Trump Announces Chief of Staff," February I, 2017, online at Ibid. White House, "Laura Welch Bush," oniine at Rosalynn Catter, First Lady from Plains (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1984), 97. MaryAnne Borrelli, The Politics of the President's Wife (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 201!), 20. Ibid. Kathy B. Smith, "Eleanor Rosalynn Smith Carter," in American First Ladies: Their Lives and Their Legacy, 2nd ed., ed. Lewis L. Gould (New York: Routledge, 2001), 388. Borrelli, Politics of the President's Wife, 20. White House Personnel Authorization Act of 1978, H.R. I 1003, 95th Cong., Sec. 105e (1978). Borrelli, The Politics of the President's Wife, 20. Bradley H. Patterson, To Serve the President: Continuity and Innovation in the White House Sta.ff(Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2008), 242. Robert P. Watson, "Martha Washington," in A Companion to First Ladies, ed. Sibley, 14. Ibid. Cokie Roberts, Ladies of Liberty (New York: William Morrow, 2008), 11. Ibid.

21. Catherine Allgor, "James and Dolley Madison and the Quest for Unity," in A Companion to First Ladies, ed. Sibley, 67. 22. Maurine H. Beasley, First Ladies and the Press: The Unfinished Partnership of the Media Age (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2005), 35. 23. Ibid., 38. 24. Quoted in Quoted in Thomas J. Balcerski, "Harriet Rebecca Lane Johnston," in A Companion to First Ladies, ed. Sibley, 204. 25. Pamela K. Sanfilippo, "Eliza McCardle Johnson and Julia Dent Grant," in A Companion to First Ladies, ed. Sibley, 241. 26. Catherine Forslund, "Edith Kermit Carow Roosevelt: The Victorian Modern First Lady," in A Companion to First Ladies, ed. Sibley, 304. 27. Betty Boyd Caroli, First Ladies: From Martha Washington to Michelle Obama (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010), 122-23. 28. Ibid., 124. 29. Barbara Klacznska, "Edith Wilson: First Lady in Charge," in A Companion to First Ladies, ed. Katherine A. S. Sibley, (West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 2016), 377. 30. Ibid. 31. Lisa M. Burns, "Ellen Axson Wilson" in A Companion to First Ladies, ed. Katherine A. S. Sibley, (West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 2016}, 351. 32. Blanche Wiesen Cook, Eleanor Roosevelt, 3 vols. (New York: Viking, 1999), 2:17-18. 33. Carl Sferrazza Anthony, First Ladies: The Saga of the Presidents' Wives and Their Power, 1789-1961 (New York: William Morrow and Company, 1990), 460. 34. Ibid., 463. 35. Ibid. 36. Allida M. Black, "Anna Eleanor Roosevelt," in American First Ladies: Their Lives and Their Legacy, ed. Gould, 298. 37. Ibid. 38. Anthony, First Ladies: The Saga of the Presidents' Wives and Their Power, 458-59. 39. Borrelli, Politics of the President's Wife, 19. 40. Beasley, First Ladies and the Press: The Uefllli.shed Partnership of the Media Age, 153. 41. Laura Bush, Spoken from the Heart (New York: Scribner, 2010), 165.

The Office of the First Lady


The Lady Bird Special The Power of a Whistle-stop Campaign



the warm sunny afternoon of October 7, 1964, chants of "We Want Barry" rumbled through the crowd of black and white, restless and happy, young and old as it pressed toward a procession of railroad cars in the downtown depot of Columbia, South Carolina. 1 At the time Lyndon B. Johnson, thirty-sixth president of the United States, had just signed his landmark Civil Rights Act to end dis­ crimination in America. These South Carolinians craned their necks to get a good look at the 51-year-old wife of the president standing at the back of a caboose and stretching on tiptoes as far as her 5 foot 4 inch frame would allow. In her soft drawl laced with southern sweetness they could hear her declare, "I love the South. I am a Southerner and I am here because I want to be."2 This was Claudia Taylor ("Lady Bird") Johnson, daughter of the South and America's first lady traveling aboard the "Lady Bird Special" on the first solo whistle-stop campaign tour led by a first lady. She had come because she wanted to help her husband win the pres­ idency, a position he held by default following the assassination of John F. Kennedy. And it was here in the Palmetto State that "Victoria," as she was known by her Secret Service agents,3 laid out the case for


Johnson. It was one of her finest moments. The Civil Rights Act changed the South overnight. Emotions tan­ gled and clutched at the throat of civilized south­ ern society, and affection for LBJ had melted away. With the campaign cycle closing, September's polling numbers were enormously promising, yet still troubling. What about the Johnsons' part of the country? Not sure if he held a "bad beat" or a "bluff," LBJ was pleased when Lady Bird Johnson, exercising her own good judgment, defied the politi­ cal operatives and announced she would be heading south to play an old familiar hand: the "whistle­ stop." Whistle-stops were commonplace in nineteenth­ and twentieth-century America. A signal was waved and a whistle blown to announce unscheduled arrivals and departures along railroad lines that oth­ erwise ran straight through town, and politicians found that traveling by train to greet crowds at whis­ tle-stops was a convenient and effective way to cam­ paign. 4 In 1836 presidential candidate William Henry Harrison rode the first campaign train from Wilmington, Delaware, to Trenton, New Jersey. 5

A decaying caboose was resurrected from a rail yard in Pennsylvania and customized to create a platform from which Mrs. Johnson could deliver speeches while campaigning for her husband. The last of eighteen cars on the Lady Bird Special, it was fitted with a red-and-white striped awning and loud speakers.

with her audience, the first lady wanted the scoop on all the local doings to sprinkle throughout her speeches. She made special mention of everything from water conservation projects to programs at area colleges and strides being made to improve farm liv­ ing and income.15 On September 4, Lady Bird Johnson presided over a three-hour staff meeting to chart her course. 16 Following strict instructions­ "Don't take me to Atlanta; give me the hard ones"­ her staff spent the next several weeks pouring over maps and sorting through logistics, leaving the sched­ ule flexible enough so the train could stop at will. 17 The ten-day, fourteen-state plan was finally whittled down to a four-day, eight-state excursion. 18 The first lady's East Wing staff was led by the joyful Elizabeth ("Liz") Carpenter and the inimitable Elizabeth ("Bess") Abell, who handled everything that had a whiff of "social" attached to it. LBJ called them the "can do women," and they could spin their magic in an LBJ moment. 19 (LBJ announced one morning, "Let's have Congress down to the White House this afternoon"-and they did.)20 With the powerful backing of the president, Abell and Carpenter moved the home and office operations of the White House from 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue to

the southern railway and managed a campaign trip remembered as one of the savviest and most fun jour­ neys ever undertaken by a first lady. As Bess Abell reminisced about the 1964 whistle-stop in a recent interview, her face strained, her voice thickened, and tears trickled down her cheeks. She shook her head and whispered, "She was just so wonderful and I miss her so much." Only a woman like Mrs. Johnson (as she was called by her staff), could ignite such emotion and raw feeling fifty years later. Mostly remembered for her beautification programs, Lady Bird Johnson possessed a noblesse oblige and an uncommon grace, and she beautified just about everything she touched. Organizing the "Lady Bird Special" put Bess Abell's talent on display. As she wrestled with train timetables, menus, guests lists, and schedules, she remembered LBJ calling one Sunday afternoon, "Bess, how's the train trip coming?" "It's coming together, Sir," she answered, "but I still need a car with a platform. And, if it could be completely open, that would be great." LBJ connected her to a ready solution-Buford Ellington, a former official with the Louisville and Nashville Railroad and former governor of Tennessee. Days later Bess answered her The Lady Bird Special 21

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The Lady Bird Special


phone and was asked, "When can you be at Union Station?" Within the hour she stood looking at the "Queen Mary," a decaying caboose that had been resurrected from a railroad yard in Pennsylvania. Bess's expert team whitewashed it, painted "Lady Bird Special" in cursive script across the outsides of the cars, and bolted a red-and-white striped awning over the caboose. A speech podium and an enclosing brass rail completed the picture. Inside bench seating was upholstered in red-and-blue cotton. Black-and­ white campaign photographs of the first family were taped to the walls like "framed art." The train would have eighteen cars, which included nine sleepers, three working press cars for 250 working press, two dining cars, a hospitality car, and private cars for the first lady, White House staff and the "Ladies for Lyndon," hostesses who distributed the goodies: charm bracelets, pens, buttons, hats, and balloons stamped "LBJ for the USA" to the crowds at each stop.21 On September 11, Lady Bird Johnson settled into a favorite chair in the West Sitting Hall of the White House and spent the next eight hours dialing Dixie Democrats, inviting them to "come ride with me on the train."22 Polished and polite, she explained, "It was only courteous to let them know I'm coming. "23 According to Liz Carpenter, "This was twenty-four calls to twenty-four busy men."24 The White House announced on Saturday, September 26, that five gov­ ernors and four U.S. senators would be honorary chairmen for the eight-state swing-a number that would grow exponentially over the next four days.25 Lady Bird Johnson's journey "of the heart" began in the predawn hours of October 6, 1964.26 A late summer storm had slammed through the region on the heels of Hurricane Hilda, and now the morn­ ing dawned bright with temperatures climbing to the mid-50s. Lady Bird Johnson, the president, and daughter Lynda Bird departed the White House at 7: 15 a.m. in the president's bullet-proof black Lincoln Continental limousine en route to Union Station, where they joined their 300-plus entourage for the "all aboard" sounding of the first whistle.27 President Johnson rode along to Alexandria, Virginia, where he set the tone in his remarks for his wife's trip through Virginia, the Carolinas, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Arkansas, and Louisiana, a state he'd just proclaimed a "disaster" following the devas-

tation of Hilda.28 He wore his heart on his sleeve when he bragged to the Alexandrians, "Lady Bird is the greatest campaigner in America and I'm very proud to announce that I am her husband." 29 Then she struck a happy note, "Sunshine and lots of friends-what could be a better way to start a whis­ tle-stop?"30 The president returned to an empty house, for his White House had climbed aboard the train, an Eastern Seaboard version of "home on the range" only now it was "home on the rails." Press secretary Liz Carpenter wrote, "We were supposed to blow kisses and spread love through eight states."31 But it soon became a lot more than that. Things with Lady Bird usually did. This whis­ tle- stop journey chugged straight through towns with names like Ahoskie, Hobgood, and Tarboro at a painful time in America.32 For the next two days Lady Bird peppered her speeches with stories about all her husband had done for America and how the federal government, guided by his expert hand, had helped each and every community. In Richmond an anti-LBJ group chirped, "Fly Away Lady Bird." Lynda Bird Johnson Robb remembers it got a little rough and knew she had lin­ gered a little too long at the podium when her moth­ er leaned in and whispered to her, "You've had your time, now it's my turn." Toward the end of the first day the president rejoined his wife in Raleigh, North Carolina, for a rally and a boisterous Tarheel wel­ come at the packed-to-capacity Reynolds Coliseum.33 On Day Two, 12,000 happy Durham early birds showed up at 7:00 a.m., and from there the Dixie tour snowballed.34 In Burlington, North Carolina, a smiling Lady Bird Johnson announced campaigning was "hard on hosiery" when she was presented with a bundle of stockings and promised to "divide them up" with her traveling friends.35 In Charlotte, 25,000 waited for her at Independence Square. As she stepped off the train she remarked, "I think Charlotte likes my LBJ."36 She was handed a dozen yellow roses that flashed against her bright red suit, and Charlotte's mayor, Stanford Brookshire, gave the beautification-minded first lady an oversize hor­ nets' nest. Headlines rang, "Happy Throng Hails 1st Lady at Midtown," and another chimed, "Lady Bird's Here, Everybody Sing."37 A helicopter was sent ahead to report crowd The Lady Bird Special 25


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Savannah, Georgia, with daughter Luci, October 8, 1964

estimates and to plan for nonscheduled stops. Brief halts were made when "warranted by the size of the crowd."38 Orangeburg, South Carolina, was precisely the kind of place she wanted to visit-the "land where the pavement runs out."39 A crowd of more than 5,000 applauded as the first lady proclaimed her love for the South. "As we choo choo'd down the tracks," Bess Abell said, "Mrs. Johnson's drawl grew thicker the deeper south they went." And then the mood began to darken and security concerns mounted. A separate engine went ahead to sniff out trouble. The first lady was trailed by Secret Service agents every­ where she went. Former congresswoman Lindy Boggs, a member of the train's "girl power," remembered being followed from town to town by a pack of dis­ senters. "The leader . .. had a crutch, and when he put his crutch up in the air, that was the signal for everybody to start chanting and interrupting every­ thing."40 In Columbia these demonstrators brought the ceremonies to a halt with excessive booing, heck­ ling, and chants of, "Lady Bird Go Back to Your Roost," and "We Want Barry!"41 Bess Abell remem­ bers a sign that stood out at the back of the crowd, "Black Bird Go Home." "At first the sign was held up high but fortunately little by little as Mrs. Johnson spoke the sign was gradually lowered until finally it disappeared." With one white gloved and shaky hand held high she shushed the raucous crowd, "This is a country of many viewpoints. I respect your rights to express yours. Now it's my turn to express mine."42 In Charleston the first lady was presented with a Pawley's Island hammock and given the silent treat­ ment.43 A horse-driven carriage driven by top-hatted driver Harry Wagner, his little dog Bingo seated at his side, clip-clopped its way over the cobblestones as it carried Mrs. Johnson through the Battery, the part of the old town that hems the Ashley River.44 Window shades on the houses were drawn, and signs were posted in the windows, "This house is sold on Goldwater." A few days later the Charlestonians received a public tongue-lashing in an editorial and were unceremoniously reminded, "Crude and rude fundamental violations of elementary etiquette have no place in South Carolina politics."45 Gifts of the local variety poured in at every stop. Peanuts in Suffolk, Virginia, ham and beaten biscuits in Richmond, bushels of apples, and roses, roses, roses.46 Lynda Robb recalled at times the "Special" 28


looked like a funeral train. Bess Abell established a strict flower removal protocol. "We had to get rid of that stuffl" A secretary would carry the bouquets through the train and hand them off to a waiting policeman, who distributed them to local hospitals and retirement homes with a handwritten note from the first lady: "I was given these on my trip through the south. I hope you will enjoy them." "One fly in that smooth running machine," Bess Abell remem­ bered, "was they gave away a bouquet too soon." Governor George Wallace of Alabama had sent dozens of roses to be given to Lady Bird in Mobile, but when it was time to present the flowers, they had disappeared. Luckily a secretary retrieved the gover­ nor's bouquet just in time.46 The cocktail hour ritual was faithfully observed every day from 4:00 to 5:00 p.m. in the dining car.47 This was Liz Carpenter's chance to court the press and craft a daily sound-bite. For Lady Bird Johnson, though, there was never time for more than a sip. She was too busy offering her fine brand of southern hospi­ tality. It seemed everyone was--or became-her friend. The dining car featured special dishes every day. Breakfast included an "Early Lady Bird Special," with juice and pecan honey cake; "A La Board" offered a collection of soup and sandwiches; and an "L.B.J. Steak Platter" (broiled club steak with french fried potatoes, mixed green salad, and "by line" dressing) was one of many regional meals served at suppertime.48 When off the train, staff and press were instructed to listen for two toots of the whistle and then run! In two minutes the train would begin to move, and it would not wait for anyone. If you missed the train, remembered Liz Carpenter, you had to find a ride to the next stop.49 And, it was a good thing that Dr. Janet Travell was on board: a Life magazine reporter and a CBS anchorman got into a fist fight; fortunately the only casualty was a missing tooth. At another stop a news journalist suffered a mild stroke and was safely rushed to a nearby hospital.50 By the time Lady Bird Johnson arrived at her last stop in New Orleans she had been "working on the railroad"51 and "felt like cooked spaghetti."52 For her part she had achieved her goal: she helped her hus­ band.53 In those four days she reached more than a mil­ lion people, traveled almost 1,700 miles, gave 47 speeches, shook more than 1,000 hands, and waved at four slow-downs. The API reported New Orleans

would be a "double barrel political wind-up."54 It was. Thousands chanted "We Want Lyndon" as an exultant candidate and proud husband held his wife tightly; the crowd roared as he promised, "As long as I am your president I'm going to be president of all the people." When election day arrived, Lyndon Johnson held half the South and would now occupy the Oval Office in his own right. The first lady called her days on the "Lady Bird Special" the "four most dramatic days in my politi­ cal life" and summed it up best herself when she later wrote, "I wouldn't take anything for the Whistle-stop through the South-forty-seven stops in four days! Scores of times since that October as I have stood in a receiving line someone would come up and say, 'I rode with you on the Whistle-stop' and we would clasp hands with a warmth and a rush of memories of that very spe­ cial time." 55 She said my "mind often turns to the little town in North Carolina-was it Ahoskie?-where a woman pushed through the crowd to grab my hand and said, 'I got up at 3 o'clock this morning and milked twenty cows so I could get here by train time!' That was as close as many people ever get to government ... and I am glad we met and touched."56 No doubt. NOTES I. Hugh Z. Gibson, "First Lady Booed," Greenwood (S. C.) Index­ Journal, October 12, 1964 2. Quoted in Liz Carpenter, Ruffles and Flourishes (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1970), 150. 3. Chris Higbee, "Secret Service Code Names for U.S. Presidents and Their Spouses," Salt Lake City Deseret News, March 27, 2012. 4. "All Aboard: Making Tracks with the Presidential Train," Benjamin Harrison Presidential Site, online at www.president­ 5. Ibid. 6. Ibid. 7. Brian Wolly, "Lincoln's Whistle-Stop Trip to Washington," February 9, 2011,, online at; "All Aboard." 8. David McCullough, Truman (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992), 144. 9. Ibid., 653-55. 10. Judy Whitlow Lance, interview by author, April 18, 2015. 11. Robert A. Caro, The Years of Lyndon Johnson: The Passage of Power (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2012), 144. 12. Ibid., 144. 13. Ibid.,145-46. 14. White House Press Release, "Schedule of Train Trip of Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson-October 6--9, 1964," October 4, 1964. 15. Remarks by Mrs. Johnson, Petersburg, Virginia,October 6, 1964, online at 16. Lady Bird Johnson,diary, September 4, 1964, A White House

Diary (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970), 194. 17. Carpenter, Ruffles and Flourishes, 145. 18. Lady Bird Johnson, diary, September 4, 1964, White House Diary, 194. 19. Bess Abell, interview by author,July 14, 2015. 20. Ibid. 21. Ibid. 22. Lady Bird Johnson, diary, September 4, 1964, White House Diary, 195. 23. Ibid. 24. Carpenter, Ruffles and Flourishes, 151. 25. Ibid., 152. 26. White House Press Release, "Schedule of Train Trip of Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson,"October 4, 1964. 27. Ibid. 28. "President Gives Wife Send-off," Burlington Daily Times, October 6, 1964. 29. Quoted in ibid. 30. Quoted in ibid. 31. Carpenter,Ruffles and Flourishes, 144. 32. Ibid., 146. 33. "Raleigh Saw the President and LBJ, Master Politician," Burlington Daily Times, October 7, 1964. 34. "Lady Bird's Dixie Tour Snowballing," Lake Charles American­ Press,October 7, 1964. 35. Quoted in "Lady Bird Finds Whistle-Stopping Hard on Hosiery," Greenwood (S.C.) Index-Journal, October 7, 1964. 36. Quoted in "Happy Throng Hails !st Lady at Midtown," Charlotte News, October 7, 1964. 37. Ibid.; "Lady Bird's Here, Everybody Sing," Charlotte News, October 7, 1964. 38. "Democratic Leaders Set for Rides with Lady Bird," Florence Morning News, October 7, 1964. 39. Abell, interview. 40. Ibid. 41. Michael L. Gillette, "Remembering Lindy Boggs," August 2013, Humanities Texas, online at 42. Gibson, "First Lady Booed." 43. Abell, interview. 44. '"Lady Bird Special' Leaves S. Carolina," Florence Morning News,October 9, 1964. 45. "A Disgrace," Greenwood (S.C.)Index-Journal, October 12, 1964. 47. Lynda Johnson Robb, interview. 48. Carpenter, Ruffles and Flourishes, 161. 49. Ibid., 160--61. 50. Ibid., 161-62. 51. Carpenter, Ruffles and Flourishes, 170. 52. Ibid. 53. Gibson, "First Lady Booed." 54. "Lady Bird Johnson Special to Join Forces with President Tonight," Greenwood (S. C.)Jndex-Journal,October 9, 1964. 55. Lady Bird Johnson, diary, White House Diary, 198. 56. Ibid., 99.

The Lady Bird Special 29

First Lady Lou Henry Hoover and the First White House Catalog ELIZABETH

£ouHenry Hoover was first lady from 1929 to 1933, opposite her husband Herbert Clark Hoover, thirty-first president of the United States. She was an accomplished scien­ tist, editor, designer, human­ itarian, and philanthropist. Throughout her life she was a social activist, but she worked in the shadows and did not disclose her successes to the press. In some cases, such as pay­ ing the college tuition of Audrey Keasley Jackson, an young African American woman attending the Hampton Institute in Virginia, Lou Hoover acted under com­ plete anonymity. 1 Understanding that Lou Hoover would not seek public credit for her work, Laurence Gouverneur Hoes, the great-great-grandson of As a college student in 1895, Lou Henry Hoover was photographed in Stanford University's chemistry lab (above) and as first lady, she was pictured seated at a reproduction of President James Monroe's desk in the White House in a tribute to her preservation work by Monroe's great-great-grandson (opposite).


President James Monroe, wrote a gra­ cious article for the New York Herald Tribune about her historic preservation efforts, "Mrs. Hoover's Gift to History." Hoes had not informed the first lady of his intentions, and he afterward wrote to explain that the American people wanted to know the story of how she arranged to have copies of furnishings from the James Monroe presidency made for the White House,2 a project on which they had collaborated. Hoes was correct in his assessment: Lou Hoover left many gifts to history. She was one of the original donors of first ladies' dresses and artifacts to the "national museum." 3 She presumably worked alongside Rose de Chine Gouverneur Hoes, great-granddaughter of James Monroe, on the donation and development of the collection that is still exhibited at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History. In June 1939, Lou Hoover filed articles of incorporation for the Herbert Hoover Birthplace Society in West Branch, Iowa, and she oversaw a complete restora­ tion of the home her husband was born in, affection­ ately called "The Birthplace Cottage."4 She also ensured there was financial means to support the

society and its restoration efforts. The Birthplace Cottage and the surrounding area that she helped to restore, after several incarnations, became the Herbert Hoover National Historic Site in 1965. As first lady, Lou Hoover undertook a catalog and historic study of White House furnishings that is a landmark in the history of the house. Even before the fire in the West Wing on Christmas Eve, 1929, raised the specter of loss, she began researching the provenance of White House furnishings and artifacts. With her secretary, Ruth Fessler, she interviewed employees about various pieces, but as most predated the employees' memories, the two women continued their research at the Library of Congress. The records they found there were inadequate, often list­ ing the items by physical description instead of pro­ viding full provenances. Realizing the project was too big for her and Fessler to complete, Lou Hoover commissioned Dare Stark McMullin in 1929, a friend with a personal interest, to research and record the provenance of the White House furnishings and write a comprehensive catalog. McMullin's work on the catalog revealed that some presidential administrations were not represent­ ed in the White House furnishings, and Lou Hoover sought out artifacts to fill these gaps. In July 1929 she corresponded with Frances Lovering Adams (the wife of Charles Francis Adams), requesting china and other items from the administrations of John Adams and John Quincy Adams for the White House. 5 The family agreed and arranged for the china to be delivered to the White House around Christmastime, 1929. 6 McMullin described the china as a "Christmas gift" in the catalog, but correspon­ dence confirms that it was a gift from the Adams family to the White House. 7 There was no congressional appropriation for the acquisition of artifacts or for the preparation of the catalog, so Lou Hoover paid for the project, totaling in the thousands of dollars, with her person­ al funds.8 When donations of original pieces were not forthcoming, she commissioned reproductions. Among the most famous were the furnishings from the Monroe administration. In early September 1931 she visited the James Monroe Law Office National Shrine in Fredericksburg, Virginia, now the James Monroe Museum and Memorial Library, adminis-

tered by the University of Mary Washington. There she met with Mr. and Mrs. Laurence and Ingrid Westesson Hoes, and on September 18, 1931, Ruth Fessler wrote to Laurence Hoes summarizing what they had discussed: making copies of the Monroe fur­ nishings for the White House, insuring the furnish­ ings against damage and "acts of God," selecting a furniture maker, donating a piano to the White House, making copies of a portrait of Elizabeth ("Eliza") Kortright Monroe for the White House and "the gallery of president's wives," and identifying current pieces of furniture remaining in the White House that were used by the Monroe family.9 Lou Hoover and Laurence Hoes arranged for the Monroe Doctrine Desk to be shipped to Washington, D.C., to have a copy made for the White House. The family believed the Monroe Doctrine was signed on the desk; that done, the origi­ nal would be returned to the Fredericksburg muse­ um. Lou Hoover decided to have two exact copies made of the desk for the White House. 10 She commis­ sioned M. W. Dove, a furniture maker in Washington, D.C., to build the replicas at her own expense and requested permission from the Monroe family to keep one for herself if congressional appro­ priations did not cover the expense. She promised never to allow copies of her copy, and the family obliged. 11 Appropriations were never approved, and Lou Hoover's copy of the desk remained with the Hoover family until 2014, when it was donated to the Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum by Margaret Hoover Brigham. Like James Monroe, Lou Hoover kept uncashed checks and letters of gratitude in the hidden compartment of the desk, and these were not discovered until after her death in 1944. According to Laurence Hoes, "The piano was a bit too difficult to be reproduced, but about that time the writer came across an identical piano in the famous Hugo Worch collection in the United States National Museum. When the museum authorities learned of Mrs. Hoover's desire they immediately proffered it to the White House." 12 By piecing togeth­ er Monroe furnishings including an Empire table, chairs, a gilt mirror, and decorative objects, Lou Hoover restored the private parlor of Elizabeth Monroe on the Second Floor of the White House. On the wall hung a portrait of Elizabeth Monroe that

First Lady Lou Henry Hoover and the First White House Catalog 33

had been copied from the Benjamin West original and donated to the White House by Eben F. Comins in 1933. 13 Lou Hoover referred to the room as the "Early Federal Drawing Room," but it became known as the Monroe Room under the Hoovers. Today it is the Treaty Room and is often used as the president's private home office. Herbert Hoover did not use the Monroe Room as his office. Instead he chose the adjacent office used by President Abraham Lincoln, which was a bedroom when the Hoovers moved into the White House. He named the space the Lincoln Study, which it was called until it was renamed the Lincoln Bedroom. The Hoovers immediately began research­ ing and searching storerooms to locate any furnish­ ings left behind by the Lincolns. They understood that the staff could not pass down any stories, and they found no evidence that the Lincolns had acquired new furniture for this particular room. At the time there was a market for buying and selling Lincoln artifacts, and in absence of any real evidence of Lincoln furnishings, the Hoovers identi­ fied several pieces that embodied the "spirit" of Lincoln for Hoover's study. 14 Above the mantel the Hoovers hung an engraving by Alexander Hay Ritchie of the First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation Before the Cabinet, based on the paint­ ing by Francis Bicknell Carpenter, and they used it for decorative inspiration. The Arden Studios, an interior design firm based in New York, assisted Lou Hoover in selecting proper upholstery for the fur­ nishings in the study. Although the Hoovers were unable to restore the Lincoln office, they tried very hard to recreate it. The catalog provides insight into First Lady Lou Hoover's efforts to make the White House accessible to the American people. She moved social bureau workers with their noisy typewriters out of the State Floor, opened the East Room, restored the southwest corner room of the Ground Floor by removing the billiard table, moved objects from the Second Floor to the State Floor so the public could view them, and opened the White House every day from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. for visitors. 15 Additionally, she verified the existing White House Library lists with the Library of Congress and added more books donated by the American Booksellers Association. 16 36 WHITE HOUSE HISTORY (Number 45)

She wanted the visiting public to have a museum­ type experience, so she placed valuable china from the Washington administration behind glass and declared that the "ground zone" of the White House should be a public space. 17 Lou Hoover intended that the catalog would be published, and its original foreword made clear that she wanted it to be an official record of the furnish­ ings, a guide for future researchers, a source of inter­ pretive materials for the visiting public and guests of the White House, and a book for the general public. 18 She undoubtedly utilized her cataloging skills as a scientist in its preparation. She numbered the fur­ nishings like specimens and developed a research col­ lection. Under her direction, McMullin created an object-based card catalog, three cross-card catalogs, provenance files, a narrative, and two typescript drafts that compiled the information. 19 The catalog numbers assigned by Lou Hoover are still used to identify the furnishings of the White House by the White House curatorial staff. The volumes contain historic photographs of the interior of the White House and photographs that Lou Hoover commis­ sioned. Many of the early period photographs used in the catalog came from the Library of Congress and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers collections. A sep­ arate set of color photographs was taken by Fernand Bourges and published in the September 15, 1929, Sunday World Magazine. 20 McMullin kept a running list of the photographs and whether requests to use them was approved or denied. She also retained her call slips from the Library of Congress.21 She and Lou Hoover were acutely aware of copyright law and the implications of publishing photographs they did not have permission to print. In the end confusion over permissions for pho­ tographs ensnared the catalog project, and it was never published as intended. Lou Hoover needed a photographer to capture images for the catalog. During the search, she was approached by Colonel U. S. Grant III, commanding officer of the Army Signal Corps, who suggested the use of the corp's photographers. He indicated that the men needed the work and they would provide quality photographs. Lou Hoover did not want to use government work­ ers, but the Great Depression settled in and she felt

The Monroe Room as created by First Lady Lou Hoover. with reproductions of President Monroe's furnishings. Both heart-backed side chairs were bought for the White House by President James K Polk.

pressured to provide work for the men at her person­ al expense. The agreement between Mrs. Hoover and Grant stipulated that she pay for the labor, materi­ als, and processing; in return, she retained full and sole ownership of the plates, prints, and rights to the photographs. She was also persuaded by Grant's argument that some of these photographs could be reused for the official records of the White House. 22 With the terms laid out, she hired Sergeant F. W. Hines from the Army Signal Corps to photograph the rooms and some of the objects in the White House for the catalog. Sergeant Hines was paid directly by Lou Hoover for the work, and some copies of the photo­ graphs were given to the government for official use. Without her consent or knowledge, Colonel Grant later sold prints from Lou Hoover's collection through his office to Ava Long, a writer and a White House housekeeper who helped with decorating the White House and to whom Lou Hoover had given a few "souvenir" pictures as a personal keepsake.23 In mid-August of 1933, Lou Hoover saw the photographs she paid for in the September issue of the Ladies' Home Journal.24 The confusion about the status of the photographs led to cease and desist

orders from Lawrence Richey, President Hoover's secretary, to Ava Long, author of the article, and to the Ladies' Home Journa/. 25 It was too late to stop the press run that already was delivered, but two subsequent printings were halted. Nevertheless, Charles Scribner's Sons, which was then in the process of publishing the catalog,26 withdrew from the project because the photographs had already appeared in the Ladies' Home Journal. There were attempts to publish the book before and after Lou Hoover's death, but an agreement was never reached. The records at the Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum indicate that the volumes of the catalog were never copied but that other versions were written by McMullin at the request of the Hoovers. Against the wishes of Philipi Harding Butler, manager of Lou Hoover's papers at the Hoover Institution, President Hoover gave one of the volumes to First Lady Marnie Eisenhower before they were donated to the Herbert Hoover Library and Museum. He stated explicitly, however, that it was not for the White House Library. 21 To date, the third volume is not accounted for. Thus Lou Henry Hoover's remarkable accom-

First Lady Lou Henry Hoover and the First White House Catalog 37

When Mrs. Hoover discovered that photographs of the White House she had commissioned with her own money had been sold to the Ladies' Home Journal by Ava Long, a White House housekeeper, her efforts to publish an illustrated White House furnishings catalog came to an end.

plishments on behalf of the historic preservation of the White House are not as well known as they should be. The White House study she commissioned and edited is the earliest and most complete study of the White House prior to the Truman renovation of 1948-52. In the early 1960s First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy started on the same journey as Lou Hoover, identifying furnishings and art in the White House and reconstructing their history. She pushed Congress to pass a law declaring the White House a museum and formally acknowledging its furnishings and art as national treasures that tell the story of the American presidency and the American people. She also established the White House Office of the Curator. First Lady Lou Hoover's catalog laid the groundwork for modern studies of the White House furnishings that have followed. She applied scientific method to cataloging historic objects-a practice now used around the world-solicited artifacts from the descendants of presidents, and actively curated objects for the enjoyment of the public. Her efforts on behalf of historic preservation at the White House continue to be important for interpreting the White House and for understanding its place in American history. NOTES I.


File on Audrey K. Jackson, box 154, subject file: RFA Individuals: Goldschmidt-RFA Individuals: Little, LouHenryHoover Papers (here­ afterHoover Papers),HerbertHoover Presidential Library and Museum, West Branch, Iowa. Laurence GouverneurHoes, "Mrs. Hoover's Gift toHistory," New York Herald Tri/June, November 6, 1932, 8, 23; Laurence GouverneurHoes to LouHenryHoover, June 20, 1932, box 185, subject file: WhiteHouse Furnishings-General, 1930--WhiteHouse Library, "Monroe Furnishings," Hoover Papers.


"Colors of Museum Dresses," undated document listing all of the dresses from Martha Washington to Grace Coolidge that were donated to the National Museum, box 185, subject file: WhiteHouse Furnishings-­ General, 1930--WhiteHouse Library, "Gowns worn by Mrs.Hoover," Hoover Papers.


Frank T. Nye Jr., Doors of Opportunity: The Life and Legacy of Herbert Hoover (West Branch, Iowa: Herbert Hoover Presidential Library Association, 1988), 148-49, 424-25.


LouHenryHoover to Mrs. Charles Francis Adams, July 24, 1929, box

184, subject file: WhiteHouse Christmas, 1930--White House Furnishings: General, 1929, "Adams China," Hoover Papers. 6.

AbigailHomans to Lou Henry Hoover, December 17, 1929, ibid.




Various receipts from M. W. Dove and receipts on WhiteHouse sta­ tionery, box 185, subject file: White House Furnishings-General, 1930-­ WhiteHouse Library, "Monroe Furnishings" and "Purchases Made by Mrs.Hoover,"Hoover Papers.


Ruth Fessler to Mrs. Laurence Hoes, September 18, 1931, box 185, subject file: WhiteHouse Furnishings-General, 1930--WhiteHouse Library, "Monroe Furnishings," Hoover Papers.

10. Ibid. 11. LouHenry Hoover to Laurence Gouverneur Hoes, June 10, 1932, box 185, subject file: WhiteHouse Furnishings-General, 1930--White House Library, "Monroe Furnishings," Hoover Papers. 12. Hoes, "Mrs.Hoover's Gift toHistory." 13. Laurence GouverneurHoes to LouHenryHoover, August 12, 1932, box 185, subject file: WhiteHouse Furnishings-General, 1930--WhiteHouse Library, "Monroe Furnishings," Hoover Papers. 14. Lincoln Administration folder, box 187, subject file: White House: McMullin Book 'F'-'M,' Hoover Papers. 15. McMullin Book, IOI, box 195, subject file: White House: McMulli□ Book-Final Version,Hoover Papers. 16. M. A. Roberts to P.H. Butler, March 3, 1933, box 185, subject file: White House Furnishings-General, 1930--WhiteHouse Library, "Book Lists," Hoover Papers. 17. McMullin Book, 99, box 195, subject file: WhiteHouse-McMullin Book-Final Version, Hoover Papers. 18. "Foreword and Introduction," December 1932, box 187, subject file: White House Fnmishings---McMullin Book,Hoover Papers. 19. Ibid. 20. "Famous Rooms in the White House," Sunday World Magazine (September 15, 1929): 12-13. The caption identifies Bourges as" World staff cameraman, under the supervision of Robert Ament, art director." Copy in box 188, subject file: White House Furnishings-McMullin Book-Photos, First Color Photos of Interior,Hoover Papers. 21. Photograph Correspondence Folder, box 188, subject file: WhiteHouse Furnishi□gs-McMullin Book,Hoover Papers. 22. LouHenryHoover to Lawrence Richey, August 18, 1933, box 188, subject file: WhiteHouse Furnisbings-McMullin Book-Photos, "Unauthorized Publication,"Hoover Papers. 23. Correspondence pf LouHenry Hoover, Larry Richey, Ava Long, Capt. Butler, Col. U.S. Grant III, etc., May-November 1933, subject file: White House Furnishings-McMullin Book-Photos, "Unauthorized Publication,"Hoover Papers. 24. Ava Long, with MildrenHarrington, "Presidents atHome," Ladies' Home Journal, September 1933, 8. 25. Correspondence of LouHenryHoover, Larry Richey, Ava Long, Capt. Butler, Col. U.S. Grant Ill, etc., May-November 1933, box 188, subject file: WhiteHouse Furnishings-McMulli□ Book-Photos, "Unauthorized Publication,"Hoover Papers. 26. Ibid. 27. Correspondence ofHerbertHoover, PhilipiHarding Butler, and Bunny MiUer, September 1955-October 1955, box 186, subject file: McMullin Book on Furnishings, "Drafts,"Hoover Papers.

First Lady Lou Henry Hoover and the First White House Catalog 39


White House Furnishings Prepared for Lou Henry Hoover by Dare Stark McMullin December 1932

Reproduced from the files of the Herbert Hoover Presidential Library

Introduction to tfie 1'acsimife The "house for the president" ordered by Congress in 1790 and completed in 1800 has naturally, over time, become a historic house, rich in reflections of the American past. After President James Monroe refurnished the house with elegant French pieces in c. 1818, the precedent he set for tasteful furnishings, comparable to that of first class hotels, was maintained for the balance of the nineteenth century and for more than half of the twentieth. Even President Theodore Roosevelt's stylish renovations of 1902 reflected a Waldorf-Astoria sort of tone. First Lady Lucy Hayes, a devoted Victorian, was one of the first first ladies who as­ pired to elevate the decor to a more historical style. In 1881 First Lady Lucretia Garfield (whose time in the White House was cut short by the assassination of her husband) also likely planned historical themes for the interiors. Perhaps Louis Comfort Tiffany's famous glass screen partitioning the Entrance Hall, commissioned by President Chester A. Arthur, was influenced by earlier Garfield plans, never realized because of his assassina­ tion. Who is to know? As time passed, the White House attics and storerooms filled with furnishings from the past. New objects mingled with what was there for first families brought little to the White House with them. In 1929 it occurred to Lou Henry Hoover that an inventory should be made of the accumulated White House collection. She wished for the objects that lay by in silence to speak of the past. Both she and President Hoover loved history, and his admiration for Lincoln led them to create the "Lincoln Study" (now the Lincoln Bedroom) where Lincoln's office had once been. Mrs. Hoover meanwhile renovated the adjacent room to be the Monroe Room, elevating historic accuracy above decorating. While her interest in the White House rooms sharpened, she had been puzzled to see that the temporary furnishings committee appointed by her predecessor, Grace Coolidge, was busy furnishing the Green Room with both copies and modern versions of early Ameri­ can furniture that bore no relation to the history of the White House. In creating the Monroe Room, Mrs. Hoover established her own version of how a White House interior should be. Studying White House inventories of the past, she found that the French furni­ ture Monroe had actually used in this Second Floor room survived in the collection of the James Monroe Law Office (today the James Monroe Museum and Memorial Library) in Fredericksburg, Virginia, and she commissioned the noted Washington cabinetmaker Morris Dove to replicate the furniture for her "authentic" Monroe Room. With Dare Stark McMullin, Mrs. Hoover also undertook an inventory of historic ob­ jects in the entire house. Pencil and paper in hand, the two women explored, room by room, from the attics to the cellars. What they turned up is amazing and resulted in the furnishings catalog that follows. From an old house literally stuffed with furniture over a long time, never conscious of historicity, their study of the items that remained, and those that were reused, restored, or discarded, from more than a century of presidential life is presented here.-William Seale, Editor, White House History, 2017

1 GEORGll llJ.S!IIN<7rOII f.WlrllA ll,lll!IIN(7!'0N 17� - 1797 President Wubtngton newr lived 1D the '!bite Houee, nor 1n the lederal ctt7 'that bore hie name. Dlu'lng hie Preaidency the seat or 80..,.:rmnent wae :tira1i 1n Bew Tork and then :ln Phil1delp.b.1a; ud 1:be tint tib.Ne lfamtiolll!I were p:rhata houe plaoed at 11 1 1 tispo■al in those a1t1e1.

on ita rivers 8lld. that habitually ordered 1te better poaeen101111 from Xngland and Jrance. However, 6aeh1ngtou.*s heart waa turnillg eTer to Tirgil21.a. Be 111ade u aai,y tripe •• po'•eible to llt. Wemon during hi• Proaidenc7. end he mw.t haTe bea1tated to lleapc11 tbe hou e■tate o�m:� o; ;;: ::.::::!fi:: to �a:-:� . h The nzat Prest dent' a Bouse origiD&l one ot theee. three he waa, 1n a tew months, Pre■id.ent1al ma:nslODIJI ha1 dise.ppeaTad wi:itir:ig about "bia.. ••• York turnitu:re �ONffr. It ... 1D the block DOW that muat be move4. to hia new houe. known ae l'r&nkl.121 Square, on the oorSome o:r it may ha Ye 1c furniture ner or Cheiry Street, a O.Utriat :tar out bought b7 the goverrment. 1'he goTel'Zlment in the country 114,ge■ o'f In Tork in 1789. tinanoes however were too scant to ,i;,e• 'l'he f'irst Poatmaater-"eueral and. his mit or a,aoh ine!llgence !n public turn•ife, Mr. and llrs. SUlll.el Osgood., owned 1ture, alld. tM • � tut c.hal!.. it &114 ottered it to ttie newl;r elected actor to !m•hi• exacu.tiVe. It had been built by- thb benet1t. It he bousbt a:ey ■rticl•• �iret huob&l14 ot Un, OsBQOI!, • Yr, with public money, one sight be sure l'aUor Frmiklin, •bo had l>een a llow it ftB elegant but IIHIICO%Ldhand and tork .merclumt ot eome mtaxw u.d who own­ caref'u.111 �prai■ed and bargatn.ed tor. ed oona14erable propert7 1D the reeion Uter all, llew Tork'• held. on the of tale square that now bear• b.1.s name. temre ot th4 central &(11'1u•ment wu 'lhe maz:urion wu large and etesant, we 1118:ht, and t.bat fir■t lanaion , with are told, and its eurrcntl1d.1nge m;u,t have no utio1pat1oa. of pe1'11Q4JJOe, ooo.14 comforted the Genoral a 11 ttle tor h1, hardly be treated ao & JUblic buildil>g ezile trom Kt. Yemon, Oil that April moning in 1189 Wb.•n he t1rat moved bu.t rathor •• • prhate ge.ntleman•• it, lto w1n4on looked o,it upon the houae. A gentleman ot course brcught J,q an4 Long Island, and he might catch •itb. him to Gly residence his pi,raonal George l'aahington effect, ot•, of affament, of art. glimp&eo, of ai; Eaet R_in,; tl•ll!IWIB be� The l'altor l' House 1n 'le know that the treasures ot li!t. tween newly leafing treee. On the ·other l'r-11n Squoro at Cherry Street "ernon_ - the boob amt vaaes., the ' a1de was a _paatoral l&Zldacap• o� .b.111• and pie turH, "" were shipped u.y to the slopes and. nllep, t1eld8 and wood.a• .in York: houae. The tami].J' plate had been melted da,m to Us oric;inal ztlver t,etore 1he W'�eh1ugtom left What the General thought of h:la house we shall DeTer kD6w Virgi.nia, so it mi&ht be reshaped. to the most o:i:actly, Unfortunately tbe ..,1-9 ot bi• diaey, kept iJ:J. tull du.r­ 1'aallionable 11attsrna. piece howHer bore the ing the tirat 7oare of hia Pr41a14enc.r, that cover■ the .remonl from · -ashington arms and. was ■till the fam1l7 silver. Un­ !lt. Vernon to lie• York bas been loet, So, cu.riow,17 entJl.16h, ha1 doulrted.JJ', if lt were tn,ical Colonial plate, that bad the Yolume dealing with th.e move trorn Xe• Toi-k to Philadelphia, though both were lout long ,-eans atter the actual IIOTicg dale• Ior shall happened to it bef'ore. we ever know how tbe C'herr¥ Straet houae appeared when it na hUll.8" and h.rn.bbed an4 &l'ranged. tor th• first 100-ial lite ot the .10U!JB ihe Cherr.r Street, acceuible enouch Hepll.blio. all, wu soon found to be too tar awa-, in bed weather tor an E.zecut11'e with 1c bualn.eH w1 tb. tm2J3 "e do not avm know whence oame the f\1rn1.ture to 1'111 1ta people to '\ranaaet. 'i:1J.e 1l'aeh1.Jletona, aUJ"ely, are 1n thg rooms. Some misb-t have been lett b,r tha Osgoo4a, thOQ.&b 1n t.lmn 10 V1'.1l8\IA.l"d ot those lfe,r York gone-rations 'Ibo must moye 1n cloee to honthr � �.11:lN wer-e apt to carr-7 their fUrn1turis with town tor the winter: Thia time the7 looked abou.t tor them when they 1110ved, in eheer ct finding other it they loft it themselves and cho9e th.e 1laco11b mansion of behilld. 'Al.e 011oodl were Cabinet m.em.bera, and. Jmst !la Te had a proper r f rr::tU�t•: h�!���·'ihlt ,��:td:���e�iTi��k�i it social eata"":";liSbment or thei� D-;im to set up 11ffll.ed1atel7 1n ?l" York. over in Feb%1.Ulr7, 1790, .and aereed. to take it for a year "trom l&f next". lt had lately been occupied by the Perhaps the firet Preaident brOlJ8'l.t ot his own f'Urn1t\r e from �t. Vernon, - a proceediJ:!6 that might give tbOUBht to a rn.o44rn French minister, and •a8 then :ren1:ed to the Frenoh such a moYe, but which ns quite natural to • ,:-eneratton e.ll&.rd- d'attai:rea, ?.:.. Otto. 'llhe ?·1n1ater had fur­ that- thought of tranaportat1011.. in terma 0-f •ailiDg veesde -and barc;ee nished it end was .anx.iou.ll to 10U, aome or his posa-

ua .,,, ..,..u�ri




eaaiom, whiob the .Preat4ea.t •u pleue4 to bu.1, hav1D6' a appreo iatton common to hie 11ountrymen. of' imported household etteota. 'tbe PresUent1al &eoretar,1 waa later diapatched, we read iD the d:1&17, to e.zamtue tb.e and. �tfh out the plac of the Oherr.r Street �itare. •• m,;y 'be tb.e •ketch Yu e&Nli"'u.ll.J" gona onr later bJ' the Geuoral. The ba.ild1%Ji8 ot a nar stable he arranged for penonall,y, - 1tablea tb.f-tt.y :teet ■quare. Yi tb. a thirt111e.n -foot pitch, twelve atalle. • &.a,loft, racks, man,gen, and a }Jlanked floor ,a, all well under_p1J:med •1th 1ton11 • .Uei­ &114er ».comb 1nher1tec1 a g,,od •table whon hif/ �!!ii left••


,,.-.. 1'4 ........


\.! . ,.,.,,, ...

He dld not tAlce the rHpomibUl.tle■ iorohed l.lghtly, �hi• time be could ll01i go down h1maelt' to P.bllad.elpbia; but the finest h.oue:e in all the cit7 wa, JJQt at M• d.iepoaal, tbe owner \ •• owners ,..., .ho offer hoepitalit,1 to Pree idents J .hastening ail�. '.i'his waa the houe of' .itobert U:o:rrie, old. oowaU la. war-, and t1nano1•r ot the .t(ewolut10.n. But .Ph1ladelpb.ia WU & 111zu)ler tom than Bew York and ita lar.�at houe •&a a till too 111mall and too unadapii'ble not, to dis"h'ee in. a4Y&nee a Preaideut -.ho knew already what ... residential l11'e deman4e4.. in hOUBee. Hill aocretar7, sent down to look thingl OHr, reported faitldully all tb.e neoeaeary details, and receiTed detaile in remffl aa to the placing of tlie household kn an4 Penatea ftei:a tbe;r ahauld. arrive, The Virgini& gentleman on the lie• kork end ot the corres})Ondenoe ••• e■pecially- concerlled over the eta.ta of the ftdepend.e.noies", those 11t.ble, amoke-houe• and. domestic q,uarteH that com­ poae4 the Hcondary buildinp of' the tew!al ·estate tlia.t WH • VirgWa plantation. ·1-he aecretar,r attended 4u.q to tbo11e,



1ibe York to .rbtladelphia disr; ie lost. Bu.t •e can gueae that !n 0<>toal1t;y oa in proapeot the Jrcrrie house contbm.ed. to be a 11ttl� Or&Qed, trom the comern abown b7 the Preeident over the new boue 'being 'ba.ilt tor hiB ■ucoenor in the .l!"ederal City on the Potomac. He tte:rcilel • ol•ae watch o,er the " ll'ederal Hall Bou.ea" by latter and hi■ main care 11 that it ah.all be oapa ble ot expaneion aa the demands of the cOUDtry expand.. .t'er.b.apa hia own crowded ciuartera .helped hilll ra:lse his e7e1 1:o that h16h Yia1on ot a �a.· republic ao extraordinary to discover bl 1118 letters to co1illl1ssionera and arch1tects at work 4n 1llehington.

The seoond Pl'ttsideAt1 .aouae in Hew York �e 110(:omb Jlanaion 'J1le ;roars lone onl;r prond to be a U9et\\l bit of i,ra.denee. A "Go-rename� Bove ft wu alrea.113" in the plaml.1l::lig, to 'oe bQ1lt at Ibo IJoot of llroo4ft,J facing :Bowling GrHn, 1n 1?90, It ,rao actually built an4 a cbu,oing old colored litho• graph of ·1t wae mado iJ:J. 1197, with tho logond that 1t wu "originall;r ila1lgned for the BHiUIICO ot GoMral I than President:} 'faahington bu:t the seat ot Government remoTed to Pbtl-adelphla before it waa oomplet9d". '?he houe howenr had its ahare of' 60T1trnment li'fe. It became the reaidellce of the GoYernors ot lfn York, both U-eo.rge Clinton and JobD J&3 usillig it. In 1799 it as the lfew York: 0\1.8,toms House, and wau so used until 1915, when it waa taken don. 'the !'reeident 111UBt hav-e followed the Government •• Philadelphia with eome d.oi:.estic reluctance. 'J.'hia was hia third removal and hie third formal .a.ouse to turnish in three years.

'l!he aovernme11t Kouae designed tor Preai<lsnt WUbington, built in 1790 Lithograph publlahod � H, R, RobillBon, 1897


GEO!ml :;A51ll!I0?01l :JARl'l!A ;;AS:m:ar01:

AmDns the For-Sele ',t'aebingtouiana was one set that, it the United Stata a waa disposed to buy, would ha'Ye been a prophetic purchase. Ph1lade.lphie had a green drewing-room (not a raH attri­ bute at e.n Eftl'ly 1'e4ere.l house) and ita delighttul t\lrnitU?'II waa not to go on to Mt. Vel"nOll. Tllere was e. oerpet ( cu;ieting ninety-two pound.II BDd eigh t ahillingo), There waa • l.ustre or sight llghto (whioh were, ot aouree, candlea), "perteot end in no way injured by u•" • and having ooat "Us"" aeYenty-six powida and tbirtlMn ab1llinga. 'l'bere wae a aopha.1 green tlo•ered damask with two oushiona, twelve tlowecy e.rmchaire and t'Welve aide cheira to match. SUrely the set wae 1rreaiatible tor a baclcgroun4 ot levees to came in Wallhington, and aurel.y u:oellent value tor a hundred end t'it'ty pound■J Alld the ll'8del'al CiV � tbe General'• droeaa wu riaing &lor1oualy on the horizon to the 90Uth, but met laak:1 men to a pe.triot•a aye, cloae touch With tradition. one tradition·r1oh aet, oalled tor yeera Mr.1!1. Waahington'e orimson drawing-room t'Umiture, did make the dit• tioult Jour.ooy trom the oid town ot Philadelphia to the new to'IJl ot Waabinaton. We hope that it WUI not alone, and that a te■ p1oea ot the Cherry a'l;reet turnttura, eome ot the p01eeeaione ot the Freno.h Minister ot the Muomb mem.81011, 01ch ot the Morrie house baakSJ'Ound came down to the gi-eat chilly cb.eerleae paleoe in the wooda below oeorgetown that aa al.moat to daunt the eoul ot WI'•• Adema u a aceno tor winter hoapitalit:,.

Prea1dent'a Mmaion. Philadelphia Bo� !Jonie House Wh.ein Wallb1:ngton retired troJ:J. the Pre aidenoy, he made • oaret'Ul 1nnntory ot his poaaeBBion.&. It waa di rtde4 into public property "owned by the Ullited Ste.tea" 1 pri"l'atiC!I property an4 pro­ pU'ty to bo eo14.. ttndoubted.l.y the Goverment, already em::toua to till thci great house in the J'ederal. Ctt:r tor the ocxntort ot ;John .t.dama, bought ao111e or the iteme in the last list. 'lbrougb th1a invantol'J we have a gl111;)1e or two ot tbe Pbiladelphie. aateblilllh­ ma:n.t .. 'le learn that hia dl'awing-l"OOm wal!I bun,g 1D yellow demuk, end three yellow sill: sopha.a and tffll oheira covered with yellow demaah turnil!lhed by the u:nJ. ted statee :muat have belonged in the same room. Hia large 41nina-room waa in cr1m&on aat1n, and hia emall d1n1:a«-room in blue 4amaek. Tbe turnitUM 1n theae 41.Dtna­ rooms belonged .al'gel.y to tbe UDi'ted. Statee 1 and muat ban been quite worth shipping clown to Waehingtou. There were: "a sett-l.a dining Tables "2 eACl Te.blee do "2 meh08&1'Y dini?IS Te.ble1 •]. inlaid bre�aat do •2 oiroul.u sldebo&NS (bo,r-tront?J ,.u mahogan,y oha1:re11 The United 8'dea owued en mn,pJ.,e wpply ct Presi­ dential chain,- twelve mahoganies, tan carved, t'ourteen plain, twelve arm, and one easy cilair. There wu a ma.hcgany cabinet, that m&y" haTa boussd Mra.. Waabington• • titteen-atate set ot taa­ oh1.Da, presented to ber by Captain J"ouet Van Brum, a l)J.tch :friend. There was a bookcaee 'that. BJAt have held the General 1 a preo1oue l1brer,-.

e. ,an; .IJUllS nm:l,\IL ADR.:S l.797 - l.801 The ..ldma aminietra.tion .ba4 three yeare ot Philadelphia otticial lire. It was not, however, ahelterad in the Uorrie bouee.. .ldem.e cm:,, down from &aton ahead of his wite, 1lho had bee.n. il.l, to t'iud a suitable house tore. Pl-eeidcat. To be sure, the city and the state o� Pennsylvania, keen to the de11rab1lity ot acquiring the hderal. Capt tal., had been met hoa_p1table.. On the third ot Ueroh, l 7i7, Thocu Mittlin .bed written �o Adsms: "Sir:

makes hie stately retu•al prcaptly: Philadelphia. l!uoh, l'/9'/. lfSir:

HaYing bean out th1a a1"ter.1100D o:c. public bu.etneee (perhapa loolcing tor a houee?) it -.e. not until my return, after three o I alock, that I rec&1.Ted the let'ter that ycu did me tho honor to uite mo OD thie d�. "The roapect to the United Statee in"-ended by the legislature ot Fennaylvania 111 building a house tor the PN■ident, will no doubt be acknowledged by the trnion aa it ought to be. ('le■ this perhaps the tirat time the "Union '" bad heard or t hat hou■e?)

ID tbe :,eor l.791 the l.epa­ lature ot Pennaylvenia directed 11. to be built tor the aoo'118110daticn ot tbe President ct the United states end empowered the govemor to lease the •.ror your kind otter ot 1 t to pre:m.tsea� As tba build1J!8 will lie com­ me, in conaequeoce ot their authority-, I pleted in the ocurae ot a tew weeka. �&Y' :you to aocept my l"eapecttu.l tbanke perndt ma to tender it tor Your accom­ Propoeed Pre•14ent' e ?Jansion in Philadelphia and to present them to tha legisla:ture. modation; and to iuform you tho.t, el.­ The House In.tended tor the PreBideDt of tl:.cugh I regret the neoeBBity ot making the united stataa ":But aa I entertain great any stipulation the the ISUbjeot, I shall Fl-an tl:s J!ngravlz,g b:, William Birch l7VQ doubt a llhetber, by a candid con■truotion conaider the ren'I; tor whioh you udght ot the tn:i.1 kd states, Con.,Utution the ot obtain ell¥" other «i.1table house in Ph1lI em at liberty to acoetit it w ithout the intervention and authority •delph1a (and which you will be :Plea.aed to mention) a.a a su:tt1c1e.nt to them, I applioation IIJl1 tor time not 1a tb.•re a.a &nd Congre■■, ot COl;JpensaUon tor the uso ot the one now ottered. must pl'IIY you to apologize ror mi, to the legialature tor declining otter. the "I take th1a opportunity, S1:r, to preeent m:, congratula­ tlona upon your eloctiOll to the ottia• of ohiet magistrate ot the rtl!'or your obl.1g1ne Oc>llgra.tuletions on 'll:1Y election to the United States, SDcl to tuurure you that a■ -rsr al!I my- oonDt1tut1onal ortice ot the President ot the united States, and tor yolll' kind ae­ powers and duties e.t1SD.d 1 you may re)¥ upou a zaaloua md taithtul oooperation., as ter as your oonati'tutionsl. powne BD.d ot surancea oooperation, to adT1moe the honor, and lneure the succeea ot ;your dllt1es extend� to advance the honor and aaeure the eucceee ot 'liq adm1n11Rration. admiui■tration, I pray- you to acoept or q" beet, thanke and tulleat e.seurencee of' a :reoiprocU diapoeition on m:, p� towards the GoTer­ "I sm., Sir, with parteot respeot 8J1d e■teem. eta. nor and �tnte ot Pmmaylvania. Thoma■ .W.ttlin." •l(ith great Nli)ecta, e"to. the Prceident•elect, olao with pe,rteat respect and e&teem, round himaei-t unable to &caept the polite otte:r ot the Governor ot tho state ot Pemu,ylvania and ita 1egblature. Ue 1EI President cay already b.a.-e tound bis houea. He had alreal21 aware that he owes hie teal.ty to em.other legielatui-e, e;nd : boen hunting, we k:no• 811d. had,y been pleaaad to mention to had undoubtedly bnn keeping s Slrewd eye on ita erotiona tor upon him presented openi:as p1'08.eota "the that Boston in trite hill eolil6 years. 1:oreover he must heve knon the uncertain hold attll troublaa enough ot every kind tAJ.d thet one waa that the rents ot ot the new town ot 7iaahi:igton upon the th:rone at. Federal dignity, exorbitant.• were o1ty governmental this in mcnsiona end the eerne■t deaire ot older tolTlle to unaeat it rrcm ao dit"ti­ cul� and re,epouaible a poaition. He c culd not lend him&elt to any J'ootnote: llor We.9 thet the only tJ'Ouble. "Nothing has a price. appearance ot taTOrinB even P.hU.adel.phia md her etate; amd he Everyone aeke e:ld everyone che,te es tlllah as he can."



By mtd-Maroh a Preddelrli, & houae ie being "oleared• tor h.1D, �t be does D01 expect noh ot it; it will, Jul write• to tho :llltenne4 lbigall, be but 111-flll'll11hed, but 11:lai he •-ote to mko <>Dl3 o. •11tt1e ostabl1Bla1111t• tor hiUolf ill whioh to keep beaholor•• lulll ond will purohuo "" nioe funi 1'IINI UJ1Ul. lho oomeo do9n rrca �ney. Bo ho.a beopoke a allari<>' ud hor.., though theoe too are moat expeno1 ve ill Phllo.delpbia, ud •• hope he fbWld adequa" 1tabl­ ing ill his Pros1dentiol !Joule, his wcta 1n that d1J'eot1on be1Dg ,.,._ d"'1bted3¥ 81,aplor then tllO oeurol.••• Ti'e do not lmow 4ef1Ditel:,, it tho tu.ruUure thd had been 111lo sm,erol.•• ho.4 boon inherited by tho .I.bu w:ti by lBOO tho, 11114 acquired the n1oe f'llrn1ture in their nn'Mld haua. The lee■e ••• up on that houee 1D. zane, u4 'tho areh11sao1 end 0Cam11■ionw• build• iDg the 11!811&1.on don ill Ti'�on _... horrified to diaoovo:r tho.t th• Proaidant hoped to be ebld to move don to his nn roaidonoo that month, Be omo iloWII hilUolt· on the fburth of J\lm to J.ooll: th1nga over. The baua• TU qu11ie wiready t'or ooaupanay, bilt the orohiteot wu able to p:rom1oo to houoo the l'Nlaicleut•• ettoota "TWT oat•l-1'", aD4 in J'Wul 4111111 the:, oamo. Perhapo t!lat unt1nished houoa (""4 we llol>• a night utoman or no) �4 more thllll tul'lli_.., I'D the 8UDIIIU ot lSOO \be CoaaieaiOJLen •lent• a room 1D the Proei­ den' a house to '\;he SeveiU"Y ot stde, Yr. Maehall, wbethu tor himllelf or tar hio ottiohl -" our intonant lino -....ton, wire or 011e or tho COIDl1u10D...., doeo not tall ua, '1'hlt Beoff1;o:r:, or state ol.cmo wu llOt ohago4 w1 th the ...,oponaibi\1 or the Preai­ dont • • turuiture. That dl>t:,, ill the na1&)>borl1 early do:,• or tho ottiaial feml.J.T, ha4 _,. lal.d by ■ Oil the •ouldoro or the secretaries ot S\at:e, the Tl'eaeuz,;r1 war end He.'l'J'. or the foUl" the Secretary o� the lliny aemu to have "taken it :moat to heart.



.& COUgreaa1onal appropriation, puaed on the 2nd ot llarcb, l.78?, bad 111thoriae4 the opending or tburtoan tbouaond dol­ lars on turn1a111DS the new PN•ident•a house. Part of thia waa \o ooma tran the sale ot 014 tumiture. 'l'he net was to be anil­ abla on the lUdl!PAt ot th• Pree14ent, though the Secm,tlll'J' of the Na'l'J' 8114 hio bretllnlD nn the diaburaing ottioera. - eu:· -­ U2Ld ot th1• ha4 been opOllt -re the Pftlident ome to llal!llillgtoll: but· 1t ·- vv:, probahle that tlle turuitur,, ID bought ha4 baon ordered made, or impane41 lino• 1111Ue ot it ne 1A plaa• OD. '1&e errival or the Adm1nin:raUOll, In the •iru>I! of lBOO onother ap­ propria11ion ot tit'- - 4ollora waa mde for th• puJJ>Oa or flll'll111h111&, ot whioh the Pneidant apm te,760, Bio plbUo ao­ oounte, to our preaen1.-4ey g:riet, were not itemised:1 aD4 we aball oo].y - by rea41ng onr 111'•• J.dau ohoul.illtr ea Ille Wl'itea hH t01DDUa lsttor to her -4ll,gllter doaor1bing her new hoolae, what tho boAlkgromd ot thoao tirat• Bouoe mo11. t ha wa.s, lie l.oan vory lit'llB. dM.imy 'tbiDA• ware stolen.·, 11aQ' 1DDre broken, by raDOYal or the J.dama tiw,p, -ns th• h.,. tea-ehilla, Tho:, had 0011111 I>)' veaaela and the, were 1Dl1.0h del-.,ed, end Oeoraetown had nothillg 1:lo otter. It mw,t have ••emed hardly worth llhile to place lDIIIQ' or4U'a, the J.t:lama tenure of 111l• lh1t• Bouse they knew., to ba but throe months, Whot 1hq rOlllld ol.ree<ly 1n the house, added to what the:, had aont down nom ;>h1l.a4al.ph1a, muld do, l!'G1" State tur-

Preeident Adama th• Firet baa lett no inven.tozy; though bis son wee to be inaptred to havo one m.4e, ror our grateful de11ght, tour aclzlill.ia"tra.ttona lata:r. But J"etteraon, to�tely left a oaetul. list o� the oontenta ot ea.oh of the White liOUBa rooms at the end of h1B administration; written by- h1a own hBDd. The llouee seems splond.1dly equipped 1n. his enumeI"e.tion, though the inventory is less a:prinkled atth the inventor:y e.nd wtll adjeotive ot Rarly America. still, enough oabiu.ta and desks are elegantt enough chairs taahionable, to daZzle our senses.. The money epent tor thi• alesa.noa wee nicely huabended, a1noe it. waa not, even for that day, c e�eaeive sum,. From President Admu' appl"Opl"iation DOlll.e eight thouaand dollars had been lef't f'or J�­ t'erson to epend. .A ot horaea and carriage.a (a trif'le pre­ maturely, s1noe Jefferson ha.d to welk to his own Inauguration in co:n.seque:noe) resulted in atneen hundred more, end eleven hun4r•4 appeared out o'f an old appropriation ot 1'19'1. AU 1n all, Pne1dent .retteraon had over ten tbou11and dollars to spend the n.rn year ot hie Adminia11rat1ou. Each year thereafter Cougreaa allowed hi:rn :titteen thoueand mc,re i mt out ot that tund ceme such build1Jlg ot the house u we.s still needed, or :tOUD4 4ea:1rable. The Preei­ dent waa constrained to limit some ot hia deairea tor .t'\, even when tempted aorel.T by the deaoription of a uw tort1t-pimo lately perfected an4 ind1spenaibla in a pal.ace. Thia Je:rteraoDian inventory proT1des its own picture ot his White House� It may also be a pla:ture ot mc:h ot the prn1oue a!!ministratton be:t'ore, the Adema White, end certainly was ot the Madison house ot the acb:dniatratton at'te,- J'etferi,on • a.. It seems 110rth while to quote it, therato:re, omitting only :tale kitahen and aervice quartua 1 aDd lists ot china, silver, ate. Ml moat ill­ ventoriee do, th1a laoka aolor 1 hiator.r1 detail ot deaor1pt1on, many thing.a we should like to lmow a hundred years later. And 1t deaaribes, ot oourao, fl.U"Di ture torever vanished. ill the tashiou­ able 'black and gold aboUa, all the mahogany eideboe.rda, the ele­ gent dimity-0:urtained beds. the ehin.tzee end their corn1ces 1 evuu the precious Lady Na.ahugto.n d.ra•1118""room sat and those thirty­ tive malloge.ny ob.eire in the Greet Passage on the second :floor which raust surely have oome down £1'<1:1 "Govermnant House" in Phila­ delphie., were ,o go up in tire end amoke at '\he ha.ncle of the Britisb in lSl.4,

Northweet Corner - Lady' a Dreeaing Room. 4 Hil!ht Tabl.81 and 8 Mlhogall1 Cho1:ra. Lo:rge Boom - North Sido, 1 elegmt bedatead •1th wb.ite dWty curtains 2 Chints Win@• curta1na l So1'a 12 f'aabJ.Oc.e.ble Chairs, arinulon l!lDd Gold 2 Uahoe;any �able11• l etand. l looking Olasa l elegB11t l.a<l;r'• dreuing Tabla, 1 toilet ,r:1 th trim:IL1:oge Bn,laaele carpet on the tloor1 stool to ascend the Bed.

mture lire. J.dau baa her o1'11118on -illg-rcoa at, l.Dharite4 mm MN. W8ah.1Dgton. It was ell'lledy' twelve pus old, and. 184ly -.:).l'D 1 lilt it went.,,..,, well in tile upwtail'O OY&l. ,oom elul toond ao hand­ aoao. There alle tolloWed a alao. lire. lluh11,gton •• »- Yon Drains-room had bdD opniar•, - b.,. buebon4 holding hi.a lanes 1a 1iba- domstaire reoe:PtiDn. rocm.

,.....1Jlgton __,

The ouotodT or this earl)' 80...,..,...,.t tnruituro 1ru appar­ ently lodga4 With tlla ;>reaiilltnt hiluelf, Ro 1111thent1a· metihod ot vaaterring hi• poueH1on or ii -had been dartH4 b:, President 'l'aahington, ,md Preaidant -'4811111 whent otroight to autho:rit:, tor ill­ rozmat1011 when he wu 111:reettng hilueJ.1' or ottioe. (Jllthortty• a annar •• aa not Ja:law. ) • tJlU,t;e4 sta,ea, • • Peb. 18th, l80l.. Oont1- or the senate tDld Gentl.cen or the IIOUO• ot 110pre-tauw1: I wilh to Imo• the pleuuro or Congreaa on4 requoo1 their d:lr8ot1on o-nuns the d1opoo1t1on of the property or the lll11te4 Sktea now in 11Q" poeeeaalon, wbe\her I ahell deliver i't into the h.&4a ot the. heals ot �na, or ot the Ommlaeionara ot tbe CiV ot lfe.ahingtcm, or ot a Dcmd''" ot CODgr"811111. or 1io aur pereono Oongreoa 11111:, appo11lt, to l>e doli•orad into tho haD4s or m:, auooauor, or whether I ahall. pre1SeDt ii zv•alt to the President � the IJDitoa States on the ot llarah net. J.ny ot those llOdea will be agraoabld to .... J'CSJf J.llWS.


• &m1pt that it 41d not a4T1H Karch 4tb, - left tho cit;r that morn1J1e at dall>roak, ae clicl hio eon, John Qlaillc;r .Win hie 'tl:lm. Boweyer both de.-,rtvee were oo-tncidental. not the Nnlt ot fu117 fflita. tn both ouea there wu a ahitt 1n port:, ae all u ill Preeidsnt, Alli! botb Jettoraon 01ld Jaoaoa were epectaou!Ar oharaoten mo aeoa to haTB 1ll4ioota4 a .S.11DOl1nltlon to obaro attention on 1-ration llll,J •-rootnote: ill the earlie■t Pree1d.eDt1al ao:rre■pondenoe had th1a heading, whether the �:'84 stat;ee" were 'hmporaril.7 cen:tered 1D. !in York1 Ph11.a&l»b,1•, or Waahingtcn. 41* Yeas.ages md Peper& 0:t' tbs Prea1dant, Vol.I, b7 J'emea D. liiallardaon.

·Prealdm:i.t•a .Dressing Boca ll Chairs CriD!lon end Oold. 3 auita dtmi'Q" Win.doll' eurtaina and aomioa• l Bidet llllld a mahoge.n,:r :t"able - oommon ee.rpet on fl.oor Passage B l J. l

Adjoi? the President's Bed lbom, :t'ashionable Che.1ra - orilllaOn and 0014 lorge Malloga,,y Wor<l:robe elegant Couoh Mahogan,y ';[ind.ow stool - a BrU.asela am-pet on the tloo.r

President• s Bod RoOIJI.. Bedstead - Bed curtain& with cornioe 2 Suite ot' dimi t:y windotr curtains with cornioe. l Bu::rea.u l. dressing &. one lookit!,g Glaea l ...U ll8hogaey Table ond wash Stond 5 fashionable - orimaoD Bild gold l Window stool atutted seat &: white dimity oover 2 Mahog811J .,..h stonda 3 Prints - We.eb1n«'on - A4SP. .retter90D. a llaohine to hong Clotbee on l )lahog- fire ao:reen - BrUsa•la aorpet on the fl.oar Large Chaml>er - South Jl'ront l l&.rge mahogany Couoh 14 Mahoga117 Ohaire - crilllllOD d.emaak bottoms 2 enall l.!ahog,my sota•• covered w1th hair cloth 3 -ll Mohogan:, 'l'abloa - l !}la.. 2 SUita dimity windO\"I' OUrtalne with oornioes Lady's Drawill&-B:>om 22 Mehogony Choi n crimeon Dmask bottana 5 Orimeon. Demuk ourtsins with cornice 2 llllhOgSDY sata•■ - criDll!IOD. bot-ml 4 Oirandolea w:I. th elegant bra.ea lazzrpa l elegant. Glue Cllcclelier 2 large loold11g Glasaee. l pair Mahogany- Card Teblea 'I pieces elegant Cbiamey ornaments, a Brueaeb Carpet. Largo Bed JlDan - South Front l olagant Mehos..., bedneod, oh1nta Curtana & elegant cornice 12 tub1onabla Chalra Gold and Green 1 llshogaey cardrobo An elogont If� COlllll04e 2 Snall Mahogany TabJ.11111 & we.ah stand.a 1 lookilll! Olau and dre1a1ns Glas, 2 suite dimity Window ourtaina with cornice Brusaela carpet & wire render SDall Bed ll<>0m - South Front J. Bedstead. 2 Bada. ohinta curtains and cornice l SU1t ahinta ourte.1'08 With oornioe 5 tashione.ble Cha1ra - Gold &. Green 2 Smell MahogMl.y T ablQ■ & nab stand

12. 1 l 1 l

Mahogany aide boerd - l look:iug Glue l.!aohine tor hBDging alcthes on large easy Cheir With Ohinta cover Night Table end an e.legent Brusaells carpet

Dressing Room Adjoining the Above. a tashionable Chaire - green and Gold l Chints 1tindow curtain w1th oornice Toilet Table and aCIUll:lOn Carpet Bed Chamber - soutb East Coner 1 Uehoga:oy bed Stead, white dimity curtains, gil.t oornica 5 taahionl!lble Ohaire, Green end Gold l. S::!.all mehoge.DY' Table l!lI1d waeh Stand a toilet tab.le & dressing 3 Suite Chints window curtains with COl"D.iae ODO Right table & CO!mllOD carpet Great Pasaage on tho Second !'l.oor 2 SU.its circular window curtains. - Yellow 35 Mehogen:y Chairs - l llahogeny- Te.bl8: 2 large, paeeage Lsnp11 conm::>n carpet covering the whol.e Pr1nc,1pal stairs Cu,,et ooverinS the whole PriTate Staira & Pae8ft88 Coi..:10:n carpet and small GlobG lamp Bed .. North F'ront Bedstead, chints curtaina and cornice 6 raahionable Che:ira - black and Gold 1 elegant :Jahos:eny COI:JmOde & m:iall llab.OgaJ:IY Table 1 Cbinta Window CUl"taiil with cornice Brussels carpet Dressing Room Attachea to the Above. 6 tashion11ble Chairs - Gold and Green l hlahog- Wardi-o be l Ladyt e elegant; MahogaJQ" table washetBild oc Glass c01DDOn carpet 1 large Mahogany Table a Me.china :tor hanging clothes on a Chil.da small }.{ehog8JJ.Y bedatea.d lrith C'.lll"tain11 Bed Ohember - Horth li'l"ont l elegant J!ehogany bedstead, white dimity curtains Chin.ta drapery and Gi1t oornioe 6 t'e.eh10nable Chain ... 'blue end Gold l Uohog- Bureau & omall tabla 1 Table• dressing Olaes &. waah stand - night Teblo Looking Glass end Bruaeele carpet Dim1ty- window curtaina w1 th cornice

President'a Cabinet (state D1ning-roomJ G email iJehogany paper aasee Snell. r:eb.ogimy writing 'I'ables 3 long Mahogany Tablas covOl"ed witb green cloth 2 Mahogany Window Stools, oovered 11'1 th hair cloth l set or !.laho- stopo to-r l.ibrlll")' l Letter press, a Deak end Book case 12 Cheirs - black and Gold l sota & two 1�geny emchaira Shovel Tonge end Poker P:resident' s Sitting :Room (Red !loom) 2 elegant Girendole11 a Shades e.nd a looki:ng Glaea 2 Mentel ornemm:ta - an elebant t11D8 pieoe l Globo Inkotanll 3 Sota' is covered w1 tb black hair cloth en eleg8llt Mahogany- drink Table with a ltarbla Top l Mahogany Card Table &. two Snell Te.blee a Chinese pipe 16 taahionable Chain - blaak and Gold 2 SUits elegent window Curtains with cornice 1 elegant Bruasells carpet end tire rug Preeident' e Drawingw,Room (Blue Roan) 5 ::.iuite Ch1nts window CUrtaine: w1 th cornice 4 Elegant & Glue luetrea 1 large Chandelier and 2 Glase ahe.des 3 alabaster Chil:m.ey ornauente 2 china. and eilver ornementa a tull length picture ot General Wa.St.ill8ton - gilt u..... 4 large :U:ahogen;y- ao:t'a' s covered With heir cloth 24 te.e.bionable Cllaire - bl.ue end gold 2 lerge Mahog!!.IQ" Card Tables 2 Square �gany Tables with leaves a elegent Bruesel!I carpet - Shovel tongs-poker Small Dining Room - s. Front I Groen ll00tzl) l large llehoga.u7 I:umb waiter "" small Mahogany nimb we.1tere 1 extra lBI'ge Mehogsi:, Dinillg Table in ti pieces l small dining 'l'able in three psrta l 1.arge ?Jahogeny Square Table 15 Chai 2"111 - black and Gold 1 elegent eide board with pedoetals, o;; urn kn1:t'e OHBe 2 Cues to contain the .:::11ver end pl.e.ted •are 3 tire 2 elegant Girandoles end 2 looking Glaeaes l. Oval brealt:C' Table


S::J.all Dining Room - s. Front (Green Room - continued) 2 SUits of chint11 window curtains and oornice a eenvas tloor cloth, painted Green 2 large green cloth covers tor the dining Tables 3 large J'apaned "Wait8l"a secretary• a BedroCl':l l !lehogony boilstood &. dimity cUl-toin 2 SUita ot window curte.in9 - chinta 1 Mahogany Bureau & Stand a collll10n carpet 3 ccanon Chaira l looking Glas11 Secretary's Ort1ce (Usher• a Ot:tiae} .e large cases tor Papera 2 Suits ohinta curtains '1 Al'D!.ohaire - black &: gold l. JJ:ehoga.n:y table aove-red with green cloth l Ccm:mon Carpet, tire rug - Shovel tonss &. poker Large Untiniahed Boom - Bast End (Eaet Hoo,n) M iu,ned Cheirs black and Gold l ?J.ehogany Side Table 1 cooler l Table &. Ket1; fol" washing Tumblers 1 l.erge I>unb Waitel" 1 large Brass And.irons The Great Hllll ot mtrBnce. 2 aide Tables 2 large 1Jehogeny Tables with J.eaves 3 el.egant Globe lempo 8 fin buckets 2 SU1te Window CUrte.ina with co.mice 4 Girandoles with Brea lamps l Eight da:, OJ.oak 4 Common settee's 28 !.:ahogony Choi:re • 1th hair cloth bottoins the whole f'loo-r covel:'ed with canvass painted Green Large Dining Room - N.. w. CorDer (Private Dining Room) l elegant side b;>ard w1th pedestal.a &. Ul"D.8 2 olegent eide board COJIC.Oll l J:Mge Dumb �;,u tor 2 japened i:;late warme.ra 3 l!e.hogany knits ca.sea l Dining Ta.ble l tire Screen 2 Jepened Castors 2 plated Cendleaticks with br11I1Chea 2 :?J,gted Cendleaticka without branches � Alabeeter Chillmey Ornament• 2 elegant Gil"endolee 5 SU.its dimity window Curtains with cornice 15 tashiona.ble Chairs - black and Gold

en elegent Brussels carpet 3 tire Shovels end three pair ot Tongs SnaJ.l Room - !lorth Side (Nortbwoot Pantry) 1 pair ot plated Csndlest1 clcs With branches 2 pairs ot bras■ lsmpe 5 pair ot high plated Candlsstickll 3 pair of' Chembol- Candlesticks l pine Closet end 2 l.argo ccm:mon Tables l t'ender - tonga end Poker l CCmmon i,aiter &. l small looking Glase 2 Coal Seuttlee & a l.e.ntern painted tloor cloth 1 cOI:1IDCn curtains with cornice

19. J"Al:ES :.uJ>lSOII llOBO'll!Y PAINE TODD IWlISON 1809-lBl? The 1ofterSOJlian 1.Dventary ot rronhed State• 1\1.rniture• left tor tbe- u1• o:r the Madi■ona in the White House .ahowa th.e:t the mansion was by then thoroughly ll!!lquipped tor comtorteble end etat•� liviJJc. 1'o be, .retterecn had had still more p0aae1111iona in the housa. wfe a:re told that eleTen wagon-loe.48 ot gear (which Dist ot' course have 1110luded clothing and personal ettecta) sent aWeJ' with the Presidn.t•a bouaehold to Uontioello, With the houeehold riding Oll top. Bu.t SllDugh was lett behind ao that 8VBl1 !b-a. Madison who wa.a, as frequent hoetes■ and dii,plqar ot the White Houee1 familiar w1th its tu.11 eq_uipment 1 could not have telt aei-ioua.11" the leak ot the wegon-loada. &De tn laolr:a abe did feel, 1t appeara. comtortabl.e end stately ber lhite ma, he.Te been, but oolor ud ga:,et:r were equelly her neoesl!litiee. There wae in 180G some five thou­ aend dollars to be opont on tba l'ihito l!ouH OM titth ot that went into the President's Dr&•ing-ro01n on the State floor, to turn it ibto Mr111. Llacliaon'• clrawing-room. Ura. Upton in "Dur Early Preeidcnta" tells ue: "I aaw 1n an old ABD.O:r-bouae on the HUdaon Ncently a drawing-room: "titted u:p long ago by- its owners in e:z:aot 1m1te.t1on ot DoUy )le.diao11'■ roan ot state in the ;Jbite li.ouae, and never aince disturbed by their desoenda.ota. The stitt so.tas and many Aigh-backed eJl4 agreeably prim chl! were ocrYered wi tb e. dmaask ot auntlawer yellow; a row ot high windo•a were eurte1De4 w1 th the came stutt, md ·e.t th& "\OJ) of the hung Talnncea ot tb6 hma.ak, edged with a 1tlc>D8 and ehorl drop" t.ringe o� bite of •ood, cB11gbt into e·Utt teatoona and. continued, on rod.a, entirely eround the upper portion o1 the wall.a. A quai.JJ.t t1reboerd w1 tb the yel­ low dBI:laek fluted over it into a "rising eun tt • and mme pi6l" and oard te.'blee, completed tbe outti"t of' this raaainatina old parlor, 'llbich was ui crisp and speokless as 1t lira. uadieon•s on kean eye ha.d glanced. over it but yaaierday."

that she bad been obl1.ge4 to leaYe behind her in her f'light, and which were 1A oonaequance b\ll"ned. The liet ot govu•mnental lo11aes was never made. And the liet o-r things rescued 18 Ull.Hoognizsbly­ maeare. Then waa tho great port:rait or Central ..aahington, cut :rrom ita .trame; somis silver in !Ire. �diSOD's retioule, a tew booka, e. so.all cloolc, and "some nlvat curtains". These migb"t. have been the cri.mson laahin.gton Clll'taina :t1'<D the u»atairs dra1Dg-roam. The clock, the boots, the ai1Ter we cmmot identity. The great por­ tra1 t 1 o:r aourae, retumed to the house, end 1a JlQW to be seen ill the East Room. .4nd there 1& one other ohaming 11 ttle trell81,U'e trom the '1h.1ta House that ha.a, after a long l.ite ot advan.ture1 re­ tur.:a.ed to make hiatorie tbe walls ot the second lfhite Htnu1e. Thill i a a smell. mirror described in the chapter on Unknow JUmiture. Tbe 00111pl.eto deatz,,,otion ot oll 'the S.lll!8JIOO that hsd be bee. the Preaident• s Menl:1.0D -.a JD011me4 by its aontmi.porariea. Mr. Willlsn w1n, writin,g to his wU'e. telle her how ehe will be grievea. to ■N '$.he allha• ot " those ro<ll18 you s• ao rieh.17 1'ur­ niahocl. • Bu't the riohlT tun.iahed """"'8 ot the Second lhite llooae were w change lllODJ' U1111a ill �e oomiDg oentwy, though tliar ha'f'8 nner again obange4 to uhea. The A..dllllll roau. the J"�N'BOD roma, �e M&d.1111011 roams, re_preaenting as they dD the :t:lr11t soene of Preaidtm:'111.l drama in Waabi»gton, U"O p:reeioue in our memory, Wt OTml though we W'Ou1d 1 we could only reproduce than in oopiea, drawn t1'0JD interenoe■• It remained t� the neJ<t A<Di.nie-tion, turlliahillg th e now dhih lloueo ri&lng h<:m '\be ruins at the ti.rat Whit• House, to ua our oD.17 poH1bl8 inherituce or original. f'Um11:Ul'e, .. ot turnitUH , �at is, ct • perio4 on4 a ejyle approldmaUng thst or the houee it■oll.

Besides this lovely adorning ot hE4" parlor Mrs. Madison bouaht a pair ot m1rrora (ror the aumo or $l, oeo). Perhaps theoe went into the parlor. But undoubtedlJ' her main contl'ibut1on to­ lt'&l'd gayety aP11•ar•d mt 1D that room - but in the aoz1er Pfll"lor nut door, th• preeen"t Red Rocm. Thia waa, at, the el.egant piano-torte eo long resistsd by President Jeftereon. {who ha.d atter all hia violi.Jl to content; bimJ.. It coat Mrs. Me.diSOD. - tho United Statee, rather,- tour hundred and tltty-eigbt 4ollars, mid she ac­ quired at the aems time a guitar, ao that tami.Dine eveni.a.8• in the oendle-l11i ei tting-room must bave often been enl.1vensd by he.noony. The only other knan Madieon1en purchu•e were ot ·hb . le--• - ohina, knives, tab.le ailver. some o� this :!rs. "Madison w119 able to sa.-,e. on her t'e.m::iua flight trom the :;hite Houai, betore the invading Brit­ ish. "It waul.d tatW,Je you to read a list or 11V' loue•" ehe wrote her sister, retel"t'ing to_ thiJlgs or the Preaident•e and her own

e:i. ,Al!ES l!ONliCE ELIZA KORtRJ:Cl!lr UOIIROK lBl?-182:5 The raaurncterl lhite Hcnae, nbullt by- lEU.7, re.wne4 ompt1l7 1n tl'ODt ct tho now Adm1niatret10n. Its l' na an en0l'!D0Uo problem ror the Presidont and hie u.o1ahnta 1n tield ct choioe and 1n tfllle, and •hat he did towu-4 eal.vil>I! tho problm 1a well worth our l"eseach, .sines 1 t 81vee ua tbe hiRol'J' at the ol4eat White Bouae tu.rm.tun 'that cu poaaibly surv1Te. somehow it: is Presideut ucmroe•:s probl.em.,-n.ot ura. N0Droe 1 s. lf• had an in­ telligent wit'e •bo had been abroad and ra.ieed tire daughters thei:re... Bia two daughters were teehionable 70UD8 lad.tee aohooled. in Paris and aooustamad to its :tine boW!lee. He ha.4 a Colonel, a friend or hit, :ror an advisor and purohuing agent; he had purohaeing eae:n,.te abroad and tinu 1n Philadelphia to oall upon; ho had the house vchi"teo"t "to oouuJ.t • th Aim, and he wa..e b.1luol.:t a "TUJ' buey men. But aomehow 1 t :Nmaina .Prea1den1i. JIOnroe' a problmn. and hia :tu.mi ture. However, thst •ea not Ullll8u.el. to hie time.. Waahington we know took the moat 4et.a1le4 intereat in hia vmoua houeea. Batore be moTGd he sent met,iculous inetruotiou 1io hi• ageute where ,1n.ry piece of tumi:\ure wu to go. All4 he wl'Ote oarettll 4eacaip­ tiona ot tbe articlea he or4ered t1"01D abroad, throu&}i hia tr1.en4a, giv 1ng hie ree.eone f'or prete::rring certai.D :materials e:nd epec1f':,-1Jlg 1Drkmanship like IUIT bouael<eepor. All Virginia gentl-n did; on4 it the "I" ot the ordering letters did ocmault the t� tirot U doo.e not appeal" in the orcler. 0D8 110uld like to think President lloDroe had a good t1ma about it, but that doea not appeu either.. Here ha waa, w1 th tm :r1rst Rouse ot the aountry to arrmige, -.1th $20,000 appropriated b7 Oongrasa, wit!. the cul'turel taste and praot1ael baokgrowi4 to lcn.ow just 11!1 at h& wanted and ho. to get it. BU.t he aeems to haw telt only a sense o.t hurry. (1fhe lb.1 te Bouse haa e.J..-qa been 1"Ur­ Dished in a hurry. The t'irat of the season always comes ao soon, lcmg. bet� Abi&ail A.dmu' cup■ arrbe .trm. Boston, or President. 10.hneon•e Gaugbter•e JIOClll oarpet 1e'4o■n, oz,- Yr-e. RooaeYelt has her turniture npholateredl) 'l'be � 8Dd plaster •as not yet dry an hie wall.e,-he would not lot bis lU.izabe'th, hie Horteua1a1 hi• littl.e Ilaria oou up trom Oak Hill 1n Virgillia to ao 1mllllol.eooD18 a lllillSl.e4 •--­ p,here of paint md malaria, - betare he had hia agents estimate hi• neeaa tor turniture, 111:11• he ma�rl out the reaou:caa. After all l!onroe wee e.n engineer end a mill te17 man and took thinge With the proper aeriou.sneaa. There Nre four poaai ble aouro•• ot tu.mi'ture. Tl» best, tor the intomal. I wu to he.:.-e it on tbe plece under his OWD aye. All Virgin.ta, ot oourae ,. ,re.s used to, end. to ordering pieces b-.1 their -tavorih cabinet 1t11.kel' tram. a pattem or a deaoription, much e.s we would order a dreae. But th&'I would take t 1me, and time President Monroe 1aake4.

There were makeahit'ta and lott-ovore ot :rurniture: in the temporary the Ma41eorta had used during the retugee monthe ot their term, picked up at auctions or bou,ht seoOJld-hend.. hen the oh.armed g1H1ta of" the aooiable Dolly Mediaon had. notieed the;t that �i"W.N was sadly inadequate. Neverthelese the aonac1ent1ous :new Pruidtm.t aent hie es•� over there t o teka a caretul list. '!he egent oeme back ritb tba list, his head. TbeN waa in 11r. Madiso:n I a rttrnitlll'a "110 i-eeOurae" • be reportll!ld, tho\J&h he &%plained that •as not due to Madison.t a ta.sta t - but the rell!lult ot the rortunee ot war. E't'en the silver that !!rs ;dadiaon had carriecl a.way 1D her reticule had. been lsaen:tably b attered, ui that trenei't or l1!1.1ier. A pieoe or two ot 'lt!.e 41JUAI roam mahog8DJT might be selvaged for nn houN, bu:t all 111 el.1 there waa r•el.17 not reo0urae .. The third aouroe was Kr. !6onroe•a own :turuiture. B.e bed late� 11 ved in Washington aa Seoretarr ot State and had a houee­ t"ul ot tun.iture, mah ot it trom l"ranoa where he had a.oquire4 most ot it t'rom hia predeaeHor at the .£mer1ou. Legation. .i.a the seuon loomed aloev on a White IJouee ampU:cy, thzou8h all ita high roams, his own tul'n1ture .am.a"t bll.Te looked like a l1teaaver to tbe President. For i,amanonay it would uot do pel', and undoubtedly h s woul.d W8Jlt to keep 1t bimselt, -tor Oek Hill: bu.t to sell 1t to the Gov-erm&ent at an ottioial a_ppraisal and to � 1t back later, w1th due allowance -rar depreciation (made l!!lso on government ap­ pn.ieal) etruc.k him. as au •xoell.ent temporary eolution.. 'l'he dee.l wu conolu4ed and hia houae in Georgetown waa emptied ot 1ta tur­ niture, ena all the pre■ntab� lm'Table• or .b.11 effabliahmsnt that wotlld d.o t'or the Pl'i?ate �artera ot tbl White HaUBa, were brought d.own.1• gil� cha.ire au:rved like nan•a neoka, with aph1n.x ams end llon 1 a al•ws, Mra. Jlonroe•a little .&ator .torte p1ano 1 high old :rourpostera end a litt.19 oberey bed tor 11he Jie7 grendahild, card. tables and ooneoles, aotaa and tee. tabl••• •a.ahatanda and wardl'obee. But there na 110 queetion. Ut to d.o tor the state Parlor•. All polite .Amer1aa sen.t abroad 'for ita par.lor furniture, to 3nglend. i:t one mat, to Paris it ona possibly could. The government•a lu"t aonta.ct with Engl.and hu been 111.etiAotl.y UD.pleaaant. Its eontaot with Franae was still cordial. Mr. D>Jll'Oe biJnae� bad his own plea­ ■an.t oontaota in Paris.• Re prepare4 a lilt imDediately • o-r such state tUl'"n1 -ture e.e •ea needtul, oerta1.nly w::lth the help of" hie Nn York wlte end tbat :pair of bristiteyed dauShters, on• of 11bom wea eoon to be the t'irat White Houaa bride,- and sat d.OWD expeatsntly at'ter requeatill8 hie agents to hurry. Th• aa:enta hurried. one sees them hurrill& up and down -the cobbl.ea or Paris, Kr. J..\olU'O•'• ezplioit in.struot1on1 1n their bands .. il'.He had been the Xini■ter plenipotantiel')" ot the united. States or AJmrioa1 though they had addressed him there si.l:IJJu7 as tb.e Citizen Jmes Monroe.


nuoleua ot hezi Bose- Dre.wins-roam.. b dieocv-ery ot their birthright as Early Federal originals aaaurod their aa it dnelopod into that biatorio "Uollroe• 1"00i11, Those aot'as are the ODly pieces oZ .t.tJnroa!o :manu.tacture nm, in the house. .Bu.t there is one pair ot hie ornaments that unlike the root that surrive tor our dolight ware bought Oll.2 1n Amerioa., not abroad. These us the two heavy 11h1te !11.m'ble 0113 busts no• on eo�te pedestals a-t the entrance ot the Ohine Room, at the toot ot tho ata:J:ra 1n the Ground 0orr1aor. Olle is ot Cbriatopher ColUlD.bua l!l1d one- ot J.merioue Vee_pueoius. Botb once belonged to George We.shiDBion. a.t Mt. VeJ.'DDn. How they had come io hlJO "" do not knO'W. Perhaps he ordered them hl.meolt - we ha:v<I a deJ.ight:r:ul list of: ln,B1;9 ho aoked a triond to buy tor him abroad as sundry orneme.n'ta to:r hie chtam&y piece. The:, we:re to be, Caesar,. Oh.arlea XII ot SWeden. and the nng of P-rU.eaia, eaoh :f'itteen inches b.1£b. and ten inehea wide. There was to t,e a. snaller Pr.I.""" Eugene and. the l)uke ot llarlborougJ,. * And,- lighter touch among so august e. m1Utar.v aasl!'l'Jlblegal-- t.110 Wilde beeates not to exceed twelve inchoa h1gb nor l8 inch•• in length. J!& "'11!ht quite

Plato a.I, »omoe sota lM-165


tc, be tlnishedi ond as it plainer eud plaiDor 1.bat that "benquett1ng hell" was to be lett untiniahed, the eotas mi8;ht neve2" have been upholstered. If' these were tbe Boom sot'as, they were nsvm- oampleted until 1889, 'tllhen President .raalcson ta L.. V&'I'on end co. of Phil-adelpbia, entirely tiniahed their ma­ hogany work aud atutted and covered tbem .-1th blue 1111atin dan&ek. They must then have been part of the that earned oon­ teml)Oral7 preise when 'the l!lut Boan wu .rormall.y opened, and tha papers applauded that "no.- """"7 pla!.n Bop11bl1oon 1'111 """ find a ee..t to eit do,ra on in 1:ll• Eaot Boom - all gc,od sound Bapublioan turniture."

•In that day in wbioh every tnentel with any :pre-tent1ons to fes.hion had its bust or pe,1:r ot blet11 t a contemporary acoount tella ue that the -favorite eubjeots were Caesar_. .Alexender the Great, Prince Eu.­ gone, and the Dul<& ot W•Ui,igton.

Tho eo:t'u' lateJ" lU'e 1a as misty aa their t'irat posi­ tion. They might hon been 'two ot tbe "),on-Wine oolored mahog­ lllcy' turllituro• of th& I.iMoln parlors, that .-. onJo,, hoor ot 1.hrough the voice ot a visitor mouming the11- departure. Perhapa- they did not depart frol!i the house, but lll&rel,T c ems upataira e.tter tbe mid­ oentu.ry ta.ah.ion ot the ove:r-old, and were the flJ'ranch l!IDf'as" urs. C.rant has in the 11'eat end lending ot h�r new G:reud Steil"lrey. They nre certa:1:nl.y more "F.ronchtt than eny ether sate. we know that �a. Grant hadl They ore upoteira wh&n •• :1'1ro1; idsnttty th,.. aotuoi.i,, cy Uh• �l>llio Oarriela, 1100 NIU8l!lbore them oloorl.J, in - tBlliJ.y librar:, - the aec011d tl.oo:r oval Roam. They there still when ?!rs. Roosevelt inherited,- ac.d ahe hermoni:zed them with her more w:,dem drawiDg-roa:a t'Un11ture 'by a cover o! wool tapestry. Binoe they have s:riteir;n1aly adapted tbe�elves to eny 00101"-ecbene that the OVal :Room has taken on - blue tor t.:re. w1...son, rose tor �.!rs. Coolicl,!!e.

Plate llB Maker•s Signature OD !!oJll.'Oe SO:taa

.Beinz rnse still 'IC.en ::rs. Eoovor aoquirea thet:t, they � went natt11"el.l.7 "1th theil' eooompanytng rose OUl'taine to tonu the


well have sent also 'f'or the bl.teta of' the dia­ ooverere of his country. They might, in c ege ill which the g1VinQ: o-r busts was a :tavor-­ ite tom of :remembrance, have been presented to him b:, a friend. Ill either case t-hey- lllQ'" -.ell have came eD.r).y enough to have been &hip­ ped rtth other poreonolio. :tram Mt. Vernon t o the Prasident• s Rouae 1 11 Philadelphia. and thence "t;a Jdt.., VernoJ:L so �ey woul.d have been in otticial surroUndillga long betoro ll!l?. If' that were tru.e, the;y would be 'the only u-ticle.e now in the lfhite House that had ever been in one ot those ee:l"lier mani,ione.

1n such matters, 'be bav1ng purchased, e:rter the govemman.t was burned, 111 th the ame.J.l sum al.l01Jed1 oDJ.y acme second-hlmd tumiture 11he1"8Ye:r he could get 1t 1n&rel.y for the moment. lle proceeds to of the state ot the earpet and o.f the tab.lee, chairs, end bedsteads wb1oh he a7as have been ao long in use as to be tit only for s.ervant•e roOlllS. But hia next sentence baa interest;

Pl."eeident .Monroe, honver, bought them llOt tran !-£t. vi,rn� 1taelt. OD this death ot the General. and Mr!h ihllhi:ogton, they had oamo into the hando ot l!J". :e. L. I.eaJl-7 trom whom the President lJUl."Ohased them.. The$e two heroee 11ent one - the eo1umbu.Z1 - to the YelJ.ow Drawing,,-rooa wa■ rurtller oma­ mented by the hou11a•a ont!i p0rtra1t, the reaauea. stuart ot George 1t"esh1ngton; and the veepuooiu to the :tergo whooo only ornamoot it was. A third bust, a. bronze o-t General 1t'aah1nFton himeelt, purahesed at the aam, time end ror the asrne price (01,00. ee.oh), end placed in hi& 1!lll1pt.1.oal <lro1,ie-:room bu disappooroll under the fccrgy curtain ot: the YB8.l'a.

J.pparently these te-.- ld"e.d.1BOll. chairs were handsQJl.8 e:nough and stllrey enough to be patterns tor the now dilling room ohairs at th& 11gc>Ternm.ent ho1lse. 11 We find them again aural.y­ in a bill :rendered that same ;year by u. Rene de Perdreauville, .Pbiladelphia' s moe"\ t'ash1on­ able upholater@, who repairs eixt:een m.e.bogauy ohairat oampli!!te, tor eiirteen dollar&, end alters twent, mo-:re and. covers them with hairalath,­ both i tame liffld on. the bill nen to a aharge ror a pair or ailling room tables. It sounds er-edible that the twenty-aix chairs ot the Molll'Oe d1D:1llg room W'el'e the littl.e Madi.sons cd ihoir oopieil t and it intel"eDUn,g to trace them. dc,w;n the year.a.

:;one a:r:,arently- -.ere .inan. tel orna­ ments, since all these mctels had their 1'ash1onable J"renoh clocks and match.big cendelabra. Probab1y they were console -ornaments, -flemked IJT the Periaian poroela1n uma,



"All we oolleoted wan a f'n chairs tor the dining roOJ11 whioh were repaired to ac­ oord IJ1 th new ones that ll'ere ordered. "'

Plate :; IYashinston-=• Buets Col� l'lo, 0113 Veopuociua l'lo, Olli! Portra!.t of Sarah Yorke J'aelcson b)I' 'Ullkno1m ettor Earle

ffhen they were removed. we 00 not know; -.e 1"1nd them up­ ate.irl!I in the Gran, Libre,ry and qU.1 te pauibly they BU.pplanted dOwnataira by crs. Grantta bronze Greltks and B0nume. Perhaps they were soma o:t tbe Neta !.:ra. Cleveland reaoued wit:h a brid.e'a Glee land a acbool.•girl•a recogW:tionl) tram the att.ic. They have come and gone since 18l? at the beheat o-r t'uhiont aB lDD,rbl.e Ra"tuary was or was net appro-vad.. Bu'b- eventually they t'oUD.d their way to the t.:aK:inley Grand Corridor, upon red pl.uah pedestal.a (vary oircus­ like 1n geyet7}. And at the:, have come to remt in the houae1a one e._pproach to an historic gallery. the Ground 00:rridor,- remind­ ers to h1:.::a who oaree to read � their proud poe1t1on. u the only WasbJ.Dgto:o.iena in the house .he dffeme4 o'f, and nner dwelt in. �e second source o� �.!OllrOe t'Urniture wae the residue fl-cm. the tomporsry house oaoupied by the re� Ue.diaou. The ngent who went to look it over was 11ot impreeaec!. "D>. the turni:tur9 of the house cc<tUpied by President !"adil5011 there we not recoursett Colonel \Hll1sm Lee a.saured the Congreas1onel OOtmdttee i:D.terested

They ue:z:t appeer in the dining roan in President .Adams• inventor,r,. still .;1th "hair­ cloth covers" (one broken), and there we lose eight ot them until I.inooln•s time. Rawsver, as thero wu no drastic revision ot the sta'te D1n1ng BoOBL throughout 1.hat period, ... lll8J' atUl be aure ot our lb. IJ.naoln•s time there were thirty-six mahogany dinillg room oh.airs; and .. e know exactly what tb.ose chairs were like. We know, too, tb.a.t we still have eighteen ot them, aare­ f'u.l.l.y aheriahedt though they have :not been. a nt since 1902. Till then :rate preserved thea iibrougb. many ot the haznrde that beset White House furniture 1n the nineteenth century.

The state Dinillg :Room was completely" itnioder:nized• atter the Civil War, but the only lQOdSl"llizi!Ji these ehaira received waa a new oover or dark-green leather. Twenty-yeera later en.other up­ heaT-8.l. threatened them, when President .Arthv•s state D1n1llg Rocaa tmportod t.-1111,y-tour stitt-backed choir• from l!..- York, But the anall Madison ehail'a haVe one aa.v�grace, �ey are elegantly small Slld they take leaa apace tor tnoN euena than i:DQ-re tuh1one.ble »at­ tSl:'D.s. Iue to or their 0lr1l cham.. 111 l88l. they went to the :Private Dining Ftoom around the new Arthurian table thel'e. Probably -they mre then re-covered, eiuoe we eee them in cont811Ip0rary pic­ turoa 1n leather deeply indented in the dia:mo:nd pattern Arthur

have admired, since he 011cn! it lav!alil.y in J1a library turniture.. Here in this roo:n they �teyed :for t•e.nty-nioe yeara. Rren t.he Roo1111vel't arobttocia, intent on e.chiniDg a Colonial b&clr:,61"0und in the sta'k :tloor end diecerding to that end all the old ·,rhite House turniture then in 'the :rooma, aeem to hue :tolt the quality - though it wee incognito - ot these little true Colonial. beautiee. Th97 were not sol.d B.l!I wu moat or the old state t'Urniture, bu.t were sent to ■a:r'e:ty upatairs, red.reseed in a variety o:r' little coatumea to match TarioW!I chambers, blue tor t.h,. blue bedroa:I in the southeal!llt corner ot tbe houae, pink brocade tor the correapon.ding room acroH the blllll.. some were avan. done 1n leather 1'or the President' a atudy - aama went into wool tapeetry !or !Ara. Booeuolt'a drawing--:room. ill colors they have remained to thi■ de;, and in aa many rooru. Bu1 wherever 'tlle7 are e..nd whatever Yal"ied duty they perform in 228-31 the gentl.e •,q ot woll-b:red :turniture,- •hether at '4-411 • dealt or by a tea-table or besida • lo»& bookoue, 21�17 or ready to aane a lady � her dl-HaiJ:lS table, 192-807-2'77 they are atUl a sl.aie:r-hood, - still daliaatoly 156-160 thmuel'f"es, Pleiadea-taahion, and thare ia no othu galu:y quite like them.,. anau, supartioially the familiar Qu.•en Anne dido chair ot mahogmy, they h«Ye an unu•ual hBU't­ ehaped b£t11k encloeing uphole'tery 11.ks the Welah q&ieen Annes. Theoir e:raat 1a a pl'lir ot tlat oarred ro see holding a spread rxt carved ah$ll. The little old shell-carving id.entitied them tor zcany yeare to tbe household llbo re:rerred to thsn aa the "!'an­ backa. "' Soue or t he 11 ttle tGJlO t,ave been brokan ott and loat. But the eishtsen, one hopea, have won a place tor tbaneelTe11 in t.he house now that by :right 11'1.ll never be die;iuted,- nor •ou1d or.e care to dispute them. '!'hey ere a diaa.ming tsnily. vne would rather. re-recognizing one of them suddenly, approve their pres­ ence with a touch of reeognition 1ma a " o� doTOtion." one other rmJ.inder ot the Ue.d1!1on housee may retnain i n t h e . .h i t e House also. In Colonel tee•!I rel)Orta ._ . r e a d tJ::rn.t he salvaged a :tew otber ut:1olea from tho Kadieon eetabliahinent. jmang them was e. -pair or, which were ple.ced, like the ohe.ire, in the state Dining Ro<ID. 45'1--458 •• allould like to be able to 1>onT1noe oureelvee that -.e have tho•e Mad1aon. pier-tables etill, in a DOW in. th• Ground Corridor. Ths7 are o:r T81'7 heavy .me.bogsny, •1th tron.t eup­ parte of carved e98lee with bent hea4a, baoked by a mirror, end topped with whito marble. They are interesting or trane-1tton turnitW'e I th1 nwiaive Enlt>ire linaa li8btened with a deli­ cate band ot ornamental inl.ey around the .mirl"or. Nothing deacr1pthe 1• extant cf t h e li!adiaon pie:r-teblea except that they were marble-top•� The inYaluable .Ldems 1.1Yan.tory a&lla them two oonaole-tablea, marble 1;ope t am. by Jntorence they L""'e mahogany to match the reet ot the IIOnroe dratrilla-l."00I:l tul"Jli They ee:em not to have laated in place u long e.a lit­ tle chaira 1 since they are in the Private Dining Room ill Proei.d ent Lincoln' s tm.e. They were q.i.1 to. maaei •• enough to bear oomper iaon 1:oa. 228-31 see Plata .UII �ioa,. 192-20'7-2'1, see Plate XIV

with the 1Jzm9nss Victorian aideboar4■ later their companion• i n the Private Dining f10om, to which tact, undoubtedly I tl:l&y owe their con­ tinued :?lece.. Naturally they left tbe:t roam w!len a was recouet:ru.c­ ted 1D. 1903, but :.:re. lboseTelt comnendeered thect tor library, cd tor thirt7 years they lived upeteir■, in lib:%'ar-J. e1tt1ng-room and hall. hol41ns; ■te.tuea, nae.e, pbc,tog:raphe, anything bu.t the ■11ver t:ai.tera e.nd i,lattere ot thDir youth. N01r they he.Te retired to the parade ground ot the public OOITidor, holding Orent bronze•, and they mirror the passing feet o� to4ay 18 aigbtaHre, u ono• they mirrored tb.e 'f'laahing Jenee and ehoobuckle■, the delicately ruttl.ed akirt-hema and tied aliJlpere ot J"em.ea Monroe•e bidden gueet11. Ground Contd.or

Pla'\ie 4 Mad.1eon•J.1onroe. OOneole 1t0 .. 45'1 Gl'llD't Broll-ZOii 01' Monroe•a own f"urniture, dcm.eetic-bought or imported trcm Fre.noe, there ie none lett. some, h01f8Ver, haa returned. in taos1m1lo,- copies ot the 1're.noh-111ad.e rurni ture he bought trcm the »nbasay in Puts. Tbat 1• another storyI told in the chapter on the Hoover Admin1Dtrat1on. ':te hove B110ther pair ot oonaolee beeideo the :i!adieon dio.1n,g room pe.11' tbat. aN elao undoubtedly Monroee Theao are 1lll-

No. 44-45, iiee plate 43 1 Roosevelt Noa. 156-60, eee Plate XXIV


ported, though not pert ot the tm:oue Pe.r1eien l!b.1:pment, coming with two others - loDg Taniehed. - tro:n Legb.orn, ltaq, for the Monroe Hall ot Entl'BDoe. Why onl.J' two should remain to ua 1s a 'llhi te House myatary. Perhaps the otbor two were more easily IQOVe4 than theee. Thi11 pair ia marbl.e - each a lovely high table with two supporta only, the back• b•ing let into the well, their colu::m.a carved grace:tu.lly with acanthus. Their hall duty 111eema to have been tor the oou.Tenience ot guea.t111 who might wish to "reet their wraps" in the entrance hall at the solicitation o t snal1 eager colored atten4anta, i n 11Tery, whose uma , however •11l1na, Dllat eoon have beau over tilled. Tllo ooneolea, e.-t a leTee, ha.Te been very ••lool:18 by February ot lSl.9, whon tblly a.�1Ted. Years later "the two :r1ne Iteliena moTed into tbe 1DDer corr1aor 1 eat into the wall on either elde or the Blue IEcm. en.t­ ranoe. President Grant liked tham encugh to move them to the weet oorridOr, beside tba Grand hair-oue put 1D u.a.der hie engineer ing f/flll• There they atoo4, between the loug oroaa hall and the wei,t wing ooneervatoriea, uutil tho RooetJTe1t reoonatruatio:n bani�ed the conaenatory and the Grm:id we■t atairoase, end. turned the hall into part ot tho State Dining Bocm. Then theae "two ooneolea, a.lWQ"■ in.ventoried u su.oh and aa JJ10Vable tUl'Uiture thou.ah their balanoed marble looks like a oarvl!ld at:ructuN in0100 tegral "1th the wall 1 tselt, were moved.,. Ono waa ple.oed in ita present poa1 tton in the htranoe Kell, on the 1efi ot the entrance to the state D1Di!l8 D:Xlm. holding the old J.tcmroe oen.del.abra under the portrait ot KaXinl.ey. One we.a placed coni,ole re.ab.ion in the ne-.--tu.rniahed Green Boom, between the ,r1Jldow■.. lfhen the Greem Room wae redeco­ rated i n 192.8, "a■ Presii!ent Monroe might have done it" t 0145 by an irony ot !'ate the one authentic lfonioe piece wae not in a oondition to in place. The marble al.ab ot its top bad been cracked in 011e of' ita adventuNe ot aerrtoe e.nd bad had to be covered with an amaohronistio <lrapery ot brocade. It waa bani!lhed, brocade and all, and t1Dally ome 1x> peace in the Ground Corridor. The tCDDua tul'lliture :rrom Pari■ tor the State Rooma t forgotten though it waB tor many year•, 19 ot all the early White House :po111seeeione the eaaieat to re-diaooYar,. The agent.a, Kesera,. Ruaael an4 La J'orge ot Bordeau encl Paria, deaorthe it ao oare­ tully t J.Dd they deaor1be 1 t more than once - ttrat •hen in a ot agitation not unk:Do1'D. to e.genta they hope to impreaa the president with their zee.l in tollowina hia ,rhhea (,rhere tuhion­ able}; and eeoond wben they oouip the p1eoea to the aere ot tho :;aster ot the Te■eel, C@taiD J"owett, who na to take th.em to .lmerioa, along w1th a ce.retul plan tor hanging tbe curtain.a. Moreover, they gin not only quality encl ornementation 'but ]Jl'ice and diJDenaiona; and the inorc,dul.cua today oan roaaeure thmael...-0111 with a ruler whether a oertein c:onaul i• "Monroe" o r not. Me.D¥ ot than were aate but obaoure in the Gl'OUnd noor oi- in upe\aire bedroome; the han.deCGo "mu.,...S:1lt" oontnporal'7 f'Urniture ot the Oval Room wu blue sid as te:r e.e memorie■ fllff al.way& had. been. It ha4 picked up odd companion& o:r' the tortiea end sixties. The

etx mantel \ll'J111 were loat in a ooapany' or twe1ve. The aurtout-de­ table had become "Dolly Ke.4.1110:n!I." &.t their deacr1i,t1ona we:re adequate to 1itt them ea:tel;r rrom the renke to the ot bonor­ eble entiquity as "original.a.� So:119 pieoea, ne.tuhlly, have be&A loet. lloat ot' the maho&au, State turniture trom F.ranoe 1'or "the Sitting :Roor.i 414 not lat:t even its twent:, yeare:. 'I'he piano wae exchuged by J'ackeon. The conaole waa, e.warontly, aold by Veit, ltil't>n. Bu.t one preoioua he1i-loom trom that old aUting-room o� cur t'iret travelled Preaideut remain., - h1a round table. We recog­ nize it aa the "one elegent gilt-mounted 111rcular table, mal"ble top" ot Preaideut AdPlB' 1nvantol"7, taken attar the Monroe depart­ ure, a deaoripUou unuaua.LIJI' Terboao t'or a Uew Eogl.lllld. gentl«un. Preaicient Monroe•s agents who b<Nght it are even more dat1n1te. They haTO, they, sent hill "a round mahoeSllY' ta'ole wt th three columnar R.1.pporte on a triengle eocle, the capital aDd other orna­ mon.ta 'oeillg ot OU"Ted and gilded bronze, end ita top ot white marble three snd a Ael.1' tei,t in diameter." So vivid a deacr1ption 1'10 might hne betrayed a leea aohooled t'er:nily than th• Monroe• a into the game ot pleoing that three md a he..l.t teet in ditterent oolpa o:r' adventaga in. the Yell.ow Drawing-room. or their new pal.eoe. BJ.t PNaid.ent Monroe had aeon end knOwn and admired lbp1re roomo. Re had bimllelZ brought awer trom Jira.nae a eat ct drawing-roan tur­ niture al.moat T1olently J:mp1re in design - aome at which can etill be 111een in hill Virginia la• ott1ces 1n Jrederiokaburg. Tbare could have ))eon no que■Uon that tho lovely table ahoul.d grace &D1' po!11t1on but the center ot the J'OOQ. so tlle Sitting-room oe:n.te:r-table it beosme - the tirat and longest lived ot the oente.r-tablea in tJla.t pleaaanteat or all tbe staie rooms. It aeema to he.Te held 1ta pl.aae tor haJ.t a oenturJ at leut. Pl'Obabl,y 1.ho round marble-top table in Preaident Grmt•a Red Boan (whiob waa Preaidant Monroe's Yellow D::rawtng-l"Oam) ia this eu1ne throe columned. Beman-French. some one erter GraD.t, howner, eeema to have etored tbb table, einde Usher Pendel l1ete it in hie remtniaoenoe• as a table "unearthed" by Prc,sidant .Arthur. .Perhapa it wee in the beeement. The basement •ae no dl!lllighU'ully hospitable gallery tor the stroll• 1ng public in the days ot President Arthur t but a catch-all tor the houaehold ata:f't, ita equipnent, and suoh odd11 e.nd end.e ot lef't-over turu1ture aa did not happen 11> rise to tho attic. Perhaps 11.a de­ acen.1; ,eyed it trom those indstati&ably busy Arthurian packers who sent twenty wagon-loade ot turn.111,1n to the auot1on room., and. who thereby gave houaeholdere a otatiatio wberewUh to ourH them forever m:,re. Surely the unearthing and p:rc,aervillf!: of' that one treaeure ebouJ.d weight 1n the aoalea against one wagon load? Bowner. tbh timo thei Elllp1re table did not return to the Red Parl.oure wu, tor Arthu a cherry-wood and tile ena=.blo more up-to-date tabling; this aligr,tly old•t'aahloned article (probably the eightiee tound it quaint, though claaeiol went acoop1iauly 1n tbe long me.111 hall 1 bebiu'1 Tittan,"' • beautiful Goth1o-•indow oolorod glaaa ao.roen. we ab.ouJ.11 tind lozonge111 o:r

30. thei:J' tact.. �e agents had baazi a 11 ttle apologetio in tbair ahip­ ptng statement about those c1ocks, aince like Presidet Monroe'• 1rash1llgton agent, they he.d found little re course.

bl.ue and green and or:lmaOn light aoJ'OU ita pu:re round marble top a little quaint. ouraalvee. But we ere beyond wl'da g:ratetul. to the Arthur deoorator11 1 tor eaTing 1t. And to the Hooaevelt deooraton, who aent the up.tatra to Hr■• Jlooaevelt•a .library and room, the oval aouth-w1Ddowed roam that hu beard the qw.n voicea ot ao many miet.reeeoa •boTe their t...-oupa. IJmoat thirty yeva aner 1te aae�t to the pr1Tate floor, the Nonroe tabl.e t"oUD.4 ita proper place. It ia mnr 1n the mnall aouth room. that wae the s ltting-:room. of' Kra. Monroe. an exact duplioate, etruoturally, or the Clll'd Boen ot Monroe directly beneath tt. !l'bia roam :wu later tor :ma117 :veer• u cttioe r,oeptton room, a oabinet room, a P.rea1dent1e.l etud1', and. now again a led;r' s drewlng-room elightly more tomal than tho lovely airy --lllld-go oval - ita neiahbor. In tllo\ •-•pllere ot ohaming d181l1ty tho lbpire table dro- in the 1!1"1188aoented. aott sou'ch wind trom the Potc:nao, holding ita oan.dl.aa end its old leather booka� tta ailva bowl• ot roaea aD4 it■ :tan, a.a i,erheps 1t did 1<>118 ago when tho White lll>uao wu ,, end ito llliatreea opened its door, to her world, eager to lmo• that she ud her rrench table weN io be appnwed...

•we had &Nat dirtioul:ty in getting p&utulea without nud1:t1•••" tbaJ wrote," ad were in te.ot toroe.e to take the two models wa have bought on that aocount. • The 'two models might bave been 1im1 te4 in what their l!".1-anch aonq,erea oalled ll!!IUjeta de pendulea by the home taste, but tbey Nre mch in the mode - that mode o:r the newly ingenious eloe:k­ aakBr •ho •as nmk:1ng hia diel.t'Me pert Ct' the at.ruotural deaiSD, o� the alook 1'hel1'; tlll4 1hat O.estgn, GNek or Rmml, and re1'leotin8 tho lite ot tile batUetield and the oamp. Tbe pen­ 095 dule tor the onJ. Room ( still. i n ita modern counterpart tbe al,.ue Rom) i.11 a bronze :tigure ot Kiuena, perhaps in its graoet'Ul end sweep ot line the lovelleat ae well u the oldest clock in the houae. Tbe Par1e agenta, lleaera. lbl1Hell end La !'erge, deaorib4i Uull: It 1a "a olook repreeentirtg Xinena leaning on a shield, the shield oontaini:ng the �ace end •o:rks, aten41.Dg; on a square bas1 1 the :rront nnd a ides ot wh1oh are deaorded with m111tal'3" trophies, the whole being carved end gilded."

ne S1t�room and. Card room tu.rn1tura sent f'ram. Paris ware Empire in :teaU.11g • the tuhion ot classic lines, and .rioh.lJ ailllpJ.e ornu.ant o't braes bindinge cd wrought me4alliona, and amoo"th mahosaIJY an4 1119:rble eurtaoe. The, o.rn.em.enta to aaoampaDJ them were bigbl.y COl"NOt, also, 1n this new eobool the.t had aurriTld ! The a&ent111 &hopping iD Pal"ia 1111gb.t he.Te read a mod.em deooratil'e ao­ count or an Empire room., ao taithf'ul. were they "to tta beheate:

.And the llhol.e coating rr. 2,000, end aade bf Thamiere and Cia, who waa one ot the t.wo pr1:noipal. metal ahuera o:r the era.. It is also, by a slip ot tradition, a clock ot legend. Genereti.ons or Whitt Rouse vieitora have kDDw 111 ae the or !fapol.eon brought to Mom-oe PY' I.ata:,ett11. Thie ie almost ioo cham1.D&lY mosa-groft a tradition to OYerturn, impl'Qbeble though it be, e:xcep'1i that in this oue truth bu Blmost u rich a mosa, and the l!inorve. ol.ook d.uenea 1ta om truth..

"The 1nd1spena1ble :turni�re is, 1n the middle of the roan a heavy round table w1 th oar:,atid aupports end a marble or por­ phy:r:y" top, along tbe wall. coneolea on 0SZ7atida 11114 �itted with mir­ ron, .. 1D one ooner the piano t'ort1, a rare and coatly novel.ty. on the mentel pieoe would be a timepieoe, aooompanie4 by two aeryatid l)Blldelabra and two vaaea ot antique made of whit& pOl'Oelaiu with go1d deoorat1on end a painted med.all.ion., and on the oonsole tabl.e still mre Greek TU ea. " The decorative tndispenaiblee the agOI1ta D&Deged, tboU&h the praotioable iDdi•peuaiblea of cbaira and aotu end tablee to:r these rooma were lett to domeaUc mmutaoture. One hopes the M:m:roe t-17 dignity allowed 1t to b- abon the openi1111 or tbs lleaV7 wood.Bil boxes. peering into the 1Q"stariou11 l)aOJcing, e.t least while the lovely Ellrpire vasea, oloake and aendelabra were dra11D out md sped to tbeir oorrect poeitioiie. CUrioW1l.y enough, tba l!llbatenttal Jmerloan turni "b.lre or "auperior worlaaaAlhip" surely imd appropriately tit'Hd illto the ffrT room it waa to ooaup:,, hu e.a.Urel;y vani8he4; and the 4elieate old•world omaaenta bave without exception. luted over a centuJ.T. !'aah1ou. and uae al"e uot quite tho aiunrer. Cm:adel­ abra today' m.91 lay ola1m to netther. The mantel clock■ have J:LOt run tor many yeua. The memtel-uma have been superaeded by more orn.amants, on bO� mantel and oo.nsole. Beauty, perhati.e, haa her 01m iDIDOrtality, even in the :lhite Houee. The clocks sent tor tile OVel lklom and the SitUng-:r<>Oa u-e still testaments to the taste or their chooaara, and alao to

The othsr pendule whose draperies won it a tr.1,p acro•s the �tlaDtic is also a s:1lt bronze 9 made b7 Deriere end Mateli.D, end coati.Dg tr. WO. �e ttsuJet" 1a HBllD.:lbel. attar tbe Battle ot Oe:DA&e. The hero etanu bteide a pedeetal bearing the dial o:r the Gl.ook• on a base decDl'ated with military trophiee, oea two ct which bear the word.I 'l'raamene and Trebia. Sllllt ori­ ginalllr �or the Sitting-room (tho Red .Room) U ho.a 10118 boon the mantel. ornament ot the Green B:>om. For all three ot' the state parlors th.are were candelabra. Beai de the Minerva oloek in th1 Blue Boom. are the pair originally chosen tel' the place, •a :pair ot oandalabra with female fonu standing on a aquare bue alao decorated with mil.itery 098 trophies.• la ahoul.d call. these oanileatieks, since tbey are :tor single candles, and ehouJ.4 wonder that their simplicity should be chosen for the "salon ot the 1'1rat Magiatre: te at a tNe l'lation .. But we diaaoTer, on reading the old dfieortptive bill ot la.ding, that thia roam •as partieularl.y and proudly itt.. In it •aa to Oe hung the gilt bronze lua\re gamiehed iritb crystals with. tropbios, tor tif't;y .liab.ta, that M.eaara. Rua••ll and La Farge had 11

31. oaptureci wi� mch del.ight from its mak:era. On either aide ot tbe, too, ..n .one of' a "pair ot" can-ed. gilt bronze ctum.dal1ara. 11 Chlllldallers in the vernacular o:r the time were not our preaent hug­ tug oenter-lighte ( their "luetrea") but what we call eo0J10e11, otten mirrored, otten gi.rondolea. 'Jhat these vanished bzonzea wore we shall never know,- but we oan in our WieU'Ul tancy clraw 011 the OVal. Boom wall the lo-Yelieel sco�a• we c-en. 1.maSins, iu detere.nae to the pride ot those long eao agent•• Chooe1»g with auch care dollghte :tor an unseen Oval Room.

one only ot the OTe.l Rl::KJlil -Yaaea .surrtvea - a beautif"Ul urn, •1da, gracious, 1!3()f'tl.y grey, its vignetta,a ot e. paato::al landeoape. Its d.elioacy ot color haa niatched 1t to a Dl"im.aon roOlll and a blue room, oquel.J..y suceesafull;y; and now ii:. gleam.a in ?.Ira. HooYer•a long private oorrido:r that •o humonizea Iii� the lBl? period o't 11ia own wall.a. 0115 B

Vcmrce Taaea

The Sitt1ng-room oandelabra are more decorative.. Hor e1thar side of the Boman presauce o-r ihe Hanniba1 clook wore sent "a pair ct aendelabra ct human f'igure1 on square pedestala tor eix ligb·h, eilt bronze.'' Ol.B5

I,1ke the Hannibal cl.oclc, it too has bean dtaplaaed. end 1a now in the OTal RoOlD. ot the Ground .noor, on the old Uonroe aon­ eole no• there. The loTeliest af!lldel■bra ot ell are the pair tor tbe Card Boom., "a ot cand&labra on a o1:roul.a bue -.1th a figure on e. globe bold1ng a 1)811m and five J.i&b.ta." 'l'bia ie the pl'Oucl pair ot Vict01:ie21 JWW upholding ta) eir candles on. the rine 0108 old Uonroe corridor oonsole, the onl:, o�entel piece or tu;ni ture in the lo:cs stately sweep ot the p?Vse-nt Main Hall. They heTe tl"avelled :tor to that poaition einoe they l.ett the Green Rom., -they have been in the Red .Roam, the Blue Boom, even the upne.ire library. :Bech ot the three st&to .Parlora had ita correct pair of J'renoh J)Orcelain urns. Of' theae three aeta we have stW tbe pair tor the Sitt1Jl&"'room 1Dteat, one. or. the Oe:rd. Room urna intact Bild one demaged; one o-:t the OVel Room unbrokan. md one qui ta diaap­; so that; we mq eUll know how tb.ey looked. .ill 'iihree wue har-4-pate vuee on merhl;e bases touched with gilt, aa.d all three were deoorated wlth v.tpettea ot landeoepes or tigurea painted OD opposite s14aa. SUch a pa1.r wae ind1spaua1ble on the or CODBOle or IID7 ge.ntleman•s :room. o� the period,- a.a the rocma in th• 1.1etl."opalitan .uuaeum 1n New York la.a:toate. These Monro• vases are both larger and lovelier than their .little native - or natural­ ized - cousins. 'rbe Sittillg-ruam pair are tall and alim md u befits ornamcta in e. room enthus11.etio, in the manner, over things olasoioal, their- handles are the ch.araoterneolc oZ Pompei, their aides nriehl.y deoorated 1at1c silt with Vignette& ot Bomer end Bel.11sarius a11 i'h1a pair is still in the Bed Room that ,r,as once, the Monroe Sitting-rocm. 0101


The Card room pair •en or a roya1 bl.ue, "ider than the ot-ba;i-e mon diattnat1vo, an4 a1nci!!I they- were des:i,sned. tor the apeoial room o1' the President, are, •1th grace.tul.. patr10115.A ot1Sbl.1 decorated 1n rtsnettoa rap:reeent1.Z15 -Yina o� Pua,- anc1 F'r8llkl.1n'a bouao in France. The one camplete member of' this pair ia now to be ee8ll in the APJ,ointmant Doom ot" the ground t"loor.



Plato 5 Monroe Vase -ror Oerd-room No. 0115 A Vase -tor oval. Roam iro. Oll5 B

No-.rade;;ys only the Red Room uraa. one each an the door­ side tables. � bouqua-t; nusea, boldiag apr-171 ot roaoa, anap-­ araaone, aarnatione and to aotten the high dignity 01' that recoption room ot Presidents. But ill the leiBlll"ely' da,ys ot tboir tirst adminiatre.tion all t}aee,, pairs be.l.4 euch bouquets a.a the el.esent Ura. t.tJnroe and her deoiaive young ctaughtera were able to f'1ud in the Wildemess ot llaahiDgtcm.. Bouquela ot livina tl.crlera were COi?!IRe 11 -tent 1n the Paris ot their recollect1ou1 BUrel.y, that Par1a so lately the toy ot Maria .AntoJn.atte and. ber ahepherd.­ esaes.. The le.die• they itnft 1n their Perie days h&d juat begun to collect thoae tablee-a-tleuz, those n.aes o.t w:..1c:h we read so ohe.rming a oontanporary aaocunt: "OD.e has read .Rouueau, one ad.mi rea ne. ture, botanises perhaps; in any oue laves to go, weartq a big hat 111 the taahion ot Madame Viges Lebrun and satbai- bloasoma at the hour when Aurora ha• scattered OTer the mad.a the _pearls ot her tresse■: and then it is ,usoovered that tbe porcelain tleura de Vinaennee, with their to.liege ot painted oopper ere perhaps no more beeutit'u.l than the natural ones; in abort, one :riowera, end that ia when one take■ 1t o:n.e•e head to adorn o:ne•a c:twell.iDS continuously with cu.t tlowern end llTillg flowers.

J"A!.IES a:o:mrni: We cannot quite picture even the young-looki11g r.:rs. uonroe gathering blosaoaa at dawn trorn the tlowery mead.e ot Pemi­ sylvania Avenu.e, or her own unkempt gardan--apaae: but we can be utterly aire it it ware tbe way ot the great world to 11..dol"D its 4ll'elltng continually with cut tl.ower11, adorned it waa, this White Houee. President t:onroe ordered bis furniture, worried over it, perhaps eYon arranged 1ti but tho ll:O!l.l"oa lad1ea, we are certain, re-arranged it and loved U, and adorned it ftitb tlawere and invited the waatarn world to de.light in it� Theee axquieite vues or our inheritance muat have telt thetr long 'mite he.Ilda man.y tim.ea .. The Paris tu:rn1 ture tor tlla Oval Room was, as we know, made to order.. It was deeigned to order , eince Uaasrs. Ru.1se.Jland La Jllll'Se had gone :tor it to Bellenger, the tirat eban­ iate ot Paris, who wa.e. tamoua tor oreating turnitura stter his on design.. Tho aet tberatore, though it aohoee the actual. LOui■ seize t"lll'n1ture that muat, by 181'1, have !!ll be8ll pieked up tor a eong in the mark.eta ot Paris, 1a a heavier, leee graoetul type, and yet without the carved tigu.res ot sphinxes and lioll.8 we t ind a little atartl1ng on the Binpire turniture. One eeee M. RuaaeU­ itour Mr. Rusaellnwho hurried up to Perie with the President ' a order,- explaining, with acquired Ge.l.lic geeturee 1 the dintenaiona and outlines ot thia odd aalon acroaa the aea. Perbeps he even dhpleyed. the carpet design which the Pree:1d81J.t t.e.d sent him. in Ulm,tration. Tbl!I oval ot the ohaira' backa l!N probably an 1m-­ ag1native attetapt at archttecturel h5I'DIOD3' with the 09al. Boom. The territic height ot the .American 1"11le aeem to have itlpreaaea u. Belangar in other d1reat1ona. Hia ot eotaa ia each nine teet long. In deterence • too, to the expressed taste ot M. C0nr<)9 aoroH the, sea, the set was covered in cr1maon su.k tin1eh1D8& and rr1nge made by Ce.rtier Fila, although orimeon was 1'1rty per ce13,t dearer than other colora on.d was. in taahion, already sane• what outdtetanoed by the eky'-blue pretorred by tho atpire taste, though knowledge of that latter is not imparted to colonel ?.:onrce l The whole set •u up Oy Laniaaier, a very e;ood tap1ss1er ot Paria. ill in all, the agents have done their beat With the oval Room eet • and with an anxious letter ot explanation they send 1 t ott. They have a oorroborat illg witnesa. t/ben the tunuture arrived in Alexandri a and wee inapeated by the.t ee;ne Colonel I.ea, 'Who had alreaay inapeoted the Ue.dieon tu:rniture • lla beg• leave to obearve that although partiaulBI' ceJ"e was taken tx, specity the e.:rticles end tix the price o't eaeh when ordering, aocording to diraotion ot the Proe1Uen:t, and although the Frenoh turni ture eo tar exoeeda in price the oxpeotat1on tomed or it, Uessra. RuBSell and La J'arsa , who were chei:ged, are not culpeble. �ey were not able to complete it at that price, end knowing how neoaeury it was 'tor h:lm - tho Preaident - to have the :turniture here in the tall, they procured it on the beat ta?'Ul8 in theil' Power. It be acknowledged, oontil'!IUJ Mr• Lee graoiousl.y, that the article& are ot the tirst quelity l!UJd ao substantial tbet some ot tbam. will lut I m:i.d be he.ncl.aome tor twenty yeare more.

The set is daaoribed in the bill ot ladi»B 88 • ot gilded wood carved 'W1 th bra.nohe d oli TII leavee end. COTered •1 Ui a heny aatin material. ot a delicate orimaon color with a pat­ tern or lBU1'el-lee.Ye■ 1D t•o tonee ot s>l4.." LIW.l'ttl brenche■ wme popular 1n the oa.rving-patterna or Louie xv:r. There wu. a g11twood. conaol.e to aet againat tb!I wal.l, a proper oonaol.o with a marble top. The invoice de■crtbea it in met! euloua toi,ne thet 1oae no detinitenQII with the yeara. I1i waa - and ia- a •s:i.1iwooa ooneole (5 'feet 10 1.nohea 4-20, 3 teet 4, 1.nch&a high ) . The legs are double bel.uotere, can-ed and gtl4e4 , the baok ■ ru.r:ror, mi4 tb.e top ot: lllhite marble ( :Ii teet 10 i:nohd1 long and 22 i110hs■ wi�. ) " . Two mantel mirrors were HDt, one to bang abcJye the ooual.e 1 one to hang above the tireplaae. Both lent lite and. elegance to aroCID. that ho.1'1t been by da,yl.l,gh� ralrl:r oombro 1n it■ or1-n wolla ( though the aha.ding Portico ha4 oat yot been built around 1te windows .And in the they pl!l'ed. the i,ract1c&l part ot mirrors in the Xe:rly Fed.erel. drawingra ana.. L1ght1Jl8 by wu taper2 waa 41!'"t1cu1t end e�n!liVe in the hi8;b,,.oe111nged roan.a or the t.10111,:,e period; 1Jr1 .. JJonroe aol.Yo4 1 t party by evading the l.e.ter houra. " We dined at a1x o I olock" , •GY• oue o� her vi■ttora 1 " and left before the 08lldles were lit." aut ennillg teat1Yit1ea there had to be, cry■tal luatN• could be counted on tor scroe 1.:lght u well as acd.Dtillating beauty, an4 a ll'ise householder added to t;h91r epread, ot light by hengillg on hie w.,Ua a• lm"ge mirrora aa bi■ eb.opJ)ir,g oppartunitiea per.nitted. The two tall mtrrora rei"lD ct­ ing the bronze end crystal lustre between them ctUet have glittered Uk'e old-world pe.laoe-walls, In M.onroo' a 4e;r' the coosole had 1 te place acrose from the tirepla.ce. •1th the l'lll:rble and ita overhqtng mirror ia balence. But in the "reatoration ,. ot tb.e Blue Room in l.903, another door ne out into the west wall. or the Blue Room leading to the Red Boan, and the old !!On.roe ooneole t too gil1i for the 1903 taste, loat it■ position in the cexrter ot that interrupted oval expanae. so it went down •1th its coapatriota, the Conroe gilded chairs and sotu, anonymously to the oval Roam on the Ground 1'loor. There it is no•, Wt it is no longer- imonymoua. Identitication or the cons:,le mirror is not ao carta.1.n; The invo ice deaori bel!I it as a mtrror with tram.a richly gilded. ninety­ one by torty-aeYen inohea. The preea:at mirror aooompe.ny:tng the con­ eole, a leat-acrolled end oTal-topped eza.m.ple of the oharaateristio mirror ot the period, 1a aborter by eome twenty 0127 inchaa than the But there is a distinot houeeholcl recollectioD, to which no one o:t the ststt is willing to 81i'eer, that it was out do'WD. to tit the lower ce111ng ot the ground OTe.l roaa, 1n 1903. Ite mate, tbe ciantel mirror, wee aoliJ long ago, at leaat betOJ'e the time ot Preai de.ut Clevel.and. Colonel Lea. who hoped t:Uat the .lrenob :turnitlll"e might lut and be hen(laome for twenty year21 more, un4oreetimated by nine decades. The Bellanger Cartior-La:YeiHier giltwood aet ha.a laated el.moat a hundred and twenty years .,_m ie cert& a• band.acme ( and in:t1nitely more preciOUl!I) tode:, than when !.:rs. !Jonroe opened her

33. drawing-roam to M. eager town in 1.B1e. A i"ew pieces have diea:ppenr­ ed. Th91"9 were originelly two "bergeree or gondolea" that coat tho President three hundred and ninety-nine tranea, :toUl" aantimee, partly becauee thei:r backa were a-turfed •1th down. Bergerea wore easy cbaire, ldth solid aid.ea and "'matt:r-eaaea• or reooTable ouehiona, and the -traditional French room had a peir on either aide or 1ta­ plaoe. Thil!I stately p!lir were probably tor the comfort ot the Presi­ dent and hie wite1 but t2t.,,- hue q..iite TBJlished. So have t110 gilt and eetin tireaoreens; gone, too, are the folll' X-ab.sped taboreta, which 11ere etoole on ourvina crosae4 aupporte that 1.mitated, though in French comfort I the curul.e chaire of the Ran.ans. Thaee aeso to have luted till President Adsu• time at least , e111ce he speaks ot "t'otll' aetteee :tor receasoa" that can only be these ta'bo�ts. His "reoH.eea ,. being the three window-niches, one wonders how the :fourth waa placed. The original set had beaide.e a pair at nine -toot eotaa or oe.nepea , ei&hteen other an:ochairl!I or .rauteuile, eighteen aide Maire, and aiI rootstoola.. ContemporBJ"1' lite must boon hard on tbm, aiace by the next adm:in1•trat.1on there are only twenty­ .tour- oba1ra instel!ld ot thirty-eight in that ro01:1, Bild "t1Ye toot­ atoola 1 one broken. " Howevor. ainoe tbe Green Room (aerd room) waa alao a gilt room ( in apite or 1ta ru.atio lapse in the direction o� a mahogany coneole ) , perha_pe aoma at the amtller llel.l.eng8l" ohaira had departed to be used in it then.. By 1838. Jlb1oh just poat•datea the .Teokson el"a ( and dem0c:reoy was cleYaete.ting to \'lbit• House furniturel), th.ere eN ap­ parently only rou.rteen Perie chairs lett in the roClll. President Van Buren baa that Illlmber ot ohair■ l'e-u_pholatered, and ae: he ••• chrma;ing hie pa:rlor trc111 crim10n to blue, we ahoul.d exl)8ot that ha included all. the chaira he had, with hie two aota.a, tour­ reta, five toot etoole end aoreena. S1Jlo" tbe eat he.a ohsnged oolor ad pe.t'torn many timeat !!lway-e gilt even im.en the timea sighed tor "BbOJQ'• (end achieved it in the :Saet Fboml). It haa been alte1"llately red and. blue f'or a cen.• tury� Attar Ven Buran•s blue - probably llll lm;pire aky-blue , - the J"ohnaon atter-war ere returned it to red. Ml'•• Grant re-matched it to her Violet-Bl.ue Parlor 111 18'14, end TU't"any, tar Arthur, :matched 1t to tho llobino-l!ga Blue OVal Room. '!'he Clevelend era had tbDm tirat in bl.ue eilk oanvaa with a gold thread BDd then in a heavily patterned out-plu.h ot sap­ phire blue in great flowers, ourioualy auggeattTe at least in pio­ turea ot a leopa.rd-a:ictn oloth. Mra. J!cltinley' a vera1on wa.l!I a J)eJ.a 1 O.Oby-blue silk damask. Their present dreaa is e. aott bright blue brccade 1 eelt-patterned in e. rich de•ign which he■ been on a1nce. 'l'bsy have led a varied lite, theeo ariatoorate 111 a demo­ cratic palace. They were e.lwqs in the oval Room in the nineteenth century; Wt lite 1n tbe OVe.l Room. bae varied t"ram the gracious diq• or the oooly .to:rmal clrmri:ag-rcome ot tho Ad.ems alld. the t.:onroea to the parade-ground ot 1ackaon • a t ti-et Inauw,u-al I when one apeotator tells us "1 t wae 1110rtif'y1ng "to ee• men 1n boot11 hear.1 w1th mud etandine on tbe ds:naak-covered chairs and eotas." B.onYor, later the Pre&!liden1i reserved at least one tor himeel:t ., sinoe his trail health de=anded

that he .,1 t to receive at hie levees, his daughter-in-law standing be.side him. Those imported. gold chaire w 1th th81r court air nearly proTed the undoiDg ot tbe young Mre.. Tyler the aeaond 1 the girl bride whose high spi'rite as e.he queened it over Jashinaton eeect quite undel"ata.ndeble t'rom this distence, but who irked the contem­ porary good ladies ot Waahi.Dgton oanai dere.bly. One ot the oounta egainst .ber was tbet ••aha received seated - her large armoheir on a Blightly :ra.1aed plattorm in trout or the windows opening to the circular piazza look1%18 011 the river." Mrs. Polk, however, Ht on tho !Jon.roe aot'e o.t her Blue Jloom without adverse cor.imsnt at all, nen while har huaband, tho P.reeident ot tbe United Stetea, 1a standing talking to hie gueet.s. To be eure the occasion quoted was Chrietil:lae Eve, and charity was abro ad even llllOJie the reception gueat::i ot the White House, end Lil's. Polk, on her nine-.toot eota ia engaged in lively oouver■ation. w ith oome hal.t-dozen 11'!1.diea. once l.!ra. !.iadUon lf't!IS enthroned in one o:t the "great gilt obai.ra" to receive, ea the guset ot honor at one ot' ura. Polk's dinnere . Bucbenan UIIOd the sqe lounge w ith tbe IIIIDUI - to ue - tll'!l.tteriu.g iD!'oma.l.ity st hie recept1one. The linea ot cellers, or oourae. were not eo long ea today'a, and a pal.ite old Preoident might well lead the v1e1ti:ne: prime dollll.a o.t the evening to a "lounge 1n a recess" and converse with her, he in hie native tongue and ahe 1:n here . How the COIIIXlpolit8Jl old sota .have longed t o interpret% In Lincoln's day wo have a raw pleasant glimpaea ot the gold 1'urniture 1 whiob. has now becone "the large oozy (t) , luxurioue aid lounges or the old reception room witb its J'apaneee par­ lor ornam.ente.. " The Preaident used to tind the nine-toot aotae very inviting to stretch upon .toi- a tew minutes rest on hia midnight wey from the war Depe.rtlmnt up to his own ottice desk. Saturday afternoon• he liatened to the band ooneert on the lam outside rrom the same point ot' vantage. Cm one reoeption-night dllring the Civil WIU", one of tboae aotaa held an emberressed General Grant , pulled up to view by Secretary Seward, eo that a clamoring cro•d ot guests might aee their hero. The war-years took hard toll o.t the Blue ROOil t\trniturei .. crowds of soldiere in &l'Jey' dreS&, t'resb rrom. the aempe, oat on them. Guards slept on the eot:aa at night. Si&:hteeers muat have clipped pioaes or their covers as they did trcr.i. the lei,ce .. The J'ohneon daU8htere might easily have telt it beyond salVfS80 • J.. nnapeper aoo,ou.nt of their act1vit1ea tella us that Jenei,. Patterson ed Stover fitted up "the JSUite or apartments ror parade oooasione in e very nae:t menner; end they are e.t present imch admired., the being fer JJ10re elegant then wae that it had replaced." !lut the1 - or their budget - failed to replace the UOIU'Oe t:urn1ture and ..,ere con.tent merel7 to :return 1 t to ita original red. though they oould not have known tbaU Ure. Gl-ant uaod to send her uahe:r into the Blue Rom., to fetch more cba1re ,;hen her evening callers in tbe Red Boom threat­ ened to avertlow her f'Urnttura. Violet-blue in a red par­ lor. evon temporarily• would :not daunt a lady Wboee state guest­ room uyetl! ':le.a h\ll\8 in purple end erimsonl Nor her callers ,

But lloca

nor her uahff t !?he uonroe tuniiture haa a quainter use in Ule eighti es than going cel.11:c.g in the room next; door. It asei ate the uahera end the police on reception clay& 1n protectins the neeident end his lady at a Cl.o•elBnd e.tte:rnoon Teoeptioza.. W. are told "'th& usual or chaira and aota.e was mde 1n tbs Blue Roan•; and, •aero.ea the northern end of' the Blue Room a. :ro• ot Dlue and gilt aotaa oloaaly fft Wgether aeparated the ncelTin& part:, :trora the row ot cell.era." Did they ab.ska hands aoroaa 1 t? the tide ot duiooraoy was a duty LaeAra. Bueael. BDd La Farge could h8J'dl7 have env1888e.d tor their gilt-.oorl aalcm set: it tilled the role with complete auccesa tor twenty :reara, sn.d eu.rvi'V'Gd. It alao a1.rvhed tho l.90a •rec0ll9'tru.et1oll" of the state :tloor in the Hooanel:t lley1; but it did net keep ita place. 'rhe new Blue Boom u 1'i came trom the bands ot 'the &rehitectts ot the time wu m;quidtely formal, it• quality dependent on s tre'tohea or poliahed space. The old Monroe rurD.itul"e in spite r,t ite long awq must, dOwager :raehton 1 retire, and a new, lighter, htetcri­ cally leas interesting set ta10&1 its place with much dist1Dct1on ega1nat the wall. :rortunate}¥ tbe al'ohitects bed a new raoept:lon room to turniah, exe.ctly almllar in shape 'to the Blue '.Room and exe.ctl.;J under 1t .. 'lb.ere the Hrench emigres were collected. There were not llla1lY of them now,- the two ao:raa, four <xt the am­ ohaira, t'our aide cha1ra with ailnilar oval upbolatered 582-:! backs; tour sa.U gilt open-back e1de cheira, end two :;eB-?l of the aix t'ootstoola. ltere they still to e:rtend 672-5 a White Mouse welccne to the 41atingU1alled guest. s ot 676-9 the evening, llbo enter thxough that South Ora1 Boom. 580-1 The room was, however, nmrelf a �oyer II.OW in which ,one l.iJ:l881"8d. oDl.y to leave one• 11 coat end to button one' a glove, chalting •1th friende, till cleila.ed by an eeoort to the s· t.te apar1menta. The tJonroa ab.Airs were a bumble part Ot the scene of evening testivities. a, dq the public admitted to the oorridor and ite a1de rooms never aaw their quality, thrittil:y hidden under linen covers, elthough no one oppc,sed their dropping to roat upon any­ and all. the set ste:,,ed there in safety if not pmper dignity tor twenty-tive years. Then :aa• .Hoover. the intereai ot a geologist, •un• earthed" the :rurniture im.d its history. SOmeb.ow a toyer aeeecl en inappropriate background :ror the oldsS .turniture in the house, !IIld SUE11Dariz1Dg in ita own atory the at10e■1iral and. national eourae ot J.mericen history. lfor wu the Blue Boom, ita enceairllll. .il<JDS, now its proper background, since that was no longer the national draw1.agroom in the Monroe sen,911. It was not open to the public view either, that public whose a.wakened interest 1D lhite Houee hi atory deserved recogni t.ton.,

Pla1;e 6 Sore, 110, ll82-685 Amchaira llo, -5?1 Side ab.airs NO. �72-5, 5?6-7 ottomana Jfo. 580-581 It waa decided to plaoo the Monro. aet in the great Eae't. Boom., where it may be eat'ely shrouded in covers during the wiused houre. 'UJlOOTeNd far the illBpaction ot the vteitore durias publlo hour•, aare:tully roped ott t'1"Qn tbs small.el' and n>ra livaly ex­ plorers who try all chair� in pe.esing. Also, et this timta 1 ::rs. HoOver w1u1 casting a aearchillg aye a'bOut tbe \,'hite House end it■ at.ore-rooms, hoping tor tu mtture eui table tor making the cold toxmal.1ty or the East Boom, w1 th its utter lack ot comfortable aoatillg 1 hospitable on &V9ninge when a lar,ga oompeIJY must b e entertaiDed after dinner. A a 1 t waa, when reaoUl"•• was not &lair­ ed to a tomal. IllU.B1oale 1n the ilooJD, with its et:raight n,wi, o:r unoom:rorta.ble gilt bentwood chairs, there we.a no room larse.r than tbs BJ.u■ �cm 1D •h1oh the laatee might chat and he. v e co:rtee end wbare the gentlemen mieh t join them later. So theH two problelllS epuld be solved at one mcv1DS. And ou certain night■ the old set bu atill e part in otticial entertain­ ment. arter large :rormal dinners in which guests are rece:ived iD state in tho W10batruoted .Blue Room. On auch nights the t:onroe turniture talle into grace1'ul groupings on the polished !'loor tor oanve.raatioD.81. le.di.Ba. J.gainat the cle.eaic white • ot the East a>om, lovely w1.1ih 1 ta reeded p1laatera and 1ta blgb gold mirrors, the :..toD.l'Oe 1'um1ture is much et home. Its gold-leet wood � under the gree.t crystal ch&nclaliers. Its 'blue satin broee.da 1• bright against the d%'a.pod yall.o" brocade ot the great

�5. ourt a1na. :...onroe never knew this room that his tu.rniture now graces. neither did the originals o:r the portraits of' �!ertba aud George waeh1ug\on, DOW on it• wall.,. &it portraits encl t'Ul'niture, together in a ot rightne■a, reign over the dJ'awing-room or Prosiduta. Whan William .Lee, OhoaEm. by Presid8llt ?.ton.roe to e:umine the household galll" 1eft :ror bis iDheritmLce by the Me.cliean arlmiD­ istration, comes to e.xemine the ,plate he tin4s it not muoh, and ao rep>rta.. It is a sorry remnent e.t·best.. Theni 1a, in the Preaidential. pl.eta• no reoouree. "The rew p1eoea � plAten, he reports 4et1nitely," he4 been so bruised end injured that they could only have been con­ aidared a■ so much o1d sil var and ae such be exchaDged tor new plate,.


President Monroe wao undoubtedly as pleased.. Old plate was not a legac7 to be treasured by our Colonial end Fed­ eral enceators.· Old ta8h1oned pl.ate deteriorated in value rapidly on their inventories. There waa, in cold t:tgures, three dollars and aeventy-:f'i ve oente d.itterence ix. value per ounce betw•en "old" plate and •tuhionsble" plate. .Gd Gearge Washington at hie own oarstul direotion, au •• b.ave seen, follo1'8d the veiy colll!IOn pro.c­ tiae (contemporary Bri1i1ah as well u AmerioanJ ot bav1ng hia plate molted do,m and redone into more harmonious toime. Presi­ dent Uonroe IIIB,J' b.ava Md. "that 4one w1 th thia bru.iBed and recourae­ lese ail.ver from his predeoeuor' a mekeeh1:rt table. Probably- he did not bother. Re had plate o� his own, b.rou,gbt tra:o abroad without doub1i and still qUite sutticiantl:::r in adnnae ot the neishbore1 older plate to b e harmonious Tith the ■t:,le hit aiahed, a.a the Chiet Magiatrate ot a Free Natton, to dieIJle.Y ror the honor ot hia guoata. His own plate was mar.Iced 1'1 th hia own initial&; he eold it to the IJ)vsrmaent o n tbe amae te.rms that he had sold hie own turn1ture, that the BOVermnmat ahouJ.d deduct at th■ end ot his term a. reasonable sum tor tbs bruising and da11:y uaase md tjiat he ob0u1d tboreupon buJ, U back. Be bad a thoroughly reapeotable amount ot it tor a ean'tleman1 a tabl.e OOTered dish.ea, oua&l'Ollea, bMadbalketa, wait8l"a, "branohea" loandeJ,.ebras) with "le.rge stioka" to 1::1.atoh, tee end oottee eer­ vtoe 1 and a.dequta flat aUver, evan aspe.rg,a tonga (Ulldoubte� to the notici.JJa ones o� CJeorgetown) end a t'isb knit'e. Ho •as qu.1 te ready tor hoepitali ty lhen thoae beaut:itul lmite oases end large cases tar plate, lined with buokskin, abo\ll.4 be unpacked. We &hall never, ouraelvea 1 tind eey ot hie gold lined aortee &lJOons, :iark.ed aa a cultured gentlalilall •he had uore than made hie Oraud Tour, would direot. sven had he let't than, and the at.rt" ot bis sucaeesor sent thl!lll to be marked "Preaident' s Houeefj 1 we probably ahou1d not have had thm toclo:7. Georgetown had not oared particularly tor tbe.t silver of Mrs. Monroe'& even betore it: was promoted to the atatua ot Prea14ent1al Siver. One gueat reports to a ootteapon.dent of hers With eD8aging cu.dour on 'the moat stylish dinner ab.e had sttended in Wubington, whioh Mn. Monroe, in 1815, had aervel'I her.

"The table wider than we have, and in the middle a leree. p�haps a ailver ii81ter, with i.JneBea like aome Aunt Sil.abee has, only DIOJ'e ot '\bem, and vui,e t1ll9d with tlowera, 'flbich made a very ShQwy appearance aa tbe eendl es ware l.1e;hted wben we want to the · table. 'l'he wre sU.ver end aet around 'tllie watter. The pl.atea wore bendacln.e cbiDa. the f'orka ail.var, and so beny I 00\lld hardly' 11:tt tbem to m7 mauth, desert knives silver end spoons very heavy - you would c al l them al'DJl187 things." Bu.t ab.e adde, :prettily, that :sz,a. Monro• ia a Yary ele­ gant t1omen. We can uev,sr today, 1t we 1D.V1tad to teka a dish ot tea filth a J'tnt La.d;1• be eure that Mrs. Madison'e r1ngars onoe haJ.d that sme aremn-jug aboTa a "bend1JCIQD8 abina."' cup; or that !.!rs. )tonroe'a hands poised. inquirllgly eboTe our visible sugar-bowl, eleganUy .man1J)'\.i.ht1.Dg e ither a pair ot flllBIU' toriga worth three dollars and tbirty-aeven ad a helt' cents to e meticu.loua appraiser, •ho had weighed them, or e. su.gar lad.le, worth one dollar and aeventy­ tive cents. In the Nonroe •tlllDily" e1lver thare ie :tor us "110 l"O• course" aa there "11!18 �or Mo�e none in his pzeaeceseor•s. Not even in acme turther "plat:e" President Monroe ordered tor his new dinlng room Bild that: the Qovarma.ent paid tor. Nor have•• tbe large. perhaps a silver waiter that rather bewilctered our l.tre. Cro1mi1:1shieJ.d at Mrs. ?llnroe's though ah.e hn4 seen .:,me imagos like it at: .AUnt S1labeats. JI.NI.­ ahield. was a little new to the tashionable world a.a aha d1alllminaJ.y conteeaee. The,, perhaps silver waiter ia a plateau, IW.d the hmt monde ot Colonial and e&rly .r'eclerel d.aye wee rather given to p'.iaieiiui'"7or the c9llte:r or 1ta tablea. George .¥aeh1na;ton had one. He had eent 'to.?' it with great oere, ill a latter to an English triend. He ,rented, be aaid, the :moat fuhionable ap eoimen the triend aould ollooae o:t a "&UTar plateau tor 71J7 dini:04 table• e.t Mount '{ernon. He ordered another the .first :re.or of his Presidency, by writing to a f'ri end: "Will you then� 1ISY' good Sir, pel'!llit 11"9 to ask the ta..-or ot :,au to provide and send to ma by the t'ire:t Slip, 'bouDd to thia place, or Philadelphia., mirrors tor a tabla, w11ib neat end tuhion­ able but not expenaiv• ornaman.ta t'or them - such •• will do credit to yOUl' taste • The tidrrors 1f1ll ot course be in pieoea that tbe:, mq be adapted. 1io i.he aompmiy, ( the •1z.e ot H; I ma811) tb.e aggregate length ot thaa. ma.v be 1ien teet - the breadth two :reet - The t.remi,s may be plated wur.e, or BD.ything else l!lOre tashionable but not more expensive. It I am detective recur to whet you. he'Ye seen on Jtr. fioberi, Jforris'a tor 'flt:/ ideae generally. Whether these tbinge am be had on better tel'IIIB and in a better style in PAl"ill than 111 lmldon I will not undertake to deoidft. I recollect however to have had plated ware both pl.acaa 1 &D.d those t'roln the latter cmne olleapaat,- bu't l!l single instance ie no evidence ot a general tact."•

•(:rrom a 1etter to Gouvel'D.81.11" Morris. New York. 13 oatober, 1?89,­ WaahiDgton Wl'itinga 1 Vol. u., 1'185-gO, Ford, pqe 436)

36. 3JJ.:BS �'.OlffiOI! In cotlplianoe •1th this requaat !.!Orris wrote him th at ho had secured • aurtout ror a table ten reet long end tr.a :reet w:tde, oon■i.sting ot .seven plateaus, with the ornamwta in biscuit and glue. .Attor deaorib in& 1 t1 he e.dda: "You will perhapa exclaim that I have uot complied with your cU.reotiona ae to econ0111¥, bu.t you will be ot a difterent opinion lihon you eee the articles. I think it ot great importance to !'ix tho taste or the oountry pro-­ porly, end I think your ue.mple will l!P wry far in that reai;eot. It ia, therercre , Tll:f Wiah that overytbi!l6 about you should be eub­' good and maJoeticaU:, plain, to endure."


Y:>nroe I a plateau we.a "gle.aa" J with a ailvar i:late ri1JJ. 1 T�lued b7 the Monroe Appraiaera at two hundred tk>Uere, and th• eceompSDYina: ornaa.m1t11 were or biacui t poroale.t.n end cost two hundred e.nd :ti:tty aollarB. But Mra. li>11roo •ae an ele&m1:t lady, and coved, with her huabend end her gil-le, 1!I. the world ot t'e.shion. In the world ot taahion one 4:lee not, too ot'�9ll, repeat onea erteota. That plateau bad ta11e1nated snd 1111Ueed QElorgetown. It hod done its duty, undoubtedly, by the lees tonMl. gueate at th& Preeidont re manllion. There muat be one atill DX>N alegent , tar Stats effetrs. So the 5tete Diniug Table was cered .for just ea tbs State Drawing-roans were oared ror, in the anxious provid1DC ot President.i.:onroe. It was to hllDo ite state senioe ot ohitul ancl table ware and ornamen:ta, and the beet atate eervice waa ot course :made in Franoe. Preeidsnt Uonroe turned aa before to hia invalu­ able .&"'renoh-Am-rioan agenta, and u be:toN they did not :tail. him. The Uonroe menage expeotad state dinner■, tor wh1oh the table be dresaed Ti1th elegamce md honor. VoUa. A table aervioe more elegant and honorable than that ot ever=;dey or thoae tound in the houaee o:r o:ne•a gueet - it eh.all be or gold. And gold it ,ra11. ait not gold that enotber u:.ight bave picked up in Parie, had another equally the desire and the :tr11mca. ?fo . Thia SPld service was made. "'l'ha Plate ha■ 'been �actured by .re.uoon­ nier", Jdeaera. RU.aaoll end La !'arge ot Havre and Perie. nite quiakly to their patron, "an ttxcellcnt artist end honeat t:Wl• " "The tureen.e0 , they ho:po, continui� on paper to Presi­ dent Manroe, tl'ho 1a doubtless ecenniug hia aociel. oalandtir on h1a 4•ak as he roade, "the tureens will, we hope, be t'O'Ulld o:t the very highest tinish." The President in •lliting hopes that all will be tou.nd ct "Qie hiab8at :t1n1eb, but he wait tor the good sb.ip R:aaolution, Captain Jewett cainanding, to doak at iluandria. That table service ot hia is to come in six "paakagea" - two ot table chtna, two oonteinins the deseert aet or porcelain, tlfO w1 th, aimpl.y, "The }Jlate. " The gilded pero.,.. lain diahes .,. and the !'renob china Gessert aet we may- only 'li'ave a wiat.tul hftlld etter. It bas blown back long ago , silt end al.l, to the dust7 earth it we.a moulded trc:,m. But plate is not so ephemeral. It 1a 1ull"'m looking into. ,,e must look o-yer the bwry shcr..tlders or the l.:Onroe sntsearie s to '11DCm wa.e entrueted the un­ packing. �Vhen t�ey bed 11ulled the and cut the lining tin and unlt'ound paper and 11:r-ted cut th& Special tl"lll'lke ( coating two hundred and ten trenca o:i. the bill or le.ding J and the

box coatiug two hundred Bn.d ei ghty tranos and the one coating one coatine; one hw::idred n1nety..two trenea, whst do they f'1nd1 The trunk, we discover, opens to disclose those two tureens o't higheat 1'1niah, w1 th diahes and oove1••• They ooat b:. 3174..35, on the bill or that &rtiet and honest man B'aucou.nier. The mahoga.ey box hold& the State flat silver - only it 1B not silver, but ailver gilt. There were 36 e 2 36 3e

knivoe end :rorka Tegete.ble ispoons gravy apoona lm1vea with s11ver--gilt blade■ silver-gilt blade knives •1th mother-of-pearl helldlea, inlaid with ehielda.

.And 01' all the surtout-de-te..b1.e. The .eurtout ha• beon heralded. Prt,eident .Yonro e"iiubei'n-.;.ured alroedy that "it b very hendaac.o - it ha• boe:n made by the beet manutacturera in ?eris ?.lo loat by it nesrly 2 1 000 �anoa. ... :rt coat six thouaa.Dd treno a , eHn eo, which undouutedly :f'rightened the agenta a l.1ttle. BUt i"C we.a, for abeer aize, ot an explenation o:t 1ta own price. F-acked, it oooupied tbrae at thoae rorty-aeven bona Captain Jewett of the Resolution stowed ix:. hia hold. And in li'te, s.preed like a peacock's tUl a,-er the exqu1e1te l.inen ot tba Pre­ sident ' • table, the wrtout oo-Yer•d a epe.ce thirteen end a halt t'eet 1ong end two teat wid.e. RU1111ell end 1.B hrge aupp1y e m1O deaoription o't it on their bill o:t lading. It ie a tatle oentra-piece - a eurtout de tabla - o:t oarred and gilded bronze, the decoration.a being garlands- ot t"ruit■ and vinee with .tigure ot Bacabua and Bacchantea. Thia etood on pedeetala on wbioh •ere sixteen Ugurea holding crowns tor the re­ ception or candles and eirteen cups which could be changed at •ill. It waa compoaed or .eeve:n sei:,l!U.'ate ptece.t!I, and was gunishad with mirror•. other teetures ot tho deooration in this bea.utit'Ul speci­ men at tho goldsmith ' s art oonsiated � thne rich baalcete, eaoh vi th thre, t'igures on a cirouJ.e.r baH, decora:ted "1th ivy le&vea and v ith tlowere, bartng aiz 1igtite oaoh and t.o rtoh tripoda atter tbe antique end "two Tures ot :struaoan tom. all gilded and. decorated with flowera. The i,urtout , one hopes, reflected a steady gleam or pure aat11t'aotton e.aross tbe troubled sooiU water■ 0£ the t1r=t Monroe winter. It must haYe been 'beyond the er1t:1o1m of the cliplomatic ohal'aeters encl the oocial. characters ot GeOl'getown, all somewhat overprone to take otten•e in th.e ennui or the wilderness, {end there ie no that Dolly 1:.adison, e:dluberant, l.a'1'1ab, friendly, con­ tidential., and living cheertu.Uy in the J:DOQant with little thousht ct' e. continental ye■terdey and leae ot en .&mi,rioen tomorrow, had spoiled GeorgetOY,'ll end the COll)B undeniebl7. J One satte:t'actory gl.emn ot the plateau oee troo James !'ennimore Cooi::or, bidden to dine at the uonroe tab1e in its 1'1rat year. He approves or tba ocouion. "The dining room tl'&.11 in bettet• taate then h common bere,

37. being q_uito simple end but l.ittle tu.rni&hed. The table fia.8 large and rather hand801Q&. The eervice wu 1n china, ae ia unitonnl.y tho cue, plate belllg axoeedingl.y rare, it' at ell. uaea. There wae, however, a rich plateaux and a great abundance ot article■ ot table-plate.. 'The clo\h, 1 etc . , were t't.ue end beautitul. ot attendent• there wva a good .ciany. They were neatly dresaed, out ot livery, and sufficient. 'ro ooncl.ude, the whole enterte1D­ ment might hfltt passed tor a better ■ort at mi1"0pean dinller-perty at llhioh the gueeta were too num.erou.1 tor general or very agreeable discourae end aome ot the too new to be ent1rel;r at their eaae. llre .. ?.!olll'Oe arose at the end ot tJJe dea.eert and W1thdraw, attended by two or three ot the moat gallant ot °'he eompaD,Y. No aooner waa his wite ' s back turned than the Proitident riteeated himeel.1', in-Yit­ ing hie guaate to 11:utate the aotion. .At'ter allowing his gueota ■urr1eient time to renew, in e. tew e;laseea, the reoollecttona ot .t!limiler enjoyments o:r tbeir own, he aroe.e himselt', giving the hint to bis oompeny that it wae time to rejoin the ladiee. In the drawing-roam oottee W'&.t!I served." President ?Jonroe was BOOll concerned about the plateau, and about all his plate, 11hioh was an object or toreaighted 9011eltude to the legal mind ot that praotised propert7-holder. He had the Virginie» instinct (a true ot'teprill.g ot tbe Britiah iil­ atinot) too tor the oare c:t poHessione; and he had had a long eareer of responsibility tot' public turnitura. He writsCongrei,a almr;Jat imed!ate� - on the tnl.tth or hbrua.rJ', lBl8, which we.e not, in hie tlae, a national holiday - upon receipt or thoee governmen:tal treaauree. "l.tan;y ot the artioles being or a durable nature", he wr1toa ot hie new turniture, � be headed down through a long Hriea ot aarrtce; and. being ot' great value, auoh aa plate, ough't iiot to be lert. altagetler- to the care of the ser­ ve.lite alone. It ■eema to be adYleable that a public egont Could be charged with lt aurin,g the oocaaicmal ebaen.o•• ot the President end ha-Ye authority to tranater 1t trom one President 1io another end. l1ll:ew1•• to make reports at oooaeioul deticienoiea, aa the bad• oD which turther reporb should be made . " And aa ita 0.t1.g1I&al owner devised so wae it dono. A report on � ooouiODal de't1oiency I even in thie art­ icle ot a durable nature and great Talue, oem& very aoon. Preai­ dent, b:.vento:cying hia illberitenoe 01' Wb.1te House tinds h8 he.a "l large elegant gilt plateau with aeveu p1ec,ea and seven ornemants, tW.d nineteen branohea tor, d-.ged." one might picture the surtout rapidly pecked end sen'i to tbe n.eueat honest goldsmith tor repairs; but President Adame was a oe.ret"U.l person •ho his COngreu, and learned lea­ sons fl"Cm history. He waa, to be sure, the eon ot the man who h.a4 wri tte.n in 1'1'18, atter a sojourn to the oourt or Fran<1.e:


"I cannot bel.p suspecting that the :10re el.eganoe, the less virtue, 1:n. all tilDee and all countrtea, • • . , • • . . • It I had polf'­ er, I would 1'orner banish and exclude n-cm America all gold, all

silver, preoioue stones, alabaster, ri&Tble, eilk., vel.,et end laoe." We sus pect eT&n the elder .Admns , once home 1 8YUJ18 away rrc:m that sharp Puritml reaction to e. 4ie1ntegrat1ng national. scene. 1:e do not feel that hie aon baDiahlJ d the cherished plateau on auoh high tmral grounds. .t:;1pe.rently, however, he did put away the aur• tout de table, clamee;ed, into itB boxee end hie vaults; we oenno T b,e8u.rii' �ee we do not happen to have printed record of BDY" din­ ners , atate or otherwi se, given in the Adaws reg1Jae, though thero ia plenty ot :reoord at other rcnns ot hoapitality. But Pre1ident Adema probably viewed that pll!lteau tn the light or a political sleeping dog. He wae quite cannily uare or tbe paot CongreeeionBl troubles ot president t,:onroe. In his diary he aaya: "Diokene cane to meke det1n1 te e.rrangements respecting �. Crawtord•s plate. 'l'he usual appropriation o:t' fourteen t!'..oueand dollars for retur:n.ialJ.11'1£ the Prellident•s house we.a made by an J.ct o:t" Co:ngNee e.t the olose ot tb.a eesaicn. Mr. Crawtord being de­ sirous to dispaee ot hia pl.ate and aa there wu no p1·obability that he oould d1ep0ae ot it bere, I egroed to take it tcr the public service end pay for it trom this a:ppropriation.. Tt,ere wero duriDg !lr. �on10 e • a Admintatration titty thouaend appropriated tor turn11!1h1ng the house. He he.d pleced 1ihe full.d under the :runege­ ment at Colonel Lana, who , two or three years since, died insolvent , with twenty thousand d.olle.l'e � the pub11o money unaccounted tor, which ho.a given risa to mu.oh obloquy upon Mr. JJonroe. I have de­ teunined, theretore, 1io cherge myael.t •1th the BlllOunt or the new approvrietion and to be :m;yself aaaountable to the treasury tor 1t11 expenditure. The plate, by :.:.r. Crnf'ord'a deaire, hae been appraised by two ei1vcrom1tha; one, L:r. �ett ot Georgetown, Da?Qe<l by w.r. Crawtord, the other, t.:r. l.eonard ot th1a o1ty, named by me." The "obloquy" cast upon. JIOnrOo had. been.dia.t!lolved to the 11e.t1.etaot1O11 01' all oonoerued. eventually. But PreBideut Ad.etl.e migb. t almost have bee uncannily awere ot the troublea to came ot another Preaident ovff Presidential Plate. Ven .Bw.·en wu not in the viatble eye ot President Adams but hia ab.ado• might have been. rt wee ll0t 1 in eny case, tor e. shrewd eon of the Back Bey to embroil bia political :t'uturo in er�t• ov111r foreign garniahment �or a C:bri stiBD Table in e. dllllrOoratic government. Not a oit or it. J;wa:y with that aurtout do table iD ell ita injured magD.itioence.- ill a:pite perhaps or the pretty pleadings or the e�reaehe e7e.t!I ot Lcui■a, his 1Jit'e. We can see her in her portrait, looting die­ tre.otingly unable to understand why the more eleganoa, the leae virtue, 1n any time or any oountry. She knew three gountries rather well hersolt, beill8 Ellalish born. and having 11.,ed in ?re.nee. J.lld her ligb.t-hearted portreit attire , thoroughly Directoire, end her i::x>at un-Bo•tonie.n., Rlmost Regem,ier poee 1 betraya no ingrained aversion to thizigs l'reneh. But She contmited herself dutifully with Urs. Crawtord 1 s second hand plate, we are e,,,are, with a .con­ viction that needa no proo't. The platellll box was not tor ur. Adame• pretty Pe.n.dora. !t will te in m.olia ious pe&oe tor Ven Buren. It ie the "Little Llagician" who pulla the puppet s'tri.nge so 111k1lltully be­ hind. the aoenes during the torma or 1•reaident Jackson, and $tumbles so \JOef'ully on his own. stage in hii, o,,n person , who is to inherit

3!!. Pandora's box, to his own undoing. is brief':

His own account ot hia troubles

"As -re:r back ae the ocmmenoement ot Mr. Yonroe'111 adminia­ tre.tion, a quantity ot verr extravagant J'rench furniture wae pur­ chassd tor the Presidential mBJ1Sion through the .agency- or Consul Lee (W1111am Lee, at Bordeau), himself a ostentatioue man, and amona the reat e. penel c:r spaona which nre all9£Sd to be ot pure gold.. These, with other port1ona ot the 1\l.rniture, were still at the White House in my time. I was Charged with having purchased them and the alleged extravagenae made matUr of aaousation against 1118 in the 08D."t'&IB." - - .mtobiograpby, 11. VIID Buren. Bia �itial mistake aeame to have been inT1t1Dg a cez­ taiD sr. Ogle, Congreamaan trom Peimeylvmiia, to dinner. ur. Van Buren 1188 e. host ot some e:iperience 1 adept e.t the giv­ ing o� sna1l and perfect dinner parties, betore he osue to the Praeident•a House. But one wondera 11' bis m:pertenoe there did no't lead b1m to mek1ng his dinners even 1!1118ller. Thve was no tradition of' Congrel!IBional coUl'teey: o r ot Presidential. illlnunity in White House heapitality • as .rreai4en:t Ven B\.lren discovered.· M:r. Ogle came to· dinller, kept hia eyea open, end ret:lred to his den to make b.imaelt po1itioal oepitel out ot his visit. Be mat have token with him a Sl"'at lllarl1' -r• dealing •1th· the purohaaea ot President Jtonroe1 mid the bills at Prea1dent Van BUren 1 and have eat up verr late at night oYer- them, pQJ.iahing hla poiaoned adJaotivea. Later the House is treated to -the aintul extravagence ot the President - ot VU Bureu, not ot IIDm'oe, ol" even ot .Taokaon, who 11'8!1 oertaitlly .reaponaibla Zor Ill9DJ' ot those ertravasanoea. The plateau ie emong tb.e aimLera 1 "tba 1SUrtout 1 1 a �ronze gilded plateau, a l.arge o:mamimtal or pictured 'tirq, whiah ■t-en.41!1 1n the oenter ot the tabla.• {Yrs. 0£].e end the OSJ.e daughters could not have been invited. to the Palace to. that dimLe:r. Thay wou14 certeinly bave edited the Oongreummi•a deacription 1 notioing first ot all that tbe surtout ia eeeanti 8ll.7 a mirror end no p1o­ tured tray.) :Later he calla it, "that plateau -.t.tb the riobl:T gilded baaketa, tripods end Etru11oan vases which aacampen;y it• llhioh coat in. Paris six thOUl!limd tranaa." But 1ihe Sl}Gcial crime ot Preaident Van 1 in oonnea­ Uon with the sur-tout. beyond the moral r&l!lpon.sibil1ty involved :In 1ta use, was its repairing. The attention ot the house is aelled to a bill ot •sevanty-tive dollars of the PeoplD cash, spent, in these l>en&Doratio J)ay's � retrBD.Ollment and retorm.1 'tor dreaaing up the ao that 1t now looks quite nn. • We oan only teeJ. gratitude he repe.iNdour plate81l: and that be did not, in a natural. exasperation, dispatch it to tbs mslt1118 _pot, to be turned out into a i,1eoe ot tabl.e tumiture lDOre aamooratio. We hope OU1"88lvea, in a belated B1J11Patey', that !Ir. Ogle at l.east never saw it again. We do not, ourselves, see it again in tbe reoords for ·eome years. 'l'hen it appears in 1850 on the 11Umore 'liable. .lt that time it is acmathing of a ouriosity, e.t to one pe.1.r ot eyes. They

must be teminine ey;es thie tima, whose owner is l!i gu.est at e. State Dimler given for Mrs. Alexander Hmilton. 'l'hey are observing eyea. "The dinner ooneisted ct nine courses "", n read, "and we aat tram •ven. to• (ample tor obae"ationO "Through the entire .length of the table •es a mirror e:bQut a toot in width, a sort ot birdeage arrangammt at the e4B:e1 1 on whioh, at intena1s, were placed Yaa&a ot artitioial t'l.owva. le saw very rn natu:ral. nowera, end there was no conserve.tor:, at the White House." il!llo en1t1c1al tlow02"a, incidentally had bellll bought b1' President Ven Bnrel1. He had been oz1t1oized tor that, too, though 11<>t tO>" ra-lll,\'1ng the plateau 'Iii th than. By- ·the f'it'ties, t.heref"ore, surtouta de Table, in general were •out•. .But the tradition ot that Ste.ta Dinner ornament had been :firmly establirlhed. It waa inevitably' the center ot the tomal. ainnor tabla, trium»hilll over au.atom end tub.ion ea hue few lllite House ommente. Even 1n the tloral years ot the seventies and the. eigb.t188 1 when one turned op.a I El ctwell1D8 into a hot house betore parties, araped smilu: 8l'OUlld one" e doorqy,s and pillers t bBllked one•a tiraplaoe with plenta 1 'Wl"OUglrt\ one•a. 1ll1tial.s in posies on one • a mantel, oreated Am:6rioan tleg■ and emblSDJa in bJ.oa­ BOlDI! on one•s wells, all be.tore One•a uehera e.Uowed the guests to enter,• 'the surtout i s - ■till in plaae. TO be, it disappear■ under a he&TY hlenk:et c4 bloom, tor any' dinner worth the name ot state. Two of' the Arthurian partiea are ••ll. worth l.ooking in on, thou!!il1 .., shall he.fl to look very he1"4 to oatoh a golden glimpse ot the buried Jrenoh or.nament. The first. party is in l.882: "Pl"eaident Arthur's t1rst state Dinner we.a given in hooor ot General and Kr■• Orut. There n:re thirty-tour platsa on the long teble, in the center ot which waa a plateau mirror, on which wore m■ea and lilies ot the valley. On either aide of it ware tall gil.t oe:n.delabra bearing elevmi wu: lights each, and be­ yond these large gilt epergne ove:rtlow1:ng with 118.rechal Niel roaea. .&t the end of' the mirror ware pairs ot silTar candelabra bearillg shaded wm: lights and oval cushions cf white omnelliaa set w1th roBea and orchids. At the eD.reme end were round pieoea ot Bon Silene :roses ud l111es o� the va1ley. .&round this elaborate cen­ ter deoorstion were ranged crystal. oom;potes and cut glsee deom­ tera. Lerga tlat corsage bouquete ot roi,se tied with satin rib­ bons weN laid at each lady 1 s plate Em4 small boutomiieres ot rosebuds were provided for- tba gGDtleme.n. The aer.da wre ot heavy gilt-edge board, emboa1ad with the national. coat of uma in gold below wh.ioh the name of' eaoh g1l8at we.a writteJl." Two yeara later the decore:Uone ere more tioua, and the plateau - had he been able to h11�:ve seen 1 t - wou.l.d have WrtlJlB a more Iaa1.ah-11ke ory from Yr. Ogle and e writing on tbs wall. no Daniel were needed to interpret. Thia time, 1n .TmlUIU'J' 1884, at the first State Dinner ot the eeaaon: "In the windows ot the state Dining Hoom broadleaved

palms draopsd above pots of' white «ad pink azaleas, and on the man­ olives, conteat1on82"Y and t'SDOY pieces (?} ". tels were hyacinthe set 1n thick tine glasses.. The te.blo decora­ tion.a were more unique than ie usual on state occasions, a large In 1893 1 however, in the second Cleveland aaminiatration centre-piece, called the "SWinging Garden ot Babylon" beill8 entirely the aurtou:t emerges on land, end is, Va.nus like, recognizable in new. Thia was about t'our teet long and one and one halt' feet high, origin. It becOilles now, in the newspapers ot tbe dey-: and. was composed ot red and white oar-­ "the laTishly- gilded table �e Plateau nations, honeysuckles, ?!8l"echal Nie1 or.namente, emong them the historic pla­ end other roses, massed in separate teau o� French gil.t and :pl.ate-glass colors. The piece was more euggestiTe mirrors, which baa graced State dinners � a temple thBD a garden and on the since '.President Monroe� n top were clusters ot rare and curious blossoms ot the nun-plant. It rested What p1ctureeque pen of the on the 1ong m1rror 1 and at the ends l'ourth Estate called the pl.ateau were stands ot Marechal lUel. and 1ac­ and ite lSVisbly giJ.ded accessories the quem1not. roeee. &yu11d th1u:1U rrerl:f "Do� lle.dieon gold !let"' is not recor4circular ·pieoes ot mixed flowers and ed.** I.ll::e other Madison 1llus1ona.t it baskets of lilies ot the valley and persists with more vigor than a real roees. Belt bouquets o't roses, ea.ob historic �act 1.s apt to show. It seems ot a single oolor, were laid at the e.lffays a little unkind to rob the past plaoes ot the ladies - Bon Silene, ot ersy enriching legend, but the gold Cornelia Cooke, Marechel. Neil and JJer­ service is not - even by ri8ht ot tem.­ met - and single buds ot tbe ssm.e perement - Dolly• a. :ronned boutonnierea tor the gent1emen." The surtout de table bas been The Pl'eeident, we know, put very agreeably the _poeeassion or meny aside cares ot state that e.ftemoon, and diverse 1.adiea of' the White House. to walk around his table, and direct It has held ite IU'titicial, ite the eager corps ot tloriste at their pot-pc,urri at the consenatoriea, its proud 1JDrk. He mui,t have watched a tnev1 table oroh14s during the "orchid battalion ot acme dozens. Bu.t the Plata 7 period" ot White E::ous& decoration. It swinging hanging gardens ot Babylon J.tom'oe Gold Plateau end Candelabra has graced the nationel hospitality in at a state Dinner, Hoover AliministratiOll muot llave d0110 him - and them - nat­ B<lminiBtrations wl»ae visitors ional oredit. been blanketed Indiana t or stray authors, or concert siugere, or dusky" queens, or '!he eurtout sbiues again at the Cleveland-Folsom wedding, travelling princes. or the elite o-r Georgetown, or or the wide as it should et the one VJhite Houee wedding at llhioh a President 110rld. The· surtout de table welcc:au,s them all., end do&s them honor was the groom. It was not wondertul that ?tra. Cleveland used it the tlat, :titted m1rrora edged 1n gilt ,tilagree, the gold :t'igu:rines egain tol' her tll"st State dinner - to the Cabinet. Part of it at bearing, the holding airy sprays o� bud and least. fie oannot be sure the little "'images rt - the gilt Baoohantea leaf, the compotes trei11n8 graaetul bunches ot grapes. sometimes and Bao<:hi - lined the hedges ot these swinging gardens, or the i t 1e seen and adm1redi sometimes it is only a lovely underourrent shores ot: the mirror-water that the plateau itself' represented, in to the eveniDS'S hannony. Both rolee it hes played sinoe 1818, and the :t'loral tr1um:pbs of' the e1S:rt1es. Thia state Dinner or t!ra. may do so tor a hundred yearB long:er. Cleveland• a was a marine triumph: "COvers were, laid for thirty At each ple.te were seven wine-glasses, a goblet tor water and a carets, the gilt-edged din• ner oard, end for each lad:{ a bouque't o:t roses, end :f'or each nisn a bout0nniers ot rosebuds. i'he central deaoration was a big boat ot red end white aamell1as 1 the Hile triimD.ed with l!llllilex• .., Thia stood on the large mirror which l'la& bordered with rosebuds, 'tulips end cemelliaa. On either side ot: tbs boat Btood high stands ot fruit and vases ot long-stmned roses. Beyond the mirror were two f'le.t cushionB ot orohida, rod end yellow roee.e, tulips, and oarnatione. The table was laid with the Ul!IUal conserve!!, elmonds., 4

�robe.bly Ura. Grant Is Hiawatha Canoe.

**By 1903 it is ":1rs. Dolly- Ue.diaon's huge centerpiece at gold end oryste1. In 1908 it is Oeorge Washington•a1 11

tl>at only t'Urniahillp of clomestic manutaotUN ehoul.d bo oought tor the 11h:Lt• Bouae. He- "traded in" a a100J14-ha».4 piano tut gol.d one Preaiclent llomos had or Eberhart, of PU'ia? • tor a new rose tone--p1ano ot six ootaYes. rt undoubtedly 00oupted a pleaaan'i place 1n that •large aoentlly :tln'Duhed par­ .I.or" •.,,..a with log tiree that ...., the Dval llrfflll8 Boom ot .Taokacm• a priYa•• floor, where the lo.die• ad. childrc ot bi• TennH••• flllllily gethore<l in pl.entation tuldon, wbila 1aha head ot the houee ..-red. hi a pipe in OOll'l'eziaatiOD with a :t'l'iend.. One regrele 1 ta departure, that 111eno w1th the ah: octaves. fte White House b a oerela.den place, end the happier pieo-ea ot turniture balenoe the etm:Japhare; ed. Prea14ent 1B.Ckaon t i, f'e:mil.J' atmosphere seems to heve been :f'Ull of a pleasant

Bia ra1111l7 liked :rackaon; BDd hi• trienda, the Pl.ain People, approved ot him and hie houae.. They awamed all over h1o raobtonable emhelliolimnta end broke a good ......, or them in their exube:renM: and oared. not at all tor the t'uttdioua who atood aloof ham th• enU'1111ce or the lbito a>uoe. Bu1' tho tut:Ld:Loua hed tb.aU.- dey, in the next admiut■tration. The Bou■a has never, after 1t1 moet neeping rellaoorationa, been more bitterly el'iticieed as it was 1D 1te J"aokBon1 a habili1DN1te. But not UAtil Vau Buren, 1aokeon• a oor&f'1dant end aua­ oeseor, came into po111ea1ou, did 'the atorm. break.. J.nd 1-t bl'Oll:e entirely on the 1DDrtene1Te head ot tlla, Rave and 1001... able Victim, 80 Ol'\lahiDgly that he loat hie . HOODd eleotian because ot the extra.Taganoe at hi■ door. we perceive a tunt thread ot juetio• in the acouoationa. Van &aren hod· b­ J'acll:801l' s Seorehr'J' ot state. He was, domntioally, .mtXre than that, being 1n hie oapaoit:y ot mau ot the world end s,mpatlhetio friend, _.thing ot a he"aahold - to tho honuoed and iruoible old President, torn wJ;th. old emotiODal WOUD.d!I:.. We are oertain that 1 n one or two oases he eeleoted pieces of :rur­ lliture tor the Bouse, beoauae the quaint old. assignment to "Jl.ert1D Ven Buren, Sloreta,ry ot state," was attached to the bill• theretor. I• au••• tram sheer pl'Obability that mch ot tho met:ropolltan tut• UOwn 1n the ltast Boom n.a Ven Blren'•• �uah the extnvegaH m1Sht well have been trom. the hand o t !eau, einoe soldiera react to the 1rapp1nge ot pageera­ U7. Je are nevertheleH sorry ror Vu. Buren od do him in our 'thouShta belated Juatioe beyoad the symiiathy' "C;endered to anyone 8 1 e po h ::,�:a �i: �:!1:!i .;;!;; tor� :,:::e=�s :��::•• we ue grateful that he wu victimized in dry-point detail. !!'or 011Ce, a Congresaional. reoord 1n the, early i,erto4 or our :n.atioa• • •�story 1• worih rea41"6. Tho CoJIIP'08111118Jl pz-oteaaiOllal.17 out­ .._.i by the state ot tho White Bauae IIOlllllhow a,,t hia handa on '1le J"ackBmL-Van. .BtJreJl bUla; md prooeeded. to 11D&thellla.tize thllll into ehNda. The ehNde are remarkabl:, ueetul to uo, gi'rillfl ua our only tapentr:,-piature � tom as it tel ot the White Houae ot the earl:, thirtieo. ot couae I we should J10t expect very muob o� the

.rackaou BJ)lEndor to have 1aeted. Splendor I at 1ta moat cher1ahe4, 1a not very durable. Bu.t 1t ■aeme extiraordin8l7 that thoas hardier objects. the mirrors on tbe, or the blaok marble tables tor i:natance, or even eome ot the :henah vuea, ahould not have mrvive4 lateJ> ta■tea and la-tar 79ers. Due or 110t "to the cursea ot Cobgl"eu and the dia4ain ot the t'ut1d1oua, 1101: 011e }deoe ot all .7ack80Jl'a lllponatton (ae tar ae can be mthentiea1:od) llu oame don to u■• 1'he only three in the Wh1te Rouse. 'the .Tack­ eon Da;J 1a reepcmeible tor ue not ot h1■ selection at all. Tllo are gltt;a to him. The tll:ird wu not even 1n the House in hh time but na brought lllD>st a century l.ater trom hie home 1n Tmmeeeee. 1'h1a 1a the l'acbon bed, 4eecr1bea in the Rooaevel:t oh.apter.

oui or the two glr'\a is the pair ot caudlestanda called Uo "llapo1- Condole.bra.• '1'hoy are the onJ.:, Nmaill­ illg a:mnpl.e Cit tloor cu4elabra now in tile llhite House, 1lhoasll it• daj,e of wu-t,q>Ol' light� ,mat haTe aeon lll8Zl7 auoi. in moat of the publio 1'001118. 'J!heJ' or• ti vo teat high ot gilded bl'Onze,• a atmda'd on a triPod baae hold1ug two tiers ot leBr-11lce m"enohea, •I.Ch bearing 098 thirteen. camdleligbta, - and in the 1aokeon day theJ' otood both a1doo ot the Blue lloa!I r1roplaoe. Ulldoubtodl.:, the oognoacont1 or a \?uhington ilrOll'lng room oousi,t thia neighl,orhood which woul.4 be qui"te light eno\14dl to aee and be aeen b:,• and yet leave one 1D no danger ot hot •ax dripa down the coi.tteur;. !:ON tha ou belle aeae to have eam­ pl.a111e4 ot that eurpr1ae under a Wubington. abendelier; end undoubtedly the reception ottioiele ot tb.e day atood their _prea1dent to one aide � a. cbaudelier, jtlet ae they do to­ day, tor a quite other reaeon ..

Why these standards should he.vs come to J'aokson wa can but gues.s. Pouib.J.:,- he aJ:PJ,"esaed b.1■ lik1Dg ot bril­ liant llghta - which •• aenee be had, like some or h18 auc• coeaora - to e. triend r4' hie. Possibly he liked to. atencl by hto n:re oven in hie Blu• lltalJiDS llDOln, and tho !:rion4 noticed it. .Perhaps it •aa a happen.-obance trtn,- u ve17 te• 1h1te Bouee gi:tte are by '\he wq. lhlt 11hateTI1r the � pulse tbat moved him, one Colone.l Patter.eon ot Balt1Z00l"e presented these bronze candelabra to h1a tried, General, then Pne1dellt, J'aoboz:i.. Bowever, thq had a dramatic ae­ ooctetion ot 1iheir own bM'oi-e thst presentation. The assoc­ iation. wu1 like many White Houae tale, torgotten. and rmaambered, and torgotten, during all the rear■ that tbe Jack.EIOD csndleataad• ■W04 bel.ow tho Blue Room mantolehel.t thot h<>ld tile � MineJTa oloolt and tho Monroe mantel cancllestiake. P.robe.b]1" 8llY()ne curtoue ae '\.o their origin placed them at the sama per1o4 - tbe J'renoh aneeetry oOIDJn to e.11 beiDg apparent. .Bu.I they w11re idaUtied. partiilllly' asa,i.a. in .Arthur's time. 11hen the then, Thonma Pendel, •u oonveying a visitor through the

45. 1iho poaae:saiona o� the Patteraone 'lhen J"el'Olllle Bonaparte - somewhat to the displeaaure ot a dynaatiolllly inclined. bmther - had married HI.ea Pattereon of Baltimore. A matching pair 1a attll in the poa-­ aeaa ion or the Pattoraone.

SCID9 whiepera ot their put llD11!1t .ba'te eluag U'OUILd the oandl.eatencle, and t'1llall7. after the anner of .Tacteou legenda, at• "teched. themeelvee to another object. The llilLena Cllock hu tor many amdn.iffl'e.Ucma eerr-ied the be.48e or Napoleon.. 'nle story hee bean lll"U'ted lllON than onoo that ll-1eon preaentecl that cl.oct to Late:,etta 1111.d Latqe"'e presented 1, t4' the lh1ta Bou.•• The traditi.on 1• too old an d Au too end.eared itael.t to aeaerve d1atlll"b1:ng, were it not tha'I th• clook 11 cle1t0r1"be4 ao ,mmiet,akably' on tbe ol4 ?«JDl'Oe bill.a o,r la4hg. The diaappointed ma,, if they W1ll 11 U'and'er halt' the le­ gend. to tile Patterson oendl.eat1oka. Dd tbe hietorio""IDinded need no longer Olruggl.e with the pioture ot the Dictatol" ot tho J'ranoh BopUb­ lto IIJl7 pre■ant to the galJ.1111\ Marqu.J.e o� the old zes;ime, even a PHHllt daoUned tor Oil Jmal"l.01111 preddont.

The second 1e.cll:aon. g1:tt ta a chair.. 'rbet chair hefl been used and appreciated, end lost and ret'cund and appreciated and iden­ titied.. in a te.shion. typical or Wb.1 te House pooeasslons. The houee ta .not a museum. It would loat instantly 1 t.e axtraordinsry vital quality or a 11v1ng bome were its poaeeasicne Ucketed and 2?'1 docketed and •a • vanished ta.ate na7 h&Te plaoed them .. Furniture 1n the White Bouse must always be tree to cOl!l.8 and go ae .need cllctates. Alld a houae breatb11Jg tba boapitality ot 1 h own Urn.ea cannot be turlliohed wtth a. colleet1011 ot eouvenire. But a certain personal.tty doea al!he:re to a 1?artain type ot furniture. A Preaid.eut•a taYori.te chai:r 1e, nre we colleetins D18110l'ials, the most reminie.oent - the moat recreative - ot all hie 1aanimate houaa­ matea.

Plato e

st-ate parlora. •• do not kllaw hia D.111:M, that grey-haiNIS Yialt­ illg gentleman, but ho •ao •bl• to tell hie guido that they H1'0 • preeant tran � Pat.leHOn ot' Ph:Ua4elph1a, DOW dea4 IIDG. gone, � Oeneral .Tecbon, when he we.a �a14at at tbe on1te4 Statea.. 'l'b&t was clul7 writt<m 1D IC'. Plmdol.• a book in llOO, ond �l'IIOtt<m,


a&t then we.a ill 1930 111 tuner and more ohB1'1D1Dg recog­ then that. A reaeut lhi'M Houae caller uke4 to see the tall can­ tllem. delabra that ueed to be in the BlUe Room.. She had been u a ol11ld, by her :tathff-1 and told to remm.ber them beaauae her tanlly anoe•tor. a Patterson ot BaltiJIDZe, had g1TOD them to Pre.1dea."t .rackson., whose pe:raonlJl t'liend he ,rais. She had been ao ..U when ah.a ■n '21s that the oen.delabra esemed aa h.1gh u \he tetller to whou hand. abe •aa cl.1Jtg1.J:ag; but ehe nlDEl!lbered. thela to acne puz,paee 1 reeOSD.i,zing thm. at onoa :,een later. Sile rtllllllllber­ •d the etor,y ot their origin, too. 'l!h.e,- hed once be.l..ongK to llf'a­ poleon Bonaparte, aDd. w11:h another �'oll.1D8 pair, ha■ been eent to _jmer1,oa with J'8l."mlle Bonaparte, u a 1111dd1Dg e;ttt to Mulmill1BD and Oerlotta of llexioo. But that unh,q>PJ' pair h e d met thatr treg-­ edy bef'ore the oandleetand coul.d. be sent thm.1 and bad oom.e into

We should like to kn.ow the ohaira ot our beroia presidents. We cannot belt, a sigh or two in the unknown direction ot that vanished state ob.air or General Washington's,• that we knaw na le.nt later by ita N"n York OWDer tor many inau«urals attar \fa1hingto11. We sigh ror some ot those chairs or Lady- Waehington•a Pree1dBDt1al drawing l"OOJD in Philadelphia. A aet ot them ..-ere in the White House once .. Mrs. Adame brought them down to Wa8h1ugtoa., though their red dama:&lc we.a a 11 ttle worn by- then, toz, bor oval Draw111g Boom on the second tlcor. She hoped that "'th.a,- might be preserYed to the mtticn tor many ye8.l's;: "" but war ie no preserver ot memoriala, and the chair&!! went in the fire ot 1814. We have no tavorite chair ot President Lincoln• a either. though wfi have tour of' the ■et that were, we knew, used around bis cabinat-table. But this Jackeon chair baa a Llncoln1an association, that muoh an?umces ita value to ue •

In tact it ow-ea it■ id.entity- today to a mention or it in e diary - by one ot Lincoln's Youns: eecretartea, unner­ eecreteriea rather. That youug mu noticed the chair tn the aell northwest room lie shared with othera ot the ottice force, and 1 t seemed to have fascinated him ea 1 t. has many another e1nce .. He in­ quired about 1 t c� one of the o.14er trequentera of the aeeond tloor --rins ta the chair pictured iD. the Stuart portrait of Waab1ns:ton.

yeare a.f'ter Lincoln• s secretary wrote ot 1t. Even in the etoreroom - an atmoephere ae anonymous as Nirvana - it was called the -'.ndrew J'ack■on chair, where llra. Coolidsei acroH it, loat her heart to it, re-leathered a.nd pol1ahe4 it, and brought it home; though "they• could not tell her why it wae the Andrew J"ackaon cilair. Not becau&e we like the p1c'iure the young d1arht draws eo graphically or Old Hickory on winter eveninge:. ll'e inaiat on that legend because Lincoln believed in lti and because this 1B the particular chair he ueed to drop into, on hie own long troubled winter evenings, when he came to relax a little 111. th hie own people, and stretch out - IlllS­ clee and mind - in an atmoephere ot laughter. The following charming aooount of' a 1aokeon dinnar-perty wee sent in to Mre. Hoover on .Tanuary 23d, 1932 • n:actly a hundred years to the day, at'ter the wr1t111r•a viait to 'the Whit• House:

"My dear \IUo -

•Agreeably to the promiee made in 'fll'/ laet I .now proceed to give you an aocount o:r th• ental"ta1Im1.ent at the Pa.lace (White House).

Plat& 9 Andrew J'ackeon Chair No, 271 the 1t'11.k1ns or the Lincoln day, undoubtedly. The resulte ot' hie research with hie reflections thereon,go down in his diary: "'!'hat chair yonder was such a faTOt"ite with him that tc this day 1t goee by th• name of Andrew Jackaon 'e chair. It le of Mexican mter1al and 1vorkmo.nehip, and was presented to him b:, cit­ izens ot that republic 1n tolcen ot their appreciation ot his friendly policy, and 1e ans or the heirlooms ot the Wbite House. Ite strong but graoetul and UDique mahogany f'rame austatua a hollow morocco leather aea.t that is poouUe.rly oantortable. 271 Old Hickory was accuatm:ied to lean back in it 1 of.' winter eTeninge 1 before. tho fireplace in the Praaident'e roa:a. and smoke his corncob pipe and put his stockl:aged !'eet upon the middle brieke ot the t'ireplaoa esrch. Mr, Lincoln ex:presse-1 s wtah to have those bricka preserved when tbe fireplace was recon­ atructi,d. 1 but somehow they were and lost. Still be ha11 lM.D81_!'8d to st&p in Andrew Jackson's tootstepa :rairly well, ae t'ar e.e determination to praserve the Union 1B concerned." The captious IDSf enquire into tho story - at leaat into the trlendly Mexican policy ot Andre" Jackson. But that particu­ lar legend !!BY etand unchallenged ror the rest ot' uo. Not only because t!le chair went by the nelll9 ot Andrew J'ackao.n for seventy

"With no very 11 vely temperament nor Tery oheerf\11 reeling arter h&Ting uudargone a thorough cloe.neing ct ra, outward can at about. a quarter af't•r t'ive a carriage wae pre-cured and m;v tour com.. menced - at half atter tive, arriTed at the Palace and pulled the bell. 4 waiter answered the call and I waa peHed over to au usber by whcm I was uehered. into the preeeuce cha11lber, where I waa re­ ce1Te4 by Major Donaldeon t taken by hand aod presented to the Pres­ ident and then introduced to Kre. Donald.eon, Mra • .Jackson - ]4re. Somebody trom. PennaylTanla and �tee Lippincott :rrom the tsa.tlle state. A:rter the u1SU-e.l oomplimentery enqu1r1e8 about health and. a tew ob­ servations on the weather t I retired to my chair and entered int.a conve:raa with a veey sociable tat gentleman DBmed Mr. Kennon, :trom Pennsylvania, who tog11ther with Mr. DJtty - Gene. Morcer J: McCoy w1 tb a :rew others had already- ani ved.. Tho were collecting until about ES o'clock, r,hen. it amounted ta thirty four exclusive ot the ladies. In the sitting rocm were two sctaa, ab cut II dozen chairi;'three looking glasses each ae le.rge aa the large one ot Uncle Bleeker's, end t'i-rty six candle• in caudleaticka end che.ndo... liera.• iTell there ,re renained until about t a:tter six when the dining room doors were thrown open and the Preeideot rcae ud said: -0.n .. McCoy, gi?a me your arm. - some ot: the gentlemen will pleaae to take care ot the ladiH and the yoUllger gentlemen will plee:se to tollow." So by pairs •-e entered through the two daorB into the din­ ing room, In the center of a table about thirty 'feat long and ten t'eet wide waa seated. the President, OPJ)OBite to him Mrs. Donaldson .. on the right aide or the Preddent llrs. 1ackaon was !leated and the right ud lott of Mra. Donaldson were soated the other ladiea. On the table wae placed a plate.•• It ia a peculiar term I cannot rind in .lohnaon or Webster - and theretore I am compelled to describe U. *Thie we.a the Monroe Pe.Tia furniture in the Oval Room, atill crilDSOD f'or Presid.en t J"ackson. •"'The •plato" waa the Paris plateau or surtont-de-table.


Imagine then an o'f' about eighteen feet long and three or tour teet ,ride edged •1th gold and •hose bottcm we.a looking glaBl!I platen, on 1 t atanding seven golden jars, TI!&e-B or voseela � ole­ gani form tilled with the IIIOl!lt auperb arti:ticial t'lo,rars, in the center of' thie a chandelier with tl11rt:r cazuUee, and you have th11 Platow -- two or three branches placed at each end and one on each sI'iie""'ot' this na the light of th• table -- I met here obael"'Je that b•a1c1es thie illumination there ware ten candles on each ot the mantles and brackets arcuad the room, which I beli&Tl!II I h&Te omitted to IDMl.tion is about sixty by torty feet - on tbe table at tho time we nre seated waa ncthing eave some eight or ten golden and ailnr diehea tilled with Jlacaronia and pa.striae or ditrerent kinds and wt th l!!lome raney pyre.raids: or diff'eren:t terms. On our platee we round where eeated a napkin end small. loat ot bread - a knite and tcrk wt th mother at poarl handle andaeilTer three pronged. f'ork. Now we ware able to con:nence operations w1 th comparat1vely nothing to 01>erate on - but I was not unaaay 1 ao ws were invited to Dinner I wae satisfied we would one, and eo it proved. ShoTtly af"ter we were 888 ted a waiter emns e.rou.nd with a a plate whereon was a slice ot mutton chop cooked at'ter the l!'rench style with yege,tablee- - tbie waa se:t down to replace cur empty pl.ates - then comnBnced the eating - thia proceea was con­ tinuing until I hflld counted eighteen dirterant rounds ot different prape:rat1ona. all mde in the beet style or trenc;.,h eookery - with the exception the.t in eome 1netances the waitar came •1th a dish in hie hand and a request that we help ourselTes Ollt of' it Median sherry white i!llld red and champaigne in abundanee. NDW you. will naturally enqu1re what did all those rounds consist or. I will try and recollect tor I assure you it. will require some et­ tort o'f' memory tc acaOUDt all I iiaeted.. :l'iret then ae I have stated the mutton chep, then beet etewad. and I be1teve in garlic :ror it .bad that teat• - then bmn - then chicken - theJl phoase.nt then a mmll put't • then small birds elegantly cooked - then tongue - then boiled tish dressed w1th aa.lad and oil - then f'ish broiled - then ve:rmioili i,ie - tben a Venison pastry - then what is called Made.roJJt - then canvae backed ducke - then celery ele.. gantly draaeod (ot which I conteBB I ate too much), then a dieh which the wal ter called de Bu.t't and I thought it was cold boiled :towl mixed up ..-1th salad and oil end Tinegar- - then boiled lamb tongues nth a amall portion ot potatoe puddine, this 1a 8evsnteen and after taxing e.11 1DY' rncollecticne it occurs to me we had 80Up to begin with which we.a taken out o� two large tureens standing on a e.ide table - this eompletes my count - and was f"cl­ lowed 'ff'ith t'iga, raisine, almonds, ice cream, blee.u mondge, calved toot jelly, oranges and apples. I think by this time you will aoy en.c,ugh, ao I thought and 1 t appears our host thought alee. You will obeerve that none o-r the meats er cooked d1ehee were put on the tabla - all were in an adjoinine: room and brought in either on plates or dishes to help ourselves out ot ae I betore ate.tad. The jellies and ice cream were handed ercurm and each belplnl hirr.­ sel.t'. They were Tery elegant."


The rest ot the letter ie mi■aiJJg. Written by G. Y. Lansing to wit'e, Helen Lanei.og, .Jan. 23, Punctuation and Paragraphing eama e.s original�

Sl.. IWl'l'IN VAN BOJU!II 1837 - 1841, The ;Tb.1te House owns onl;r one srt1cle that is certl!linly Van .Buren. That is the !1101:''blo buet of the Presi­ ent, now ou a White concrete _pede11"1 in the west end ct the sround floor pu'blio corridOl". Thare is no m:act record ot When it arrived. in the House, nor where it was kept during the ad­ ministration or th& •little �iciautt , n0%" whose work it na. It ·has prob­ ably b'l*n unident1tied and re-recog­ nized many timea 4ul' the admiuia­ tratiom, a1uce, llke the other buata, althou,;b a li■t ct their names has been caretully kept 8'1'en 0111 during the yaara they were 111. the attic . But which wee fi11more 81Ul which john J°ay, which Van Buren and which (e.e is noted with charminp candor ot the RooseYeU­ added bust OYer the doorway to the elentor hall.) was "ot no-one in par­ ticulBl."", was probably a matter ot id1e debate to the idle tor r-allJ 1mrs.

But there are tour pieces ot f'urn1 ture that may w1 th every reasonabil­ ity short ot proof' be ascribed to Van BureJl• There e-veu. bi 1111 to substan­ tiate thell' claima. One 1e the circular di Rn of' gilt wood and r&d solt-tigured 'brcdade I now reigning in the center o-r the Oval Room on the ground f'loor. It has 1'een there since 1903, w1 th the !!onroe l!IU i te ot gilt che.!rs and eo:ras f'l'om the Slue Room, in. juat the. _pod tion 1 t held ln the sim­ ilarly oval Blue Room. on tna floor a'bovej though in 1930 1ts 'blue cover was changed to red J to m!ltch tb{l upbolstery of' the rest ot · the :C'ur.lilahiuae or tba"t room, and to recall the coloring ct the or1i!l:inal Monroe q,ve.1 Room, whii;h baa since gone into history as the ft.Blue Room. "'

Wben the Van !lll"en is fire\ placed wt th accuracy in the records, 1 t fts , 1n the term ct President Mc­ Xinl.ey 1 1n the main corridor on one of the handsome red-pluah-covered pedestals. It had probably been there tor h1a -predeceHors Cleveland Harrison, and u:ay haTe been there tor Prosident Gren.t , llbo bad one DBrble bust 1 n bla ccrriO:or� In 19025, when tbe corridor was raatored to 1 ts present simplicity atter the Titteny glsH-screen era, th1e bust with the others was sent down to the newly opened corridor on tb• g:oound f'loar. Now in 19�0 , it be.s been permanently lden.tit'ie4 by a portrait. Angelita Singl&ton Van Buren, the sprightly bride ot tha Proa1deD'li':D son and BBeretaey, we.a a ffllite House m1■treaa tor part ot the -term ot her lather-in-law, who we.a a wliiower ot seven... teen years .stan41ng. Du.ring his tath'}r'a adra1n1strc.t1on, Major Van Buren took bis bride to Er.gland and aha was preaented s:t Court � f'rom Wbic triumph she returned to the White Houea. In 1842, the year attar Pre.siden.t Van BU.ran le:tt the Wh.1 te Houae • Mr.e . Van Buren' 11 portmit wae painted by Henry !nmftn, in her court draas 6lld her 1Jt11te ostrich pluillea . The b&clc:grcund. ot the por­ trait", which h: one o:t the tineet in tbe , lb.1te Houee collection ot presidetttlol bosteeee& 1 1nel�ea this bUst ot Van au-en. Tbat Gre.cetul little touch Ms 1den t11'1� tllle 1::ust., and the two an Bide by :dde in. the publ.ic corridor , l.1rs. Vsn Buren in pct1nt, girl­ ish under he.r plumes, and the Pree1deut in marble, a 19th century BO!llln in bia dra.ped toga and si4e-burnn.


Bsrore 19'03, its history cs.n be t.rGced t,ack tor a surpriaitlg number ot yoera, always with the llonroe tur.niture. We eee it pieturGd in the 'Blue llcom of Preeidea.t Clffeland, crowned w1 th a tu... agrH t;ilt tern.-ba.lket, and upholatered like the: reet ot tbe suite, in a :flam­ boyant pat.tern o:r blue plueh. ,,e read that •the diV9.ll"' waa moved :rrom the cen­ ter of' the J3lue Room in 1878, tor the wedding of PNaident Hayes' niece , 11:iae Platt, and that C1eveland was married "'north ot the divan. " It lt'BS a •center ottoan" in the Blue Room tor Mrs.. Oreu.t, at least durinjllj the rigid da;ye ot' 1nvontory-t&k..1ng, eltbough it must undoubtedly haTe beei:,, moved on reception ni,cb ta. But it hae anotbsr Ml:mX>l'J' as. charmiug aa.weddi.nga. Mr.a. aobert Lincoln, d.aughtor-in•law of the !Cmancipa.tor. recalls it e.e e. "'cun'ed divan" in the middle ot the Blue Room. that 11 ttl.e Tad Lincoln usad to slide aoroea th• floor en.d jump on party night•• Which waa l'emOTecl tiret, Tad or tha divan, is net pt.rt ot the story.

Plate 10 van Buren :au1t No.. Olll on Hoover .Pedestal 0145 Portrait ot lira. Me.jor Vi!.D sure by Henry l!lman

Its claim to e. Van Buren o.rittin reate 00 an old bill. The Blue Room, rather neglected in the sweeping decorationi, or President J'ack.eon � was thol'O\lghly redeoorated by Proeident Van Buren. in 1838. He. pe._pered hie "'c1rfrul8.l' roam"' , hung i t with corded and. tasBOlled curtains ot satin., eal.oo.n and �uze, coYe:red alld re­ paired hi.a Monroe inberi te.nco ot hen.c:b .t'urni, 1rhicb bad then lasted oxae:tly the twenty years of uee hoped tor by 1 ta purchaHre. 'Then he ordered on.a diYa.n framo covartng and material tor stut'fi:ag, all cos-Ung eighty-tour dollars end sirty cents, on August 22d , from


age, seven dollara and fi fty cSllta to have it delivered in ;:aahing­ ton.. Thlll"e 1a just such a table still in the House. It is statuary, which seems to ba 1830 tor merble, with an hens;onal top, pedestal carved with aeanthua leavss . 84d solid toot ( originally a."'lod with caetors) . It might be the marble center table mentioned in the diary ot the ettic:ient Polk, which be placed at hie back at recep­ When, in 1930 1 the llcn.r08 turoiture left the Ground tions so that he would not be swept aside by the crowds.. l'locr for the Ee.21t Room, both :tor th• enjoyment ot visitors wbo 0130 Whan we first actual trace ot i t , it wae the center eee no other •orig1naltt turni tun, an.d. tor 1 ta a]JJ)ropriateneee table tor the Red Boom in President Llncoln•a time . How­ to that backgound , the •center ott®lln" could not .follow. The ever, that doe1 not deny it th• right t:o be the Van Buren Ore19n Room did once have almost such •ottome:na", in its more oozy , Room table. Mrs. Lincoln bt1ueht. ae rar as we know, only china and mid-Victcril!ln aspect. There were three or them, dOWD the center axis ot ita carpet. ot overatut'f'od leano •t'Urniture at 1:1111 tor the llbite Bouse, and used the Red Perler ae the :t'omily ther, with srmll leather arms ei Uing room. She might have their ciroular seats. And they certainly Oval Room, Ground !'loor raided the Green Room tor its center u:tenaed their hoepi tality as late as the Cleveland Adm1nietrat1on. In those table. Someone, probably the Grants, days I the k11t Room wa11 tho scen1i ct' e. who put ata1:rs lll the main hall , placed daily twelve o' olook reoept1on by the it 1o tha stair hall. The Roose?elta Preeidant, to whomever cared to come and put 1 t back in the Gre,en lloo.t1., where 1 t shake the Executhe hend . And tbe cirremained until at leest 1915. cular BBats •ere probably gr.atet"Ully ap­ pre-oiated by the waiting crowd.a. It turns· up - Nccgniza.l)l:y- .. ton years later on the third tlooi-, in Thoee ..ottomma• •ere probably the end eu1te t'1ttec1. up aa a studio part ot the outmodod tur.niture aold uncJer tor the Wilaon ladies. In 1930 it wae the Roosevelt redecorating in l.903. !'o.r­ placed on view in tbe east en:trallce ot' tuoately, the old Van Buren d1Tall was the loq ground t'loor aorrid�, tor Ill's. spared , since its hiatory at least en­ Hoover, where 1 ts Itali&D-garden qual­ hences 1ts attl."8.ctiTenaes. The touring ity looks at bome in. that little gl.aas crowds who wander through the public floor 'Jf1..ndowed room beside the, to:l"ml!ll garden . ot the Whi ta Hausa today enjoy 1 t, at leaet ·1n its 1J!.Dter red or in ita summer But the Green Room. under liuao cover.. van Buren, wae gilt ae well ae ma.l"ble. Its clmirs were gtl 't. J"aokaon had had ho ot the possible Van Buren them •partiall:r regilded. "' Van Buren, p!eoee were probably additions to his we know, had bought two n.a1r gilt mir­ Green Room. "lhet parlor he had decoratod rors tor hi a newly papered pa:rlcr, Plate 11 at a ooet of three hundred t1:rty tive dol.­ tUld all in i ta new settint the 14onroe lara and sixty et,;ht een.ts, • wh1ch botJGbt console , 'llhieh bad beell bought in Van Buren Divan -4.l.S; Console ,19 him nBW sil•er wall paper, with a border, Furia, but 1fh1ch was after all only Grant :tiroscreau !lo. 433; Bronze• 0121-0122 eurta.1ne or green eilk and of fringed mahogany, ( though 1 t bad a mirror Roosevelt Cbail's lfos. -4.25..S white muslin, and matting, bound with 'back I a marble tcp and was gilt mount­ Portraits of' zache.r,y Te.:,lor bJ' Andrew.a and graan worsted biudinrg, to cover the car­ ed.) have seEml.ed noticeably shab­ pet in SUl!lller. 'trha.t mot-e likely than J°emea Oart1eld by Andrews by. SOmabody :sold that Monroe Green that the •elegant marble statuary center Boom conaol.e j very probably (although tab1e.. we kn.ow he bought ns tor the Green we no record ) it was van Buren. Room? Center-l"Oota turni ture ne beginning to oorae into t'oahion. And Yan Buran probabJ.y bought in its stead e new gilt coneole , w1tn.eee Oent1ral J'aakaon'a round center-tabllila tor the East Roan, with tile 111.rbl• top s o .neoel!lsary tor the eet1iing down o f hoeand Vu atreu' e 01JU c•nter diTB.II ct the Blue Room.. The Green aoom without a coater-table have dia�rosaed ite :raet1dious -rhe tlcur•• are 1ntereatiug because o:t thelr eompal'lltiye modesty- , et.nee Van Buran lost his second term partl:y through criticism of his utravaga.nce� C. H. and 1. F. 1'h1 te ot Philadelphia was bought tor one hundr•d aM. f1fty dollars aod that it eoet in that day or cUtf1cu1t cartNo. 0130 , eee Plate XXVII one Edffln"d Burke, ot We.shine;ton, upholstersre and listed the bill under Blue Boom.. What else could those mteriels have turned in­ to, 1:r not this completely delightt'ul Victorian com.psnion ot the e.z4uisi te royal French exilee?

��:i-a b�IT :���8t:!�t!0�:i!1:1 ;:0�!�!11::.!:1�!I�:'"iro!•

:.7. :JM'.l!!S lllOl!A:'..m !URR:.:E'l' UllE (niece) lB57 - l.861 The adl:Wliatration o.t Preaidont Boahenan took plaoe SSaina" en omiDOue backgrowid, '1'ml t:loUd:a ot the Civil :tu were approacbiug; thsy war,e to break in C.he nan term, and the im.OW• le4ge o'E tb.-t to ua throws an int,snee, rathe:r wmatural 11ght back on th& ·;411te Bouse of tho later flt"Uoe. Curioualy enough, u tar u domeetio end aooial h111to17 is eonoe.rned, tboae tour yecra we:re ISQOOtb, happy, ena. �1U1an:I. llU.ah ot that, at cou:ree, le due "io the youth and cheerful pyety ot' "the JOWi& m1aire11 ot the nouae, •ho aeem.111 to hne won tho beeming appJ'Oval. of the Preaid.«nt' a niece, Harriet :t.aDa, her oontemporariea.. It ie, too, partly con- The ar.ta.uuatra'don. betcxre he.4 been, q:oin eocially epeak1ng, eobsr, due to the pet-aonal. ■ol"J:Owe ot its leaderai and the pariioa, dimi.era, State hoa,pU-alitie■ ot the Illchanan•I.ane era a!lone w a gn,terul l'uhb..,-ton. It happens t;he record ot the aal.iell't teati.aoa ot th1a adt:1nistrauon are lett ue 1n its lec:;aoy ot l'urntture. It 1a u record ot toreigu hospitality.. It ia too logioal to noed p:root tho.t 1t was lklchallan who ordered. the 11Prince 02 li:'alea bed;• end the state guoat Nam funiit.Ul"e to lJO wt th it; end BuOIWWl who received our b?'Onze Bud.dhiei el.tar ■et trom the J'al)aJleae Eml>as07 1n 1860. 'Re are teJ.rly sure that no nain-tloor turniture ot tm,.. portanee wa■ needed the Jllobanan admiuiatraUo.n. At the ol.oas of tha preoeding te.N the Ooml1..1on6:r ot Pa.blia BulldJ.nga. who ahoul4 know, end who 1a ulllallT (poor man) DOt en optimist, repona that "to the beat of IIIJ' l<Dowlodi!e tho house t!lroughoUt has never been ll e better oon41ticm at the end . ot an a&za1nta­ trat1on than at p::reeani.. COll&NH voted twenty-thO\IH3 , 14 dollare: tor the 'i1h1te House appropriation ot the next rear, en4 the :record.a abo'II that whil.e ..JOat ot that euna went tor the ue1:.• oouenatory that ro­ plaoa4 the old OJe ca'tbe TNU\U'J' 111@ ot 1he houu, a :portion of 1-t wu apent tor turniture.. 'l'tlere 1e, of cw.rae• .no actual ao• count ab.ow1118 •hst turniture it: Bat the chen.oee are tha:t, in 'the hand.a or a Preaident whoH in.eti.nct tor entertaining • u nl. l developed, it .tligbt been tor turn it ure ror hie GUeat rogm, wh1eh ••• apparsn:tly then the adaq\latel.y tumiahod or any room in the house. Hie nguoat-roomtt is all ta 1irue. In that day" in the handa of a Whi'te Hou•s ttmily o t IJ13" pretenoiona toward aize, there Yfta only one gueet room ot a tormal nature possible for -the Preddent to offer. Th.s:\: waa uaually tbe aouth center bedroom next to the Boom on its one aide, ud n«rl to the southwest Presidential Bedroom on its otber. lt is not a lara:• room a■ ntta Houae roou go• though ot coui-ee larger 1n au:,hllllU' e di,y tbnn it 1 e now, 1tinae then 1 t included the present bathroom apace. 'Wt 1 t he.a "two smmy south w1n00ws, and 1 tis 01VD. entrance tnto the aittin&-root'� net door 1 - that lovely oval. 1"00m. so pre:ieed b:{ o.ll Ibo have seen 1 t ..


.,·o do not lmor; how it Wl!lfl turn1ehe4 tor 1:luehexlan' e pred.eceeeors. The last roccrd or bedroom turn1tta"e bought tar it 1a Van airen•s twmt.ty years betore. And ten yeBl'a ie the everego lifetime ar Wb1te Bouae turniehinge. So that President Buchanan• e State Bedroom. waa pl"'Obab� c;.ulte read7 £0:r the cr1t1eal attention ot a gentlatnan who had been ill 111• time llllliaior at tlle court � St, ,..,... J!Ol)Ooia.lly auoh a gen.tlaman llh.o mq have heard that e cerlaiu Baron B:entrew, at home the eldott son of �een V1otoria 1 was contemplet1ug a visit to the lhite lfouao. It 1e al:m>at inQouoeiveble that the state beciroom &hould DDt 1:1.aTII been put it. IIP901&1 or4er t'or auch a visU. Or that a n,ew bf>d sboul.l\ not have been ordered - the "9'ery be■t Bl14 meat e1e­ sant bed tb.a Hatton•• Capital ooul.4 produao. lllegenoe ill tbe tl0 mid lUneteea:tb. amitmy was a -.ttar partly ot alze.; and that size mw,t be well orn�nte-4 with oaning.• 'l'be reault ot hi• shop­ ping wae al.moat oerte.inly the tamoue State 'bad. still tn-aeured by the Wte House. •J.a one ff1tor rmark•, d.aacr1bins the :rumnun or the titti•a, IIThe 8WQllen aOJJtour• ot ew walnut tu.ru1ture 1 end Bru.aaella Oa:l"iJet ot opulent designs matched the cr1nolimn, of th.a gold-ruah." It wa11 Jmo.rn :r-or 7eara 111 old Bou11a tradt tlon a■ tho Prlnoe of' loelea bed 1 1t ',:ea in the guest room when the Prince or t"eles, atterwarda Edwal'd V1l, ata,Jed a't the 'iJb.1. t• :Sou■e du-rtng a.ioben­ an' a admin1etration.. No word seya it was bought tOl' his visit; but no mention ot it ll'.llltWhere can be tounti betore that.. Tberetore, de­ duetion poi.lite: to Buchanen 'a buying 1 t. It la the largae1: bed 1D the, and sure-13' in moat houses. By actual meuurem.ent it is eight end a belt �eet long, tive en4 o. halt teet wide 1 end t8D feet bi&h, of beautltull.y oarved. walnut:. .&it tbe proportions are so goo4 1 and it la so at home against the h18Jl wall.a ot the 'iihite Hou• rooma, that its enonnoua ore realized a.lowly. Tha boa4boerd, eweeptns to an ovol c rested with oarv1ng, ia broken with two OYel pan.ele, treJT.iBd in a wreath at carvod v-lne11 bc,aring cluatel's ot grapoa, and th)rchil'.18 birO.a. The oanad. turninga ot the low toot-bosrd show the esme oru.a:mentation. Or1g1nally the 'bed was aunaounted by e 4.etaehed crown ot gilded wood, 01'2181D8nted wt th oaned end gilded eagle• cd tho national coat ot e.rma 1 which tnm,g trom the ceiling and trom which weN au.a­ pended the bed-ollna1Jl8,. D1 the most el.8g8Jlt de.ya of' it• lite, the 'bed•a ourteina Hem to hav• been ol'imson demaak; when l!ra. Tatt, in 1908, deaido4 to 4iapenso wttb the crown 1n an airlee■ Wuhingtou � mer, they nre blue t with white nru.slin inner Sine• Te.rt 's day I the crosn has been back OTer the bed but it 1 s now stored ? to be part ot the l.egend on the. tongue. o� the household attandant idh-­ play-1ng the bed to "th$ f'aec1nated

�i!. It is a long legend. 'l'he bed 111 probably, to thoae wb.o have the private tloor privilege ot £U8&thood. the DX)St 1ntel'B■t­ ing artie:J.e on tbfl noor.. It ia now in the le:rge Northweat On.est.. room, and it is aamoti111ea spoken o� as the "Lincoln :BeO.." J\lat 1rb7 the state be4 .tbould. have rather recently e.cqu1red. tbe glamour and title ct the IJ.nooln bed no one ia G.Ll1te sure; tho:re ia no proot that it wu hia. 1'1:le principal ree.sonin8 eeema to b• that it wae 'the blggeat bed 1n the houee; tha:Ntore Pree1den'\ Unool.n muat haTe ohoaen to sleep in it.; It doBe not sum to have been 1n I.1.noolD•• bedrom. .lt least 1'l •aa not there tor the aam.inia­ trat1on beton h1e, nor the Grant administration1 af'tel"; nor •aa 1 t oalled the. "L1lleoln bee!• until. Northwest atter 'the Rooa..,.elt era. The ohmlgoa or the Roo8evel.t da, brousht the bed out ot the state Gueai:­ Boaa.1 w:b.ioh bOCGl8 the bedroce tor 1iwo of the JWUor Baoaenlte end n«u!lded wh11e painted 701,1th1a bed.a. 1.bil state p1eoe wu then placed tor tho :l'irat tillle (u :!'or aa traoeahla) noxt door in tho soutbweet Bed­ room obo1on by...,,_,. pnaid.enta ("""'DI! thn Lincoln). It remained then until l(ra. '1"'1't -round 1te v1otor1en glory e :Uttle op­ ill a modem daily lite; ud under ber oel'e it wu .taorn of ita cro.m and tranatoned aorou the hall w the llOrth­ weat bedroom. Tho WilOOD regime brou8)>t 1t baolt aoroH th,e hall ee:atn to prea1det:1al u■e; tbe Hel"d1:ng ern eent it back to the nortb aide; th& Coolidge term brought it baok to the south, and the Hoonr ad:m:l.D1et1-at1on has made it the nuol8\le ot the large Viotortan Bedroom on the nortbweat that 80 uea end dellghto tho overnight gueat luclQr ellOugh to be udgned to that room. ot cool grema and many memories.

i'here have been other extrer.rural legend.a about that bed that t;ere ;,lausible to the1:r, but 1mpoae1ble to the house­ hold. Its Ull1laue.l interest baa brought it into publicity, where :moat \\bite I!ouse t'uJ>niture doea not venture. And ita picture in an old book n.aa b....en le.rgaly reproduced. A xwmba ot letterl!I hl,.vc oat1e iD about the -Uncol.nit bed. One vae extremei, c1rcumatucial; the writer r61DE1mberod aa a cl:111.d pl-,YiJ:18 -1th the grape a on the toot­ boa.r4. It bad bee.n 1n h1e t'Gily since it had bee bought, � yoere betore, f'Z'CID a :ti.rm in Pb1ladel.ph111; and had been eold 'by tho -.r1ter', tDil.7 to Prea1dent Jtoosavalt. Other people he.TB tlnle re­ cognized the bed snd. remembered variO\l.S early histories rcr it be­ tore 1'ta oomiu«; to the White Houee. 'l'be expla­ Bed.roOJn nation probably 1• that its magniticenoe we.a eo great that the t.sret one waa ooi,ied. tol" moro tban one purchaser, in. more tbal'l oity. 1:Yeu whethel" thia ffl::t.1te Houae one W6.8 the first or l.ut ot the aeriea we do not know. other lagende about the be4, being illtl'mmral, are t1"Ue.. The administre.tiona gf the pMaent contury have had appnciative aa­ aocie.t1ou 'l'1 th it. 'l'he smell Ro0aevel.t 007• Gd Uleir chums be.Vo been reputed to sleep ao­ rose it, t'iTB e.breaet. And. th� quite could havs. Ita State bedep,read. io this deJI' Je tbe one crcobeted tor 1t by llt'a. Coolidge. She did it all ih lon& ab-ips, one et a time, and llllY' 11.rst Laey will guee.s what a boon the work •&9 to her in the atreaaea ot iuteirvie.-e aud e4 tea-table chat1. It bu Bil &Teryda;r bed­ ap:ree.d now, too,- a white cotton q>lil.t patched. in pink ::,omegranatee end green leave•, &de to the size ot tlle bed. It wes n gUt to the Pl'eli Gent tran a miaaiona.ry eociety ot ',, l'tomen, 0t ths Priends t!eetili& 1n Salem, Oregon. 'fhey hed saed,e maay C)l11lte, -to be 1old tor their mieaiouary tunda. But thill one they made ae a gift to a t'ollow member- on the roll11 � their church who bed nenr eince h1a boyhoo,d with­ drawn his neme from the l1•t.

It" that "1&St cbooaes to bel1en that he is sleepiJ:18 in Lincoln' a own bed, PJ.11.te 13 no one dieillueion.e him. Uter all.1 tb&N state Cluoat-b&d No. DO •0n.o very amall :nother with her very 11 extant a legend in one ot Wuhington • a U2llmon. Bed -t a ble No. � L1ncoln. deek. Jfo. ?'O small, daughter were esaigned toaethar to ite. own .rurni ture selling tirms the.t thq made this bed tor Pl'eaideut L1nooln 1 1D 1Jlllmoni1'111-Dha1r65 depth• ODO Dlght, "1th meil,Y' e.pologio■ tor the 18&1, eince hie extraordinary leJl&tb made houae being 8) crowded that they oould not be e. bed ot great size noceaeary to hie cara:rort. But 1:hey cmmoii sub­ ottered aeperete roau. •tantiate 1t 1 except by DIUl)riea ot tradition handed doe t,y their own maplo7eee. AD4 the legend W ue 1a t10t ctt.rel.1 Teuoneble •flby •" said the m0ther oheortly, if we sleep in. dieconal. that the war Preatde.nt ahould. order d;fthing 110 elaborate in the earners of the bed •·e wont even know we ere in the same room." dark timee that nre, by 1801, tull,y upon



,�::s i;:;c:-xt:.:: !Wllll'.ET u:::i (niece) 'Nb.en that particulor l'r1end took. on the country u hia :personal coneen. and moved into r. l.arge that had, they read, & "l'&l"Y large bed in it, these 1adtea, yow,.e end old, trom. eighteen years at as• to e16!-ty-s1x, patched end quilted a coverlid, iD exqui■itely amell at1tohe■ that restore one•s pride in one's count:rywomen•:s t1:ngers.. }"rom Prince ot .ales to �ak•r Ceeting houae - tha1i bod hll.8 mo:ay mamoriea. Bu:t tte State 'bed idl not the only piece ct tumiture •• have tram that old S1iate guoet ro<e. The ta0at complete we l'G8J' re4d ot that room ia tram Grant'• time: "The Sh:te Bodroorl ot t�.ia ncor le a grand apartment, �•BY• a womar. vioitor end bookwritor) "tu:nliehed •1th roe:ewcod aAd. cri:naon ■atin, 1 ta hung with :purple and GOld. 'l"te bed­ a'iead is high, msasi ve, oarvea end canopied, t't■ damaak curte.ina hlJill!:111£ from a gilded hoop neer tho ceiling. tl�o bed lie cushion■ tor the teet 1 sgai119t the wall stand two,y wa:rdrobea, w1 th t\lll length mirrors 11.Din& their doora, 11h1le emchcir• end couchae deeply cueb.1oned are eoa:ttared over the Telvei. oe.rpet." ;;D hcvo e.nother picture or it, tiao !"Nm that Col­ onol Crook lltlo wu Lincoln 1 ts devotl'ld f'l"iaD.d. and bocly:--uud. .,ben the war-Pre■tdent, tired tron paciDS the long hall and -..11 oroea tall. at night, went into hie dresdnc rocm eot to ■leap fo>:­ e. tew houra, Crook used to alt on bis watchman's chair outside that little roau'a door. On other nicbta be e.nd the eeoon.d watch.­ man ueed to patrol tbe halls, juat !lB the nieht •e.tollman or thia preaent day- goes quietly about.. He JllWlt otten heve glanced into thet coonlit State oueat room, next to the Prt>eident•s room, to be =iure e.ll was •oll and he rt11m:1.bera that; "tho principal gueat chM1ber waa on 'the south aide ot the Wh1 ta Houee 8lld •aa turniehed thl'oughout ill mahogar.:,. The ereet bedstead was aepeciilly imposing, beins beautit'ully carYed and he.Ting II high canopy oYel' 1ta head. The ol.d­ taehioned burellU ae T,ell ee the chnire and tibe table ot the gueat roo:1 were caned to sOClC ex ;;ent but not �e ela'bo:-e.tely as was tl:.e bedstead.• 53 or -:.hoaa venhhed. day■ •• e'ti:i.l. havo on.e or tte "ete.tely" wardrobes, with t'Ull length mirrora l.ininc: their doors.• It 1e tl:• ,,ardrobe now in the Uorthweet Bedroom.. •1th the stata bed. It re­ mainwd tn the southweot roon during the Roosevelt tima. Pre■ident Coolid,g• ee.nt it to the large bfJdroom in 1:1:.e southeast corner in e1,ohange tor the mu.ob l.erger wardrobe �aident Roo■nelt had bought :tor that room. 'l'ber• tt.ia state wardrobe, r■c:iogni::a1ble tor its curvinc top 8D.d 1 te pierced openwork oarved or<rnning, and ttn­, ll• ,.ell e3 ita door mtrrora ,. ataye4 until the Southeeat Bed­ ro0r1 beceme no longer a bedroa::i, in lljil2Q. 7in.U.,- it cama back to join ite own old co?:rpanione in the Northweat Lincoln Bed.roCEl.

:Pld• l4, Couch ot state lc>om No. 278 Th• "coucllee de•:.,ly cuehtone4" m..ey- have been two , Tl':.t nee were 1iO 1n pdra in the Victorien era. ;But Graot'I!! ow:n !nvontory givea one only, and t■o ottoman■, all tllre• in purple dsa­ eak aatin. The couch la p?"Obably Hill ill the houee,- now u.psteire on the tb1rd floor e.t'1;er a lo11g end wearing lite ot atate, aa state livee are apt to be.. But it bas not been drea.eed in purple ■attn eUlCe .President !LolUnle:y•a During ite nursery 278 it muat have worn aor:1eth1ng lei,a 1J!lpreas1onable to litUe 111.1ddJ' boota (eno. White lawna 11J2d tlo••r-bsds get mud­ ay.) Through ell the State Bedroom'a changes, tbia couch - or lounge, aa 1t wae once oalled - aiayed on duty until lil7, wbe.n t� wu recovered, ( in 1ta proNDt chintz) and carried t o Proaideni r.11aoo.1 s clrese1n,g room.. Tbwre it at■yed until 1noree.e1ns ababbilleea sent it upataire, to tbe retugc but one or weary i,b1\e F.ouso turniture.. The old time bureau ia in tbe ?Jo:-th"U"est Bedroolt, tao. It ia the typical Vici:orian bureau, Mrble top, cdr1'0r, large ahe.llow drawer■ orn8..I3:ilnted w1 th carTed. truite and le•vea, oar,ed mirror trm::t.e, un.J. up the eidee &m&ll braoketa reaQ;, to hold a.ll the knicklalAcka dear tQ the nineteenth century lover of brio-a-brae. It 1■ not a bureau conduoUvo to taet clrHain8, aa on:, gueat 61 •1th an experimental 1;apenaent may te•ti:ry. The Northweat 1• not l'lll ett1c1ent bedroom. It hae an uncann,y ettect on ll!lY" gueet who, waking up dih a aalltll-ab1ld ah1Ter o't' mngnitic:enoa, looks up at 'the oarved heighta above her, up to the towering ceil­ ing. �odern l.oets - even z:.odern prestdeatial toeta - cay ;fa!t in No, 5:!i, !'.HII Plstt:i: A'VI :�o. 61, nee l lettt .lVI

JK:ES BtICJillWf !WUIIET LA!lZ (niooo) the twentieth century; but the guee-t pr etera to linger in the oan­ tury pan; and in her- om ohilGhood, tryiJlg her po••neiona on those little braclcete and opening all the little drawers and ex.­ tbe carTed bird.a and gn.pea. She 1a al90 apt, OD pu,lling to tho gJ:'ea't mahoeaey door I to breathe a littl• prayer that n o t:10re. hasty generation 1'1ll ever bf3!1111h tbe Cirtl tru turn1ture.

old Pl'ee1den1. Buchanan. The other Buohman rel1QII - it they are BuchananJ - we:ro gitt■• In Msy lS&O the tint Japanese !'mbuQ' oame to pq a l'Uit to 1t'e.ah.1ngton. It we.a an Jmbau1-,, in tho oltl Hnae, ot a cer4!1AOuiel vi11i to a ■ovel'1gn cou.ntry by Jmb■eaador■, not a pel'IUID.ent em.bazs■y or legation. The oriental delegaUon rouaed en imuenae intereat in the fl'b1te House. El'&ry detail ct their Tia1t wae wr1tten by 1nt•re•ted spectators end by the pro at du.tial houH­ hold. lttcapt, and au.oh are the m:11chencea ot' a:rcbaeolos:7, tba ltat or p.reaente they bl"OugU with ths:i. S econd Cor:-1dor

:Ploto U, Table or state GUeat lbom., No. '14. Lincoln Clook I No. 076 Plate 16 J'apcne:=:e Cabinet Not:. 3:!e-9

Be:re, too. 1e the caned table that OJlce excited the ad­ miration ot COlonel Crook. le ahould Judge 1t caned to al.moat any erlen't ot cc:apuieon. It 19 ,.ei7 dlll'k - ebony i:n ettect. ,rU,h a round white marble toP t and ita ekirt end au.ppo-rta er• elaborately cened •1th open work, aorollinga, branohea, and 7-i the bent lleada o� long-necked birda. WheN tho ■t:rotchero oroH underneath ia • oarYed bir4 1 e neat, witb eeveral black ebony egg• f'ai,t in it,- to -the grel!l1i dill&JJP01Rt?c.ent or a emall gue■t on am la.ste.r zwrning who mistook them tor chocolate eggs to be aearoh­ ed tor1 'Jlle center table tor Ute state bedroom, 1 t "64 nanat'erred to th• Northweet Bedrocm by n■• Hard.1ng.

Arter the style ot tho :»at, since the J\r�bio.n liigbb at least, tifteen large boxes cue ¥rith the v1&itora, cont.ainiog re:re and rich orticlae o,r lare,.neae I:".anu!acture, •1n0luC1ng ead­ dlee, beautifully embroidered and embouttd •1th gold and silver, bed-ourtaine (?} and acreone, two pr1ncely a,rorde, ka.k:coonoe, lacquered ware 1 'lfri t.1:i; cae:ea and a superb tee.-aet tnlaid d th paarla and r-old and valued at three thousand d.ollura!

That CO!llpletea the Uat ot the state Bedroom t'Urn1tura, bought !'or the prinoipal guoat rooa, 1re tbink tor tho boapitable

or CQUrse, one realh.os that such pri,se.c.ts from a aourca I are :-et:e to the host himself, a.::1d not to hie palace; and

J"»lE:S OC'.'JJJ,ll!AN IWU!IE'l' LINE (n1oool that the donor• would t'eel themselves very nuoh htlrt it be :railed to take them away to hie home. .ltvery president has discovered that u&Ue.lly to hie eu>:prise.* But one gi;,,"'t ot this display has remained in the Souse. That is a handsOll"e J'apaness cabinet ot a series or compartments eet upon an elsborate atand, in black 1ac­ quer, exquisitely Ol'namentad 1n gold. It was kept in tbe G:reen Roam f:rom the first, e.pparently, and we.a e..lwnys known as the 1tJapaneae 1t cab1n'7t, even af'te.r 1ts benishm.ent 338-�9 in a daMa�d oondi tion in 1920, to the stOJ'!'ehouse. So that when Hoover f'ound it there, she was able·-to gueaa its J1rObabla orisin and to restore it to aomet···1ne or its tol"l!'lBr pride, in her long hall on the second .tlcor. And 1 t 1a quite p ossible tbat one set of' ornaments now ueed in the lloues 01J8' their introduetion to this same kbaasy. 'l'hat ia o. set of three �ronze jare. 1 Ol" more accurately J two tall br0nze jars, and a low squars bowl, e.11 aroB!':Dllted with. a pattern ot wrought bronze l\racens. They are no., on. the long Cabinet te.�le I in the east end ot the aecond f'loor f'B.1044: lery; and are, the household re:-l.8J1bers 1 very old 111 the 045 ·.'lbite Honse .. !.01 fact they have bean• about the 046 P:resident's bookshelf ever eince the household (the present on.el arrived on duty, an"l t:.i.t is beck: in the days of General Rardson,- in the late e1.·hties. 'I'hey are probably also in Preeident Grant's list CYf White House orn&Menta, a.a •t•o vasee, bronze, larre, • though we do not know where he kept them; and why 1 it' they were the BUchanan e;t:rts, the 'third vase ne not recognb:ed as part ot : the 1Set. Unleaa the t.aate of' Victoria, with its love ot paire, triumphed over Oriental dEtsign! �ore probably the si:,;:­ t1es, to whoti all things oriental were a naive delivht. and a m;ys­ tery, :tailed to reco�ize the purpose ot these tbre& vaeea, that .torn1. e. Buddhist altar set. Wr.en Bucha.nan first come to the Rouse, 1n ep1ti1;1 ot the remar�s ot C0.llllliss1oner Blake on the condition ot the eatablisb­ m&nt, t...'1are seeme t o have been one uottceable lack tn the furnieh-­ ing. It was pr�su ably called to the attention of Coll(l'ress. just bef'("re it adJourned for its Christmas holidays and wa.e in a bene­ ttcient mood. Cont"_.ress haa not had a record tor notie1ng min.or lacks in the ot the Houst:, wtthwt a skillt'ul word in the ,_,ar <•hieh perhaps :11as Lane suppl1e<l in case) but this ti:ue 1t acted w1th conmendable prom,PtneB.s, 8lld '7oted a "",mrall appropriation �or pictures tor Prt:eident•s houae, whieb is now entirely destitute -o,f' t"'Uch embell111bments."' The ewr wss .tive thou.aeno dollars� and w1 th 1t were bou,-l-t !1ve portreits o:t

torme-r presidents,• to hand upon those en:ipty walls. �he lack ot embellisllnsnt was not wholly aeounlte. l!liiice the George l'ashington by Stuart, bought in l800 end rescued trom. the f'ire in 1814 ,- me in Bucbsnan'a day, ot cQUl'se,in the house. But the intU�na.tion rouae(t by the ay have been 21 traIUJ: and loud enouSh to reach acroee ihe water .. :Te !:.ave one White House picture, poseibl-y-t as a result • .It is the portrait or John Hampton, that O)laker member or Pnrliament, who was. euch a staunch friend or the Colonial cause in England before the Bevolutton. : c party in the Be was one ot the leaders or- the _patrioti Short ud. Long Parliaments, and was oue or the tive menlbars ittJ;peacbed by Charles I, in 1842, He commanded a regiment ,ror the Parliament in 1842--5, end was mortally ,rounded at field on June 18th, 1543, Tha label on ite trams tOi" many years stated that the por­ trait we.e -:?resented to Congress by J"obn t::cGregor, M. P., and ac­ cepted by Joint Resolution approved .January 13, 1B57. '1he picture is attributed to Van Dyke." But in l'ti32 the painting underwent a thorcugh cleaning, and on the back or the canvas was :round printed in painted l.etters J"olm !18mpton Aste.tie 24 H. Serin Fecit 1725• 1

Hendrick. .Tan serin (1678-1.765} ll8Y have copied this trom a van Dyke portrait done trom 11:te. The sam& original na probably used ror the Howbraken en,i:ravin � ot P.aDU)ton ot 1740 1 i n AmSterdem. The knot­ ted neck-cloth on the wbjeat, however, ie unusual, not a Ven l)yke neakcl.oth. :f'reme.

The neme or tbe real painter hes no'\\' been placed upon the

:,resident Roosevelt, when he the Oal:.inet room his atudy, fcUil.d the portrait hanging in tha'I; room, •here it had been sixi.oe l.884 hen Fl-esident noove-r moved L.ia study beak to Lincoln'zt at least. roam, J"ohn Hampton, armored. ste.rn and younc 1 �aker and friend ot a free America., went with him ..

•rn Jette-raon • a Qe.y-, in the infancy ot a touchy re1JUblic, presents brou�ht b:!7 visiting embassies cou1d, etiquette held, be neither accepted by the ·,7h1t e House ladies, nor r,.,t.irnea. TL.ey were pub­ licly ll01dt

�-heae tive seem Oll. eircumsta.ntial evidunce to have been the present portre.1te o:f John �1ncy .Adame 1 by G.P.A� Healy; Polk by Healy, Pierce by Healy, Fillmore by, and the small head or .Tackaon by l).ll u,nknown painter.

No. Ok-5-6. , see Plb.te XIV

Portrait ot .Tohn l!atllpden, -see Plste XXIII.

Nothing now renBina in the White House aa a known in­ he:ri 'bmce ot the Lincol.n Adminiatration, except Jtra. Lincoln's State china� It may be _, of course, tbe:t there were Lincoln e.ddi­ t.ions o:r furniture that later a1sa:ppeared ... Mrs. Uncoln's p•t small table. the President's own armchair, a Victorian what... not or canter table and 1ts ornaments, a set or a sore,; and i1:s !'llltehing ehe.ira -ror some room not quite :t'illed RllDUgh tcr a tnid­ eentury taste. It my be tl'lat in the at:renuc;:iue wear of o_pen-bousa during the Civil War any Lincoln ad.ditions were worn out- end dia­ card"e by the J'ohllsona, or 1t Dl!1Y be that we ha�e soIDe real Lin­ col.Diene. chosen by them itt tbe White House I end know it not.

The Northwaat Bedroom shelters two t.1ncoln period articles that are really liciover acquisitions .. These are the walnut ., earved desk aud the black-_pil.lered clock from the Soldic1ra' Home. Their re--capture ia described in the Hoover cha;pter.

70 075

Lincoln' a own ot't'ice dsek which we read was tall, plain, pigeon-holed. that stood between bis aouth windows, ha:s disappeared. Fo1'tunately perhaps ,. since that desk with the pigecn-holes be hated sc to fill JrOUl.d have baan an unhappy ms.ory to have .. with 1 ta aaaociatiOll. ot nights o"t' wor!I: - ot long SUnday h0ur.e •hen the church bells ot" 'ffaahtngton were not .all.owed to toll lest they wake the The chancos ere strong, h.m... wounded. But though we hllve not his 1'urnever, tb.1Jt the Linoolne bought ua naw, n have not lost touch of the Mn at all. 'l'he atate ot the whom a hiato:rian calla the "'greet dream­ notion that Lincoln 1.Dheri tad trom his ing, emil.tng ., creating democratic sta.tee­ predecessor �a one close to 1Usinte­ man ot the modern world." The ffll1te Bouse �tion, but the .state ot' the house he has - 1 t e:rowa upOD one more aud more ,J took over was at a high point or ex­ .strongly - an 1dmtity all its om,, that cellence. The Buchanan ere. had re­ survives all lesser a.ssoo1at1ons. No . ' • t'urni ehed •1th soi:re me.gni:ticance and one rooIQ or corner or hall bel.ongn to satist'ied houee neeas tor some time to any President or his lady or hia era,-­ come. except one-. That ta the south wall ot the President•s study that '"'1e forever The next yeare had neither­ Lincoln.ta .. " It is a buay :root and a tbe need or the mood to ehe.Ilf'B• The pre.oticsl .root that dose not hesitate Lincoln era we.a •not to be concerned even in the course ot the work days at with t'Urniture aich,"" - it was con­ the threshol.d. ot tbe Fraeid.ent's Study. cerned wtth war and death and the hie­ But no one can stand at the high window tory or a nati0D. ot that study {which rwu1 ae most llhite House wi.nd011's de not, to tbe tloor) and There i a none the la111a a stand there alone. Lincoln stood there smll collect.ton ot art1cles 1n the often alone the boats o.oma up Wht te Bouse that have a strong Lincoln the river w1th the wounded boys en board. association ,. �nd that. are hc-wn ae Once a guest came to visit the 1'h1te Rouse Lin�oln tu.rn1 tura thou�h thay were not 'l'ho Linoo ln l!'emily who had seen the President standine; e.t strictly Lincoln period. Once the those wind.owe at night. She had beG.Q name ar the war President 11!1 eal!locie ted very young then, but senait1 ve to great­ wttb an article, accurately or not, it clings witb the eanetity ness as the young may be who do not compl"ehend it. •we never spoke ot a 1egend, ISlld no efi'ert can dielcage it. Such tor instance 1a then"; she said.1 "he looked 110 sad we- did not even .say good the case of' the "Lincoln bad•• r.tioh ie raally the Buchanan state Cuest Room bed. distinguished tol" by the houeehold ae the Prince at Walae bed. Sometime in the twentieth century rete:rred The true Lincolniana have, it happens, all been rediscov­ to a.a the Lincoln bed, the name be.s never become dieasaociatecl ered in the Hoover administration. Four cf' them were in tbe houBB again. a eat of' email side-chairs, ot sturdy mahogany, upholstered eeat, and sn UDU$118.l back ot tour earved splats, the top rail pierced with The death ct President Lincoln occurred. bet are the three tretoill!li. ihe household had known them tor years bef'ore ig03, ae tiniahed; and it -was not presented to the White House until a.a. extra d1n1:cg-room chairs used w1 th the Konroe ..tWl--backs" at the next Administration. .From the .Tohnaon till the Roosevel"t dey it etood w1tb the American patriots that on rad velTet pedestals No. '10 1 e:ee Plate �, Buchanan. lined the main Corridor. SU.rrlving most of them, it remains as No. 0?6 1 see Plate 15� Buchanan. the one L1ncoln1e.n titt 1n the House.

. '·J









..,,,:- ..I.'

. ... • - �

,· r',i'

f\ � ,_�·. : ·• ),, , /,




l.arp,er dinners. Leter they were scattered about the !It"ivate quarter-a 1D the second corridor, in bedrooms. u:pstatre, ... not tog&thn-. Thsir idant1.t1cat1on in 1929 waa an ott-tcld tale to gua■te in the Pr-9.sident•a study,- tbat nudy that he.d lost been uoed ao by Preeidaa.t Lincoln. President Hoover had re■ened the place ot honor oror the t'ireplace ot the stud:, for an old cherhhed :print of Lta.ooln and hie cabinet - an enr-raYtng atter the Carpenter picture now in tbe Capitol. 'l'ha pll1nt1ng had tbe rare tortune to hne been petnted in the ffllite House itaelt". tu the very roan it portrays, ao that B'l'en the like.oesa ot the furniture is aceunta ,. That t'Urntture h a cabinot ta,ble, o.n armohatr tor the Preaident, Bild a Ht ot chaire for tba Cabinet n,mbera. Thll!I cba1len&e to the r■eearch ap1r1 t ot the Prosidlltlt 11ind ltrs. Hoover ns iostut. The Cabinet table, it deve1oped, wa■ in a library ot &rtf'ord, Conaecticut, P!'eaident CleTelaDd haT:!.ng preaented it to one ot tho member• ot bia Cabinet, in the days when. that n.e en accepted taahicn ot d1epoa1og ot un.wantad turo in the 11h1 te .!!ouae. The ara:bair wao rumored to be to NBY York. "!.'ho little Cabi0et aic!e-chatra ware literally still j:a't around the earner, by the evening c,t their dhcovery the were back tn fbe Lincoln study, Polished and recovered, not again to be t'or­ �tton. 'l'bo others have ftn1eha4 1 though it wae lOllg betore the day■ when a Cabinet mamber may Nplace hh oball' at the Cabinet table with • copy and carry hie own away. Another Lincoln article 1s the white marblo buat ot J'obn Bright, no• in the A ppointmont Room on tbe GrWlld li'loor. J'ohn Brieht wzu!II an a.rdont supporter in Perllement or the 0125 cauee or the North during the 011'11 war, and hie bust ••• mads to 'be a gU't 1.o P?-esident Lincoln trom ■D Zl1gl1sh adtr11rer or hie, Blainoy ot :Ja.nchester.

No. 0123, eee Plate XXIX

?l. ANDRE!! JOIINSOII N.\RTl!A JO!!HSON PATTERSON 18&6-18•• The Iobnaon Admh1ietnt1on c8JDII int;o illberttance or a very 1'0:rn and sha.bby Wbi "te Houae. During the yeara or the Civil 'War 1 t had been ueed and used ho.rd tor the reception ot the gen­ eral public, or eoldiere on l•va, ot chilian.e aztdoue to re­ aaaure themaelve■ by a glimpse of' thelr President, or delegattooa o:t war-work era or eYery sort. Tho Tieitora nre not conti!led to the inTited; their length ot atay was litni ted on:en only by tb e length ot time they wore willing to wait on the oM.n.oe ot being received. Aod Ti■i tore wore not the only t'requeotere ot the house. Guarao elept at oigllt on the �oom aotaa,- milt tiamen camped in the halle. Not only were the LincolD years u:hauating to their domestic background, but aleo thoao years saw no renovation of either the houee or its turniture, and, ot cour:se, uo new t"Urni­ ture na 'bought in aicb a time o'E 'f1M.no1e.l •• well a.a epiritual atreas.

hoo4 on the old grou.Jld that well-lllirrora are raally a.o intr-1.oeic part or a rocm' a; or whether they are select1ou ot Mrs. Gru.t'a •• my naTer definitely know. The latter ts doubt!"ul, eince Mrs. Grant aae1n■ to have been ghen pr intad cred1 t ror :1toat ot her acquisi tiona and thaee :nirrore ••ra neYer attributed to har a

Ground Corrid.ol'

Tba :ti.rat houHkeoping Outiea ot the J'ohnaon ladle■ •• tn tbe ratreabing: o'E that doraeeUc 'backp•owut. Painting, p,.per­ ine:, gilrUng, new carpet■ and curtaiu took up 'the aitea:t1on and the tun:ie or Vra. Plltte:-eon and Y.r.1!11. Stover, tba l'laushters charged with the reapone1b111t:, ot it�• aocial Ute ot their tather'■ ad• minietratton, aince their motber •ae an inTalld.. Then _, Tar, l1 ttle left OTV rrom the "'upkeep and Nl)lllre11 tund. tor the purv chaaa ot new turatturea It required deft managemeat, tor 111.hich the lad.las were moh praised, &Ten to arrange tor th.a poliahiag anc1 re-upbola'taring ot the old turn! ture� But a rew purohaeee they nay have made. we read in an old book of Grant•& time that in tha Sta.ta RoClll18 -mtrrora ntthe:r ucton t in pattern• had been ncently re,placad by more model'D. mirrlll'a, the tarerenc• being that these •ara choeen dui-lng the J'ohnson adroio1atrat1on. Tbe White House Ma sti l l a peir or e,reat mirrors that probably ware bought very soon attar the C1Ytl liar, and they cm quite plauaibly be ascribed to the ettort ot Mrs. Pattereon end Jira. Stover, anxious to canplete their 037-008 a.ewly renoTatad parlors wt th --min-ors leas ancient lo pattern."" Thoec are a �lr o t OTel"'-mmital glaaaaa, in g1lt ?l0Uldo4. trame■ elaborate enough to' ])lease the mid-century Victorian taste, and the crownlD{' deco!'et1on � tbetr obarmiagly tlamboyan t oreata 1a a ler�e fiU !!hield ot union, bes.riot thir­ teen stare. That note ot decore.tion must have struck an a.dminte... tnt.tiOD juet emerging trom a 'Kar between the States ae particular­ ly modern and p11rUcu.larly •ppropriete tor White Houae turnituN. Pro!>ably these mirrors •ere mo�a specially to oomplate the glorhe or the Gre8Jl Reem (Yi'h.sre •• tiret tind them) and were huzig oDe ol'er the mntel and one t:rrer the coneols oppcdto, aa parlor mirrors should: be. othether they were products or the Soho­ eon ti:'!!1111, tho1r purchl!11.11e e::1:oused. by a oaretully di abursing eie terNos. 03'1•038


eee Plate XXII

Plate .l'1


J"ohnaoo Conaole ., Ro. 453-45& ot Mre. Beujam:S.n Barri •on Grant Bronzea, Noa 0110 and 01� They seem to have pl.a sod mar• White House mis tressee than 1110■t Wbi to Rouee objecta ouooaed. in doing, rmmining in place until the eimple wall mirror designed t'or the Rooll-8\'elt Green Room arrived, belatedly 1D. 1909 1 to replace them. Jira. 'Tatt had them taken tllon to ens ot her i!?'Ound tloor raoe1>tion rooms. Yeare" oep­ tured the tancy ot another nr Pre■id.ent, and ill tho Wileon ti::te

72. ANDREW JOBIISON MARTHA JOHNSON PAT"lllllSON 1805-lB$9 these were moved tO the Presidential bedroom suite. There they stayed till Yrs. Oooliclge's .summer renovatore BU.rprised her itl her absence by shitting them to the two small eaet bedrooms, where at least tbey bave come to rest. one or the State reams wae rJ.ven special attention bf Jdrs. Patterson, howeYer. It was the State D1n1:i,g Room.. That room had been used very little during the Lincoln aam.1n1atrat1on, when rormal entel."taining was barred by the war. In :tact. we are told the.t the Lincolns closed it, and it n.a used only £or suoh emergencies· as the painting at the Carpenter picture ot Lin.coln'B

But though his ladies seem tc have. i n the main, renovated their public rooms with the :tu.miture they had, Preeident Johnson must have been aotuiilly in need ot a new set., to till a public rootn ot his olt'D.. V1oe-Pres1dents coming into the White Hause have bad e way ot imvin_e: tram their predeeess.or 1 a ort'i ce,e. Preeideu't Arthur ehitt"sd hie daek to the OVal Library aJld to the small Northwest Dressing 11:oom.. Preside:nt Roosevelt ehif'ted his out at the house lteelt.. President J'ohnaon in his time changed his desk, and all it symbolized, from the 1r0ndertul old. Lincoln study 1f1 th ite asso­ ciatiOJls or tAartyrdom to the .small ne1p:-hbor1ng room to tbe westward, that lwd been a n.1t1ng room dUJ"ing the Civil war. It must haw bean depre.ssingly grubby, shabby, me.keshif"t, that Uttle room, with sagging couchBB, and soerrad oha.ira. The tu.mtture lett in the Lincoln ottice could have been in a 11ttle better condition snd not •orth moving to a new o:rtiee. Undoubtedly the set o� turniture that we have now, 'that we know was in this room from the -time � President Gartiela, is this selection ot at least the J'ohnson time, when the new ot.rtce-Ca.binet-room-to-be waa 1u auch distrea.a:tul n!Htd .� new f'urn11iure. This eet has nor, drifted into the second' tloor Corridor. into a collection ot emmplea ot the •leathex- period• rurniture of the nineteenth cen.-tury. The most conspicuous number ot the sat ie the old Cabinet table. ot heavy black walnut, ornamented with geo­ metric oarviugs and patterned vene:e:r. SUpportad on arched t'eat and heavy- stretchers, the top 1s 1eather-eurtaced, and under it are e!gllt locked dre.'flers which have held important Ca'binet papers in that day of simpler executive lite. It now is a center table of the B:a.s-t End corridor, holding terns, tran.aiant booka, old bronzea. Ita 4re.wera are tilled today w1 th photo,graplla I pril1ta and etchinge instead ot State pap9l'e. It ,ms described once 88 •the old Cabinet table which entetleites I.1ncoln• by no lass en authority tl:MID Abby Gwm Baker, Collector o,r Presidential China 1 but ee is proved by the carpenter -painting ot the Lincoln Ce.binet, hia Cabinet table �a quite dit1'nent, and this rematna an example ot the ease wlth which 2® Linooln legend takes root •

Plate ;is .rohuson. So1'a of Cabinet set, No. 212 Ca'oinet. But it was undoubtedly worn and dingy, and its turnit.ure also "ancient in pattern.• We read, yeere later, the.t the walls end ceilings of' the State Dini� Room still �ore testimony to the excellent quiet taste ot Mrs. Patterson. Those walls and ceil­ ings ere changed now, but •e may have a concreta testimony to the same taete in f'our consoles, which are now in the Ground noor Corridor. Thesa ere walnut,- quite plain ,m,d u.setu.1 1 their decor­ ations consistinp,; only in a cerved �ont leg and in the center ot tbe tront a carved United States shield. On that evidence they a:re aa probably Johl18on period 88 ere the Green Room 453-456 mirral"e and the Cabinet set sot'a. They were, we know, in th� state Dining Roam in Grant's titae (with two ot;hsr consoles) and seem to have reigned thore until the present Roose­ velt eagle �nsoles replaced tber.t.

The old sofa ot the set,- in e::reen morocco in the Grant daf - is now agai.nst tlle corridor wall in a dress of modern red. But its msaiv& carvings and square lines are not mod am - they would have pleased one ot Victoria's 212 ministers. And like the Green Room mirrors, its crest bears the st-.1eld ot union, t'lanked. by mahogany wings. Three pa.ire o� leather che.irs betray the a.eme origin ea the e:ofa, in their round han.dholl!s wt tt: curling onrving t their bul• boua short legs, their :tlat design c,n. the mahogaey trame. One pair ot armchairs haa the eloping tall back dear to the Vid-Victorian designer anti 1'8N probably used in a ot the ot'tice t tor more leisurely conversation. 'l'heee are still 1n dim leather that might No. 209, see Plate nv


A.'WRS:I JOll!ISON llARl'!IA 10B!ISON PJ.Trll!!SON 1ee5-1ee9 once have been green. A Slillller pair t very low, with atraigbt backs, have been changed (by Mrs. Coolid ge ) to the esme fresh red leather as the sofa, and also ei t today outside the l9G-19'1 Presidential study. The third pair are probably exam199-200 plea ot the Cabinet chair or the day I being ma tehed 205-206 side ehaira. their l)lain square backs well padded under th91r leather covers. Today they are plee.aantly 'fresh­ ened w1 th blue brocade and sit in the amall north :roam. uaed ae a study in the northwest suite ot guoat rooms. In that same little etudf is the moat important repre­ sentative ot this set ct ottice and cabinet chairs. It 1Rl8 anea the President t e chair at the head ct the big te.ble- 1 a. reTol"fing chair matching the Cabinet chairs in 1ta smooth leather surtaee, 1 ta m.cbina carving, 1 ts comfortable cuntng back. Perhaps 1 t ,re.a also the President's desk chair, and so beool!IBB a member o:r that imaginary collection o-r Presidential w.orking-bour chairs w e should so like to make. lfe know that Pray55 dent Gel"f'1eld, tor one, used the window end or tbe cab­ inet ta'ble t'or his w orking desk, spreading hie papers ou-t bet'ora him and ueing same :revolving chair. It renBined the Prasi­ daratial chair at the Cabinet table tor tort_y ::veara, and later 11ail the study chair 1D that eame room until President Tatt, trho had to aelect hie chairs ta :tit, brought .bis own, 'l'h1e Cabinet eat, old-taehioned. mae8ive, subst.e.ntial, served &8 ot'fice .turn! till the time ot President Roosevelt; and es study turniture, 1n. that same roam until President Wilson, using bb study more tmm most Presidents, re.placed it 1rith more modern pieces. But the old. set has become an heirloom to IJrize, being aomathing ot e. Wh.1 te Houa:e reoard or otticial history, 1 te patina ot association acquired wi tb long years ot service, trom the Civil War to the World War.

Nos. l.96-7 t 19Q-200, see Plate nv Nos. 205-6-. see Plate XVI• No. 55, see Plate XIII

?7. ULYSSES S . GRAIi!' JULli ll.Sl\'T GIWJT 186g - l877 One ocmoa, in traoing out the strata ot Whit• Bouae domel!ltic history, to aum up a whole period in tho nmna at ens administration. The .mJ.d-Viotorian period at ita height aoTered tbe whole Hou■e, m:>re thoroughly than &J:13 period beton, and since except the ::S:sr.J.y Ropublio period or Monroe. In the e1xtiee BD.d aeventiea and eal"ly eightiea th11111 g.l.oriou■ old tradit ional Amer­ loan house � oura 1 uo• ao remembering ot all its J)U'I, wae com­ pletely a mid-Vio'torian home. It waa coz7 aud. oarpeted and oect­ tortabl.a; it bed porUeres and •o:reen to keep out the drkfta; it had and .toctatoola and tloor ouahion• and little low carved or upholatered tor its lad.lea to ait on, and a am.all. ebo.n, table ror their work-bukete wherever one might be needed. And it had enomaue high turn! ture tor Us bedroma, reaching nearly up to the high oei.linga end cerved and brecketod end sh.elved end appl1Qued w11ih. roee-waod branohee and b1:rd.e. n:, tables and. bureaux and sideboards were marble-topped. Ita floor• were oarpeted to the wall.a, and ao·.-eNd in winter with soatter-rug11 and iu •'WIIJ1er with white a&ttlng. It■ and wha.tnota and booko:e.sea were coTered with orn.amanta, ite nlohoa made cheerf"ul. witb palma end tern.a, ite walle 11.Ded yith portraiiie end piature11. sane tree.surea ot its peat, to be wre I were atrioti:, cered :tor - even honored. The wonroe J'renoh mantel urns and clocks were up on 1 ta carble man:tel-ahelvee, bu.t the light that tell upon the n1gbt17 om:ie t'rom elaborate mid­ Viotoria.o. su-chmideUer111 1 and the lire that WBIII 11ved betore them wee utterl7 ot its own time. The bosp1tal.1ty the bouae o�­ rere4 was die;nitied, we.a honorable, we.a reprreaon"tat1N,- wu eooiel. in its beet eeJH1e� It waa mid-V1atorieD. It wae Oreint 'a• Spiritually there 1a an aoaurac:, in that eynonymity .. The kindly, buay, unueuming, t"r1end1y honoat domesti c lite of' that regime :titted ita be.c.kgrOund en4 1ta t:lm.e to pertect10n. It■ peraonal a.a well a.e ita otticial hoep1tal.ity we.a all the more w�ns tor coming atter the ohilly war-yeare, end 1t waa i,ppre­ oieted in ite ttoe. "Ila have had JZlaDY' s>od dinnero and pleaoent aveninga," writes a contemporary. "There ie a hea.Ttineae abou1i thia a!D.1niatration and el:lundent aocie.l content." There i11 a heartiness a'bout the Genere.l' a domestic Ute an.d abundant temil,y content tbat still tl,.TOl'a corners ot tbe Whita Hause. 'l'b.o houee was very much lived in by the General who paced Ua main hall tor euroiaa, e.nd who bad ao r:aeny oall.era that he had to have a chain placed aoroaa hia tron'S door; end by hia wt.te, who planned her huabe.nd• s taTorite rioe-dessort in epite o:r her UH' I'talien stnerd; and by her eweet-oyod sohoolgirl daughter whoso trosaeau waa exhibited to her friends 1n her mir­ ror-lined boudoir"; and by his aon 1l'ho brought hie bride to hia f'e.ther'e house ; and by h1a l1ttle boy Jesse, whose "ohild'a chair" aat in the barber-Mop on tho groUDd :rloor; Blld by hil ta"tbel"--in­ le.•, who debated pe>l1tioel ciueationa with h1e Northern aon-1n-ln; Gd by his baby grendohildren, who were boZ"D under hie l"Oot. It wu, tor eigbt years, diat1nctly the ceneral.'s root, epir1tually 1 and undoubtedly all the more ehel.ti,ring to tbe happy lite under it


beoeuae the outaide ak:y - poll tioall,y - •aa 10 dark. one does net remembor - spiritually - the unhappiness, the inherited aoandal, tbe betrayal by :tt-iende, the hampering by political enemiea, that weN the General ' s lot in Washington� Character outlasts suob tideo. One remembere the Preeident at home in hie own hOllae. And Mrs. Grent WH d home in her on houH, a■ well aa in the gracetu.l pbrue ot bar Dativs south, "lovely 1n her own home . " It ta 4!l stroDg tmDl)tation, in peraoaityiDg the mid-Victor­ ian per1o4 by the Grant regime, to uaign ell. the mid-Victorian f'urn1ture to the Grant :temil;:,' a aeJ.eation. It ia, moat or it, ao sxaatly what they needed, and eo exactly 1i:tat they would have or­ dered% 'rhe General abould have oelected tbe Ce.binet-1"00IQ tur­ niture o� his day1 ■traight end square and leathei-oovered, ao that the 1'Um8a o:t those exoellent. after-dinner cigars would not linger on its l!lllrface. He Gould he.Te selected the �our walil.ut, that •1th tlJ'O others lined h1a dining room. ·.a.ney wore all orna­ mented •1th the oarnd shields ot the Union, so appropriate to the man who had helped eaTe the UtLion,- but •ho we.a too modoat to be ao appropr18,'te, Vie ahoul4 be able to aaaort tbe.t &0!118 cf' the more oomrortablo leathe�lined men• 11 che:l.ra era hill I chosen t:o t'urthor the good cheer and good f'ello•ship ena;endered b:, an e:u,el.lMLtly cha.en d1Ilner and wine■ and. tobacco. We Jeno• he took e. henr:1 in the o:rderin& ot tb.e dinner •ery ot"teu, but cannot bo eure he chose hie .And we oa.nnat b& wre ot" Mrs. Onnt ' s taste in ohaire b"J Tisible proof. 1;e knew she liked elegsllt 11ttle ebony eide chai re, eo proper in ahiu1Dg aatin. We are sure her hoapitabl.e nature approved ot the ''l'OUD.d center ottoman" that queened it tor yeare in the m1d4le or tha Blue Doom, gilded ad conrod like the splendid 0111 Parisian turntture or lB18 1 and so oddly unlike it in s:piri't. ,.e know that "ottoman" wae there betoro l!rs. Granti we do not think ahe eeleated 1t. We: do J10t th1.nk ahe aelooted the three eilDilu objects - they heve, �ven, no name in a r:odern voaabulary, though oiroulu divan wu tbllir older title - that eat in the Rool!l in the e ighties.. Their baok •ae a atragle _post, crowned with a dieh of' tern or a potted palm, and their aeata were completely cir­ cular. A great ma:ay ladies 1 even in their volu:ninOua ballgowna, oould. rest at a time on those objects. The lad1ee ot that N&ime, who sat b-3 1net1nct and custom eo upri ght, ahould have invented them, whether they did or notJ Hhen we mourn 11. 11ttle over the veniashod Viotorie..u f'urn1tul"8 we have read of iu the old letters , or bave eeen in old pio­ turea, we think of' it e.e Grant turniture. .And when we console our­ ael·rea with the: Victorian "anti'llles" still let't ua in the �.b.ite H<u1se, we think or them as "Grant antiques . " I t happens, honTer, that with c are ve can b e mn ac­ curate about the Grant :period then about any other between Adam.a t the J'olm Quincy AdE!lS ot the diaries - and McKinley.


Hor 'the Grant :pe:riod hM left ue en inventory or turnt , taken room by room end covsring each year ot the e.dcuniatration. It ia, like the Adem.i!i inventory, an unottioi-1 document. It wae cede by one at the Oeneral'a aona, Ul:,uee, Jr. , and f"or identifying l)'Ur­ p0sea aU:ty yaara: later it 1a a. little obaoure. But ther:i. ao 111 the inventory taken ottiotally and legally tor Preaident UoXinley-1 1n 1goo. 'l'be Grant inventortea number the roome 1D the houaa 1n a forgotten sequence . And nhile a bedroom can alwaya be 1dent1t1ed by its tuniiture a.a e. bedroom in 1LD;f inventory-1 end an ottioe u nn otttoe, ll'h.ioh bedrocm and •hi.oh ott1ce are eometime• only guessable by the number ot curtaina, and eoneequently o� •1ndowa. To oonruaion a little more chal.lengiag, in the �uernl•a day the oorner bedrooms had three winOO•a inetead ot two (one window nowe.daya being taken up by a betbroaa.) and the modern alcOYe hall on the second tloor wae a bedroom; and the modern eaat 'beclroome were clerk' e ottioeej and the nx,dern diniag :room was mah ame.ller end part of it was a p&uage lead1ns: to a billiard room; end ut­ terly unidentitiahle roa:na exiated1 (Hilled Jease•e pleyroom and the barber aho:p , tor two. MoreOTer no good 1nnmtory 1a enr ael:t-ooneoioua,- or from the J)Oint ot view ot an al'Ohaelogiat in, even deoe'ntly thoughtful or the tuture. A chair ia always a - simply. One 111 very Sl'8.te1"ul rar an am-obalr, u description, and lel!ll'llm to roe.18t tho 1Dpulee to regard two exm-chairs aa a pair, aucceserully. A eota is quU:e apt to be a couch by nan year, 1n euy iuventory, or a lounge or a davenport, and a bU1"9aU to be a iJreaaer. still, in la.tor tnventoriee 1 a tab1e ie rosewood one J"UDe and JMho@:BD.Y norl J'\meJ .But the Grant 1.uventorie• are 1uvalllabla for re-ore«ting the Victorian background or "the White Houae. 12le houre spent w1th pen.oil and peper, up end doWJl ata1r■, in mid out ot rooma, were u tar as later ffbite Rouae dwellers are oonoerned Yell spent, and they become 1noree.aingly' gre.tetul to the White Houae eon whc did it, and to the sister llho proba'bl.y aoaa:ipanied, and PoHibly to the amall brother who tagged along. The Whi:te Howse be a very intere•ting place to amell brothaa, even to eucb aall brothera ea arrive. on Inauguration day', vie the ooel-chute. nae:t 1• one ot the GartiBld temily proudee1i m9llX>rioa:,- it 111 probebly the lDClet unique White Houae tmnily entraDCe, tboUBh at lea:et one other aon bas lk!ien turned away at hia tather 1 21 tront door, as "'not having an appointment, '" too soon atter Inaugurat ion day to be recognizable. Even when ind1•1dual pieces 01' tur:niture cen be 14et1fied. it ia not en aaeur8llce that they :f'irat appeared. in the White House during hi• adminietra'iion. We muat tor that depend on other aouroee. Tbs boat ot these is a publlehed book ot reminiaoencee coaxed out of' the doorkeeper who guarded that entrance t'l'Olll Presi• dent Lincoln to President Rooaevel.t .. ?.fr.. Pendol wae an interest­ ing characte:r - e: Merine by enlietm&nt, a deteo.t1Te by temper:ment , Gd an e:mnstna friend ot Pree1denta by merit. He did meny th1nge tor hie Preeidenta beaide watch tbei .r 400na;y-a. He played with Tad and put him to bed on a tragic night when Tad needed oamfort­ ing.. He escorted Nellie arant •e school-girl chutt home atter a

aooiable evonillg. He nn upstairs to tetch �a. Grant• e handker­ ohief• end :tans at reception.a. Ha uaherod o�t Preaident Cleveland and hie temily end uebared tbem 1n egain tour yeara lotor. Bia book 1a human reacl1ng in ib own rigbt, an4 1nTeluable to us 1n an h1atoria mood, b.eca.uee he haa listed. his memories ot :1111 te Bouse 1"u2111ture . Not all ot it, mostly the "'eho•• piecoa ot 1898, but he doe4!1 say, 11b.on he knowa, who 11 reePol:'.l.aible for them. 11r. Pendel 1.e a worthy upholder ot the r a1th imJ>O••d. in uabera in a llhite Bouse beoieged by sudden calla tor intormatio:n. "Aak the uaher" muat haTe been, in hia day, too, the soJ.ution of: every trouble. iYe can, ni th the invm1tory, lllld gl1mpeee o:r the aoai-1 columns ot the t :imee, and Mr. Penda.l ' ■ 11st, tell aomotbilag of what Mrs. Grent baa pr1v1ded tor u■• We CG - in illlagination, end eome:­ timu 1n lire. einoe mm:iy Gre.nt thing• are on tbe publio tloor and Tieible to the public - we.nder ebout and re-credo in our minda a whole background trcm a t'ew relics. There ia in our list ot reliae one tor almost every room in tba Grant hou1e. Ho new Grent turniture - aa ta:r as 1re know - was in the state apartments. The precedi:a,g adm:lniatratio:n - ae we han aeen,­ had put the main tloor in order- atter the d&voatationa or the Civil War crowd.a. Mra. Patterson bad spent ber to the satief:e.ction ot the WaahiIJB:ton public , n.nd undoubtedly to the satietaction ot !!rs.. The. t"umi in the Green Parlor and the Red Parlor end the ste.te D:1.DiJ!g Boom may DOt all have been new, but at leest it \Tea •newly varniebed end oavered with treah eilk, ot the color aor­ reapond1ng to tb8 name ot the rocm.., Mra. Grant, looking it over u J'irat Ladies mu■t, aeema to ban t'oWld only one aeriou• lack.. It 1a quite poeeible that Mrs. Pe;ttereon had tound the but had not, e..e happena of'ten in the hecutive Ma:lsion, sufficient tunda to rsme4f" it, since ahe bad already been toreed to exaratse economy in her wall-papering .. There had been 11. 'Nhito Houee riro tbs year betor• )Ira. Grant took over the housahold keya. only tho end ooneenator:1.ea had been burned, but BDOlr::e hed damaged the \'thite Rouse tUl"llit.ure e.t an ex­ pense ot ons thousand dolle.ra, and that must have turther lim11ed tbe QJ1et and oonscien.tioua dalgb.ter ot President :robxl.son, whoao conacienoe had .had her uow o�te COTONd tor tbe publio receptione­ wi th the 1r thouecda ot t:aidl)y :feet treah f').<()m a WaehiugtOJl wintar atraet. Poaeibly the t-.o la.di es, Mra. Grant and ura. Pe.tteraon, went over the tloor together and exohe.nged opiniona. Their hUllbenda were not comp8Jlions on the ride to the Capitol Iu«uguration Day, and the outgoill,8 President we.a severely criticized tor iti but their ladies were probably on praotical te:n:ie ae 1fhi to Boueo ladies uaual.­ .cy ere, when the new cCll:Jer lives in We.ahing:ton or nearby, anrl aan slip 1n privately 'tor consul.tation. In any oaae, we do know that H'.irs. Grant aent tnmediately up to Browne BDd Spalding or New York. Her lfhite Houso had no ornamenta, end orna:nenta e mid..Victorian houee muat have - every ahelt and stand and te.b1e ached tor them. Bl"QW'n.e and SpaldiDB: hurried down bo:n :t;ew York with 11. selaction ot o:rnatJButs end Hre. Grant a prompt choice.. She put them in her

79. tru:SSE.S s. GRANT JULIA DEl1.r GJWIT parlors, an.4 the publ10, ruahiDg in with enthusiasn to ne end 00111D.ent 1 is del.igbted with her tnete. contemporary newepapera aDd. guidebook-a are charme4. I't 11!1 hard not to like a tiret lady'1a taste ... in print• as waa once aeid ot a president's :tam11"'t but thie enthusiasm hu e. gemiine rtn,g..

OTal D:>om. Ground .P'l..oor

Dd time and 0.banoe, tboae t;110 arbitel"a ot the tates ot lfb,ite Bouae objeote da1art 1 subatentiate 'the pre.1.aera, u:tat of' tboae state om.amen.ta ere part ot the White Houae heritage to this day. SOme- ot tha have been contused tor years with the earliest t'Umiture, though that iteelt ilJQUl4. not have ae:,ed the fl-om the auotton blook �ing the per1lou11 years, when antiques were old--tashioned, Mc:n,t o:t them have risen or da�eende4 the stairs, but most old lhite Rouae tumiture has doue that, both betore end after the ay when t1ight wae neceaae.ry before tho new broom. ut tho zealoua.aroh1teot• ot l.903. A tew are ueetul, but aoma are sheer ornament and their surviTal ia certab17 a Darwln1en. just1ttoat1on or the.11' own mel"it • .A great Dlml;J' ot them are cloclqi. Tu Grem.t o1ooks are rather touchtllg trca a hUIIIBD. point ot view. One 1a ao aure they ••re chosen to pl.ease the General.- the Goneral who aa "maater ot the eatabl1ahment :required punctuality :trom all hia hou.eahold" at the f'amiJ.1 dinner hour ot tive o•clook. Every room in the State rloor had 1ta mantel o 1ook, end to:r one aeeson tha Roam had .tour, one on each mantel! 'Eloae tour - u raz aa we lCIIOW - be.VO von1alled. 'D>e Rod Room woa al.roall;' supplied with 1t o olook - the �!Onroa BamUbal peadllle whose aelecticm wae juettt1ed so :pla1nt1vely by Pl'eaidont Monl'oe•a agents.* Bmm1bel ll'U .P1"0P"' erl,y costumed tor a m14-Viotorian parlor t00 1 and W.nena, the other Monroe clock:1 hed a pl.ace on the state DiniDg floOm mantel.. Har -..-French qua1Uy hax,oon1zed to perruttcm nth tho Neo­ classic ta.ate in ornement that so surprisingly motivated the mid• nineteenth oontury.

Plate� Grant aloolc !lo. Oll!e; Bronzea Olal., 0122 "'Baeides vReea in the ceater ot the marble mantel stands en ezquiaite clock ot ebony and :malachite,• wri tea one lady. We should call it ebony mar'b1e 1 and we should hardly use her adject­ ive, twen,ieth centUl'J' not thrilling towards pol18h&a green stcILe ovals medell1oned into a beevy black clock. Nor do ,re hur­ rhd mortals value a clock ot a black dial bl;rd to real uo.less one froute i t f'irmly, but it still keer,• excellent tir�e. tbet ebony troe.sure 1 with the belp or an attendant who 11'1.nda it each Monday enctly at noon.. It left the Gr,een Hoom 11u1y· ee-;o, tor the tmnt.l o!' the Blue .Nortb BedrooD. above stairs. 010 One should not •� bedroom ot that room,- 1..n epite or its Rooeevelt rurnishinp::s 1 t b 8till a chamber o.r a Civil War and has an air or d1st1np:u1shed ree.d.ineee f'or preeent honor.

But the olook in the Blue Eoom waa ne11 Witb M:ra .. Grant. D&Uoately J"Nl1ah in design, ot ma2'ble and Ol"IIOltaJ it 111Ll8t st.ill have looked vary wall lf1 th the gold-leat aa'U.n salon Nt ot the :taatidioua ur. UDDroe, "1th its mantel c8Ddel.el>n., The clock seema to have been oonsidored. "Ver, old" by the 0126 hasty tor maa:y years, tbougb. it baa a aamll Bro'lme ana Spalding e.oroae the dial; and when the ""fery old" Monroe furni­ ture deaoended to that home of past elegance, the oveJ.-ehaped re­ ception roam on tbe ground tlocr. the olook descended also. That room onoe had a .t1replace too, like the two oval roome above 1t, but it was ple.stered up lone: ego. 1'M olock, With 1ta two t'1ank1ng :.i:,nroe oandlestioke, .reate 110w 1 in the absence ot a, on the old MoDl"Oe console.

we ma:, still have the two "'Taaee", also of' me;rbls and malachite. that companioned. the clocks on the Green Boom m.nte:l. There is such a pair in the sto rero01.1, but since they mie;ht equally have eona with ano1th8l" Grant clock - the "CalmC:ar clock" once in the ct.rice - no restol'illf' conscience ha.a been disturbed in their caee.

Mrs. Grant also bo�ht a new clock !'or the aro•n Boom, We arai sure ebe did because her vtaitora mention it w1 th such edzlliratton and surprlee, oD !'il"st lockiug into her Oreen Room..

No. 010, see Plate XVIII

*-We were torcea to take the two olocks we have sent, si:noe it is so dit.ticult to :find pendnlea w1thout nuditiea." 80.

ULYSSJIS S. GRANr roLIA Iml'r GRA!IT cloek o-r its on, and. quite probably that clock i s still - or rather esein - in the house. One clock was ta.ken in. U�03 tr011 •the otftces" ot tbe second tloOl" to be placed in. tb.e new execu.. t1ve o:C::'ice Jring. whell that we.a .tu.rniahed - undoubtedly in a characteristic Presidential hurry - tor the RooHvslt .statr. It cste.7ed there until the Christlms :SVa :tire. ot 1.929, 01.:jl when it na brouah �or ahelter back to the houH, and placed in the useful Soutbwut room on the ground tloor, which prortdea d.reaslng tables nnd coat racks on reception nights. And there it atayad. evan e.ttar the otticea were re-done t'rom their ruins.. One t1oee not kno• it this really was once the Grant Ap­ pointment Room. clock, or it Vra. Grant bought U; but 1, is black mrble and ort1ce-pla1n. It i s pl'Obably nt1t older in any than Orant•a predeceasor .1olmaon, aittce those �rtcera were r:om. plately N-:turniehed tor him.

Mre. G.rimt'e Private Dining Roan cloak was ot black marble, mrmounted With the seated f'1gure ot s Greek woman, in helmet •an.a eHeptng robe. It have bae:n, en the amall Dining Room mntel, a Vietorian echo or the llinerva clock ot the larger DilliIJ& Room - rather over:pQwer1ll8 • though 1 t is a bl!llld­ soma thing, and most ueetul 'for the master ot a house, who aold1erlilre, kept a compa.1gner'a eye on the time.

It 1a there no looger and the story or ite d1acovery •ouwhere elee 1B a humor-ou.11 and a typical. one. lfhe bronze t1sure 1a removable, ready to 'be placed elsewhere in an emer­ geu.ey demandi� a sudden ornament.. ltngraved acr-ose her gre.ce­ tul robea ie the dbt1nct ,rord .Antiope 1 that J.n-Uope the .Amazon who -ma tba wlt'e or 'l'b:eseua before she baoame a clook. 0'3 On the ol"iginal iDTimto17, by an oddity or the printer, she was listed l!l:s •clack and antelope" and :ror more years thBll. Graut 1 • Cabinet Room clock we knoW", aurv1vea though 1 t one can cont•mplete without shuddering she n■ re-listed as ia kept in the vau.l t ncwada7.a by a. gener"clock 1u14 e.ntelope•. 01.37 Large Noith•st Bedroom ation pretetting c1ock• lass elaboratel.7 intorming, It had tb.ree dials. One told The praaent . lbite House in­ ventory - the ·legal one ot the laet the time, one told the day of the .-eek, thirty yeara 1 - 1B as book ot tbe one told tbe day of' the month. It was Medea and Peraians. And ho.- these certainly 111 the Cabinet Room ror .Preai­ earlier inventol'l'-checkera were ebla dent Gra:u..t, and presumably ha selected 1t, dnce 1t matches the taste ot the Green to sleep through their .:rune ntghte after listing an antelope that Rs Roon:. clock. It too 1a ebony and­ not there one rerueee to wonder­ ohite. Vany presidents have enjoyed it shuddering ie simpler. l' eo:n.­ on their bookcase since his time and 1t one .-1th a conelating eye p:root­ undoubtedly deserves its presana:tiou, reac! tb• antelope end .&ntiope became eat'& in the vault. just a clock again. She was kept on the Private Dining Boom m&ntal even .Anoth8l' GratLt clock n o w in the past its reconatructton into ita vault,- •resting• - we.s tor years the men­ present state, the charming uoun.t ial olock in the Presidential Bedr-oom Verno:n-like breakfast. room ot early wite. it seams to have, 'been Yede:ral Virginia. However, Jb:'e. the State Gu.e1t Room. clock I Tatt tound, ae any one might, a. mae.11 the Preeide:a.tial Bedroom clock, but when clock of French gilt and � more we tirst tiad trace ot it, it harmoait.iag, and had the Antiope sent OlU waa on the mantel ot the Southupstairs to the large No-rtheeat Rose 'lf8st Bedroom - Grant' a roam.. Bedroom. 'l'hat be4room, too - though Blaok marble too, one cannot reeiat the Plate ID!lde into a be�room tirat tor Pl"esi­ analogy. Mrs. Grant II11St have bought it Grant !Dtiope Cl.oak No. 03; Unknown Vuea Ho. O&; dent Roosevelt - is an excellent tor tha1i aev.u o t clock rising, eo regular Ta:M Chnal-glaaa Ho. 1gi a>oeavelt Cb.est ot Drawera background tor a Grant Clock:. Some a '.f'eature ot the prae14enttal clay-! ?fo. 09; T-alJle No. 22; Wardrobe No. 24; li81' or its furniture ie older, in design settee No. 172. at I than the a1xt1aa. Tho clock: OQt ot the Grant Ubrary on the aaco11a f'1oor baa simply moved across the hall, the Yellow Bodroom, east ot the In the General'a time the croea-ball. It le black mar'ble 1 and like the J..nt1ope or the Private prosent B.oee B&aroom, looking through Dinina 'Roam, baa a removable bronze N.gura above the dial. seated J elme "to Pen.D.eyl-.a.nia. A.veaue I was en bareheaded, and thought.tul 1 the t' might be a Viet.orian to anteroom ror preaidential -visitor• Shakaepeare,- oharmingl:y approfriate a library clock. But the waiting �or their appointments,- or Gro.nt library na also tho tamily sitting room 1 as it 18 in ite hoping for one, It undoubted1y had a


lfo, 01.31, see Pla.ta XXXIl

No. 08, eee Plate xx.

El. ULYS.33 S. GRA...� JULI.\ D:::;; ,:,;..;.m present inosrno.Uon ae the Drnwing Room on the second tloor. Thie b:-ot1�e clcck i& tlle only Grent clock W1th a gently pleasant etr1Jcln')" bell, impolite in a public room, unusual in a bedroom, but 'ltory uaetul tn a room t'Ull ot the younger senerat1on, who were being brought up to respect cl0ck11. However, the OS member of the Wiluon administration •ho carried it otf to her north Yi,llow Bedroom seems not have minded the bell i &.nd it 1e now s0111&t�1ng ot an aaeure.noe to the ovel"nigh t gueet, waking nal"Tously in the small houre, 1-rmlllllously aware that one does not - oJle 1'88lly d.oea not. keep Presidents n.1 Ung tor their breakfe.ote. But not all ot Mra . G:rent'e ornaments ':':'&re clocke, She bou�h:t bronze etatuefl ioo, ror her parlors, one :tor each room. A Vic torian parlor wi thout tte atatue 1a like II modern garden witb­ out ita marble !'igure .- without lite. Hore "era bronze 0121 table e1H, end e:opiH or Ro:i:an original& or note. T·here 0122 w•re three tor the Room or which "two figures, bronze-,"" were reproductions ot the tyo etatuee ot the Me:'ic!i trade by Michael .A.ngelo tor the MecUoi tombs in the sacristy ot San Lorenzo, in 1'10::-ance. The otller statue is listed ea a � cupid eapthe, e::ul is a .tif;Ure or a woman carrying a :t'lyin, cu;>id on h-n- shoulder. All t�.r•�e were in President A.rthur•e Red Room, ba.,.ir,e round te.vor in the eyae at tho firm ot Ti!'faey whose ;ride that 0110 Red Room, after tho�- had re-decorate� and refurnished tt� At the ti·.:e ot the Roocavelt renovation, with 1 ta reeul ti� lack or table-epaoe in the Red Room, the t�ree bronzes went dow:istatrs, the Medici to the Oval .lsea::bly Room., the Cupid to tb1 Corridor, The Green Roo:n had a ti�ure s:-:roup or two womm . seated end stendine;, called Ni,ht B.!ld Morning. It 18 now 1n U-.e lower ccrridor. There , too, ia the loveh' bronze Diane de Gabies from the Red Roort.. Ths original ot I>iana ie ::-oputed to have bean un­ eartherl at Poitpei i , n tact that Kr. Fandel re:·.em't>era with pride 0109 in his remin1seenses. Mr. Pendel probably explained OlSS that many ti:::ee. Pa.rt or the dutias o� a doorkeeper 1n those days lftls to usher port Lea throuP.'h the house, expla lniD.ll as one want. Sor."!:tt:nes one met C!l:8 1 1!1 ?irert Lady convere1w:; wit.h friends. In the.t oaae , one wo:1t quietly by , charge::, and all, without stoppin,g. Soi"� t1f:'&B ona �t a President ahowin:i- bis friends th.rough, auJ if 1nvitOO. one stopped and the two parties were introduced all around , n,e Del,"(U'to.eJlt or Justice whose pr!!isent operatives guarO the Pr11sident, talr.e e. til" view on unguar1ed eig?'!teeers nowadays� Parties still go through the Jihi ta Bouse parlor floor by arraagenent • but they do not cor.:e eeeually acrose presiOente, nor d0oe B busy uehcr OBCort them. No. No. No. �o-

0109, see Plate 86 1 �nroe. 0121-122 1 eee Plate 19 , Gr-d nt. 0110, oee Plate 17 , Johnson, 01:38, •

Ple:te 21 Grant Silver Ship '?ho nto. tuuy chooen :t'or the Sto te Dining Rootr. was a bronze tazily or pheasante. It stood upon tho "eide table" fecine" south. -tor the years froc, Gl'flllt to McX:1nley ; but 1n the Rcol!levelt era wild li1'o was upon the dinin;' roo:r. walls in t.he term of etufted 8!11:tel-heatlej and tbe preeent ora cOJltiuea ite dining room ornanents to candlosticks. Th• ph.e3.sant hen kcepa her brood ot 11 ttle oc.ea in the etoraroo:n n01' . But the Gn.nt armm:.e?!t tor the Private Din­ itl{; Room is still e. delight upon the modern s.i.ereton sideboard . �o. G:t"ant round it nt the Centonnial i?l Philadelphia and brour,ht 1t ho� "'for tha Governnent . " It 1fas 't.he exhibit of th.e GorMm Silver Compe..a;y an:1 represented to theo the Sh.i:p ot State, but it :i.ead in its own rl ·l:.t symbolize nothi.J:G to jostity ita place. Inecribed on the 81d; are the lines "'ill alone went Sia,.·athe. Thrcugh the cl�e.r trs.nare:rent water" a lWCh 'betttJr �.,ocript1on ot the e!".armlng old. e1lver canoe, 1 ts eilver birchbark sail s�t, its Hian"o-:.ha in the e��rn dipping a

ULYSS:!S S, 0:i.\'.:T JULI..,' mFl' GRANT paddle between ailvor water l.iliee on a mirror aurtace. It hes , the invaluable .Ill'. Pend.eL tells ui:,, been ueed many ti:i.oa aa a center Jlittee in "the State Dining Rogm, proMbly •tietween sea­ aons• ,rben the tradi tionel 014 Monroe plateau is put away 1n i ta many b0xee tor i te sm:mer reat. Mre. &yas uaed. 1t at State dinne:re , and kept it meanwhile on dbplay in the Green �aic Room. Even modern First Ladiee use the silver eibip, brig'.:lt with roses, on an cccaaion1111l :restive tAblel, and Ml-a. Grant l!lUat han, tound. it a eonvonieoce end a joy. Two other State l"loor ornamen"ta c1:11mei trom that .szum Centennial .Exposit ion , One waa a gi:rt ,- whether ,,.iven atter exhibition, or betcre and shown by tbe Gr"lnts , we are uot told, It i.e en ombroidered and beaded tire-screen, e. tapestry ecene ot r1c:uru eet into a square trams ot carved gilt wood, wb1ch i s sur.r.cuntei, - !.n.cet'ul tO'UOh - b y s r,llt eagle. The Austrian. Govorn. ...ent, we are told by Mr. Pendel a11cl othora, presented this deft piece or workmrl.nshlp to the White Hou2e, t!lrollgh their W.n1etar, two monthe bet'ore Oenoral � Grant•s soeoud term expired. It was tramecl by :ld1'&rd. -'-• Richter of ViBnna, and m<J.sic stand accanpanied it. The ■tory became current tbst the E:upreSe had embroidered thb gif't or an Emperor to a Republic •1th her OWll hands. That makes the exh1b1 tion et the Centennial &vtm !DOre contua1ug, "J"e know cer­ tainly tbo.t it graced Mrs. Grant's Red Room ror two !D.Ontbs, and then WfAlt to Mrs.!1 1 Green !.."ueio ROOID, probably accompan7i:cg t:!le music atand. 11!1.

The other treasure , that is suppoaedly trom the Expo­ sition, 1a a small bror.z.a basin and etrer. Pe.ndel , who remembers neny th1AAS 1 tell.a us it i■ •t�:-J the Birmingham establiehmimt in Znt2land" and that Mra. Orant aelected it. The t:h:inces are that the two lll8t in Philad&lphia, ltrs. Grant and. that amuaing 11 ttle "brown pitcher u..nd bo.-l. � Greek in line and Greet- in ita intricate raiaad deBir,o or Neptune riding the i,ea, and. Venua driving a dolphin accompanied by a nymph , ita airy ueele.eaneH hae &l'l'aya preserved it in soita White Bouse Setting, It survived the Arthur re:decoN.tlon. It enliTened the to:p of a cabinet on tbe west dde ot the room tor the invalid :Jrs.. McKinley. It was saved trom the tidal that waa the 1900 Recc-0.otruction. '!'hat carried it upstaire to the Roosevelt library, a.nd ho'II' long it hes been t:C.ere we do not kno• , but we :rtnd it again 1n 1913, in a P:-eeidont 1 s study , A:ppnently in later yoarei the house­ keeper euccumbed to i te neo-cl.e.asic cbarr. It waa comma:ncl.eered fro:n that 1ndiv1clual ' a lete suite in 1929, wban Vl".e, Hoover held .euddanly to turnieh e new drawing room, le!t on h-,r hands by a President m'.>ving back to an old Gtudy. The basin a?ld ewer ot the Grant days we:-e just the riebt touch :tor a table between the windowe cf' the Rose Dra.-ing Room, that 'll'aa: aaeeDEled. in such e. ehanrl� hurry. But most Hoover drawin,. rooms have been e.ssec:­ bleO in a hurry , and certainly most Whl te ff_oue:e rooms have been i'Urni shi,d in a hurry? Often , in both cases, just in time tor the errivin,; �eete. 031 No. 433 1 see Plata 11, Van Buren

Three pe1ra or vases, protlably or Urs. Orant•e choosing, survive. One pail- is t'o.1rly certainly, on the ovidence ot Ushal' .Pen.del, who iieys in his liat of' provioua White House a:-ticlea: 0157

ft'!'here 1B a pair o-r delicata blue vaaea in one ot tba pri­ vate chan:.bers upstairs, which were selected by Mrs. Grttnt. 'l'llay are t:rom the city of' Venice. Oil the lid ot erich vase i s the head of o.n Bgyption :9oar."

The peir we he:vet are delioat,, blue glas,s 1 te.ll, patti:Jrned with clear p:; EEYPtian riRUres, eet with a tripod ot cl"f...:lr elase f'eet. There is no evidence actually that they once had .Egyptie..a boar--heods on their lids, or any 110s at all. The vases th6?&­ sehea are ln a frail con.<litian, one only being presentable ijnOU8h to appear in the soc011d cor!"1clor 1 its mate being ator.d, Thut they have aurviTed is reMrkable and 1'ortuna te, their chal":.21 of' line and color being A rare inheritance in vases or their time. We can only guess that their original J)l'1.T6.t1 ohr:cnber wai, once Mru. Grant•e bedroom and Fend.el saw them thero while be hunted on tabla tops tor the ran t.trs. Gr..nt eent h1m tor. tadiee 'lto!roenttd. in a rece1viqg line at a State Rec61)ti® cannot ring tor their maide and must sometime• de:pend. OJ1 a doorkesp1:tr w!io 1.e dutifully close at hand. :Pendol - en u-r,er1no rl.Cri rescurceful - orten went after the requested f'e.n or tho bendkerchte� hi::.self when Mr11. Gran t•e ?:Bid was dow at her dinner in tbe he.sexe.nt. In those pre-elevator da!;s 1t l'.lllat have b..laD muob quicker to run upataire oneself, tban to !"ind a maid to send in on.a•• place , and one might aaaily notice vaaea while one hunted one 's object. Still .Pendel m1gbt have been charmed on other occasions by the vases be describea so caretully. The duty ot an usher !n those deya 1::icluded oacorttne; the ineu�:-atioo day crowds about tha house, private floor a.nd ell. The Venetian Ttutes may huve beon. part of' the ubiDit he !)Olnted out to hh convoy. 022

Thero is a:iother or eme.ller vasoe 1 o� china, now on the mantel 0t the Southwest Bedrooo, that my be Ura. ora.nt 's puro?laae. The medalliona of gray dancing f"iguree on t!leir blue si�eo - certainly neo-elaesio in feeling au�,;,;eet C:rs, Grant•:, and her period's taste�

The Grant iDTentory lists ua a pair t)t Potl_peia.n va1::1es. They my be tbe pair or marble urns now in the rounded z.iehee of the Grand Stairway. So felici tous ore they in place, those marble urns "1th their wreathed Greek head s - that one teals e1 ther 05'1 that the niches were built by the archi tee ts !or th e urns , in 1903 , or that the crchitecta chose the urne, 41!! the:.-· did the white marble :s.rden-boxee ot th& main oorridor 1 to CC'"".J'l ete th.eir architectural schema. Thay •ere , however, plac!ad thar1:: by Mrs. Taft yeere later. She moved thee trom the family sitting room which was the en4 of the wast cor1·1dor io tboee days, who't'e they bad boeJJ. at loast during Pre81dent l:cK1nley 1 s tiine. They have been 1D the l'fhita F.ouse since the lo� meic�ry in th1t start, ;vtich r,oes back t.o the days or "Gen'r-'l ·l:arrieon," of tb... eiehtiea. 'l'heir No. C57, sea Plate I I I

83. 1!U'SSIS s. G:sANr JULIA DENT GllANI' olacs1o quality eue"aata t!l.e Grant el"ll. W1tb these atatues, nses, clookn and other ornaments we he.Te probably- the tull liat or b:r1c-a-bro.c that Ure. Grant added to the Wh1"te Houee. ':ihather we have any ct her rurni '\u:e ls a. m.tter ot rueas Work. She broo,..b.t, it is raasonabl.y cert&.in, tor the State t'loor. Bo.t upstairs, on the prhate :tloor1 she my .bavtl had to roturnisi,.. The J'ohneon regime seems t-o haTe co.a.tined 1ts improvemente upataire to the ott1e1.e.l quarters, and ,re -read --that Mrs.. Grant - 1n J)rOa')&et - tound the living quartera moat inadequate. Sbe had a large tamily, and ill. f'act would be.Ve': :preterred to have ltTed in her own Washington house and have used the ':7h1te HouH tor ber public 11:re. More than one nineteenth century J'iret La(ly talt the 88lllll wa7, !'he 1de.e. m1,...)lt have :..uprest­ sd 1 tselt to any tenant ,rhose telly h�d to use the same rront dool'" as her husband's political visitors and tM genoral public; and whose �ospitable accomodations tor ·national and international p;u.est.fl were one bedroom, and one bathroom shared._ b7 the entire


Hawever, once moT&d in, she became , we read, very busy su,eri.ntending arre.nre:.\811-te. 'Ihese "rre.nPemen.te included a thorough "ovard.oizia.. or the d'-:teotic portiona, ot tho aecond floor, tor wtt,ich the worlcrl!ln moved the t'llrniture out and moved it back: agei.a.. If' only one ot those .·or-Im.en� in his idle lunch• hour. bad mde ue e little liatl ifs would like most to know ot that Ladies' or p:dve.te perlou.r that is ot th& ah.a a.nd ehepe l!!ls the J:lliptieal Blue Room below 1 t, a.11 the s-te.tely souve­ nir boo';s or the da�- tell us. It 1a, th• book:a explain, �or the private use or the ladteti o-r the Preeident• e t"lt:2117 and le tbe handsomest ud moat tastefully furnished e.partment in the house. That may be a little imagir.ative throb of' patriotic approval . 'l'ha writer p03sibly never penetra tad to that priTate parlour. But troll. a tno garru.loue guest who did. (blea■ theH too-garru­ lo\l.8 guoeta t aUty at-ter their indiecretionsl) w• reed that 1 t waa f'urnh:l:ed tn ebo117 covered .-1th blue satin. That �oints strone;ly to the hand ct ,�s .. 0-ret.. .!bony wan coming into itl!I own in the early eeventiee, end :n:-; heTe bean in the vecy toretront ot the tide ot fe.ahion in 1 69. Mrs. GN.nt would certainly haTe chosen it tor her parlour it' she tu.l'niahe4 it in that yel!l.r, or courae 1 the cb,ance e are that she did what so many l"irat Ladies have done, it tb•y cht.ncod to lh·e rrith1n practical a%pl'flee db,tanee ot the city ot Washington, ehe miebt have 1'4ided her own dra•in.� room to turniah the Lai: Hes' or Private Parlor. It the Grant aittin• room wero turntehed with the :t'Ulily' s per­ chair, .!'D.d teblea, ot ebony , tlult .-are carried o-t-C again to auotber home, bhtory would Ollly be repeaU.oe; 1 teelt. Undoubtedly lli's. Grant brought her 01fJl. piano, as Mrs. :'onl'Oe did , and Mrs. Hoover did. Certa�nly there was a piano in that room. tre have a de:1.1":httul momont •a �l1mpee of the General

playing on it (or at 1t probably, since be is reported by bis t'mn• 117 to have racoa;.nized two tuuee only) when the doorkeeper bring■ him up a card., wtwln be interrupts him.eelt to diacuae wl tb bis ,rife he ebould, or at.ould not• go Oown to the Red 'Boom to aea the sociable atranyer it ·.nn0W1c&a. The etrall�er •.;1ns. Che.ming simple days I befol:'e the telephone , aod the social a:ecretaey and the Hcret aervicel !ll-e. cre.nt had another piano upatatr1 1 in tbe big nortt.,reat bedrooll, tbat wee probabl�· !lere too, or her dau15htere. It' one moves pianos e.crc;,as fiaahington, one m1 _:.ot quita well toove ebony settees and cha.ire . The pianos are gone, the ebony furniture coTered with blue satin 1e �one , - whether in the mov!llf' -van or in tbe auction.eer• e tw::mri l w& do not kn.ow. But two SID!lll arttelos now on the second t1oor might have been in -that Gra3t sittin,g room. One ie a stand, t'rs ·ile, ebony and quaintly •rquetried in mo'\ber-ot-puerl. W-e actually t'i.nd it t'irat iu Stcte Oueat Room in President Clevelan(J t 5 day I but 1 t 1a a drawing roo:a.1 not • bedroom :pieca. It suggests a D&t o-r nosti113 tee-tables,- the set (uwally of tour) that tl-e Victor1al prhecl as "tea132 poye" 1 in ebony ot- lac1ue1" 1 inlaid ir. gold or motLer-otpearl. Thia ta.b1e mi4ht J however, bave be-en s small . sewirt8 ttible. lt is now back in th'J oval Dra.w:ing Room., a.t home with Hoover's Chinese brocade .tiFUrinea ot procelain and bronze .


Th& a•cond article ia e. small low eha1r 1 without arms, it• 11eat upholstered in dark l'-1&ther, its back a'C!B.11 spiraled posta be­ tweou Gctbia erc1::ee. It 1• no• uaeil aa s in the Northwest Be4room. The little chair waa in the 59 library before the aays ot' President Arthur, in the s1r-,h­ tiea. More n do not know. Ona article at least in the Grant ladies • J)8rlor and fB.11.­ ily sitting room be-l.onged to the President ' s de,r�rtment. The huge old globe now down 1n the asst entrance to the ground floor co:rridor was 1n the Orant Library. There were two in the Library or ttose days, ona probably being the school-girl globe used by Nollie cro.nt -.bich waa sold in the Arthur auction, whereto went tw&uty wagonloads or turni tura. Hera ts l)l'Obably too th.e one 4150 painted in the portrait ot Geuvral Grant that han-:a ,.1.bO"fe the preaant eJ.obe. This present. one ia much b1cter• It has aa­ aociatton ot aoine c:ie.l'll tor us - 1 t must have been the s;lobe the.t a weary president planned hie vacation by,- his t'irst -vacation that to� him around the world. l!'or many y:lore 1 t bas b.;en in the .Preai­ dent • a �tady, until tbe d.aye of a preeidan'S •ho b.e.d gone aroun� bis world and tound it utterly ehanred .tram th& or Grant • s irlobe . no. 132 , see Ple.te --:xv. No. 69, aee Plate 13, BUchaDSll. N-O. 4150, sea Plate 68, Hoo'V'(r

84. ULYSSES s. OIWIT JULIA llRNT G!U.."7r Indeed., President Hoove.r had otten ln hie wanderings core u1>0n the trail of Gr.:.,.n t, and. l:eud 1DiB1»" telea in tar eou.n­ trtea ot the "'"entertaining" that had bean don• a score or lllDre yeara .,erore tor that grete.t American President, He had it sent down to ct.and beside tbe portr.o.11 at 1he earlier President it knew well (the :Urat ot our Presidents to circle 1 t in aot) whore the thousands or weekly visitors eight s&e tta ho to.:,,ther. or the mid-century bedroom t'Urn.1ture we cannot say def­ initely that any wa.15 bOUfUlt by Ura. Grant. That particule.rly Victorian set, the Ste.ta bedroom -turn1ture, w.Jlch includes the State, or .miecalled "Lincoln" bed , ie oldar tban the Grant regi"'!II. It must ·etill ,_ave been at: its nost rae:&1 in 1869, wba::n. n !lu·e the toll01ri.q;; description ot 1t: "'!'be St&te bed:room c,n this floor (tbe private 1'lcor) is a grand apartment furnished with rosewood and cri.maon satin, 1ts wal.le hung -,,1th purple aD4 �old. !'he b1:;1htoad 1& hi�h, mas­ sive. carved and canopied, 1 ts dar.aak cul"ta1na haw;ing tram a q;ilded ::ioop near the oeilins. Betore the '1ed lie cushions tor the teet, aceinllt the walle stand two stately 'lfflrd2'obes with tull len�th mirrors liDiDC their doors, while amchairs and couches dl!lapl7 cuehioued l'\l'e scattered mar th• velvet carpet. " Row t111ch o r that splendor or color a nd comfort 18 due to itra. Oran"t is unknown. We migb.t attribt..te tbe •custiona tor the teat" to bar pe.riod. and t:he a.rmcbaire and deeply cu.ehionee . Victorian interior deeornt1on ne bag1l1111ng to dis­ cover the possibilltiea ot overetu:tted armehatra e.nd coucb1Js, thoush they blossomed lster into tull popu,lar1 ty with 47 the lltfuritlah" aete o"t tie nineties. l?he Grnnt inventory ruts two •ottODlns" in that room. Ottomans o-r that day were round or aquare atoola, about "the ho1ght or cba.ira � our day I upb<llstered on top and disc.reotl.y ekirted 111 pl.&sta. One such ottoman trom t'!i.e old Sta t111 Guest Room was t�Jce.n across to the Blue North Center :Bedroon ill 1909. I.t 1a there uo,r, and in it •• may haTe a 1M1•t O.rant 40lltribut:1on tc, tbe State Guest Room. Bnt the other turniture ot that StaterOOlL i s not to be 1eted 0:a Grct, 0%', eoni:t• or it. evan id.antitied. Mor i.a there any- Grant lett :trom his Presi­ dential bedroom and its lit t.iG 1outhwGat drea■iq room. We are, howev&r, charoed tc, dJ acO"l'er by that in'flllue.ble Grruit inventory­ that the Northwest Bedroc.n. was returniahed in 1874. Detore that it had been a daughterly .eort or sitting rDOlQ - with a� two llirrora 1 tr.o t"l.blee, {small, with :ca:r'hle to�•l two aotaa, two a.x,.­ chaire, two rock�'a, two cha.ire, two curtains, two lace, two shades , blue satin, ·to,o cornic..:s, a.c.d tor c,.o.e'e gu1ut, two spittoons. Ia. any room done in the pair1D.E"" aeventiea •one wbe.t­ not.. 1s !..'· �thi.or- o-r a aurrrtee, b••t l)er!\ape it had two ehel-vea . In 1874 1 however, a !'ew ?110nths arter Nellie Grant had married "Uld ,:one to En�land as Mrs. Sartor�s, Yrc ,,rick Grant

brought bomo abrida - 4 bl'ide w1 tb beauty ll?ld charm e.nd de­ scent G.Dd ce:.·ta1nly with a trousae�u. trn..:.:n;.:Jtedly the large ::.lorth­ west Be(!room wae titted up ror the bride and her trouseeau, witb a bed a.:id a wa&h&tend and a J°a-panase screen, a baokoaee and a desk, a dreHill& ', and t?:o la-rge ·.�e.rdrobo&. lira. Graot had uot been plel!l.sed rlth the etoraee •�ea 'for clothiu,g 1n her .nBW' !lc"Ja e , - no1 she had it cc.:nplaine...i. or to Congress by hor epoke81t8D., the current �iasion&r o� PUblic BuildiJltEI• He reports, after describing tbe Goo"lnl' s d islike. or -rallin · cellincs c.n.d -a«-:ing tloors in bis ltotim, th&t "the 'betlrooma have no closets or clothes proeaes, which are now considered indispeusible .. " A�ren:t.iy the senate or the day tailed to report t1B.t sente�ce to their wivaa t in whose hearts might have Awakened o missionary zeal. "";'o do t1nd the Room ce1l.1J16; being stre�t.hened I but we t1nd no appropriation ror closets or clothea prei,eee. l.!ra. Grant i.a; 18'74 resorts to the mem­ ories of the Southern '!irlhood and. p.i"OT1de■ the 1D1Den319 e.rmaire or tt!e niueteenth century south :t'or her dau.s.hter ..10-la•, tull 109 length mirror, elaborated crested. erom o.nd t1.a1als o-r scroll-work, three sec"tions , and all. ! wardrobe 1.11 still e. White Kauae piece, even in t1,is dsy- ot a t'ew clocots and clothes preseee. It bae housed the ward.robe ot more than one J'1rst lAdy - �a. CleYeland aud ¥l's. ¥c.K1:nley used. 1 t lll this aazne North­ west Bedroom. I-t is now across the hall in the southwest euite uaed by mo:re $UU-lov1Jl8 rtrst le.die•, thouah that room h etill without any closets at all. Sometime d:.;.r1%18 the years the wardrobe lost its se'?'olled crown. Poesibly it was top-heevy 1 as n:ost or those IRU'drobaa were, it ona believes the tales o-r delightfully shuddering young ladies ot the south who were auro that mother's we.rdrobo would fe.ll on them. it they �ed. Poseibly, .. undoubted­ ly - tbe cro11J1 bed to be removed to get the wardrobe out ot tho cioor and l'l'l!l.s, by a s�l•r taste, never reator,ed. T.he wardrobe aeems quits large enough to have housed all the -rrocke neceea&ry "tor a trouaase.u to be worn tn tho White House (how paralyziur e. resp-o.naiJil.i ty tor any- bride to choose such an outtitl) but •he:1 one raada daacriptions ot Jitra. Grant , 1r. '1"1 en­ trancinc rec9yti(u trook1 1 picturing their yardage and purt-rut­ tles. aa the Qo�7 book of the day terms them. one wondero it 1t 1'8r&% Thsr-e was a simple one ot pink silk trill'l?led witb 11!11 te lace ; but the:l'e was another ot oml>er silk wt tb an overekirt 01" llght tlowered gauze loop/Id up wt th tiny bouquets 01" scarlet flowers • and another with a high baeque ot pale blue ailk covered ,rlth rieh white clasped in .front wi tb. diamonds , ahowa a very tull ovsrskirt 0"1' the �es"t white 19.oe and a _pale blue silk train. Ko. �,e shall ht1Te to believe that the otl.dr wardrobe ot J,;:rs. Ora�1t 1 1r.j neo Honore l was a Tel'J' llirge one, ... nd that 1"t haa T&�ed. . The remaining armotre ie the bit::oat in the house , but it could .not. h&Te baea big e:nough. But her dreeaer must he.Ta been big enough, it it ia, aQ we may be contidant. the one now in the northwest bed.roam. It ia ir­ reeistab:,Y attractive to the present remJ.nine guest , who a:;oea as quiekly as politenes11 to a hostess 1 ermite 1 to ita lon,,. cente:r mirror,

tJLYSS""'� $. c::.".!ll' :uLIA I!Ei:'t"T ORA:lf ..,1th its dre·nre swe,nin" away 11.ire !�rtha i'faabin.-ton ' s own oversicirta. Th-a drawers open out eio.ewo.ys at e. tac"tful 72 anPle, 1nterfe!'1!\Ct not at all W'i th the fin1al:1Dg toucbae ot a 11.diee• toilet an� even tt.e lady "1th the ample uber silk or rare lace iskirts o-r tha a&T8DtiH rniltht be near e:1ou,:h to her cnrn ::rl.rror �o aC;bet tha rose or tt-,e japcnica i n hor hair. ?.!oc! orn -rel:l.in1ne America tortunate BUou-h to eee her re­ rlection in that pllU!llfl ftnd8 1t utterly chflrmin, . Pres1Cent1al rlau;hters have -rounO. t t very al!.thfact.ory • .ci.nd one remembers 1 t to th.ii da:,· with an aftectionate rccornition, as the •old b�eau wh·ro I ueed to do my po!!!podour eTery morning. " If' mirrore: do retain re"lactiona , as more credulous ae;es have bolieved , "for r.e,:ic purpose■, it m,y ,:o 111 with the ffllite Hou3e reneration thet<!cn5 th·lt old dresser fer e n.o!er:i aubatitutel The Whit& F.ou�• dauPhter at Gn.nt's day eean:a, rro:m the uncertat11 evidence available 1 to have used r.nother ':::leC:roC1C. than this, the one usually cho50n tor a d&\.l€'� ter. She had, ,re think, the one ueuolly chosen tor a sen. A. ccne-mporary Oeacrt�ea her room ee a blue boudoir lineJ with mirrors, ite pale carr,et atrewn with roeebuda , and '11'8 incline to place 1 t in the Blue NOl'\h Bed­ room - Robert Lincoln 1 & be::ir<.a:: and F'.oover' ti bedroom under the 11or'tb portico. That room was turntabed in llor day wt th ebo�, and ,re are aura it was BO t'Urntched to her taato by a :'ir:n but a-rrectionate motbor. Nellfo Gren t , who 1,t al.moat !liua­ teen was eona1der&a "quite young• , we.a really you:ir. when bar :rather :f'irat went into the Whi ta, "her well-poteed l:lind ac.d awvet dizpod tion"' were pl"obably �ture enoup,_h at sixteen to ha'1'e a ta.ate "for ebon:, a11 well as blue and pink. ?°OS9b'Ud■ on ce.r­ pata ,- t�e tashionabla child! The ebon]' merhle,-"top counter-te.blo inventoried i n her bedroom 18 preewmbly one now upst,airs. It• marble top fo a::id ovel-shaped , the ebony el::bo:-ately cat"'led, It ,re.9 in the Blue t; Bedroom ae late aa l9l9, "�n 1t went up 283 on ths third tlooi- to the 'Yilecn atue.10 auU.e. Nu1.rlr ten yeal's later i\ eerved ae '! sun:,orcr. table £'or Ml's. Coolid_o e, who enjoyed her aky-:-c.rlor• on the rear 1f1 t.'l enthueiaarr so c:"Ontao-ioua "hen ebe wr1 tea or it.. It h now in one or tr.e thi-rd 1'loor bedroor:a . 09

The rr.a rble -top waehstand the.t undoubtedly metched it hod dharpeared ·"1th all the house wa:1:hata.nde, but tha war-Srobe of the set is probably i n tho ihird tloor sowing room. 299 The �rble-toppe(I buTeau is alao probably in th• hou:u, , transferred now to -:.�e t�ird :t'loor housekeeper's 11SU1te . Whether the old deak b the sem, a1U!n ,. room wna Nellie CrGnt' a desk wti do not know, but she r::1---�t he:n used i t , though it 19 dcubttul Umt ho... :::ct.l:!er bou.�\..t it. It is 1D uppenrance, ol.dar

t:,an that, but no trace or ita ori�1n rewarded the searcherei. The c!laiee loUJ}€'9 - the eota, rather , - in the hcueek iercr's sittiti,g room ,rae, probably ?lellie•e ar.d pro..,ably boutht tor her. It i s the oTeratuft'ftd lDlrnre type bep:tnning to be 1ntrattueed in her ]')ertod , that would. harcn�· have been chosen for a 294: young mo.n•s roo::t 68 t:.ta hac! boen bef'o:-a ��ollia used i t . Two littl• ebony arUelaa probably or her choodng. Ona h a booksta.o4 , that J)llrticularly Victorian sort ot l>ockstoncl tba\ is eom1� beck to favor by its ehHr usetul&ees, 2154 It s1 ta upcn the .tloor by a read ;r '£ chair and may be cerrt ed about. 'l ho otha-r is &bony abo, a tfl'o--ehelf 263 ste.nd that the young ledy or tbe aeTenties kept nEJ:.rty !"or f'anc�•--;rork . 1'hee• two are r,ur on th• thirc! tloor , ut:ed in Tarious bedr00111B. It would be most OJr:Usin£, 1f we could be able to ident1t'y N■ll1e Gro.::.t '!I cha1re. A Uttle-r-irl-yoU11£-l•dy o:r that day naeded so ::.any che.1:-s? "It.ere !."" he :. biP' easy ctutir for �epa. , a rocker tor ru1nm, l!I:::!. ottomu, tor onee,elt and one terhaps for .Tasse, tind six small chairs, wr.ich whh the safe might accommodate tho.c:e eirnt brideSll'.aide ehe playad with as echooly.irla to:ether. She them all. And a. hair-rug ror t�,e inevitable rihite Houea pet, ir tt:.e Crar.t period pat wor" allo•ed in the house. (Pcssibly !us w... a .a cat, and the two birdcaPe:, i� ,�other's rooc aero:;, t?:.e hall Tera junp- htgb cut of his reMh ) . Iaevi \.tlbl;r tho�e eh; c?',!lirs 41 mu8t ha.Te been SJr!)ll. \Ye havo :io 11:eans or itnowing •hct tYIJ• they were, but. it 1a ,:uite possi'!>le that th• 11 ttlB lZ-14 -e.:-ttl.eaa overatutted chair now in tha Bh:.e �rth-C.:nter !ffidroov; m1.s one or her.a. It i::·�·.:ld be compl-,toly appropriate, 1::. period lllld 1a ol�er tl:e lete 8U 1 s o,ccordiD.E to the house statr. It ,raa one of' the chairs 1>laced ill a burr:, 1n Roosevelt ' s ner. $Cuth­ bedroom, where we "irat find recerd of i t , but it :nirht !:avo ear.• .rrorn the oc.uallr Blue Bt.:dToom thet had been Nellie ' s . A.r.d a pair 1,utte etmile.r but with tiny �rm.a , and n<:1• in roee b':"0cade 1 were p8l"h! once in Nel lie': roO?tl , too. 11.. -117

Two ot.bers, ver:, like but without t�& t1n;, s!'!'---e, o:' tho aboya, w_re fou..d still 1., thJi?' o�d ;;lace, a::i.d etill in blue, wten �rs. Ho.. v .r thee. 1n her st>.1dy-bcdrcc:i across tho cor:-11.o't'.

One 1e ta.'tlpted to essign all the alllllll plump rrtendlr overstuffed chairs, or the little round seate end H ttle round backs, and no erms or otubby half' arme, that arti typically tha cher.,,ber chairs ot the 80'a, to the Grant porioG. Both becaut.e the delightful c!rea:::es of thB da:; asked tor "that type or chair, ead !-:o. 294, :-ee Pluto tlc. 41 , sea Plata XVII I :,.o s . 13-14 , soo Plate XU

l'fo. 78:, aee Plata 32, l.!:cKinlay

ULYfim'.S S. GiW."1' Jt"LIA. DE.ff ORA!.fr 276 310 311

tound 1n the hall sitting roan iu the west &nd ot the loop; second rloor gallery, 1Jhero they had certainly bean tor Pre81d.eot llcKtolay and poeatbly tor P;-es1dmt Gran t . Hidden in linen slip-cover:, they are no• on the third tloor .

One little chair si=ply tm1at be a Orea.t chair. to co:mploto our Victorian anthology. In actual paren�• 1 it i a probably Iohneon period I but in spiritual a.nceetry it 1e certainly Cro.nt. It 1a oric­ inally en & Room ehair, and we know that Mr&. Patt.arson and llre. StoTer , President John11on 1 a two daughters, furnished the bat Hoom and the Cr&en Room and probably tbe Red Room. The tbree renovated colored parlora,- Rad, Blue, Oreeo,- were dhplayed. during tho1r hoet•se-ahip. But tl'. o East ROO?!I WGa not ree.4:y in ti=ne tor their l.aat New Year•• receJJtiOn. That East Room wea ao seldom ready tor it11 pleaner' e Sew Yaar'a reception: The public wae wiettul 1 but tha "ma■tar-work:Jan" waa adamant , and the Parlor'• doors ware obut till lae. Grant opened th9r.1. to her JNblic: on the :t1rst !.1!11• Year's r&eeption or her see.eon.

Plate 22: Grant Sofa No. 276. Chair No. 310 Unlaiown Table lfo . 300 because t.he Victorian roOlll - even the Victorian roo.:zi - could hard­ ly aceor=odata mc:re than one large chair CQ i t.s rosebud carpet! But one retitombere , try1n."" to place Nell10 1 s eevec. chairs 21nd har so.ts and her rocker and her ottolmll, that her bedroom we.a bigger than t�e one we know. She Md, like the othor bed!'oom O'lrtlers or her dny, no tntrud1ng bathroom or closet, but a waabatand and a tin toot tub and a 'll'llrdrobe I and ao all the apace h now taken up by a built-tn cupboard. end e large bathroom, ns l!l?ail­ able tor c!lair■! 'rhe overaturted chair end the overeturred couch i n the be4rocr.n acrosa the 11ttle hall rrom Nellie'e ':""ON just poeaibly thel"& fa the Grant time. Thia y&llow bedroau semis to have bee.n Grandrather Dent ' & and wae co!'.".tortably furn1ehlH! with 0ne aora and six ae.■y· cha.ira. ·.lb.ether they wen bow:ht 30-3:5 tor him deponent - inthts caae tho Orant iuventory seyath not. :SU.t the present cl::air and sofa have not bseD inoTed sinca Preetdant V:cXinley's day in 1901 , a!ld t:ai"Lltt not have baen 1n the t"11rt:; preceding yaara. one chubby little ova!"a'tu!'ted t?UDilY o-r a aoh , a h&lt­ arm chair, and a aide cbair 1 ell upholater9d in rerldiah plush and hea-ytly triDPied mipht be,lom- to thie adr.rl.niatration. They were I

No. �0-35. aee Plata XX

Thia 11 ttlo ket Roca chair or tbue mde i ta debut under Grant' s auepicea. ;1e know it na in the Room tor ma:iy years , probably th.rough Preaident. )lclUnley 1 21 ttma. We recognize its low right-angled carved ebony ro1liq, (one cannot call it a back) end i ta aqunre seat, in picturea or the Room, lons after 1 t and 1 ta t•in ■croee the doorway ceuod. to Oe t'ua?lionable. %bony .,.... not guita so elee;ani in the e1gbt1ea and n1net101. But tbla 1) ot ctaira survived - w1 th a new upholatericg now end theo tor three decades of lraahiDgtoo aocial seasolle. Orie;inally t�ey were "crir.ieon cushioned" it we rmy belie.'1'■ a contempor.:iry euida­ book. Later� 1n President Arthur 'a day 1 they were "upbol21terod ill plueh of old zold 1 " and were D'Cst ha.1":llanioue 1'ith Arth11r•a ne• 11 greenery-yallery carpet. ." Sou.etime later ,- pgaeibly :ror .President Clovele.!ld 'a wed.din,:,; reeeptioo, tor whic:h the iaat Roo:::i no decorated with tlowera end wreathing• a.lmoat beyc:nd racognttio:i,- tbey were oOTered once more. Thia ti- they were in brie:ht yellow hrocaded silk w1 th rather large flowers in the .same color , (we are told by an eye-witneH) and tri-:.r.:ed round the edee with a clear yellow tar..eelled fringe, That waa their laat dresa tor a White Houee rec&s,t1 on. Before they needed a new troek they were carried away to the auction hlo<:k and e .Vashinrton dealer iu second hand. turni.. ture was their new owner. But one or th&a& little East Room chairs ca.�e back again. It io the only known pieeo or 'White House turaiture tha.t once van­ i&hed, haa roappee.r&d a�in, like .tlice ia Wondarland ' a Cheehire cat. That ia , that bas v'lnhhed b:r aala. One at or the ·,,'bite Houee treaaureo ha.a n11il'Jbed by an older procaeding tl:en sale, by loottns:, and tas appeared o.ge1 n . The story of the little !est P.oo� chair 1� plaa.san!.er. It was e�cntually ahown to a shopping r, mtle­ man who liked the turniture ct the :·H:Jnti ea, and. ,rho 'IJS.S f\lrntah­ ing bis liBsh ing ton house in t:"lat period - t.i.e seventh.a , &ixty yeara


tlut11'Ully t it ••ren•t eo e.:mitary f'u.rnituH all about him must have itary" architacta who pllllllled tb• elear polished •. aoea ct the could not b6ar.



aa it h now. The memory haunted. chuckled a lUtle. And the ,.san­ GNekly w-bite walls, the eryatally Room, ••re Tary rer away and

Plot• 2:s ! Grant Beet Room Chair No. 77 later, Lavi,ng became a period. The aboppor ns charmed. with it. The shopkeeper, wbo abouldu't han 1 1'hiapered its pedirree. He could not let e. chair wt th auoh a paat a:o unrecognized to an ap­ -preoin.ti've 119W home. The buyer n.a more charmed and the 11 ttle ehair chllllFed. hand.e. Some time later the n.n O'lrller cam, to dianer at the White Rouae, and the talk turned to old White Houae tun. 'l'he owner made 1.11 amusing tale ot the ohair he had tound 1 and promiaad. to eend. hia hoste some old pbotograpne. J. tew da;ya later the photogre.phe arr1·ved 1 e.M with tbem the little cbair, as a e-racetul reature tram a p;ueat. It could net, ot cou.rH, be -placed in its original place in the Room - ,hat bacv;round had cha:,,ged beyoDd appropr1aten&es; 1t ft■ put outside North­ west Bedroom, where the old S tate Guest Room tu.miture a.nd 1 ta contemparar1es meh a little spot ot Vic:toria.nism in a modern house. There 1t receiT&d its friends. Wllkius recognized- 1 t. at once. 1'1lkina is the oldeet !tou&Er.!19.D now in tbe service - ht goes back to Gen'r t l Harrison's t1::311. The J:aat Roo.111 sure looked very t'ine in those timos, h• was remind ed . It was all yello•, l.11c:e the curtaine are noW', aruS (w1att'ully) it uad a yellow carpet that went all the n.y acroso. Bllt, he said, cheeri� a littl•,


R!J'l'li&lt."Or� :sullC!JJ!D Hilm :r,AJUff �:ABB l!All.S lB77 - leal

.An old book o� adventure,• another ot Mre. Hoover• a The H�ee period ia reaponsibltJ in poiDt or time tor one tind.1nsa, gi,..a a a&a•tnlh of' the dritt ot the old. article ot turnitur1J 1A the lhite Mouse. It is a p1eoe in itaelf RESOllJ'l'X, abandoned in hsr icy waten; 1u>t aeeocisted with 8JlY" one adminietra.t1on 1 - 1n tact there 1• 110 article in the house, pN'Jl&P- t"r&e tram. the tai.It OYeJ."lordahlp "The old submitted to being that clillga to other f"urniture that ha• been 1oe-boud but Ibo uJ.Umately broke trom bar u1 ther chosen by" or preseDied peraane.Uy to The ProBident• a ·Stud.y tetteJ'e mtd told to 11oienoe the tale ot her en individual. Jlresident. And 1•t in the cue drifi 1 - th& vel.ocitJ' and. direet ion ot the polftl' at th111 oue pieoe we are able to know exactly Dr1fting1 ah• tound her •&¥ dow.;:i. who •as i t s donor, 1ta htetory llld th• his­ Barrows etra11a, througb I.anoutu sound into tory ot its wood, the reason ror its pre:umt­ Bet'till'11 Bay a.14 De.Tio strait:e, to near ing, and the date 01" 1 ts e:otry into the Bouse.. Mercy, where llhe we.a eeen and teken poaeeaaion We can even :prove b:, af'tidavit its t1rst user. ot by an Amertaan whaler and carried into New London, COnneotiout. She wa.a purohaeed, re­ Thi.a art1ole 18 the Preaidentt a desk. It 1• cOYered 1D ra&ttu.1 green ba.1ze titted .8.l1d reetored. to her ortg1Dal. etate by the .Am:lr1oan Gol'C'llllent and sent to England ( aa waa t:Onroe Is Wl'it.1:ng table in 1818) pro­ tected 'With a plate glee•. J..dapt&cl t"or use under the ccm:mend ot Captain Hartstein, u.s.N., on either Dido. a daublc aet o� � end by him preaented in 1:he name ot tbe .Amari• l?? era flank the k:nr,e-bole, a wide ahalcan i.ople, to V1oto�ie.• xngl.and' • Queen," low drl!lffl' acroae tbeir tops. !be entire eu.rtace, cll'8were end all, 1• r1.chly U ehe nn Nt1tted and restored o&rVed. on a l!IUle.ll bronze plaque it bears promptly, 1n Nsw London, in le!S5, and diapatch.. tta htetoZ7; Cd the ... m.iWZlll to Old .London, eha WU tbe graoioua g,U't ot Praaide:nt Pierce. It, by any obance (Emd Private, evan publia, aubaoript1oni, "Ber !Jajesty'e ah1p BESOLUTE. are q\lite eubjeot to tb:e winda ot ohnnce) aha to""'1ll/! pert of the •-dition sent in seeroh or Sir J'oh:n 1renkl.1n 1n J.ingered in th■ ne,w world till tbs spring ot l.857, 8b.e a ailed under the tlag or Buchanm, 1832, was ab&Ddoned 1n .latitude 7"1.0 4.l' north,. longitude 10l0 281 wut. who had been ambaeaador at the court of St. on the 15th o:t tJe;r 1854-. She wae dia­ 1enee. Neither ?resident, twenty-odd years coyerod ad extr1oated ill September later, •ae to weJ.como her back. But both would l855 in J.sUtulle 67 north by Cspteill have approved bar tiret "lhite llouee 'berth, in !bdelington of' 'the United sta'ke • the "'reat bow wiudo1ra ct the oYal Boor. :fac.ilir George Henry, The abip waa purchased, £b:tll:• to tbe Na. It must have been a 1Uglli­ :r-1 tted out and eent to Engl.end u a Plate 1!!J t1cent : ancient mariner in the b.1etoric room gitt to her 1!.ejeety Qu.een V1atoria by that wae the Hayes library. The small F...-ee The Rel!lolute !leek the Preeident end people ot the Unitad No. 177 children muet l'ollcwed it• carvi13g wi1:h Sta.tee e11 a token ot good •111 and hllittle explorillB, tingerl!I while their gentl.e lowehip. Thia table wae cad.e tl'Ctl her t:lmbel"a when she waa mother told them the ee.aa or ita heroi&. broken up, end 111 presented by the Qu.8en ot Great 81"1ta1n e.Dd Irelend to the Pl'e111dent." it 1■ fron the tirB't uo41a­ gu1eabJ.y a Presidential desk, not • library or dr.awi.Dg room deak. President Heyee wu 1n ottlce when the desk came back to M,e,n PNei deltt liarriaon betook M . .m.ael.t end hie vlsitore and his tbe reaouers ot the R!SOllJTE, and so, logically, would have been ate.te papers to the Cabinet D,orn end u.pper ort1ee and left the OTal r1rat ot the Presidential uaera. But tor once we have more Roam. to hie lad1as, the Proe1deD tiel ae•k ••nt tco (to the Cabinet than logic to beok a claim. In 1932 1 �a. Roever disaOTered and Boaan) end its removal 1a important enough to be noted tn the papers aaquired Bil original let1:er, .ef.&ned by Rutbertord s. Heyes, 1111ot the day. noun.cing 1 teelt' ea the !'1.ret document written on the desk attBl" its arrival in the "bite :iouee. '!'he l.etter 1e now oaretully atta.oheil �e Northwest Pasaege an.d the search tor S1r J'oh.D. Prmlclin, by :r. Btown. £.- Sent'ord, pub. 1858. to the desk.


Rtl'l'I-ZR."01Ui BtlllCl'.ARD HAYES FJJf!:f ':SB9 H.lYES

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l••�;jtl,,,.• I�.

Tho nrit"t ot the Resolute S1nce then .:.S.cZ:inley 1 Roosevelt, Tatt, W11.a0D lthougb. the Preaident had two other desil:a 1n the -;.'hite uouae 11!::.ere ha did mc>at ot hia work}, Herding and COoltdge read thei.r dce�ente and note their apoacbea on the n11e old wood that had once breeated 100. In 1929 Pre1:1ident Hoover hn.d her taken baok, still to be used e.e the tlae-deak ot tb.• White liause. whan lle moT•d hia atudy up the tb-ee steps or the eastern .ud ot the eecond tloor, to the Lincoln atudy-. Since tl:en it he.a uot shifted 1te moortng11 trom its ploee between the t1JO south w1n4owe ot the Lineoln study, tboU&h the tides ot change, illev1table in the surroundings ot a Ui't'et•T.:::till:' trevell.e-r, 61'\lll& it e.rour.d onoe or t'ltice. And 1t bu not altocet!:.e:r shifted its role aa reecue al'l1p. The Rt.i.CL'JTZ hereel.r had known the inepirat1on or hexoh iDJpulee, end th� steadj, &BDe, unend1nc; drive that must force in­ apire.tion throu&h dnnge,;,, throur.)t delq, -throU(St. defeat, to tbe end ot the taak. Under the hand ot miother c&.phin, versed e.lso in reeoue, she rruet lie v,::r-.1 oontent, tl.ough the course.a ctcrted now-a-days on her level decks are no lo�er goographioal., but ■ptr1tufll..

Clli:STE!l.!.LAl1Am'HUR J.!ARY .llll'H1l1l '.!o3LROT l.881 - l.88:1 P0••1bJ.¥ it i■ a r:oincidano.a, but it 1e true that t.wo cl.asaee ot Preaideata be.Te made the moat ewa.p1»@: c:bqeut in the llhite House 1:n:Mrtor.. OD.e is ot those who cane into o:ttico throueh the death � a predaooeaor,- like J'ohnaoa, 11ho cha.t1ged his ottice from th• t-,oua old L1DDoln o:ttioe three ateps dom to the analler cabinet room, end HOOSOTel.t who completely reorgen.1.zed public and private l1ving in the White Reuse,. Perhape beoauaa each had had time eel'.11er to note tho21a featurea b.e would like to el:Lange, while 'f'requentinS thu houae ot h1a Cbiot with h1a mind l.eea preoccupied by greater attair■ than l1T1ng eondi tion■• Th• claeo ie ot the �ied Preetdonta1 the J'aoltaou and Van Burene wbo neg'li a11t their bouae Titb a YOl")' new broom, beto;re -U,orougbly re=teldng it. Preoidont .Arthur happena to belollj! to both c1tll!IH■• JDd the ohangea he wro� in the HcuN ••re tat­ mediate ond draatic..

After ell, one cennot but that api:ri t. It i■ aomett.1ng tbe si)1r1t ot r-re111.:"nt n:,nzoe, cleal'ing out the: burnt rubbish in the 11cene awai-ti.Dg him, end calling in the tineet agent.a he k:ne1r ta deal tor bim with the "tirat obeuiste" ot Peria I end the "m,at te.aliionable upholsterer and daaiguer of Philadelphia.• The Preaid:ent took a pel'eonnl interest in the i.mpl'O"fing, CO!m.DE over OTery night attar dinner to inspect the proerese cf' decorat10.011, end tor peke giTing ord.ere to cha..nee tt.J.nga according to hie taate� we might -.1eh that there bad been a !O'a, Arthur, to \.e.J.k up $lld dottn that oorr1 dor with 'the PNaident and. hie friend, l.U'. Louie Tittany ct Now York. l'erhaJI• sh e might have laid a "amm'a �reserving touob on thie and that end the other, DD.d we .::dgbt have had today a. tow more or the t:reaaurea that 1IQ' haYe been t:r.ere and the.1: we lotl8 tor.. But perhap• egain there wea nothing in the pn,,,.lrt-hurian main floor that Yo ahouJ.d not aleo haTe rejoiced tc ,see th" laat at.

There •u - u one in f'aimeea adm1t 1■ ullU&lly th• oase in White HOUN renoTa'\iorui,• p1onty ot exou■e tor ohangoa. Conter.porery critioism tells ua that the "turnitUN lfU worn, and soiled, the china iU--ma.tched GDd ohipped, beng1nga and oarpot, needed. replacing, atoNl'OOID.8, baaement l'OCICl5 end ■tt ioa were til.­ led with junk ot every dsaoription, broken toy■, old portment&cuX, rat--trape. 0.1.othing, aa well u dilapidated turnitm-a 1 and tba White HOUl!IO in oonaequenoe we.a a t 1retrap. • Th• lan oaaplete housecleaning md deaorat1ng had taken plao• ten yeara betOl'"a: an4 in the deys i.hmi the houeo wu a public gather1Dg place end tbor­ oughtare ae veil u a bane, ten yeara ••• a litet1mo tor tumtture. .. e oost remember, too, that Proaident and Mr•.. a.rtield he4 been in it ao re-.r months they bad not had timo to meke the nm.oTationa they had plenned.

The Tiffany chqe, ha'f& YNliehed ill their turn, �:heD t.TeD.ty years later anoth•r vice-preaident osme e.long and brou&it in another deooratol', end u 11: result tho �ur-Titt'any Blue RccD,- the "Bobin'e Egg Bl.uo Rocm" - and tho Bed Roca and the Boao and the Eall were dQne r,goin into •1mpl1cHy,

General Arthur look6d hio new home oTer caretu.lly be­ fore J,e r.:1.oved in, end report ea,y'■ he was %lot at all pleased 1'1 th what ho saw. lie would, like Grant 8114 ;&rs. Polk, hure very l!llch preferred to have had his pr1Ta.te home elaewheN, e:n.d to keep the White i.!OUH purely aa a public building tor enterta!nillg imd ott'ice ueea. �ere had bee11 an isg1tation in Congree• aome yeara betor. (and ,.aa to be eaain), tor a new and helllthf'ul. roaidence tor the President, but nothing had ccge ot it. &It• President in lS8l i,eeu to havo deci4ocS wit.h ccamendable­ neea, to make tba beat ot what he had. The Ccmmieaioner 1n charge ot the t'ib1 te liousa "u called in; a.Dd be wthorize4 certain � provemente to make the buildiZJg bett•r drained and more we.a:tber­ prootj bUt redecont1DS was Motller end a budget Q.\aaUon "1.lh which he tel.t no au.tbority to dee.J.. Not so tbe P1'ee14ent, bow­ ever. He walked up end down his belle, aa Ilia observant door­ keeper tells us, o:nd declared •ith some Tigar \hat he woul.d not liTo in a houae that looked lilce Che:t:, &ad u· congress wca uu1fill1ng to pay tor ita 1.t;provei:iont 1 ho would settle tbe bills himaelt, In the meantime:, clear out the rubbilh and dispoae ot tt. And bring in the './&ry boot decorator there 1■ in Bll t�n York, and let tiln do t!te .ftneat piece or v-o:rk he 8'lel" did, to melce this house it should he to otter the bo■pitelity or a nation.


.u-t?wr• 11 pri vatei din.ins rooa, ud9 into a handecme back­ BJ'OUJZd tor IIIZll.8ll exc.lua1ve dimiera, betweez. enormcua carved aido­ boarU, mid 'tl:.e f1replace lights eusgeated by the lTee1dent hWeU' • baa been replaced by e. bromttaat roam ot t:ount Vernon­ like rHtraint • '?be Je.-elled Tittany aoreen, arranged across the veatibuJ.e to thro• Keataian colored light• on the marble floor - and to shield tl'tllll the publia gaae a Preaid.ent going ta hi• own. dinner• .. han diaappeared. So heYe the 1n.tr1oate brona tront doorfl. llreathed in ,tone acroll-•ork, SO has .Arthur'• faabiouable corr1C.Or rlth 1ta over-etuffed coucboa, it1 in gilt niches, 1ta u.rble buata on pe4eetal.a, 1 te array ot blue Tase■ end b r u e Ta.SD■• But eomehow Preaident Arthur, at zm::aenta, atill wllll.ka that corridor.. Tbe White Houee it■elt hH en identity quite separate from 1te tenuta. Not on.a room belon@:e 1.n spirit to en.y one Preaideu:t. Bui it ia hospit­ able to tbe mmnoriea at all it• ownerB, 3d they cm i n 1.megin­ ation etlll 'be met 1n the plecel!I whe N they moat .liked to wallc. Certainly e.D.70DB may atlll aN Pree!dent J.rthur. poHibly in that tur-bordend coe.t ha wears in. the tull•lengtb port.rait in the oval Roan in the Ground l'loor, •alking down main corridor to bill d1n1n& roam, or u:,:,ng hill parl.our• with a group o� guest■• Ferhape booauae he 21aema to hsn: been oue at cur most hospitable ttoeta,,no moat enjoyed hie own hospitelUy, Paodel, the .Arthur door­ keeper, leaYo8 ua a 11eriefl ot little glil:lpaee or Arthur, o:r whew. he seem■ to have appl'Ol'ed highly• "lie waa, • ■eye Pendel., tte, 'thorough society President. Stl:let1mes his tr1enda woulc eoi:ie down rrom New York City and he ,.-ou.14 take great proasure in an.011in,g them .crowad.. He &&Ye a great meny swell (11c} diDner psrtiea end the guests used to enjoy tbr.n­ selYes huge�. 11

vs. i:r. Pendel u■e4 to sb.01' the gu1ust.e around, too. Be ha4 by that thue a 1ttellcm-ueher"', !_�. J.llen, in wboae charge ho oould safely leave the trout daor. On i;,ae oooa•km at lea1t he wu moh il:lrpresaed with hi• Pl'eaident.

Gl'OUild CDrrtdo:r

"'l'he Preaidemt •u vu, gentltll!IU13' 1D hia manner. I re­ collect nat upou oae ooouion u I wu goi11g the Gl'een. Roca with _. lad1u, ehollillg th• through, I unaxpeatodly an \1111 Prea1dmrt oCID1J:lg tram. the .Blue Parlor With acm& l.adiea, end 1n an inatant he said. to the ladies and. mya&l,:t, •I beg tiard0ii1 • � P:ree1c1eri.t .i th hi• ladiea i,aued. OD into th• Green lkXlll and I pa.aeed into the Blue Parlor •1th the lad1ea I wu ehowillg thraueh•" A litUe piotur• very fa:r ..,,.,. from ua, like tho t'iaUN• ot • contra dall.o•• And i!l"Obably ver.r allDall:iDg to the pnt•ent 411' doorkeepers end. eocNt service guarda who apend their waklng hOUJ'e kee_ping P:resid.entii fl'all. meeting the un1nvi 1.ed 1n thBir own cloor­ wqa.


Little 19 le:tt of the turntture that u■ed to •a"Coh the President cUspanas hoep1'taltty in the Yon: manner or the eighties. one piece is the tall hall clock he aeleoted to stand 1D the n.orth­ ••at at t.he main corridor, now the d.inillg zoom. It 11 a 1'fl7 dark m.ahog&IJ;y', elaborately carved and oreeted Witb a crown J:teld b7 e:atmale,• With u onu111eJ1.W 41el, and adequa:t.e. nen today, 459 110rks. It atood 1n that weaiern corner ot tha hall 10Aa llfier �ur looked it for tbo lut timo,• until U wu :replece4 bl' a taleo-• olock brought ill With the Hoover a<laini­ Plat& 85 atntion. When thai clock l.eaves w1 th 1ta, to 1lhce 11 wu Al"thur ClDclt r.o. �9 a girt .tram. the Departnmt ot camieroe, the Arthur mahog11D7 may aoma baak to 1h old oorne:r- again. It• preaen.t place ia 1n tbe dofll• ataira corridor, w1 tbout dwbt to tlnt turther OOJ:nton ot reoepUDJl room ot the eeoond tloor oor�id.o:r. Since, they be.Te been acain gueata con, iD l.lllo to JDO\Ult tb.e a te1l' •• 1n t:be Bed Roam, then in the �een. Poac, end: nnal.l.y emne to their l.ogical homo, the China Rom;: on the grounc1 floor, 1'21ere are displayed One pair ot tile .&rtlmr corridor n.aea 1a lett W ua. B1!!113ple chiua-eata or the Tarioue Pre•1dantiel tables. They are tho braes ul'IIS, li.oav11.7 abased and :toohd, now 0107 to ho ooan ee.oh sue ot tho Mata J>iA111& l'OCIOI tl.repla<>•• AnOther omement or ,Arthur•• Bed. Room eeema ta have �one to These de::,a they bold pota ot palm&, but lll J,,Jtt1mr• -s da;y they •ere the ..-aul\ tor eate-keepillg, eoo:a. atkl' he caued diepleying it Uth d.eaoribed as "br8all tlower, tl"Cml !11.tfBDJI'•. pr14e to '110111■ Rn YorJt 1'1■1tora. OM oan eee hin. 401118 ao - 1t min h.O'e been a botanioal novelty 1n that daJ", th& wbtta ,aae Two paire or the tall jard1niena 1 characteriatio ot the repraaant1JIB e barrel cactu• in .tull bloan. :to doubt ebout 0139 .lrthu:r time ore left. one pair "" Jmoli ho boUght,- Tift'- mark ie th• hll. bloca - l.1f'►a1zad cactue blooms aro e.pplique4 still on them. !l'hsy were t'or the Red :aoca, on. which the 4eoo:re:tora lll'0Wld 'the a1dea.. .Bu.t it 1• now an m.aein& toucb 1n the old-tashiou­ aeem to have J.evilbe4 a pridetul interen. On low teakwood etenda, ed Northweat .Be�.. they are three feet three inches high, With haDCll.ea, end 0120 are very deoomt1ve apeoimona ot Bo7al. l'oroester c:bina. !ftl.e other st.a'\e per.lo!" J•r41D.1eree ot Ibis time - pillk e.nd Tb.ey eN deacribod a s ,..ery old, ond aa oosting .e1, 500, in gre,cn CenWneae, very tall, on teakwood baaea 1 an Chinoae. one an early gutde-book; which alao call.II tbs SIVl"M. The de1d.,gn on .legend aaya they were presented to .Arthur by tb.e Chinese Oll.G accorcUng t:o \he inventory that ti.rat deacribea them, 1• •a Oll.9 ]bperm-,, . but hile to &It' why or wbe:n. Plndal tells ua lrthur painting or Romen Oirl and CU.p14 in }t.l"bOD; reverse, lonio portico boUgbt thEIII- tor hie Green Room, end th9re the,' c&l"tainl.y atood, end, with vase end pedee:tal 1D toreoround. • 'l'be other wi'\.11 a C11uter ( ffl')' unoQlmlQD. 1n the 'lb.ite Houee d.ameatic hi■tol'7} he.a •& g1r1 dr1Jlk:l:og at 11 tall tountain and two dovea; reverse, ds:iaged. one silit):Ltly. They I too. are now in tbe China Ramn on the tounte.1D bowl on .tluted pillar.• Theae huse orname.nts latt th& 2ad Ground .Floor. 1toom when .Rcn::,aevelt redeooraied i't and oema up to the west end. dt-


no. 010'1, aee Pl.ate 38, RooseYelt.

No. 45\1, see Plate 25. 9V.

China Roan, Ground J"loor

Plato 2& Arthur Jerd1ni«re1 Ho- Oll.9, Ola') lll>kl>o& llirrar Ho. OllB l!oovo1" Am-chatr No. 416-18 P.rea14ont .Arthur aee» to have re-dec:orated hie own Gnm, 111:>oza, p:rooabl;t a little ld01' thlUl th• T1ttaey aotiT1ty. Beturniehed it perhapa, ia a 111Dl'I accurate desori;ption. H• •u a great lo•i.r of meio 1 u bia wire had been; and eaj070d llaT1ng e. f'eli h1enda o<Jlle in to the best maic he coul.4 'find 1'or them. Adelina Patti aaDBi in the 1011 te Hou•e at ona at the gathorlmga, wh1oh were &aller an4 leas f'o?m.Dl than. the preunt-4ey ma1oalea in the 8:>om era able to be. The Green '.Accm waa the baokground oho■en to:- 'theee •veninga.. 'l'he pre-.A.r'\:Juu' Green Boan rurntture wu on the un ot that he bad eal.4, aa being ttv01'll en4 moth-eaten• 1 l.ilce �et at 'the llaat I!ocm furui\ul'e and a U�U• or tl>a 1!&4 - furniture. Th• Pres14ent kept cat he telt 1111 could w,a, the loluulou mental lllir­ ror and. the �a r:um:tel urne, bu1 ha bought some new oomtorhabla tuni'W.N ror hll UDUIUBl l1aten&l'■• 0r1&1nallf lt ... CO'HNd. in pale green eilk broe-adB, dee:>l,y tutte4 an!S. hee.vUy :tr1uge-d. There

NO. l.28-30, 800 Plates XXJ end nv;t Jfo. 297, .see- Flate 60, HOOl'Or.

was 1D the very center ot th& all-over oarpet, a triple seat. in which three sittol"e might each taoe 1n a ditteront direction and yet tum their baoka on no one. It must haTe imaenaeJ.y complicated. the 90oial protocol ot the dl!IJ". It end 1ta coueequent _prob1sna have eon• �heir ■tatel)' way; but the tlJ'O a;m...ahaira end the t,ro e14a cba:Lre survived.. By Clenland • a time they wore reupholetere4 ta pale gn■n l)l,ush. fib.en t.he Booeevelt ere. 130 151 urived cd tunuehe4 the Greeu Room in tb.e white 8Jld gilt cane chairs ot that period, tbeae tour Arthur chairs were 1.28 taken upata:11-e to tlle lfe:at and eitting room. !!t"lh tie.r41AS 129 had 'th811 p.le.ced in the oval Llbral"J'; in her time they were ooye.n4 UL Cl aoft dull blue, like t,te 'blue carpet ot that _:rcom. 'lb.en Mr•• HooTer brought on her OIID curved eouahea t upholetered in blaak mut gold Chinese brooada 1 t o t'urniBh tho aame OVal. Draw­ ing room, tbeae tour somewhat teded ahaire were dyed black to matcb. Pemape, at mic!ni8ht, they talk: to the :e.dio there ot .Adeline Pattt of' A.rt?mr. .&rtl:mr eeema \o haY• aelecte4 a new table -ror hi• mueto l"OCID. Round o�ter tables iit cne 1 e parlor .ere .no longer quite at:ropolltm; an.d Prealden\- .a..rt:twr. born Ve:rmonter but bred lfn Yorker, had a tla1:r tor being in advanoe or the te.ahion, like President Z"allhtugton, end J>reeic'lcnt !l)nroe bM'ore .bim.t wbo managed to be in ad..-ence- ot nent• too. 1hia Uable 1a oblong, wi1h OU"Yed leg11 and a center :t'1D1e.l on the atretoher, 1ta top elaborately marqu.etried., curved 1n rim. It etood against the Green Boom wa.l.l until 1go,a, when it acoompenied the rOUl' Orea Room. 4haira to the llfeat end ai tUn.g­ 257 room. Since, 1 t baa been in. both bedrooma ot the President' a suite, in '\ho aou.thnat cunzar or 'libe houas, mid it ia ll011 up 1n. th• houae.keeport a suite on the third rl.J>or. .lrthur eeemes to hafl bought the o?U.7 aet ot turn1ture ever aeleote4 in. deliberation tor the OVal Room on the priT&te t1oor. That roan always been tur.D.tebed piecemeal., 0:1' with borrowed tur­ niture, in its oapeoity aa a 1ady'ta private dX'awiJl& room. Mrs* A.dmm, �he ftrd, put Uartha Waabington•s Philadelphia f"ur111ture in it; noa. M:rft. J'il.l..D:::lre 1 tO whom tbe tirst real COlrfl'let1on or that roan, u a t'-.11.f Ubra.ry, is aoaredUed, eeemo ta haTe turuiehed 1 t with whet she hed, even d.1.scovering a pretty carpet under her 1nhe:r1-ted end ahaoby matt�. lllt Al"tlmr llouab• u a set of turn1tu1"6. TO be DUl"o, he wea not tum1ah1ng a lad.tee' -parlor. :.ll"a. 'C"oflroy and her little <laUCbtcra and twalve year old Nellie Arthur had their drawiug rOODl eleewl:B;re. Thia OTel. l.ibrary was to become a oonteranoe room. ad. study tor thie e:-vico-ti,NaidellthJ. tenant: 1 e.ud uaed it also on.en tor en o:rtice. So the bcnigb.t wae ao eleisant version or ott1oe turn.itun. Ii NO!aine 1:odoy, colloo\e4 ill the !aat l!nd ot the long aeoODd f'loor hall, where tb& leather ohalr• once in the Pna1d:o».tial otticaa ha.Te ueam.bled themaalTea.


The gth«r pioce ie e. tall mirror-leas bur&au, with braH The two Arthur sate.a are t'rsmod tn :nahog,my-, rimed with handlH and ornamental OUTing11 on ita dr-n'er-tronte. It 108 a tluted bl!l?ld and They lll'O uphol.stored 1n - today • Nd baa cl'OHod the he.ll, too, ■iuce Cle·reland and McX1nloy uao4 morocco, indented into e. diamond :pattel"D,. !�•• COolidg• be-4 th1111 1t in the nonhweat autte. done in red. In Arthur's time tlley ZOl were probably green, u ,rere tor Ea.d !nd, Second Corridor The preeideutial exodus seeme to t.aYe 201 Cleveland, and eovered wt th l.rt the aauthN1t rooms :tor Ura. NoXlro:, end leather, ■ince .Arthur's deoorator■ her little daughter• . In the next lldminiatre.tion had diecoTered tbat loather was the oorreot Kin Clevel.end. had that roam., and ita "narrow meterial t'or a room heruntod by 11DOk:era,. Ii; boudoir" in the wea1: corner , which indicates it was in Arthur' e dey 1 •till bad houae-keep1ng •u elao the room ot the ■tater preoed.ins her. to ellow cigar amoko to o.Ung about one•• Two uew pieoe• ot :tumiture were pJ'Obably added uphol■tory. to that rooci.1 ainoe most at its tW"D1ah1n,ga muet have been taken to 'the nn muter' a bedrocm. The two am-chair■ that mdob the 210 One 1• a :temilline bureau ot tha asu ■ores aN atUl w.1th them, in the general tyPe u th• .Arthur obittoniere, 211 CHlll't end gallery nowadqe. Without a mirror. It 111 at1ll againat When tho Libra:ry- was tirR f'Urzl.1the eoutb wall ot the aouthweat bedroan. The other 1• a round center table, Yi th bowed ahed tor a conference roo0., the center table seema ■till to ha.TO been one ot tho three en4 OISl'l"ecl l.ega and • drawer on et tber 878 a1 de ot 1te uhoga.D7 top, - an eapecially l"OUD.d ones ueed tor Dl8l:O" yeara alo:cg "11• hll!ll.l. outside. BUt Arthur had another 1D enctearillg touoh undoub'l:edly to a tidy mother ot two. Tllat tabla atayed in the aou'tbweai: bed­ there later. H• mey ha're bought i't 78 tor thia l'0011Zlj or he 11SQ' have bought rocm the time ot OltrYeland' a stater. end later wu in the atate bedroom,- pos■ibly during it tor tllt1 Red BD0m (siUH it 1a nry ite day• ae a. nu.raary. 'l'odiq it in one of the like the Green Room new table and ye, read two hall table• on the top tloor. Arthur• a Red Room table waa 0r1ohl,J' inlaid•) and re:pleoed 1t th&re lator by the muob s,re PGaaiblf •• haTe mt• article out ot elaborate tabl.e "e aee 1n the pioturea ot tb.e bedroom. Uff4 by lUtle Nell1e Arthur when bi■ Red li:>ool. Thia table he.a r.ow moved Up11teira to the to_p t'loor, but it or113inally she sea not e.•v at achool. The.t ta t:be north 'bed.roam., weat ot the croe• hall � the one u■ed waa 1D Ar1ihv'• Librar.1, and stayed in that b7 Robert I.1.nooln, end Nellie G-ran:t end other room unUl IA-a. irart ' , t�. It 1• longe:r tban the J.rthlll' Green Boo:n table, al■o wal­ prea14eiit1al. deao•odanta. A 121-. chittonter, Plate 2'1 nut, ela.boratel;y can-ad end marquetrted. ceme into it aometiJne before ltcKinley, poaaibljr .L-tbur So:ta No. 201, and .!m-obair No. 210 to l.ey away tboae plain wb1 te trooka thlla:u:,.n LBcquor B0Wl No.. Oil The new PN:sidm:rt , and •hen there that the little J.rthur da1J.ihter appeared 279 liardi:,g !lug No. 10 ie one 1 the 11rat Lady-, have e.l.way11 their 1n eam.etimaa, at her- tather •a atte.rnoon choioo ot suitaa. l&ost preeidenta oho0M the southwest suite, aa111cibliea. Thia chif'tonier 1a obYioualy one of' tba mahogNlJ' a!' :ror its obvioua attraction at southern ei:poaure. President J.rth\1%' Yalnut design• popular at thia t i.m : but aomet1me an inspired preferred the .northnet euite aoroaa the hall , et8l"t:lng a precedent 4Yeller 1n a rather de.rk bedroo:J:. had 11. painted white. ihite 1t rollowed. by Clnelend and l!CXinloy. That suite had lut bHn uaed still ia, up in the third floor eewiae- roc::n. by the .Tohneo11 adlllinistration; and. we.a not then :reru.rutarutd in preai­ Tso oloa�• ma,- be Arthur' a. We know that he rttted up thee dential elegance. Ho• DIOh else Preeident � tbund 11ecesaU7 to snail bedroom ot hie northweet euite u en ottioe, where he used add to it we do not lcno"i but we have tlf0 piecea that h• t,o haVfli bought tor 1be.t room. One 1• the tall chitton1er• ot to work late at night. :t-onibly a bru11, clock uphold on mnall ubogany, "1th nioging mirror aitacbed, now in tbe Preei­ t'igu.Na ot slephmt-• was bought tor tho.t little olookle■1 der:i.t• a dressing room - in the 80\l'l:hwesi oorner ot 'the houae .. room. It 1• now in the vault. In llcKialey• s day it was 0135 It seas to have bNn a popular choice. Since .&rthur• e de.y it he.a 1n t�e Nor\hweat bedroo:nj and sinoe 1 tor .,. time, at loaet, followed eaab Freeident about , wherevor he haa ehoae.n to keep hie it wae the cloak on the mantel-ehelt o:t the Prooident ' e etudy; till ward.robe. the pl"osent ship' s clock n.e brought in from tha lde IIe;ytlower.

No. 78, aeo Plate OG, l..°llkno1m

l:'.i::. GROVEII CL!:\'!:U!!D mAJ:CZS FOLSOJ'. CI.E'II.LAl;D lB85 - lBBQ lSll3 - lBO? •.tt the olo■e o"t J.rtbur• 11 adminiatrat1on, on tt.e eve ot tho 1.1:.ird of �ob , the Pre1tident-eleot 1 l.!r., cme over to the Whito Bouse and the President ab.owed him all through 8lld eXJ)J.a1ned 1t to him. • 'le have the written word ot Thomas Pmidel, door­ kfieper and usher at the Whito House, tor that. Thia picture o� two President• eaunter1:na: through the halls and parlors ot the main :floor, bae eo•eral interesting eopacta, to ue, sa well ea to :.�. Pendel. ta ahoulcl like to »attar do,m the hells atter Preeident Arthur, and President-elect Clevele.nd. SU.rely the outgoing host wae a convincine explainer. surely there •as not in the t:Wld ot tho 1n-00J!lin,g tenent any arriere pensee ot oriticillJIU - ot plan tor the mrro't'. -;:e should .not expect a J:"a;iid aum:ionincl at decorators. of upholate:rere . or aurrent ebeni■tes and dra,_'D8ra 'by Cleveland, o.rter Arthur. As ra.r u we can gather, tbere Yaa not. There we.a ot courea a human reuon i"or this. The incoming Preaidont •u a baohelor, w1th llike Arthur beton:i h:ll::I.) a sister to look atter the ways ot his houaahold. But neither status -wee to be ;ermanent and both brother and aiater ;,robably lmew it, though the world had not yet been in:to:rmecl. There •as to be no re-doine ot the lihite Uouse turn1ah11J8• at the or th1e pail". Tbere we.a bonvDl' e. complete, thor­ ough land very man-like ) deaning and reno"Yating o:t the ald houee - tor tbe ver., boat ot naa:ona . It was to have a new miatrosa 1 a young aht.reea. a brid&. The vary cornera were pol1flhed until they shone - (tho-ggh the brlda could not, on her 1Jedding-day1 hne seen an inch ot paint anywb&N, ao banked with rloworo ware tho walls and �1re-placH end •in­ dow-nichee J • Still the groom had the proud oonso10uS11eea or kno•1Jl8 that the house had been painted and decorated inside end out and "over-hauled ea 1t hes not been tor aneral yeare. " ill the carpet■ had bean (we have the :newspaper' • '"'1'd "tor it} lifted trom the tloore , thorolJ&hly clel!!D.ed l!!Jld put down aaain , and in thaee days cert1et:s oame clear to t.he "'ainecotine; and nre oe:r_pet tacked tbllll all around. None ot th• rooms had been entirely repainted, but the 'lfal.111, ceil1uga end oor.:c.icea ot each had beou touched up w1 th p1 int Bild gold leaf'. The oa.n-ed mantels end mirror :f'rules, the fluted Corinthian pillars witb oan-ed aapitale and the COI"ll.ices Dl1d d.eeore.tiTa gird.ere of the Eu.t Room (now, to our twentieth century relief', •W.ehed with Thebee the Golden l had reaeived a treah coe.t ot Mltte end gold, which i:nade the ont1re room look bl"ie-,ht and ne•; but none or the f"Urniture had anythiD& done ta it (underetend1ng sister-in• la'I' I) Nell!' leco wero aippliod tor the Rocm, the Groen Parlor, tbe Red Parlor, tba Private Dining Room, the President , 11 bedrOOt:1. (which had been c!uly ghen a new coat o� paint l , Urs. Cleveland • a dressing room and tUe ste.te bedroom

wbioh •e.e, we read eleewhere, otte-red to the bridee' c mother. The private dilling-room was the only room in the houae that baa e. new carpet,- ( end probably President »-th-.u­ hed pointed. out that it needed ona. Ue had ueed that room etaad.117 end extensively imd the Ci!U'Pet • a wear he."Ye needed "expleinins. ") The numerous geaaliers all o•er the house he.d been taken d01111, washed, poliahed end put up again. (Tb.en 1t&re titteen hundred pieces alone in the 'lihree cry11te.l gaaLl.iers ot th& Ea■t Room ) . The dadoes, cornicee and bordera in the Green end Bed Parlors had. been touched up e.nd 'fresh gildit,g had. been applied 'llh.erever needed. But the parlor tum1ture • none a"t it - had anything dono to it. '?ho atairaaaee were newly Yarni�hed, tl:e gener�y touched up, end the coneenetory - made rtret tor the comina delight ot another young lady, Harriet Lene - 1& ralllid. with a 11n "airanolite" �1oor, relined with and reheated, •1th etaam 1.nah&d ot hot water pipe.a. ilkat aorei ahould a bride aek in eny houN? Even tl.e iron tencea ebout her garden had been painted, " and - an enchanting, even teudal touch or welcome I, - the ape.are on the top or the tence.!!I have boeA gilded. " What was tl.ore lett. in so abining a palace, t'or the bride to do? She i:nigbt ot course reicl the attic. We era informed that ahe did; but •e do not kn.a• what I&a. Cleveland roaoued out ot tho old attic on t}:e one and orJ.y ti� e. Wbi te RouH mi•tre8a olicibed tho tireman•a ladder up to 1t. ._,e know tbe Pree1dent liked buet a •• e. form ot decoration. The principel contribution he made , we :read e1eew?:e:re, to the ert-or:a.amenta ot the upper oorridor •aa a stuoco buat of the late Vice­ Preaident Hendricke , 1rhioh was a Tery good likenoss. :Perhaps Mra. Clavaland, with all o':f' a bride's pretty zeal 1n e.dvanoing her huabend'e bobby, dug out ot the attic all the buate she could tind, and lined his hall with thm. She took. apparentlyI to thoae halla wt th con111dor­ able energy. Poor lambkin , her hand waa forestalled in other qu&l"'tei-s by pertaction. But me seems to have round one cor­ n&- in her perteot :umaion to "do over"- a corner thai had, in the desert wi1dorneas ot e ate.tely hou:aa, been neglected by the t'ciniu touch. She may eTen have invented. that oor-­ ner; and true to the current tallh1on ct the de:, - even a lit­ tle in edvane:e ot it, it was A "cozy corner. " To be sure a. eteJ.roese inhrrui,ted ita cczinasa; but her cheertul gener­ ation navot- :ninded a atairoaa• poielng tor e. d.ownwara cUve out ot their eitting room111 ; and tor t.:ra.. Ol•velond herelllt ataire 0r le.ddera had no terrcre . It b�d the requisite "tor a percouel Nt'Uge and retreat ot the nineties - 1t had a 6'reet •1ndow to curl up beside w1tl::. one's book, where one could watch the awiaet t1ame i'ato red eeh over the State, end Navy BUildins.


So the "westend ettttng room on the second f'loor, • that later was to be such s. ca:n:ro:rt to the invelid !!rs, r.cX:1.nley, o&lllB into l1to to:r the delloht ot :.trs.. Cleveland, and naturally ot her husbend tbe P1"'oaiden1i. �re her 1 !Jra. Grant had bad a te-w eota1 end ch81ra there ot cou.rae, and a rew engravi.r:iga on the walle. BU,t :!adame V1ngt-et-deu% ti.rat pushed it and pulled it about into a eittiDg 1/0om and tbon loved n with 11ttle pato ot bric-a-br�. 'l'ho 10"1! wood bench that now rune Mroas the aame e.rched Vena302 tian west window ia probably there by her deviaiDS• It was there tor the next aaatn1atre.t10ll, some visitor desoribed it tllOJ1 al a ,.deep-,CUl!lbioned wllldo• seat� in the 1reat end sitt1na; l'OOm where :i:ra. Harrison kept ur piano (al•• in spite or the otairhoaclt). !!he deep 011ah­ ioJ1 was p:robably covered in one cf the b\189...t'lowend chintzes Mra. Cleveland expressed her young spirits in .ti.en she sot a chence to repl.eoe the ;prevailing rad or green valve, ot bar �redeoes.qora. "Je lm01' she bought a. little bookoaae .tor her at tti� room. It is a moat unobtl'Usive little bookcase, plain, open-shelved - t1.0t to be looked at twice unlaaa one were awore of it• origin. QJ,J.te pooeibly sh• had it made •1n the ahop.. by an intarei,ted .,bite Houae. carpenter. who would kDDw the aort ot bookshelves a young latly, vory, a sohool­ girl1 110u1d tind eonTenient for thoss books 01111 coul.d not, in oza•'a t1rst sitting roam, be parted t'l'om. But eomehow on• teals it must have- been bought, that plain l.ittle boolccase with its feint eir or lll>d•at :i,rieo still about it, u tll<>\lllh it bad been a bride's bargain,- a diacavery aba had made her-457 sell end ba>-e homo to bo di opla:,ed. Perhaps in lta dq tt had a curtain aoroes the a h elvea - ot the same bright flowered atuft aa the 1rind01t" cushion, and perhaps a 'Very yotll\8 1118tron wh<m, lire had denied tho homing end hen;sing or her own .curtains� eetistied an atavietia longi.Dg by potting and pleat.­ to& that ourtaiu 1.ato place, ea she -passed.. Ber little book­ ehelTeS have been uae.tul ainae ehe le.f't them. They &tayvd i n the second floor :retreat tor many yearu, and held doubtleaa tem1nine or tamily bcoke. They h!l'Ve once J:JoWenr, held a Preeident'a books, - the overt.low ot such reeding matter aa it aent an omnivorou reader, to be on the .tloor ae ita Ras:es are e.xhmiated. The Cleveland bookoe:ee 1e now 1n the ladies• Senatorial Reoeption Room, which 1a the otticial •oc­ tal 11tle, on recaptton n.igbte, ot the £1'0U!1d t'loor room which 'lfa9 once President :-iilaon• s billiard room. west end. s1tting roam 1 e the back-ground ot a deltshttul ske'tioh of our brids in action. Tb.a Uabe:r aketahea it tor ua - that t11her who has app%ecieted Yith an adaptable tut ell the aotii""fU.iea ot hts l'i:ret Lai:Uea ror tort,' yeus, end llllo like• to ... th... heppy, He ""18t h81'<1 tound luruelr m11oll :rotreahod by the oottvitio• at tbe bao1a1>t :,OIJll& Firot laq at the •1gb.t11Sa. Sbe had - t.bat sure a1gn ot a happy woma».,- an. e:l.):Jo:rimental pueion tor ehittiag the brtc-e-bre.c about, to make


quite certain tbe.t it woUl.d not look bethr somewhere else� Espeo1al1Y' 1n that west end sitting oho sllitted it until finally o illahtll' bewildered Preaidollt asked. her it ab.a wouldn't ba eattstied to put away all thoae old ornam8Dte., e.nd d.ecicle ju:,t what she needed tor eaoh plaoe md bU7 it. She t hougb\ aha woul.d. 5he sent oui all tbe orneme11:t1 in'lio the ma1D oorridor t eaya the Ueher, end decided, standing in her sitting room, juet what ahe did want. -You know." e:xpl.a:1n11 the U1b11r 1 with geaturee, "a blue Taae here en4 a dl!'ab china piece there.• IJ'ben ebe went and bougb.t than heraelt, dD'l'n on the counters ot We..ahington. She was entirel.y aat1atie4 111� the reaul:t; and when tba President na sure ot that, he had a 11lim or the .roam. drawn w1 th eaoh object uumbe:r-ed. and the number placed on the, eo no one in the hcunhold. would f'orget ., and ahi:tt them ega1n. One ornammit is plaueibly one ot ura. CleTelcd • a on en­ eral. ocnmta. It ia in that west s.ud ooz;y when we ti:r-st t111d llh1te House 'traoe ot it,• in a aouvenir pho"totP'■ph book or the Clevolan4 tal1te Bouse, whe:n, it appears aa sn ornamont 028 purelyJ on a aide table. Later it ia inventoried ea e. D:readen .fru.1t 41811, its dark blue bow-1 draped in china rosaa 1 Bild up­ hel.d by tour chino Poat.. AAd it hB8 e look '1f being oho•en ond layed. Prol,ably It has undoub1edly it no.-, aharmingly aeeo.nd corridor ct

u a trult dish 1'\ waa eomstimee uH4 dcml.11-tai:ra. ase:n the greet 1'01"ld 1Jl 1-ta dey-, 11J1d thinks about .retired to the top ot e. bookBln,lt in the same its 7011th,

Pe:duspe mDri ot her bric--a-braa •a• tor herself - "\o be taken away w1 th her. M Kra. Cleveland bought another <raee •tor the goverm1mt." 'l'bere .,... in ber Green Joomn.1 atUl ill the elegance aohieYed by Preeidct Arthur, a Jape,neee cabinet. It had 014-6.1. been a ata.te present to another ,rt�eleaa :Preeident, Ven _ Burell, cd he end hi■ sUQoeesora apl)areut� laaked the tem1nine intui1.1ou to see that it eeriousl.7 n eeded a vase to crown ita magnUioenoe. Mre.. 01.eTeland bought it a 79llow vaae, ell 1t11 om, tor- ih lonely' aurtaoe-, and gave atri<:t ordare it aboUld na"f'al' be moved, e:mept to be .tilled "1th tlovera. (Bride■ leern Ol� quieklyl) i'hat :rol.l.0w nae ls ot111 in the Wllito l!owoe veUlt, waiting tor Mrs. Clevel.BD4 the the J'ep1111ese lacquer cabinet, beth, to ra'turn. to the ste.te pe.rlora. It 21.u a pink mate, but tre.d1 tion aa::,ath not tor 1thet apeo1al ahriue it wae ohoaen. fte Rad Boom bed been tho apeoiol pride or the J.rthur­ Tit.ta..ny school ot decoraUon. Their cl'itioa, the publio, had re­ oetved it- w1. tll a<:ola!m. Ne..-er, in ita jud&eman.t, in all the his­ tory ot the muta House had that Red So0D1 been nearer port'ection; and the lol:le gueat Who nots: IITb.e old. pol't-'Wine Iliahogen:, eotu and chaire dioh were in the state Parlore: in Lincoln' a time ••re bet"'lel' e.n:, tllat haa <:ome in their 017 place. 'l'b.ey are now :tull. ot model'll. abaminationa in u,. bolstttr,- and gariah g1.ld1ng, and all the rooma look etarin,g, pra­ tantioua cd J'ranch,", i1 IIJl(lke 111 a. lone 1101e:a iD the wild.erDoea. But Ure. Cleveland "tound and a dded" a needed touch to that parteot

lC;.. His wife aPJ1ee.ra to he.Ye don• so too. She he.4 "a kindly wey ot makiaa people :reel at home 1 " the ststt ee,y-, who oer\iainl.y ahould be judges einee tb&T helped her to do tt. And. ahe "l�ed people to go away happy.• That aeeu to have included anyone who eeme 1n her cbor, and to hsva had a practtol!ll turn. to it. In the Clevelcd dQ"1 betore it and atter 1 t. until a Bough Ridel' oanie on the who re"tueed to ba eramped in hie privaoy by a :m11:re ou•tom, ell the world. that had - or felt it had - right to intorma.tion trom the 1iihite l!O\U!le,ceme to g et· it and nited 1.t it were not ready. 'l!he 4.oorkeeper ot Olnel.e,nd1 s time gt..-ea ue a word picture: "ilter the Chioego railroad etrika the veetibu1ea l!lld carridore were throngetJ with newape.per men watoh111g �or the aom­ ing ot aane ot the Cabillet. Bomet1mu1 they would •ait tor hom-• end the Cabinet would baTe Zl0 news to give cut. Keanwbile thay would smuse themeelTea by tal.ldng, it1lling etories, Bild atud;ying how they could get hold or the nna they wente4. 11

Plato 29 Clevel.and Lemp Ho. Ol.'1 Buchanan Table No. '14 unlmcwn Engraving Ho. 05 apartn:ent. It needed a parlor l.amp. Jnd l!lb.o bought tor it a temoue 1mnp, onei -that had boon 'the prize _piece ot ou:�gl.asa ez­ hibited at en !Xpoaition. It is all cut-glaaa,- round bo•l. end ltUshroom shepod shade and all. And it- has lately been re8\U'l"ect­ ed t.rom the atprehouae and placed in the ?1ortbwest Bedroom {once. ltl-a.. Clevelanda.) on the old. state bedroom c enter--table. Mo lalo• tbat Preaident Claveland reorgSlJized bis e:zecu­ ttva otticee, and at loaaf; re-Bffanged hb tu:rnitlA"•• tl.b.ether he 'bought auy new tu.mi ture wo do not know. It be did, 1t was prob­ ablY not in 1:ihe intereista or himself' but or hie cellera, oince with tbe Clnolona hoopitable political diapoeition, h• undoubted­ lY thought ot his call.el!s wlth kindneae.

Th• 001Tidors were ot'ten filled at other tiJnaa - by the weary :tooted who had just examined the house; by- touria"\s -.b.o ware �.aiting to go iuto tlle East Boom tor th• llClon recopUonj by aJl1" ot the public who bad tm •errcd··• in the i\1bite Houae. Pre-e1deut J.l"thul" bad achieved e. certBin deoorati're pr1V8'!7 by hie stained. slue '?it­ "tany a.c:reen. But the public Wldoubtedly came behind 1t to un hie el.agent oorridor aota or two and his leather armohaira during the rush hours.It would not he.Te been a comfortable plaoe to wait (ae it waa not, in tho plan ot .&rchitect !icbBD, meant to be}. be can almoBt scte the notebook ot iolraa whipped cut one morning, en4 opened tor en illepiration. A. marvoloua inep1rat1o.n. - combiniJJg doi.Dg aomathtng to pleaaa 0110•111 b.Uebend, and 11e.tiety11Jg 44.9-52 one I e own hospitable BDd kind tuati.Dcta. undoubtedly- eh• 444-45 &bopped one atternoon,- or at least drefl _plans, :raur aotu and two a:rmcha1r1 1 all dark: woo&, plain emd eturdy" enoU&}l to p1eazie hor husband, 1'aahionable enough end psaded enough to please hera:elt, 8Ild numerow, tmough to line the main. corr1d0l" ■1th, BD.a seat all the waiting gµ,esta and call.ere tha't: were apt to ueanble at a time. Undoubtedly ahtt was pleased With the result, and so we.a h&r "}Jublio." Har :rour eotaa and the two cheira are atill pl.easing the public. But now- they e.ct their role 1n the lower publie. corridor ... &Uetly the 88ltl8 role imd a wol.oome one. The main corridor above no longer aeste the wait111g visitor or tOUl'ist; it ho.e retUl"lled to 1te ei!ir-ller aroh1te0tural end hw:n.en use ot a grand pas&age..-q e.c:roee the sta1ie n.oor. But the Olev-ela:nd :f'U.rniture ia t'rlendl,y1 and p:re­ f'ers to be ffllBre lif'e 9>ee daily, pointing out PNaidsn'ta' por­ traits to 1ts, and whan it oen.'t go sny t'urtber without a mo,ment's rest, resting 1teal.t tor more inepectting, in the good old .American fasbion, and knowing at lest it it cares to read the label on the aotaa ed ohe.ira, thet it ehoU.ld bless Mrs. Cleveland 1n the resting.

109. ·,mJ,LC . :.:ol:rr.IZY rru. s=o21 t:cKil;I3!' 1897 - 1901 I.e.rge Northwest .Bedroac pereritl:,·, by 1.:ro. Roosavalt. It 'the legacy or the llc hes been vr rioualy blue or pink 1 Kinley ad:miniatration 1 1n the a.e that sunny eouth Vvel rcom haa Wl:.ite liouaa inheritance ot tur­ tollolt'ed the color - taete o-r ita aiture, 1.s parUoularl7 cherac­ miatresa ot the :nomeat. 'heu the ter1atio of' their lite under odds md enda or roea colored tur­ ita root, J.rrs. �-lcKiD.ley was n1 ture ware teken into the a:m.eller the invalid wire or & reru.rk­ BoH Draw1ng-room tor l!ra. Hool'er-, ,tbJ.y devoted husband. Hor 1t acaompenied them. frailty ot health was e:uoh that o:M:en •he na unable to appeer The otl�or tw •ere cavat formal tunetiona, yet ehe 10 ore4 in a pink brooad.e, e.nd and the Presideu:t apent vel'Y ll 1Jloced ir. the newly turniab­ much o� their tiI:le together. ed Bose Bedroom tor Ure. !.!re. !i:cKinley• • health waa the :Ek>osevelt. con•tant considere1.tion by a atntt tb&t aeeme to have betlD we know that :.!ra. i:c::1n­ pertioul.arly attached to her, ley titted up the main tloor stt­ and her c0111:ort waa a aretul.l;y ting room, that paaH,ge 1rtay- by the arranged tor in acb'ano,. We west etaire (DO loneer ex1ating) have the oonorete BYidanoe of that led betwaen the two dining tt in a aet ot chairs that was room.a .into the glees oonaerva­ made fo:r ?.:rs. i:cK1nle:,. In toriee beyond. Later theae oon­ the l'tte ninetios, w hem ahe eern.tor1ee 'iiera taken down to .ruled the ti'hita Houae, tbey make ,ray tor th.$ Ex&outive 01':ti­ wen 'Placed one in each room ces; and the little haven :.:ra. that she tte.s likely to troc:.uent . :r::cK.lnloy arransed tor qµiat even­ �ne wss in tile Rad Row, md in,,a, lfith-.:>ut light■ to hurt the one in the !?.ain Corridor '1t• oyea ot en invalid, but a ahacled ting room (now vaniahed in the lamp "i"0r a working President, baa enl.arging ot the stato Dining Plate �l been awept uide to m!!ke room tor Room) ; one WllG upstairs in her llot::iuley HocJ;i:ng-chm No. 58 an enlarged State Dining roam. own oval ai tti�-room end one 'l'iptabl e No, 19:l Uor do we know what tbat F1rat tl'"1endly touoh - in her hue­ Amchoir lJ. I.adyI whoaa ta.e.te, her own usher be.nd' e l!itUdy and cabinet roan Unknown Footetool No. 54, tells us, we.e "beeutitu.1 in denow the Roae Draw1ns Room. oorative work, cboee to put in ?bey are. theae umohe1ra, upupholstered liGhtlY, in a narrow raahosany trame 1 111 th arnia , and e. it, one ot her intimate t'rieocla tell• ua that at tha.t pel"1od there tall wing bacii" ae;ainat �io!t a led:-' miQb.t UllllOtiocably re■t a aee:mod to be ble.ok leatbor che.irs, not comtortable ones, everywhere head ic co,apany. OD• ch.sir 1e ehown in • dullghtf'Ul portrait or abo1.1t the balle end hall aittin& rooms. ;.:re. r:cKinley 1n her white laoa atata reoept ion drese. rt 203 i e covered in a brooade alterne.tingl.y striped ot .nd and. But we have ao� thine;a sf'�e selected for the oorreaponding h8..Uwey upataire. .:e heTe ' tea table. It was brought t'l.owered silk. That partiau1a?' chair we.a in tbt Red Room. The study chair is now 1n the ea3,t ond ot the 10118 1eoond tloor f'or the west room"• and its heavy mehosen;, end. wrauoht aupporte did daily au ty for an admini etra.tion that 15 gallery. In :�re. McKlnlay' a O'Wll day it was probab}¥ covered in d8l'k green leather. Now it 1a red leet.', dOne tor lira. l.unch.ed whenever po■-iblo 1n that wee.t ,rind.ow-light . The te.ble 161 Coolidge when "the hall. leathers : ·era cba.nged into that ie uo• used. ea .n oooasional table nooat the second !'l.oor, looking cheertul color .. one of' the other threa was tor ma.DY' yaare mu.oh et :.OJUa amon& the !llid-'lioto:r-1 an furniture ot the Norttweat Bed­ e.rter the !tcK1nl.ey era in the OVal Libra... -yI i:,ut there 1"11-at., air roca ;.�'um :1ot in -.i�. Appropriately t!::ers, too, ainoe its makers




110. ,iIU.L\:,: !.:cI:.I::tEY IDA. SA.i-."Xl:i :.:c::r:.i:er were e. f'ina who ')laim the ho110r, by tradition, ot .makin.3 the ntne toot state bed, now in thet asi:e room. 83-84. 71

Two overeituft'ed annehllirs, one lowback:ed, one high, and e couch - called a "'l'Urkieb upholste:r-ed aet·• 1n the nineties - were added to thie .�nt end Sitting-room by t::re. :.:.!Kinley.

in 1902 they were tekan from this ball llittinc;-room, wl:ict waa not ee ::iu.0b used by t:he Roose-r-olt tMlily as 1t. was botore end atter their time, and their red plush wao repleo&d. by a light 1'lowered chintz, .alip-c�ered in the tllllr.lO .n.aterial, for the suite of tho :--.oosevelt daught•r.s, wh.o used tbe ltorthweet bedrooms� 'Nie CQUCh. end one are uow 1n tho top floor corridor. The higheet chair ia in tho ama.ll. north11eeit bed:room where th& ac>osevelt 11iatara lett it. But there al'e two upholstered cl;.aire a"ti.ll uaed in 1111te Houee bedroau that sro llra. ll.oK1nl87' a. They ar• overatu!'ted, tall baokod, -winged and enn.ed. one ahe kept tor ov:n cow.fort in the :;e,at;end Sitting-room.. One. was in \he old 3tate Gue,st Room,- a part1ou1a:rly au:m:r roo:m, wLere tl::.a invalid nrat .Lady took the pre11oribed houro in tl,e m:::il'llM ing sunshine. One or thaae tall chairs ia ucrr1 in tho big 4.2 Northwaat Bedl-ooc, oh1ntzed md plaoed tltere by Ura. ft>OIKlvel.t. The ott.e:r- she b.e.d done in blue brocade tor her new blue bedroom in the aoutll.eas� corner at -tho house. That rOCll&. bed bean ))art or the executivs 0rt1cea imd demanded an entirely new set at :turn! turo wt.en. made into a bed.roam. Che.ire an4 eo:taa --:;ere grtt�erea up about the house and preeaed into servic e , in a taahion tea111ar to aJcy" Jbito l!ouao boeteea. A later ho.ateaa sent it to the rorths!de Blue Bocll'oom in 19:32, 111hare 1t now -.11.ita it■ gueat. Four rocking chell's atiU in residence eeme duri.Jlg the :.:cKinley ere.. Om,, c plain meh.o�any :rookfil", w1 th a tell spindle back and •1thout upholsteJ-iDC, 1a now 1n one 01" the third 2.6S floor bedroof'lo, that 1e ueed as a snlngroom. It was the rock:1tag...oha1r in tl�e !.lcKinley bedro0.c1 tbich 1!laS the north­ ,1e21t suite, and ::es sor-tened a.'ld, clerant "1 t.b ruttled white linen pUlowa.. The ot.?:cr three rocke.!·o weN 1n tbe PraeiC.ent' a study tor l'reaitient ::cKinley, 'Ibo lived et th� peek or the 1troold,11£.... ere.. " Two, wa �:re told by the old flool1!lSll \."11k1ns, the "TL.e chintz 1-11 re�niacen� or the "faint -..,1nk end g:reen chint:.!;" uaed in : ·re w Clcvelc.nd' s bourloir, ,u, deecr1bed l.'lBny yee:ra beto:-e by a 11\d,V who 1e nhtneleea and who l!lefn.,a to have boen r,e.n.d.ertne about 'lb.era she should not . in an ungufll'ded au-cmer t,'hite !iou3e. r..owever, we f!l"Ef et t�,1a di etau:e grate!'uJ. to her, a.a we are ror � tiny domestic t:.:.iicipec ot e. vanished ..hi te Louee. tro . 42, see Fhie ;.,.--nu

321 322

President was •ep-eoial f'ond ct", and ueed himeel.t. They are u.-ue: l.y kept now-a-days iD the amall 1110uthaut ante-rom. ta tbe Praaident' e etuc)y, though they wander, too, H houaet.old need.a devel.Dp. 'l'hc,y wandered to the third tloor nursery tor @'l'end­ chilU"en in the winter ot 192'1 and 30, 'Rhen tho nure&2'J needed an upbolatered mahogany roolcer end • rocker ornemented with 58 oaryed .r1ahheada, to keep its occupants oantortable and mnuaed.. The third rock1n& aheil", troll. Prea1dent .M0K1Dle7• s etudy, 1a JlOW iu the sinall. uortlleide writing rcom between the 1::onh­ west Bedroom ant'! the North .Blue Bedroom. It. •a.a pro" ottered to the t:cK1.nley sueat in it■ early 4ac,a, 11nee -the boat waa speoial. :tond" ot the other t-.o, and it fiU oel"tailllJ' ottered to a HoOTer gueet DlBll.Y yeBl'■ 1atar, be:v1ng been taken to that small room when the suite of' whioh it ie a pert aa to 'be oocrupied by Rameey :.:o:oan­ &ld, Primo W.nlater ot Great Br1taill, on hi■ Wte Rouae vhiii to i 'N& 1dent Hoover in li29. 11

:eut President- t:CX.inl.ey bought other turn.1ture rockers , wttb an hoepite.ble 1ntent. Mu.ob ot bin entertaining was neceeaar1.l.7 oa.17 tor men: tbougll Mr•• ?!cXillley, 1n apite ot bei.Dg pert ot the time contined to her l"OOll1, aa other Wh.1t;• Rouao ladies hue been, attended the Stat• Dinner:, in the long s:laseed-ott main floor con-1dor. The chara.otN"1■t1o UcKt.nley climuu-, bowaver, we.e given 1n the pre21ent private din1na room, aa Preaidont Arthur• s had been, to a group ot men. But there was no Bl£:Oi Ell amokinc l'oam. .fo.r bio �esta atter !:nd Presiden� McXi.Dley tul'Ded hie at­ tention to tha.t usher' • o:tt'ice that hss a.o ottan tompte4 • a:peoe­ hUI1Gr"J President.. EVerythiog, ba■ida an uaher, he.a been put in that 11 ttle right-hand room, e1.nco th• dq that llobe:a. 8totched. 1 t into his plane eDd celled it ,.Po.rt61"8 1 lad.Se".• Prea1de:nt L:oK1nley• a reo.ecore.tion ot the uehor' a ot:t'1ce seems to beY$ been hailed wt th great pride. I.Daa1 G.ecoratore were reaponsible for that achieTement. 'l"b.ey turned tt..a ante room 1.nto a maaking room, done Ul ":nedieval Y.l.emieb.11 •

Two eler:ients ot tlle.t medieval fil.Oi•h school l" i:o � uea one ts e. alde now in the l'lorthwest Bedroom beaide tr.e big lllal"quetried librery table -U .. at is probably Arthur period. The chair ie Clll!'k mod, oane eeat and hacked \,·1th aide

... aeem.e to have life ao d1tticult for an ueh•r• how­ cve:r-, \and it ie very much of' a :t'eat to make lite, admittedly, di.t­ ticult �o"!' an uaher} a.a did ltt-e. Tatt ' • conoe:pt1on or tbh 11-tUe room as poudI'auae on. reception nights. The eta.ft aeme to hav• bean Ulla.ble to ba cO.tltortable with the tnirrora and _putts and button­ hooka ( ea_peoia.U.y tor etae obeeux-e reHon, tho 'buttonhooke } appear­ ing in ti..e1r do);.ftin on perty n1sJ:,ta, though on e-ulter party night• the :.:Bl'ine Band plncea in 'With thnl aeems not io have been bOthered at all.. :;o. t:i:, see 1 .late 32, . :c:�hley

111. :ITU.IA''. !.lCXIl:L'llY IM SAllON l<!aKir.LEY posts of the twiated design we oall, veguel.y> J'acobeen. The rest ot the chairs have been 81f8Pt Pe,y in one of the renovation,i,"; but this chair seams tor some reason to have been brou,:ht up to tile ..eatend Sitting-room, yoesibly as a dsek Dhair, when the Flfflil­ iab room was dismantled.. 11

The tabla of the set was al so bl'ought up• to the same reeting pli,.oe; and there it l!ltayed es a big library table 'tor books end megazinea and other tlotaem and. jet11an or the daily tides or living, �r aaa.e twenty-tive years. Then t 1n 192V, tides of liv­ iDS ou the private t'loor took one ot their sudden shi:rta, and the little oove o� the ,,'oatend Sitting-room abif'ted with the tide, An al2miniat:t'at1on ui,ed to outdoor living ei,:m.e into the houao and turn­ ed the 'i","estend S1tting-:rocm into :a f'81TI prdem. But the :.toltinley Fle:Jlish t able was scmewhat out of its medieval .B'l.Blltish atmosphere in e. rem garden. It was moved into the Ovel. :Room - and welc011!1e it must have berm, in en empty oval room of thirty by :tol'ty 134 re-et, as empty, almost, as when Hoben described 1t in 1818, when he reC0D11&I1.ded it be J:'iniabed 1n time to'r ?.trs. li)nroe to f'urnish it to her tastes A ohaming old table it i,hows itsel.1' to be now-a-days. :t is i>leok aa ebony, heavily' carved, its two suprorte at either end being llll'ge and dramatic dolphins. ::'ere it not that its pedigree were so Mil known an entiqueria.n woul.d puit it aomewhere be-tween the '!)maen Pttyte I>Srio_d and the ebony perJ.od, with a medieval ancestry. OD all counts it humn1zes with the preeent oval lll'e.w1ng-rocun, ot the jade green window cur,. tains and bronze Oriental figuriana, and still a touch or two ar the Grant el>ony atmsphere or the sevo:nt1ee 1n ;te turn1shings.

'!SEODORI: ROOSE'IELT �1l1'l'JI DR.:l'l' RoOSRVELT l902-llll9 Th• Roonvel1i ex-a brought the White nou■e tbe greater pel"tl ot it.a preeont tu.rniture. Other adl::t1D1a­ wat1one that had mado oweep1JIS ohll!SH 1n tho 1'urn1ah1DS• haa done so Oeoauee tha t' 1taelt was shabby or in­ adequate to current lite. Theiae chqea ot 1902-03 nre made bace.uae the houae itaelt we,a 1ne.dequ.e.te to current lite. That had been true- end cgmpl.eined ot in periodio outbursts - for soma yaare. 'l'he Barrison admini-etration or the nineties had so tar as 'to prepare elaborate pl.ens 'for an eno.rmous]J," enlarged buil.ding, extending all around the �.bite �.ouse lot and enclosing in 1;he center a guden. court. The new &; was to oons1et or cttices, art sel­ ler1es ,, �eption rooms, 1eaving a DU.clmUI ot privets pred­ dential 1ite 1n the center. :11th tho incomiog of tho quiet --innlid lito o:t the: XcKinle7s 1 need 'tor livin& ■pace was not so preeaing, and the eg1tation tor l'-811:K)de11ng and addition wu aroppod. But with the advent ot the .!ioo,evblt t'8Jl.1ly 1 - atmaroUe, . liveJ.,-, giving to tilliog large houses tram top 1'o bottom with activity -the proOle beeeme crucial.. Sonlething must be done to pro­ vide more l!lpace md more privacy, and something 1J8.B done with chare.cteristie energy. An appropriation wse put through oou­ greiae, a lfa,r Yolk t'il'm ot e.rohii:ecta was engegecl and. plane were drawn. The t'i.Jm waa notified that the chqea we:re to b e cmnpleted betwee11 ?181' an d NoVI.YDber, the President w ithdnw hlmaelr and his family to a house on the corner ot 1a.ckaon Square, .end the c.bipa began to i"ly in all d1reotionl!I. '!'he original. pleu contemplated the "restoration• ot the atati, :rloor, tbe re-arranga.umt ot the ground floor � -racilitate handll:ag ot gu.eata at atate receptions and also to DM)derniza the aarvice q1,1.artere ot the house, and th& removal or- the ottices 1":rom the eut end ot the second story to -a 11A', at'te.ched bui.lding to the west.. Na'turall.y-1 however, an enor­ moua an,unt of recon1!1$Nct1on wae tcund edTi eable in new t'laoringe, etrengt;honed ceiliJlge, new wiring. piping, plaster­ ing, pointing. And U all resulted 1n mi,king o.voibblo on amount o'E living epaoe 1ntn-nded tor Pr&a1dent1al use by Hoben, 'but encroached on duriD,g the ye,srs. ,n 'l'l:le ground corridor '1ad been all-but-tmpenetr-e.ble corridor, t'U.11 ot pipes and hot ai:r duct&, men;sr or them ao o.ttaohed to the ceiling thot 1te loi,g vaulted ond 81'01lled vista had been obl.1terated. Their re1egation 'beneath the floor brought a passageway 1nto bein( that 1a quite as lovely acbitectUl" aa the two above lt, ,:ind it stru<Jk ::r-a. Roo11e­ velt ae an exoeillent gallery for the group ot t em1n1ne par-­ traits the �i'hite House was acquiring by git"t. These, nth the Olevelend tumiture o:t soru and chairs cent down h'om the main hall above, turn:ishect 1 t autt1c1ently.


The aouth r001m;1 openi� tram. 11; we:re ';o be u.eed u dressing rooma on social nigb.ta and need creditable reception .turniture. but the.t. too ,, might ba culled i"rom dteoarda a­ l'Ound. the house.. fte most im;portent or these rooms, th• love­ J.¥ low oval roam -opening t'ram the eouth entrence, in shape 8II. ectb.o or the Blue lioo1lll above lt, 4Nw the d111oarded ariginl!ll Blue BoODI. J."UrD1ture. That that .f'Urn1ture had once been Mon-­ roe• a ho.d been long :torgotten. It helped dignity •hat the arehiteota pret&rrect to call the ",gardO?J. tloort1 mid to make 1 t more quiokly outlive the IIIEUIOr.Y ot 1ta long period ot pi,tt'Gly bP.eement aervioe. The other south :rooma, ot -private uses <w.riug the dq .:tor bWi-arda. a.ides. and social c.lerka, received euah mirror& and f'umiture tziom. above stm.ra u s eemed needed. The kitchens, pantries, ,service dining ro0I!l8, reoe1Ted auc;h tables and ohe1re as oeme to hand. �e turn!tui-e in the service bedrooms we.o tranaterred. to the air new ma.ids' roana in the attics. The state Floor turnishing was cotber matter. For the tirst tme 1n 1 ts hiator:, or renovations a conacious at­ tem;pt was made to re:turnil!lh tbe .Jhita House in the temper ot the period ot 1tl!I ETery preYious decorator be.d atri'fen to present the temper ct hie own period, and hia wol'k usual.J¥ passed in fashion witb him.. This time t-he decorators hoped ao to blend the house end 1ta decoration that both wou1d be inavi table end beyond the .reech or pasBing te..shion. Fortunately that period. was the most versatile as well u tbe eoundel!lt period ot taate ot our domeat1c Oack­ groun4 It drew out ot all the riob. intluen.ces of the early nineteenth century. The:re wa.l!I the English ep1r1t, cr,etal.1 zing in the t'ine Cabinet makera, their iJlBUlarity t'reehened with a breath ot the Qrient; there was the Fre11ch 1 still chel"isbins the raye.l. luxury o:r t-he Lou1s I and ,rela.oming none the leas the taeb:lona.ble au.ateri ty ot the D1reoto1re, with its all!leaic and .i.,gy_ptbn 1upirat1on; there was the. Ital­ ia?).. And there wae tha .Amer1ce:c. adaptation ot 1111.l ot these that we have coma to call, tor want or cleverer t el'DU!I, Oolo111o.l and jlarly 7odoro.l. The present bui.lditlg of the W'h.1 te House h ad :tirat been.' f'U%'Irl .!Shed by llonroe I so shortly atter 1 t we.s bu.11t that turniabi:ngs e.nd arcbi tecture coul,d scarcely but have harmoll1zed. And �,bnroe had sent to I!"J"anoe .r-or the equipment :f'or hie state rooms. Th at choice •ea popUlar aa •ell e.a h.ahionablew In l.8l.8, KnB:lend wae etill. ,tho count?7 with whom one had had a. very- recent quarrel and \.'boee e.rmiea had still :mre roeently burned ones hoUl!le. J'ranca we.a t ho sister-at-81"!!18� truhington had fought beaid8 her. Adema and J"etterson had been d1plcmEtic enYoye to her court.


mEODO!ll: ROO:m= EDl'l'll KE!l:.!IX llOOSEV" ...LT teot long, to tit their reapeotive poaitione. They were praotlcull. in e. room IE.ere apace we.a l'alue.ble, ew1 they ••re ao.n-eot 111 period. Banquettes had risen, in the eighteenth centu17, trom their humble beg1Jmlllp: o:t an iueignitioent Nat pla.oed 1n ant8l'OOIIUI end hall•, to an honorable wall­ aide position st belle , ooncorte e.Dd. uaembliea. D:rer,a as usual helped their ri■e to :te.shlon. P'onnal !'rence had liked chair• to roat its hee:ry wig against, under Louis XIV. Po'l'd■red bead• at hair h&d preferred low or be.olcleea Beats th&t 1� the alegant bead.dress tree.

The l"itth Preeident 1 ?Jonroe, had Wf.tched. her in her own capi­ tal through the -turli¥lil ot her ow revolution� Lafayette, in Paris, &xpreassd 1n a letter tho 4e­ coret1ve oloaeneaa between the two oou.ntriea: "When .Amerioana tiud tb&D8alvee here 1n eight ot .Americc colors, AD:erioan buata and portraits, Jmerioen men.­ nere and Alderican welcome, they look as 1'eellne themeelTea at home. There 1e aomething like t'mnil.7 uu4eretl!.nding between them. "

The only other pieoe ot in. the 1� aalon •es en appropriate g11't. The Rast Room wae to be a St&.te con­ cert room as well ae a room ror stata eaemblie■• A we.a naoaaeary and a pi8ll0 8114 its baob appeared. as a gift :trom a ttna � J.mertoen Pieno mek:er1. .& that year at the mmi.ute.cture ot t.oeir hundred thouae.ndth inetrumen.t, they reque■ted permiuion to Wike o:ne tor the White E.ouae, in ccm­ �6D)l"'at1on ot their acoompliebment. .A.C-Cepted, it wu th6 fina1t 1Dnrum9nt poaeible then to n.ate end w:aa de550 cerated t'or tho p0B1tion of honor w 1th magniticon.t 5&9 care. It is a concert grand, 1te three legs handsome gold eagle■, their out■pread tulona terming a til'm tor the iuet:rument. The designers Tiere .Joseph and Ridle.rd Hunt. llbo 110:rked •1th a comittee oompo.ed ot the erchitecta MoXiJ:1.1 Mead end Sfbite, an erUet or two, and other girted cannoisseure 1 all ot whose names appear on an ivory tablet inside the in■tl"laent . Tho designers "tfere pleaeed l11"th their, ,rhiob in their role ct eymboli21D6 .Americen art wel'o "tre&ted in euoh a muterly u,y that quite dignity, atrength end repcse, a.Dd at the eeme time the living torco ot tl:le support ot the caae them notable �:rke ot &rt" •• .aome rhapeodiat (not on the co:cmittea) haa described them.

In 11110h an •�sphere or ceme.raderie what more uat­ v.ra.l than tbat .!merioua ( eo new to 1.ha ti tlo) should. arrenge a ae.lon Franoai:s in theil' new Federal Palace? or that the liocaevelt: decoratora ahau.J.d ohooaa a J'renoh school , too, fgr their "'prino1pel aal.OD." nearly a hundred yei,ra later? 'l'bia ealon in their oue wu 'the Bo01D, :tor which tunda had not been aTILilable 1.n 14onroe• s day.. Space a:nd. statel.ine,H were tha tint requirement■, aohin•ed 1u wide 1 beautitul bare tloora, waxed i.oto a retlsctiug inatace � tu aleu orean wall,,. 111th Greek acene& 121 taint rel.1of. L1ght wu the ne:rt, and epocial pain.a were taken i:ith the Eut Boom chanl!eliers. There are three ot them, their huge splerulor• each aaapoaed ct all thousand three hundred pieoea ot or:,atal, seem magn1-f1c6llt to ua; in ta.ct there ere lllaD7 ::me>'.?ing gueeta, •1ae in tho1r l1ghUI111 lore, who 1na1at they .,.., much too lorgo. rut o:riginelly- they were l!Dlch larger. Some months atter they were f'irat hung they were teken don., and 1f1 th pe.1nateki:ng care tiedo six inches B:nlll.ler 1n diamater. TO add to their brilliance, olectr1o torcheres atood 1D each corner ot the room. To retl.ect these gl.i ttEilring ge.ln:des, min-ore ot aourse there must be - t� the there bad been great mirrora over the tour mantel.a, and eo mrrora tbere 1rere, tall, the trmne 1n that clue1o Homan t'aaaiat deaign aymbolizinc Order u !564-7 adopted by Ne.pol.eon. Against the north and aouth walls, two at each end, wen placed tho -.all. g1lde-d marbl.a­ tap COlleolea 1nn1table in the aalona ot the Louie - tb.o■e "p1ede de t&ble on console avec eon merbe" that wer« tirturea oni.MLente.l then uaetul. and had. their plao• el.•Q"a in drawing room or dining rcom.

The body ct the 111mo ia decorated w-1 th the coats ot al1De of" the Thirteen Original State1 1 tremed in scrolls ot acanthus, and all paint■d in the 111.i■ty tones ot te.idi green and rose. UUaici in.-trumen1:a adorn the mu■io rao.k� on tbe uncierside ot the oover, 11hown when lit-tad tor playin.s, 1a a painting by 'l'haalea Dewing, ot e aymbolie figure ot the Young Republic J.meric a 151.ll'rounded by nice muae■• Mrs .. r:.onroe end young �lU'Oe daughters would heve s1JzQl7 loved that piano. Alld lllJYC)De or GeorgetoliD' s belles would have be-en delighted to have nopt heraelt dcm on ih gold benob, her JLUaical codeoty over®me, md played her pretty acoompsntmeute,. a t i?IY lll.ipper hunting "tho tor pedala. But probably only one lfhit• House mi■tN■a baa tlon to it the firat quiet mam,,ent she had in her nn bouae. '!'bat wu l!re. Coolide•· Sh• bad looked at it lo»&tngl.y e.• a Y1ait0r1 year e baton aho a mi■treas ot 1t, e.nd hnd been £1l'!l1ly by u guard it waa IKJt to be played, lightly- and unadvisedly , Dy viaitora. Therefore, remembering, with her chere.cte:rietia gayety, she

'l'be onl.y lQOV&ble 3:ast Roca:,, turn.1ture provided by the deoorator11 wu a aet ot thirteen benquettae, ce.rTed, gilded 1 upholaierad todey° in a small pattarnod 5:il.-563 :,allow brocade. They were originally deeortbed ae "riohly' cerved1 gilded and glued to an old otteot , stuffed, plain covered with bouton 4•or oolorea Tel­ ours de genes f'inil!lhed •1th g1m!'.I, looee covers ot yellow figured linen. 11 Eleven Yere tour teet, two •ere two

Nos. 550-649 , aee Plate IV

Nos . 564-7, see PlateIV Noe. 551-565 , see 1=le.t.e- IV


'I'HECIOORS noo�LT EDIDI :K!RJIT ROOS:"l!!!LT Bhe dedicated one or the tirst or her 11gb1isr White Hauee manente to that , so :rumor hu n. Eaat a:,,ca

Plat• Bo, IZ B;lo■eYe1t Uantelpiea• and J.U.rror &i■i 0� Benjamin J'rallklin 009 The ornemuntsi 'tor tb1e l!h.1n1ag rooo, :t'i.n.1ahed. all 1D wh1te mid gold, were equelly Billlpl• o-r oboice. The :tour oouaolee nun han their aol:Spl.ementins decoraticna, in this oaee a pair 085 at white bi■Q.ue jerd1nieree, lfith ,80ld border and gold l'sn'e bead hand.lea 1 tor one IIDA or the :room.; and :tor tbe othlir a a1m1lar pair with ra.iHd ouptU end gold goat• a head bend.le■.. Bath oomtortabl.y hold potted paJJu. IJ!l.o z:lfllltele had each a pair ot opergnes, oonaillt1n8 ot grey marble umlike vases holding dark r1resilt branohH r4 nill.o candle-holders. They � in the very JOOOd o:r ths drawin& roane at the Louie, "be:n lad.tea went mad over "Vin.aannea• tlowere, 063 ot co;,per stalks end l.eavea laoquercd in color, 'Rhen the haute mond.e 'WN!e.thed 1te mirrore 1D Viuccmuee tlo•ere 1 wore them 1n ita hair 1 Nt Tasea at -the like t'l.owering b111,llll!la upon 1te te.blt1111. (These are uot the ti.rat metal rloll'en the Eaat axia haa known. \then it we.a fir.tit duly decorated, tor, it aot bo 056 Andrew Jackeon, 1t11 oon.aole end ita three rou:nd tables down OM the middle ot the room oaoh hod a p&1ntt1d mua ..-aae of artit1c:1al flowers 1.11 its aonter. ) The rour :oal'ble beartha cscb its Rooaevelt set ot bronze "" ot ti:re "toole and XIV �d.irone, copies frtllll old designa.

But the Rooa did not ?'8lru!iu aa in Orna:!!.ent a.a it Ye.s :planned. The heart ot' F.renco in 1900, like Latey-etta•e oen­ tu17 earlier, wu deeply touched by thie Ire.nob eel.on in an al18ll palace. And could only be expreued by a geeture or Gallia reeog­ nit1on. The .Ambuaedor ot !'rllilOe, 1\Llea 1Ue.eeren4. :muat , ■imply add a IPrenOh g1tt. to th1a glorioua new· room or h1a ad.opted coun.11.ry. The .t.mhaeea4or, JU.lea Juaaerand, we.a the dean ot 'the Corpe, an 014 end txue friend ct .imerioa, pe.rticulerl,7 a Wlll'm perao.nal f'r1en4 or tbe President, and he was expreaaing h1msol.1' •lao. W'itb a de.licab b1a­ tor1o smu10 he obose the aol't or g1t"t !"ranee would bave been moat apt to have given to her earlier ally; that ot e.n erticle which •u !nevitably tound on tho men-tel ah.olTes o:t tbe gentlemei. ot the early Republic. l'hat •u e genUemllll. 1 8 ael.011 without a buat or two � at greatneea on the msntel dial!? Moun:\ Vernon had had a oeo greet :meny, two or which are nos in the White Houeo. :ratter062 eon. at uonticello had buate ot luh1D8ton, Frank.1..1.Jl, .Lat�"tte and John Paul :rone1 1n hie 41.uillS; l.'OCEI.. Uonroe had e. .Letsyette eem.t apeciailJ' rrom ParUI tor his Oak Hill. New :tnglan.d men.tlll.s had ee.oh ita benJ.gnentc bero. So the Kut Room had its tour bute pre­ ■11nted by J'ranoe. n'a.Dkl.1n 1 a oopy- of" Hou4on done in 17?8, J'erterson end. iiaa1:dus1ion., ell of' •hUe senea bieque, err1Hd during the Rooae­ vDl.t achiu.ietre.tion. The tourth, im exquisitely' atroq heed ot L1nooln, erri'Hd in 1909, dur1q; 'fart ' s term. The bu.ate, however,. did. 110� exhalet :rranoo' a 1ntoreet. E.tgb.t 5evre.e Taeee toUond tbem.1 undoubtedl,- elao tor the J?l81l.tel1. Th.cuse aro \ell., dol 1oeta , alondor � 1ib:reo pairs orne.Oll4. ABC mente4 with a delioate deaign or purpb tlo"ero. The 039 t"ourth bed a el.ear blue band l!IIl.d e. pleyi.Dg cupid on their 8140■; an.d one ot tha tourtb pail', .many- yeer1 later, Cl!CB to tr.reparable gr1et. Nothlng waa found to replace u. so the :ieven c� were d1etr1buhd about the houee, moat 1D the ground rloor oorr1dor end tbe rooms oponing tbereott. Rooaenlt'o Green. Boom 1e one ot the ell.owa or yeateryeer. It 1e ihe only OJI.Ill ot" ths State rooma to have been completely e1:n�a the Roo■evelt redoiug. it 1111st be.Te expected ihat. through­ out the 1t haa e.lwe:ys bee:n the Green �oom that needed re-doing,. 1.lzaediately1 end that cou.ld not oYeu be reao..-ated. S<niettmea, ot courao, 11; he.a aimply- been re-ooptsd� BUt this time of" change in 1928, the Green Hoo:a. whiob bad lasted sonm twenty ;year-a end wee. com­ pletely oom, u.nde:rw-ent & reetorat1on to tho Monroe per1o4 ot early led.ora.l turu1tU2'e, end none or tll.a pieae■ ot 1902 were oorreot :tor 181? ! The only RooeeTel t touch in tbe preaent Orsen Boom 1e the pair or French bronH an.dil'OU on the hearth.. These like the s1.mil1U' pall" in the Red. Room ere tmpire 1n. apir11i , hepp7 otill wi tb the cla■■1o Hamlibal clock placed on tho GNU. Hoan firat by Monroe. 'l!l• Jloo■eTelt1en mirror, ao 1nteg:-al a part ot the •ell-treetmen:t r81lf1.1ned... It■ •apoleouio border matohed the spirit ot 1817 quito acaeptebl,Y. 06'7

0114 ABC, !lee P1atee XXVIII - nD - and XXXII .. 067, H• Pl.ate 4,7, Coolidge

us. 'rhe RooaeTelt che.ndaUar, made to order tor tbs Green Room, was raplaced. in li28 by en ol.d l.turtN. The on• ot J.gQS, ot oloae-dran 8'rmg& at C17.8'ial beadillg, •1th c ryet,e.l peel"&, epplee im4 grape.a wnathed aboui 1 ta o1romatuaoe, ia l.ov'el,y, m1i it: ta like the re■t of th6 finuree IQado trom no period des1gn. Whea an old J'ren.ah 112,tre• a.a 1irue to per1cul u 1t ia boaut11'Ul, na found tor the Green .R0CX:l in 1929, 'the old cne •a• oaretull.y plaoed up­ ataira 1u the nn lbsa Dn."1.Dg Room.

aurtained window niche or the oval Boom on the grow:ul :tloor lwh1cb roan. contaiua the Raoaevelt Green Roam .turniture. '.ihat 0124 J'OOll is Tery �ncb 1 tsel.t, wit;h ita i:onroe urna and cundlea ot 1818, BIDU81Dgly uo=:p1111iell by a Grant mantel cloelc).

'J.'he arahiteot•a wbite .md chairs, choaen �or the Green l!Oam, "1th tll01r touohu Bild Unn ot gU.t, orS8111aily cuoh­ toned and uphola'\ered .,.1n a T8r".f plea.emit aol.01"e4 green tapestry," ha,.. all g011e 1io the OTal Bo<n on the ground :rJ.oor. Sb: "81.-425 aH 111 st�q:e on the third :tl00l!'1 1'our aquare b&oked, 425-429 683-6 (?), cd two CU1"'7ed 686-'1. Tbare ere :rour...,.. ,&19-430 allure nth rolling top■, upboletond; :tour with 01111e 451-432 llecka; two dde oballe with ...... baoke md ouahiCll<ld uata; two 11ttle 11.sht eideobaira, all gildod woold 11114 oane. IJ.'bep anal.lest oh.air• ot the aet wen copied tmm ehaira ono• Kane .mto1Dette•1, one4 110w by .Mr• Jrank Mil.let. The ■ et-, all but two, te there, but not reoognizlll>l• at 1'1nt alght in 1 ta p:rennt gilt, upholaten4 in or1maon brooado. '!'hey oerry out i n oalor t he oval roam O n the main tl.oo.r u Prea1de:zl• MDm"oe h a d. it, in o.rimaon qd gilt, betore 1.hllt taD>Us room W&8 a "Blw,, Boom• .,.

l!he Blue Rc>om, oext 1n geosrepilic _lille tnm east to •fH1t, 1a the gom ot tba White lloUee arch1tootU1'8ll,y. Lill:• other gema 1' haa o.tten aubmi."84 to taahione in cutting, to display it■ beaut;y beat in the taate ct t h e 4q", end the Bcoaevelt dq ••• tbe. last ot �eae cutt1.Dga. In 1802. tbfl .Blue Boom wu retaaeted. and pol.iehed ud t'Urn1ahe4 1n llhat 1h• arahiteot tel.t waa the mode Qt ita origi­ nal period.. m:ls1D811' eDOusb,, the Bl:u.e Roam. was the one ffl11 k House 1'lOm that lla4 kept the 1'w."l>Uure ot ih lloDroe f'llrlliehing; but 1D 1902, the arohiteote appa,retttly preferred. to return to one o� the atylee at?oeptable to the pa:riod, 1netea4 ot to the one actual.J.,­ adop1iod tor Monroe, lhoee FillOi»Bl "tactora still were iJ:I. e:D.etenoa.

One pair ot erm-ohaira t:rm the 014 Green .Roam roae to uoe 1l1 tho !last !loam, beo<Dins the Presidential <t,ain at the COolidge mua1oalea. They. too, are unrecogni� able gilde4 and in tile 00011"8• upl,olatui, o:t the l!aat -.,_ banqun1ea. 584-5


'lb• lo:na; oane mta ot the Grea. .R,am 11ft, originally whit& end gold u4 green 1• now ill sc,,utheut qpointmont Hocm on tho grow,4 tloor, egal.lla1; the Roo..., llin1ng B>cm tapoetr:r hm,g1Il,s, 1'a present grqieh tan paint c4 dull - cuehion ohoeon to -tob tho tapealrS'• 4.0'1

'l'heN •u, ho..,..,.er, a new 'lre:Doh gift tor uia roam. �aador Juaae:rancl pre■ented • marb1e ar:,n ot the mat at l,a­ tayetta, done by Houdon in 1790 tor pre1!11mtation to the state or V1rgil11a. This La:r..,ette 10 still a tn■aure, al thoUS)I no1r it 1o JDOYed down trom the Green Room to the publtcl ty of the Wide crimson ._ ere Ill storage ,m the third tloar, tour aquare­ baoked, Noa. 883-5 end two i,urnd-beonol., lloe. eao-7. Woa. "21•32, see Plate n:a: liO, 407 8N Plate lCCIX

Th.a p1a1n ce ntered, ac:>'tt greea. rug ot Hcoa:evelt cho1oe tor lbg l8 the Green Boom. 11 now down 1D tbe Southweet Room o� the grouzd :tJoor.

Very few thel"O are who que1t1o:n the succH1 of their eahisvamnt. It ie a room aillgularl:J adapted to ita pre.ee11t pu:r;poae. .6114 tbie ch- in the prjJn8ry uao o:t tho ..,... no doubt ie 11181"17 reepol181ble tor 'he ol>oioe o:t the D11"oo1io1n l.A■tead o:t the Louia seize in 1 ta N4o1ng. In Monroe's time 1 t waa the mcnn. used draw1DQ: room ot the eatabl1abmlnt. We know the President and hie lady sat betore 1 ta great l.Qg tire■ at ocmtortabl8 eua ror l.ODg cha-&111 "1th o:ttanioon oellere ,md in trvonil,g reluation. ,uad in the aplll'ael,y pcpulata4 capitel and ecuntry ot the :tirat quarter ot that oentury there •ae no ooouion or poeaibilitJ' tor 'Illa UM, now tre­ quentl:7 naoan1127, of all tha main tloor roams -tor state n.tartain1.Jlg, •him the Jl\lllber ot guaata ran into the thouaanda. No doubt that the gUt that lt.OJU'Oe'• J'renoh a..oorator ahoee ror him,- or the mshog� or ivenood ha would have ch:>san ror himselt had he been 1D F'l'en.oe or Xllgland. or he.d the eaq ccmmun1oat1o.n o:t thia htmbed yeeN later made r�id OOJ1BUltatio.n pos81ble 1 - were betWr adapted to the l1UJ"PO&oe to wbiah Monroe JIUt tbia boau:U.t'ul oval room,, Bit Iii th the inoreuad trequeno:, ot the toJlll&l. uae 1io whioh the bad but put thia, end tho :reet that the intimate temil,y end :friendly gathertnga ha4 with the oentu:ey •-lete­ ly rBJ11ned theuelvee to the room•a arobiteotural counterpart above ata1rs, the design.ere of' the room• a redoing mey- be justified in Wpt­ ing the more &1H1tere but hiatorioally poaiblo style •


Nos. �. 11ee Plate lfo. 012& see Plate XXXI


.81.u• R:,m


J>la'.N 3ll Jm-ohain 6ll.-6U .Anduona 092 814• ohaira 6�68' ll'oot■-l 112a.�:n

Plate� sette■ 6211 814• ol>■ira 624-627 BooN't'elt CbBlldalior


Bpaoo ot oourae had aolllffllu,a to a!) with the dooioiou. .I. pair ot seemiogl,y nooo■■U7 un doon ha4 cut do,,n the well apace end inoicloDt� � 1n;,a1Nd - perteot ■-VT ot the roam. A centurJ'' 11 inONUe ot crowd.a on re ception nigb'UI Da4e eaoh toot ot floor apaoe valuable. The oool new a:lmpllc1ty ct wall• 111d opeD tloor aaked tor ■qu■l aimplioity 1l1 style end plaoa­ JQBDt ot ch.air• end aotu. There nmu to llav■ been llllch d.i■ouae1on c,yer 1il:l.e ahade or bluie to be used on the •al.le, cd oone�uentl.y the tunaiture. '!he Preeidtmt thought the blue aboatm eoul4 be too sober at night; th• ladies ot tha temil,y liked it ""17 muoll. Semplea :tln baek Bild :torth 1l1 a liftl,y ta.ab.ion bat,,re agreement eet in. BUt there wu no diaouesion DTer the furniture 1-teea. ll'he "'big Roman ohaire in white cd braae with blue oover11" were accepted e.e iHYitable,- cor:reat - and Mr■• Roceevelt sti11u­ late4 only that they should be �oyered in "•ilk 11ke that ot the Cha.let Taasiccari . ..

� ahlll>G o:t the room 4eo1ded that there ahould be one long aattee, opl)Oeite the ti:?-eplaoe, and tour RcimaD. amc,ha1.1'& to match, richly oa:t'Te4, equare-baeked, mclellloned 1n IG!>ire gold roaettea, bOUDd in brue. 0rig111ally eeoh bad it• low toota1io01 be:tOM it, 0118 o:t whioh bad di■ap­ pe&Nd. l!'ou.- aquare-baoloo4 a14aoho1ra mtoh tha - .­ chairs. Nine leaatt Side ohaire, their wide abiel.d-ahaped ba.ok beeuti:rull:, di epl.Q"iog the motif of their broonde, whioh was apeo1ally deaigD.eG tar thm• break the: expense of' the whit• dado around the curving wall.• 688 611-14


A new or,ystal ob.andelier 1up1re4 by one in. J'ontainebleu,

*Chair•, white md gilt and upholstered iD 11b.1te brocade aprinkl.ecl w1th bright i"l<nrel'■ 'H17 like Ul.11 eet were ouoe in the PreaicleDtial houee uaed 1>J George llasbington in l'l>iladelphia, owned by Robert Morrie.

uo. No t"reah ontaJ:1.en.ta tor thia room were neoded. ;"1th judgplent. .rare in the ttreatoration• ,. ot the tDte•, the deGOrator• lart 'the old orneme:n-i.a in place. It waa, or couree, their 092 tortune that the authenUo Monroe clock and oandlen:t.aka were at hand tor the mentel-ahelt, \be old Ne.poleonio cendle-■tanda� by the hearth. Their r;,Dl.y e.dd1 tton, there• tore. •u a pair ot bronze F'Nnob andirona t �or the tlrel:llaae. The Rooeevolt aclnd.niatre:Uon, wru•d 'J11;t to bare tloor11, eV9II, oo compellingly l.oTely ae this waxed oval, spread a wbite bcie.r rug in thi■ room. The 't'ld't admini■tra.tion bad a piano, even • Viotrola here. Various years dnce he'fe seen port:ra1t1 hung OJI the blue will• - eYe:n pl need on ee.eel.e - and rsmoyed aga tn. It hae been Deaeeeary to have the •all COTel'ings 111Dd c� and turn1ture brocade rene••d since, tiret tn tbe RooseTelt-111 1 own year ot 190'1,- though white cotton ocr.-ere {"d1zl1ty", the repo:rt cnlln it) were. put up OYer the wall.a in 11\mee:r tor at leaat tU'teen years. renewal. however, has tried to rsproduce its prodeoeeaor, ex­ cept tor the in 1.91.5, when the Greek border tret around tha top o:r the wall1 •a• om1tted •

drew itael.t end i't-S guest■ cozily up to 'the" parlor tabla tn tb.e Had Roo:a, Wt the twentietb oentur-,i •�dared e.bou.t a!Il)Dg all 1 ta drawing room.a, aume•hat in the t"e.ebion or the eighteenth. Still tho Red :Room betrays p,e.in11tek:tug ehooellll5 .. resulting Ul two eote.a, deeply upholstered 1D orimaor.: ea.tin demaek, to chime "1th e50-5l the "rioh red venethn silk velYet curtaine" ot tho 11in­ �-zi dowa. There ••re a pair ot arm-chair• them, "atut1"ad all O"Yer in deep HQ cut •" ,lllother pair ot arm--chaire lent Terlety, "'mode.l Banr;y II, ® a wooden rim, covered in red velours ornemeD.ted witb :f'rinaa, glmp and erfile." Hmry tJ:ie aecond ia still in Red Room., though his red velvet loat ita t'ring• and tapering gimp.



.&it ao well ware the :Roo■evelt ra•torera inspired that 1r1e17 oddi t1on or ohe:Dse ainoe hu been llhort-lhed. The Blue BoOID. rotuma to the almplicity o:r it:• olea■ic cun1ng beau11y, �• and cool. The prQpbeoy has been •de bet'ore, by aat1et1ed connoiaaeura, in other genere.tiou, but ml!/!/ be,- that at J.aat the Blue RoOl!l ta pol'tection iteelt, tllld ehoul.d. ao ramain


I, I I

Publio 1pirii entered into the tul"n11b1ng of the Bod lloQID., next weat. 1t. tim ot Grand. Rapid• turniture manutaoturora wan:\ed tc be re11reaonted ill the New Whiff Houaa encl they wanted it enough to be e:xtrm:iely anxiou• to proslSD.t their products tor eny rocc.. The Red Boaa was z,uggestad.. The President we.a willing; aa tho appl"Opriationa dwindled, aa approprtationa do before per­ fection, the e:rohitecta f.'ere eager: and H a reault we tind !our me.jar pieces ot the Red Room presented by the. tizm to the country I a Pftl'lor.


Ona ot these ia the tell ;;ailholJIIll' cabinet, U:a gla.eaod door• laced in m.ahogB.D7 1 now age.inet tbe wall. It ie, arched ped1ment ant! all., in the beet tradition ot Oolonia turn.1ture,. Th.a console table under the south wall m.rror, ite halt-moon top ot brown marble aet on tour reedad lega, le e,nother or tbese gtrta. The otbe:r two ••re e. pair or small round te.blaa, reeded to match the OOll.8010 1 that soon r1111Doved tl".emeelves !'nm a roo::i eo frequently gtven to th• pas•ea-e o� many atraDgors. ..,'hey ON now in the North Bcdrool:1 net; o-r the l•lllll.


� Jil. ,-r::J· • .


. '�

• ..

� -4"


.. J



•• . •




Plate SG OYerstut.rod choirs No. 63!-5 .. sotas 600-1 S1de eha1rs No. 6Z6-42 - Jreme-obaire uo .. 632--3 Cabinet No. 644 - Conaole Ho. 645 ChanOaller and l�1.rror No .. OG1 Coolidge Hus: Mo. 2 end Girandole O'il? S&l'en GL&ll 11!11 te end gold ■ide chairs enliTen the well while they welt to be bro\liht tonrard, their ahield-Bhaped backs aentared in painted ace, their wide sQ.U$l"O see.ta cuahioned in red v11lvet. lbe rug they oncut eat upon, a lovely l)atter:ned 636-43 :l::ionen, 1• :replnced now by a na• "ac.tique" woven torPX'eaident Coolidee; bu.t tbo KinnD.D hav1ll.; z,rown e. little Rug 4:

The :reat ot the Red Roam tu.rniture we.a aeleoted with due ca:r• by the cleaica.era, although one t'eela that their bee.rt:8 were uot invo lvea as cleep.17 in tb.u oboico as .. ou1d have been .Arthur' 11 Tittaey. The Rad Hoool, in the early twentieth centul"1, ••a no longer 'the darling ot the parlor suite. The nineteenth century No. 092, aee P1ate 3'-


T!IZOOO!u: R:-OSEV::LT EDITH KEElm' ROOSEVELT r?-eil, hes gone where it will have lase •ea:r, to the Bose Dl-11•1DS room on the aeeond tloor.

President in one by the !'ire1>lace, b:1■ lady' te.eing hi!n; !'our alwe,ya atan.d es•inst the wall.

Ornements :f'or hia Ited ROCl:l Prel!lidant Rooaavelt round e.bout the, Houea, the requillite portreita tor the wall.a, ol.d Monroe ume tor the mantel, Victorhn FNnch jardi­ nieres tor the ce.binot. �8 only Rooaevelt omementa are the pair ct Spt.1nx brass andUOno ot the heartb, 11Dd tho south wall min-or, matahiJ:Jg the Green Room one. o,, 0V6

'l'Wo ■ cuehion-tootet:oola reaaill ot the tour once aupplied :f'or the nenoua :toet: at wait 1Dg lunobeon gu.e■ta. Bat they no loflPr emu■a the Red Room Yiai1ior. They- etand in the long window• ot the Pr1Tate Din1ll.g Boca■, wa1 ting tor o3B-.39 the return of the lil'ely little :reet ot Peggr Anne and and. Peter HooTer, who during their v1s1t11 need them 1n 324 their daily morning taak ot rep>rttng to Grandfe:ther, buay O""t"er breaktut, exactly 11! te going on outside his morniDg driveway.. on, hu dtaappeared., one othar retlll1ne, UllNCOgDizablo in blao.k and gold ChineN brocade, in the upata1re OVe.l Dra•ins Rnom.



J I" • . . ,,. i · . . . ...... ...., •· I: . .�f.ih,.... I I� l1 .

&t the ohandeliar that look.a down on this crimaon oom­ tort 1e tbei Booaevolt bron:z.o, made new in 1900, hit lookbg V6ry like • remodeled "s:aaoller.. "



.�,-- •

•\_ �

While the raat ot the noor ie an Early Federal adaptation ot e. Frencb 1D1'luenoe, the state Dining Roac 1• &,:rived -rrom .inglmd. Demanding little decore.tton other than the wa.rm exquisitely grained unua.ual texture of its OWll impo.l"ted �iab. oek walla 1 constently �etaken for walnut, tbh deaoeode.nt ot an old 3aroniel. hall wa:s -very •illq)ly tumiahed by the architecte, with '.t'Urniture tound adequate tor present d.ey needa..






...., '







Plate za Roo■evelt Am-che1ra No. 51'1-81; Si&, ohair11 !;o .. 4!J5-518 Short eons:ilcs No.6b6-?j Loll& conaole ?To. 655 soreen Ho. 65"& Carpet end Chandelier P<>rtrai t ot Abrabsa Lincoln b,- Cognell

Tbs oarpet today, or plain ,green Inclia 1 19 the original Roosevelt cerpet. The chairs, thotr te.U siuare backs upl:.olatered s::wJothl7 ettll, in wool tap oatry. without aJ'ClS and w1 tb bo•ed oerred legs, were especially made f'or their position. 4'7'1 '-'here are t"itty ot them, as J11an;y as ean be placed eom51& rortebly at a teble in the: l'Oom,. {'For ocoaeiou when mo:re guest.ts must be se&ted., email gold bant,.'004 ohail'e were riroTided to replaoe the tapeetr., chairs, each with its old.­ gold velvet aeat pad. Tboea praoticel, \ Ullcoaatortable bantwood cha! ra are also Rooaeyelt period, a hundred ot them at t'irat, a hundred end 1"1tty BOon later. Other adl:n1niati-ationa have added hundred and rifty f\:Jr RCXID. r.lle1oalea.}

The three 1ening-tablea ot the room aro also Hoo11e·Hlt. Console type. upheld b:, oe.rved mehogany eas].sa, their top15 dark green Tei:Dod marble, railed the back 1n duk pierced 'brau, two shorter on.ea atend by the Red � doors, one long one Sp8ll.S 'the north wall. Beyond it tbe ssrvice door la shielded by a dark green. aerean 1 t"our-told, i,tudC:.ed in dull brass.

But be.ronil!U halle - eve.n it" t.bey becme Presidential. he.ll.s - have alee tb.e.1r maa·hr--chairs tci be correct in eplrit. Six t:.aat.e�abllira were duly- deaiP,;11ad for the 'l.'hite House Dining NOOllli, ot a tEiliar 1aoobian pettu1n, the carYed .,·e.J.nut t'J'm::i.e encloaing "the tall caned back, the seat soi"te:ied w itb a •elvet cueh1on. tbe legs end atrtthliera finely carved. Two face otber e.crosa the .ddth ot the table, the the table. ie no longer BooNYelt. An oblong te.ble had b een ade for thi& l'OOMj but apparently Preaident _ or !.Ire. - RooHTelt eoon touud whet Jet'tc-reoo we.a ao proud ot dhcove.rlng - that o l'Ound table ciralee the converae.tion lll)re plouantl.7, And e round Presidential table �omplimont� more gueata than a squere one 1 allowing them all to look tace to !ace et their

51.? 521

556-7 � 6M



Tll!WDOllE ROOS!\'VEL'.l' l!Dl.'rniOOf.!IT=

host. The hoets round it by degrees, appP:ll"ently. J. eecond table wai, made 'tor this :room - the etrafght te.ble "1th oval now in Dining Boca.. But the round tabla ot Preaident ..lrtJnU"'a the Privat• : Private DUling Room eYentuallY tound 1te we::, in and ia usually there tod.,y.

state Dini!lg Floan

The purely deco:rati ve :turniahill&S bought tor tbe room have gradually vaniBhed. Included in tbe original. deaign wu a carved tr1eze 1n wbJ.oh were lett .medslliona ror nx>unted ge,.ie head&, smooth QVala to:r their placqueq 'b•ia6 still -v1a1ole in the w8.U oerving under the ce1U:g. Oontra1"1 to the opinion at the most ot the tourta·h and gueats who later atood under thsm, tbeas were not the hUJlter-.Prea1dent' s own t:ophi.e,, but ••re caretu.Uy- bougb.t by the arahiteote aa examples ot �rioan game. Bisao 1 moose, elk1 llr:>untain goat, thoy romun04 looldl>& dmm on tho dl.nora thrOU!!h the Tatt and illilao.n ..&.dmini1trat1onll, Kra. Rardins, reol.tziDB they­ were not thti ei:preas1on ot Roosevelt personel1 ty tbe t.o p:reoedi:ag tonanta hod apporont� thou!!ht th!IO, and "1th a ca.retul llo11ao-.1te:cy thought or 1'0tho, eoked to hav• tham tranatan-od to tile !lational Galleey, sa,ong their W00ily compeere. The other p1•ce ot rlOoae•re,l't Dining Boom deooration 11 stiill in the houae. It Le e aort grean-arey equare or 1rell ta:pea­ 'tJ:7 - in fiandoJ"■ 1D 1,ha a eventaen"tb cen:tul'1, - •h1ob h1Ul8on th1 north •All al>ova the ions a1deboar4 - e.s pioturea in the current guide booka ot tha st,,te Din1D& Room ehow it, 0132 'token down to permit or a portrait bel.Da hw>& 1n 1h plooo, it we.a oa.Ntully &tored in the cedar roctm ror many Jeal's. b ut 11 no-w the wall deooratt.on ot th.a A.ppoiutmen.t Room on the groun4 :t1oor, whore th" visiting public in their hundreda my d, Tiew it. The original aoheme tor the D1D1Ds JiOam. incluQed two tapea­ trtoa, one above tho �ireplaoe. one ot" these was lent tor BDlM y-e _ era by the architect, bUt ita euooessor we.a never '.r'urahaaed. 'l"he state Dining Roaa ebandel.ter gave th& architects some crouble. Originall.y their choice nu bl'onze and crystal 11ke the others, but it diHa1iiaf'ied the architect 1n bis oak baronial hell and ths pre1Knt handaana ailHr chmideller, ita wrought arms and wreathe• unjewe.lled eny ory.stel, took the pJ.aoe or the tirat choice,• acoompenyins; dln.t aooncee being hUJ>& Oil the Walla, But the fireplace the Preeide.nt took cherge ot himselt. The 1'1 ;tinge :1"or tbe hu.g,e-mouthed State Dining Room fireplace ere d1•t1nctly Roaaevelt. That 11trenuoue end hoapitabl.e 0105 rree1dent epac11'ied th• tt:raplace ahOllld 1,o lazge enough 0106 to burn the big drift-wood lo;i• 1h ot otranded upou tl.c .shore ot ...iyat11r .Bay. Re 1aapc,oUi4 the, 411d had a � eent to .Holl.end to brilld: tbe 1erge Tougb:t ll'On crane that now atanda acroae the ·,ide hearth.

Plate 37 Jireplaae Toola No. OlOll cnne No. Olll6 Arthur J"ordin1cea 11o. Oll>'I Coolidge OazuUoaUaka; l!oow:r Paillt1"8 (on lOOD.) Tl1e Private Dining Roczn, ao long a retreat at tbe Preai­ den'\ia l t'amily on the State Floor, end .not otten· open to tb.e }"lblic, might I on.e tb 1.nke, eaaily have .tal1on outeide the aoope ot the Booaeve1t "rOOQuatruction. • the ?Naidsnt bed ,public d.eaien• upon 1 t. It was to supply- thei need .long .._'elt bsJ hoapitabli: Prea1d.cmta, tor a &"toking room to fihict. men gueate ::U£h't retire �1th the attar 41nnor cigal's. to clinch 1n an atmoephu•e ot p:. ace and f ellow­ ob11> tb.e e,:,oa ·: W en�ndered. 'ttr hos:,_)ita.i.ity. :-rec1Gant .:..:cunl.ey 1n ::'.o.y had oor.::UZ1.4eere4 the usher's ottice end hacl it decorated for his amokiDt; room. :'be 1-toosavelte t his roo:n l"e­ t'Dde.lled. and returned to the uaher1 s u11111. T.11e President -,cnted a w.ot:inr, roo:a; the erohi�ecta .. ere H--:er to 3unply hir.� •1R one in tL.eir ne,;-opEDBd ground tloor. Jut


the P:!-esident objected to :-oi?I&: oeloi; dcoks to amoke. !.!re• .Boos...­ yelt thought ot aigr-r S!IOk:G and her new red velvet walla in tbe Red !loom end mo4• B1>nt4' ll8gati n ,,.,...,.ka in that dlroot1on. Br1l­ �1sut OOt:ilpl"Qll1■e .t1nally tu1'1led to the no:nhweat corner rom; an4 it wae ctuly titted out tor e. double purpose. It u1e etill to be the tmil,y1 a private haunt at meal-,;itle, 'tllt it was to be charr.rl.ngl.y tormal enough tor the ::entlaun. to reti nii on fl. :tormal evenin&, end in an at!DO•.Phere auotl7 sugee"ti,.n · tho high-minded deliberating o-r: i.b& t!ltlmra at "il-.e. country, to re•� 'lo the best thi.Dk1ng of the present. SO the Private D1D1ng room haa ao:ne o� t..lie ....oat carotull.1 deetsned 1"$J)l'Oduotiona o� tha l ate 'ti.ghteenth Oe11\uxy or '..':!li4h the "J'hite Koul!le boute. Unf'ortunatel.Y tlMI actual model• re11rodUC1eCL cmmot be traoed. .An unique o_pportu.nity it to have oop1ed not onl.y old b1,1t a1gn1ficim:t But the erchiteota �e beyo::id uld.Dg 1 and reoo.rd.s of' t:he1:r 1nap1r�tion wre apparently nr,er mda.

he aofflJJB table, its top drawers corzu:,nd with tiny 1n­ laid. ab.ells, an4 lmobbe4 with glua 1 it• two OitBll ahel.voa reaCy- to?' tbf3 tUJ.ea tl"ey, 1a: ";here.ton 8.LS'� but e. little later in period. It was �laced acrcee th-e unopened eaet door into 'the ueber'e cttice. -t5:a M2

One IIX)re wall table we.s ror t.b.ia room, •e ue told tl!lltailzlngly, :tram "a specie.I. deeign." ?!ahogao.y, too 1 ita t'aintly' reminieoent ot a tew old oo-:nsolae now in the houae 1 5.3e this -table 1.s a, entirely cut or keeping wtth the •�1rit ot the reet Gt' tb• l'oa:zL one teale eOJU speoial Ne.eon :mat ao­ oount rar 1t here. 525 536

The chd:re �e tbr the dini»a: 1"00m were Chippe.ud.ale. 2en aide chairs 11ere made in Chippandale .slet...baok dee1cn. No't- ot etther hi■ earliest, o.r his best p8l"1o4,- a bit leH grecetul, a oit 1a. design than the most eagerl)'

Privats D1Iulli! !loom

PriTate Din1ng !loom

Plat•$ cupboard NO. !528; S1doboerd No. 635; Ladclerbaclc .&mahllir No. 525-4 Table �. 543; Rue lta. l; Grant Silver- Sbip; l'OZ't.. ait ot John i'yler by H•� Tho yrne1l1Da spirit 1• Slle:raton. The oxtr...,l;/ tall �88.llY cabinet, with gl1!u11e doore above •alid doorn below, se1: �nn tbe 80' wall to bold deoore.tive old aUTor 522 tea and cottee aeta, ia inlaid •1th character1et1o oval 535 I!18de.il1ona ot aatin wood. SO are the doors of the lo-.e:iy bow-:tronted &14.eboard •de tor the west -,,all, its orawere with the oval. bras• hlllldle■ ot th• period, it• alder topab.elt hel.d up ou exquisite -.:I ourvea.

Plato 60 Sidotable No. 1542 ..:entol :.t1nor No. 0155

acaoptad OhippeDd.ales, the deeigna ot their slat backa a l1ttle clum.ei•r• a little more 1Dtr1oe:te then tlle .moat approved. 523-4

TWo a:rmabaire, Chippendale, hed the temJ.Uar sraoetuJ.•baak oenter1ng in a oaned rosette.

'l'ba oma2193:lte or thia room -.ere ai.mpl.& in the e:Etreme. Over the new mantel was placed a gold-tl'aaad metal mi1"2'o.r, aquenlfo. 536. see Plate X


oornerod, ite ::ounded border overle1d at the tour aornera with a flat gold tlower between .tlet gold leaves. Thia pe.rticule.r lllir­ l'or •a• copied tree one that bad taken tho arch1 tectu.ral 055 tenor in the scmareet Club 1n Bolton. 'l'h&t club ta housed in the old Sec.a houae, a building aloost unchanged tl-aa. Colon11!'1l. times, md the JUrror i■ aorreot in period and tor it& place.

partition-like, With t1t0 .-1. ito I■tricn z:La:"ble Jt.rdinierea (lined, it whi•�e;ra in it■ repcrt. with zinc) wherein u-a plW1&ed treah pot• o'f' torna and pelma and, on twatiTe oooaeiona, pots ot f'lower1n& pl.ant s. llai:i Corridor

Tho smaller mirror between tho north wtndoi;,a ta vei?y like, though not axa,ctly'. a wall mirroJ" at L!t. Vernon. Beth are axemplH ot the bel.o·yed COlonilll ■8hogBD7 Jl11r.ror, beaded 053 end "1th a Sold moulding, end crested \'1th a ir1n4a'l'apt R\18 Jun-lighting gold ooglo. '!'ho oorpot, a titteon lq nin.,. No 1 Men Y»rao in clear bright oolora i:1 tb red pravaillllg, ohosan by tha decoratora , he.a ll8Te.r been oh8I189d since. cm.e: last obl!l.'ming Boo:i,eve.l.t touch, in thh restoJ"ad Colonial. D1l11na l'OCID, •a• added by ita Ddatrosa. Th• spirited portrait ot Jolin Tyler, turning hi■ lean Virgini& profile fornor toward the north •indow■, WH hung by Ml'•• RooaeTelt. ':'ba Tyler• WON a brauah ot her t'amily cd lllhe Ulced looking at b&r own an­ ceetor e.boff th• breaJttaat coffee oupe. Theee Miaaion Oak Cabiuta. now on the to:;, :tloor 1 were seleoted to display the gitte or lhite House china tirot oolleot&d :tor L!rs. llOoaav&lt. in the pan!ry mezzim1ne 1 these were put in th• Ground Corridor tor the public to aoe.. They wore re_plaoed one by one in 1919 by !!r'l!!I. 'R1l30n'S built-in ce.b1nete and two were stored. T)lg third was u�ed tor !!Ome Adminiatratione in t.•ut suite ot 'the !'trot lady, to hold ahoee in that cloaatleaa apartment. It too b m)1t 3tored. 411 412 690

Sr the BooaeTelt reoon111truction the main hall conneotll16 the tive .P.omu ot Mate and the Prh'ate D1n.1ng Room, beoeoe a oor­ ri&Jr pUr&.q. It had been uaed tor other purpoaH as sell as a corridoz,1 befo:-e .for a publto waiting room,- tor the ott1ce Tiai­ tore neiting to go upetaira: or tor tourins waitiD& tor the noon .hondsluald.?!g in tbe Eoat ax.a; to:- the ..rena-..boy waitll::.g tor a perael : tor newepepel'Uell ,ratticg tor aD,Ything. It bu even, in emergt'iucies, bean e banquet room. ait when the ottioe waa btmiahed to the new net wing, end when the :D1niDg Room was onlarced to ao­ ccaodate even the Di:pl01t1at1o Z,inners , eucb ueede no longe:r existed �r th• main h&.ll.

Plata 41 a>oeo-velt Benquel"tee No. CSC0-9'1 Roonvelt Xlootrol1era ant\ j&rdiniere■ It Ht turther ltlite Jard:1nierea 1n the pale plaill well niches that replaced Arthu1••• a gilded abrinaa aloDg the corl'idol", and placed pelma in those. Palma were & aeoond thought. SoMone :hed SUf.:8ea�ed. the plae:ins ot etatues in aiohea. One or i.'aeb.ington o,artainly, and or other patriots adTisodly. BUt the president de­ cided othorw1aa. He pl'Obably' 4■o1ded it •1th a anap, one hot noon arter an o-rer-aenatored mol"nillg. "Too nwch clmcior up on the Eill ror cm:uUdates tor atatuea "' he slUd, - lfmD•t or them l!l&ne:tora. The cOJJm8Zlt lend.a a certain :poignano:r to the one inocnap1cuou■ \'.'hita roosting like a wc�satu.l pigeon onr the northwest ball door. It •u inTentoried frClll ite t1ret appearance u1 "B.181:i ot no one in �ioular,• 11

Th.a era ahoae tor 1 t telve eeate or richly oervsd. French walnut , uphclatered in oritlBOD. Tel.Tet i and dietr1buted them down the l.ollg oriD:.aon carpeted hall whaN the flal"Y t:Jight 1!11.nk gre:tetull.y Ul>OD them at receptiona. It lit the. hall for evenina: with •six dark tU"G-giU, toroheree ot ten , l1gbta each, , leH lovely but no leea bright than the ik,om corner atandarde. �lioally at leaat, it raplaoed tbl!I Titteny stained glaaa ecreen which e xtended acroae the middle or tbe hell,

'l'he ul!lher•11 ottlo:■ •u supplied ri:th aPJ)ropri at• new rurni:ture , ae well as w1 th an up-to-date new tele;hone serrtca. Two pieces ot that a>oaeveU furniture Nmin. Though :.:ra. B>o■nelt•• Chief U.lber hae gone, her \u1hel' 1 a de:"k 1tl still at the aenioe ot the :Pl'liHnt Chiet Uabar, Yiho we.a e:leo a friend end ally ot her■• It j_a bueineee-l.1Jce, roll-top, drawered sd pigeon-holed, but it ie mellowed •1th the iaemortee of llllllll1 pageant.8, lDl1llY ew,r­ g8l1Cl ie11,. Dl8J1Y honorable oogagea,nta in tha atat6ly oempaign ot lb.1\e F.ou■e drama.

No.003, see Pliate V

J'ardin1en8, see Plate I



12!:.. TllEOPORE l!OOSEm.T 'l'he otber piece is a handaoao table, inlaid wi tb H,Un-110od., ju11t titting a •all-rocese ot the busy ot'tice. It oatohee auoh fiood-Ude mettara es J:l&ll to be dietl'ibuted, Chrtst548 mu �okage•, \thita House tlower-bona on their WIQ' to the gratitied recipient , ne■•pe.pel"a tor tho Sooret SeJ:rl.ce, and on f'e■tive 4e;ya the gold-braid oepa end eworde at a:ld••· A. to-w mall ora.emmita err!Yed aa :Rooanelt period gttta. One in e. s;JaJJ. buat of Nelaon, cada o,a:r.S11Q1-at1?ely 1 at copper taken trom a� VictOl"J', end presented to the Jfhite Ho\lff by the Britiab and l"oNign Sailor■ Society-, on the occta■icm ot' 0138 the Nel110n Centenary on Oatober 2l■t, lQOO ,. l'Neident Rooeevelt; had it 1n bill ■tu<b' 8114 ao did ht. iDllediata auooeaeor.. Late1- 1t went to cbeer tbe billiard room titted wl � other •al' trophiH tor Fr•aident; W1laon1 md it iii a-till tbere, though that 1s no louan a billiard 1'001D. Clriginally the reconstruction had only contemple.tcsd tbe state tloor and the rea:ival. or the axoom ive office roc:aa on the �econd f'loor to an outside butldilJ8. BUt eXeI:Jiua:1iion econ ab.owed that the aeooad tloor needed architaotlll'al attention. Th• entire tloo.l'iDg w-■ waUinu1d, not in the e ast end where tha centu.:," or ottice v1a1tor■ had warn it, Wt e1ao in the center ea.a e■peoially in tha woat 8Z1d where the Grant publio etainra;y wu to be r.oTed. Al■o the eleott-ic "1r1ug, put in f1 rat during the Herr1 aon .£dmilliatration end. added to and l'ehabilita:ted etnoe, muat bo completely ch.nged to bring 1 t w th• l$Kl3 atanderd.9 o.t­ gNH and ■atoty, That nsoe■dtded cutting through the plut•r ot all the upper tloor l'00IIUI; and th•1r oonpquent redecorat ion; it meant too, in m::,■t euea, u■w electric l.1ght rixturea. The Harrison m:,4el.■ i.a. :l:DGIY" ouea had bNn ■obined by wiring tba ex­ UtiDB gaaeliers tor electi-1city; ud tbs reeult1aa hybrid■ were not thouabt worthy ot being replaced 111 tbe 11e• wells end ae111nga. OJJl3' two ot "th& preaent aloctr1o tirturea ot tho aecond floor are Harr1eou. or1&inal.a. one la t.he eet ot rour aoo11(!:ee in the OT al Library. They YQl"e eelaoted and placed b-;' the 70,mg elaotriol&i of that day, who emerged later ea tho Cbiet Usher ot tho neirt halt centmT. The othar is the eet ot bl'Ol)Z:$ cupids now curline: against;. tba grua-oloth walls of tbs weat end Palm Room. � holds taith­ tull.y hie chubby light aaa1nst the wall snong tbe palms tode;f as ha did egainat Baoaa1"elt•a burlap, wheb. thAt weet oorrido:r wu a tamll;v a1ttina roo�. Bu:t the :t\nmy l1ttle cheru'ba were orig1!llllly' tn a grander place; they lit the walls at t.he PriTate Dining Room tor Harriaon and )lie ■ucoeaeo:::-. , end a brother, Taniehad DOW, nuug airous-taehion tram. a ceiling hoop, bo1(11JJa e ,s:pray ot bulba in tbei c■nter ot the roan. Otherwise the old Private 1'1ocr,- all that 1)11.rt ot' th• second atory that waa weat ot tbl!t old office ate.:lroaso, wo.a 'to be t1o.. 0128, aee Plata XXXII

turniahed with wch pil•OH ea were: in tt,1:1 betoro or might be brou,gbt up tram the diacarde4 State noor t"urniture� J.:ra. :Roosevel. t, -.tth a rum little 1'1at on tba nation' • poak:et book, wu ver-1 sure about that. Sha ha4 e mDaBUring eye on a great mmy matters, web aa new bathroom■ ror tho ca1dl!I; and U&W atop• into the kitoben that might be eader it' rebuilt; end a special hal.l aittillB""room tor daughter Allee. so that even her beautitully clean and troeb oval :roam, new .PQ9Nd and new oeiliD,pd:1 tailed to beguile her into nn purebuea. The arobitBats l'aoom::tended a ma.nelloua aet or entique turniture they had :tound at • bargain. Booanelt declined it. -,,::,, comtorte.ble, ■habby libre.17 cen w ait indefinitely" she aa14, and prooaaded to till. 1t tull ot glean1n&■, ot Mn. CleYeland. ' a oyeratuttad m.usio chairs trans the Green Roam.i or ?De, l!on:roe• 11 glorioua ol4 Ali&xendl"ia aota• (only they had 110t bffn redisoOTered then) ot tbe State lounge and the l!adieon Dining Boam chairs, and ahe them. leH aha'bby "1th a t1t1,r wool tape at� put on UJ1de1- he?' own eye by a Waelt1.ngton upholeterar. She h&d a pail- ot old J:lahogmi.:y coZ1Salea brought up tran tbe Prin.te Diniug HOOll. Sho had � tew round tablea w1 th urble top■•

lb'•. tbs 1'0atl m1Hed its lost bookcuea, •ii;h their tops eo ready tor the dl.■play ot "brio-a-brae." lira. Booeevolt indulged hereal:t' in a a:nal.l mehogeny Titrina, ita door• end aidH lattiood to enhance tbe chum or ita contenta. ilhat abe kept 1n it 126 we do noi k:DOw, probably the ti117 tnasuree colleoted by ■ wandering t'udly, Jue'C a11 yea:ra later it held tho Hoover colleotton ot irb1te china tigurinea: 1 th.ell" artreordinary delicacy md remarkable pereonel histo:riaa enshrined in airy aatety. But the Whitt Bouee Ubrary, not to i:tention the RooaeYelta' mrn booke, were unab.cUere4, Mr. McKim bed a delighttul pa.1r ot fine Ol)1ppeD4al• bookoaee■ 1 ,rith glaae end wooa &>ol"e cd U5 broken arob :pediment f'or her. He stlpulatad, bo'ft'fer, 1.53 that they were tor her and not tor the nation and that she lfU to take tl:l.em away witb bar. When that time oeme llhe caul.4 not beer to lee.Te room wi tbout tl:Ha, 110 she he.d duplicates made end J.ett them f'or a llhite Hauae proaent. 'L'bey are et1ll in the


Tho Library .f.htltered more tben boot■, however. It otter­ ed tee. to guoeta end to • all bUDgl'J' at tea-time md chon doubtleaa to int0l'll181 ■u.ypar■ a:tter long welks en4 atter denoea. 'l'here ••re not nearly anough tea-table■• The UcK1:nl9J' set, hauy euough :tor large tea•aeniaee, 110uld do excellently f:2 213 far tlJ.e. new Green H00m down•tair1:s. In their e1iea4 wore pur215 chased three ot the plea.sent I double-wiuge4, low tea-tables tl.a"t hold mm:iy :reillf'orcm:neute 1 and will back l1gbtly e wall bet1re9U tee.-pertiea. They ere otUl aa uaetul about tbe aec­ ond fl.oor &II they wre in tbUr youth, when the tr&iliOB; •ldrte end tight-gloved haude ot tbe gue■ts ot �tmtin• ■ pretty mother clu■tered aboui thm.. Ono littl.e table ehe added to that library I probably "juat No. 126, eee Plllte n7I No. 125, see Plate XXVI


125, beoauae." LlabOgPll'cy', rouni:l, p0l1ab.ed, 1nl.e.1d 1rith • ae:tinwood 11De, oue diect0114 stretcher auppor\ing its al.ender l&ge. it 169 too appears at tbs tea-parties ot todaJ, thOU@h it is 1n another l'OOID znore ghen. to tormal teas. A.Dd ecmewhere she aoqu1re4 a deak ror tlla� library 1ludi 1e still lmo'lll •• m.Jrs. Rooaevelt•a deek.. • It ie baricot-ehaped, flat topped, ite bowed drawera 1nle1d with a tiDB aa:U.nwood doubl.e line, nret taken to her boudoir, U .,.. too small "'14 - in• congruous •1th the en0%'JIJDul5 old ro eewood pieoea carved with grapea end birda ber BU.iii was el.ready .tumiahe4·w1 th, encl amm into tba llbre1'7. SOon it moTe4 into the long hall; and ha.a be1111 1ZIIJl1' thU>go to - people, "1000 Kre, ea ohamingly pooed onoe tor a pioture bea1t1e i1l:. il� devoted to attalrs aodal. 1 it has wandered u» and down the hall, like a JJalT'& lmab 257 ot PolUhod wood, moet tr-BIi t]T following oner tl>a qn4er1Dga of th& aociel aeoreter,r,.. trom the weat cd cor­ ridor where ll.l"a. Te:tt dealt, by «po;q, "1th her morning nood.e ot ma11; to the mnell north arosa hall where ttra. Coolidge'• tem1DJ.e a:ld.e drove a deoiltiff pen aarosa its top, to tbe east end. corridor whore the social arbitresa held nay tor a. rew umitna.. r'°" 1-t ha.a retired rrom proteaaion.el lite, end 1D the :role ot quiet rria4 to the boapltallty ot the house, otten paper, pon 1111.d ink to tho pu•1n8: guest, or • euddenl.y eelf-Nlllincled ho.-tesa. ea 'they go up and down the gla8l!l.1ng bocklined hall about their -.ays ..

nt.1r•U'7, which ha4 been ao lo:uc the "red gueat-l'OOlll." .l. Jl18h08&Q1 4.rop-leat table, a modern one on old l1nea, n.nt 1Jlto the a- room, tiid he.a 8'ayed there to the pNeent day.. ror her own rocm Ur■• Roaae'1'4!1lt oho1e II aoreen. 1.hat baa pleued ff8l'J' ti.rat . · lady' ainoe; ahu never f'ou.nd herael.:r the de■k Iha Y&ted.. She G.ilbl''- lik• her■, 1t d1c1D 1 t match the l"OIH004 oe.nod �, 11g With big biMB wbioh ahe tbought wu about titt:, yoeza old (1D 1908 llhe we.a wrong bf fiY• years). She very wan'\ed 104 195 one to matoh, end so abould wa had not tlle perteot dosk turned up 1!L 1930 • one tha1. ha4 been L1DColD • 11 :rrcm the SOldiH"' e HQme,. Whether ah• tried another in tbe plaoe ye do DO'I Jmow - she did bu.,- eotber, a mab.Ogsny cloaizig top that wu soon in ltl.aa .&J.loe•a bi& IIO'l'thwe•t bearoam. end 1e ll01' tn th• mall antaoam to the Prea14en11 • a stu41' 4

'!'ho long boll, tuhionol>J.y walled in green buzlap, no-d nothing l>ut npJ.eaod loathel' rurnuure BJ1d Nhlmg pictUl'ea, 0211ept a poir ot 81""'1• IIOhog- ronltors added to tho we� end eittillg-l"O<ID tor a J.orge tll!llily ot ooua ond dau8lltora ot which 1 t was said they weN all �ye 1111d S:il'ls tosether lllld all Preatden'I. 'l'heae chair, a.:-e .QOw roekiJ:lg awst on the top tloor.. 286 346

on the al!mlll present top tl.oor ia a ema1l aet-tee ot mahogany, upholstered 1D red leather.. .It 1• about wide eDDUBht to have aee.ted tour ot tlloee jUILior Proa14enta, U quiet.. 'l'h1• aetue waa made by order ot Preaident Tart. Bu.t U ie an exaot 2'10 coP7 ot a p:rev1oua one, o.rdered by Mr■ .. llooaevelt :tor ·tbelo11g hall, tor lh1oll she hod a particular, probably raui­ nboent ottoot1on. She lett 1t bol11D4 her but oho 111St have gent� grlned. about it to e. genial ol.dtim.e t'riend, sinoe he pl'Clll.ptly ae11t 1t 'to lier, replacing it ll1 th u.ot-n.r.. SO, atrtotly apeald.n,g, tha l1ttle rea: eettee 1a Doo8'1'Velt ta.ate, U' not period.


Anothar arUale ot 'RooseTe1t inspiration ha.a eCllle baok '!'hie io • low omchair, dolle 1D aark green loather md nails, whioh waa requ.1•1t1<m.ed b;r the Pre.aid.ant tor hia u11w 198 eseou:tive ottioe. No one quite lmow11 'llllon it ret\!rnad to the more f'�iendl.1 atmosphere ot the llb.itti Boaee, bu1i 1t wu' in pleoa 1D the :temily aihtns--raom durin& the Tart era, md now it Bite among '\he l.eather-perio4 nhibiUoJl and "Ulletul. collection in the eu'li end oon-1a.or. homo.


J'or thou t-� be4rooma tho llOOHVal.ts bought oJDDn A ohel"JT rocking ab.air naw upstairs amt 1Dto 'the red

.No. 25? � see llII

Plate 42 lloOOOTel1' Bod No. 6 llnlmown Qouah .l{O, 18 a,,ent .Amohoir No, 13-14. Thero wu, hoWll!IIVer, one rellUl.t ot the lboeevel.i Reoan­ atl\10\1011 tbat d8111lDded 1.mnediate nn turntture. Tbe removal. o:t the ExeCutive otttooa to the new ottioe W1ld1J18 atteohed to the net end � the houae leti tour empty roam11 to be t\1%'D.iehe4 u bedrooms. '!'bey we:re 1n two auitea that duplice.ted. the bedroaa

No. l.98, aee Plate XIV

12?. auite• or the west end ot the house; bat there was no apl)%'0:p29iate old lbita }!()use beds and bunWB to oerry tbam baok i:o their past, when they had been. bedrooms tor uom-oe. Reprcduotiona could be ma4e, but chuoe bl'ought to the attention ot the Booeevelta 811 euthent10 old t'our-poa'tff that bad onoa bel.Qng,4 to Pre11d&Ut Jackeon, 1ihethor it had 1 toelt ever been 1u tho llhite Bou&• we <lo uot -.. Perhopa 1t bad, and hod been ooniod bock e -&O to Tem:ieaaee 1Jith the 1aolcBOD etounge. lt wu ct't&red tor so.le at tho Hemitqe, tho old i'eDl,eeeee - ot J.ndrn 1acl<­ son, end one ot th.11 D1atrict Cam:D1ea1oner1 o't 1902 mede a 111oaitl. trip aown to buy 1t ond brillg it book aa a g1n tor the White Bouoo. Us raur opiro.l ]IOn• holding a OOIIOP:Y end curtllills ot treoh 41ml.t:,, prov14od by l.!l"B, Roooav<llt, 1to headboard of arohed pedimoat and urn look11l8 down a wide expNiso or amoath oounterpaue, the old J"aokoon bed waa o touch o:r pertooUon 1D 1iho hu&e aulD7 oouth bo4w,cm. one s1m1lar, but not a copy, we.a made tor the big J10rth bed­ rocm :,e.wn111g 8111pt1l;y anron tho way, ond it too wu lruDg 1D dl.mit7, Both bede have mave4 alnoe the Booeevelt ds,.

Mra.. '!'a:rt. '.i!he Rooaevelt glees with the correspondi,ig one from th" south bedroom, went downsta1:re to the "het-box," where on reception nights thoJ' give au BDUoua lady one last look at her troolt 3gg be1"ore she goes upstairs to meet her President. The other 400 pieo• reatred 1"rom. the set &lao 1161111 downste.U'a, to tbl J;g467 pointmont Rom on the Ground Fl.oor where it site against the 468 wall like my diglli:t'ied old mnb.ceuJ, marble-topped &1de tabla., ita pal'tner a.arose the door•ay .trom it. Sit in tbe new Booae­ velt bedrot:l:u both were auxiliU'J' ,aeb.atanda. the luxu.ry o� a both­ ro<D. to every bei.D8 too new in thoae day:s to be qu1te credible and one 1'elt eatet- a a_pari, weahstend:

'l!he J"aokoon bed 1& 1D the Northout big bedroom. Ito tenant 1e to.14 ita or1&1n.1 a wealth gt legend.. '!be oopy, with 1t.e satinwood 1.JJlay, ita caned. urn ot plumes on the po-st-topa, 1ta aquaro top DOI' shirred in blue tat­ r-eta 1 i.11 now in the north bedroom weet of tbe al.oove hall.� where th& guests gazing w1th morning amazemtm:t a.t the high C8ll-Dpy iabove them do not know thei:ra is only a J» dasoGdant at IOM earlJr Wb.1ta House tour--,P011ter. !rhe reet ot the hrn1tu2"a tor 'U:le lfortheaat Bedro<D was made to ke"JI C<Jmq>� W1 th the bod, e1II. it 1a atiU in uH thee. J. mahogany oheat or t!rder.e, 11::nobbed. wtth e. doon4 aet or ahel.,,ea beloW, l!!IZld a yery lerp mabogeny wardrobe, Us o14-tash1onoa oorving diai,iiel.llg 1\e date ct, solved th8i problem at th e absent olothoa-oloaet:. A mhogacy ilroeaiug t abl.o, gl.uo top]led, with dr.,.er• ll18k1Dg place tol" ! ie dreasm--cheir, 1tas tor the north well., end above 1t1 between th& windows, huJag- e. tall gold lllirro,., the tremo tootooned with silt, 'l'bo dreoeor choir 1a without am,,, a U6}lt Sheraton with 1to to:., oplet :I.DJ.aid with a flower, end with its ooat ,ipholatored, J. 1'lat topped wrn­ ing tabl.e woo plaeed ogoinot ,mother well, With it• SJu,,,aton uu­ ohair :matobing the dreuer. A l.ow wood-eeat allpperohair 1n mehog­ OJJY, w1 th tho ShoratOII l.nla:, ot !lhe othoro, ocmploted tho chaira. There nre two l.1ttle iablea, o»a a square etand by the bed, a:a.d one a :n,un4 ....u center table w1 ti> • plate gl.M• top ( slue topa were D811' in the nineteen hUn4red e.ncl WldoUbtec:llf '181'7 a:aart) to pl"O'teot 1'ta delicate le,oa COTer, that held the water-Jug end tJle 111041aziDOa ot overnight ho•pUal.ity, 9 a. 2l 04. 1' 23 ie ia 80 22

Two _piece■ or !tha Northeast set, witb their correepoo.d111& perinere ot the SOUth suite, have departed tl'cn this room. one. we.e the neceuery 1D sich a room 1n a.,■ betor. mirrors, 'Which was replaoed eome yeere later by another choaeu by lJortbeaet Bedroom, see Plate xn

Plete JIO, 43 5Doee1'elt Bed lfo. 40 !ott !eble !lo. 316; l!onroo crAsir !lo, ""46 Unknown Picture J;o. 013; Hoover RUg Mo. 42 The South bedroom"Oas the way 1rae 1"urniehe4 in lG03 with the eame eaaential■, but witb a little dltterenoa in detail. because or the d iff'eronce ill boda. Silloe i.hat room 1e no .a longer a bedroom they hoye all m1gl'ete4, 11,e dresai11g tabl.e went with tbe bed to the Borth Bedroom weat ot the 038 94 hell.i 1t111 IDirror - a gilt wall lDir:ror, not ol.d.,- wont to the 114- Slll8l.l. study openilJg out ot the.t bedroom; ite aide chair 1a 1A one ot the Bedrocaa. so .are the cheat or 121

drawe.rfl and the big inldd wardrol>e most acoepteble in that room that also bas no c:loaets. The bedtabl.e and the s1del chair are in tlm big southwea1i Bedrooc,,; the Bmb.l.l round canter "tabl.o, slue-topped md brass ab.od, wont aorase to the lfortheaet Bedrooal.. The writiDg table wendered do1'Jl.81ia1J:"a to the J.ppointmnt Room. "With the oxwaabatanda turnod into tables, when tbe.t room tound 11:­ eelt' 111 sudden need ot turniture . The an:iohair, it.a 'blue seat changed into a matching black, slipped hanr.on1ously into 1.he Oval. Drawing-room, Gt' oil th.a. new 1'urn1ture or the bedroom ot 1903, only the end1rotus have 11teyed in place in l.�30 . lO'l �2 25 408 U'l OZ3

Twelve or l�er .:tone be::.:oteo she did got , r.nd a •;-.hit& .csrblo f'ou.nteiJJ for the east. terrti.ce, t!lo1. yee.rB later wna coved to tbe 1reet te:t-rnce Md still later, mck:ing leakase d1fti.. cul.ties tlmre, v.ns stored. }:!er tubs tor "tbe essential bey trees end lo:ng boxes .eet on t.he coping ror a•aaonal 1'lov.-ers are both still 01' li'OOd instead of' tho hoped-tor marble. .aut the terrace:i are cllenn.1:as tod.ey like her first deliehted vision ot them. AS on.a "ou.ld hope is the ..bite iieel.1'.

The two mnaller bedrooi::u1 or 'Ule eaat } or au1tee were tu..rnbhed 1®ro ol.ocly.. Eeob in t1ma had a pair or braae boda that have since. Tanh.bed. Tho anall south Room had e. craem 344-42 end ,green eat of' painted lo'oode:n :rurniture. :10et ot which, the table-dei,k and aide c:b.air, th11 cbittonie:r and rockor 1 M5 BO have eone upstaire 1 in their original oolora, to top­ :tloor eewitigrQom and ma.ids I rOOI!t. But the: bureau haa 8El-!l9 boon cCJll'CIJlldeered -tor uee in tbe sm.nll ?Tortl:nreet .Bedroom, diagonally acro■e the house, eind bae been pa1nte4 to t:1atcb tbe Wil­ son .r�rniture there. And. t"WO chail"e atth ·cane back end cua111on aeat ere in the J>rosident ' a Bl.lite. 8-6-5 3-456

The eall Northeut Bedroom ia atlll as the Booe.svelte lefi it - painted bureeu and •riUng deek, bedtahle and. two oeneback chairs, W1. th the exception or the brae• bed, now replaced by a wooden one, md the chiffonier 1hich hei, gone down to the North Bedroom We&t ct the hall•

.ill the second tloor rooma had. aimple new andirons and Dfl' hanging electric tb:turee., or U11pretonttou111 white china, proYided b:, the nrcbitect111, but no lampa. Ml'e, Rooenelt added a d■ligbttul ut ot bed.aide lampe. Tb.eae are a aet or gilt b'l'Onzee designed lib candle--aticlta 1 their alender 0153 Ol&E reeded colw:z:ns crosaed 1d th bronze :-ibbons, their tlor� o8cent ca.pit.ala holding a a1D8le gl.obe. l'b.eir workmanship can be judged by the aatonisb1ng price, - 1u 1.go;s - of eatle se-ranty-tive dollars each, a f'aot di.scovered by mai-e than one First Lady wbo tried. to add to the ortg1ne.l ten� But buay lfith all this u she .01.111t have been, iu hff dQJllain upataira, l:r.s. Rooeevelt had still ttmo 'to oaat an ap-­ pra1sill8 eye down on the a:mpty , tnviting new brick roof' terraces etrotching trom the and the 1J81!1t windows.. She wanted to a.eke them goy tor her temily and tor th.a pu.'blio viel' trom the atreet and tor tha :pleaau:re of' evening gueat a. She WIIIIl"ted •tone benchee and tountaina and jard1uiere.s of ga::, tlowerm "evon U we oan' t at:rord many tN1e&, *

No. 408, aee .?late XXD: No, SO, aee Plate XV

Northeast Bedroom, eee Phte MII No. 0153--&2, ee& Plate :WI

lZl, 'RIIl.l.C! UOWABD TAP"T BELEII iOOl!l0:1 TUT 190� - 1913 The R0089?el t Admini■trat1on ha4 lett the 1'h1 te Hou■e completely t\u'niabed tor t'tl'onti eth centur., 11viug and entertainina. !fr■• Tllt't round her new domain•• t'Urniahing tn excellent condition 8lld naeded to make ve.ry few add.1 Uona. 11, .requir&d only a little Shifting about to adapt it to her own tamtly Ute. J.nd though it clid lack ornsn«D.ts and per­ sonal touohea sbe could send tor l!lUCh ot the am.all tumiah1nta and curios ohe had colleoted in ber travele and aojurn.i, in interesting place• to make persOllel verioua corners or the ne1J place. �-�BAY o1' these went into the OVal !lra1ttng Room on tha 9econd floor, 11bich struck her, ae she tells in her book ct :ia.emoiro, aa particularly bare after :tr■• Boo■evelt • s encl Penet:ea were oa.rrbd awa;r. J'or tha reat ot tihe pr1vate tloor ahe contented heraelf with unmbling the t'U.r.niture al.ready there in ne• pdtd:rna. The ttrat tloor was alnady p:re1>ared t"or all demands or f'oroal. hoapit&l1t:,-; ao tl1a.t 1Jra. Ta:tt, who took a keen and revivifying intereet in th& t\ataila ot her o& hoepita.lity, turned her atten.tion to t.he &el"V'i oe quartet-a on tbe graund tloor. sove::ral. chen&•• in the st.orine; plaoee tor ouppliea end the :reoe11'1IJ8 of' packagee - new llhDlTe■, oloeeta, oup­ boarda ,- were the reaul.t ot her aetiv1t1ea. The gl'O\Uld tloor owes her apecit10ally, the :pe.1r or ta�estry clo�h screens ac1.'0H the weai end or the grouud corridor. Before bar day crowds wa:.dar1Dg through tho hall end roo:ua o: tbet ground rloor, enjoyiog tbo pol"trettl!' ot :7111to Houae mi•troaeea and the oolloct1on or thet:r oh1na, might a.loo en.Joy the eamiue:e end ot the mid• and tbo ocok and tho second cook and tbs steward and the houaenwi and aJJYOne else hal'ing buaineaa 'between the ele-Yator and the lei tcben. They might also ellJoy, end probably did, houae 1'U1tors going oTer to the executive. ot-tia:ee. The more or­ tbodox way ot going tram the house to the ottice 111 along the west wing terrace alld down a emall hid4en. !light of' ataiz-a at the otf'iee end. lllt thia, cbal"l::Ung on. a beaut1.tu.l day, bas disadvantage ot being tull.y exposed to the elecenta on 44'1 a hot or oold or • l'ainy or DOTY dq, In suoh oases it 1e ::ore o.o:i:itortable. to lee.Te the elevator at the 448 ground floor, ■lip through the pe.8811¢8 between the kitchen 811:d storeroolll8 and so out , •1th illOre •�ed tllat etate­ l1n.11usa 1 into the arce.ds. beside tl\o garden, Even a Presi­ dent u,oa that route s in a rain or a blizzard or a te:zwere.ture ot l!I. hundred degrees,- tbough it expoae ti.In to the e1mylel' aide o.t his own eatabl111bme.:i.t, end to the temptation ot en apple bin &Dd tho onslaughts ot an eager dog or two. ThaDke to -the Tatt ac.reen9, .. etUl tho entrance to thie eub­ terrenean paaee.go, aucll hw:ian int•rludea ,rs :no longer exposed to the -fascinated eyes or the v1ett1nc public-.


�ee Plate XXVIII

Ono complete aet o! turniiure l&e. Tart did feel oompellocl to buy . She -found on arr1T&l, that tl:e 210at pleuan.t tor daily lite, in tbe sou.thweat auite uaue.lly e.ttraoting tho P.reaidautial eye, we.a tw-nbhod in aomewhat oppr6as1 ve .t'ubion. rt had tbe huge heal')' old tu.miture pur­ ohaaed probably in the '.tittUe tor the one and only State gueat--room, 8hd moved from that room only when 1 t became a nuraery tor the Cleveland YoUJl&: onea. F•• .i"1ret Lad1ea would he.Te cared t'or aicb carved grandeur an4 V1otol'ian conYolut1an ot design, e.e a back&rOu.nd tor a busy ex1■tenoe. Mrs. Tett al.eared it out at her quarter• to tbo preaeu.t "'State cueet­ roOlll" AOl"OH the hall, wbare it is 110w, though it has JJhif'ted back end rortb aeroaa the con-id.or 111:1re than once ■tnce her a111. In 1ta place , !"or her own uee, ehe selected a eat ot Colon1e.l reproductions, in mahOgaDf, which was to the taate or the time cd e&rtoinly e1:m.,1er to live with, The eet baa now aoattered al.moat Ulll"eoognizably, in the tnahion ot sets 111 a house with a lllre auccession ot tenenta end an unaure continuity at needs. '!'heee piooee howoT&r, can bo id.8lltit1ed by their pineapple. tiniala. one bopea litre. 'I'e1't kne• why colonial tunrl.ture is eo otten eerveo With pine­ applee, be70nd their mymbolimn or Hlenty in the house. 1':lo thoue,h or eeilors OD the long l'Oyege home trom tbe tro;,1oa eJIJUSiDt; the:neelvea o!!.l'V'ing remembered pineapples on the ende of' the mabogeny loge in their cargoes C1.ia;ht ha1"i, been a breatli ot the sea and the tropic:e plae.eent to a lady mo enjoyed her stay along tho equator. The beds of' tha 8e"t have n.ndered mcl!lt, having been put up and te.lten down in vario\13 rooiu on demand. somet1..mea the t'flo ll.eadboer4s have been a child. ■ em.e1"gency bed on the third. -floor, while the two rootboard.a bece,me, a day bed on the second. 111-11.a


The bureau or tho net ia still 1n tbe eouthweet euite, in the roo111 next to i.lre. Tatt 'a. Her bed­ aide table is where abe placed it; 11t1.d her- rocker end one pair ot latUce-be.clc Colonial obair• wander about throughout the whole aui te being light enough to move eaaUy aa ux,a1i White House turniture 1• not. The 19 ninging ch.oval glue went up to the northwest bedroom, amon& the a1mtlar Rooa&l'elt turniture . 123 105--115 02-"4


.i.t the same time ahe f'Urniebed tbe szaall co:ner room or the suite a.a a dressing r00m-bouc:to1r. Tha dreaeing t9llle, ornamented with e. caned basket: or tlowere , is tt1ll in its place.


t!·.eni to a lite in tt.e �1 te Houae.. They bad belonsed originally to :r.:r. tm.d _;ra. Thaddeue Durr s or Fairtield, Connecticut I and date to shortly otter July l'1?9, when the !hllT ho\\ee V.'88 t,,buil.t, etter h11ving been bUl'ned by the Rritiah, John P..encock, John Trumbull La­ teyette, and J"ohn end �el Adame bad been t'requent gue�t:s at the bouae and have knon these chaire. The :j.ssea Hlliems, o:reat , great grandniece� o.f the Thaddeus IlUl'ra, ··,n,sented thet:t. es exm::rnlea ot ..:arly .American f' in thE; i'ihite House .. Allother chair - al.Bo preaeDted - traa kept in this lot.s hB..Ll during tbs llOO'l"ar era. The needl.e-point covericr, ite :-ranch gil.t fr8tl8 ,raa B?!lbroidered by the eigbty-yeer old mther 6J6 or Dr. Frank Golder, historian and oollector ot documents f'or the Hoover War library at Stan.t'ord Un1Toraity, •��d wo.1:1 )l'esonted by her to the �i te House in meIJDrS'" ot he� aon.

Plate 65 Second corridor painted, openehBl.ved bookeesae built in sroupe e&ainat tbeui. 'l'heae Yere quickly .tilled t•i th the book oollection given the White 1:ouse by a publisher• a aaaociation. CBl"peta were touncl - one tn the house, one d9Sp--p1led aage,-5l"een squlll'e trcm J!ra . HooV8%'' S on. oo.l­ l.eotion ot South aertcen ruga. Her' s too was a l.ovely ;).moan ptytte couch Ol)poaite ber 0111\ doorwa7 beaide ltra. Rooaoval.t 'e qham.­ har1cot desk - ita aurt'ace graoioualy reedy f'or boate-,a end guest alike. The !ibite' lia'18e piano tilled another eC>rner, holdill8 a new lamp, e sUl:;ile bronzo trtpod • 1th a plain ebado, a tall Taae o.r .flowers, and a SLU.iog photograph of !�•• were tebles,-aome personal, aome house tables. one, D. .mahogany reproduction ot an old 4esiga. w1th a deep drop leat', s-aa selected !'or another 336 mom but :f'ound uaetul in thie. Two pod&Btals :rra:::i. the 3:,7 U7-l5l Ueytlo•er were impreeeed into &erTice , one loll' end eqt1are 218-233 topped, to hold f'.lowera, the otber tall and round that -&?l-377 durint? tl1e iioover era bore the huge bb.ok and a11,-er rtoe bowl that .-as a. personal pNsont trom the King ot Sia. The cbaire all were ner,, except a coTey o-£ the littl.e ?:adl­ aon-t:onroe ten.back chairs that had lone ego tabrsn pr1vate-tloor rel'uge and now uere. newly -_1.tched in a straw-colored upholstery. )ne ler;;e pair ot amcluU.r-a were s11eo1a.ll.y made, sqeare be.e-.:s covered in r•.reen broo�de, e.ll four cabr1ole J.e-.;o ..:1th oarved knees end olaw :teet, and ·,:1th oel"Ysd �: .. 8J1Y ot the thirty new oval.­ backed. chairs, .like those ot tho oval .rcxm, ,,ere rro.1J.ped in the long hall, ready t'or DTening UBe w.ben the r,eekly newsreels tur­ n1ab.ed a .Dalt-hour• a hoe-.,. itelity to 0,1aata. And six ct.airs ,1ere a. present - th!J h1atol'1c present i-oi•e one .. n.i 'te .. ouc.e la..;y has hopErd tor. These known a.s t.c.e ".,illiams obc.1:ra", 'caing Given to the bouso by tha . 'isses Sa.rah r.nd J'olDJla ,lillif!.tlls 01.� ::ew York. 'i'hJ chairs are t, i,..e Chitpenda.;.es, :mhOp.r.,y, l:.,ndeme t.: ".::,lc..s or a pu:di;::ree u.d 00.a:..iecilous ent1tltng thet maeter' e rox:.:. 1

tln& o:r the ;,leull.llt small touchca in t.ce p:rocee.;> ot oou:­ ing any room into hume.n charm is• es every .-omen k:nowa, its lm:l_p­ lish t. Tho long corridor l'.'as !!tUSCeptiblc to that touch, tte uonne.1. lighting coming only from a skylight 1n the oe111ng, and borrowed deylir,ht troo such doors aa h11ppened to be opened at the m:,ment. Tbe lees ot i ta overhead lighting,- a temporary F."lnbe b.UJJ8 in the Booeevelt �&nin1straUon durill.£ an �Br£ct.::cy ot the Wdget, - ths better. Ita flall li�te ocCUJ" � at each end. ana of the two ta.ll tloor-lar.ipe tro, tbe 052 J!aytlow·er, its shade of shirred grey silk iueonspiououe C4'7 by dey, was placed beside the Nadi1'16 table.. Another lwap ot yellov chine, cbeerf' decorated ,r,,ith perrots in 1-elter, the north hail te.blt. . .l third lamp sos needed f'o::.- :;rs. Uoost:svelt ' !! deuk - a:1 1-VOt'Y �co1a1n u rn h<. ld1ng e plf.ate:d linon One l:.nrmoniz1ng ornc.ent t":e,e a Ftocbood 'Vase or the ucme wer.n ivoryJ ot:rertng eD airy- �re,;r ot t1O11er,e. lnstesd or a circle or l1a)lt. Other l!oover _pe11.od O!'na:iwts were tew. :·ndoubtedl:, never in t)1o1r career heve th& r,h.i te liouse: wall.s looked down u;,ou r:!Ora objeot!I ot interest - o:r bistory - o.t souvenirs - of testi­ monial.a of gretitudo enC friendship - than waen they abeltered two •auderi� J:mericens wbo aeemeQ to have endearsd themselves to cuch or thll globe. These objeo"ta e:tpecially congregated in tbh �ler;; ot ?.U-s, Hoover' .s, so the tope o:r boakCelves, tbe 9urteces ct tabloa, o.t d.olrCa, of' p, bald eech tt& tribute, lt>vel.y, tou.ch1DJ,, or emusill.g. J. me.a�o nt:sedir: ; �re 0165 epace t'or its orne:ients then waa available toe.a \Wik.ell;/ to acquire or attract morel .aut one did arrive , 6.B e. sou•�•.nir ot Geori:e Waabi.ngtcn Bi--ceuteunte.l Celebret1on 1 will r�:n to the ,.1l1 te Eouse. lt ve.s presented b'J Auertrta, 11 c,,u,licate eiueatri?L. 1"1.:;ure or Georse .:aehln,rton in w'!l1te bis,1ue, OJ r.n &bony b e-se. A � plaque bears the. lE: ;end.: 1733 Austria to tt.a 'United Ste.tea of' L:lerice. w1 th tr1� ndsbip 1 eatoe:n b�·.d adr:.1ration l952

!:OOVZR It reigned OD a corner or tbe bookshelf, neareet the great paint111g o:t George 1'e.sh1ngton, pa1nt11d and p:rese1r\ed by l.lli& Ca4e:nas � Ecua­ dOl" in 18'18.

The west end ot the long prlve.te corridor had been l.ittl.e changed 111noe .Ure. Cleyel.end. invented it u a feJ?tily The tide cf each nn edmin1ffration :receded, oarl'y'ing e.wey its pic­ tures en.ti photogrei,hs, its booke and cushions, ite pet ornaaients; but 1ee.v1ng tte l1ttlo cO'ns :ready tor tbe tul"ll ct the next 'tide. OJJ"ln..� each occupenoy that end or the oorridor bore moat 111tnese to the way of lirtng ot '\he :re:m.11.y in 1:he hou■e. In 1928 • temily moet uaed to 11Ying out-doors came into t.he private i'loor. outdoor 11V1n& ia di:tticult to l?Wla8e in the :!anaion bu:ilt by the f'athlu•a o:t our country.. '!'he President I s !iouae, as someone- wrote home to hie wJ.te 1n 1800, was "'built to be looked at by the publio and visitora, " end its outdoor li'Ying h almost u tmprotected tran the interested today titan indoor livtng was then. This aar.tiniatration 1 however 1 having preoticed all over the wrld in adapting enviroDmeJ:lt to its cn;n t�stes, brought the outdoor l.ivins; illaida; and made of the ft'eetend S!.ttine;­ room still a, but a garden alt.ting-room, ot palme and .tuna end t1owerin8 ;,lents end singing birda, echoing the conaer­ Yator1e s ot Harriet Lana ot the Bueluman l.dministratio:n. The eit­ ting-room rurniture round in place ns moved - the ta.t red-trlnge.d plueh crent cbaira end sot'a, the .U-thur library teble elegant in marquetry1 the hea'Yy eek mediaeval l'lemish table ot Preeident •'c:Kinley, the extra. roc.lmra B.Ud •moll bookca.sos ot varioua m.hlt:reasee .. onJ.y one pieoe wae lefi .. tira. ne.rrison' a l.on,g 251 plai:n�wood�n window scat. Only two artiolee wore new a :!ftl"aw and green porch rug ot graae aqua.res and a amall 054 �toh table, painted grey B.lld green. 1Jl th& house wolit-­ ahopa. The rest uaembled themeelvee egUnet a baoks,round., 1t­ ael1' oalled in t'rot1 the greenhouses.. Pelme snd 'tubs o-:r tlowera, email 1>0ts 01' bloaaoms ouie in to atend in great oopper trays el.a� tbe walls. Fun.I.or pots ot terns and ple.nts atood in tall atnnds Bg'?ill&t the u.ndowa, till tbe woat end. oo:-ridor wee aa nat­ ural and groW1ng e. spot as any garden. Garden turn.1 arrived naturell.y e.tter that. 7.)-a. Ooolidge• e e.ning hamoolt ewl.a8, SA1" ill etrtpee, the wicker armchairs 1ToM the south porticoi e. gi:tt chair end table at Florida ooooa-wood, a small eten4. or tft> trtl'.l the J:8¥f'lower to hold o l.emp or no. The limp choaen, ot ,ottery, a pl.a:111 shaded ve:ie, green and brown, yellow l!lld creE'.1121 mingled Jri th Itellan ctam.J blended ;;1th tb:, shadowy green and bron or tho palms. Gerd@e dt'awing All things unto thECSelves, even a. 11air o-r Wi?lged er&cn bronze garden :tigures ii&.rtt tound -the ex,:iu isite l.tttle repl,:lcas or 'fe1Dmen1 11 NiBht tDld :ZOl'JUll6 that bad first stood in the aun in San l"reneleco.

1:0. 251. see Plate nI 1;0 .. Oti4, see P1a1:e llI

m-a.. �!ooYBr• • Oval Dre.wing-room. was ve:ry- web bar on. That room has usually mirrol'ad the testea ot the .P'1r!lt Lady and usu­ ally !'or the exoellsnt reuo:n tbat abe tUl.da it 1esa filled with 'Wtbite Rouse poaaees101u, then. rooma in the ho118e, and. must UC­ port her 01!'ll persouelia... This time it wu almost en1:1rel,y =t1ty1 ai.nce the roee-oolorad t'u.nlhhings at tbe :prsvious edm1n1atre.tions were .needed tor the nu Jrlee 01'aW1ng-1'00ll that he.d boen the Prea1dsnt • a stud71 - even it.a curts.ine transterriog themael.ves wtth 11ttle a.dat'tation to tho BmAl.lar 1'00:Ill. That left the oval � t':ree to be e. dratling-room moat retlecti vo ot Ura. 1.i.oove:- 1 a taete, mid e. be.ok­ cround tor her own tntl.y- pOaaeH1one bro�t trom the Ecover bouae in Washington. The i.,ain ela:nenta o'L har drawing-rocm will .tollow her e.wq.,. leaving 'the :room to a�t iteel:t' to �• generations as it has tor e. hundred ye are.

Pute 58 Ma,ytlower settee uo. 157, .Arm.cha.ire Ilea. 130-V Stllllcl11J6 l,ulp Ko. l� Hoover Table j in windoii) No. 136 .m;;chair l in roregroDDd} !loo. 14?-51 It has ne•er betOl'e been a blaok end g:recm room, ae 1 with very .simple touohee, it 1110On b&oame. The six l.oD@'. shining ourtaina at tbe bay r.indo1ia were new,- lettuce green tat.feta,. loolf,ed high on gold leat-eha;n�d tie-becks. The. ovel rug - once

a dull L"renah blue, de.tin:; back to the :;Uson era - w11.s dyed the co1or of the f'loor, - the black of old wood. '!'Jro upholstered aotas covered in bl�,c end gold :hineee brocade, ,;..cir roundin .; lino■ echoing the oval lines of' the room. 1 tselt 1 1\'ere b!"ou:;ht t.n:t.:. "home, " '"' oue to be f;laaed in tbo bey ot the t:indowa ,. one beaide the fireplace. A Cliineee Corm::lblldol aoreen, blac:it "·1th Jade and coral ticures, o�e m.tu -them, end a dari:. table nith pierced carv­ !ng. ".:'he Old :.:01:1::Uo:, "'Flcaish table'• brought 1"r0l:l the �all be­ cmne, w1 th 1t.e: heav-J carvin • and its blacit dolph1D--3Upports, eud­ dOn.17 Chinese in thia aTDDs;it.ore. So a s::ul.l "ebony" atG:i with pierced o.arvine,, electad to t.old a ..;..,..oa:41ng se:move.r l:r/ the tire­ .Place. liowaver, tl;.e ue•cooers wo1.·e not all Oriental.. Ttere was a "Pair ot Sou.tb .Am8r1oan oabinoto to eet beh'eeri the windows, the aurracoe or their many tmall dra•era delie!lt:tu.lly inlaid \'Tith tt,;ur�s or j�le tables, Thel'a was er, onor; �.ous• raintt1d cupboard, fro..J. Rollan1 via .1.•enna:,-lvania, ih ese-dark doors gay with saenea a� A a.ttch Ville&e, rea"t!DC st\ll'dily on t.uge ba.ll-and­ claw feet. ,.t'leaeer.tly at �iome t.:.ou_;h !-: ·,u s in t:1e ovCU. RoonJ it c.icht D!$ver laave COJ:Qe. e1,;oevt ae a iJre.c":icel I:flae�eity. The aro ot the roora it covered had onc-e been broken ?:>y tbo old l.incoln door, cut. ror hie private to hie ottioe duriJl& the Oivil ..-ar. .a:lastered UJ: long ego. sicn4 of 1ta p.rose.noo began to show 1.n pla.ster-cra.ckincs, Bl!d re.t:ue.r then redo the wall• fUld loae a hiator1c 11onr in the redoing, : ;re. l�oover covored the nel.on -.Jith the JJ:'611.t oltl aheet - userul. too in housing war-te■tiDonial&,, diplau.e tild such asmor.1.als :ta COl:le to a President --.r,o bad had e war-career or ilia o,m. .&nother roam--aroh t;aa tilled .,.itb: :,ooY9l''s own pieJJo, &nd acrosa rran 1t ·.tas t:ra. Roo1evelt' e Chipp1Jnd.B..le book­ oaae. But the "t■o north ends of th& roou had ■till an ur.solved problem. The:, heL... tall slar,.o ®ore, ne.oeaearil.y rurtltined s ince behind them were roi>'e of el:elv4.Ht , too 91".ellow ana to bold book:, or fl.D:,' co.:.leicdou ot di3:pls,yatile trea.r.iree. ::one know wh:, the:: could 1:ot r)e f'.ll.J..-dep�h al.:olvee; but aa:teone soon expl red !ll�d discovered. Behind the cupbOards were brie.k tlueo, e.xr.r,�Y wiu. id.le. tlil.d. relics ot a. day or tar-peat vuntilation. They were e ·sill adapted to t!u oetttnc in ot proper aholv&s, an_. tbe re.ult waa the t'>to pre3ent charming G-eorgif'..n corner cupboards in the Oval Room, as gracet'ull:,r ao the ·;.. ells tliom.aelvee, and cro.ned ,;1th e !'l\;,te d sl.Jll that ::ii�;!..t . avE' co:ie otrol,j,t !'l'O..J the li.O rJBll pen.oil 1ta�lf. ·rhc ;la::e dOOl"B 8:ld their 81-J.o;ildina cur­ tein.e are no more , b\it rows or. wa.nn-colorou tooka ;ivr, 1.ite to the ov1;1.l. roo: walls, r'lOre hen:ioniouel:/ the in the I.ibrarJ daye. Chuir• cs� b:, invitfl;t1o:i or .:itho\..t tt. '!'he tour smooth overstutted ehnira tl"<l'i1 tte Arthur �.usic room, - 0r1c1nally ::11.e sreen _plusL., n::i,.: !'o:- :.Ja?i:; J&Ql'e iu this room pink or French b.lue as suited the ::Ustresa ol' the <1ey - .-ero • dyed t�.e b1ecl. of the c arpet. So M'&C the coyer ot one 01' • ·r, • 1 s s-.eraton ar.:::138-139 �hairs, w�tch �c. -� to co::;iMion her bookoaae. ?rot'l tha .:..:ert"..1.011or a ;ia.i.r ol.' ta.l.l a::-:..c!i.aira, tho 1l' .si;uare be.eke 137 and s6ots 1n a leot'-ce.rvei !"r.::.: •- , Laroon1"1nt; 11.. 8 nn;..s of ...:reer. er,_-...n:, ,.ore fci.nd to c•�,.. J.ei jlt m,...:: cii _;nity to the .. ir.o or ti," ruo• <: w...<.J. their ...... . ,r,t;nion 30f,- ... .-as j)Ut in the t'ourtb

arc , or "t!!o eott\..i.l .;&J.l, b;,· the .:::llinJee acreen. The:,, or -:cur.:E will stay in the house. So Wil.l a eet 01' c-ha1 ra, ,o.r.e er:,cf.&.irs, 3Cll:18 ■idei chaira, o.rigiue.ted by .:rs, Hoover to be used fol' COC?.­ /ona�le sit.ting in 'Chia room and the lone he.11 out11ide. ...r-ter i::::iacy conaultatiooa and expor1mentw a v,,1:torn �.as ehoaon \,it- tU,e, -.41.Cit,ue 1dae &oat, the eracetul, the eurvin,: oval. becJc, re::i.ini■c,znt ot the ..arly ?edoral ehaira otten :aeeu in i)vrtr-e.i t.;. or tl:.a'\: de:y. 'i'bis particular cat!JK)sitton or lines looks .:e.!.l :a.n the oval l'Oo:l, tt.e etaira: are eoTered t.o t,ar.oo.nh.e .in 11 i.mtt i.:l'e11:� broc ede 1 ,-nd they go r,it.�1 �ual cl': �:r:,_ or t1.!1Jlnor in the clre• :..:ig­ roO!ll, ?he hall outside or the , reetaent• a study , wt,erever t...,J ests U)St 11 --so .ble on a _pe.rticu.1ar occaaion • .4 :row 801.1.1 Bl"tic...e■ ot new furniture ha-yo dritteli into 1n thie drawing-room, une lie.a.nut ta.>le, low , vit!1 oarvo1.: ce.brio.I.c legs, in!.erttod tror.. the ..3-eC"';ti-Ye Of'rie&, u l::ept. 10. one or the •indow niehes. .A drop leat ta..::lo rr::..� tt.e lU1 late J.�e.ytlower ia 01'ten in the other willdow. �01.:.r l!. ttle U t'ootatoole ot mahogeny, co:pitid fl'cr; e.n old example !'oU!lci in th -• storerom, were Jiade tu ::1ato!i -;he black e.nd ,:old 3� tc 329 sof'aa in their covers . 140

A tall. floor l&J:tp of' mabo,&an7 witl:t & wide .;re.1-s1Lit .51. .......e , once also the ; -a:,rlmrer' •• ee:oe t=> ateud. b:, the s "•:!1��1 back �aytl.ower aett'1e.

The ornar:Jt;nts nre e.l!xist all poeoossione ol' ·i;}.e l:007e1· ' .. . �e }retli\l.1.nt• 3 :tavor ltd a.ea ;-Ai:::itin,:; over the :r.nntul, .'rs. I:oover• a '/ s.llejo oak, !I,, blue vision ot the C!'.eck::-Slova."':: ian -.01.:.1teins 1 ot =.en:, r..o:-:io:-ies - 1'1S;.1i1J :p&intl:igs and phot-:i-craphs e�·.e to leave acain. A bre.�rn sa:,.0·1u, e.nd. s:1ell lU'aas tee.-fot, .1.i�-:le cronzti c:,f e Bolcian ,cirl, t;,-o brori.zo Crientel ::'lncing t1curoa on t·.e 1.. ntt<l ;)&­ tween a �inesc Jar e..i d a bowl ot h":,, 1'111 t'ol!,:nr othel' Hoover drawing-roOCUI. But one r..cll hoover-period treacura l.i:.l si;cy ,;o 1,d.:e .. e:a lonely the orne:ientleas Mlite F.ouse. It ia en e:x.,u1s1te ti:.·rra­ cotte head ot B. little RQ'l8.D. baby , - colled ;>no.lo J«>.:leno by its artist and ;;iveJ', c. Jenne1o111n, u!..'.> sent 1t t� ::rs. }25 !!oovol' ror tJ.c houae then hers and al.we7s the nntion•s. And .>D. tho big library table was J.::ltLeed tbe I.eniu..1.. bcL-­ ... re.,e;;..rtad to the ,hite Hous& b::r the .1.�illk Art L1bre1•.:, in :-ew Yo1•k, It contai:i.od phot:,.gra.,Ls cd all the ;x:>l'traittr vt tt,e P.r�a1Gl-.nts .•..nd �W.r t.ives tbet hong 1:t. "the ,J:.ite House, �·. 1th �£1stor1c ancl a:rt notes by :ra. !!cCook Y..nox. tresi dent ' s study 'i'he !Testdent 1 a stu,Jy 1-ea a ne• pict'.U'e, tJainl:, -:. ith old �\1e,n(lnts. Its be·�inntnc •�s acc'-df:ntol, 1t.c to t:.,;,; naud vt rer,hit:tinc the wa.ll1:1 ct th .;11&,ll st.tdy at t:.-, htod or th-.. stetrB u:ficr t.hc le.rt;.o � asa-.!00r bcok:ca:;c-e :,er.J t ut:.c..n cut. :'be :Tcsia.o:Jt•::i ertects \.err.. thercfo:·e tan-;ore:-ll:, shifted I.'.. 1r.-:o tte lar,:e ro� in tl-.e ..out!..J tbct e bed!-oo�.:., b 1t one er. office

w\oae ... ,u1t o :-1 -cen l.1ncol�. "'!.r..: c!,cJ'\ -:."' ¢:."';•.;ta.!1;:.od thro•-1.P'� a�oe;r- a··yro;•riMoness, :md th"'1 st·1ey i:r«t i..p a..-c1.n4 !?":c "":'aai-c!ont 1n the �,�:·rcu.!ldinga histoey 9:?;>l'OVad.

Pla.te 57 :.c.yr1o11or J.n:icWllr ..;o. l-86-7; au.ea 21-&> P.oovu• a,,noh :;o. :!,Z�; Tar.eatr., A.mchair !�o. Tett Leat�•r .1,...-:::act.Ur !io. l'Orirei t ot ae::iic:un 1:rc.�lin Bookce.ue oe:::ia nret - U:.o tall, e-.)..n-carvod co.a., ll.f;ain:st the eeat ll"Lll "" tho P.Ne14ont • s own, but a lo•, a1r.:� 1..7 4is,:.1t1ed ••t ot bookahelvoa, e.lP■-:>rot•cted, ..._. built around. tho � ot a hcii:-,ht to :::lako plea,ar.1:b Y111blo ve.riou• oro.a=onts. �e old •.:..:-.,l,�.m CIHk, tlt41bip ot OYH'Y Pro•idOD-S 81:Lcie li.,YOC., -. o.n't bo-t•een '-he •ia.dowa With tbl Preetd.ent • • pOl'DOnal C!!I\U' CetOl'O it. l!ia Olffi doop bron le.othor aof'a ce:r.c md Joined B partnor � 110t• IOQ-D.& the !.{e,yt.l.Dwer O!i.Ulp::ont, n.lso hrown•.lca� 186 deep end CQ)lo. from. tllat ::.y!'"lOl"e.r otce cl!.atr-, -w:oll. le? 188 -,i,i by �•1:iontiel cont•.ronctt•• a largo poir lined. with .232 brown leather ouah1ooa md a ;rooDl', 1;e lu.a.;!".or �G �leuently 1n1io -the tint• ot an eutu:2'1 per-si::u,on. :ho 102 :oc�a-r aat rc:ie.d;/ b4· ®ek ro� the triond md. -:onault!lllt -ot tho �ent• a wonc, w-hat!•r •Ito, coUoas.;.J(l, r..i:eet or lS3 1niereetod acorote.ry. till it ac:tui:rod t111 .e.i:r ot friend.l:1 c:on!lult1 'I'!! lliedo::. e1t 1to own. >- rcfutico choir !'ro;.:. tba re-turni­ :U,ed ottieo tou.nd. its �ay in t'ra:. t-M corri dor.. l·lu::i; em« "itho1,1t llnc or ch� o!' coTorinP.., it bec01:o aecuatc=e:1 and :soon !od!:Jpena-­ e!)-1.. c. J..Ao*or axuc? •1 t:h a tall bac.C:1 c:-et.0-1,;a.r.,7 leiea. ot inTOlvcd llnoa, c.4t, a..l the apocitica"tion• ot hitt1c;nt, c«:tort- 1 e11'1 being •ouy to &et out ot" 1 wu chQaOn troQ 01aw oandlda.tos. A ot �.a.""\ ogan;1 end tepoatl"'/ crncha1ra ·,19ro b7 rac..ueet; ::ro. !::00Yor'-a ploa.::nn.t aontr!but.ion to at1,;,tq, 40:utort end d.ccoretioD.

'Ihiou �.ovo thoi;r co�ve:..1�ut �abl. s. Like th• sores ther:atilvoa, o::i6 or t.lio :pe.1:r ot lons- aote. lk:!tct.o:,; iraa b.rout;!..t !'rct1 tU Hoover hoc.e: ;.;,. otbn· u • , s r.edei to r.etct,- lt.e: tol) upM-let-or-ad, tta a't'Jrdy tra.:» on btl.ll ..a.d cl.e.1r fco1;, !t t. dl! pcpor-a, :.-�cz.inc11, im1tt1Dc. d.OC".,E':lon�s, i�pa.rUL.1.:f. A tallc.r �9 to.ble-bcncb , oicllu- in line b11t 151 th m.el;ogeny po11ahe4 100 to!l, held., otser•ttec, end. e.ahtra:,i,. ready tor gueat■.. .And a coui,lo qt i11het11m4•, inconaplcuou.a cocr.adH or the Rard1n,g cd eoo114e ed.dition,. au;,;ilhd cxtro t:oa�italtty. ?.U,r,1!1 !U-25

Flve Oritnt!U rug• tro.'t the :.�aytlcnr took the r,laca or 'tht ; bedroO::: c�t 1n tl\te roor.: to lend ricli.ti�oe and color to the floor.

ct lt.i.J. tho orn.C"lenu1 1 �l.ti brtC:,,t oluo CUnc■c1 ju■ and the ai h·er bo1Jla, the pe.iattng.a �d eto?:.1�a, t�;0 curioi, !rot'. all ti-O.oa and. peraon&l e.».d :Fonatoa t acou."$ tlavor 1u tho liQOver IJ�udy, onlJ two belQn(:. to !tc i1�1to Cou,e. One 1, tho 1'.roUder,t' a: bronze «�a.k le:::p. ":'l';.e other a 040 t?::.o abir,�G clock tror1 �be �lower, in tto center ot w4 tt.e �t.el. It.a rout.4 01ea.r- "'1a.l, r:re:::ed :in brea..,. 1ts UAtc1lins abtpa bella- oir-ik1� t.t:o watc:,ca • 'tad e..n. :ippmr-l"iat��ou3 1r. tto-:. c:t1,1.dy in l\12i to l•3.::, It dirit.ud t.110 -..-ai�ce or ?:'Ork tor

I:slln lli" r:00VZR :::.outh �'Ortico

:Plot• �2

South Portioo . !eytlower \11elmre; Coolidge Rug Ve'ry sU:rple , easily available touehea tranatonned thie port100 into auob a room,- e. pl.e.c• ot flowery p-.oe @d briglltneaa overlooking a Ti ata o't Colonial e11n.Pl1city• ell latma and great tnies .l'1.UUling dam to a hal.!'-guea�e4 rive:.r. A new nn­ Ruga :no. 1ng oTerhead, iJr«'Ml-11.ned, end two nBlr poroh rugs made ot 11trn end ge6Jl grase-sq,uarae undartoot, were .!loor and root. Ql'eat tuba at bibiacus and azol.ea in their rlowering Bl!Uo.n, maller tube ot elephant-eet.1" and centerbu:ry bell .. :ruschia and plumbee,o, aJ1d. lit11-le � pots of !nixed ol.Oseotl8 1n their best aeaaon 1'1lled the baok&r<>und. J.!AY!'Ulwzg contributed l,1C)roh-obaire1 all wickor,three UJlatained W'i th "ide lea';4el' a.eats ad high round backs, wbic:b ware reterred to perhaps inaccurate atteotion ee "Tatt• e chei�s", Nld t1ve emallel' one1, more eloaely ,-,oven, ata1lled brown, .,1tb rEl:?IOTabl.e oo•ered aaete. Tables tor outdoor dio1De did not exia't no wero to be 0om­ mBil.dsared. So r�e� Hoover uaod three o-r her own. '91? 383 384-

'ttl,ey needed a sot or arucha1l'9 i end the ones ehosen wo:ro dark :undoors. a1x with tnical spindle-bocks, 1Six with r. broad carved centel' splat lllllOfte tbs spindles. small .:.:i.oover "'ables, cttts tra;a. i'loricla and Oali:rornia, a large carved cheat 1'l.'0lll Oregon, and a crew or chL-ertul small objocta ot bras& ae.t 401-8 about. Books, cut tlo"era, lcDittiq begs e.nd the eillG ::;3-5 2.!. � ot eny Hoover livin6 11arter 1 a pad or p&per and a hendtul of' sha17 pencils, ,,ere dropped on convenient au:i-taceei end the ocom&TSi on.:. goers ot ott1c1al and social li:te :relaed and were enlivened egliUl in an atmoephera too natural -co notice, too eh81":linc to i'oroet,

'l'bey are heavy post-!:mpire mehog8ll)" gane tables, w1th leat topa on:i carved r,ede.stalB - not a p&ir . A :tligbt ot am.all IM.hoge:ay tea-to.blefl, el.flo fl'OI!l ths t!A"ll'LCr.P.B, uore tucked 9ay in one or the deep windoW-niebes, tor uaa et e:tte:rnoon tea-parties th.!.t use the state fi.oor. 6�2-3 MJ•

Thfl door f'ro'1 the Blue RoOJJl to tbe �outh Portico we• very o1d, beins a;:,parontly tb6 original door to the porch.. The Red. Jloo:n !!oor had t>aen in exutence tor me� ytoara also, .uoth were the hid­ den exits opened by throwiDP u� the tall WindM'tl to hoad-beight and U.:Uat0hi?1,t the low iiou�ledoor belo• that seena the wall.. However• the tw were 1nade<.ue.te tor oomtortoble aoming end soilt{'; or tee.-:perty guests .-ho wait otten iu the Green Rooti, imd �or, 1.:i-& F.oover out 1n the be.sowall of the Green Roen. Uko the othere 1t is 1n­ v1a1blo excevt ll'hCNl opened, and it to quiet e&ae ot service ot lunch and tea. The present Red. 1\'.,@1 oozy 1D maroon plush on ita r.dgh wall.a end worn!1, by ite twisted b:roai.e obandeltor, .Pl'eaided over •1th. au uncanny propriety by a painting or Cenerel Grant in &'Vening drasa, is e. creation ot t.:altin, L�ee.d and ,Jr...ite 1n 1903. .An a.ttampt at e. state. perl.or thet 1110ul4 be slightly leH tormal. than the Green Roam, but quite in the mode ot the da;1 , at as tar as f1nenceei would pennit) th• rooa 18 a triumph at1l1 ot' "\be V1atarie.n spirit, Grant-interpreted. The I.inooln Parlor, the Cl'ant aud Cleveland &1tt1:ng-roca, •aa not to be doWJ18d b7 e trio or a.robitoct3, tbough it loee ita ahalvea and brio-a-hl'ao, it: �rioa, its col\ter table, its screens. !ta chandtj.lier someho-w e.ssu:ned the lines o� a "ao.aolier". Ite couches and ermobaira were­ :-;lush, red, tat, deeply indented. Its console arrived With a nd v�ed m.o.rble top, its cupboard soe:red toward tbe ceilint, tbough both t'l'Ore g,Uta from 8. manu:taeturer o-f current tul"lltture. Even the Bt:'.ell addUions acqnired by the later tenants remained in the spil'it or tba century. r...n .. .:ud1ns· s delice.te group or sevroe figurilles Dight have graced o. what-not. :.:rs. Coolt4Ce 1 s small W11t&-mar"'ola mentel urns 11ould have attracted :.:ra. Grant' s neoolesetc eye. 1"'Ven the Aubusaon ce.rpet, coi,iee tran an l.Ul? Blue Rooo. oerpet ror t,u-a .. Cool.idge, become.s in the Bed �oom lie-torten, tta centel" eagle reminiscent of cre;.el.-work:, though a aimilor oe.rpet in the Oreen ROOI?:I i a e.ooeptebly Eerly Federal. The fast Roam, the Blue Room, tb.e Green Room 1 both the dining room, ere uow decorated in the 13pirit or the times in wbich the "i'th1te liou:,e we.a buil.t ( e.lthoU£b, tbe State Din.ins �ca, atriotly, enteda.tea the period. ':1te Bed Room Alone lures the aye or 8Jl.Y mistress au:i:1oUB to do her pert in reator1ng the huuee proparly as time t"or renovation coQ&s. Ite �dttrnizing, however (which mans restoring t0 ·the 18th eentu:ryl ) •ill i!E&.,. renov,.r ;;ine t.rom !"loor to comiao• end reuoval or lll.Qel ot 1ts contents - ex­ penaiva, upsetting e.nd destructive: • .And n�h 1t will go the real remnant ot one element or White Hou:-..e on the State Floor.­ the 19th -aontur.v. That ae.ct-itioe to the II) 11'1t or :progress Will not be !:rs. 1ioover 1 a. She was not ready, 1'bile there m:.e vteor 1n the old room yet, to .s1ve it U:P to ttto time&, ae a eensit1ve descendant could not quite persuade a EJ"8a.t-grandmctMr to re-coatume l:e.raelr. st.e ;irererred to inhabit 1t "1th atti;otiou 11nd et:l\u;�ent and edd only !Nab toucbes as came ei.mply to hand, One of thess i'Je.s n rl!!ir o-r te.blE:a 1nhe.r1ted 1'rom the CAYJ'LO ..ZR, �laced on either aide ot the north d.oor,,;ay to hold an old ,orcelair. e:cenic l:.rD. t'ull of r10,-e:rs.

celled Coatle Orq Cenyo.n ond seleeted to bQllC over the .:tate Dining Jbooi :tll"eplece 1n 192'3 mey soon or sor-..et1.r.e gp to tbe ?!etional ,.)laewl) tll.ot loened 1�i but _perhapa the ;iart:rai t on the north we.11, wbero t"he Booaevelt tape:,tr:, once hung, will stay. President Hoover had 1 t brour,ht in .trom the ball.. Its col.ore or t'1guJ'e end f'rame blend mellow].y- into the wood of the walle; el'on 'the .tolded cloak on ite chair ia the green or the carpet. Its eu.bjeot, Lincoln, 11:tts e.ll eyes that behold hiI:t to the horizon he dreams on, beyond the. Ce.pitol to a hidden dawn, in this magnit'ioent old roo:1 he had himself no t.ime to honor. Private, Boom

Plat8 55 tlQfl.Onr Tablee :roa. !Sf!i2-.5 ?ortrai t ct Thomae J'etterson by stuort (reatoHd)

Thia room, used only" f'or a breaktaat room on winier morn­ ing&, ror an oaoa■1onal la.dies' luncheon 1 and tor dinners on recep­ tion nighta, needed e. tew acld1tions. Extra place tor �able linen had long been .neces&u-yi so a aet or ahelYee built in beside the nUiging door to the pantry, painted like the walls, elld screened by a ln-1ll1Bl1"i 1apl!lDeee an.bro14ered aereen, a gitt to the Pre�id.ent txu:i a. aociety ot J'e.paneso enginoe:ra. To eupplaneu1i ease ot service , a ,:;atelegged mahogany te.ble :trom the !U.Yi'.LDTlER came to stend behind the soreen� A -tew ltOOTer ornaments - em.all brua pots ot ivy, tor the rnentel, a pair of h1gh tw1.ated brass cencUeatic:ka, bronze bird:rie;uroa t"rom China on tbe table, Bel.gie.n laoe $able uata .. gave the room 'the individuality ct ita tenants.. .And oae 659 addition, most charaateri!Jtto, •ill l'Uain beitind. them to teet.1ty to their oon"Vici1011 1ibet .gueeita should be quitei -e.e com:tor-­ table ae boats, �n�i.. tl.ough hoata are a rres1aent and hie wire. Thie ia a new set ot armchair.e :tor the teble. The ".reconet:.-uctio.n" or 1005 chaiTa i"or thi& room. he.d been straight aide che.ira, of 8. less pure Chippendale design, in lZIBborany end leatber upholetery. i'be two maater 81'2!10baira ha4 been Chippc.ndelo e.lao. �Jrs . .1foover 1 s taste :for e.r::icholra in be.:- dinint roan woe or ,:.,ng atendi:aJ. Her ow.a collecUon, re-acbiue over :years, noo stands in tl�e mellow J)ellelled d1n1Dg room or tbe house at Jtantord. .ADd the ten .:in. sbe ah:oae tor the private Dining Room were ne:turally Chi:,pondale, or e. lovely flow or line and excellent L!lOdern ,:or.kmanshiy.

Except the f'rivato Dining Jbom am.chairs iii temporary uee, no audition wes nei,ded. 1n the StRte Dining Boom to m�a it the cc.nter of' HoQver hoapitality. One small c:o:ntribution to sate li'Vill6 -.. as made,- the f'irasereon before the c.reat open hearth de­ •1JUed tor tl.� :Hoosev,lt ch·ittvrood log{il trom 0-/ster Bay. It is a sevenfold screen ot wrought iron, a,ptopriately 1nconsp1cc.;)US end ·.,orth ite pal'a,gra,Ph only :tor 1 te cL.arraint: -part �n tr,"'O dramas.. '.i.til-'ice 1t J: •;e been me.aked in fil'0104 bough11 ant drawn alosl!I to t.ide 11 �ante Claua (toa.tured ve17 11ke a Prosid&nt1al Seorete27) waitinr· the- :stroke or ei;-jlt to et..or,:-e upon 1. rem11y- break:tasti tabl.e. ?e.ggy-AJme, 1'1ve md. ho3piiosb�o. !1etar. :tour and entranced, :roan, one eud illteroeted, :11!.et their- first Senta C1aus in front ot that sore.on d:delding Granddaddy' e oh:llEmey and tew who • etched tbe111 oou.ld notice it e.; w1 thout a meJ:Dl'Y ot sleigh.belle.

However they had, though t"'.odern1 an appropriate h1etor-1c :;le!loux of tlH>ir .>wn. '!'.ho deoign is klu:>wn ae ti,u Robert t.:orris ohair, ;ilat patriot end !1nanc:ier or tbe .As!lerican Revolution haVilJ8 bed the1:i 1n his J:>hile-clolphio houee.. His house he.ipena alflO to have been one ot the throe houaei, uaocl by P:ree1.dent .Washington, 67:3-82 durinr; hia a Wintatration, thua r.1v1ng the chairs a sp-..;cial l"i&ht in the ·. hite .douse ot today. The doa1cn was very pOJ.u.lar with the .t'\t..iers ot .Republic. .1ohn �andolph ct Roenoke had a aet 1n hie Virgtnia house, and by ovidence of e painting in Inda:pe.ndence Hall in Pbil.adelphia, ,;UU1ngton had once e. a:lmile.r sot at :.:t. Verno-n.

Four I:ooftr t't.l'Uliara lived tor tour yeBl'a on the state Dinin.z Room tf1'·lle,- the black Chinese god.lings carved .trot', rooto r.nd inlaid. in silver t.1l'O that ere much e part ot the Hoover centerpiece e.s the tlowera tbey aurround. They will follo\o their mesterj the paiut1n& or the Dalrota country by ...:'rnr.k Do :raven,

�e Rooaevelt aide c,be.ira ere in use on the top rloor, ainco the custom ot r1dd1Dg the house or replaced ::f'Urniture has _:onl!I out or atyl.e, one ho:>es psrmanently. ':L'he ...Dl'ria armchairs have p110ved ao J..•leeaant in uae tb�-1.t they o.tteu co aorosa to the state Dinill3 DJom .ror 1ntonral dinners, leevir,1 the tall tapestry aid.e-

14:.6 chair!!, that as their ttrst m.1atrose obaorved to look all rJ.ib-t a1u1 are all wrons to aerve eround, a decorative role a:ound the wall.

ti,e ;iroud. gilt etars tUU. ea�.1.e ljl'(;od.iJlC abov!I 1.tcm, tha-c so took the rex:o':{ ot the !.arly 3'od.eral la.::1u. ..:rs • .ld!llS, senior and junior, would botb haYe tounl1 it in the heit#lt ot ::t 1a acain.. Thie, curiously, ia the only mirror that :.-:ra.. Hoo'7er added to the ,i'hite House, though its trequentera ot her day ,rill reu.eaber .::m:,y ol,eama or m.1:rrora iu her oom.panionable ?-. all:!. 1".o.ey ,.-ero, ho....,_ ev<.r , ;,art ot her entertain11l8 cu.atom ot h&eine u� her mirrors boU(;t� for gitta. to ripen oz:i. 'the lovely old walls or hhtor;r into wedding Jtreaent a t1t: tor a bride, North Bedroom \feat or Hall, T0 the other bedroom.a k•pt tor gueats, little waa done, ec:i:cept to the "'Blu.e Bedrocm" aa that room on the north aide of the, long corridor end tho •••t ot the little bell hH bec.n called for �ny j"eara. It bu raoat o:tten ))een a bod.root1 tor ftmil.y aehool c?<.lldren, it happe-na. ,1.t; wu Robert L1nooln' l!t Nellie Gren t • s, :.:oilie G&rtield' a, aud probably little J.rthur •a, and t:..1.1 two :,oung lloOaevelt boya • . Ilra. Tart ttret aaaigned it to the 1ot.:se­ �ce:-:er7 •be llad tram her day to ia-e . Cool1dge 1 s no other place to tt.1:e . .1.n 192:�, however, the top floor 111ite in tbe northwest cor­ ne� J.e.d Ju■t oeen .:i:ade e:veile.ble ; the buay lady �ved up, al!.d . ·rs. !:oovel' had a bedroo:i1 on !:er hands 1D rurnub,

Plate � Hoovor .Armcbairs :uoa. 673-82 ':.'ha PriTate :tlOQr . where aro the gell-guerded liYing q_uarters ot tho Pre111dent'• .tesoil1 1 is eubjeot to ohan&e• or t.­ perem.oat . 'l'lla lioower era o:hoae to nalce it moat hoep1 table; and tor 'the firet time in man.y yeat"s� or tbe Acllll.1n11trat1on and ot Congr.aa •en WelcOimd to the aeoond tl.oor tor 1;eu and. aftel" d1D.11ere.. Tbere waa Wo a eucoeeeion. ot ower-n.1gb;t; gu.otn• tba1; kept the ,ib.1ta Hou■e bedroom ■ell occupied. Thea.a bedrooma are alre ady comfortably and handeomel.y appoin:lied. T.bere ia U Ule ll1lY 1'1Ht Lady n.eea do e:r:oel)t add a lamp or t1J0, a pic-i:ure bore and tb•re I Md eztra ve.eea. Ill the Hoover era the aouth roor.i: to th• weet ot the OYe.1. n:>om1 which bad been Tal'iouely" thtt state GUHt Hoom, a. nurser.,• a z,-.ree1dential droa■tng-room., aomatimes a Praaidentiel oe�..roam, ))ectae • O.eak-rooc and dressing-room tor 'the Firat 389 Lady. :.:1:nor additioni, c::me to it,- a am.all colonial 124 ,iitand 'to hold a tel.ephone, a hearJ oval te.ble - to be 050 UHd as a desk, its polished a'turdinees a te&tlDGilt to 1 ta yeara at'loat aboard 'the l�Y!'L0.7$ 1 aa ■re the bree platea through whioh it 11ea once screwed to • floor. A SJl!ll metU i'loor­ lamp, adjustaole i"or reading, caae t"l"Ou tho seme source.• 1.:ina mirror 'Ii aa acqllll'ed, to be ll.WlS: ayer a bureau that ror ::18D,y years had boen invcutoried ltd W wiatt'Ulnesa a■ rtbureaUi w1 tbout mirror", '.:'his is a rtCouatitution" ::Ur:ror , nabogany, with

.iortu.natelf aiie llad also ■ bErdroo::o to �r·il"llh:,, '!he Rooseval.t period vet fro:n tl:.e late ls.rge bedroom, banished OLlt ot a }lresi.uont • s �tudy, 'l&.o to tl:e Blue l100t11 enoroouf: fourpoater anu all, :'he onl;; L.eeded add.! �ions hero t.wo o:i�nt Chinue rugs to Slpp:.a;:;<::1 t 1;ho blue carpet:. .AJge 42-43

liorthwea\ Be4ro01.1. Tbe large northwest bedroom had begun to l!ISBU!l.e Bl. inc.1!­ vid.utlity of it11 own - e.t least a perlcd. :.."oat at the =:tate Gueist­ rOOtll tur.nitUl'e ot fllchfltlun. 1 .11 day he.d aollticted there 1 ISlld ;.:ra. r.oover too:.t'ticular in adding th• right note■ to make a­ tabla Md-century bedroom or it. She e.dded. the old 'il'al'drobe c.t the State eat. �s. Clevi&land ' s out glass lamp OUJij to cro'i7D. tc.e 1•our.d ebony aer:rtar-taolo, .Jra.,' s knitting-table to sot t:, e.n Al'th\U' che.11' . .An Al'tbur cactus tcae end undoubted.1.,7 bis wa.tcr-111.:, dish returned to l.tta .tro.11. the oontinea or the vault. 1'\';o quaint pictures or e '.'Ja11Aine:to11 rocepi:ion and e r.inoolu recoptlon were uneariheiJ Blld edded to the Tall&. �o�ies or ?O prin1ie or pbotograpbs or the :.,incoln re. .Hy were collect0?6 ed. J.D.c) the triumph or tbe room ffllS tound peacet'\tll.y resting in the storeroom, whither U bad bean bl'OU(;b.t 1'r0ll the Pl'esi dunt 1 e aottage at tbe Old SOldiera • Home 1n \;ael;.ington.. It .had been :Uoool.n ' s own deak - uaed in eumner t10ntta dur'!.1. ·; tbe •.so� o! the small t:aytlowar ruge were added to t!Ht �uthweat :!!ed­ room.s ,- 'ho Chinese {1io.J. 37 aod 38} and threlii vrioutal, J.i-4-0-•U . No. 70, eee Plate .L3, ..;J.O.n&Ilen !\O. v76. HC Plate 15, 3Uchanan

Civil .,el".. Tho de.::..: 13 .. a .;1th a c.1:.sinr, front 8ll4 drawers ornw.ented ,.i tj: the oe.:-ved .:3.lnut truit thoUf,;bt JJO ban:leono 1n the sh.ties. -1th it, esme a Jaantel alook, tour blac.-;. 1.arbla pi ll.are u;:ioldin_; an OrD&:'.,..8llta.i.. bl' dial. It be.d ticked away sw.r:er hours for e. �1l."eeidtu1t on tl1e heights aboYa 1;&.:Jbingtoa; end now , on tbe rne.ate.l ot the norttweat badroocu1 te.Ll.:s UI e l'OUll that aee.i1a to beYe eecat1ed tror.:i the elutot ot time itaelt. North l'.-11 Thia J.ittle hall. between two bedroou■ on the prlve.ta tluor be.on rao.ny thtnas to man,y people - a rostrum wheretrom President L1nooln read hia speeches to the crowd& on the lawns l:,8.lov. , en e.l.­ covo tor the aocial aecrete.r., end har deak 1 to tho hUBble r domoatic 1..aae o� en t111.or�•nc7 bedroo.'.l t'ol' a meci'oer o� the tamily or a �1d. But 1t can scarcely oven SIIO'DI ite rorgotten rol.Ds have :.tad a more chlll'Cdns; part to ;,lq -;ben iu th.e Hocver era. Then it n.a the ' a cor?ler - &st•bltehed for the amall !{oov e.rlinge e.t pley on �e:nddaddy'' a floorI but raady for sich am.all suoeta u �:rs. Hoover delighted to honOJ:' with a little too-pe.rty while their tllOtbers drank theirs in the Oval roota. aorou the hall.. OD ita wall■ - •per ae:per& ad uUaJ" - hung the colleotion of 234-235 trmed diploma, from many lends and tor 2IIDJl1 degrees 1t had ,:unuaad the ?resident to oolleat in one },'lace. Under them. b\1%18 a Bmllll bright row ot' ctlldron • a viewa c4 Naabington, All ol.a walnut child'• cradl.e end a apiri'ta4 rookiug horse, e. br1uhtl:, decQra.ted!ltod ■et Qt cbildreu 1 e table flbd chairs, shared cari)et speee yith d0ll-turnlt1Jl"e and boys• pleythinsa. .llld !n th& t\'10 t,:,in cupboards , lo• enough f'or little hands to reid, tiere booke end toya, gamaa and puzzles. Those two ltttle ce.biJloh will stay after tba children 's ool'Jler ha.a !:tilted into ysater.{ears. Tbey •ere .:,ent over fl."Ol'.!I tho excese turniture cf the J:xec!lti'<e o:r­ rice and wtll �robebly :ti t into can;, OQJ.ner� tn usetu.l �a:,a. But tbey .Jill never again house a.s lj,C,:' e. col1ect1on as their ti.ret sr.>.a.11 tenants st;owsd into the. Seo-ond Corridor - =..:aet E:od No new thipgs oome to thJ.a end or the corridor in tbe P.oovor period, t1.oueh old thine• were colleated there into whet wae reterrod to u the Lee:ther period e�ibit. Here ;;ero tba old .A.rth\ll' Ubrer1 lea-;.ber cj1aira and aota, rloteam and jota!EII :tram tbe Johnson Cabinet •et gathered UO'.l.Ild. the old table 111th ite 4l'aTiera ro.r i,aob 2sorotarlol portfolio, a Rcoanelt l.ea:ther chair, old bresa jara end ve.see, old :perlor 355 booka, Above tbtlCI. all around the w&lla ran Ure. J!ooyer' g ol:.crm.tns oollection - quite oomp..,.ete eccordiD6, to all. evaUe:ble records - of .:arl:[, .--,iddle ena Late J.1.1e.rioan prints o! the ,,hitci and ot tbe Ce:,ttol , that often O:eleye.d. tho "liaitor nen to tho :FresiifJut• a study. Cn.l7 <mB new artiel& OttmB to the corner ot the co.rridor, o desk o't' an oft1!!-1al eapec't 1 tucketd'B.7 llhere: it rniBh.t otter peper , pen end -gelephone to buey coUebora.tor■ tn the iiraaident 1 :, off'iae. Nos. 234-5. see Plate .xlX

Second VO.rridor !ha long hall of the tteoond floor - e.rch1toctura.lly a coun­ terpart o-r tho aimile.r halla on ::;round floor end 1ihe main t.l.oor, e.xoept that o.t the eaet end 1.t- lUta itselt by a tlicht o� little etep e over 'the Ze.!it •.oom' s ox.tra fti9t ot l.e:ight - t..aa e.1,,a�r.e boon. co:::i:,i dared ae a purely, and eo troetecJ. To be o.irc, the raat. and has been many per1od-vera1ona of e.. family sittin,:-rr,Qll, end il!I c.o•.. The oe.i1t end hea been an ottice-enteroon. But the eentcr .section ot tbe hall, potentially al111·aya the dellg)lttul beekt;round tor li?lng tba south know ea a "gallery", had naver in o"Wsr a c. nt\.!""./ beoo d&'l'eloped· a decently tur.o.111he4 passageway betfl'eeo roo:lle. The fleoent tu.rntture ••• .not nen or its o'll:'n chooa1Jl4i::. llll'ina th• twon-tieth centuJ7, -the oorridora ' Hooaev..iltien .:reen wG.ll­ burlaJJ had ohenged to e. ,;ileon.ta.n gold .Japanese greea-oloth the.t : haYe n.otably added. to ita lighton1ns. But 1ta i"Ul'llitare had onl:, been Ml.oh ae ••• ex.iled tl'Ql:! better ple.cea.. l.eather period :.ore.e, banished tram librery ed aabioat • •re drawn close up eg& net the their ran.k:11 broken II:, tbru or rou.r tUntng � consoles, drifted tu .tr<a t.helr zoor:;.l16a• Even auc!\ por-tre.ita es lined the walls b.UD& there becauaa their great height torbed& tt.em dowllete.ire epace.. lte oarpet WM loDS and orimson - the aort or carpet ttat demBllda oni, walk up it, never alt beside It.. Ita cheracteristic teeture - rlll?lelllibered by TisitOl'a wh■n cwe17 otb.o.r d.eta.U faded l'l"Clr:I. tbeir llHIDDriee - wera three round tables, centered spac ed aqui-diatant down aa length . on eech na a la:rae majolica bosl holding a .tern. Unless the aide Gd over-head lights v:ere on, the hall was ao da:rk it 1ras d1tticult to aee guests alttlne; on t'.te well mu. !t �ould have been illlpossiblc tor them to road. "It looked , " one briak-to�ued Villi tor t "like one of the better reil.roe.d statione" i and in the lite ot the houae 1t. was nlmoet thet end no

"all• -


But the pr1ve.te 1'loor lac!:ed se.rioualy a pleaaent 1,lece in w:,ieh guest and hostess tiiGht meet mi.d come and iJJ, v,i thout any in':.rus1on o.n priTe.oy , where guests J:Qay be greeted a.nd eped l'.I itt�out tho to:rme.Uty ot Dl1 interview, \il.19:re those pleasant t'ow minutes mtght be spent in which rello.--houaa gue.ah chat oef'ore clirmer, where a book or a i;e.per o:r e megazine may be ekimned throuzb be!'ore a t'o.rme.l hour at..rikea again. Tho !Lall ideal ro:.· each ot these p.1r}looee; ■."la heving never been "cZ'eatad" u a backeP"ound, bed. no cl:.erished tr:dition to e,ie-iurb. ilitb dett touchee, ci.d !rit.h little expense to a sovern­ ment budget 1 1 t 00uJ.d1 thought i1ia t:lietree• eontem.i;latins 1 t, chin on b.ond, appear aa the geJ.ler1 Hoben W.::ht have seen in bis dreca, the gellery :Jr11. Adema l'lOUld have liked \could at.e have waxm.ed 1tl , ) and :ira. Uadiaon •oloo.nea h6r corti.ill6 eallera ln t and �:rs• . �onroe decorated w1 th ha:- '/irc.1n1e. ruruiture. The greae-clo!.h •all e, though not portod 1 Hl'e odeq•tate , and they were brought. dOlm t o !erly- Federal days b y B row o ! w Ute-

interestecl to cor.1e. tram 10 to 2, to see such ot the houso end 1ta t?-easures as are guide-book material. :rs. :·aove�j · .lanniJlC tc .ca.lo, 'thoJr visit he: pier end i::ore nc.more.ble J had arrer.cod 1n thoe1:> corridors whatovor h1ator1c tx-eaaurea eould be spared rro:--. •ae or b:roueht frct!l storage, and b.ed them labeled. She had ea many por\:l'aite ae po■aible hUllS in intelligible group1nga . She had the whole brigb:tened "1th traaJl, 'lfith pe.lma end tel'llB, tor the daily viaitors. Tbe ground. zone he.e , boweTer, c evel11ng runct.10n. On eocial nia:hts 1 t imJat be reoeption rooms and dreaalns :rootlS tor guest«, and should be formally bright 6114 welcondng. koh ele­ ment, theretoreJ ot ·chat M.loome received attention. The 01'0:\Uld Corridor, opened as a tborcugb.t'ere 1n l.903• b.a4 dnelopod naturally eTen beyond the usee hoped to:r by i ta tben mtetre■a, J.tra. Boouvelt. She had p-lenncd a picture galler,­ ot the mietresaee ot the White Rouse, and had added the cabinets conta1D1ne: the rir,rl; ot the oollect1on ot .PNa1den:Ual ohtna. Tho Corr1dor bad bec0118 the daily haunt ot eightaeera 111ho gazed .-1th intere•t it not 1JJ1"ormation on the ornml\C"be and :turnitur• •d4•d to Ml-I• Jioo.e:eT&lt•s picture galle:y b-.1 thirty yoara at ,-:bite Bouae change. l,!ra. Hooftr' • touab&s were rather toward enhancine tbe o,portunit7 ot the deilY aightaeer to enJoy what be sa:• by raoog­ nh,112g tt-a hi atory j toward increasing the collection o:r interest­ ing thing&, ancl toward 'p1'0Tidit1g a ccmtorte,ble -Yielll)Oin"t , than to-.rerd ohenge. The onl:r re-arrenging ot the corridor was in tbe iae't tsrraaG, the loll€, glaes, enolcsed way- leading beside the el.oak.roam• to 1:he house proper. .A tew J<)rira1ta e�eed to the a\lll't:ler sun 1 in 1:he oorri!ior, were NIDl)Ved 1'rOm its 1felle, and greeu iron garden benchc 11nd t.ube or ••r• brougb,t in a• a pleaeent eoho ot the Colonial. ga%'d.en outi,ide, gl.1.."lpaed throil&b cl&Sl! the aouth well.


Vestibule ot Gl'ow:.d CQrrido.t Plate 48

The Appo1htm:ent Boom as Zl'.1Ch is a HooYer cl"ee.tion. 'l'he southeast room in the Ground J'l..oor wu inherited as a Social Bureau, 1tho-re behind e. ahu.tto.r door th/J olack or typnritera ck tho scra.Wb ct PElll flent on !.!rs. :ri:oover moved the. o.ttioe over into the ·,;15at te,rraoe J to roama all ll81',ly enla:rs;ed end re-arra.:.ged '1ll.d logically alose to the roome of' the Aide1 and the )rotoool ottioer. !heir old room in the Ground 7.1.oor waa into a recep­ tion room.1 open durins the cleY to the strollinc public , c.nd. moet wel.come at receptions tor the ledy t?io liked to teke a last look at .be.r hair in a spacious i,111-and-powder room� betor& cl:lmb1ll..1 tho etairs to the .Bltle Roczn. l,Ong bright eur.teinB <:tt liuon oh1Dt2 were hung at the windows and. there were new side-l-4:,hte. TbE dreeeing,1."0ml. was 'refitted. other.;iae the f\Jrniture t.M aeacwbled., e.a muoh 01· it a.a posstble h1ator1o in intereat. Throe gifia added to the room will stay. One was e. pe.1r of tall-backed ntng ohaire ot eomswhat oonvolvele:tsd lines end en upholstery or oouae-1WJTen oraah., etnbroide.rcd in a. large desi�. Thia pair rte.a 1.:1. gift to the EXeoutive ot­ ticea atta;r the :r1re ot 1929. .JoUI!d unnecoesary th.sre, thoy r:ere tre.neterred to the AJ)potntment Room. 400 410

A aull. table, of' the t'Gil1er souvenir type mede f;ra:i. wood ot the trisate Conetitution, ia 1n this l'OODI., eotning a.a a present to ?.:re. Hoov�. jJU)ther gift is a paintins ot' the Liberty Bell in Indepeudenoo Hall, Philadelphto., tremad in wood onoe psrt or a bed used by General 'Naahington. ?De patn.ter also the trame. 691 01.72

Tbe China �om

The mnall square hall the terrace lead.a to, betore 1t tuma into the t'oiinal corridor 1tselt, was made please.nt "!;'.' palc:ls too. It Gtill, in a crol'rded houee, IS.helter 90me or the his­ toric things,- the tremod. Persian 2'\16, the pio" :?a1nt1na: or tbe Signing ot the Poaoe :Protooo1 in McKlnley' s of1'1oe; t-o Proeiden­ tiel port:r!U t• muat atl!IJ," even in e r,erdan l'OO"ll. !Jut the util1-te:rian drinkJ.n3 rountain was baniab.ed :traa tbs wall-ntoha. The checker' s table ena. hi.a stand or racka were tuaked away i11to the entirenoe or "the coat i-oom, end the Arthurian glaaa-and-mahogany SLt or revolving c'klora, built ate.unchly against the per1J.ous drauf;b.te: ot the eighties in the little ball • a north �orwey1 •ne diamentled and oe.rried otr. The walls ll'eN retinted in 2. creamy color. .ltoi:oet them we.a placed tbe o.ld Uonroe Leghanr me.rble coneole that had spent :nearly a hundred 1eal"a in the l!a1u Corridor botore it retired to the storahouee, the .LoveJ.y acanthus cervi.Ug on 1t11 ped.• eau.18 u gJ'ac:e1'Ul. ai, the tern leaves kep'\ no• un ita 8000th aur­ tace.. 111 old eix-sided carDle table, also acanthue-ouved.1 and probably Yen BUren' e, wu re.stored tran the 11ame retuge, the The e%}1edition that d1aaa,ered them. tound eleo Pre­ l!lident Grsnt•e great old -terreatial glo'bo. &Y\:.DR iu a mahogany t'rsne, it• oceena .mellond to a creq greet. Its dao0l'at1ve quality 1s "plain, though not period•of--the-1.i...zee. But the por­ trait 1t DO• at.anaa besid• is one ot Ge1:eral. Grant in his librar-;, end there ie beside him a painted globe aD11"1ngly like the aotuel one. In the corridor itnlt ie one "nn" _pt,oe ot turniture, a black l.eather aota t:rcc the .:Jaytlower. Placea op_poai te the :por­ trait ot Ura. Coolidge, the enchanting Chartren ot !.:ra. Rooaevelt hangs aboTa it. Her corridor he.a dre.m to ttaelt a new arre:neeracnt ot Pre!1dential portrei te, with thei:i- ladies, a collection ot Grant bronze,, an old A':Olll"Oe or J'ohnson coneole, f1"0M •12 torgott&n. dining l'ooma, Cleveland sotaa, and oldeat at all, two busts onoe in t.:.t. "{ornon.. on each article ot Yertu no.-­ ade;ya 111 a gilt le�end ot ita biatory, intended. to be read in place , though a te• ardent eightaeera cury "them otr to be rea.4 perhaps at leisure. 'l'tle t110 busta, ot Colwobua 2!Dd Veepuooiua, end a third one ot uartin Van Buren, oom.e to rest a11 laati by tml sprightly In­ ?:2811 portreit ot bi� deughter-in-la.w, were a problem to:r acmaa montha. !rhey wara ou red �des-tels, relioe ot the Clevoland dsy wt.en tbey eat witl: otbere in the Hain Corridor, like red mileatone,e a c:r:lm3on carpot. Qnly pedestal.a could replace them, einoe they '"lere over-big tor conaolea end or 'bl'ackete did not exist tn ;he ,•n:iund aorridor. Inquiry in thoee euttor1ta.i1ve ,oenea, thl!J ;;etropolitm :.uaelll'!l in 1:e\11' York, }.!t . Vernon, end 1n the Ubra:ry ot developed there nere no co:ntempo:rary- m::,dela tor auob.• tals, ainoe :;'l!ll'J.y Jedarel buata alwe:,-a eat on D1B.Dtels or b.reckote• Jl.�l 0142 ;:.143

'.L'hore:tol'e the Office ot PUblio BJ.1ldinga and ..;rounds, whose vud the '.'ihi"te .:�ouae i■ 1 turned. out tt.ree atructu.ra.l pedee­ tals ot conpoa1Uon to"J: the three buata \o3:1eh aN harooniot..•t to the corridor though .:.:oover period a-trlotly.

No .. '1.72, aee :·1ate- XXVIII Uos. Ol4l-�, soe �late ..,J, Cleve:;.c.nd

The Chille.-roar-. collection, inspired in :.·r-s. i cKinle:,•a t:ime, beSUJl in :�a. Rooseve1-t ' s end ti:nall::, housed in �!rs. ,:ilaon's, had one more of ite ahina-oloaets (on tbc north •ell) built in tor . :rs. aoover-. In U: ahe ,..ilaoed tho handso:,.e old pieoee or J..dau8 tllD.lly chllla f'rom �-:11ncy, .i:;:iven her ea a �stmaa gift in l9iO by the pl:'esent ,.:re. Adams, rt.ta or the Secretary ot the He.Ty• Francia Adema. An..>ther historic acqu1eitlon of" th1a recime, on diepley in th& China Room, i o the aiclebcard. opposite the new chllia oloaet. lt ie or carved and inlaid -pdelltng teken tran a room at ouJ.greve ! :,Oor, the .cee.t or the :ta.ehinr,ton tmn.1.l.y, w!uoh a gratetul eoctety pre.serves u a elWiDa. The ai debOard 1a a gi.ti to the .'htte House trom i.:ho Bi-centennial CO:m.iBBion aelebre:tiD;· the two41;.. hundrotb anniversary o:t George ·,t'81W.D.£ton. Tl!e pr;seute.tion •as ln5de qJ' Dr. Albart R$rt in 192'-, t,ro :reers bet'ol'e the e.ctuel birthday" yee.r... Beeide it i s the cu1,board conta1ll1ng tt.e .Pre­ cioua bita or .,e&.inct.Jn chine� too :rere to e.r,,oce W'·out 1te pro­ tec�,.;ing gle.ea door. Instead pieces o:r the Unool.n state china, de­ co�at iYe in their rc..v-Bl purple, are arranged. 011 the aideboard and over them ia the girliah :ts1ly portrait of 1.�ary Todd Uncolll, '.t)ainted �✓ her niece. But the Chins. .Room in the l�oovar era had bi..sidee ita r..ueeu:!'tl use e. role. !n wiu.ter 'the .Pree1dent '8 ball cabinet tnet thet"e tor its atter-g&ne t'ruit c.nd cot'tee and administrative goasip, before f'emily breaktaat table the pla:,era. 416 Three Piokwick annchaira o-r de:rk wood and cane ti-& trou the 417 418 J!aytlower cont1Doent brought here to uaa e.rcund. the table, lAiring tbe day they 1at e.geinet the cream we.lla, be&r1D8 aaain no doubt the .nony Hl ty tel.ea of tbe1r 11aet in tt1.e eabilla ot -the mighty. The roont in the southwest corner � the ground floorI neer­ est to the aervice quarte:re , end elwa:,11 ke?t yrivate, had been a bil­ liard rOO!ll since the 'mlson day. The Hoover regime, l"eturniDg tba billiard table to the lending manut1J.oturers, as billiard tables had been l.ent and re.turned since .ldama II, this qulQt roam, protected by the col"ridor soreen&, iiito s. consulting room tor houaeboid and executive otficiala. Opsning into the doctor' e treatment :room , it ..-ae also e. waiting, room, and ita poait1on 1"t a uaet'Ul. � 443 meet1Zl6 Q<>und .tor auch ettaira ae naed not ancroe:ch on the 0134- time or e;-ace of -the .::;xecutive or ths Uahe.J' ' ::i ot'tioe� To tbe Chesterfield eet ot 'Wilson 1'urntture, brought by him tr0tt1 tho OlLl Peaoe Con.f'erence atip George Waah.ington. wiu added e. 1rorkin&; d.esk o-r usetul pe.ttern, revol vins of':rice-chair I and a slua-tro:nted bookoaae. Tho salla en.livened with two re:rugee:s r.r0t1 the 1:xeo­ utiv-0 ON'ice fire, one o. tine engraYing or the heed ot L1Dcol.n1 one of 'W"aab.1.ngton. The third pic\u:re 1n the.t rcom is e (!i:tt to President F.oo'ler tor the ,.llite House, an el)€ravi� o.r tbt1 heed or I.ongt'ell01r, :raced 1:!11d auto::,:::r&,9hed, tro� the Longfellow �oc1ety o� .L'".ierica.

Plate 49 'il'aohi.Djlton Btdebeard !lo. "15 Lincoln Cb.ina Portrait of J.trs. IJ.nooln by Kathe:rine Holm.

I:oa. 4-l6-17-l8• see ?late 26, Arthur no. 0151, see 1'1.e.te XKXII Lincoln, aae .i late 44 1 Hla011 LOngtellow, 111!1& Ple.1:e 44, .:i11BOD 1

Jte-errange:;ants in "'tl10 eerv..i. c e enc. ot the ground floor were to conveniot.oce 1:i. working oond1tione:. Tho kitchen well ot tho rangea was covered llheoi metn.l; the :netal l,ood over the ra:i:::b'Oe waa altered,. we.■ cut 1:brougb 1'1'0tl the kitchou into tbs ona1neer 1 a room that d 1apl.ayed eo� or the ol.d. stone oleckened by the we.r 1814 ant so::ie ot tt.e old tirJ.bers used in tht: oon.etruct.ion bouae.

with A d.oor - a out tire ot of 'the

'the storerooms, .scr..e of it old and che.r.::ittt;. e.r.·.ctt.l.1' oet.e to i t :'rom the ::alflowe1:.. !. str9� ;hthac<ced c1le.1 r covered smoothly tn blue- velour, w1 th ::.ab.oe;cucy 1•ee,:-teet . And l18!lJ ot the slllall sce.tter-ruas rrom the .�e.yrlvwer not ncedca in otber roo:ns. were :,?J""ead in theae t1to "' 2ga

The old ice rerrigerator flee rer;ilseed Oy a ne\,­ ce.lly cooled. 1natallat1on, wilt in between two roons , with doors opentne into both. A a1.m1ln:r :nccl!.e.nical rerrigerato:r 'rlent iDto the now i'loriet • o roor:,s in the riest torrece,- a l'oom v:h1oh Lad been pert of the laundry ?-o0mfi , er.a r.:-ich WttD tu1-ned over to the fl.or-1st ?i'he.a. t.h old quertera wol"e l'CO.ade into SJ;.ecuti�e otfice&. ·:'he f.est e,:tt of the orcund Corridor ncs entirely l'e­ :::odeled tor �.:re . - OO'Tl r. Fo�crly ihi& on.i.y ,-;round-tloor :pe.asage fo:;• the .tJ.•e:iil.ent to his .:xccu.:1vc of.tico hll8 thl-oui•J:. a aiaal.l ha.11•ay cont&ininr c.he retr�er.o.tor .. B"J 11 '1811-conllidered :re­ arrangc1aent the refrir.;crn-.or and !JU;,I> ...�· cupboard� ;;ere � laced to­ e;c�her adje,:cnt to tt.e kitenen.. .'he ste-.rard , kis table, uoslc imd CUiJboarde Y.'CJ.•e l'.IISconced in the old l"ef'l'ia:el'atur room unu ..,l', clto::-­ e d b-.i • partit ion Vli'th abut a..ion, oebind wt.ich pe.a.=:ages n1r)l.t coo.e and r;o in peace. ;. new 1,ru.lwe,/ c:u1e.r of danes-,;.ic cnta.n.cle­ mants ran out to :1ee-t 1,be :�st oolonnade , throug!t m.,.1cl. a !-'r os1don-;;. and l.1$ guests r.u.:bt :ro:Je ond go 111tL. d!cnity. sout!l ot it mad• a ner dinh.r l"OC>r.l end reatl'Oo, , fol' t,ouse employees ; the :"laid&' ai ttinc-1.'0G:. in 'tJ:e ,;:.:eo't 'ierrfl.Ce •a.a 1·1 ttod. ou.t w!tl. reno­ vated furniture . The one ne1, artio.Le of �nc. se:rvioe quarters wu on insriration ot tne 1,oover erandchildren• 11 vi.sit,- a :iecl.l;;sity tor the qu.ic)c; tliE;ht of J.ittle _unch�s anc1 sup,;_Jcrs to the tOiJ 1'11..,or nursery. 'i'his wee a wtlnut tea;on, nit?, ,; traya c.bOve 1 ts ou:r; w.u.eels, uaed :s'tU.l .;?;.ere 1ntorz?lal1 ty pem1'ta. :!4<..S

The Hoover edditions to t::.e. top-fluor arc a.einl:/ liddcn .1:t "the privac-.1 attending kind deetis. :.:oat o.f them ere s!it1:ne-che.1l'.s 1 1tiekers 1 e oa:, cbairs, .rocJans, one adO.Od to each aervont • s bedroOlll. ·��. ::oover also .:.'i�t turnts�d the sq_uare roo::. ope:tt!Qf; out o::.' the ,u�e\. .C:'-'ite ot hedrvoi .s on the t,_;, tL.,or, that hou heretofcre oeen used ae e. h--.1.J.way. ,,i�er�I'" er.C e. couch , cheer:fully cretonr.ef t.1.11! painted i:;roen , e.nd "tao1e or two turned it 1nto e ""leesa:r-: sittin--:-::.-...o� fo1• tire:i :-;orkor:- .

Plate 50 li.,W1okecper 1 s t::ittiftf;-too.m on third floor 1.:ayrlo11'er J,.rr,:cha1r 2�0 az:.d Rugs .uthur teule !io . ��?; lJnkno�n 2-!do ot.en-s 1;01.,. 2.:::-.. and �bci r lio . 2C8 Grant Loun<,;e i;o. t.,4; Harl.line .:.ide et.air ;;oa.. 2(.-..-:.....- ·n Coolidi;e :.;.creen !Io, Z�G The tr,o ehcertul little t.o�--tloor cottec:o boo.rccr.:.n !'u:-­ n:..shed :to::- :.:rs. CoolicJse a rue from the l�e;,flo.,·er on ite pc-list­ ed floor. Other .::s:, .rues Kent to the corridor, otl'.er.-.12c !'11.Led 1-i � ref'Ugc rurniturc fron the re-arrangements on tLe o�Ler C:loo r.;;, nna. to the otl.or eor'Tioe bodl'OOJ::1s.


'...'be !:'.,: 1te in tne nortL.ell5"t- c:>r:.e:, o:· the to�, f.loor ·,;as titted ·i;, tor t!.e :...ous1t:.::eeper, out ar the o·,erl'..1.ow I':...:r-nit,ure t.Jt

Toe ..:est .Roo::t 1s the only one ot the State Rocr..a Ol:t;n to the insp)c: -:1on or tbe general 1,ub.iic, r;nd t!1c::-ot'o1·e is a "0-Gi':.>le becic.,::J'G'mti a,.;�inat wt.1eh house tree.surea � be dbpl.'\:_.-ed: ro,,.eo;c.:r

... 4.-- .,-. ti-?4

its o:ru. statltnc:is to:·b!Js inappro: l'"!.e.te or inldU-..'10:1.iou� e,.lditi,ons; llD,i only tno ro-fU"rnncer.:cuta have Ci)ji19 to t.i,e .E.nat ;ioom.. Jne ie tt..e ha1..:;inr; or the :.,&ir of portraits or Oeo:rr;e and :;artha -ianhlng-­ "to.n in ths -two ler,e;e ;11uel3 each !lid� o..."' th.e z.s:roei ;,·ellow-dra:ped i:ast ?ii:cd.0,1. Tho .l)O.:.·trai ts had hung in Uke Rod RoOD- lont. enoU&h to ec,1u1rod a trsd1 tion of pe:-:iancnce. nut research t!av':..los:-od that the George had hUJl& in the �ast nOo::t durill6 roost or tl:e nine­ teenth Cimtul'"'J , and the r:ar2a, painted anii acquired 1n 18?6 1 hed been beeio.e him sir.<:::e ner e.rrive.l till the re-daine or the room. in li10:$,. ?heir presences today add 11!'e aod col.or, de�th Md CliCJJ.i ty to th� lu.strouct roo,J th�:;- n1wer saw. T!.e seoond-re-orrGDeeI'IOnt orou�t th.1;. llarie-boUti;ht :..on­ roe Oval Room trom its �round-floor obeour1 t:/ to disple;t alona the eaat wall or th! ::est Roa:?i.. :ror tb1�"ty ye-Bl"e 1t l..e.d been :relegated to the use or r,eer-J si°""teeers , ito fO..St roroctten an1 its :;>-rasen� une.ppreoiated. Its history as tbs only coiupleto 9et ot original bouse-turniture, the rooance of its sea-jOlU'Doy, its eenturJ ot eer,ice 1n the alue R>o1r1, all might entitle 1.t to e :;llooe 1n the '5tata Floor. But it he.r.:ionizes ite o:t'Jl.e.te i:;ildod Fl'onch contours. lta e,c1plo upholater-.1 o! sort. blue broccae. che.rminc:l::t with the sold and cl.sssio French !::al.on the t�entioth �eutur-J e.rchitect:.s :,e:ve :D.!!dO of tho ..htto i:oueo ::eat :tOQJ:D. .And en night s ot 3tate Dinner� the clca furniture �omea forward i,1th F;Xaoe to make lJ.oa;-!tabJ.e tt,e ot=oaphere. On reception nights it a•sumes its old :role , uenere.tton erter coner�tion have sur"leyed tl:.e possing t:1ro::ia; from tho�a eh.airs end �o!'es.. 'i'hey J:1Uat by now raC:! a ::1.ell;i;-; pe:-s:pec ... 1ve er judgr:;ent ot tbeir own to �heir oc­ c'J,ents. ':!!ere ara te:r -coo !'e"' o! those :,:onroe e!i.airs fol' :rire�&nt day �sic ales. :te arclii tech ot tne lioo,ovclt ere., �1J-,en the "?:eat '.::00!:1 .�1 sic&los i'iret !'on.e.U;; �"' into �he social pro;:;r�o, ::ro7ided !l. h ...ndrei.I li•_·ht cane and bcut-;·,oo..i c.'";. eirs, ,-1 t:, cold vel­ vet d eat-.?ade, ao deact-vadly un�pul,;;r at tt�e usual ·,:aahinr;ton lu•,:e ;,ttrt.7 . !.a.tar e.d:d.niet:rations eC.J•.1d non o! \,Lat t,ave OOen called unkindly •�31eal ct�aire tt till a :,u0!ll:t'u.L or listeners�t l!l.l.l be oeucd uncomforta:,ly, e.nd wore. '?wo 8.r"Qcll&i :ra of' oom'ortnble dc­ a� he.d oe..t'l;{ been ,.ro·<ided !'o:- the :?reai.!.ential host e:id hostess, ,rl;.o tLere.!"ore .re:,1a1.ned una7fare ot tl:..e dicco:.CU'ort or their 1:1usica.l ·:.: eats o·,ie,r sor-o tt:i:rty . :'be f.ocvers, howava:- , Lad as Cal.)-­ inet neubore Otten �one the c.1ests !'or eii:;!tt yca.:-a end ei,:1plied their c-xr:1&rience i;o a.n 1m;>NVt.;.-::r.:nt 1::i Los:;itelit:, , A l'..undred coi:u.'oI-te.bly amcbe!.rs, �ilt, sa:dl.e-seated, u:;L.olatorod b ti.....ue e.rn:1re t with the oval becks BO f:::-o(i•Jent in �!l!'l:f Federal scenes, were the result. ?he:, �ere ehosen a!'ter cureM experir.lonte:tion, ... there were sample Cli�rs 1 t"l',Q �"8 ot r,;,,ic:l reu.einb in the s;orerooo. today) , tl:.ere ,rcre 69 ol1oerru1 consultations witl. whoever wa.s o guest �t t):e 701-800 :no..'!lent as to hai.;ht, Y.idth and reattul oon°'our of e,nn. The :final pleeou.n� wo.u.i.,- a hundred atrong - 16 now r,art o:!' t�.e househo;.�, stored a�e.:, in the raceese3 ot: t.i".e i-op floor between partiaa, uu1 oroueht down tor !:Ileit:alfl!S o::.- otte.· en-;e::--

tain:,�nts a:,l'oo::. for � ;.a::t :!looM ei,.;,e!lt.z. :J-;c lltt..:.e '-'ent-..codl:! ti..t·e :.�1-l fo:- tl,t.! lr;rr•er dinners, �d to till 1r. tor erl:-&. :lcnce:-t-.:u�ats, 701..;.n._:or, .ore .o ... 1 te, or leru a'"".i le.

The Green Roo!'..I , eo lately :-m.d fsstidi.ns,4,y resto1·ed to th6 pc:-1od of �ba •.ouse 1 teel.f in tte Coolid::;e ere, neoded no nan touel"i of . iJ.•&. !• e. Hoffever, it ao :u1red .e. :_:Ht rro:n tte Co7T.Uttee 'ifbicb !Jud Oeen tbe l"OOID' s cod.mother. T?:1s is & screen.- ,;hich -r;ould have been 1nev1 table for co�rort anJ protection to oelii::ete .ladyhood in tt.e hi-;h draU,��hty rooms of' tho ::erJ.y Re;:utlie 1 600 EUld in itself a t.::. int- ot dclio.ate :..e,-ut:,. Tloh exa:::·�1',; i s rour..._.,mellcd, or pair:ted e ,mvo.a :nellp,,e d tnto di:-: brow, or. 1;.l,iah olllY , careful look can :iisce:r:c 'the figures 01" the coq·.;.ettiJJo cv-..rt!es en� tl:. oir &ttendP..nt.a, the pastoral eo:;_·Jettes "t.itb their swains ana ah1:1ep. South Portieo

Plate 51 South :rort100 in Sumner Hoo•er ._.indsor Chelrs Hoa. 401--6 South Portico The Bl.uo Roon ita&l.f >laB not touohed in an:,, u1y. '..'he South P0rt1c0, curv1D,G grace.tull.y around the 31.ue T,oo..l �indo;,-s 1 t..ed. boen little used fo::- tt.1-:-ty :,'8arl!II. It bn:l a tew Wic.�et-� ud aD awnint;, 8llQ. a grae■ hl& to borroy,• in rroM tLo u:iet.�1re ��oroh. AlJ,.d; it had an inviting look et a 1'eclly °ttAt Ul.d telktJd and •orked and breU.te.sted end lunobed out or aoors in manJ eorner.!! :i: the "orll., '!:ill. e. porch livi:nt;-:'OOm !11'.:. ;;•ec=it: a ;re:re(i:..1a1te ot ttI'.v' of its ,.ouse:s.

C.I.VIN C00c.I'll03 G!IAC:; COOI:'.!:E COOLIDGt dia;plays 1 ts lozen�e decoration, ite: shaped tl.e.t ,rtretch.... ors, Us aurraeo beautlt'ul wUh '1lO..DY poliabin""a, secure that its very Pl"eeence p�ocla11"J.9 1ta :tamiliarit,; , tco. "1th the beet conv }rtse ttons. Toclny I o:, a r.ork tabla 1e 60.f. not &saantially a drawing-room piece. But one talla in lOTe- •11:h 1 is chama aa complete1y ais did tha com ttee mezr:.?Jar15 •ho presented l t , lr.ct it be passed over 1.n the Cor.mittoe • a b"ld­ ret. Its tsllow a1L1e, the 11 ttle tabl,.1 at the other end o-r the aall Httee, is old-world, too. Thh 1a e mhocany tripod, a tip-'top ca:r,able of l'Elt1.r1Df' snce:tully against the wall 1n. momenta of crowcltn� 11.ra. Ita l'<lund bOrder le 598 ornamented 1n a nall bead� design ot dots lt.Zl.d daahea, 1 ta aolumn is carved w1 th raadint; and c1rclinr ban1h1 t its three arehice teet betray 1te Seppl.81'hite blood. in their bollflor.81! carvi:nsa. Beside tl:a loD.t- George '.7eetunctou settee ta a quietly lovely OYal table ot mahO-:''lDY, flblll, beautitull:, bordered in e. pattern ot t1.ny atrclee ot eaUnwood , 1te t'ine sc;.uare 597 le�s atrengtbelled by plain atre-uhare,, 1 ts t'eet tenntnating in unusual ame.11 braae casters. It too b old 1 as a look e.t ita 82:eraton linee and its patina attaata. The set ot tee.-tablee at tl!e other Mld or the long aat­ t&e 1s "very old�. A n&st o,r tour , it 1.e dnei(""UBd to be reo.d:r tor the taa-oup or the att8l'Iloon guest, but only au axquiaitely oare­ tul or an oblivious guest would dare to sat down a .resh cup ot hie 60'1-610 present-day tea. on its ahini� WllXl!Jl aurrace. ID their youth, the delicate illlay or a.quie1tely­ tregile orsnt'e bloaaome that r,race and al.moat scent the top table , and on the smeller table th-, epray ot 'ldmoaa mu!1t have see"'od aa faintly notic ae the flavor ot the China tea ot tho time. Today the tcur -tablea are otten a,read a'oout at small f'ormal ,parties. On e1ther side, ot the haJ l dol'.:,ray b one or a pair ot eonsole tables • the typical balt--aoon. Hepplell'h1.te pattern tamil.iu to the,rn Colontal pl.ante.tic;.,. dmwing roam. Tbeae were made to .epeeial size, being lOD-"81' t"IAD their width, and weN modeled t'roJD a pair ot abnut t�e year 1800. The reeded 699-aoo .tour legs, ending 1n the pied. de bichl,, are epe.oed alon& the CUM'ad front w:..1cb 1a ornamented 'nth tbe chr racter1atic- He:p­ pl11•hite rosette and satinW0od stri-pe. Th• t11blee have a atnall C<.nter drawer, and hold Heh a Jar or black end craim ChiJ1aae porcelain on its ebony st:ind; and eacb jar haa ita pt..irced ebony cover. 1'.he jars, like th. other bibelote ot the room, are the sub­ 004 jocta o� a pretty -etoey all tb•ir own.

Opposite, between. the windows, 1s a l1 '!ht-t1nished bo•606 trouted oOt:laDd.e under the mirror. Curiou1ly enoup:b, the marble con­ eol& table 11 l'el)l.Aced , with the exception o� the and poes1bl.y the bronze metal urns, had been the only authentie Monroe })ieoe iu th• Grean Roca.• But 1 ta lovely old marble top had bean badly scarred e.t aome time in its much shirted career, ao that later houaekeepera had draped a piece ot brocade across ita aurtaoe 1 very ml.\cb mon in the taa:.ton ot the ei.ll;bteen-eighties then ct the sie,hteen­ twentiea. .-'l'en a OOL'! .1.ttee dea1roue ot retuntshint a room "u !.:onroe migbt have done 1 t" could not eponaor such decrepitude, nor the minn& ot t.-o auoh. a1verae etylea in one room. The present ccmm>da he.a a aflll.1-circWAr tro;nt: , open1Dg by .tour do01"11 which disclose oc.::;,bo ard space v ithin. .1:l is Je an e.xcelleni rep.rcdllCUon ot a mueeum. piece ot th.e .lttonroe period, e.nd. it■ mode1 might well have been at home amo:cg the Uhogeni&e tn tbis ca.rdroom or "Colonel :::i>n.roe", the tittb ])1;9Sident or the .new Republic. It alee, weo i,. girt tram an enthuaiastio aD!llllittee on the commode standa a mustvely hand.eot11e cl7ateJ. 8lld. bl'Ollzc girand.ole or ti"fe arohing branabee arren.ged h! Ua bronz�encloaed crystal atand. It h ple.ced in rront b:f the •all mirror, so that 1ta of llc:hta 11 :rou.ndt4 into a :ruu o1role by r...tleot1011, and 1ta unlit cend.1e.s promise ·h,1oe their own brilliancy 069 ror tboao niti,bte ot test.iv1 ty that. come n.o m>re to canCle-ttme. Thil!I is one ot a �ir ot li.jlta thet seem to have tasc:1Dated certain tll!lmtlere or tbo shopping CO;'!'."J. ttee (one grievOs egetn that :.irs. Coclidge -.,ai1 11ot anu0t; "them, elcimlline, !'rem corner to corner a£ Hn York 1ll enthuaiaetic aearch tor treaeurea. J Only one ot' the '" pair l."U bo� ·.bt officially, for t!le s;1.,oiel room the CO?m.ittee O'.,,, 11'8.8 charged .. itb. '!!l.e other, bownor, a1,pea.r1 •in t.a.e rled Jioom of ·n.e anple. who in tl'u.e angel toabion protorred � be


..Anctil.ill" exquisitely lovely antique of" the Coolidge Green Room is the centel.' n1a waa tound 1n Frianoe by L'l� • .;1u1an ot the C03Dittee, end was "Ql'esented to the ..h1te I:ouae � "e member ot the Ccnmittee" who, one hopes, realized how chum.1u5,ly he ·,1aa duplicat­ ing ;:on.roe L11�017. It. ie ot the ac-tual period or tbe ...arly hpubUc ,­ �t !Jig;t, in t m, t.hrilled ph?'aee or 11:e crptor, ""'have Doan. boufµlt by � .onroa - ea 1t ,.as bought by someone in 1' during hi• tilne, tut ita airy clarity ot cryetlll. ermfl de-..y pendants, e,.ang 80 lightly that they tr«.'lble like water-d.l'Ops aJove the .heads ct the teir and bl-ave ot -toOey, - ia fl compeer in beauty aD.d deJ.13ht even ot the . se Coolidce was· depl'iTed ot luatr.e ol'd.ered t'or :.:r, ::onroe himeelt. : r the delight or superintending it• placi»a - it had not yet reached the ,..'hite lfoua• llben sbe lett. .But Hoover al.most helped ;.,1th her o·:'II. hand& 1 tir mat1ouloua unpacking and reaeamnbiii.;7'elld tbs threa41118 Cj,i ite invisible elac.tric Wiring. And .no• tew seeinc; tte 1ovelineae1 �onroe had orcler9d 1 t for the Kain Ha.!l.e Room tor 11.ooanelt..

It n.s placed in the Green

CJu:rr:.; CCJLI!Xm .RtJE CC�UDG! ORA.C.: QOjj echoinc .like msic a.,:ainst tm!I tall 1:lirror, jul!lt a11 Je ., :.:onroe woUl.d have ple.oed. 1 t, tail to drn a breath ot sheer Joy ► and tben. enother breat.b ct gratitude ta . :rs, Coolidce, and the disaoverer, and 'the 1111.tron an�el.



Angels bave .laid thei.r 11.s,!tt touob Ob lillQat of the tops of the 11t'lle Gl"een Boom tables , .and. e. eJa&ll harvest ot de­ ligb.ttul. "Period" b1belota is the ootteot reault. Uoat ot tha11e, .,roporl.y in a period that on�t•� delishtedly at an Oriental. t.laTI>:r 1n 1ta drawing-room toys, are Cbineae. Ohiueee boxec, equaro and oblon:;, enameled green and. 0'12-061 white; or white s.nd yellow, or red-leoquerea, are ttie:re 078 on evory 'table. ;�a. "--\mroe al.d her dalJShte:r :."".r-e. HS¥ e.nd littlo _ :re. Gouve.neul' would. h8Ye tilled thlfln uitb at1U Sl18ller tri.Dketa (not tbs enuN' ot era • .L:e.die�n ) , - au.ob amal.l tl"1vol1tiee e.s .::i. lady ot the greet world aoUected in her liAAter momenta. The present day 1n:bola thea... more proeaice.117 cigal"ette boxes though their tllrqUCJise-enemelled or red lacqueNd. 1nte;r1or1 are 1111pty. ind: �""rp. :!onroe tm4 :!r1, Bay end t::ra. Gouverneur would have :tilled al.l t:.e littls Ch1neae 00-.Jl.e with tlowera - and :.:ra, !.iadtson ...:t1cbt M•e hoapih.b� .1"1lled thm.: with sweetmeat.a {thoo:;b r�s. •;e,41i,on, born Oorothy r'&ine ot Vi.l"().nia, migh"t hoe l.lked her noi,rer.s. Sbe uaod to be seen at •or.It fllllCng her ee.rly morning garden-beds in her t1ii..pler deye} . one ot these bonia ta u.eod today for tlowora - o n tbe old etagere by the f'ireplaco. Lergsr than the othera, and plaoe4. Cbineae fe.shion on a equere c82"9ed ta.mood baae, t-b• oo:tt tlJ.rtl_uoise ·ot tb.ia aquel"e bowl With lta baae­ ..l;;n blenda delighttully With the pink bo,:,ter ot e pink lluo-4 rosea uwal to this gl"eaioue drl!lwi.Jl&-rOOJ11. The ether b01rl.e Uva an thia etagere, wldoh 111 a little "too iJ:ia>vable tar uae b7 mderu. 07'1

•,1th e tree oonooience, 81noe the very hS11dscae RooMTelt-pe:riod lua:tl'e it replaced was not lett to the 'a.oroy ot the auctioneer. Oldel" lustre• went out o! tbe w'htte House 111 the o.a:rte er that: pro­ te11do.n,- aa:ia at leaat .,,ere re:aoued: l"D.d hang in the Capitol. Thie oloHly atrunp, poer-eha:;,ed lustre, wbich bung 1n the Groen. "Roam uo.til the ni18ht-have-been-::tmroe one &rri'Hd, waa l'll' tor the Roo■evel.t AdllJ..ntatre.Uon by Cal.dwells ot' New York, at Mr. !.ZcKim' a order. Although ve:r-; beauttf'Ul, it 1• not "'par1od." and !Jr's. Boever took it u;. :tor the oe:nter Ught ot the Boae Drawhlg-rocm juet above the Oreen Rocr,.

tea-eorvera. On8 bowl is deHp-oream, small e.xquiaitely omamented in a floral patten or red, green and ra1ae4 gold; the other i ■ a tii d.e bow.1 or an ellovel' design in dull rod on a .:;rey crackle bactr.:;rcuna.. �1heee two ere bibelote purely. end ao 1a a 8Jl18lJ. Chineae bowl ot a pe.ttet'll -rantl1aJ' to all haunters o:t Cb1nato11J11,, ita green ,:round de­ corated with red end yellow leaves, its lining jade-green. 080 074079

075 085 008

A �r of bowl.a ot pale green, a to.- acattored tl01l'era on their aidea. ornamsnt. tbs console oammod.e Uhder the lo:ca minor, but their match.ins plate nt.ually t'inde plr-ce in. the oupboard aheU'. To keep it- oompany is a email covered ou» end aauoe:r in Centon-weroe

There ie a tiny agate aceut-bottle, t'&!). shaped, "itb t1"Ui t on ita l1d1 e.n4 two amall Chin.a. "bos.ea. •nu, last ot theae Chinese toya ie a am.all grey jar With crackled aur­ -taoe and. e prim1.t1Tel.J' aill;pl.e eb.spe , looki-ng ohal"mingly like a camnon utensil ot eYerydey lit'e in tho .rlo■ery Kingdom, picked up 111th att-eot1011 'by • hcme-cmning sailor . Sailors have never ca:ine hat:a to the. lhit-e HQuae, but their spoils might •ell. Leaa •xotic, but more praotioal to occidental lite J.e a aet of' three smell pewter ashtray-a. And elmo•t i.aet pre.ot1eal ot all in appearance, btl c what might have been use.tul aa a ratt 1n a eh.ipwreok 1e one mauain6 little Greu Room toy that e. member ot' the 1t00ver tam:1).y 1'1ll never see -..1thout a ohuo!clo. lt 1B a tin,y set ot six 11ttle olaaetca,- t-.o Dickeina, a Golda:ni'th, a J'ohuaon., a The.ckerey and a Laa.b, bound in bx-ight-colored. leather .u.d. he1d in a leather Mlder, light and am.ell enotl£)l tor a lady to reon berael:r •1th a. mt:1D.ent 1 a literature betnon oalle.ra. 089 .Bu.t: it might have held the Tery center ot the apotl1r,ht the night or President BOOTer• e 1naU8Ul"e.tion. It wa1 1 that Dipht, un­ kno•n to t-he :tsni].y, uaremembered by the- -'hi to household, th6 onl.1 ee't ot booka in the fftl.lte, House . It ie e. regret to re,_port they were not disaovered wi·Ul next mru1Ag, end "tbat an iemergenoy -volum& cf h1e,ory tar a n1ght-reaa1»ig President was borrowed by Boria. tlle valet, trom a :ProVident member of the Seoret Service, aure that be ooul.d Joo•p nako that llisht witbout ito aid.

Ot cO\D'99 1t was later d1acova:re4 that the lfhit• Houae Library ot a hundred or eo very old T0luma11, wae still intact, e:tored 1n the 'ouement ot the COngre•a1onal Librar,r 1'here it had beeJl se,nt s � yeel"s betore �o:.r sate keeping by PNsident Cooltd&e. But the no-book story- a;,read to the -public at large - end the ri3bt atory did not catoh up ia. to pre••nt the gitt ot s l1bl"ery to the ..'bite

lS5. cw:m: CQo:.:r= GBACE COOII-!l.'l!: CwlI!XlE Houee by a scandolizsd ;.r.iorioen .Boolcaeller 1 e .Asaocie:cion. In the l:ti.nd ot a good m8UY lc1n4ly J>(.lreona the tiny leathor eot or the Vreen Room l"ac,,ein3 tht.. or1£1nal :·,bita Hous& library; and 1t 1a 1 we hope, duly and :io�estly proud ot its godmotherahip toward the tive hundred stlll"d.y V0l\Cl813 ot the e:econd floor bookshelves,

�RF'...:RT l!COVZR I.OU �my HOOVER l92�-1Qi3 Tl:.e Hoover :,eriod tumiture tor tli.c tll"at time in \'/bite lio\lse :i.htory jrov on ot.1or sources or origin -than pu rchase or �1rt. '1'1:ley -,.ere approp:-ie.te nources, since all wero !':rCE'I. Preal­ dontie.l este.bJ.iah.T.t:nta ot' v•!l"ious pUI'l)OS&a anl de.tea, enu neoeo­ •� .sources since di Heter or ..!181ntegration had deutroyed their norm� rlace in lite, enc. their turnishin&a o:-. tLe tide like ret'.lgees. The r:oover �ima, oharecter1-t1cally, �alYaged thom and set tl",fffl. back in userulneea. One e0·1roe uae tho Exrou:tive Ott1ce3. A fire on Christ­ -:aa ¥Ye, Hl29, damaged o r deatro:,ed .":lOat or their turnieh1ns, onl:, - t&w ;.1otuoa and elock.e oaing aaYed. These, toWld. a \,bite Bouae. ho:-,,e. 30 did a f'ew ov&rtlow pieces t'ro:n the reaultina: :re-t"urniab1ns, :round unneae.J&Bl'"./ atter a f'ew deys' uae in the new ott'ice. J,nothm- l90Ul'Co waa fl"<lt! tte ootter.e cf tl:.e Old SOld1ere 1 Hollla, where Preetdent Uncolu nad ape»;; his war awmnera. Ita tul'niehi� had vanished long aco J but a few tree.sJl'ea round their «· .f to tl.e Public Buildinge .... Grounds storeroom, and were quickly brou;b.t up to a place or t.111te llauee i:.onor when ;·rs. 1:oove1· d1a­ covo1·cd 1.t.em. ',.'he third act.roe waa from -i-he , .n:,f'lower, tte .1.-'rcsidontiaJ. yeot.t GeOOi-::niasioned in u,2g. ;Jhe Lad been the President's vaoa­ t1on home atnca ?resident Hoocevelt, c.od served �oblJr as 11 single aouree of d.iatreotion end relaxation, for thirty :,earei. 3\lt time !la d eer1ou111fy minbited 1" u.:erulneaa, iucraftBin;: hBl" e-xpt.nae and d.eoNesi� her cm.tort. :Jhe waa, ot course, not used in the Tin­ ter l!X>nthll:, end she l'i'U ::..1m.1 ted in her oruiaing to Uie we.tera ot the �ta: ·iac, throUBh r-Ddern preaa-..u-e 01' b\uineaa; Bhe ,;ee: unab.le to �.c:eomin4e.te in oo�o:-;, t!.e number of �one a cudurD President needA to oonsul.t over '!11s -:1eek-on(hs. She .ma also ao lcnger the only ";}Oseible avenue ot prive:te eaca,e tror. .:aah1!1.:-to:i, atter • ·' .:;· ·, excellent roe.d21, end ea::ps cacs to a Chiet ::xe0'.It1ve'a aource:. -:;1:e was 1il".ere!'ore deoor:i..;1u1oned and. offered t"or •ale 1:i. 1:.,:�� • . :er turnitu?-e, t,•ever, turntld over to ot�er t"overnmontel. l..lP.. :,as brou. 0J\.t JntQ th& ken c,t the White � oocupanta. .. uch ot 1t ttaa found axtrr:,ely us1,;:!'l.,.l in & l:.ouse ,:-1 ·en t'l.iul:, to oon­ ai �ririn: stat ,:,-,pcaronco "1 .ar: '10n!'o;.:,t. • •:rootnote-: T.'...e �olloJWin.--; lite-hlat..;.:ry ot the '.!. s. s. ·..:c:1.a:;;,xa wes obtained frQm Ce:_>tW.n Joel ;;:. Boone1 11.. s. ?T., ..,t.ysietsn to F!°"J1d.eut noover -,,n.;1 attao:hed to �h• J.1m1n1atrati one or .?rea1 r.uJ::.:ni\ end Cooli�et "'The. :.:e:•:lowe:- mris bu.ilt in 3lll..sgow in 18�6 or lbll'1, tor :::-. Ogden Goelet. "'e ;..ade one vo;11-:£ upon" in i.;:e ;'.editerrenean, wht-rc h'l aied and w"a bl'cUll!'l.t back """'-' },."')lrica on he.r. I.t. 15ga, she WH pul'chaaed !'or l'..oe.rly .55:i0,000 b.y 'the Gove1"1:Xment nnd uaed aa a g'.m-boat in the �penish .A.Jeriaan .er, ,r.c..;. iu the blocitad.iDt or CUba. ...ome ti;:ae at'tor the .. ar sh1:1 waa .rt tt"d out aa a Yacht for ?resictent Roosevelt, her guna at:.d b�ttle-oratt 1::1.tltCl'ie.l d1::a::umtol.ed .. ,.hen tt.e �aao-J"e.paneae .•ar ,raa over 1 botl� ccuntriee

tlitU tb.eae ref'uG!)eS to n.oueo, 1-:rs. Hoover went to hl!!lr t"ll!U.liar work or mokinr; e. baok""round tor her l'anily•s aot.1vit1o3, W:..ich inoluded 1 aa elwaya, 1t• hoapitelittea. This ti.."!!e, howen.r, a:1e bat.. an bistoric for work and a sans1t1ve•y t'lit re­ epo:isib111t;r toward the J)ropi;rtiea alreeey' t!iere. The Y,hite }!ause interior she created ehowod a delicately plroned perceJ)'t1on of lite past end ltfe -preeent an<l the honors due both. P'e• �,'hite : oUJte ladiee can .-�v& understood t:!e �r:sential · �1 te Houae aa e.;le has,­ ite ■rohitectu:ral reality - ita period. and t.daptability to its gloriOl.■ duty of the ,raaen1.. Har an'�tlCl&t.t or its tul"llitUJ'e abowa 11. deep rel!r.ect tor what is here end 1• old,- a taettul aen■e or a;iprectat;ion ot what ia right and new. BUt the: ½bite House, appreciated though 1ts tree.oUNla .&.ett ua W.ght be, ••• not, in l.9Z9 1 up to tlu.. GtBQdarde ot comrort ot • c�c."'..U Lost and hoateaa. �s. P.:ooTer' s standards ot comtorl, ot courtesy to gue■ts 1 ot historic and esthetic bal'nJny were reaeb1,d 1n cbcraetel'1st1o touc�es, in tt.a.nsalv•s euol:. aall ud lovely touchf"O as e.ey 11omen in a tome attm..pta. :-be :uoat tre .:.Jent are cheira. "i,u1te unconeeiou■l:, every roar. o.r i:Dportance and uae ( dh­ recard1nc alwqa the uneha:D,f'ed �tate apart.ant■) had its a11d1tion c,f cc-:ltortable and app:ropri•'i• Hoover ct.air.o. ;;rs. Hoove::- 1 ■ living l'OOr ...a ha�e always said •no ait do,:n and let'e t"-Uc,,. Even & ahe has thet.:. tbey ae., "do :,it oow and :et•s reedJ" - Her toxmel roco.a ee:;J •no let.'e •al.k up end down and look at somettinc. "' The ,.bite 1.ouaa in ber ct.ari;e tb.e.t. .& and h0sp1tebl;, the �.i.ito ::ouae .t:.aa three zone.a. The r .rouncl zone i■ tor the put.:.ic. l)lr1nr. the da,vs ita :on_-; �orri&or end aeriea ot south l'OOlta are open to an.y public

Footnote� (c,ont'd) sent tb.eir pe.ace envoys to the United Statca to L.11ike ths treaty. The delee;atea ttr:st met on board tt.e 1.:..&.Y.n.0:-,'!R ee ?i-eaident Rooaevelt•s lU?\obeon gueata. e!l.d the .Ruaeion.s travelled on to }l()rtS!Muth, N•T "She oonttnu o d as 1. l'Nside:ntial Yacht except ror • short er1od Juring 1.11e Vera Cl'\12. trouble, when .iie -,.u plac:od 1n �;1,saion aa a gun..boat, painted !P'87, re-gunned, and sen\ to ··ext can watera. "Preaident 11.ardtne: a lirir to !el.and sound and ,1est 'Point aboarf. !,er, l".:ld Wll& met at Lawis, Delaw&re, tor e. return aa..-tr1p. 3ba wu :r-e-conditionad et- ?iOrt'o.i.k in lQ23, prevaratory to Jler po&1ib ...e uae in �aaka for 1-reaidsn'i !.erdiua, but wu tounu in­ adoc_.uate tor the number o! -,eoplu neceaaary tor the trip. "Preetdont Cooltllce uee.d her at . Ol'olehead, :,:asaachusetts, dur1nc the au.mer ot 19254 In 1927 and l02f ahe .�·,d• see,-voyeeu to .loston ror ennual ove:rhau la. In 192\1 1 she d:e-eo:il:liseioned and doeked at t.he Ph1ladel.p.n1a navy Yard. She �0:a ottered t'or i:.ale tut no aece�tabl& bidder r&11ponded. In 1031, s!,e burned end sank at her dock.,.


Cil.V::i COOLIIx;;; G:1AO:E 0000!:DE COOLDXZ de;poel\ or 'book& 1n tbo Wb1to liou.llo, end tlloae booka 1'0NI rotunod temporlll'Jl.Y to the ai:ore.s• J'OO!JI of ta• Library. l3Ut 9'1l.l the J.dmlnietratiou•.a pa.reel& or hook•" a.a the old. Colonial in-.entorioo "ould MTt lbtH 'tbmt, nre aot a4-quately" llbelt11rad.. So PNlldea1i C00114£e b.&4 aade tor hia sin<J¥ 'three book­ oaeu. d;it ohtl.To11 high, with procticlll a.lidillg IJl,uo clOon, to Bllpplent -me earlt&r low oaaa. For tbe very reason that .rN814el1t Oooliclgc ozclered. thcao high bookebolvco, Prad4o:o.t lioo'l'Or 2l6 moved them into tbe Eaat !:nd coJ.Tidor beoauaa abelt room .d.17 wu ncDd.acl. SO new bookahel"vea ere bu1l-t in around Preeident XOOTer•a nn St.w!J' ( Wh1cb had bean Pree14eat L1J1C,Olu•a) eca:,e. ot thm low, acme high. MIO the old book CUDS of PNside».t C0olidgo 1 a IINI atllildtng Juet outside the Study 4001', a.king mDSt uoatul &dditiou• to the oorrt.dor. .Anotb.or purchatie t"or tile Stucb' wna an Iren l"U8• this __. r.p.1Ace4 by' Hre.. 0oo1Uge lat11r, witb the Booae­ Rig llo. 12 nlt 1"l!,g :tS"Olll th• Red BoOtn: 'Whan that mt.4- ,ray tor th■ DH !Ltbuaaon. The Iro 11:1 DOW 1a the .\llpoiatmont Room ot the a:rowid noo1>. 152 1"18 179

ne 0001148• pll'1o4 al.ea lld\1.tld to the scu«y 'OJ'M ...U inOODIIJ)iCUOUO uh-ata:ndll in ubosim:r1 matching the Hard1DS alb-atanda. 'Dlft;e etude atill ait about ei tb.e elbow ot \he BUO!lt, ID)ld.ii,g- hh d'br-41Jm,or oigor ia. con.­ venation ,,1th hi■ hoa;.

!tra. Coolidge tound h■r eeoond r1oor Ol'el HDom. at1ll l.ackin& tea-'tRblea. The :tannli,y second floor toa•tabl.ea, do­ oignecl e,J.10 tor lUZ10heon tray,, bad b--. se:nt don to 'Cb.• stet• tloa.r by- era. Rooane1t. 'I'll• .Roo11nelt toa-tablea, or thet de­ l1Shttul double-dect. tne .o to a. poUl'ing hone■■, n••4• ed aaalatcce. taa ooolldge added a ttlroe-Uerad Dltt1n etand 1md two er.ell mlboSexi.v aet11 or ne�.uag 1iables. Tbese are aU.ll � Hl-1� in tho 0Tal Boom, th.a D.tftin atand holasJg audw1ch 144-146 plate.. .1.t ert9l"DOQll. 'lieu emal.l tables ere quietly aot out by the chair er the wll,ite,-,gloved gwset, tar h�r pl.ate, ber CUR, ll•:r glass ot O.r-1Jl69 Jutco.•.

In other Ol!lSBs, as "1th Clevol.and camlAg ea a bridB, lUl4 Mr•• Coolidgo who did not d.illlWltle hel' Northmpton home, the inoQldng tienui may havo little to bring or 11he, ,nu, aell•d "brio­ a-brac" ln Kr11. OlnoJ.aad.•u tii:IO. And. tbo gNa.t� ot the 1h1te HOLlH us ■MIil ye.wing ,ride c,tytog .tor awt!dug touohel!I ot tbe beaut.itul, So r.:ra.. C!OOlidgo toun4 her Oval m-awtne room. q_,.11ie •_pty ot ISi:1811, Ol'IUIID9nt-. Ita mentol elu,lt WU euill'&l.;,- bare, She GbOH tor tbe• a peir or candl.Hticka ot bro.a:.• ttauNs or 02'1 Qu.een 11.iznbath :iitanding on aQuare marble buoa. DILliTeJJed for th• l'etieotion o1' 11Sht by • eirole of ocy1t:nl pendants. 'l'b11aa an now on the mDDitl ot the, B>• Jlr6W1US: l'OOII, ho ama.U sirt piooH ot 111culpture are Jll'Oacntad to 1he Whit■ liOUH by their arttate durins; th• ohatela1nes• of Coolidgt1 • One waa doetlned tor 1be OYel RoQa. n wae a smol.l arble bue\ ot • wcman., the head tu:ud a 11tU. 1112d look1.Ji& aown. qr, Charlaa 1,,:oore at the line Atta CCIUllliBBion, tJuough whom the 4onor. Mr. o•eomior, J>N■n1:•4 the aitt -co tile• HOU.._, it 1a "th• head ot • little :rrcnoh aab.t" by an unlmown aculptor.. It h no longer 029 in the OVe.l Jn,ll'fr11241 rote. having el 10 been aarrled ott W1u, Oi8 -the o<\her t\&miobinga trom that room 1Dto tho 1treMDi mall�, OiQ more 1'0l'lnal 4:t'awinerOao. -io the eastward, Where itls Gallio aillplicity dooontoa tbo tine old Jlonroo Pl"OMh table ot the bru..,triJlll:ed column, and tbe round 1: ebl.e marble top. The othar gift ,.;u tho lyrio pair of winged tiguroi, oalloa Aacondina tlo:rn and .Deaendins: Night, 11'?'01l6bt at tho pmama...Paeitio :t:xpodtion in SU. ?rancii,co, in 1915. Tb.see .amallar copies. two teat Ugh were ghen by thelr •oUlp110l', •• .t.. �e1mun, a member ot the Flll• .Art• oomm.1•• ai® at 11.11.ehizi«ton,



Tho1 wol'O tirat pleced ill the Croen Room. 1.,e:ber, "hen that .l'OClll wa:s redecorated, ttie)' m1mt to tbe ground tl.O<ll' corridor• wl.on tho ,.eet E».d. Sitting room oa the- eecolld. f'loor wu tuneo into an indoor garden--room f'or Mrs. lioonr, th-tte greeu-bron� tis-­ ures ..r• the oiaot notes needed tor c�letblg ita living groon chanl. Now 0 on e table 1n tl:at p� murt their glorious ltnee lU't cd droop age.1Ju1t °'be sNat weat wiuaow, o. d.eli_.1t to all ea pa11a Dl1 their ay.

The 'Ab.1 te uouas u •1D6UJ.e.rl1 l.e.cktns in orna:um:ca end in the mall lllllltll,itiH ot tumiture nm tuniidtinga that po�er o;ilDiG.D 18 apt to tat-ck epell t.b8 .Ord. ?Leae.. Tb.loNUctally, tllia is all ri&bt, aa the Jnooming ho•teaa "lMl:I ha.YO oloaed her own homo tor tour 79a.ra, may even han liTod. ill ..-ubington tUalt, P4 11hua OIID brlr.g .... th her thOH'H ad .Pft.atH that will lllOko tho boau.tUul guest houaei homa to he...�olf on4 hor :fatd.}z.

.both"1' ornm.cmt onme to grace the oillplicity of' the Cool14ge stud;V 'that muet ban, 1n 1ta praot1aal baokgraWlS, • a� ot mo:rc--tban�Ori�tol aplondor, .like tho Persce•s hri in iihcs 9t.0I7. '... hi.a lllelldGJ" goldltn UJ'D., 01· tntr11Jate Chlne:M wo.riQunshi;i, llitb,: Goke-'ood1od drsa,)uo tor bt111dlcs. end a tU11' 032 t•1atad 4raQO!l., ecru.Chant, rw 114-top 1a tbe "IJ(JDy cup," p:reaen.t&.! by Pri.Dce Lene "on bobal.t at '\be Imperial ChiDeoe OoH�D.t, ,o till• u. 'J. Na'ty ori. th• oooutr-n oi" ti.. viett- ot th■ Scsaorul Squadron at Battlesbi�.11 to A1J¥TY, Chin.a, on the t'l::lrl4 Battla­ abip CN.iae in ivoe." Hotr1Ter, the J1•1" urned that 4•lirl"ttul oup. It 1a {and tb11 1lleDD6l'l11ty tbn.reot len4o H 1t pal'ticule.r i;prtgbtly glet,111.) 1 e tootl>all t"l'Ophy, tor -.bioh the hueJq aeilordo;:ii

No.. w...1.7, •• :Plate nv Rug Ho. ll, aee Klaie XXIX

)i08. 0£7-029 1 He Plate XU'V no. 032, aee Plate XIII


J. low ftl.J:lut 001"t'e...eh11d1 wt th &robed GaJ'nd lerge, ie Mra. Coolidso'a cllaice el.110, althoU6h, 111 hu 11'fH\ua�e4 to the ions tlall nowada3ra.



ot tho Lou1a1ana, Obio, M■oo:ao1n1 :z:eo:raege, ::J.uO\U'i, Ill.i:a.0ia, Ke:ntu.�l..;( 1 Cueoe.1 end V1l"g1nie. aompetea. Appropriately, tho S..ttlHhiP V1i-sJ.tda., Npnaeatative ot ibe D)ther-atat• ot ?re­ eii14entn, ac:m off ytat:reea t and our1o4 ho-r cup abO\lt .amor1qan waters till ebo wu 4aoQ11111J,u1one4. Tht!A tb.1■ t.rophy wnt abOUt IID1Jl£ tho .&a1a1'1c neet wi1.U l�tl, ,rba _. oantul. ea.Uo:r izt. e.uthority- d.ia»atohd it to the 11&"1 l»Jlartme!lt ill Jash1�on ror 1n1.ta•Ue-piag. Perl:l�a tho l'laTY had heerd ct the ommacntleosnesa � tl:1• �it• Houee. Perhapa it :telt; that Kra. Coolidae and her auc­ coe10ro won o:zperb a.t i,.,re-lr:Gaping; i,arbnpa tbe tang ot tbtt rootbal1 1&lu1QD pen11trate4 oven tlJa yault.11 of the stB.te War and Ne.vy QJ.ildJ.n& .na. iAeRU'IJd. 90118 Hcl 1•4 ou.-todi.c towud a gold.en K!tBti..ra. Whatenr th& �ae, on the twont,-noowl at Non11be.r1 tweaty y•Bl'• attn tt •u won, t�e .krti:>Y aup ar.r1vac1 wtth peJ' mmaarandll. iA tlle 1:D01.rU-n Ottioe ot the Pndlleat � ihe unttea StatH t 1111-d wu, we t1•,111i, bo:m, .PIU"•ona...11 to tu HatSng p1a0:a on tho PrHidclntiel. bookabolna. Nowdeya it wanders about to -wl:l.atnel' lnel plan •--- to need. a tOJch or a,re-tb.u-Oriente.l aplon.sor. �be;re liko tll• Paraee•• ha; U mi,y retleot tho rllJ'll, ot tbe aettJ.DIS wa.'l'brte gifi.e -to be aeen in 1iha public eround :rloor arc or Goolid&a podod,. one ie tho aet ot a ix oolored gla(le 11edel.­ uon1 ot the Coat- of ot '\htJ luh1ltgt;oo t-.11,y, that now rum& tb.o pnn.011 ot t.bll ',ieot ,Z.rraoe wUld.ow.. 'l'hl1 01',7-50 were preunted by the Cazmitttee prepa.:r1JIS tbs Bi-Cllllten01.53-� niel colebratton ot the Bi.nhkr ot OGol'S• tra.ehill8\an. J'f U• .requell1: the Preai4ent reo.•1YBd these 4eDOretion• tour yeere before ill.a Bi-<1ontann1al 1t,i&lf I end bad them. h1mg wbere Qe enier1ng public lllip:ht sea tbsro ud be rm.ind&d or ti. Fd:her or hia Oountr✓ lho hac1 helped "to plan the White ·:ouDe the public ta ue..


The second gi:tt preaanted by 1ta ,tla.inter. _-h1lltpe de I,uzlo. Thie la • riohlY oolortul. Jainti.llG or tbe t..ou.• Clook lbom (Salle d•Jlorloge} 1n tbe !"Nmlh lo:reign Office 1n tbe Qu.8.1 t>'Oraa:v 1 that wu 'th.a ecene or tM •te;a.1� ot thll Ol-'O Kol.logg Peace het iii 1926. Scc:ro'tu,- K•llOM •ho eis,.1ed. tor th• VDJ,t.d st■tH bl'Oagbt tlle ;picture to tha •.hite et: tho reqµH1 ot the donor. lb 1930 tho :Peeco Paot waa aiaPd again ta. tM 1.n JIOOtl, atter :rat1t1oat1on b.7 tbe sena\e.


'l'be tbird &11"1i is a ch.air•• an old Chippendale aids chair witll a pa.iutea rope ... ,. Ite danoi- -..a.a 11:r. 11. •• BH-okinr1dge ot Brook]3D, Iowa, -who preesn,ed it on th1' twenty-t:lrat ot October, 19.26 u o. P•Ot1Cal »root ot bl■ OOD.'9'1GU01t 414: tbat the Wbite House ebould oo�\atn mtb.ctio axmaplea ot old. furniture OUl'l'OD.t at the t1Dt8 t.b.a b.ouso •e.o bu.t1t. Th1a chair haa a ht■to:ey, ho••nr, beaide • dat.. n U!' at leut u old. N l'ltl., ma •u 1n tho old Breolmu-idsa hG:18 1n B8D.D1ngton, V!!rmont, whore 1.he state of' Vc:mont rirat ouo iuto bc1.Jlc!!:. ot'idGll.y aacepte4 by Aat of 0011gNM , plste4 Wi1:h 1h Jio. Ol'°, aoe l'l4te XXIX

dono:r'a name. this hendaomo chair 1s on dlaple,- 1b tho Hilltoric Cbille. .Room ot the Cround noor,. Rug l!5

.1,DOthaJ> gif't, O&Nt'Ully p,,at ••1.7, 181 • hpe•try presant• ed. b:, tbo Society- ot Norao-J.merioim. 'io,i::larieA, It 1e a con of a tau>l18 ol4 tape•tl"t, the Baldlual.

I!Or � sta.i:e noor, home me.kill6 touohH '"" not need.ed. Bnr oinco tho:r had hatl \ho ct:ire ■oco:aO: tloor to tbe:u,elvee, tch.e aucceaeive adtQi.u1aUat1ona have kept the.t .tonual meiu t"loor tor ',.bite Bouse entorhJ.maont■1 od tboir bucJceb hff• oueJ.n•d ODl.J to'A.1'4 me.1ntllin1Dg U.11 Hte.bltahed d1gn1ty. Houaek&e.»ill&, net beme­ Wlldng, bae been. Nqui:ro4 - nw curle.jna, new oarpet■• nn (IOYfflnga have been }n'OTided.. •1 tb no neaeaa1t1 tfJr a.n camtorla ot -.mden. co.n-,-onio».cee. BU.t tM kind. blV'l of .... CCol14ge f'OUlld • long overl.Ookad cornor even on the State J'loo:r, mid coneoquontly thrae lMhOBellY erm­ Cbaira •P»•ar• in. th■ Ulbu•s att1ca 1 ill plac• ot the Old 546--540 Jktoanel-tim etuipacm.t that ho4 not Deen prori.4&4 tor t.wo uab.ere on dutV end a auooeaatoD or oee,et sen-1 ce ment oaret\lll,y we.tobiDS the cloorwey behind tb.eil' 11apera tor a PN•id•11,:t OI' a .U-at Lady to NMJ'gt,, or • ciu••tlonabla ohanctar to a11pxoach the portal.a,. )C-11. OOolidge•o Roca oo:ntributioil waa: a matt■r or neceH1t:, end n,r,:7 rather tban.· en SnduJ.a:mce ot taat■• :D.lrina her -t;enaru:;y once mec.trer ot the tour pe,tr11 ot delicate Sovrea vaeu gi?OA tbe Xa■t: Boon b7 .aml,uaadcr J'an.8Nl'a.n4 ct1DJ to • tatal 099 en.4 1 - 1'atal be7ond. the ability ot the J11Cn4or to Neto�, H f7equenUy oner lbite Botlae vu.ea hu15 been restored.. Ita blvo a:nd wh1to china wu l"OlG!Sa'l" to an upriaU"e berlrom a:n.4 a. pa1r ot m:mal.l 1111.rbltt mantel urne 1 of 11 daaign .ad :period 1n pertoct accard 111.'\h tbo !cot BDom nplaHd. tho two oh1na 1'0891, Howevor1 thel'O •aro no• the rswkward a.rray ot tll.No pall'e ot sen-es Ya111t1a end bo 1118l"ble uru to be d.iatribuhd abou°' motr1o.Uy o: t'oUZ' mmtele.., It H■-4 allDpl.e, to Nl.esate all eis ve:aoa t.c the decoration on the grol.U1d .tloot- l"OOillllt.1 and to oa:ny off tbe -two A&ll aaarbl.e maial.-wn1, 'tO tba 1!Clld .Roca aantel.


But one coAtribution �. Coolidge did malr:e to gratify bllt' tutaa tor a bemti:rul bouu ed. th■t to th■ d&_p&l't.. ma.t thot: b tho prtdo ot a:o.:, Whita Sou.ea miatreea, The otgbt eih-6% canclleattuk:a ms uaea da1l:J in the stet. Dtn1D& 1'0all.,- wroall7 tour OD tho table and. tom- at tha :,ide tab.lea ... woro ob.0110.D by ltra. Coolidge.


Arter tb lh1M HDU.8& roor fued1 the tirat aone14e:r-­ e.tion in Ill houe with a Rew !il&l,e».4 toll&Ut t.f!iOin, a hundred. end t1JS11t1 1H'l'a e.t'ter ita ttrat Jhl■ �e.4 tanan:t. Preaidiant 1.dSIU� he4 co�inod to Dongroea at bis root - ed. the oloerie trero built and the,• rOCIU ware atUnda4 to. th■Nl WI.I etUl a au.'I. left o·Hr t� 111'opairs ond upk.ce1h • t:JllkOOp he appl.1oablo to 30 11161!.7" Mo. 099. aee 'nI

l�l. :: uxn: ccrLIOOE '"!.;A.CZ GCC:JHU2 CCOI.IOO:E: plaoei, that ?J:rs. Coolt!re �..u,t have ...Olli!' about rror: bad s-pota to �o:-ae, cancell1QF e��lUE" thn.t :ru3t be !00.e tor so�ething still core ncodtnp: doing.

or these ai:.all11r St to ro<ims but :'or tt::e ti:on::-ae C!reulor Roolt ( our Blue Roo:nl , and was in its placu, great seal o:td all, for the u,d­ Ite duplicate la at rount Ve.?"llOD d1n& ot lr!41'ia �onroe to .her eeueiil, today. But 1ta modern desca:idant a in the Wbtte , bava no look ot he.Ying beau woven for U=s. Cooltd�e in the year ninet&en hundred a.nd 1:we:ity-eip)lt.

But ca.neella tio.11 r1no.lly b::-ouR"ht, where 1 t has brcuw;t.t =m:ny another chtroaa, to the d.oo:-a � the Green Room and. the Red Room. or the two , the Rod Boc.rh wa.:ii in o.icb better c::on­ d1 t1cn, but ita velvet wa.11 and furniture coverlog and c\ll'te.iJla lll'ero 11 ta.rally threadt.a.N in ps.tcheis and the car;:-et too t'rail to st!ind turtb.•:r hee.vy wser.. The win "repa.1.rer and upkeeper• de­ cijed to re-A.ew thee• by duplica:ting, and not to try to change the quoini character ot the lto(I Room. And th.1■ waa done ..

'!:be t!.lrni ture chosen tor t.he Green :Rooa 1a ::ialnly in the Happln�ite r.i:a.ll.Der, that cob1net-:naktJr •!lo mod eled h1a delicacy or 11n• and hie sene1t1ve atre:irth attar the archi tecture ot tha Mam :arothera, and whose tiahio:iablenese comins: into popularUy , w1 th tha admioiatrat.1on ot George 'Was.�ington, gr•• with the early Republic.

!!ut tbe Green Room n.a a dittara::it a.nd more problec:, need1D4t restoration J110re tban ra;alr and. upkeep. lie wall a a:id cUl'ts!n-, were distreeeiagl.y shabby; Ua Roosevelt f"Ur­ ntture o:- cane end •hHe paint no grubby beyond cleaning and s.U but tall!� &pl.rt; 1 ta ca.rpot Taa only usable in a non-1'01'1tlll room, a.nd 1 ta •bric-a-brac• waa non-exiGtent.

SOae of tbe pi.ecea are authentic Hepplswhitea, such oa ■ix he.ndao11111 old side ch•ira now co,-ered with aott yellow broea4e , t�eir oYa.l ma.bop;e.ny backs traming three t-.1.ated alat■, each or:i­ :;86-5gl atlen:ted with a chara.cte:rht1c carved P.e:pplnhi te rosette. Tbe back lege sat at an &D@le, the front legs delicately reeded., all te!'mU.ate in tha doa-toot.

'!be conter:ipl.at1on ot oll the :.hicgs that ain:.ply must be dooe to tbat Groen Room, instantly, mJst have tilled the soul or the pro1peotivo �o&r •1th dol1,:ht. But she eeaina to have round , atter a te• scoutinp: expedi tiona on a tew odd morniDEa ( ai:ice con­ trary to the public 1.1:preseion, tho tirst lndy doec not epend. her l�is-Jraly morll!n,s ahopp1nr., after he?' cl11ldren are ii'ciioolsd and her huaband otticed tn4 tbe hcueek.eeper dispatcllod to buy the !uneheon ve�etablaa} tbat t�nhh1a,g that room. would tak• too �ch the tor ooe lady e.n:2 cculd not be :,attar-actor1ly eccomp1ishe4 in Wa11h1n�too..

.Another au\.b,a;a.tic p1aca 1 o a ■rmll mahogany tub c>tair, alao in faint yellow brocade. Ite loW' outcurvi:i� arma are upholstared solidly 1111 th its back to tb3ir tram1zie or nehogany , 5g4 maktne- it the "bei-rere" beloved ot the belh and dandy- ot the Jfonroe drawing-room.

Her pr9daceaaors, ma.kiru, such e dieeovery, would have sent to Ntt York t"or t�e current Vasare. La ?'arge end Ruesell or Louiei Tiffany or l!cKi!II, !lMd aIJd White. V:re. Coolidge turn&d iu­ stMd to t?le Cv.m,it tee autbor!ze:! by Ce?l£r/lla■ in 1925 1 et her own 1::i.ati•st1on and consequaz:tly a:,pointed b:· President Coolidge, whoee "Uo.ction ns to pass on donations o� tur».1ture and t'urn.1ab1nn "for uee in the White Houae . The Co=.1t tea us charc.ed. to be req'Jested to ehoos• rurnitu:-e in. thia caB&, altliou. £:h it waa not one or 1ta stipulated duties, ltHl?ing 1'%-.a. Cooliaea the tinal declaton.. And 1t apent or it.a own tindt�e very much oore money th!.n Mra. Cool1dge hod baen abla to HTe tor upkeep and repaire. With Mra. Cooli� p t a oooporat1on it was • buay Com:ntttea tor aome months. It chose 130ra than f'Ur:litu:re. It b.oe a 111J.itable brocade des1gnea a."1.d woven tar the walls curtlll.ina to harmooou with the copy ar an old carpet 1Jbich llr.t. Rug 3 Cool11tpe bad ordered. 'l'hia carpet, si::Ular in all but color, 'to 1.hnt or.1eNd by M:-a. Coolldee for th.:: Rod Room, 1e an .&ubuceo;i and · a •• close a copy aa tr.a one known as the llon..-..oe White Mouse csr• pet as cculd be woven today. That l!onroe carpet 1nu1 Rug 2: dea1�ned und woven to order in France not tor et tbar

!Iatchi.n,: theae elo�ue!ltly 1.n spll'i t, thou&h mnde 111 th• preHnt ee:itury , 1a a lon - sat tee. The co!m.1 t tee orderiog 1 t d•s­ or!be• it ea a copy or "an old example , " but t!le old exe21.�l• b•­ comee deeply endearad to our baboldiil£ a:,·oe it we are aware of th• legend that it h Ai copy ot one owned by C,e,n.;re.l 'hallington. It ls i tselr e. rere and lovaly tjlpe, the lo!J.l' slopine; line or the back divided into thrae upholatared eecttons, the mboga.ny trame of the upbobterad ams turni!l,! down into a elen�erlr a•ellin.g reeded column, the ei.itht s irph l&!l• s�od in a!lvored. bras■ tips , 596 th� upholstery in tfo:e---psled yellow brccede talotly patterned.. ffllerenr 1ta protot:,pe aa t in the with-drawing room or the Father o:r h1• C0W1try 1 it muet have been the seat o! hauor, to which Lady Waeh!::r,gtcn wst have cro.cenally waved the �eat o!' moet prHt1fe. The aettee 1e so:ne t'!ve end a bolt feet long. but Lady Washington o..nd M:-e. Philadelphia or ¥e.dam Virginia muat have Bl71ply covered it •1 th tl:.eir own bro;;:aded draperies and their two caps under noddi:if: :ribbons , exchanpiny, eleganc1e8 (and one ho�ea 1ntime.c1i,s) am! :mJ.ot have been sut'fichntly tar apart. Today th• Wosbinc,ton eetteo below the larga .lndrewa por­ trait ot J'attersoo in. the "restored" Green Roo:l! wi:1 hold a whole row ot' !Ioover• s guest& - e.Jlf only old taint ancestral vcicea wbhpe.r to 1i ot the cad. decay or te.m1n1ne ao::tu:ile, 11.M or the da­ plorabla modern apeed!neaa of fiftt1en-m111ute tea-partiee. But i t l e not e.u"'lbly overcrtt\cal, thst settea , &ince ihelt 1 t ls o n the tooting o� a guest. It 1e a eift by a nnmaleu donor, a ri;oc:bar of tt:.e pu:-chadnv Co1::i1ttee w.t.o knew that west wall space dw.a::1.ded that e particular pieco or h1etoric color, and 'll'ho found ite pr1 oe in bio own pocks\ .

CAI.Vm CCCLIXE �;uc;: CCCDl:U:: 00CLimE r.ro1:tn Room

Plata 4�. Sofa No. 596; Teatablea No. d01 - 10; Conaol•a No. r;go - ISCO; A:r:nchoir No. :594-i Sideci.a.ira Jfo. 158&--�0l; Ccm80lO Y.ard1n1ere9 No. Ofl4; Lua­ t;:!'!'8 end Ru! No. �. Po:rtr-a tt ot Thorae Jeffor­ e:on by .lndrews and. U&rtia van Bure::i by Healy. Three or the othe:r fur.'.lhhin�a ot the 'l"001D also are not. orir·iaala, but reproduc tions, t:hia t1n-.e or the eighteenth century. The sattee ot t?le sot is acall, just large oniruch tor two , the upholstered curH or 1t11 back and arms bordered. 605 tu a.hasany. na elx thin, :short� s;uare leiu are shod in braaa, and ite upholster::, le ot green brocade, patterened i n large pink: roaea ..


The two chatra heva their sad3le 1110.ta, their OVCil bocke, their amll stuffed arm manchettee co,-ered in the se.M brocac!e. So aro the two supporh ot" the oval back a.:i uaueual tcuch.

The doop 11'1ndcw ntcl:ea or thta Green. Hoo� are also rur­ nished , t.l:.oUC'b one recesa in thu pleaaa:it da} a or spring mid sum­ mer my bacOJ?.e a doorway to the South portico teape.rt1ea. P.eNI ara two wln�owasste - ba.n;uettes without 601-002 ende ct' b!lck, t' sir curvine box'id cuah1coa 01" delicate yellow ::ilk eupported by six deeply reflde.i uhopany legs, Theae two are repro�uo tiona of an old model.

Cr:!DU Roen:

Plate 47 Seitea No. &03; T1ptable No. !598; Comx>de No. 606; Chineee Bowls No. 077; Gi:re.ndole No. O&g; No.. 6Q2; Wor.ic:table No. 804; Monroe Clock No. 068; trnkn01ffl nee■ No. 071. Portrait of J"cho �uinO}' ll,... by. Hoal;J', :::a much fol' th8 1!18(1 tir,f' or the Green Room Guest. The other � � r1on !'or any tea.-psrt}� room of the early nineteenth cent�iry aa 11'ell as tho early twe.ntieth, ia a !'11�1::.t or hoap1table 11 ttle tables. The Groen Room bas nolt' a che.:rm!�ly ,-s.rhd supply , ot' Which the doyenne 1 a u:::tdo'.lbt.edly a tall rosewood eta.sere aei ln the place o! honor at th• t'1t-epl6Ce ' a right. It ia a pa::-ti.cularly tine piece ot' cabinetry , or the ouncan Pfyfte :school. Its two square tiers set on 1 t• center pedestal are eaF:ed with a rail ot pierced brass. Its ::-eeded triped. lega end in b:-e.aa ee,:-le claws. Neer the setttJe on the other side ot the !'!replace h an u.iusual srall worktable ror a lady,- a la.dy whoa• acoompliahed fin­ ger■ ;o.i�ht be bus:; with a trifle of needlework wbilo she excb&llf'ed conridencea with a v1a1t1n� friend. Its octagon box-top es ::ode to turn to the deairod on.•l• ae the tretty sewer looked inside its lifted top , amo::lg ell the raacinattng little compa.rtcta:its tor t111:,• apoole, tor exactly tla, ri:-':t shaded t�reed. It hae a drafter belo'II' to tuck tha ,rork in hasttly. whoo mo::-e tort:m.l g�tusti, ere uahar� into one' s Grt.len Parlo::-, and o:::e 1 e har.d me.; be emplo.:,·ed only in gestu:-H o:: polite c"nveNation. Cloeed , the little tih•Jratott ta'ol•


and Queen of tbe Bel81ana on their tour ot to the United. statea. BU.t by then it■ ste.te Sal.on turniture was in. the Preeident•a den 1n the mlita Bouee,- large Cheatertiald oouch, md. two tall WiDS•d armobairs, their grim _,. nlvet Jackets diaguiaed t,y l'rei .. W1leon under mdarniatio obintz. lD3

'!he 'ln'itii,g deak tram tha •- Salon of tlle GEO!lllB \WlllmritrON, taken over by President Wilaon tor a book table in hia own roomt 1s at111 in use in the house.

A rug now 1n the center part ot the second f'loor hall, &ig llhe;ro appropriately enough President l!oovor walk• on it doily, No.5 was sent to Pree1dent Wileon :for the White Bouse. It:1 1.n­ soription, WO"Nln into the 'bo1"der1 reada; "To the tlhlted statea with eternal gratitude,- Belgium l.915,"



'lf.lB!ml o.uw.m. IW!DiliG J'tOlUIN0I! IILim RAllDIID 1981 - l9l!Z

'I'll• U&giaally ehort Bardii,g addtlcl. Vffl' little tumiture to th■ llh1te Hou••· For ona reason, Mra. B'ardi?Jg, dUJ1ng har yee,ra ae a Sam tor•• ..ite, Jaad had a houae err Mr on OJI w:,am1ng A.Tenll•• So when. the Har,U.nga m.ond to a house that eaame4 1111 empt,- ae ulUal ·to the nawcaml'l" atter the :NIIIO'V&l ot the Tilaon b ooks ml! mall belongiqa, thay were able to supplament 1ille Wblte Houae turzdtllff nth things or tl:lsir OlfD tba.t were nee.r at· band. Tb•, too, in. the fire"\ ,-ears at a. J)Oa"\-n.r a4mln1■\ra­ uon.. economy na Ter;v tbe n.tohTord. A.a a J"emlt, tb.• �- m1:a.or acquii,1t1ona at t'h1e 111'aiu1■t-rat1on are ot a pl'acticu nature. Kr1, Hardl.Dg toiul4 th• purcba88 ot a grat,1p or turu.ltura for room advisable. J>inoiq the 'War ynre the Wb.1 t. House had beeu. eloaed to 'tbl l)Ublic and 1 t hac! 110t been reope,u,d t o tbm duriDS tbe .--1Ding ID0Dtha of Ille d­ mtnietrat1on. ar a very- ill P.rea1dmt� lfhe daily erowda poariag tbroagh "\:he ground tloor corridor aa.d into 1te rocne oaaencad







i:U!: :iin!�� :°ia°:t==�=r �:: S:i moYed inw tho pre■ent China Row b7 Mra, 11'.llecm,- waa UllturDiahed aaid.e trcm 1ta built-in oabtneta. Ill-■• 1!11:t-dt11& aelao1iec1 ■ a1-m:ple u-phol■tarecl aet'lee, a dtaiQUti"V• a:ampJ.e ot ..ha.11 1' oftezl mown •• a -O.orse hahington aote.," 8l1d three- ohaira tor th1• l"oca, all n r t t 1 a ffl: ��; _m�O:!! ��s!: du:� t:�:e!:: g.';_.�:a •• not rt ■1ting 1t, more .and heavier turn.1 ture na c!enmu'le4 here, ao \hia nt waa tranatened upata1:rs. The th!'N abaira J 889-91 have gone up tc the nn third. fiOCll', to the houaekeeper'• 171 suite titted up \bore in 19211, Ill plaoe of tho ortcinal brown oloth baok8 1 they are now oOTered in yeUow oheok. The 84'tt9e, H--cCYered 1D hanlollii11i:ng rose damllalt. waa pleaed. in tlle smlll. 1'ol"ibwea1; Bedroom.

ID the BooTer era that ■ roaa. ni moTel agaiu, th1a time to the :moat logical place toz 1 t 1u 1lle wea'I- terrace Yiug, be­ - �be houH all4 t� :S..ov.tivo Ott,.oe. ftoea quartora, th-h the7 bad 'been rebuilt tor the Roosevelt era, had not eacaped ham tu Karly lederal a■eociatiou w1th the ottic•a" of the fir■t Pres! dauta.. 'l'hlJ hauead the extramaly domaatia oft! ca of tbe launc!ri••i nose dryiJ:I& Jard wae Tery cloee to the PNaidGtial. wiD.dolr. But the laun4"l"1ea nre ban1ehe4 1D 1930 1 an4 the Socilll Ott1ce t"or 1-ha seoonl time moTed its etteote. Thia Barding table wu lon bohlnd tor f'urther lhlte llw■o dut:,-. rloor, 188

.&notller llamillg utUitJ piece lule moved to tbo Wl"ll. It 11 a amall halt round ... hogan:,- table �bat was bought :tor uae in the On.l Dr-awtng Boom, ready at the end ot one ot th• old sate.a tor the. Prea14ential aebtras" or the Peet tea-cup.

A pair 01' tall J'aJ)DeH jal"din:tera•, purcba84114 duriD,g 1ihi11 .am.11111"\raUon, aTe still on. the f'loor ot the Preaidat-•a atu4J. !they were cboeen to replace the -prenl.ent "brat• aab-reoeiTera or the ninet.aeli\b. oeatur,-, end tb.-y ■till, CJ!S8 Olle Oil eitzlei• aide o"t the old B. II. 8. RISOiirrJ desk, catch 1:be aeb.ea o.t the Pra■idential eigar, al.though they- have, w:l""th the dealt, moved to the ll.N' ■tullY since their earlJ" daya.

The two � asllata.Dcla no.- in tbe atudy are .alao Bard.tug, the ,ra.aguard o-r a whole :tlight ot ■1m11ar stands, ll!l-190 added lloopitabl.1' by l'Na1deuto CoolU119 •114 Boonr to the room ot atter-4111118r oon:fereno■■• �

A tlc:urered cretcmne bedroom. aoreen, is at1ll in plaae Ul the top tloor bedroom tor which 1 t ns chosen.•

., � ■tardy- IMhogany tabla now in tba soutb•••t Boom ot tha Ground .noor la the only remat!ling wit:neaa to ona ot Mrs. Barding'& iapN)"Vementa. Vary aoou attar eh& came to the hoaae ablt 41BC0V'9Nll the cramped end dark 0QI141t1ou under which the torce known ea the Social Bu?'911U mat C&ffJ on 1ta MS dit1'1cul--r; du\1u. It wa■ tbeu. 1n one ot the lo"e:r roo:ma ot the heauti·ve ottice, end like tbe �patail'II ot-rice 1 tsal1', bad long out.grown 1'\■ qu.ert9ra.

A girt waa ads to tho 'illlite Bou .. duri11& Wa term, lt wa aan.t t"hrou8h Praier 'l'ar41eu 1A the DIM ot the 110lll9D r,t J'renc•• Ud lire, Bardii,g recoived it and had it diopla:red on tba Bed ROClll, •here it ataada "today. U 1• aa Oflm­ � maDta.l graap ot snr•• .t1,ure1, ot woman and ch114ND, maatl ., wb.ita, on. an nal, lookiDg tg the casual gl,uce lib a ocuJ.ptured group 1D oztromol1 nne-grained ,mrble,

lfoa. 889-91, ■ae Plata DO, BoOYar. !fo. 1'11, ••• Pl•te zo, Grant.

llo. 348, eea Pl.ate "'• 11laon .. WO. o,;5, aae Plate 095.

At Kra. Ba:N11ng'a prompt 1netigat1on it na mond, de1ta. tiles, toroa aniS all, to the pre11en.t .Appo:llltment Roam ill tAD lbite Bou.,. iteelt, lle:re at leaet it had al>'ead:,- a long gl.U wall­ m1rrot' ancl two 8unD:J swth wiuclowa to ligbtu 1ta labora. .And to ite older .turn.1�• Na ec!d.ecl thia DW h.ble, plain. aU'oag, eua ehl:K! in bra.aa.

147 .

CALVIN COOll:XlE CRACE GOOllhW: COOLIDGE l.92Z - l.V29 When the Coolidge regime began, it had be�n twenty year■ ainoe the Houoo hed baeu ro4ecorete4, or even thoroughly renovated. Bu.t ror eomo ten ot those■ the aeaao11al. 'Hl!ll" and tan, tr<m the entertaining and publto pcinta ot v iew. had been unusually light. rt inoluded the period or the war, which neaea­ ■ita:te4 en almoet closed Whito Boue, and readjusting yeaa a1'ter the wa Ulich bad not 1upire4 rehab1litat1llg i,. background that wae not strikingly in need. ot or ol!eil,ge. The Boo•evelt­ Tatt-Wilaon t'urni.ture was still doing fairly adequate du.ty ror tt.e Coolidge era. But the, 1.bite HoUH roof we.a not. For the third time in history the office in charge or the houae beceme acutely eonoerned with the aaterty ot ite teD.ellta. In President Grant's day the sword ot lJeJrocles had been the :Room. root and t'loor, ,,,lk­ ened equaJ.y by the reception arowde in that ael.oon e.nd 1the shut­ tling feet ot hundreds Yho daily ■ought tJl.e e:xecut1ve Dfficee abo'i'e it.. In President J«>oaevelt•e d.e,y it was the atate or the whole til'at and aecond tlooring that worrie4 the reaponaible. In Prea1Q8nt Coolidge • a it wee the roo:t. During thia adminietr&tion •• ti..ud tberef'0re that the entil'e roo't was raiaed, 1 ts wooden bees ana aupporte- wel"e re-­ r,laced with eteel1 and the •hole top structure or the houae waa made tireproot. Thia praot1oally added an.other story to tho mute House. Yor inetead ot a rallliJ!.e; storage .spece, too low­ rco:tod to be o� e:ay oc:atortable uae, a p0aa1ble SMll. do=.1 tory convenient ror tbe boya ot the Rooeevel.t era. end scme inaGe­ quaie eervaD:t • o quutera, tbere was now provided e toP rloor, ccm-­ sietillg ot o. aOI:1DDdiou1 oorrtdor in the oeuter, with twelve sull roome opening trc:u:i it. ..lnd beaidos there waa a very larce rambl­ ing nn a:ttio 1 giv1Jl8 ample epace tor a tlook ot man � tDDve about as they take a tew hundred Sold, 110N or leN, up end down ataire on state tuno"Uon d.e:,a.


Coolidge. 111 tb the quick eye of a t'l"Ue homsmakel', gazed upon that 'oee.utitul new space reJ.eued tor servio.,, and ertor v1aionint tiret tbs vitcl need• tor linen-eloaets 1 etore­ cloi,eta, cedar rooma and extra seryent' e bedroc11u1 and ba�om■, diacovered hereelt w ith two awmy new guest bedroom.a to turn1■b. SWJ.ll and :runny and bright, and much simpler• and lower in the osiline than tha older second-floor bedrooms, thetJl!!I two roou in the soutbweet corner ot the top tloor, aeemcd to call tor chs.l'I" end country-like iD t.:rs. Coolidge , di.splaying a aenae ot the appropriate that make& oue wiah the .. bite :touse had needed tJDN t'u:m.iture 1n har day, choee tor them excellent reproduct1one ot early o..ple turniture, suoll as one mieht :tind in eny little upper bedr�m ot a Colonie. house ill -rerrc.ont. �-256 512

360-316 maple wreau with a Bi.mpl}" Chippendel.e mil"X'M' :U.4-3� or melple to hang oTer it 1 a small maple bedllida artand 267-301 with dra•era, a maple writing table with a si.Dgl• �-31'7 drawer, a plein deak chair ot maple end a maple ■iih 261-:ns cheir with woven ruah seat. 258-308 Moat ot this dsl1ght1'Ul turn1ture is at ill in place, the.ugh the two l1 ttle aene ura. RooTer• s aecreta:riea ae ovartlow otticea during nol"IDAl times. In e::nargenciea they beca:zao bedrooma ee:ain, a ■ingular rosemblano-e to the u&ea to whioh the great northeut bedl-oom. suite dowABte.1ra wu pu"t during .many e.d• lllin1■trat1on• precadipg in which Presidea"t Joo■,eve1t built the hocut ive Ot'tioea. The turutture ot 1b.eee little eottege­ like bedl"Ooma, tmuaumiue; l!llld uaetul., nnclora about th• top :tlaor on ocoaaione, - some ot it do1DS duty- aa the Hoover grendchildren' e nureery wl,en those lh'ely yOUJl6 teke charge ot the ;;b.1te llouae top tloor The otbar tive uew bedroom.a on tMa top floor, a1l ser­ vsnt• bedrooms, had o:t course to be equipped 1'ith new tu.roiture. So each had 1 ts aturey JOOdern set or pe.inWd. steel provided tor it, oonahting or a bed, a. bureau , a writing deak, a atraisht ohair and a roc::ldng-chair. one other portion o.t the top rloo.r Yes made aveileble :tor rem.1ly uae at the aea time. Thia -..e.ei the small s�uera aun porch,- with apeo:ial. glaea in ewtne1ng pan.ea to let the nn. in, l!!D.d a11'Ui11811 811d rolling slat ourtaine, to keep it out ,- built on the south m,&, or the root . It was deThod tor ?.:r■ , Coolidge'• health when that plucky inTalid we.a conTaleacing, end he.a been a srea.t boon since to recovering meabars ot other bouae>holda, 8Ild e.t times to a live1ly tamily o!' three amall grBAdehildren, two nur•ee 1 IllllDY" doga, and. adm1r1a.s; V1eitora stopping in tor a geme. t:r.e. CC>Olidge, however, bought no no• furniture tor that abip-etlll€ Uitle roruge. that she writes she enjoyed ao much. She found enough in the house to mllke heraelt' very coey, ot rur­ n..Lture quite to her taa"te, a ince she had chosen it heraal.t a year or two before ror the South Portico. That portico •aa not useo. u extensively b:, the Coolid­ gea aa 1t waa to oe by the Hoover■ ; but they had bought t'or it a. set of twelve wicker chairs, atained in 110:rt garden green, aome arm rmd SO!ile rocking; and a wicker table, its top glaeo-coverod. some ot theae - the table and e. 1'flfl chairs , - �ew Coolidge had carried up to her new i,un-porc::h, aud there they ere today. 245-250 273-276 3()5-:l()lj 306

'l'he rrsat of' 'tba SoUth Portico turniture b etill 1D use. since the rug, o� green and atra..--colored wovan graea equarea and the wicker chair& are e:;athered 1D the proa­ ent ge.rden-roorJ. in the :aeat End corridor, invitingly aet e.bout under pe.lm fronds.

Except ro:r- the beda, a lit'tl• maple pair wit,h low head and toot boerde in one room, a larger maple bed iD the otber 1 both rooms we:re turnia.hed alike. le.oh bu e.

r:c . 254, eta. , see Floto IXXIII

?io. .a45-305 , aee Plete �

14t:-.; COOUOOE The othe:r two ot the 31:npired period, tbe "taberna.ole" Roro 6.lao 1D that ea:ne coal growing place o:t peaea is a mirror ot gil.ded. pil.eaters and blue-glue pe.1nting ot ship seen"• pleuan:t g11't o� Mra. Coolidge' s to the leisure ot her eucoeeeors .. Yhioh was so pol')ul.&r just atter the war ot l8l2. One ot th�.e re­ It 111 a. green-striped aanvp elfingin£ bUl:J)ck temiliar to many aaine in the southwest weat or tbe eroae-hall. All tbree .American porohee, that ehe mat have ohuckled onr when ahe are old. I.U'a. Mon.roe might be.VB chooeD them all and displayed 2152 tiret put 1t emona the rod plu■h aotaa and tat triDg.d lit• thau with pride e.e very taeh1ona.ble mnbell1ehmenta to her oa bed­ tle chaU'a sh& 11lher1 ted in tbat west end. aitttna room. roClllB. li�•• Coolidge had alao d1 acove:red that the :renovatora or B..a.t the awing looke e.t 1ta •ue now, 1D the go.rdan .rOOQ that tho Proe1d.ent1el auita had l'SDOved the hu grown up around. 1t, w1 th the aue.­ built-i n clothea preeae:e and ahclvaa riea aiDgins in the great arohod W1D­ Palm !loom soooad COrriclor arran,gad tor Preaidant HarUDg cloT bah.ind; and first I.adiee enjoy it, 1n hie draYing room. They had OU nllging gently aa they eon.fer 1J1tb been tbe only provision tor ator012 J.,upcrtant oustodian,, or tbe dignit7 ar inS clothe■ 1n the Scutbweeti the Wh.1 te nouae. SUJ.te. llbiob t'or eom.e reason or other had aaoaped tbe modern oloaet �be Rcoae.. !Ire, Ooo.lic!ge' e houae-ll:eepve1t •reoonetniction" bad proYided ror 1118, touch wae talt on the aecon4 tbe east suitea,. In their place an ex­ floor, where various renovatiou wa:ra oeeding).y emall but pertect spectmon ot' a'baolutely n.eoesaa1"7 in the •8Y or a Shera.tcm. werc1robe greeted the aur­ ourtaina and auch. She added a blue pri■ed gaze of President Coolidge on brocaded tolding eorecn to one ot the hia return. Ho soon tound it inadequate , then principel. gueeit .roau o:t the 11hite Bouae. The aoreen in end the wardrobe bought to take its place 2i0 still in uaa, though tbe bedalso inadequate; 1t0 the gnat wardrobe room it one• he1ped to cool made tor the FCooan-elt new southeast Bed­ ( u Waal\ington acree1u1 do, .P•rmitting room wa.e brought down ror Presidential open doors in the hot aeaeou) ie no uae. longer a gueat; room., but a study tor a President ,rho likes b1a I.Dnoolnien The two sne.l..l \'l'ardroba.s thua a111ociatione. So now tlle &Off1m 1a acquired by Ml"s. OOol.idge are really old in the blue aitt1Jlg roCIJl o:t the bouse­ and lcok1 w1 th their :&npire tl'im ot kHper• a suite ot th& top tloor. Yrouaht braaa, like "presses "" Pl.ah 4i5 3� Ura. Monroe might have beepoken A tew additione were to::roed Coolidge Wicker ohain 245-&>5 122: -tor her White Houao. One with aqµere pedimen't and braea-bound up0a her in the Pre■idential SU1te. Hd:DOok No. 252 Co:rt•e-table 2'l pil.aatera 1 a now in the North B&&-OCl?l Statues No. 048-->49 RUB no. l�-20 These roor.l.B were redona during one ot tbe tanil,y• s �r abeenoea, and the eaat o� the oroa►hall.; 'tbe other� em-­ ottic1ale lett to repaint end reoonr 41d a mu.oh more comprehen­ belltehed with Drue medl!llliona, 1■ in the North Bedroom. weat or sive job tben the ocaupente had anticipated. They came back to the h8ll.. numerous BUl'pl'iaee, one o:t 11h1ch waa to f'ind two huge overmantel One moN additioa to the comtorta ot practice.! bouaa­ m1rrore NDOvo4 tl"<D tha bedroama. Thsee were the two 1le.bcra:tel1 keeping Nre. C0011dge made on tbe eeoona tlaor, built with 18th framed 1n wrought gilt , With the 'Cnited stat-ea Shield on the. century unconcern tor etep sa'Yillg deviceZ11. Thia we.a a very creat,- that bed. once graced tbs G.raen Room. Freisideu.t W1leon plain, aoniceable small cupboard W'i th �irro� door end had had them bung in the SOuthweat Be<lrocc autte. ll.O ahelvea in which lineD might be etored. Kept 1a Their re111>Tal. lett the aw.te mirrorleas� It •emed DX>N tho north alcove hell tor yeera tor that purl)Oae:, it 1■ now doing tmty in a� practical to 11 clever housekeeper to replace them wt th snaller dreseing mirrorei to hug over bureauei,- oepeciall.y since those bureaus had been inventoried tor man:, yeare ae "mahogany, without The PresiMut made acae clumge111 in :turni ture bimaelt. mirror. " The low oak bookahelvee lining the Prea1dent1e.l Study eince the daya ot :Roosevelt (and hie arohitectaJ proved to be quite inadequate tor one ot the new mirrors yent above a tire-plece in the the Coolidge personal library. library was extendve enough, 01� small Southweat oreaaing rocm. It 1■ rectangula.r, trsned by the time the etreem. o,r girt book:a had poured 1nto it tor aome yeare, tc overf"low the available eeoond 1'lool' book:-caaee. It cyt,n in gilt 11ilast8ra , the upper ti:ttb tilled With a gold tlora.l de­ tock up the spa.oe usually devoted to the Cong:reaeional Library sign on black Blase.


The writing table matohing it has gone the whole length ot' ths bouse, by Tarioue stages ot uaetul.neu, to the col'J" l1ttl.e room 1n the• em oorner of tbs aame t'loor. It tlC\l' holds iuatead or t.he neat piles or aoc1al uo'\ea of 1ta, the papers 8ll.d mauu­ eoript pilea ot a Prea1dent who oYertlo•• hie atuay uert door. 'l'he lUUe telephone table iB in tho North Bedroam 319 bet1reen the halls. 194

The one personal reminder of' President Te.rt (except bis portrait) au.rriYea 1n the Houae purely by ohan.oe. Part ot the taso1nat1on o:r the reoord l.ett 1n the ffh.1te House tu.r­ ni ture is the ha_pb1:1ard nature ot its eurv1ftl. Qt.lite otta we happen to hirve es a l'aminder ot an a6mi'niatration, the one oharacterlatic aouvanir •• might hfie aboaen 1t the llhite Houae were being turniahed -tor what it 1• not, a personal museum ot relice ot its tenan1:1. Thia Tatt "reli11• l6l not Dlll) survived by chance, it caae into 'the .lh1te House by chance, t'rm. ths Executive ottioe� It 1■ an armchair, .1pholatered in. a unusual ot graaa-grean 1aather. Ite oovcriug wu apcctally taraned and. dyed, a­ d'Uat ot the Philippine Ielands, esnt u a. pN!BdD.t to I. 8Q1a1 GoTernor-Gea.aral. who had. homo 8lld been promoted '\o higher ott1ce. The Govonioi-Geaeral. Pre•1wmt had it made into �­ tice 1'U:rniture, ud it eteyed ill place tOl' BOme twenty yaare, pleas,1rig �a'ter Preaidenta. It happened to please President Ho0ver, who had a new atudy returni■hed. 1n the lh.1 te Jiou.aa imd who 'la.a outiDg an sye about tor hospitable am-chairs, ... in a blll'l'Y' and in quantity. One or the Office set was carried over, more or leae u an experir".ent Ul the Booftr .tub.ion, and set beside the Proa1dant•a deok. President Hoo- liked it and !,oped 1t would. be let't 1D partiau.lar apo"t 1n the r0011J. All e. con­ sequenoe, when tbe reut ot tbo Pll111p1d11.• Tart chairs were damaged be70rul 1n the Ohrtstmu !'Te t1:ro ot l.P29, in the Exeoutive: Office, thie one was 1aved .. P%'ea1dent 1'att1e own l'tuCQ'-cbair, ror h18 deelc, has beau caretully preaernd in tb.a store room, proving ot leae oamrort to lesa6l" weights 'thlllll to b! It ia a huge reYOlTiDg chair ot golden oak. with a caned eeat, and o!ll"fed on 'the be.ek tba ah.ield ·or the United statn. 500

A tn :preaents added themselves during the Tatt era. oae or 1a1e11e ia a ohalr, ot tbe e.xaot type or tbe Rooaevel.t d1n1ng room one, hcn;­ ever, 1a a gitt, made ot the Oak taken tl"om the .tr18e:te A.u­ guata &unk 1D l..7'17, 1:n the Delawere Biver battle of Red Bent:, 1n OB o.ttOll!j>t to IRr4 lion• a &i ege of Pbtladel,phio., She ley in Use ooaan a h' u.4 twenty-tive yeare before being reoonred. '!'he cbair was presented by the N'n JereBT 2CM.

No. l.B4, see Plate 5? Hoover

No. 0152, see Plate 48 Boovezo


.botll•r l'US, too rioh 111114 treaile 'tor 1111 pm-pa.ea bu\ edmin.Uon, hap ill \he grotm.4 <Drr14ol" tor tb,e gue ot th.a publ.1o. It 1■ • Pare1a rua, tr1Dga4 1n Ned pearl.a, ea­ bro14e.H4 1l1 pearl.a, tllrquoiaea &114 other aemi•preoiou.a e$onea, the ,rllole Ntely h-4 in M"'l' IUhog- Gd gl.... It 4.'1 ..,, a gift � tlte11Nm aonnl-gtmerel ot Perala ftON nat1T8 loN or gl� e:nen4e4 t o tile O<>aJlUT or hi■ ■eniae. J'oJ' ao01 yeaz,e it !mDa an. th• wall■ o� the Preai• d.ent•e etud;y, 8IIOllg other or1e.u11al; Wt �.1Dall7 •u a44el to the tteaa.lN ooUHtion ot the pg.\Uo 10rridor.

Ba. 4.91, eee Pl.a.\ xxm.

cb�er ot the Daughters ot tbe .Al71ertoe.n Jlevolution. ou J.pZ'U l6th 1910.. It atah4s :now at the heed. o:r tbe ataira, at tha entre.noe to what wu President Tatt1e study, md 1e now the R0e:e Drawing Boom.. A Rooaevelt 4in111,£ l'OOm arm-chd.r bu been brought up to balance it, but the J).. J,. R. cba1r m«I' be reoognized by it:■ eomemol"at1...-e ple.o�� 1

Anc>the� hiataric preaent ••• made by- lienry J"ri<:k t ­ a painting thia tin:te, reP?'eaenting the signing of the Peace Protocol!ID the 'O'a1 tell states aJt4 Spain. The aoene 11 laid in tbe Preeident • e atudy, m4 &Owe Presiden'\ litaKinlq atand1ng at the haad Qfl-·tbe•. seate4 at the table are William B. Day', Saaretar,r ot State, watch11)6 J'Ulea 01152 Cambon, Jml)aaaador ot fr.anae aigning on bebalt at -the �aniab JJ!lbuoacloi-. Behind them atand :rohn BPeett i,:oories, nrat Aesiatant seoretuy ot state; ilvoy A • .£.des, seooad Aaeietaut .Secretary ct State, 'l'hom.u W, Cl'idler, 1'b1rd .J.aeiattint seorete.1'7 or state, and Eugene ftiebant, nrat sec­ retary or the l'renCh Fmbas,v.. Thia oxcellent po:rtre,rel. or a llremat1o oooaaion we.e 1)0:inted bJ' �eobald Chartam (who is else represented 1u the Whito House by hie deligbttul portl"ai t ot rare. RooH, AnotMr po.l.ntu,g prHented du.rl.118 the '!'aft .1.<lmini.,.. trati.on 1a t;he clear-oolored little replica. ot Gilb•� stuert painting of Dolly Ila.di.son, llholle original. ha:nsa in the J.cada:uy­ ot fine .uta in 6'h1ladelph1e.. E:uotlT who copied it no one kll.o•a. &lthougb it is lmctrn the:, Cecelia Bec,,u:,;.: had a band in t.he choice ot tho copyist. It wa.a prtuw1nted by an aasoctetiOJt ot 7irgh1a le.diee1 ancS waa for &<Ille months on. an eaael in the Blue Boom. Latu 1 t huug upata!ra in the OVal lioomi and tinal­ l:v went W join the oolleotion ot n.rat La41ea 1n the groW1d t1oor corridor. In the China axm ia a charming tiny gitt, an orig­ inal ailhouette ot 1'ohA Tyler ,. out in �he i'hite Bouse by the artiet JGouart. It had maDT adventures s:Lnoe its out.ting, hsv111& been eh1pneoked with it• maker Ol&l 8Dd ashore in his trunk. Finally it cme into tho poaaeeoio� o r M::re.. NnUle 1sckson, or •14oup, Kent ,. a collector ot' notable 1ilhouet�ea. Generoue ae well a• keen, she sent 1 t, in 1911• home to the 'lfhite Bouse. It hene• among the interesting PN-side.ntinna or the Ollina Boca. Pel'llaps a sitt. certainly an aoqu1sit1on ot the Tett .ldminiatra\ion is a bandsomo &QTDe rug, Dine md a he.11' teet by t1tteen and a halt teet, now in the Proaident•• stua,. In. a bouae prevailingly eerpeted, aDd lit­ tl.e l'U88e4, 1 t lends that room an appropria1ie ricbneaa• .Luo tber .Cat.�- g1fl ls \M tr&J!Lad .reraian. rug, sawn with ••111.l,l"e olou■ Rug 5

1�7. l'IOODRO;; filLSOll 1913 - 1S21 Ulen Axton r11eou E41 th Bolling liilaon The fu.r:liture left by the .Jileon regime 18 quite detilli­ tely ot t"o 11erioda. The tirst ia of the early yeare ot the ad­ m1Diatration ,. simple, peacotul and ch&nn.1.ngly llomel1ko.. It m.1gb:t quite easily heve be.en brought by 81Q' un1Yer.!!lity tmily, adapting a new home to tamily need.&. The other period 1• ot the tragto wer per1oa. Evon 1te un!Seniable praotioelity ce.zmot quite 41B£U1•• the euooie.tiona it has 111th war. with 'breaking health, with �n­ tel. oourago 1'ightillg up through pcyaiool atraiD, The t'irat period brought '\be North Be4roo.rt. eaat at th• croaa-hall ita proaent f'UrnitU2'e. That small :rom:J. haa e.l"ffeya boeu a bedroom ot aorta, except :ror PresilSeot 1'onroa, llho aoltle to bave uaed it ea a private ort'ioe or wr1t1Dg room.. But it had boon tur­ niahod,- f'or long before the Wilaon time, w1th odd.a and ouda � bedroCID. turniture that were oolleated trom cli aoarded aota. It ,raa uaed, aa l'l rule, by msibera or the f'aily who oeme mid went - Just e.a :.!re. explains letar, with e:oge.gins; candor, ""I gave that room to the boy■i it we.a rather dai-k. th"3" were the ones leaat at bome." When the l,1l■on fsn.1).y arrived, thi.u bedroom. •aa taken in tor one ot the tec.ily who waa at bome oftener; and 1111da bright with y9llow hang1ug11 end �olatcry, 27-28 beds 1D pl.ace of the toIWr ter.ra•cotta. The 29 bureau !"un11.ture aet abosen waa pret\cy end cr11p 31 rocker and tSW.nine, enmu,l cro• aene. It ta 32-33 aide chair■ atill in plaao in tbat room, t•a bed.a a bureau, a rocking ah.air, two aide ohaira, 'M.- chittonier a oh1tton1er and e. wrt: ting deak, a badeide 36 dBak 3'1 ata.nd stand and a drea11ng-tsbl.e. A Wileon 38 dresser obe"fal-gla•• trac:1 the top noor haa coae to 34.9 gl.HS join th.,., The Libre.ry, aa the ·.;.1111011 OYel. Room was called, t'alt 1'ew lt• mantel loat en old oloai:: to that new-turniab&4 Yellow BedrooJJla Two eerly \iilaou toucbal are about the tireplace, one J the ad1t-one that p:robably OU :re;:ilaced very old onee - old andiron.a peri•h rather quickly in 'the Wbi ta House due to the heat of' the enormoue hickor:v wood. 11.rea the huge l"OOCl8 needed in the ■ arl.y deya. The other add1tion ••• a ou l!!lllAll pair ot red leatmlr l>ello'H.. J.ppnreutl.7 the fiilaon houaehold ge.thend around it■ lilirary tire q:.1te otkn. and wt th pleaau.N. c:he.ngea.

T.b.e firat ure.. iUleon waa ver., tmoh intere1ted in painting; and managed to tind time :tor her hobby arter abe wee mietNse of' the ,'111te Houae.. She had a studio t'i'tted UJI on tM tOi) :floor, in tba northeast end auite ot room.a, whllre ahe kept her NOl'h 27 to 38, aoe Ple.te ..a Jfo. 024, aea Plate xx.

pare.phemelia end d14 hBl' 110rk,- and aaw her tr1enc1a1 too, apparently'. At the same time the two snal.l bedroc:ma adjoining were 1'1n11!1bed tor wie: o.r especial� inticate gueeta. Eash • simple bedroom eat ot wood turniture. 'lheee bedroar:ia were remade into aer-­ Tenta' roome during the third tloor reeonat-ruction 7Q be4 1D tba Coolidge regime; and moat ot the Wilson tur­ 8l rocker 82 aide ohair hu COmD down etatra. Ono eet, disgutead in 85 dealt e. coat o"t 'llllb.1 ta paint, 1a in the small Ncrth•eet Bed?'ocm, hung wt th pale grsu tatteta cu.rtaiu, 80 atlllld 351 bcch th&t 1• part o:t' t he ltcrtbweat Bem'OCGI suite. rt makes that room today a delighttul retreat :rrcm. tbe mgntrioonce of' ite neigtJ.bor 1 tba bis Northwest Bedroma.. The big roam ts among the coat honorable ot guest bedroaa.s; but one could hardily one's dail.y radio in ita lllladowy heigbta.. The little ;.i;u.exer :room next door is �• trieiidly. end hu been very pcp.i.lar w1 t.� coming and going young gu.eati, or the HooTers. The mall dresaing-room ot the Northeast .Roee suite has one i p1■oe ot tbis iilaon. top-tloor rurniturea That roCGl 1f'U tiret re­ madel.ed 'tor Proe1dtmt S>o•Yalt, With a bath roam and a closet out out or the lerger earlior bedrom.. It wu equipped with the brase beda vaq cu.ob tn vogue at tl:.e m::iment .. .&. later taste p.reterMd a bed leee gl&Slling, 812d tbe braafl bed 'WU replaced by the seoond grey end pinlc WU11>11 top-floor hed (repainted to lllOtoh the sot woody there in the SD.all l"Oee ael.-282 0111tton1era 3'K bed tabl.o 34.3 bureau

The others at tho grey-end-pinka are on the top :floor, the ahitt'on.ier Bild the bodside table both doinS duty in the modern ae•illg­ room on that tloor. tbe bureau and other ohittonior in a maid'• rocu. J..ll the Wilaan :turn1 ture ot the aecond pertod he.a an. historical tlavor. SclM pieaea reoell a picture ot an il.l Presi­ dent, ourying OD hie 1'Qrk. in hie llOJQB •him tb.e jO\ll"Uey to cttioe waa beyo,n4 hie ■trength. SUch, to•, 1■ the f/1 dealt in. the amall north ■tudy' room, which waa bought for that room dW'iD,g thia period, though Whether 1 t •ao a ■eoretar1al de8k or a Pre11ident' .a deak we do not know .. The large ple. i n table- now in tbe e.aat room at the prel!li­ dential south suit& waa President Wilson' a WOl'king table.. It wae brought over f'rm the Execut1Y• Ottioe and placed in the President' a study; which was the room now u90d tor the preaent RoH Draw�• But that table ha■ not nece■earily- invalid a■aooi-lJ.8 ationa, it mey- bne oome over bet'oni that illness. Tba 1f1l­ i,on tute pl'Obe.bly acquired in yeal'a ot aoad.emla work, muob pre­ ferred the quiet ot a study tor wruuia: and th1nk108, to the bustle of en ottioo, and m Ull.U&Ual emount ot routine bJ.eineaa went on at that writing tab1e. No.. ?9-8&, ,eo Plate :CV

No. 57 1 He Plate XVII

l&', WOODROW i.'ILSO?i tathe:r, but interested ncne the la&B in tra:rt1c to be seen out of' 'Re have in the houee 11 ab.air added to his study tor the high window. President Wileon. It is a plain de;rk 1t0od roeke:-, �1.ndaor t;n,e 1 with dark red cushiou. 1,. Preaident'a ottieo brings home One eu.spea:ts that suob 11 ttle comto:rti.Dg touches were the to ue bia method■ o:t mental work more clearly then do boolc:11 he resu11; ot oo-oporl!.tion. The co­ IIlQ' he.Ye •rittan, or peper.e he operative aaeociation betwe&D the Southweet lbom, Ground Floor may- havo aigneda It 1■ im.poa­ nrat La.dY and tho usher ia e. ■ible to look at President very old one. L1ra. !!adiaon and J'aokaon' 11 aturc:17 •1thher maitre-d • hotal began it, and out a&eing that odd the r escue of tbe George ,la.ehi.Dg­ 259 charao'tier• s taYCri te ton picture trom the :tire ot 181-l att1 tude tor his thiWC­ ia ODe tribute to its e:t'f'icaoy.. ill.Sa One eeeiDg ?reaidcmt Since then mony a .First Udy end HOOTBr1 a l'BTOlving desk-ohair en usher ha•e plotted togott.or could not tall to eee him in tor th• oomtort ot e. President, it - ULtenee, eoncantrated, end we know the,t one � the l'il.­ but ready at any min.ute to aon Whi1.a Howie rooma waa tbe re­ tllrll tor a ,rord: ct' ooneul.ta­ sul t o: auoh tbiAktna;. t1on to a 1'l'iend sitting in a rocker bea1de hie d.eek.. one In 191�19 16rs. Wilaon.1 wbhea 1 that tn thia houee ot aearoh1Dg for any po81!11blo tom ancient eDd honorable memoriee, ot recreation for her husband, eTery P.relllident r:i:lgb.t happen turned to the Soutbweat Room on to leave the cheir ha binlael:t' tba groWld floor, w1 th ita bil­ telt moat at home 1.n.. Pl'eai­ liard table .. There soema to have den.t Wileen, one imagines, been a billiard table in the telt moat e.t home 1n bi■ own Wb:Ue ovar aiuoe President rooke.r, reading hia pertly' AdemB the aeoond waa bitterly t1n1ahed scholarly apeeahee criticised tor 1ntroduain6 to bimseu. 456 one that he paid tor himself'. It bu been in var­ Two or th:ee little iou.e place■, but e1noe the PJooH­ touahee or the J.:ra. Wil110n ot' velt reconatruotion, it haa tall:en the wer yeara about the the oni, private room on the Hou.M. one 1a a a:uall teagl'OWld tloor .. e:ECeJ)t ot: oourao table, msbogan.y 1 with the servto,e roQlnS of' kitchen, 214drop-leavee, exactly Pl.ah� atoreroo:na and turnaae. Chestert1eld Couch No. 450; Cheirs No. "40,Ul matcbin« tbe Booaevelt room, equipped already with a; probably added to Bel'ding Teble No. MS; Cleveland Bookcase No. 43'1 tiNplaoe and '\wo aunny eou1ih win­ 11ooaevel.t � lio. 18 the 11brary auppl.y tor meals d.owe, J.tra .. 1i1li,on :made owr into a HCOYU No. 0133 111d 01.U f'or a convaleeoant and hia oom.tortab le den. 'nle wide upholte:nily, at•red :t'eJJ.der aeat around the hearth the President deeigned bilUelt. and the uaber had made under Another 1a a oet ot tell bendaoma heavy silver Cll!lldlll!l­ his own ceret'Ul direot1ona. The billiard table was ,i, Oll loen etioke bought by J.:r■• Jilaon tor uee on the State Dining :Rc>om. to tbe 1hite House trom the manutacturer 1 es 11&11 the following one table., :tor less to:rmal dinnera then. the �nroe gold plate deco­ or tho Harding llll4 Coolidge administratiOllo, rates. Tbat auata:s. or dining by aendl.eligbt 1- a vary old i1bite House cuatoa - lingered on a.tter Ura. �ilaon revind The tur:nit-.ire placed in that roo:n., which 1a atill t.bera, it, has a hiatoey ot distiuotion.. !ire. Wil.eoll l'U,rohaaed 1 t from the GEORGE i'iASltINGTON, tbe abip tba.t oerri•d the President, herael.t and Two smell mahogen7 t', 111 th oovera exactly ma.tah­ Ul8 the tape■try or state Dining :8ooa ahaira. ue La-a. W'ileo:n' a. an entourage that inolude4 the uaber, over � the Peace Con­ The:, were ad4ed tor the comtort ot a war-weary Preai4Gt. te::renoe- and beck. The turni ture had eometh1D8 or a recmrd though they look like RooaeTelt period. TcdBY tbe-.1 are ueu­ 540 before that 1 ■1noe tbe CZORGZ ,IJ.,SllINGTON ho.d been one ot the Ml eJ.1y kept 1n the PriTate niniDS Boom, to the joy ot grand­ biggeet Germen liners betore ahe was tllken over O"/' the .Am,eri­ children brought down to breek:taat with en Executba gr-andoen Govermne.nt .. The e51?ltJ abip later brough"t over the :ting



man:,- a cont•r&nce. It reminded the ce.ptain quarter hour ot be.tt1e wae over.

The South Rooc at the hett4 ot ths eteirs ..

the hel:::i. that anothor

President's St,1dy

Plate 58 11qtJ.ower SOta ( agallla� wall) II<>, l.85 :laytlower Clock No. 034 Hoover built-in 'boOkeaae•�

Since the Booeevelt era this quiet romnt aall IHI '.)b.ite Houae rooms go, had been the Pr&aident • a study. For neerly 1'1tty years before thet it had been the Cabinet room, :rrom Lincoln I a time bl!.ok, perhap11 1 to the deya ot the aecond J.dema, it h.e.d been en attendant rooa1 to tbe ?reaident• s office.. In J.tra. t.:ouroe•e time it had been her on ama.ll di-a.wi.Dg-room on the priTate tloor. What Architeet Hoben had pl8Dlled for it no one will ever know. In 19�, it wu turned over to ura. HooTer "\o turnish, quite £1"8e :tiun ,my of' its past uses or u■octa:Uone. The presi­ dent pre!'orred the old Lincoln aiiudy to the eeet ot it, and moved hie belongingo th.ere w1 th characterieUo a,peed. In. the preaent �lioe.ted day's ot batbroama &114 cl.ceet NQ.Uil'm:iante, the room was no longer a bedroom. 11 becmne, therefore , the baok­ ground of • new .li-ttle dl'aitingroom, more fo:rmal. and more ,r1ve.t• thm tl'!e OY"al Drewing-room next door which still kept �ething of ita flGily libre.?'7 atmephere. The tu:rniture tor it was brought tn. tree the oval RoOln at !1.:-st - the t,ro wide-:f'I11Md Virginia soraa, a pair of .aimilarly trl!med armclusira, some small attraet1ve side chaire •1tb heartahaped baoka 1 c unusual round marble-top te.ble mt1dallioned in bre.u end eet OD. three pUle.ra. 1,1rse Rooee­ Tel.t I a book oabinet, amell. tables, nan the roae hanging■ t'l'Oti the oval Room window■,- all were set about quiclcly to mek:e e. roae d.r&.lii.Dg-room out of' an empty chelllber. The Early Federal Dre"1ng-roam

Plate 69

It hs�c�....«, howovcr, t-:, t,o wrow;ht bettcl" 1 h1ator1eall:r, ¥:1■n anyone li..:ln. Gr,,dually the ur.derlyit!t: harmony or th11.t little i-ow wcu1 dioew?&l'Od - tiret tt!rli it had 1helt been :.:ro. :.onroe•e dre.wi.n,._;-roo·,. �e .�il:■t Adat:a drew!Ac., -r.JO�, ':'ha J'utte.raon and he.di110n, w ahllll ne-,ez, be able to � in. pl�oa, thair very Wille •ere dentroyud an,1 i.&"�un. dO\·,n. Sut a drawing-.roo1:. ot tl.e ar.rl,- l"ednal pel"tod. coul.4 really be put bao::.: iu thi• 1001:1 tbat! ::cl ouc11 houaed it:. c.rifiU,al; it one delve4 8llOUGb 1Jito :.1dte :.�l!IC btet017 aaae relSc• ot period. 11:dl;ht eve:,. 11■ .roun.i. Dd found tho,- WON I in odd '-'IIYlt• -:t.e rowid hblo ...,_. G. :.:onroe ori81IUU itself, .. 1ta doa­ er1,t1on dt:.co11ered on 'the old bill or 1•41118 Nnt in lel'I t'1'Clm .Parta. 'l'ho li tt1" J:.eut-baokcd choirs were al.moat cel"tai.nly traD the · onI"oe d.1nin&-roau, ond plrua1bl7 bo11t;ht be:t'ore_ that b7 · -ra. :."t.diDOn tor Lor rotc,--:oa mannion ortiol" the .,hito houae Yb.8 deetl"Oycd. The reporta or u.., : ·auroe ■i:enta appra�!1t� tbo �.,c,1aan t'urni'bJ.N tor tc:�tr pr1nc1:,al 4eaor1bo �uat auoh cl!e.iri,. So-ie tiwlo lot&r the -:1r ;1n1a oofaa wunt. tc bo re-covered; SDd on o!lD Wl!.l!I round a sis;­ nntuN o: tt.e r-c:�er. It ·.. •• A. D. ]Jlr::X)n, .Al•xanlir.i.a, ia:u. That -::--1:1.� :.. 1e.1"ui"c,J•c another ol"iginal �1eco; t:nd ite CC11:;.p8J.1.ion oo;!'a i::::.1.nst b.He been ot tb..: iuia.e pedi�. The t::o chair■ match too olosa1:: to '.. ot a lntar i!ate. �'ho oerl7 Fodoral Boom wu be ··1an1.D� to 11:S iv.herlt:uice. J.• it• nee4a tor tun?ituN deYE!loY7ed, era• . :oovu took loli _!itod hrtereat ia. till�; tba:i W'lth the-true: 1iT-)Ca ot the ;,er100 1 eva t ·�nor;,, ·'\ they "' be rep:mduotic:ne. Tba t"° w1ndow­ aeete wore made to: tr� doo11 Windo'.T nichca,- 4elioa::..ely uph:olster­ .. d benabea with end.• eell.o111S tbe a-unH ani tba Cfi?'V1l16 or tha !.:clll"Oe hea:rt-back dbait-s. .lhon 11. ..U teble to hold a hidJeo telepl,Olle we• needeit, it '-""' a correot candJ<l-•tand ot lcl6-'1 tht. 1,,ortol, lOlf au4 P'-' ,. Ye:,Y old r:11t ?llirrot .!M �n.:Je up .tro;11 the S'tOJ'R'OM to hana; bett:"een tba "illdG:fa. '..'ho bl"ODZe (dl.d ory.otal luatar (cede in l\.<Oi1 but ot u oU: p:tt"tarn, and �un� ·,:1th cryatol. foara and i-rapea tn a taahion to hno doli,)::ted s:n. UGpiro-trein.od. taoto) :replaced 1D tbo Croon Hoo..:i lq 811 al_ !'r1��it ori&:lnol cryMe.l luster, came up i;o hrm;; in tll=- O<.Jntor ot 1:ho ooil1ll8• .lDd the roc,o waa Hat\,' tOl" ita t1-1tw� phllll.t b..Luomirio into tu.ll tlo..-or. uit.h the oomina ot • act ot F.",p,1:ra t\U'111tuN that hi.Cl b..n, 1n dH1.SJI at l■ui, on.oe 'baton in tha t.e l11)UH • in the 1000 • e, ..'he o:ris:tnale at t.Oia oopid turnit.iN: had. belo1%o4 to !'N.J1d.i.:nt ·�an.roe ed. his nre. �•4 been b?"OU :bt t,y th• fl"Qa Uair 4i"?lcmat1c bo=i, h1 Parle, :.tu.oh at t.l.11tt laria :f't;.:.•aHurn had bao:n ball__�nt b7 1Jhe, l!1'0Hd1ng>r Je;r ?1h0 .naG tOlm.4 hi? un­ aJle - os- unl'iillin,.; - to Pa:/ tor o.h houaotul at -4be,:,e7 tu.miture. T\.o � .cmroe:a too� over tl:le oouee, r.unu't'llre ei.4 &!.11 eud :novar ba-i13& HimbUJ"■ed b�• tl.,a Uni111d �"tllte■, 'or� tho �:Jeh p1ecoa !'!;lone " t.�am ai. �oir o.m to 1:hetr 1'iasMnc.1ion l:ouN. :!t bad .toocl. in tb11 ,1b1"c. houao tor A<rn6 oight 7ea.t'•, a::td had tN,n 1:rau-·red by t'teil' de�e:·u1r.r.te -_ .i.TatlllY lh•reatter. rtnally t1". ·, aa� · 1..:en. hcllOOt. in tho "anro& tlttioe in FNdel''.I\, cttenod -'l!: •� 'k1at'.'lr1C Bhrt:ni> to ti1e ...,-ney ot the t'1fth .::res14on1i , :.nd th.are. 1:00T01" eaw tho� o:n onn ot hor ....a.tu.rdc:,- d.rivos up to t:.r �.:,Uc .¢:a!"!lp tn the dlue Jl1ilre :· uni:ctJ38. 1'2:.eil" ll!'X&Ct rieb,tfor t'.e ;!,.Jf!r!Ll. -.,~!" !b' the

,Jit<J ITcU.;G 'bec'l\.'118 r:,.1n, ·:'hG mttot- -.::..., ui::_oue.ocd a�d \l'J owner• of t'!i& .r..1'11.itJl'f:i reeior....i;u with ,;rso.etul. e.:J.t :..usiei.:�, en:l ef·�el" a_:iie r::onttta or ce:rcf•ll pl.eJ1nitl:: uuI .,,-=,:r..:,,: tL• :.:onrou f'Ur:L1W:-e 1 in t,.>­ c..·d:..:.•1:-"il.7 !"ait. .t\..l, ca.;-?' w live torover 1;\ ,1,ito i.OUJI . Tl•• hand90:.owt � icee :,e:rbap• 1a ti:.e ll>Al'Oe �Aek, - co,;,1e4 n-m. tbo or1,:inal dost un t..itc_ the �:ooroo DootriM na T,ri1iten. .an wr.iwal. type ot :..r.p,1:re �oNtacy, 1'1 th ah9lvH tor \)oo.k1 but no dOQ.ra t ite u,'.?Or bolt oloetq:: do&k-Ylill4 1 ik lcwor .sbohea bohtnd �uble doors, 11Br..nhoe:my 1• boaut1tul1Y bound wtth •roue,ht bra1111. na to:, 1e ot Vormcmt ma::-,10, �a.::s ?-oiled. 'rOd(l)' it:: '\.Naaurc-:: ot e:n11ll leathrr books, dsltoate aini&ture•, bita ot ri;r1o!l ■ilnr, ell � dieplqed; but the dHk nenMboleal! }.u :;:u t t• -ire.di uoz...1:.l �are1:uude or loch c.. •1J11D ·• to :.,92 on• k-ey, @.d 1te t1'1'o�corpn�nt aaoret dr-a•,;u·. '. ato..:.­ tr..:: it n.e.ctl]J' bl c.rnac.cuh:Uon 1e "'Zl'o, :�onroo• :s tr-U'eau",- a low­ boy or "thr.e l'1 de tao&'W'ffs. :'li. IUII �ble top ec!,zed. tu :ptnoeel i>rua, t�.e ca� b:rae,a-b01,,.;1d pilo.otore &nd brue te:et• a 4.rl� or retl(>ction bl!!tt'.'een \�1.Ddo••· Orer it �� 'tb• o:d �.1rl'Ol', 011. 1t atenct. • pair ot old i-�ite 1:ouo 111&.n�l-urne that� quite be pl"Cl•ad to have 'ueon ::ra. ·_ronme•s. i:ra. l�Dl'O•' s t11a-teble, or Pl'eoidimt : -onrae 1 s ·1tne-t11ble no• ■tm.d.11 a.t the ead. of one ot the vtr�:n.:la ■otu, boldilu.; e. Tu• ot br4jit flONrti, sd such UIJLl..l poroelain bo:cH .<> peste,:r btffl"ltl and antique bOoka •• l.U'a. aoover round 3'iiil5 IBDD& hor O't!D oollecrUomi. T!lis 1111 round, ·,...;.th tour lees. a.nd "®do:r 1to broao-ra.ilod 1111:.u·blc top ar11a c, 'J)e.1.r ot oppo.aitc drp<icre, c ;; or ops,ostte alidi:ng rnata• 1.notl.or t■blD b c:.lo':'!.,.:, c;,uite n-.:..acll!l PtyrtfJ ta U;Ect, with e l:i1.vh •tn1.CW..N' under itc: tap an4 ahPa.ot; spread Prytte taet, hr11a:n-ahod f'.:nd oHt■red in little b<l'u• �.. 1.1. Al'O\Uld iia :rim 1• a l.lne ot gilt., that ..-ea prcbabl:J oJ"1e;iDWy & ot braue. f'll?

The card 1:•ble with a told1�.i:.:- to..,., , :i:iow atandiuv. q&ina"t tt1• aouth will or the root.. 1• a i:artioulal'ly lovely eopy ot one ot on pair OWMd by :�lll'oe. Tile type oud hbh at 'tho pertod 1 :It 1■ 1D41'fif!Ua.U::,..a4 \.1th a tai.Jlt line inl.Q' � pile bluo. And orig;inalJ.:r •n r,bould tiud. U on mi Adema or a J'ott-araon tnvent.ory u "Gaming-table, mabo8U7, elagant." �9u

'1'> aooo;1puy 1it-o 1a a:n :ill})ire t1nnohair1 or 'ltabOaoY, w-J tb d&opl.y reeded lll'IID m4 root o� caned dog l)a"H. It• aeat 1:11J.d ebouldBl." pad are 'braes nai.led, ot a. rtch dark­ blue l1! the.� u.icbea tbu: loettAr nitiEiS .u.rtaco af tho clca!:. 3�

'l'ho 1&n little :bm-o• tabl• t that :.:J.:Jbt bell!). in our iz;.egllU!Jl"y collect.ion or the po'O 1.9.blo• ot 1'11.1tiw: liauae ladtea, i:ra. i.ktm-oe'• own entry, 1a a smeJ.l o�Jeot hardly t.Or& than II pod.eoteJ.. lt• top b m\Ul.d 411d en U an t:r1.. pt'd, ltrenellttned IQ.1& e .lower aho1r. Jt bol4a at pi-esen,i a tN• :.o»roe ob;f11ot d'art, l"al!Umticelly rotuniod to the ..hite Rouae in 19:51. Thia 1• a terra.. ootta Yl'H, rourtHn 1nchH 11.18h, j■:--al.a:i-•4 with mall out-rollhtt;,. 'l'b.e d.H1£D 1». relief i. or .ipollo, rod ot the sun, ud Gotdoee or U.• ::ooc.. 1'hia che.ming ob.ilcl 3�

r r..:r�· :.. ::..::·.::or Cree�: flM 'r.ft� �Ne. ;:.: to ' .r$. :·,)hl'OO :z...i. ebl:'Oed, b:,, a friond 1 rl". f-.obert G11-:oro or &ilti�ro. - �.eiuir t?len an &"lti;ue o:r an. ll2,1l"o re.�l"Odueiion r.o one mows. �•· ::onroe ea.Ye 1t "'-• a p,reaont. to :�1:,a An�.0 1netto ;1e.y ot '11r-­ �in1a (11 silter-ln-ln• ot her- 011':l :,oung do·t1;};t•r :.:re. :.�) •b.en t?:.e �t�d General SPuel .l,in£80ld. or !�al":1land, congroalr0411. �e R:tne':".Olds gn• it in t:hetr tu:ro 1 to tholr ow da.u,ghter Yli­ ::tnia �hen at.& !'8l"l'1•4 th• eon ot honcie scott xo:, . Ta• Jc,c• 110!1& Y.«-yit lt,tt it to t.toir son, r.';.oae _.-td.c"I', in 1-::Jl, (� eve it btc.-t to the .);.lte :.ow:1,e. !:ntbrOned. on : �a. ':On.roe's c.all ru4ostal, 1t .Jay sun�· ea;e1n tht'.I voey room it XJl.e'I-· in .1.820. 0166


Plate 6l l.:e.Mson Silver Cutora and. Ca.ndlMUoka on Uonroe-Hoo•e.r- :."able ?io. 39?' .ADotbOl" oat. or h.t:trlo=a, cvon old.or th.all tho Uonroc veee:, ce:ae poaa•saion ot '\he Jl' !'..ouao in the r:oover e.t-a. ':'Jtosn, wore :.o:Mt exq-uisite pieces or table dlYor thirt had. 'be-longed to :�:a. ?!ad.hon. fll.llO,et oertelnl.y uaod b:, l:.or in tbe 'Whlte Eouae. 'Z'l:,n:, •�l-6 a silTOr 1.rq« a �U ot aUvar-an.4 ery1tel -C!!l&tcra, • eilYer drtrJt1:ca OUl>. aJ:d. a rair or storli!'Jt; a Uvor <C,:,»dleatl�k• ot en 04rly .1renah r.ineteen.tb con.t.ury dies!�. A lo!.... rtch lo�end. ot A.�riciui lite e.oc�e.nlod: tl.s. Fncil;.• tl'adlUon Htd thDt t�e,y Uo.d bc�11 tor :.:adbou WlilH'' 1:he aipenuion ot hu rr1cnd 'l'bcc:laa. :ort�r�. out ot bullion ■o:tt !..ffl b:, the Bf:sl'.o: or 'l1t-g:1n1e., ;'.lfl.i! th11.'t �he:, r;ere �,i., in A.�r1oe.. �•• : Adlaon r::·:ut tavo e.,.•1;,t th�:J i&tl .:111.t'ot:; ?1\J::. �M ;c,;,.rr..� �t •ilver al10 �avcd in t:.'.! liJ.14 .tire- .. ena t..: � :r �; they t:ent to t.te 1"e,J.� or .-r,,.....;!,..:t>nt · a.uiGOn ' : ll:-ot. OJ',. •. ia @3oon.J.on\. • . 1s:t ...euUiri. ot !lev Yo;-�, • r-0:, l tt." .• w t:.., .. t.lte :.:a6) 1n l'J;:..l . rtio tx-a:, or.:; �aetc:r:i ent to �;·c .Fr1V!..t.C :>1:'lit.:; Roo:: 1 a a14o!.lo.t-d, but. t.l-.o

wU'e:'s :liar:, is one or th.e mon grai:.;io sources ot' :;;1str1ct or Columbia hhto17. or &.J.l the ew•.17 c1t1 zcn:1 of George,.;own 111a is :r.erh�l"s the ooat ai.;propriete oinia:ture to Ol"llellont the ·;.bite F.ouce. J.nd ::s. ne.-ther. CC0.iD6 ce.nerously to tt.o.t concluaion, rrt1at1nted her tsn.ily trea11ure to ::rs. i.oover to bu LUarded oere­ ond priderully emone ita eoD.t�orlll'ioe in th£ ,.arJ.y .Federal drelfint-rooc. Other C'J..artodiena aoni'ided their treasu.rBs to rooc1• r.ho;igh theae are "'oc loen"' , ea ill correct trc:c one brand. of tbe -;.\"L'IlJ'"'en; to a:lO;.:.o:. one of theze h-eesUl'es is t.11e delicate u-..tle Astor piano now mnon.:: the ·:onroe tu.mi in tl..1 a l'Qar.:t. 1t !.a e-. .c.- at exac�ly 11ke 'tbe ro.!>.l. '.�"onroe piano t.hat was too intricate :or uod.ern C!O�Jin.:. It i a of v�e Fedarel po.riod tbet er.cased its 1m: >rted J)U.Jcn tn,ti-umont 1n an box, not t'or patriot.ic ree.eons but becoi;se the houe-ea■soned wood provod so :.ucl. batter adapted t o the homo cl�te. That a. ;,iano-:forte is 1•1e:::t in the i".i:-ni ture of thL day 1s atteshd in .. eye. Jet'fersou waa toupt..::d b7 one; t:rs� -&Jisc:-. bcu,·ht enc. .. itt. ber t1:rst approp!"1et1on; end a c�ng sd.v-:·ti &o:-',Ont or a uit.:htly earlier da;, 'mat :.:rs. ::onroe hero&lt ~1c:,t l.av-o read sn:aouneea: "'J'he piano-torte la becm:ie oo exceedingly f'aatu.onable tna'Ci fe\1 pol.ite tD!:11111es ere w.1.t:bout 1 t. ·...'hie, :"JJ.cb esteamed in­ atn;nent ronna an � -raae.Jle to the te�e voice, t:e.<.es up cut little roon1 may be moved nith eaae and conaequ011tl;y �cpt in ,;:ane .11th but little att�ntton (and c.�ea:iily}. DD.ported. 1Da�l"t:�.cr.t;; 00 :1ot atcnd the ett1::cts or cur cliir.ate c,inoe they sutrer not only f.tou the ac;itation ot tbt.. "Tes::1el cut tho esline !l..ali t:, or the sea • ., Tbb exae-.:; bi sliory ol' tt1c, ie not :nown - tt 1e from tt.e collection or piano-tortes, e�inete, virg!.nalfl, giten O"J :i:UG(l r.orc.t. of ..·e�'�ou to the ::attonel :.1186\lrl., and is 1011Wed to tt.s .:�ite j-.ouH by 1ha't institution. ·;,he ::e.:1c ..-:'J.seu:1.1 J.avin� �re :; in i 't.l posseaaion that. is: We.! atile satiate.atorUy to !:2ll8, was ci.oli,:htod to len... three 0ortrl!l.ite to her.:: upon the Ugh walla ot the 11tt:lo dre.wing­ "::'OOM, t�.at :( culd °t'o c: :"!'<>Pri•tt in nu'Jjeot end period. "r8. ··ooVI!!:-' • rnt & .'leasant t.alr-houi- &in..:; throe ,- 1111 :,ortra1ts, sln"}e the t1eri od !:o.d net yet learned ;;0 oxproso 1h art , d.arul3t1c­ ill:,, in"'IBl!I except upon 1 ts veace.. One 1a e portrait of' e lei!], b,J O.ilbert Stual'tj ono a t:, $,ec:n·e;:ian ·1ortrait of Joaept ee.d, Q:· tl:e 331,e arti st; nnd ons s ;orti-a1t ot l'Dl"y !!o5:loa ..:.or,:,;en by ;k.n.., . .1in . oct, '"ainu.i. in 1764. 1ias c .. o..;:eii e:q.,re3aly !.'o:- .:1.ts :.ilj c o: su.,ijoot SIJ.d 1.iuc • .....;-::;• ..organ, it.en c�,e sat ror !Lil" erti;11rt in o!.LJ..>�.ini,· :.-c.,so dlk, Oen.din._: h:..:·r nristoo.ratie �·c"d l'l."l � �ellcato ;.�ud,s o·,c:- a l�te, �uuld noi ha·1e known hew ox­ q,�ieitel:r .eae ;ie.e to ..U. 011d "it,• t.;e ti.l'aperlos of a Roec Ilr'a.wingr...01�, 0·1er a f'ire--lecc in A countrJ ne ver dosoribed 1u Cietcry bcoku; ;,ut an7'- n"' eee� her there YIOUJ.d bow sr.e nad round '.>at?k ·rowid.

tlulicnte: ctantll.e· �lci.s C'c.:--e to the !.:os.-c ra-e.. in::-:-t'�•• on-e 1t. lh toll It.Uc t�;-t1r :ne.'-,· to U_l.t t, ;ic:10 ...forto. !1.c ot. .-rr oc ��... old ·�or.rt.-c ::t., it'O tob,;.c tl.f.,t r.J.r..t : r..,·e .mown otbro lii:.1. it. .. eic tc t� ·., :roc'..,;i �o oth111r ,;e!':,Y .tod.or:u onui�cnta ctai ,, t�oue,t. in Np.J:"Oaucuon. "no Tue .e. copy ot • �":all brom.e bu,t or Genual Le.rey-otte, t. ..tule in Peri, ud eoot to :·(lnroe erter Late.:,otte'� accund 'rilit to tl.e Cllit•d: States,. ·:'tt;. evr,:,. OC� 1n croa: bisi;.u• on a. ••lt--podoatal, .Ta:t ;:il'en. to !..l"�.· tor ti-is ro«-i by tho :.»n:-oo deecende.nts •h::i OLa th� crig1mU.

lilniatun or 02:'. Ailli• Thornton Proao:n.ted by �•• JJ.onry Fle'thor T'Ai6 o�er 1• a dell1;httul su.l.l N.nlat\\Z'o ot ::to. ,1illln:-: n-.ornton. It too c,a an object d'art baa bad • rcxantic hhto:,o .. l":ainte:d � lit♦ eAd. owned. tr.1 the aubjeot■• temily, it e� b:, man-1,eise into tho p<>•ao1a10Jl ot ttra. }:"..enry Plath-er or 01?:S t■al.ingtou, 1t1 b1 ator-,1 in tho paH1ne; or tho c<:t.kl"J' qt.lit& rorcott:en. At e. l•ttttl" tNm u onthu■1�111tio �1nh.tur1s'\, coll-et:UllB oop1H ot l'.ia p,e.lnti-nga tor a 1110nogro;,b on wo:-: of �Obert 1'iold, tinall.7 �•11:t t?;� 111-tlo minh:&ure to �o <1>:.• ettinod tu tr:erta end. ••tf\blla:�_,d as tl:.o Yiold 01·1g1cel ot �. 7...ornt�n ,:".11ora.tont ).01"t bu.. er-ti,tic vin for .IIWJJ"' yosra. TU a ..t"Jblio e?>.anotor·• clo••l,- eHOOi•t•d -1th tho •U--ly ..tltc l:Ou:ee. He .,,.. a �•r-> a doctor, 1n lll'Chitoct. on• ot 1:1:tt,e ti.rat Ooazc.b1iOJ1or1 or t.ho City ot ,,iuhington, ac. ott1ee to •hfch ho lf... appo�ted. 'by l:.1• tr1.en.4 o.orp lit.ehhtgton. r:• drer. tho ;,lrmo tor 1:t.a ru-e.t CapUol. ; he took u .udont intoreat in t.te erect.ton or the tlrst whito t:ouao, beina oou.UJ.i•d .wro then O:lco ��• � u;...:.s : .obe.n on the ,u.bJeot; he wilt the Oct8',."011 iiouoo thet ,.'t.!t to ot !'or • tiao tl.o te:a;.,orar:, inlit• HDl.Zae ror t.!". o ::adi:..oi.•; Me


.. ...

:' is 11\D.C.;�.er !:cinJt."1ill e!lt in I .. ?'(,or,, t:,l'l.t bel.>n3a tl,err t.: .- 1. --;.t o!' !:re..:... t ...or. :!'.,:l:i ;·i -;.t r.,f c.vmer�l.1,,, thc-uch it was .JJ:.J.. ".... vo.1 W . .rs. :.oo·:er 1'01· tt.e . :dtt.1 ;_:;,us1. 1n lJZ:... 1'1B is c. CO�-✓ �t t.L.e ..,e11jll%in .. ea,; :, ortrait or :i-o. :.:on.rct. o,.·net· cy hel" uoseen....a.:-. ts. It .. aa . t.b,t,;:d .. 1 tll 8'lJ irit el1J cl,aiu by _bcr.. CW.illl;; of e.s�i11t;ton ,. -.,l::o iae.s ;;f;e donor. �• ber.l('i, 1.0 l.i .., tl,e br1,;!_t •.. yes of . .r! • •..Obl'OD look oveJ· her ve.i.·1c,:t cei;n •1th lta wide er..:..ine .eleevcs nt a :ruo::, l!t,e 1:ou_..:. i,.. rsc.lf f1n.... ve17 tas::ion�h.1.e,,1 fer.iliar.

.Dl'n Oll' AcqtllSITIOII The lhite Bouse 't'Urniture llbcee orilftn alld 1ate or ac­ qu1a1tioa ia unknown baa 'been grouped to,etnr by article, not by probable ate. Io aom. cuaa, of' cau.rae, the pel'iod or tb.e t'urn).• ture can be guaaaed at qu1te clearly, like the Bel.ta armchairs nade 1n the 1830'• and the ebony Zast Boom aota of the 70 1·e. But 111:ven in azch caae.s the date � their iato the House ia ...,b inilatini ta. It s eems aimp'.ler, th■ra.rore, to keep them in .: .roupa • w1t.h th• ho� that tortune may aoaetime briD.g a.lens a tnumn triend who can 1ttt the: out ot thetr enoaym:tty J.nto proper recagnitlOZ1.

There 1a only one wa.rdrobe 1n the house �t aeam.s ol4 anough tbat it m1sht haTe bean lfonroe•e. It is � mahQQD.y, 1ta beeutif"IJ.111 J)oliahed. wide panels ot wood. ml"'.R■etiD,a; one o-r the Mo.Droa ward.robu daacrtbed ae •1.a:r,c.e, palUIJ.le4, •h�,111- fowid in the Southwest Bedroom by Prea14ent J"oJm Quincy Adam.9. Thie lRIZdrobe ot' oure t1rat appaare -ror our reoop1 tiOJJ. 76 ta. tbat aame Southwest, lmdiug a color of bops to our gu_eaa- t�t 1 t mteht be ab houise prtu. Bil t 1.t 1 B sUffllDUJlted w1th a ereet ot a cened bird, t:111ob. more llf.U"lY Victorian 1o its desiJtn than early !'ecleral. Tie reluctantly conclude it ia more probably- cne ot the lerea elegant wa:i'drobes th.e v�ry te.ehionable Presidat Vll1l Buren had tor btualt, e.tter he Md aat in the sun ot tboae South­ west tall .-tndo,re, lo-_ before rreat magnolia branches aba.ded th111" J:n:C.8"• and plennatJ what a well-4reaaed ezeouttve mlf'ht nead to 11ouae bis garments. van. quren, wa raad, wore a. bom.e.e:pua BUit to b.i■ inaugun.ticn; and h.a, end even eom& or hie aucscea■ora, Md no dress euita tor tlte1r dinners: but ne was none the leea a model -fol" the haberde.sbora ot hie tiru, end we t be certaiu. he gave his armotr•e tbe aeeesaa.:ry amount of" �bou--ht. Be 1'0\lld aleo naoeaea?'ily llke carved birds perchei:J upon hie f'urn1 tura, !l.Ot quita ec lare:a or 110 6111.borate carvea birds ea croul4. Pres14eat .Btlehacan, but etlll carved bil'ds ratner than carved ahelle and roaea, or than that slightly barbario taeh:lon of wrought h:asa t'or tr1 ,uing, that .fent out 1n the twenties Yi th the !!lEnOry or Napoleon and bis Atrican ad.venturaa. P.l"eaideut Grant ba4 a wardrobe in this southwest MCJ111.1 President Clevell!Uld, ten year.e later 1 certain].y bad thts actual p1eo• in tbie: same room, as pieturee prove. It •as in his 497 hie a:letar 1 s roor.t, and this her wardrobe; a.nd it rGmllned t.h• SoUtll•eet B8"'e 1f81'drobe tor t'orty year.a. It haCI a short soJou.nt across the �11, 4ur1ng the Coalidge era, -BX:cept tot- that one holiday, and grant-tag tor on• dNBY mcaen.t that thie 1a a Monroe piece, it may !told the Whiie Hou■e racord t'or domestic :ru.ru1 ture, tor managi:r:i.-:1: to stat in Olld room.

.l.n unknown ch1tton1er now in the Presidont1a.l Badrconi suite lDP1)' be a• old •• tbat wardrobe. It 111 mahogany, bN.utif'Ully aged, wlth it. drawer pllla of i,1eree4 breea. It haa no mirror ot its own , snd 11:rs.. HooT&r I whc found ueo f'or 1t in her d.reeaing room atudy, bung an early l"eoeral Conetituticn ll3 minor 1 "1th eagle and etU"e: 1 above 11: tli th complete ha�. Ite anonymo'lta purche.ser, whether 1fr>a .. 'l'fler or Jara • .&dame, or even Mrs. Monroe barselt • ,rould bave been pleased. .&no1ber ahittoniel', equally anonymou.,, equally mirrorlaaa, 11 a modern ut111hr1en plea& o:r ,'9rey end greei-11 painted wood, prob­ ably boUC"ht �Y a 111U.Oh later m1et.reas tor any oue ot the 11ttl• bedrocmis. It now bolde eewlna eeeent.iala in the 280 top.tloor ening,-roam.. Two miacallan.eous pieoes at unk:non bedroom. t'Urni ture be­ long, p!"C"babl7, to the ei,a;htiaa. one ia -th• screen now 1.n the $ Bedroc,m_1 west ot the oval Boom, Three panelled 1 fl"amed in walnut oane4 wt th the geometric ruularity ot the 111nion l)l!lriod. 1 it• pe.neh, are uw handaoma in linen cretonne. But llben it reigned originally in tha Soutbweat Bedroom nut door, it we.a dark burlap, and probably a tasll.10uable eatia.taction aa well. ae a practical aid to 90319 ledy dia11kiag dr�ugbts 1n wit1tu end tigbt shut l\oora in ..,_, equal�. '?hat lady might hen boeo. lira. Mcl!ll'OJ' (Preaident Al-tbur•s stater} or Mi.ea Rose Clr.relBDd, or perhaps Mra. Grover Cl97el&Dd or llra. MclUl1107 kept it tor tbeil' gueeta. 'le blow it wae not Mt.e. Onmt•a. Eer day liked 1apa.aeae acraena. aharmlngly ot paper and bl!mmoo. Liked them ao that they listed them in tha1r .1:nvsitoriae (usually ao barren ot '1eaaript1.on} aa ••creen 1 pl.per, J'apaneae.•


A. bureau t:Jt about the B&H period,- or perhapa a 11ttla older, judgiag by 11i■ hlp:h_, equere-tnmed tli.l"ror and: ita m!lrble top, its wa.1.Dut dmware ornamented by handles of carved,is now in oue of' the upataire bedrcoms. It WQB tound in 31� the etorerooma,- hopalessl.y drltted away b'om 1 te: contempcrarie.e. Also far from ita 1"0om-mtea, probably, ia an a.ncieut deek now u,p 1n the houaskeepei-•• suite on the top 1'loor. It has had a re:sJ)OU!lible career tor n:aoy yaara before 19!9, when it ne tound o.n the tl�ird t'loor end reato-r-ed to o1'ticial lite. Jira. Rooeavelt•a secretary kept her memore.nde. in it• pigeollholes 1 i n 1901, in tbe west end. corridor, and consulted her t"rie.nd and em298 plo,.er acroa■ 1ta top 1n the sur.ny morn1.a,g hour11. Arter bar reign other rem1n1ue aecretariea used 1t, and its eecrete ba well worth lesrnillg it a •Ympa:thetic •hculd e?er :tore­ gathor with it. Old, tin.ely mda, delicately, tt pra-datad the


DATE Ol!' .lC..'VISITl0'1 ROOHTelt: ere. in Ua IIIBking. It might eaeily hlTe be911 a J'irat Lady'e deak: :tiny yoera before Kra. ll.ooeeTelt, whain a wi:te to a Preeident tended to h81" own letter-writi� and might ba:Yo bHn gled to clooe 1 ta diacrBBt lid on never-endina correepond■nc$. e little rectangular hassock, llands0111e in blue bro­ cade, baa come baek: 1 poaeibly 1 to its coutemporal'ies. lira. T.att t'ou.nd it "in the houae• and it lei DD"lr, attar wanderioga, M iff the Blue North Bedroom (N■t o:t the ol"QH ball). But it uay ha'H bem thent before in the &0'■, holding up l'ellh Grant'a little croa■-t1ed lllippera to the polished �t•. aa abe stud.led or ohatter&d. by ber 11 ttl■ Victorian fire­ place. The unknown cl:ail"a io the White Rau2U!I Tiou■ly the. occaetonal le:tt-crnr.e tram vanhhed -..1 ■ate, aalnged tor J)fll'lor, bed roan aoa bath :rloor a■ need baa dictated. Their ortytnal uo• only be gu,HHd at.

are uaually ob­ set.L'!I I otten tor­ on the aeeond and. plao• can

one o'f armchair■ :unr in tbe Roee Drawing Room may h■H been in the Green Roam or Red Room. downstairs, till tbeae roome bad lest their mahogany turni ture about the time ot the C1T11 lrar. President BuchanAn might hue bought 1&2 them, though their attractively nooth linaa and side 1&3 mabogac,' framea euggHt an earlier period, batare carv1:ng cl!l!N in wt th 1 t• inavitable i:?reeting canter medallion. Qt.ti te p0aaible 1 t 1• that Preaidani Monroe llll�t have purohaead them. or might he.Te· bad them. mde 1n .Uexandl"11l to accompany the pelt abed ilBhOia:aD.7 Vil'v,inis aota le.t&ly diacOTeNd to be his. Thi• pair of chalra w1. th w14o zieat, aquare upholstered: back and curling a.rm■ n.& upataira by the ttms o� the McKinley acboiniatration, in "Ule ""t end par1our, ,.nd atayed there until the creation ot tho em,ill eorl:y- :,"ederal drawing l'OOlll uext the 0n.l Library, when they -went to join th• Monroe Virginia eota (which 1e very like them) i n that room.

unkn01111 'l'able No. 2eo; Chair No. 67-268 .J. little lo,r chair, wood, •1th a. cane eoat, and an old f'sahioned air, now used as a bathroom. in the Not-thea8'ern auita, 1a proba'!>ly o.f the period ot the eo•a. So my be 7 a chair that once undoubtedly llad llllDY duplicates in tbe 1:55 bouae, e. typtcnl loop...baclr, round--eae.ted walnut aide chair, indispensable in the bedr0011. eat ot 1ts day. It, too, is in the Northeaet Badroam aui'te.

A.not.her pair or perhaps pe:rlour cha.ire bae no hi&tol'J' traoe11:ble. Th•J are obdously a product of the lat• anent1o• or e11(htiee, and e.e they are t1r.,t tourid in the 'fle■tend Sitting Room too, may be a purchase or :Mra.. CleTeland, when ah• •• a:s.eo aaaemblina that retreat. Thea. armchairs ara hesvy, o� dark roeswood, created •1th a carved bunch of rc,eea, their eaata: or dark leather. DriginalJ.1, probably, they had a m1rtohing aota, which ha.11 diaapi19ued. They are no,r in the large Borthwaat Bedrom..

One particularly lovely set or rosewood chairs probably detea back before tho C1Til War. They ar& exe..""!ple,s ot the work ot Bol;.a, •ho b�n to be popular in the thirties and rortiea, and whoae chairs are distinguie.bed by their backs ot •olid beau titully euned and polieb.ed rol!IBwood, &haJJ8d like a violin. 71ve ot the chairs remain, tour aide--chatra aud one al'mChair. �1 te pose1bly they were selected by Van Buren, who furnished bia eecond floor with •OJ:>O care 1 especially his bad?'OC!m suite. Or they may han b••n bought tor Bu.chazian'a State Bedroom when that t-oom we ap'ledily lDlldl beautiful tor the Prince ot Wale.a' vbit in tM late t11"t1eis.

*Including an:»Chaira, l!!lidechatrs, roe:Jcara Noa. 152 and 1&3, see Pl.ata XXIV Noa. 65 and &e. ae.e Plate XVI

1JNKNC:1N D.lTK Ol!' A<liUISlTION able by a atrip or pierc� carYilll'; under the uma. They wero 1n the P.l-Hident1al otf'tc• tor President, llcX:inleyj but haTe no• returned to pr-into lite - very pri'ra.b lite tn the top tloor corridor.

President Grnnt•a State Bedrocm, we know 1 had three cheira or roae•ood and crir::aon a&tiu, which ,rere prob­ ably theae. ,:'heae chairs ha'Te been used both in the State 3ad.roori: and in tho Ovel Library.�!., are still 1n the Pretlidenttal Bedroom, t.wo in another be:iroom. SOme f'e• ove:ratutted cbaira ot an indiscriminate age are acattered about the seoond t'loor. or flezi•t,, perhaps the oldeat ia a low ample chair, despl7 oTeretufted, w1 th curving back continuing level around the seat. It had a place of honor once in the Barrhon Oval Library and might have been. 98 bought t-f:lr that adm1n1atttt1on, a1nce General Barrison ga-re over the L1 brary, thl!!Lt hia prea.ecesaore had used ae a !IUpf.'l,e:nenta.ry otrtce, to the: ladies or the ram1ly, end they ::ay have ret'Urnished 1 t in cooaequenco. Howner, since Krs. Grant yeara bef'ore, hacl had two easy cha1rfl in that Ul)raTY, this moy have been one ct her choice. It 1• now a bedl"oom chair 1n the presidential. suite. Another overstutted a�, with a hller 'oack, hee been in the Southna1: B&d.roan al.ace llcXinley•a time at l.eaet. 11:e hiF..h restful back au,"';-esta 1 te purchaH ror Mrs. Ucltinle7, and certstnl1 places it later the.n tho ae.11 rounded b■eks at the sixties 9.D.d eeyentiea; but it might have bHn the pet purobaae ot either of the Presidential dstera,- Mrs. McXlroy 97 of' the Artl'n1r ti::ie, or Kiss Roae CleYel.ana. Ona ve.ry 101 like it, ,r!th a rolling headrest more contortable than @"l"8Cef'u.l, ?Day be also Jira. JlcXinley'e - deponent, biting in thie case tradition, aayeth uoth1Jlf"• It 1a now in h81'­ wbile bedroom, the larga Northweatarn.

.lnother chair, a low leot.her-aeatad aide-chair, its leather shoulder-reet supported by a typical !..ate Victorian back or gao:?letric linea 8nd circles, was J)robably cho11en about the same ea time, and probnoly alao i'or the Library or perhaps the cabinet Reem. I� has now tll.e honor or baiug the chair o.t the Lincoln deeir+ in the large Uorthwest 3edroc;m.


One rocker only 1B unknown - a plain low wood rocker, wi ttl knob to1>e, auggestha somehow of a rocking nurse. !te history betoro its present atatto:ci. in the ••wing room beinp quite un287 tracaable, we can aa:d.p 1 t, it we care to, to i.he nursery of' a baby Cle;vel8lld or s Barrieon, a littlo Graot e:rand­ ehild, or a 'l'yler intaut, or even, since rockers are .-;uowll eo rur back as the t�irties, to a Jaciceon. or a Donelson.

Two other over•tutfed s:n:chairs, one in the Southweet Dressing HoOlll ·:nid one in the Houaekeei:e,r•.e .suite on the third floor, wore both )Xrobably added during tbe Rco,un"el t or Taft adm1n1etra.tions. l!'he:, wel"e both in the North 91 2R8 Bedroom west ot the crosa-hall - the blue bedroac:: "hen the boul!lekeeper had that room, and nre l)t'Obably addad tor hel" co:ntor\. 191

An older one, now in tbs aimll anteroom oft thit PreeiU�nt'fl stud7, wae in the aatne blue betiroom �or Preaide.nt McKinley, and probably pre-datas hh times.

The leather chtlira - the 'Ptp.lblic chairs• - now scettered a.bout the eecond tlocr ara tlot .. m and jeteein trom the various &eh once :t'urnhhinp- the JXt't1eiden:ttial o!"t"ices. one pair or chairs, more elaborate than the rest, w&l"e poaeiolf celaetdd tor the Oval Library when tt waa used more or leea ae o.',ica quarters, ... tor Preaidt.ntial atudy BJJd contereneee durin·: the t ,1."mB ot Ce.rtiald, .!rth.ur 1 and Cleveland. or the three, Arthur, tha alege.nt 1 h the t:10et probable purehe.ser. The chairs ha:te their !lturdy :rescullne co::::tort, smoothly covertld in dark l'Jather, t"aahionNo■, gg_lOO, 2g2-293, end 98, see Plate :rn 1 Hoover.

•eoU!:h"t. in l930 tram the Soldiera• Hcx::.e where he spent his au:::i.:Jera • No. 68, eee Plate l:-;i 1 Buetanen.

:sve:, proper Vio'torian room had 1 ts couch or loun:e or soh,- tor faint er fohttar lacJ:r or �•or i ta wearr who was atten found taking !11■ ner uron. it. 1th• White f!ouae waa no nception 1n 1ta n1na-toentb century p•riod; and we can bl quite auN that ita other n:lnateeotb century tenant.a ueed their.a aa ai'""'!nly s..e 414 Preaid•nt PDl.k, who _. as ha ea.ya in hte 41.ary, ""spent ?IIY' SUnday ly11l!i on my ■ot'a. tn my o!'tice J dieeu ss1Dg atraira 11'1 th GLJneral • • • who called. " era. Polk , poor dear, ,ra.s ependiDC her mlaria•ridd:en Bu.nda7 on her aofa in ?lar boudoir, not Oiacussir.e et'fe.ira wt th anyboc!y. GoTeramant saked a vood de.:11 or 1te execu­ t'he t:-·m:lly in tha da.7• when th& tidnat.r !'ibar played abCllt the toot or the i1bite House �an, and. the Potomac tlate stretched their tevo:ri■h wast•e beyond. The leaat a malaria-providing Government could do tta to turntsl"� the ta.m1ly ot 1he t1D:nct with taahionable eot'aa. 1, did, thoroughly, evu thc:l� 11e ca.nn.ot tell when, in the casea of' the 1nd1Tidual aoraa we inherit. Tbe V1ctor1aD11 had tbe Wlusual leon.y or choice in t.hat one sort ot tuTni\ul"e.. Pos..­ esibly the t.ypa ot the lounge (m::iai lilce aur C.ha1H lOJ:lgUOB ot today) with the round rolling headreat, the pillow or tim , and in 1ts or1gioal dreea wt th the inevitable to•sled t.rince around the hem, ta the oldeat4 O.t that period. we ;Uli1'e two ai,ec1mana in the :Vbl te Bouae. Dne J now in. the north bedroom weat o.t the alccft ball, and now ir. the sort blue ailk broc�d• as ben.at1t, that .. 'blue bed­ rooo:,• i s , we know, •older'n Cen•r•l Hal-rhon..'' ot the oe.rl.y nineties. It was in the Kclinley Nartbweat Bedroom, where Mrs. Jlc!Cinlay mat han ro1!tet on it &lid ita rui'rled white plllo•• lllllD.J' an bour. llr8. Cleveland ll1.1$lt bave been 4G wppoNd to have bou!"ht ti, atnce ab.I Wfl9 tlu� first 1:nown "'11te Houff lady to cboae that room. Perhaps ?b-c. Grs.ot bought it to a'Pre&d slegance betore her dau,..hter--1n-law 1 or p� hapa , even the Government bourat it tor Kra. Polk in bar uncom­ plaini!I!! il.l-beal tb , That lounge seems to have atayed in the lfortb:IJeat Bed­ room in epite ot ite ali_,,htly oln-tasuioned. look 1n tll e ninet1e&, Wltil s very mooern youn, lady took charge or the roam, a :roune lady not epecially ffi'fen to recliniDJ,,: in !ier nkin£" hours. Alice Baoe.1111..,elt bad her boudoir ; ae e.ttl'ac tive as poeeible by an it.dulcant tDDthar; but the intiulgent mother was deeply concerned also over the tJ.n.ilabla t'or t'urnte3i� !J:er newly d•corat, 'i �ouse. Pi!'I\ ladloa hal'e bad to �D.1:pulista their bu1.gets aa sklll­ tully aa an7 other :'l.OUHholder, 'l.Dd .J&ra. !loomevclt had r.,erbapa aa Cit'ticult a tt . .e as anyone, between a huec:and .,ho wanted th1n£,e �one instantly, and nn arcbitect •ho wr<,n"-ea. thine:s done :>9!':t'ectly • .ta s res:Jlt , •� "l!'.5na"'.ed• in her own d!lf,:l:ttt=l!nt , th"?- a&co.mi :floor, and r:;11naP,ed aa h:i.a tr:'.IllY anothor lady, b),· shittini• abc-ut llhat aha had 3lrer.tdy. To !ctta Al.tee'• gay chintz l>l!d1')oti we.a ehit�ed. -the he ·se 1 a latest couch - the "'1'urlc1.Jh oVel"Dtut:t'ed" 'that lfra. Mol:in.lay

had ha.a brought for bar :7eatend. Sittiug Room; .:llld since the :n1net1•• bougt_t set■ in t�t-eea aa the se'tantiee had 'touc.. t tbtc in pairs. there •ere the inevitable two t..rmeheire to co wit.b the couch . They qui to tilled n&D tbe ?-,uge room tha-t ie the. Horthweat Bedroom, 1..n4 there was no real place o.-:- n....ed: tor the old loqngei i and t21,e old lounge na exactly r1r�t :or uae in the Southll&s"i Bedroom at the f'oot ot tbe tine n.ew tourpoater Jira. Rooa&T(;l t had bed made. She mu.e:t have .sung to herselt with pleasure the day � all waa �•ttled so .nicely.. .&nd !!lb• m.uet have bt1i,n l)lea.aed to find another coueh 1 - e lounge VH'1 like the t1.rst, except t?tat 1 t has a 11ttle side win.� 01 ••ll aa a heed rest I tor the co::r'-lapondtng post tion in the ne-..- 2'Tortb­ eaat .BaJroom, Two appe.ll1�ly large b&drooma, both pr011• erly �rniahed , mat have, coat a c:onscieaticrJ;a budg9tiere 18 woh thought. ".Ye mipll.1: M&il.J' torgive .her tor not tellillS eqyOlllt WhtJI"e .ehe :round that second lounge. Sbe ml;ht havei had it, or bour1tt it second h.MUJ . ".'ia know onl:.· that 1 t appeared 1.h@ on the records tor that bedroom en4 there r81D!line to this dey. lira. Roosavel:t =w.y haTe bougtlt a.notber couch lfe still hnve in the house; and prob:i.bly ah•J did J tbour.h w-:i don ' t bow why ate did or tor wber.. It ie • ta■hi..onabl.e daveopol't of the early twYnticth century, tu.Uy overatutted, wi"th na woodwork: in e'riden.oe, rie,.i tangl14 back aod l.l"IDa o-t the hei{'bt and gar;.erously pad:ded. An enor:noua number or young Roosevelte nip;ht bava 354 ■qu••zed in eid.e by side on i t , Lnd sat all at1.ent101i while the Presidaa.t ot tJ-:e ,....n1'ted Ste.tea thrilled tbe:n in "'� story 0£ his own iJlvent1on. ait where they sat, before what tireple.ce, we do no1: know. r.�. Ta ·t •tound LDd adaea• this 1)9.l"ticular couch to the Pruaident• a Soutl:A"eai �edroo:. 1n lt.UG • end there it has beec ainea. 2"18

AJ:iothor lcu.n,.:e, overstuttec. :ind cOltlforte.�lo with a pnir ot quarter-ar.n.i; to hol:t 1 ts pillows, was for ln tbli 30Uthwest Dresai:c.g Room, when ihat room was the bou­ doir ot the J'trst IAd.7. It. 1• na• in a thtrd.-rloor bedroom�

Tbe lees 4om.e■t1c unknown oouohea ot' the Houae .hl!lve, l:IIC)•t ot them, vaniehed.,- the couches at. the executive o!'ftcea end the cabinet ream, and hallway• ... tbe "old mhorany portwina oolol" sof'at" ot the l..inoolo Rei:J Room, ,;he plump overstutt'l!I o!" Arthur's r:'.ltiical Green Room 1 evei.. and inevi t:ibly , the la:r,-est ele�:ant sofa• of :.:on• roe 1 !! hall 1 that Ra 'lo be the ea.tra.uce ball O't a gentleman aud not the lot.oy ot the People's Palace. But two eouctei, are atill in the houee, �hat have had e.o elBf"':mt back,n'ou.nd thaufl')l. their data or houe:e entry is not clear. One ie a divan ::10:: slip-covered in the tiny ercu.od-tloor roca uaod aa a dispensary ac.d storercom c0r.1bined. It 1a ebcrn:;y and ce.ned ae to fri:.,3119 1 end comt'ortabl.y upholat.ered., anJ not, to cur D!Ddorn tcete, a creature or natural elt;_;�ance. _.Jt 1t

?ii.: • �. aeie Plate XVIII



woa once ono or the hondsomo dontzena or tllo Zent Roo::, tn 1 \a ebony o.:id gold p:,r1od; GS tho atall co:-nor chair oa. the a<1c::ond «2 tloor 1 aecribed to litre. Thie couch, tc,rner, iw probably ot a lattt per-1 od , ncd. oay ho70 co@ in du.rlag ou.o ot tho roturniahing aot.iv1 tioa or P1'01ldon� 1.rthJ.r or Mr-a. Clovo­ lond. Tbo othor couoh io .so cloao a·nd tl"Ue a C«apcs:cion to .aa .outhont1c Vo:iiroo couc::h th:1t 1t 30� o.b:iul"d to lta\ it aa AD ,u1known. 'rho 1.o,01y tloo=.!n� �•ldo--tro.=od :ahO,"!.&ay VIS-£1.Bia :.otoa DOW conaeu1ally sot l:& !&rs . Hoovor•s &w.:--1:,- !"ldenl Drtiw1ng Ba<:� 1&4 hovo I.eon tosoth -: :- eiuco nnyono ca.n rc=o·bor. �holr dlttoronc,o a:ro ht dot.ail only, not 1:i oey way ln atylo, epirH, or poUno or oge. eut U: 1 e 3t1'ktly accurat.e tba.t o:i-, isot'a , •hen unco•orod tor upholatoria,g, �NII th;, logand •o. Hcn:ea.­ drie. , Vh·�tnie , lP2l• caned on the h11.or wood ot tie rr�. Tho ot.1:or d14 not. All in. all, the lihlte Houeo couohoi, ml::e a roproaonta­ tiYo 4taplay 01' thta Mrch or Proeideatial t\lrntturo 1'0ohiona. 110 ha,ro in tbc Cr�on Roor:, f"or hustonco , oxacny tho .oori ot couch Coorgo -:-Oa:hicgt:on had tn hte drewtn� roo:i;. ttoro aro two MortrOe typos,- "tbo gold ar,d aatln •aa.1011 aopba• or torml glory tor the �onroo :.'!bl to HCNae, now ht \lie ltao\ :too=, tho Tery J'Nncb OAOS Mo.airoo b�bt ror tho Blu.o Roo:i; and hie old V1rglula sota mad.o in iloxel'ldrin.. Vtln Dur-en'a odd llttle additio:i to tho lt:onroo Slue Room .aet r'lii."'.bt l>o called a sofa . Attor tb18e ft haTo nothing u=aUl ihe tlld-co::a­ tuey, u.nltUia so=o ot tho :4t 11 tt.lo OYor.atutt6d aotaa o:- tra::ed• cssorll>lfd. to tbo Crant pertod oro older th4D. tha.1- . 3\lt. .rOM­ eo:t. 1 8 o!tlca ao:e, procla.1�1.:,g i ts Union se:iUeonta 1a. the n8:ttoncl obt&ld. on 1b croet, te attll in t!\o aocond floor hall. And General Gro.nt•o to.ct. Rooa �ucb my be hare on tho RrOWld tloOi" i and. lira. Grent1 ai t'at rrtnr,9'1 Jnl'lour-...coucb ,. und Uba. Nollio•e lounge, and. !'Dthor Dcnit• o tiroplac• aotu, all r:cy 'bo sco.ttorod cbout, but. ,aUll tn uao. A:rthur'• pat,:, or olsge.nt slx-lo.""tcd rod-lt..3thcr library sote.e, bNM.:el'l:t in 'tor his oval s1:...dy, Ot1"1co ond 1,1bro:ry, ur.o 1n tho e,ot ond corridor. Ml"s. Clo..,-oland"e l!toaloD-SQ.uarod n,..tndled he.11 cot.aa, cbo:son !'or tbo co:rort ot "Yiolto�a in tho ClllC. hall, a:-., all t'cur ot' the.:a. tn Ule Or-oWld Cor::-ldo:r-. Mrs. .. lleKlnlo7•a TUrklab up?1olatol'-&4 couch i s ..-1th us yot, �a,. Roooevult'a bodroo::i couch , A l lttlo &&'Uoo oach tor Urs. tort ond. Mrc. HD::-dtng 1 P:-eoldont l'1laon• a atrll!l-goli,,e: do•o:1port f'rc:t the Ca:atorenoo 1hlP Coorga lraeh1?1.$ton, and Jira. Co-oHc!eo •:, htu:J::ock-&\Gnd •1th ite Sa}' c-.1ahlo:i,. Anc1 bs.ddoa a.ll the to=port1ry b:-ocade sottt.1 end. o t o h h c ,::r1�,: �::r�: ::.1:��r�� r::1! :1�r:� �::r; �.a!� co:ie 0-0:a tho doco:tlea1,onod ?�tlowor, to r�in on th• •�Ad tloor, a. hlgh-tockod eott Freon aottoo !'or tho upP,_cr Ovol noom,


G treat dao;, loi:g l00;t?:o::- couch lo. tho up_p&r hell, .and a bleok lc:e.thel" �:i,•tl�et- ...ota tl:·it. will 8'4.Jr 1n. its ground. ball cornor •• loa,g p.l"oltobly 1 os iU stuNy aMloea can up�.old tho \.ired a1,i;ht-aoor.

TU tall ball..olock 1n tho eocon4 'floor conldor has an olush6ztoaa 1ot-rigu1Ag to tho ree:eaT"Chor. It la uad�ubtcdl)' old:. lt• taco, •hb ita •ttoct ct tall torobaad. t Us polo gold coraor oeroll-TOrk, U,111 deUcstoly ·.:rough\ 1ron hand& (hour only , witho1a tho iripe.ttont =odorn 1oco1:d-h0.::1d ) ta 1nacr1bed Aoroa '11llsrd ot So•ion.. Aal"Oa 11'11lard or Boeton •• 'born ia. 1'1&7 ,... and tlour1abod \?toroattor tor iho Biblical apea. ot yenra , 2�6 d�ly caklug eloe-k:a dul"lD& "hls uahood , -.1 Ul t"e a4v1.eo. ua.4oubtedly or his ::-.ore ta::ious b:-o\h.or Slmo�. � Thia old cloe!-! £11 poaa1bl:t -thoretoro pro-t'OTOl\ttlouary. Kor doc-a Ha o.bUU.y tir,, cht::o bou:r prev1:1ni 1 ta beta.� ao old, ■lac• cbi:-:i1ng clocl<a known 1n tbo colonio& •botoro uio ur.•


&.lt the !'a.ct ot ita be1� old Ju yM.ra dc:oa not of c-our:..o l>TOYO that. U 1e old la tho 'lhito HouM. wo abould Uk1, or coura.o, to 14ont.1ty it a• tho a!.r-iktag clock 'l'O road ot 1.a. P:-oa!.d•i::t Jobzi Qutncy Ada:u' diary, i?\at rouaed htm 0::10 :.u:=or :x;,t·atag at thrN• thlrty, WhOD ho rMnt to t.n�ls:-o ht.:.:aolf' jn &l(.OJ) till t"OU'r-1:hirt.7. 'n".at cloclc • a cbJ:::-.eo lltlked bm end tn a aloo:py da:o bo :dsccuntod tt:e:n, ami.oyina bhuolt onoug.'l to �ote i:be to.ct. ta. hie li&ry. '.lhe­ tMr ho routed hie talthtul body-eerunt. A:1to:aio 1 too, .e11d cuT1od him ocr to nla 1n th• Poto=-c .�n hour eo:rltor tbaA 1,1.aua.l , l:.o does not note. Ji,or wbotber b.o all:;)l:, curaod I.a.roll Willard of !oaton and t

:: �.�:!�:1:i: ::•� :::horli:/!:.n:_ � � :'1����; ebo�ld ba•o bo,m curoocl.


�!::n :to

T.'a bod D:c:h - at thh date .. that he abculd have doscrll:iod b1a clock, oa J-JITl:'1£ N'!ndod case-top, tbn• top ur:ia o:i e:::iell rooeod pedoat.ele:, il18ot 1:'ocded pilaster$, lo:Jf; "S?'O\l�h t-bre.a:e otro.p-b1n,eoi,, and broH i<oy-holoo, tban tha.t ho nhould. ba1'e des­ cribed. tbe on bl• eNd•bede . Seodl1nse aN all ,'l lU:o ond o..aly t'aadne.t11lf. to thoir pro-..1cJ planto:-. Ju:,:d.t:uro 1a Qcb i:oN 1ntoraating o. h\utdred 7oora later.. lt Mrs • .l.dau, thai 1ei,y or U.'l'•ly tuato aad. co:it.laoa lol .. to tho e'XJ)o"t"1once 1 bad cnl)' booa =oved by t:1:1 aptrit or histor) keoplns ot a d!M"J'1 but. ae tar aa �o know. no .ihito ltouco lod.y :..Od ovor kopt o diary-, thou,h tbr-eo Prosidoota - Sn tb1 WhU.o Ho•1ce haYC <lO!lO ao. Sho haa l):'O�bl)• b.,10ll atre.14 to! Cr WDI ebo ol,rayG just too buty?

.&it tt thia •ere that Adar.1a Clock ar:d 1 t •• 111 the '\fflit.e House in the ail!hteen-hundred-1,w&ntiea, we then lose 1111 record ot 1 t tor ID!.ny years. The tn'ffll.uable Grant 1a.Tentory doee not contain it. But that nee4 not dtscnrage us. Hall-clocko were d&pr•ssiDPly demode in 111• Gl""lnt period - mntel clock:, vrero in their hey-day, and Krs. Ora::it saw aery mantel 1n her !Jo\ had 1 te: 1nn1 table :oant&l-olock . Thia t1:1.ll aociont W.g?tt very easily ho•e been 11tt1cked in - or hetore - the Oraa.t day. Prui1ent Arthur, •!'IO bouebt h1r.iaal.r a proud beauty or a ball clock, carved slabora<;.ely, certainly would never, in c.ll hh Ee.rtorial ele,ance, hav■ got hi'" &alt up in tb.e attic to see it he he.d one ·Jlready. Nor "ould he hove sent anyone olae. Old ruroiture in President Arthur's day wa11 no dietinction - 1 t wa11 e. coateaaion. It' the clock we-re 1n the house in the se?&:i.tiee anC eir?ltiea, it was sere undor 1t11 dust ln the dark aholtor ot the root� 3ut llra. Cleveland ma>· lla..-e un8""thod it and dust&d it. ::V1denca le l)Naumptiva that she did. The clock , 11'hen we rir&t find it 1 1a in the �eat-end Si tt1:og fioom; and �s. Cleveland rtrst turnhhed that ;l'eat-end Si ttirp Root11. We aro told by an adm1r1Jl.! traoate.nt that "Mro. Cleveland had 1:lBde the second tloor homelike with orn.e.1»nta and antiqua clocka. " Apparently entlqutt clocks !'Osyeetoble before aotiQ.ue rurntture, .'}ad, whlle t!'.:ese at' hara mieb1: ba1'e been new anti(lue clccka, the7 mip:ht alao (at le!>.at one ot thr.n) have been resurrected clocka, i-ivao Yrs. Clevele.nd 1 s kn<>WD. taete for her owo attic. ':';e kno■ thia c.loek •aa 1a. the end &1"ttiCJ6 room tor Itta. Mcxtn1ay , who must: to?e knit away many hours by 1 to aot't chime■• It 1ma there tor Jira., t'ac1na the weat:,,rn :iuo i.c th.ct eCJ:1e l"OOm that •aa the Tatt !amily sitting room and hor:e ot their peraonal troaauree. It etayed thora ea long ae tamily lite can­ tered in that end of the hall. 3ut when the whole second floor corridor beoet!'Qel aocething ot e unit - a maet1ne; place tor guaau ,. and open do111n i ti, le�tt: for the com1ar11 o.Dd ,-;oinga ot hoapitali ty - J ta west en� became a 8arden rOOffl o! and f'crne and pots or ciuarari&a and A.trice.n violeta and tiny bagoniaa. Pre�1de.nt .ldau the aecond , whose drearier d1y.e ..-ere cheered by a aew atnn,bercy Jn tuv.bler nWthar oae 1n hhl: garden-bads, would heYa enjoyed that Pala RoCIIQ. &.it even he 1?0t:ld have rescu.O the Aaron ifillard clock out or tha gut-den ereenery. H:l , too, would probably h4,.e placed 1 t Wbt!ar& it atanda no•, around the corner in tha cen­ ter or the lone hc.11, Ue old Now D{ erectness an exam­ ple to a modl!llr!l day or lou:Jl"iru;- co::ntort, 1 te 11tcady , atl.U"dy slfeet old chime dependable ctUl ic; a hou11e wh■re aveey- r.iioute has t ta eti.rk in !l1story.

Among the Wh1 ta House collection ot unknowables h of' courea a number ot tablee. Not-hin,g in d•coration che.ngea JDOro �u1ck­ ly than fe.ehion. in tables. 'Ihe atyle or teble 1te :posH1o:t 1n a room otten can aett:le the pe:ricrt or decoration of' the rao:11 itselt, and ao, Wb.1111 the docoroth·e inat!nct overec:mea e. room'e owner, .caiur­ all7 the rtrat cb1.11Ba rade 1a apt to be 1D the k1nd and the place ot the tablea. heh1on he.a purchaaed and puabad o.nd pulled the D'hi te Bouse tables about for a hundred and tbtrt:y years. Ot'ten 1 t haa replaced the; frequently i t baa demotad o r promoted the:m. .lnd th:'ougb all the :,ears the table list htta �rown and grown. It would be alu:oet 1::poeaibl• to p,:,reuade any womau eoter1ns •111 houaa, no matter 'how splendid II caatle, that ehe did not need new curtains o.Dd ttiat , 011ccnt1 , she did not nead a tew ae..- tat:­ lea. In the Whit, F.cuae abe may wait �or t!le curta1n11,- abe my con­ vince herHlt 'that the yarda end yard.a of' br<>cada already at the winCSowa though out ot Cate a:i4 tbe l'l'Ong colcr and not too well bung , are too aturd; to oe C11acarded yet. 3ut at lu■t one Uttla table more ahe simply mat ha"Te tor heraalr, and ae rar as •• have had 8Df NCord ot he.r. a!le hu had it. A k.olttiar, table tor lire. Notcittley, '\u-'\ablH for Mr■• Rooaavelt c4 Kr■• Wilson, a cottoe table tor llre. Cool1df!'e , be•ltablee and wrHin(l t.ablee f'or Kra. 'l'a tt, porch tablea and low- aota•t&blee tor Jira. Hco"Ter 1 11 ttlo e-:>ony work table■ (probably ) tor Mra. Grunt , littla coned. plant ta'olea (poe­ eibly) tor 1,!r_a. ClHeland ,- 8Ten a checkerboard table ( ) to?' Ilia.a Nellie Grant,- ell thoca can be accounted unto each ona and .tor de:t'inlte usea a.a clear to w, a.a to their miatreese&. An attractive a:mall table r.:lich one auoc1:1tea 1 Justly or not ,wtth the Grant period - and with the of tt:at pe:rJod - haa coma to raat in the. North\'l'e11t Be�room wJth ita collecUon ot V1ctor1an rracH. It: 1a amall, 11'!:bt, 8t.ret..charec! , 1te notable feature a checkerboard of' inlaid mother of pllBl'l equare1. Tbe checkn-piecaa ban vanished long a&o, altbou,gb the dn.wer they must ba"Te been kept 1:a. opane below the toJ". ror years it 'IRIS uaed a■ • bad:dde, tbe pearl top a,ipe.rantly eug.ra■ttng 1b practic­ ability ror the Dif.htly water-jug. Sometime in ite career 1t ea8!r:8 'to ba,-e been in the dark north bedroOltl (a.lwa.ya hUllg in blu■, appar­ ent11) whoo that bodrooi,, and its f'urn1&b1nta became •aanUary" and modern lrith •h1te paint. Thia little table was then whJ'te-pait1t ad, too, oTer tu orir.lna.l rJark stain, and later went upstairs to iha aenice floor with tba other white paint11d out ot the roam that once waa tlellia Grant ' s , once Nelli• Arthur•a, and later tbe houselcaeper ' a , One dQ the table 's qullint Victorian qualUy •as racognized, under the unifOl'l:ll ot paint, cod 1t waa t'estored to Us ori!l1nal ploaae.nt appearance. 341

One unknown tabl ) , of pierced black ebony I wae undoubtodly bought a11 e ata.n4 to show or: the beauti aa or a v&.sa, a lamp, e statue , a bit ot bric-a-brac . · It 1s carved eooay , rtic�ular, ,rtth •tncluc! ing d1ni:::g't1tblbe, ·-a:aetablce 1 taa-table11 , nands I p&aes tala.

T.l.3L3S a aholt close below it� poli shBd toi:, and its dh't.iact Chinaae style laads ua to suspect L,:r�. Cl'J'1reland boUF"ht it, eapectall.y einco we rind it rtrat - in lil"s. McKlnlsy ' s t-ir.e - in 1�3 the lied Boom. It hae now come to re■t in tlle 11rt.vate OTal Room cn the second tloar , sat hoapi t.ebly by tbe fireplace to hold a gl.8U11n.g round brase 11e.movar of Kr■• Hoover' • {one aha carried 1n her a rms t o o Buaa1an train . ) Another table "1th a purpoae 1 ■ also 1 D the Nortb..-ost �droom. Thia ia poaaibly a pu-rcl".aae ot Preaidogt Arthur, pos111bly o-r the ea.thuaiaettc M:ra. Clavelaad. Not only because it 1a entirely in tbe spirit and purpoH at the eightiea , but because 1 t is ti rat dhco•ered in the Rad Boom. And t:o both or t.hcae houaehold:er.s, dirtar•nt aa they were, tbe Jl&d Boo:n was 253 a speeially aherhhed abrine or their ow cboaen treasure . Thia table - plant-•tand rather - muat haTe aeemad like a treasure fl-om the .eborea of th11 Orh::it,- though to a ?r.o :larn eye ita paaudo-ebcny and ita Victorian. long-billed birds are Or1ontal in sentin:1ent only.

Tbe otber 11air, being more vureatila, ha?e sunive<l. Not matchlnR,, they ON both ot walnut, with e:1uara topa, the pedHtal ot cna , a Jaeobee.n ap1ra.l, and ot the other, a carved cclu:r.n. One at least was in Mre. Cleveland's fled Room.; bct!l ere plousibly her purcbasa. One 1e - in the theatrical Yeraacular 4415 108 aurely te.miliar to ?1olders or ao flllllY rloral tributes, "resting'" on the top floor . Th• other plans an role in tho Preaidenthl bedroor11 suite , hold:iag now a v.ue or ,1rt tlo•er• I DOW a p1la or .mB.g&ZiDH·

HOll'e?er 1 it has sarely outlived two poriode now - 1ta early Red Boom period ot tasllion, when it ?!I.let have 'been ae ad.­ mired as tbe tern that cascaded dOtfD its heavy pierced ebony niUla; and it■ later period or aoom, when a■ "that tht.oc• it tm.1et be.vo been tucked in a corner tor the pure purpose of holdi.DI! i ta .torn dish.

Bu.t ,... era still lett w1 th a tloc.k of little ta�les with­ out aponaor or settled ploce, thoue;h that doea not impair their use­ tulneaa at all. One such 1a the small drop-lest ?GO.boe,aay table with iwo dre.cera and gle.oo knobs I used n011adeya to support the tolophone in the Palm Room on the second fioor. It 1a nnuein11ly inco.orruoua in that tropical resort or prdan-lo\'t,Uj but at'tar all ao ta the tiole:phone l Thia particular tabla wa:i found about 2ee the houae so=ewhere during the Wileen ad=ninistrttt10D ( J)l'Ob­ ably by a mistreaa •ho knew she needed one badly and whoae consc1ance re11tre.tned her trom buying one in e war yeer. ] One round, 1 t •as added to the Predde.nt 1 9 dressing room or tha't d11.y and i;ince has wandered about where 1t Geemad moat needed in.. tha •eat end or the Ht::Md tloor, It ts prin1t f6cio a product of "the niuateen-huodredw ieens, and aa such lte aat.ual date ot aequ1s1t1on doee aot mi11ht1ly 1.a.tereet: ue ,rho ere too cloH to those yeare to be vitally interttsted 1n them aa •period. "

Mre. Clneland , 11'8 know , riust he.Ta nade a J)8t ot it, ae met' housekaapera do ot their plant-atande. lira . lfclC1nley bad it in bar bedroca; Mrs. Harding, who liked bouquets in every corner or her houi;a, gave this d iatlnc tly out-rooded article to her hcuaai.:eo;;or.

A. table of a e1-:i1larly n.gue bbtory 1• a tea-tabla , or walnut, •1th folding sidea, no• st.ea.ding in t.he St'\te Din­ ing Room for reedy transference to tho soe:ial acei.e • be 1t South Portico, Rad Room. or Green Room. It 1e 11ro:ls�ly a bouee­ keeper' fl purchaea .

NoT 1 t has becar::.e �uaint a.nd &OJOiDg, and �ae eat1lad a niche in tbe nineteenth century bedroom, holding t.ho elegant or all Preeicient Arthur's Rad Room .,asea , a white bo.rrel-ce.ctUs incruated with •hita and gold cactu11 bloaao:aa, 3ot:h aa art1ric­ tally far t'rom their■ ae poaalble, tbay probably look down on the si=plor t'urai=lh1ne:s; though th1e plant-ata.nd., with ita carved. :itorlu pdno; .!own tho1r lonp b1lle 1 i s cadcall.y Uka the old center-t,tble ot the Sute 3cdl"ocm suite, 7fith it;e lacy carv­ inra ond 1ta btrd11 above tboir abeu:i:-d neat ot mahogany eFH.8•

Older and t.b ere:tore more det'initely miuaing are two tables,­ of the same sphere 1:Q Ura,- usually kept i n the Rortb Bec'roOl:!I. west of tho alcov. hlllll (or more simply in the houaebold ..-ernacular, the •blue bedroan• , ) and in 1 ts 11ttle acccmpe.ny1na: North Study. Both are pre..McKlnley . Both are older than the retantlve memory ot lrilkine, tho houauan who ta. with "Oen • r tl Harrison and .-tio et111 lin,gera lovingly over old picturea or p:;oso2ee 51 liera and tlaorwide oarpata. (-;r.C"C'!"'., trere pu:rty 111 those deya,• ea.ya 'lilk:ina, whtt'Ully, "NeTer waa notit\iot nowadays 11ka thoae chandeliers. " ilavel" we.a, trulyl ) Wilkins likea thoae little old ta.b lee. They are bedside tables , square end da:rk with polieh, their lega elaborately caned •1th daair,ne, their dn:•era pulled by old braae ha.a.C, lea and brasa knobn.

Two pain of eta:'ld.a, detJnitely chosen for tho di spllly­ tng er busts , era et111 in the White House 1nventoey, though no longer all in use. The reeponeibllity ot one poir l'Dlil)' belong to Arthur - it certllinly should. Tbey are rou:id &rid covered tie):tly in :red 'J)luet-1 ud ware cart.a inly :t'airly at home 1n the 469 Corridor by the l!cXln.le�· ora, when. they were re4?0 covorad in good Nd plueh llf'B1n. Rolrling Col'W:lbus and Ve:spuclue ■till, they ""re taken to the Ground Parl.or by the Rooaav■lt architacta in 1903, and to the i.torahouee cf' BUch tree.surea, when a more atrue turall)• h.ormonioua pair were mads for the old Italhna.


A bedside table of l!.llOther design has been associated with t�e State guest-bed ror nany roars. It 13 a smo.11 walnut, wit't, a lo•er &belf usetul tor boor.a or magadnea. Ite '73 t'rill of pierced carving below tha top da tea tt a11 prob-ably a mid-century table and keep.a it, i ta pra:.ent place by the huge carved Stet■ bed in the Northwut Bed:room. No. '13, aee Plnte 13,


TABLIS j, sma.11 mhogany table • ueed now and th.en ia as a �an table, and 1n wiuter stored in the top tloar, be.a no preteu• alone to pedigree. ri' someone suddenly needed e tan table we can only apeculate. IAdiea, aa we have 43 said, need 80 many li'ttle tables ., tor so am:, ditterent thiDga. The D1sbursine: Ot:'icer ot the Public Buildings aDd Gl"ound• or.rice :muet be quite uae4 to them on his accounts. Bigger table• have uaually- n:ade a more ltU'ke4 u:preasion on the memory or tbetr caro•�kera. Even diii,placed they are re­ mmrbersd. There is in the houea one large round oak table witb no pretenoiont to beauty ,- quite the reverse . It bas a lowly po­ dtion non.die.ya, the round center table in the north dre•aing racm. on the e;round tloOl". To be sure, that room. haa 1 ta momenta of glory 1n tho eveninp;s ot the see.son - the Session aa it used to be called with a 1'011 to deterenoe to the Cangrese. But the table ,

The old oak table could wri to i ta on memoirs, U' someone laid au intelligent ear to lta sur:t'ace . It was once the table in. the Private Dinitig Rooni:. "'ODce" waa certainly till the t ime ot President Arthur, who ordered hilDaelt a more apl1DdJd � table tor the Dining Boom. since the elotb m.1at be r£1D1ovei1 at: his end c:t' dinner parties. How -rar back: •0n.ce"' goes we do not know. Alroos t certs tnly to tbe time at Lincoln, whon f'amily meals rrust have been. spread on this table when the)- weN not carrieu. to bia desk on a hurried tray. There left in the house some ot the 1DeT1 tabla canter­ tablea of' the n1neteonth eentury•a correct room., when., whatever the use ot the room tor f'ormel or in.i"orn-.a.1 ur-e. the: center table =rat be on the center medallion of' the flo:ral caryet. In torml uae 1 t held the. 1a:mp and tbe b<1uquet and the ornament. In informal lite 1t held the lamp aDO. book and paper ... and 1t was the catch-all ot the tamily 1 s activitie s , e.nd the tsm1l7 drew 1te chairs Ufl about it in the evening. :tpitoine or e. Victoria.::,g, that center te.ble ,­ its Tery rou.adnese an inritation to aOC1ab1l1ty! The habitats ot �ome ot' these center tebles ore known , end their p!"obable 1;:hooaers. One such ie the ice.rble octagon-tO'J)ped center-table ot the old l:reen Room, which il!!I probably a van Buren, end ao perhaps the oldest table in the houGe. The round rc43rhle­ topped center table out or the old State !edl'oom - long the house' s only guest room - we list with scm1111 conf"idaoce a e a Buchanan, though we cannot actually produce a bill in triumphant proot that Buchanan bought it and th.a ot.her State Be/Jroam tu.rnitu'I'e �or the ,tait of the Prince ot 'Vales.

Plate 6Z Oak Dilllllf Room. Table ?;o.SSO being big and Ull'1f1aldy, is not apt to ahare that glory. It 1 s rolled into obscurity o n soeial nigh.ta till th& brip-'.\t corridol' ltPhta are i,1mmed a'.t'ter th8 party "lnd the co.-npanionts o-r 1 ta normal 11:te coma back to it. They are the cuardians o-r the White House - ushers and police and doormen and tloormen, who hand up their outdoor coah and e-xche:i&e the d.e.y • � gossip, bet'ore a new day 'be­ cins for them. Ferbapa at night the ntc.hrten write their- roports oo 1 ti Jhe,t do watcb?"!ell do all n1i-�t, �1le the big slee:PS and Ute �n�rde the f'l'ont door? On chriotlllle eve, or course, thay tiptoe l\own t!le priTRt:e sta i n , h4Slpitlf' carry gifts to the Chri�tmaa tree,- diede.intn,• n nohy elev,a,tor. But on other nigh ts perhaps thoY sit arou.n.d the old ">Bk table ana vrite their memoirs.

And there are two otber bedroom ,center tables that .are probably - not provably - almost a s old . One is the table no,r 1:n the housekeeper's suite, that we.a apparently oria:1.nally the center table tn. the Southwest Bedroom usually uoed by Presidents. It was thare in the time ot President CCICinley-, but is ob-viously not ot bis purchase. At a guess one would attribute i't 300 to Pre11ident - by 11h ich one :meana ltra.- Grant. It bad graced. the Southwest Bedroom until 1928 1 .:hen it wae carried a.cross to the Northwest, H' en then eaaembUng 1ts period t'ul'n1 ture. However 1 es it had not been pert of the real State Bedroom set, i t perforce gave way t o prec9d.ence 1 n. the n.o:tt &dministrc.tio.n, and. went upstairs. An interesting roun.d table usually inconapiououaly d.oinc tta duty in the second floor corridor t'alla in the class or n1te Bou11e myateri911. M9.Jl1" a guest bae sat quietly beside 1t 1 looking at its epread �zinea by light or ite she.dee! lamp, as be wai te t'or hie boat and hostees to e.ppee.r for break!' or for luncbeon, quite unaware he ,12u1 in the presence ot a mys23e tery. Still UDder those hoe.rt-be,tillg circumstaace& ony �•at might be torsiven tor not examini:czg the turn1 t.ure. one ot tha bigh moments ot almost o.ny lite 1s -i:hat 1D which one watts 1n the eott-lit bookl1ned private corridor ot the 'ii'b.1te House, watc.hi04: doe the long hall tor the silhQuette o.r hie Preetdent to appear No. 300, see Pl.e.te 22, Grant.

against the pe.lm-trin,ged background ot the west window, with or without a. couple at dancing dO@-shadowa beside him. History 1n the ml!lking tlowa up and down tbat corrid01'. P.istory made, i:i the possible record or 11 table, anita neg1ected at th• gueet•a elb01f'. The table is quita ordinary in desiga. - a round me.hogany center table, pedestal base� tour t'e■-i, the usual size ot e. center "parlour table" ot the third quarter 01' the nineteenth eentury. It t■ the top tba t rep5ys stud7. Made or twelve wedge-9haped oep11.a: ta, and e. s.mll inlaid center oirele 1 and orne.n9nted by an inlaid band of darker wood tbat pu-lands i tsel:t' 1D aeallopa sround tha ectge, 1 t .ts in.con.spicuouely ms.rl£.. ed. with thirteen tiny stare studded in with braaa nail-hftlldl!I ., One ia 1n each ,redge-shapod section I one largor one in tbe center circle.

-We tOWld a table in t-he Green aoom,• they report , "Wbich baa got a. lot ot in.laid stare 1!u1d radiating brass roda which have sprung up like a reilroa.d on. tire,.• And they prou:ptl:y dispatched 1t upstairs, cover and all, probably, But ltra. Rooaev-el.t e:eema to have liked it e.DCJ had. its •tiery railroad." tapped back into place by a in the h.a.Dds or the Wbi te Housa carpenter, BUoce,setull.y enou«h to make the table respectable tor eome years. It stayed about in tbe aecond t'locr hall till the time ot President Wilson, who bad it tttken his study.

Qit; later Preaidenta - or their ladies - seem to have preferred less ram-­ pant patriotism 111 their turnlture. The tabl.e f'ina.lly disappeared into Ula at�ie storeroom acme time betore the advent ot the adven.turing Ill-a. Coolidae. That waa well, since she had oll the Balboa-like Plate 84 emotiona of an upl.orer in Darien, camin.g aorosa 1 t in her atUc, and sure , or Table Ho. 288 cO\U'se , as is every antique hunter, that Tile """4 ot the te.ble top 1t had lain there •inc, the Revolution? le obviously very old. tboogb the table 1tsel1" may be or &aii not,. She had. t t brought down an.d poli.Bhecl up, 811d the irrepl'essible bras11 The tbirteeu stus suggest 1 t was a gift ot a i,e.triotic org,mi­ .replaced •lt.h inlays ot wood , Tery akillf'ul.l7, aDCl the table set 111 za.tion - the wood that it wae tekon tron:. some historic- otructuro . the Bm!lll alcove hall on tb.e aecond. floor, 'Where, as sbe says her­ house or ship or chlll."ch, on.e bows not. 'l'he:re is a reference in sel.f, she showed 1 t ott to her gue.sta as a :t'Uld end ieystery. A find a r&J>Ort ot the IJaur'htere o't' tha Americu Revolution, on th• Oll­ and m;yetery it 1"9m!li?u,., and probably will, till tba end ot ti..-c a. Or oasion or their proeenting a historic chair to the l9hit.e House, ammbody may discover 1 ta pedipee tomorrow. of a ttconstitution table• already there (in 190'1 ). But no re­ search can d1ecover what the Constituti on ta.ble wal!I, nor whether There is a namelHs trio or tables 1a tJt9 house that may the good ladies praaen.ted it too, nor how they kii.ew it n• there. be o'f a long lineage, a.D.d that. may have played their part in nation.­ Imagination can picture this as a table made t'rom the generous al e.rtuira in their time . They are mahogany l"ound center °""bles, wood or that old tigbting see-dog, the Constitution. Or as mode supported on a ped estel fluted and carved "1 tb poat...B::npire thorm&f.'h• t:e order - "bespoke• - by same revolutionary...miM.ed. Preeldent neee, endinp, in three heavy olaw 'feet. The tops u·e god:rooned wide aimply to please hia own taste. It ....igh.t be Jnade ot hiatory­ nnhop:a.ny bordors enclosinu dark 'T&inedi marble centers. One app!U"­ flavored 1'0od., 0r some cabinet mslcer' s Yirgin stock, - quite ae ently CU& to s:riet aometi.-e , and .bad its m.rble tcp rapla.ced. ritb tmegins.tion pleases. a. 111Bhopany center, which 1& itself obviously old. Otherwise the three are exactly alike. :Ve know or.l.J' that 1 t is at ae old as Cleveland ' e second �dministration. It is p1eturod tn the center ot hie Green Today two in the third floor corridor, ... holding the Room. - his mu.sic roan. The outline and tootinga are unmistakable, me.gazin•s an.d )Jopera avaUabl·• tor the start tbat comes and goea in though the to31 ts taehiott.ably draped wt th a deep-hanging cover. that long ball. The thira is the center table 1n one ot the e:rouod One eaya •:re.abionebl:," and hesitatee, ,since tbat cover my hsve he.d floor reception rooma - tff room. furniahed a de.rk&l' purpose than. taebion, Just ee the cover on tbe Nonroe for l!rs. HDover, where the public looks at historic f'ura.12.69 conaol.e t.bat used to be 1D the 88Dl8 Cree.n Room had a darker Pll'tur& in the toreoooos, secretaries and sta.1':t hold coDt'er239 1'08e. .&.t least , when the a.rchttatts "reatortns• the State noor ances "1th d sitc:irs afternoons, and porty gu.aets e&ttle 240 1n an almt�ty burr.Y ror the strenuous Preaidont Rooss•el t eame t.betr hairpins on reception eveniuge. That pirticular aorosa 1 t • thsy were not pleased. t.1ble JD.let 'feel a.t home 1.n tba c�ter ot that room. It holdei a thoroughly Vic torian fern duly Ul')O!l its center-point. ill three

TA.9LES hold center terns for halt' a csntul'l·•

attributed to Kr. Van tbren, and. shoull! cause hi:c. .such grlet . But it we.a tboy, and the metal tlcr.ers on tba., in their china ttaH, •i th 8 hand:ru.1 ot -.:old 1!1p00IIS and a :tn other 1'urniebit:1Ra that halpo� loH the same !a. van Buren hie aerond election, when he waa roundly criticized fol' buying the luxury aequil'ad by hie predecaaaor.

All three were appn:-on:tly the ::iont otl'iking decorat1oLa to v1ai­ tora in tho loJ:lR upstairs hall tr01t tbe adl!:.in1atrstioo or Pre:.1dent Ge:r­ rteld P!-esident COoUchre•a. They were spiced. o�ually dowo tha cen­ UJr o:t' the hell, M.t:h wlth ite exact­ ly dr..ilar pot ot tern, and there they We shall hope the 'tablee, never stayod whilo the �rtt..-ld �eeta eat heard that among the soeaip that went oa lo awe on the leather soruo drawn above their beede. Poeaibly· •ere ,,..einet the dork walh. Proe1de.nt banieh ed upetaira very aoon. .Perhapa Arthur hed one taken 1nto bifl oval they ateyo4 in the Room, until Oen­ library and offlce 1 tor a center­ e:ral Orant caat his ellghh:eri� eye at table, and Prea1denta ClG'Vel9:nd and the Rocr: ceiling and. strair, McKinley lott 1 t there , but in lQOl l!l,llreed to have it propped '11'1 th pillars; back 1 t CBma to join its sisters , and and his wire dashed i-.:1 and boue:ht n;ore tbe three l'!lllde tropiesl islands in tba l!l:9pro}lria te f"urniture tor co han:bome dark �h8..U!'Jtll or ttiat M.ll thr�b. the and so eare e room. 1.1•ely RooHvelt yee::-� ) the Ta1't yol!.ra, the war ye.are, the return-to•normal ADd p11rhapa - 11h1 te House re­ yeera, - until Itta. RooTer turned her Plate 6:5. search beint, •hat 1t i s , .. the�e area' t 1!eco::-ating attention on that bal1 an:1 Round 'fable, Noe. z39..240-2eg. Jackson tabloe a.t all! restored 1 t to a Monroa-like groee ot 11Tin(-. F.owever, the three bad their uses at t1100a� aJ.pper up­ st.a.1:-e after rocepttona wae a trttaeured cuato:n Curint sor:Mt at ROOS thoae adminiatrat.iona,- though. the nuctier a.ud bads or the gueat. lht Tari�d. And the three tables laid aside their terns, on A. raw small ruga ha.Ye t'allen untraceably rrom. their f&J:Jily reception evenings durinc the aeaaon, to hold th'l pla tea end cups tree. Being Ori antale, they can.not well be older than the nine'Uos 1 or bu. ret euppel'.11. nowner, aince we know tha earlier 'lfh.1 ta Houao rooms were thorouahly carpeted , and overlaid 1n aw:mnor with china matting, end such et:1111 Perhaps it Nniinded them at their spotlight daya. It hearth rug8 as thay had are deeertbed aa "hair rugs. " S:ra!.l orien­ ie possible that these three were the moat piblici.zad tablea the tals could not h1ne been thought ot before Mre. Cleveland ' e ti!'!e at White House ever owned . They may be tho throe round tables wtth the earliaat. blaclc: and gold slabs costing $335.CO b�t by Pro.!!ildent .Tackaon :tor hie :&net Room •hen he spent $93:58.2.'l¼ on ite furnishing. Hi e Perhaps the six Oriental T'Uf8 round in the !!cXidey dress­ tirces approved him hi�hl.y "tor i t , • nobody then felt that that •as ing roaz:. w11ra Mro. Clevelani:P s or ltro. Herr1aon' a purchaaea (tbo tQO lorge a au.-n tor the nation' s drawina: room. And aveJ-l�body l.1c1Cinley lnventoTY liata tbam e.• Turlclah. ) One of thesa eurvhea, t'rfJquenti� the house durtng the enrly 1aclcscm �aye m.u,t have though not too rooustls, in the cedar roora on tho third tloor. It aae:i the need ot Xeat Roor.i tebhs, 'for the social plates oacl 1o a PrinceuBok:bara , tour reet by three reet tour 1nc?.ee , ,::le.sees or the People. Otherwhe the Paoplo dropped 1turm 1 con­ Ru.g 11 and it has had hard aenice, t1r3t. (ao !'ar o.e traceable) tanh ll.0:1 all , on t�e floor. 'l'hN• te.ble:a, :taehionably oa well in the Presidential dreaeirl! room, and then rrcm 1909 aa ae p::-ac ticobly topped in Ite.l1a!I carble I t:ll&t have acemad :nodeatly in th e North Blue Bedroom ot Mrs .. Tart' s hou88kaeper. lte last duty taw. The busy JC'. V1!1n Buren, household arbitel' a.a well as Secre­ ne in the elevator hall, hat a pi tying a:,•e :t.ottced 1 ta lncreaBin� tar:,· ot Sta ta tor his President • bought nll r.hwi he chose t.hem. delicacy and sent it to tbe cedar room. tt theaa are his It.a.Han marble tables I we ca:: quite see how they ware well to the to:-a of the ta:,ta ot t:he clay, when t:he l:.eovy Another ot the:,e Turkia:h ( alt)()st, one :reels, listed 11.a claseic types ware nins;ing toward the heavii:r olabor"! ti,d. Victor­ Turki■b or llooria:h} l"U£■ t�t aight :".aTa bean pert ot Yrs. Clevelond ' a iaa o:ie;inali t1ea. co:ty•cornor in the Ueat En d c0-rridor, is a runner l".J£ , tour feet the by aix teat nine. lt, too, la retired to Rug 13 It seems a little untai r that in a year or t•o theae the tblrd .tlcor . thoush in use ati 11 1n a bedroom. :sar.:e u1:tles, so egreaable to the J'ac:!(aonic.:i. thronr:i, nb.ould be


Rup- 14

Rl18 B Rug 9

Three BIW!lll Orientals are iuito untraceable. Ona, a mnnll :"Q" three teat by tour teat five .. s in "tne lit­ tle an.te-ro01: or the Prealdent's study. Tte other two, one throe feat tan by eoven teet eight and the other S!U8ll one three ree1i rour b)' tiYe teot tour, are in the "FJlst 3nd corridor w1 th 1he b■auUtul bi� Crane rug ot Preaidant H!l.rding's day. PICTt:!!BS

The 1.'fhite House hae tew plcturea oxcludvo of th• por­ traits ot tho Pr-uident■ and tbeir wives. Thie bae alway■ bean true - parhapa tortunatel;r so, since taatea change so draaticall,y in what 1a or iel not pleasant to look t conatautlJ'. Preeiden't Gn1::1:t, ror insto.nco , lh:ts two atael enrraviae:■ in his Private Dininp:; Room, and an ID!"revin� ot i\'ashillf,toA 1n hh Library. .Ul three , Which ro'l)?'ese.nt the mid•c1tntury art-collection ot the 1'b1te Rouee (aside trom J)Ortralta) have 11;iparea.tly been swe:,t a.way and. their place.11 taken by works or art that have been the property ot 1::he tenants ot the Urce, and htt.Te remained duri� tteir occupancy only.• O:t the picturee other than presidential portre.1h now the property ot the GOTern:,1ent , the orici;in ot 1::hrea 1a known. The po:-trai t of' 1ohn 9-�ton •a• ,:itt to the govern:nent by a maa­ ber ot the 9ritiah parliamant in 185"1. The Theobold Chartre.n picture o:r the SiRDiD& or the Spenhb Peace Protocal was preaent■d by the pointer in 1010. �he de Laezlo painUog or the Salle d'Horlo,i:e in th• �oi d•Oreay, at the Ur.• ot the stp-..ning ot the Kellog'?' Peace Paet, •1u1 alao a gitt ot the arUat, ln 1928. A fine peia.tin,; o:t Benja.:,in 1":'ankUn, banplng tn !.he President ' s study, hes had an adventurous history. The label on the tre.:u epitoru.aea 1 t wccinctly: "'Benja1t11u J'ranklin by '71laon Paintad in 17:SG Taken f'ror:t l"rankUn • t: �ue• ':>y Major Andre. Cerri� to !)1,-land by Censral Sir Charlea Gray and no• retul'Ilad to the United Ste. t■a by ::&arl Grey. " The port::-ait :1.ppuc.Ts o n the inventory in 1909 1 iu Mrs. Te�t • e OVal Library , but that does not necessarily date i t , ainca Etifts have e, n y o r atrayine into the l'ecord more ca9'.1e.lly •som.eti:ice ploturaa •ere lent by tho Artiet .. In tt.e Cl!ff'ol.and up­ stairs hall were tbN• such courtesy hane1 n,...a - o painting ot the �ocky h:'ountaine, the Yello•stone I e.."'ld of the Yosemi t.e, all the prop­ ort;r o:t the painter. Portrait ot Benjamin Franklin, see Plate XVIII

ll.Od lator tu.a articlas with a rete-rable bill at.tacheda Tbis tina old portrait la rro�ably a prize recaptured by Pro.sldent Unnu:nbered Roosevelt, aepecially since tha mediating ant.el in the case ie reported to have been J'oseph Cho.a.te. It staysd in the oval Room, a compa.n1on ot � Hampton 1 to hia o,m study. Th• two �Kera ere on both !! idea or hiD atudy door, &Ad the � ghea hir. ei relaxed n:o:r.ant or !oy now and then ae Ill uacple o� one of hie pat texts. --?he Bl'itiah oatlo:oal conacience, " saye the President to a guest ) "may take a hundred. years to work, but it. alws:,,e works?" And 30nj4a-Jn Franklin, a :2l,.u,. .ker 1 who alao )mew his r:orld, beams Cown oo the ,uaicer chuck­ ling up at him. Cne ot the tew unknown pictures appears on the twentieth cantury inventories as o. "?!le.rine• . A. larpa watercel or, framed ai�plf in 17.o]d J it 1a 11 terally t?\a.t and nothtzig more , 013 being a reisttul sweep ot pale wa.ves br•.aidng on a beach. It 1a sii1z:nOO. J'ruoaa Henry Mo:,er, 1889a • �or ma n;y yaar!I 1 t. was about Oll the bookcases a::id cabi.r:.ins or th• Onl Library , tror.: s.t lee.ct the ti�e or Prodtient MeXir.loy till �a. Toft'a who tou;id other oceul)a.nta ror theae ai toa, end so sent thir; i:,ic turo acros.u to h�r dau!hter 'e roO!ri, the la.rra North­ •eat bedrcO!n. It 1e amuaine; to diecover under the raetaphorically thick dun. or inventoriea , the arr.all houe••1Te■ taatea ot the Tan­ i■h1!114 ot hie:toey. Probably tbare ia no aaaemblage or art.iclaa eny­ whera in the country ao riavored wt tb the pretarencea or tbe itreat (great in raeponsib111ty always, U' not al"8.ys so in accepted stan­ dards ot artietic &jjpraeiation) , a.e t�eae ot the ..'hi1ie House, Prealdant Tatt" ceeme to have liked that little picture , - i,nou� to abetract it f"rom hia dau�hter's roc;,in e.nd to t-.ave it hu� in bin o,m bedroom. Two years le.ter a tl8ll".ber or 1ha 'liUaon fa.'l'lily carrie� it otf to a third fleer l!ltudio. And the Hardine o.dn:inhtra:t.ion bro:.1rht ii to the high ceili;:ieed, high-bedded North Bedroom 'll'hose one window looks up SixtH.nth street, where the trattic liebts w!.nk their siv!Utle baci-: ot the reari� horH of' Oent:1:ral .Tflckson. 'rh�re it ataye 1 :r.a:dll@: e little art winCow ot ltselt, t'ramtne: a painted tren:;,uil :lN • A gitt picture ot great cMnr., ot which the docor's nwr.e h known, but not tl:.e data ot its pre:ien.ti�, has h\ll1€' in tt.e lorre ?torthWeGtern Sedrc-or.i. tor nenrly ten years at lesst. Its 05 own title in script beet dHcribee 1 t: •J"a.ce.e Henry Moser ns preaidllnt ot the ':1aehi�ton ·.,et.ercc1or Club , and a z::.ember ot the Art Student Lea.roe and the Corcoran Art Schoel. F.a waa "a pe.tntcr, both in M!tor color and oil, ot lRdecapee ot extraordinary beauty and &ign1fieanca," acccrdinp to a writer ot tho eO'a. No. 01:3, see Plo.te � . Roocevelt. 1:0. 05 1 sea Plate SQ , Clevele.nd ,

"'Lady�too•e Recaption" t'roa '\ha original picture 1n tha J)01:nr,eeeion ot A. T. Sten.rt, ::a:aq •

the raterence ia obscured by time. So 1a 1'rank Leslie ' s Chimney corner ot 1865? 'Ila should: lika to thlnk this a legacy rram litre. Abraham LtneolJi, to whelm it woa ao graciously dedicated .

. �1nted by n. Huntington, 11:. N. A. Ellgre.Ted by A. H. Ritchie." A plaq,ue on the eimpla gol.d :trams proclaims "Bare Jln!'Nvine; in Colol" A. gift trom j. Ackermn Coles, 11..D. I..L.».• J'• .Ackerman Coles is an unidentified. benefactor.. .But D. B.Jntington, R. N. A. , 1a without doubt tho portrait pe1nter •ho waa President ot the National A.cadeav trom 18'1?' to lSSl, and Wbo p!!iDted the White .House portraite ot President and Mrs. Hayaa, and President and Jlra. Arthur, aud ltre. Benjamin Harrisou. This 8.Xqt.liaite:ly b1"1Aht all4 etately preaentation ot a Wash1ng't...n reception is chle:tly valuable tor 1 ts portraiture J' tor whose 1denti.t'1e:tt1on there ie a caretu.l key picture attached. Tb·e beck.ground , o-r,, 1a not the 'lll•t Roam, but t� Pree1den.tial ltansion in ·either New York or Pbiladeli,hia. Iu 1�29, "hen an exc1t1Dg llh1te Bouae hunt na on to UJ18al'th approprlata bric-a-brae tor the Victorian period chamber that the large lforthweat Bedroom was c"?'7stalizin,a; into, the exact appropriate print tor one wall-space. na diecO"fered in tbe atoreroOll'l. Ita passport into the ri'hi1ie HouB8 ns 018 nusr uneartl::led., but it carrie■ 1 ta ai"f1dav1t or ortgin. on its face. Without other the.a antiquarian value, it tully de• aerTee 1 ta place on 11.a rich historic 1ntereet� It ta a aim.ply hiuned cow or an �raving c'L Pre11dent Ltncoln' a �cer.-tion., 1n 1865 , to Gcnel'Ql Grant, in the Eaet Boom. 'The sketched background gives a deltghti"ul picture of the "k11t Pa.rlor11 , carpeted., pasoliersd, trescoe0 1 dadoed , decorated beyanc:J belief". The portraiture 1a u.cellent. ruid unm!atalmble,- Preai­ dent Lincoln and hia wite greeting jwrt 11.a re-eogn1 zable a General ud Mrs� Grant, and to the initiated other celebrities IUght he.Ve bee!!. idonti1'1ed. 11.leo. But in 1932 a key ':'1'811 diaeovered 111 an old ma�azine � copied to be hung below th& picture., The engraving itselt ia a child 01' a negazina . Its caption reada - "Grand Reception ct the notabilttiea ot the Nation at the White House 1865. Dedieat&d to IIH,• .A.braham Lincoln by the Publiahers or Jrank Leelte•a Cbimn.,y Comer.• It wae entered. according to the Ac'\ ot Con,rresa in the year 1865 in the District Cour-t or the SoUtha:rn District � New York, by the ?renk: Lealie. And ita printed price we.a �.oo. But by a stamped statement across a corner we lenrn \bat every person who paid ten cants to Frau.It Leslie's Chimney corner we.1111 imtitled to a copy without charge. .A key is also mentioned, but

.eta.tuette or s Greek athlete, &11:1Sll enough tor uae ae a paper weighi .. Perhaps that waa 1 ts role in ita sojourn on the desk or President Coolidge, where we i'l?" et tind its re.carded position. VASES Very t•• vases ot any importance •ha teve.r are among the "t"nkno,ma. • That 1.s an Bmt1atng comnentary on the devious wafs o� tradition. Jlany an a<1min1atre.tiou has had 1 ta narrow gold wall tlir-rors, 1 te eo1"aa and table• end bedroom tllrniture fo-rgotten completely aa th• tropbie.e ot 1 ts ohoicei while i t.s l.1ttle Jar• a.11d vnaa• go down th• yeara •1th the ebooaer'a identity ttrmly fb:ed to thea.. Co.nv1nc1ngly, too. �e t'ael quite justU'tod. 1.n speaking of the Purce Franch vaaaa, eveu though "" may ba quita hazy es to the tora.e oit 'ifhich President Piuroe was wi th tbe French Republic. we would accept ,Ust ae cheartully the legend ot' the Satsuma Tas•a preeeute4 by the lznperor or China to the White Houae, still current emons the houeehold, it' we ..ere not able to conault doorkeeper•e liat ot omomenta made 1n 1895, in which he assurea ua Preaident ArthuT bou,h t them hi:-'eelf' trom Tittany (we hope not ae Sataumt1, sine• they ·are obviously not that deli cate ware . ) r:e invent authority ourselvea for a -rew plausible idea.a ot our own ;,. at one pair or preen vases lJB &iJRPly know Jtra. Clev&J.and bought ( though CJ)8D to 'J)1"0ot that Mrae Harrison might have painted them herself • in her conservatory betwoen artistic still•lif'a studies 01· orchtdat } Somehow vases have a personal inheTit.ance or identity that clin,ga to them.. Perhaps because the chooseJ'a waated them very much (and probably didn"t need them at all ) , and e.ttection is al!loat aa sure 11. guarantee ot i;;morte.lity 11a is worth.. Per­ haps because ae e girt they ua\18.lly stftUU.ize on ocoaaton and are ra21e.mbered therefor, like the lar&• blue UCKinlay vases in tb.lf last Room 1 tbat eam.e ae a gitt eommemorathe ot the laying ot the Fra:it:o-A.-:iorican cable. Even with the unknOlfll ' te House "taaua we can �zard a convinetng guaa■ aa to their ori,gto. One - en ornem1111t rather than a vase strictly - probably came •1th the J"apo.neae Elabaeey that fll'riTed in Buchanau•a ttma bBBring many Orien.te.1 otteri.ng11.. It 1a a wide shallow bo"l I some tt'O f'oat 'in die10eter, w1th an even sh&llotrer co..-er, �acetully ornament.e.d •1th a tlowe:s.--end-bird de• sign 1.n z;,old .. 'l'be top has a baae of' its own, and mirbt be reversed "Lo'r use as a wide plate. Old :·.·tlkins , of the longest and clearest (and u■ually the mo8t piatureaque) �Yhite House :rtC1Z1ory tor thlnge, reealla only that thet •pa.per n:ecbay bowl belong to de �TY1m1nt ood ha.a been Bettin' about on tha ncond tlccr ff•r sinca ha k:iA. remember," Now it sits on the tloor ct tbe eaet sud 041. corridor, where the i'irst eunlieh, t ot "the day f'alle on it from tbs aaet tan wlnd:aw; but be:tore tbat it mostly sat in the ta! sittine; J'oom by the weet hall 1'iodow. Once i t aet ill the Preaident' s otu.dy ,, to pleaee President W'ilso!l.

CLOCK The clock ,at present on tba In.ning Boom ma».tel . e. einipl.e !'rench glass-aided braea ti!!8piece, square and small, has not only loat 1ta identity, but almoet loet itaelt. It reappeared 0170 iJ1 the White Houee ta. lQ32 attar ¥DY yeara• sojourn at an old clock-maker's. CANDI.l!.5TICKll A emall pa1r o:t mantel ce.ndleaticlca 1• anonymous , They are bre.1111, darkened into bronze wt th years ot polish, with a wida base ancl below thoir oaudle cupe a skirt suspending a circle ot lo� crystal pendants. A tew o-r these pendan"ta, lookiJ.18 •1 tb. their sem-top1 and facetted depandento amusingly like the ear-r1Dga ot the anta-bellum Jnel box, are broke.a., wl'lich taatitiee 1n the Wh.1 te &:,uae to great age,. 'fhe7 are no•� thanka to Mrs. Taft , on the aantel of the yellow bedroom, east o:t the cross-hall. But tbey were long the ornamanta ot the mantel or 1he Presidential Bedroom. And in spite or the glory or their crystal drops they ure almoat undoubtedJ.y bOU&;ht tor the domestic pu?pose o� ligh ting e. Presi.dent in, 11' not io, bia chamber. 'Jh.o their firet protege waa 07 they do not tell. President Grant had a o� oa.ndle­ aticka in hie b�room aentel, the same mantel where tboae ,::era later found by Mrs. Taft. But Mrs., Orant 1JOuld hardly have bought them in the era ot gaalifhte. somehow one pretera to think that they were chosen by Preeident Jackson tor hi& bl� south bedroom. where all the 11 ttl.e J'eckeone ane Sllllll Donelson• are iOlown to baTe draped their Chrtet­ mae atockin,ge.


.1 small statue seems to cotll• into the houae witbout c:hallenae maoy yeure berore the Coolidt;e inventory listed it ae White House property . 'f�at usually indicatee a ,1titt.

Thia object d'art h now in the Southwast room oa. the Ground J'loor , that, doing ita duty tO"lfard the wraps of' gueats on reception ni_:-bte, mJ.&t 'loo haH ita ornaments. It 1a a ,.ree.n bronze lfo. 07, aea Plata :CC. No. 0129 , aes Plate 44, YJilso.n •

Bu.t G1'8Dt 'a inventory nakes no mentio.a ot i t . so that it may not even be as old e.s bis cloy ) 1.11stead or older by four admin1 atrat1oua. PoaeJ.bly 1 t d.14 llot ooma acroaa the aeae •1th the Jap­ anese lDabasey, to eheer up the unhappy old Buchanaa in the sorrowt"ul man.tbs preceding the Civil War. Perhaps .!! n.e a present trcm. ttie Xmperor ot China, and aa brought to comermorete the eat.abliahment of the f'irat pe�ent Chinese b>aasy 1A i1eah1:agton ., Oriental 1 t certainly ta• and may be allowed the 1r:memor1al inscl"U lebility or th.e, and whateTer legend we care to eacribe to 1 t . The other Loat Vases come i n pe.irs. Thet makes them probably old - dnce pair -nu,oa were t4ahionable since lonp; be-tore the very beginDiD88 ct .Ameriaau drawing :room bta. One pair may be as old ae it is J)Odsible tor White House Ol'Damellte to be, It 1a a aet or twin bronze vases now on the untel shelf on the Green Room, 0Jl el ther eide of an authentic Mcnroe clock. They might en eight easily have been brought trom. Paris tu tha same ahipmelJt ao the bronze clock bet1t'HU them, though we have no record 071 o� their be!na so l>:-OUBIJt . '?bey match vsry deligllttully tbe reat ot the .Parh1ian import.a toio tba Monroe drawing rooms, ritb their high. Directoira arms, their decorati"le wra�tha o:t military lal.lrel on rounded side and equare, so 1 t may be tha:t President (o� let us bope this time, ltra ., ) !6:mn,,e ordered them later than the ship1.ent ot which we have N0ord t'rom le bee.u pays de !'ranee. Pel"hapa they were needed in 1:hat eame drawing room tor vases, tho uee they t.111 iri tbe roae-•e•t Green Roam or today. But perhaps the Monroaa (1t, as one says altrBya with an annoyed glance ot tr1buta to J.ecuracf, that dreary governeaa ot Izmgination,- U' it lftlre the ronroe.a l ) had another idea tor them. Empire drawing l'OOIU� tbe Ume the Jlonroea had their• io t'Ull ••ill&, were no't quite complete without their pertuma burners. Even Rew York had 1 ts pertume bumers, 1 ta cassolettee 1n narble and in gilt bronze, ou it.a dl.'l!l1Jing room ma.ntela. Surely Mrs. Monroe would would not be behind New York,- probably already a trttle out ot hand J' fashionably- speaking, f'rm having bee,a. the Capitalt Perhaps these bro,aze vases were her caaaolattea • and perhaps in tbat chilly eocial season ot her rirat winter when the Georgetown ladies she would 11ot call on would not come to her leveae, ohe betook bers:elt into ber eastermost dr.arlng room_ and lit bar buruera .tor amaement and: cheer &lld in libation to the Spirit ot 1'ormality she serve!! eo 1"8.1tht"ully. 'i'bere h a quartette ct vaeea - porcelain, thi s ti:ne tbat would alao have delighted Mre. Nonroe, they ever did or not. One iair ia now on the lt41ltela ot the Roea Drawing Room with 1 ts lovsly llonroe copiea t'Urni ture. One p&ir ia in the l.arge North­ west Bedroom. Tbo typical hard:paate paired urna or the early Amer­ ican draw-tug room, these are lavishly gilded, and bet1Jeen tbe snort outcurving he.odlea and under tb.eir outourvins; rir.a each baa a painted vignette ot doccrat1ve pastoral lite. Ro. 0?1, eee Plate v.



Large Northwest Bedromi

tine peir haa square painted scenH • or a tiny -Yil1::i,;e beside a Sl!llll blue pU.nt­ ed r1ver. The other pa1 r is eltglltly te.ller, the mouth amaller than the oa body or the urn 1 the 01& heindlea curving ewer­ faehion about the top. C:ne or 1ta acensl!II ie a Freil.ob vtllap,a with a high-spired chui-cb. '.. ho other is an in­ t&rior 01' French psesant life. Both or th eae urna are set on a one-bl· ok base. Tho larger mmtel-urna ot tbe Stste nptirtments '!'lnve a double-block base. Th& household that haa du.et8d both aete tar many res• pecttul yeora d itterentia;tea t!lem. eo, .... these down hyer on the parlour tloor are the t,ro­ etep vaee a , flDd the upste.ire i n the chambers a r e the one-step vases!! By its te.atimony the one­ step veees have been up in the cban:ber-1'loor.

. ot e. simpler origip. e:ad a shorter p&d.1gBee is a :pair or Cright green vaeea no• on the mantel o.t the large .i:orth­ eaet bedroom. � heir unJ)l'a­ 02 tentio•a do:-:estic contours are ga.y d th medal lions or painted bbttert'lies. cdght 1mB£1,ne then to be the wrork or :,.rs. ffarriaan 1 who had da:;igud .her own rJhl t• Houaa china dinner• plates and we.a fond ot painting on chin& hera■lf. Poseibly Mrs . Cleveland. bOJght them, to H!lke<.1a cool note 1n one of her chintz­ hung rooms , blazing wUh dda yellow tlowere.

Cne �banning absurdity of a vase, as "period" a.a a pu&­ dog, tras re4Uacovered lately in that lest cryp• or ·;;bite House trealS\ll"ea I tha vault . 1t is e. mall white china 090 basket ,. hBll.dle end all. The corrugated aide■ are " overlaid •1th pond lilies" all done in taoaimile whi to and gold. and s:reen. Four little gilt nubbins ot teat lneure Plata 64 1he tickinley inventory d:ee­ the yasela at.I.b ill ty; touchea or scr1bea them as " :tour very ol!I vaeea gilt about the aides and handle Unknown :.: o ntel-:nirror t1o. 013; lJrns Uo.016 in the l!br�ry". 3ut ·�e can. place t?uc n:Ake 1 t elegant. ln ;.:cKinley' s time Armehs.irs :10 eS-60; Dreseer Uo 72 e�rl ier that, 1n the Cabinet !'OQl;Jl it was a..n orna:rttm,t of' the Blue Room, 1 Al'thur Tab le no. 78 o:t Lincoln � t11111. 11'hare they r,ray- be a.b.d n ahou.lA mzal"d a guoH tha.t it aeen tn an old p1ctuN. "1a con only was a special Tttt'an7 piece and was an Arthuriau conttibution to that guea8 ,rhose hand tirst put the:u there, Ven Bu:renta who :t1 rst Blue Roo111, a8 the almilor white, cactus vase was to t he Red Room.. Tbe dacoTnted hh otttce porperly? Jeakeon, or Ad&m.s , the first two tlo.ral maatcrpiecea are 0011 together, tu, apl)ropriate. orm,.menta to the t"o Preotdenta to uae tbe upetatra "offic es"? C.r more pl'Obab­ large Yorthwaat bedroom •hich. is hospit.nble to all the .�h! te Houu vat­ ly were they a inheritance frcn:1 .t.!ril. r.:onroe , t"rau the erc.ns ot t.he o:acond halt' ot the nineteenth century, - the V1ctor1an detya Than that room ·�a.a no haunt at" otticial, but her a.a •e JWet cal.l 1 t an lieu ot a r.:ore American deaoription. loTaly up9 ta1r.:1 �ra·.dngroom.1 0102 Another :pair or unho,ra porcelain vaesa • taller thai theee "oae-ste�" vs.sea 1 is in the Rod Roo::c, where it lns been ror mn:, years. Thsae havo marble baaee and emall handle a , ,-tlt tr1:'1tling and vignettes o r Oriental figures� 'l'he �,1nley t nve:i. tory l i st s the:m firmly as ., :\U':khh ar Moarhh" ( the ::11.oetiee had still a belated tonderneaG "1:ur Turkieh or l'ooriah et't'ecta, lett over rro:n the eighties: but to an untutored eye of the twe�thith century the tir.,tres loo:{ 11:!:e :31blical 1llua­ tnitione. :·he vases Are o little hyb�id in reriod, sugeesti ng re.Uer Van 3uren than Uonroo, the t'crties rather than t he twen­ ties.

l!IRRCRS Tho biato:--; ot iih.1 to Houae cirron "retlect:a qui <:.e Oharr::.­ i�ly tbo hhtory o!" Acorican 1nto:-1or docorntlon, troc ptonoor eolontal to the J)J"Oscn)t do.y. Ulrroro Mvo boon in A=-eriee.. •a M:-ly hhtory 11!1 e)"tWol ot hor ci1'1lh,o:t1on, a rt rat index ot hor eoc1e.l proape:-Uy. Choata ond bed-t\lrnitu.N n.:id a table or two the oarlioat colonial wo.-:en :niE".ht l".oi,o broueht ovor ;,'1th tho:=. Ohair.r, und boaehoo ond to-Jr-postor:, tl'loy r.ity tavo detlllndod as aeon os tho hOUGO!I •oN> or-octed ond 11 holp:mto;ht. awing a m,oro loieu�oly axo, or ::.i�h\ Oetlect hio cnrpontor.a to Uchtor Qt:1cos­ a1 i.1011 tMn roofa e.od tloon. sotaa and utdoboarda they r-Ay ?-.a.vo nitod tor, ror coro pro::Jporoua tt:.-;o::: en:2 U:.o .ehtps tree:; home to bring aero:,= t'or thom. Ju � wo Jc;::ow U:tet tho tir.,t touch ot l.11XU:ry - tho !'irat. Cbrh\:Xle ;Toatnt: })erhape,- t�o Colonial wito lo�•d tor, see e l1Ulo �rror. And 'tho moat i;:orauaeho r,rosont a 1;irl cou14 poafllbly 'b-e givon, (and ucually •oa) 'WUG e courting l!littor. Tho•• early ::i.lrrore ,roro tiny t!llnga, 'by our proo.ent etondards ,.- borely largo onou,h tor a a:11::J)H or ones race,- ot glass cardt"ully b::portod 11.:td a trazto �de do:nst1cally. M pros­ ?erity g::-n a:iiS luxury ftl'G11' • tho :::iirrors. sr•• too. Cnoa bdcic­ ground o1g'ht bo rockonod quiotly, bf o. lady ce.llor. 4CCOrdl:,g to the �nt or allvor onoo 1.o�lo or onoa .:11doboard d isplayed, . But ono:s proooa.t 11:lo::-y .ca :00:-0 apt to do:s:iond on t.b1 height, wtdth a..'14 dazzling .apl.olldor or onoa dr.0.11'1lJS roo::i ::.irrora. And o a ata::fa:-ds 1'or drt)■ing roou gro,.,, nn.d cotororo t�o:-oto wo:1,t t'urthor atiold, onoe Ya.llo woro lone it.on oloeont it' U:.ey lnckod toll Y'?'occh tnntol cirrors , &1.d ::n tchir,e .!'ro�ch cooaolo :=irrors. o.nd e UF.h airror ar ie:;11' in o.,ory roo:i ono had. Ant oTon .:o, 1fith tl'..o.t ot.o.ndard attabo-', o:ioe de8Condan�a wo-re not launohod tn lite ro:-ovor. Ono r:1,tht koop onoo }' ?!J:r::•or gloao: 1holr. eut o::ia :::uct crAogo tho pottorD or 1 b C"'.OUldod border ai, fas.lit� ch:tr,Aod ho::.-a, or ack:iowledsod oneselr ou 'CQodod. .EYon tr o�o woro tn tho :lhito Y.ouao. Kro. Sohn Adu:, ptonooroi.! ln tho tl?!t to Y.ouao, "1th a fOY taco to tho 1r0rld • m1d a row as14oa to hor d1n1oot:tor io. lotto:-•. Fortun.ctelr ror ua tho:so esidoo oxp:-oaaod her :'eoUnpa, end tho 0:10 co::plal ;it et'.o :akoa ot all tho !"Urn1tul"o otto:rod to hor io a.bout tto ctrrora. "Thoro oro : aho ::oya, "no lco:Clr.g�lo.esoa oxcopt. dwar!"••.. Ci-reat ::1rrora ::u:rt ha?o olroo.dy 'boco:--.o o. •,ort!cular :,a•!c;'!'acUon ao ClD ir.dox or �tlition• tn Hrs. Ada::A' ':!Ooton, to t' hor oo do�i .. at toly contceipt�ous ot ho,r <!•ti.r!"o tn hor ne• ho::b. ':'hoao,Jl , ot couri!o, �a. Adoiu, had boo:i :.breed an'1 know vory well that 1ho y.roat 'lfo?"ld volu&d �:-!"0:-.s tor oth�r pur:;x,eo:: tt.4:i aeo!nr,: o:i.os O?" oven 0!1$:S hoodd:-oas, or ono.s ontho etlhouotte. !tirror:1 had a turthol' praetie.ol :,U.l"f'OGO t�nt ::uot- he.vo !'!'Olrho:t upQn �a. AdcnM ' ep1rlts. 1-:inora •uro :i:oz.,t u:orul 1::i. t?io obrly ninotoonth co:itur:t tn tho # ror a�road1np; a. U t � lfli cundlo ' s booc o'bout n hUA"O or,:-t�ont. ,:o 'l'l'c.•utor that tho nds·•to!llo AblC"41l


Plato No. (, l!odboo Wtr.ror So. 035. 1m.1ne hol" handc 1n the ;-t'Jvacy of co:-rosPondenca� over the 1•ar!':;. Sho could .oot h:.vo ro:-otooa. tba.t ono ot" the:,, ma to boco::.o ..ho ::.oat p!"OC1.0'JD ho1:-loom - ta poici ot tltT.O - 1n t:t;o •�olc 1nvo::tc:-y or Whito P.�uoo troal!urcs 1 =oro tha:1 a conturt la.tar • .··or tho thlfl.! ?!.ow 1n tho touso 1G ono ot tho&o e:All Colonial-period c:1r:-or#. !t 1� ea:;u"lro, loes :to:: c1t"ht0:c:i 1r.c?lo3 or ::tirror-e;:oco tound 1n g1 lt plcustcr. ':he :"rllr'..e l s. ot r,iloatoro bcu:td aporin,;ly with lonvon alone; t:,o etdee, croeeoc! ribbons e.crota t?'lo top. '!ho c&plto.l 1e aquoro, ovorl:.on,;1nr, A l i t:lo, orn.o.::.OQt�d •1th n rozotto or two .. ':'ho oolor 1a P�\'ed a l H tlo -1th yoaro , 035 tho wholo pioco Wl!lioticoa'blo in itc &1:::pl!ci ty as it ho.�B in tt:s irer;en; !".onorod J)laco o.:i -:�o oaat nll or tho �ost­ do�t•a Gtud.y. It :.tght Attn.ct o.tton"Uon cnly boc«.J.:o or t!:o unuoutt.l honor or that ;-oaition 1 1\ la ap", !t'Q= ita -=ell rc�:d toot, A c!r6.os1ne-tt\'t-le oir.'":-. °'Jt 1 t l'·:i::, -,:�\.:-�et<'� " �o6 dosl or .attontion iet 1ta d.ny. Wboao att..,ntico i t r1r:t a.unctod no d.o not knew. Appar.. onUy .not l!ra. >..d:acGt ( i t i t wao or.o ot her d•o.rr=s). Posd�ly !1. sa.a

MIRRORS om:er-rartha \1aah1Dt.�tcn • s e.nd wae broupht doffll. f"rom Philadelphia by an aozioua Commie&1oner to make the White Eau.ea habitabla ror the conilng ot Mre. Ad.ams. Jn that case, perhape it cam9 to PhiladelJ,h1a from the Presidential residence in New York, and be­ -rore that ti-om V1rgia1a. Or perhaps thoae 10 Washington reepon­ dble tor tho comfort ot the PreaidSllt had picked it up in one ot the brave little ehapa optimistica.lly in a graac!11oque.c.t ca!)ttal of' 111.lddy countr, at1:eats. �rl\ ot course, it waa never Yrs. Adams' at a.11 - it mlght bave belouged to tb.e Setterson temilY nsrntture. Or porhap,11 Mr-•• Madiaon boupht lt tor 1he lfb.ite House (though n should be eure not, witb her tm:.oua turbans and plumee aha could nner had ueed it ber111Glt. And Mrs. lladiaon 1'11.■ nBTer ou to have bought tor PU.el!lta what she could not have ueed tor hereelt.) lfe do not know its origin. 'Ire only know it waa tu 'tb e '"1 1t e Houee o n Auguet 2 4 . 1814.

The other bedrooms in hie inTentory have either •toilette look1Df'. glesaeii• or •-11 toilet glauu" or �Oga.lQI' dreeeing­ tablN with dreseing-glaas. dmtaged... ( initdteible Adams. ) So thllt those large dressing-glasses must really have bean i:iometbing quite apacia.1 1 aomathiDg quite cs:pa'ble ot decorati're uses hr beyond tbe mere dreeaiag-g1aseee ot their period, and quite apt to be kept by :aany aucceasi"V'e ,;i;enerationa. We Ctl.llDot, or course, trace tba:n t'or many ge!lerattons. President Grant baa e. •large" mirricr in each of theaa rooms, in the early eeventies. In the late nineties there 1a a large mirror in

It attractad att.e:t1-tioa that day. All aoq_uiettiv& atten­ Uon appsrently. n.en the 8r1tteh aamire.l W'bo W8.EJ in tha Pres1cJent •s pe.lacs for ths upress 1Dte?).tion � burning 1t had laid �1& plans, order bad gon.e out with aritiah atrictness against looting in llII.Y torm. But one young ,11'1 thh officer e• not im­ preaaed. lie may have been taBeiuated with 'Ule little mtrror tor lta own eake I or tor th• ot a pa lr or br�h t eyee acrou the water wbicb could quite appreciate a mirr�. Be may have been properly aabamed when he tuoked it under hts aoldiel"•a cloak. Or he might have seen very 11 ttle moral dtrferenee - w d11"ferenee to the owner - in carrying ot't a national trinket to safety and apprsc1at1on 1 or burning it in place. We only know that literally be got away with i t , Anda we are aecretl.y e<:1mplotely aretet\J.l. to that young Britiah soldier, since the little ciir:-or tw saved 1a the only artic1e {axe.apt \be George lll'aahin�ton portrait) we shall aver eee (to lcnoY 1t) ot our earlioist :1hit-a Roul!ll!!I. ?fe might alee oxtead e sort o'r ■becked gn.tUude to hie heira tar a hundraa yaara. A.t least the:; kept the little mirror 58-f'e for that laDgth ot - the length or time, as one Prei,i­ d,nt observed with admiration, it takee the �ttsh c0u1M1ience to work:. In nineteen nine the heirs pz-esented it to e lady 11'ho aO!le twenty yeora later zient it 1 w1tb. a auito.ble inacription, back t0 tb& house U let't, to tbe aahes ot a tire io tbe dead ot night. H has reflected more, that 1ittle mirror 1 than he.a aeyona who looks into it tQd�.. The other lfhite House mirrors whoae ages we do not lal.o• are e.11, probably, of' a vary much later 1)8r10d. It 1g Just - e vary taiut just - possible that we ha.Te a pa1r or Mrs. J.bnroe•s mirrors 1 that ahe left tor the UH ot President Admna. Ha notes two in his 1DH.ntcry. One waa 1n the room he calls "'t'ourtb room" on the nortb aide, and: which ie wr north bedroom west ot the alcove hall� The mittor le "one gilt t"rame dressing 1acki?l8 glo.aa . {large ) ." Tba oth9r ns in the :tourth room on the south dde, which bis predecessor used as a bedroom and wa today ea1l 110 oval dnnring room or library. That mirror 1a •1 dresaing­ I large o.i:r.d "'

Plate &a Unknown Mirror No. 0116. itile:on Sofa No. 459 .Portrait or PrHident J'ohnaon bJ Andren thoae same two .rooms. .lDd by then we know which mirror" they are and that lt'e have them still. Tboy ere a pair in aize and design. They are large - the typical mirror - and. their borders are o:f' moulded .gilt pl.aziter in a daeign or curling leu·ea, lf1th a large en­ cloa1us leaf at each side ot the baee. The capital 1e heavily built up in a design ot horizontal losvea, to s ro11nded crest. The mirror 1 tsel!' ia rectangular.

J.IIIIRORS The one in the north bedroom bas not been m:oVBd eiace the daya of Pro■id.ent I!t!oKinley • we know. .And it it 1a a Monroe, and has not been moved since his day 1 1--t undoubtedly the Wh1to House record ror a atrror staying in pl.ace. No other hee anything like 1hat record, though its pair oomea closest.. If' 011 they Konroes and thi8 other on.e was in the onl 0116 soutbr001Il originally, it stayod 1D place until 1906 1 when it was aent to atorace to:r Mra , Roosevelt. Mrs. Taf't rescued 1 t for use - again as a dreasin,s-glasa 111rrar - in 01ie ot the re<!eption rCJoma on the ground tloor. rt is st.ill there. None of' the ol.des-t mirrors f'rom the State rool!lB are still in the houee. 7/e know there were mirrors i n tbat oldest hou■a. ill the uoaroe state rooms had eacb iU 111rrar - the Red Roma, the Creea Roo111 1 the B.lue Boom. 1.b.e " Room - act tiaiabed in the Monroe day- - had 1 ta tour mirrCll"S for 1 ta t1rst formal opening, :tor Preataent J'ackson. 'lbeae have been the mirrors that so thrilled President Polk's v1s1tore some tan years la terr •At tl•e o•clock PM 1aaya hie dia.ry) , between forty end ttt"ty chists and braTee ot the CmuaE1che and other bands and tribH of' w1ld. Indians trom the pra1rie.e in the north ot "l'ezao wore pre-­ eented to me • • • • •Tbsy were afterwards conducted throu«h the Eaat Room and throu«b. all the parlours below staire. 'l'he large mirrora 111 the parlours attmcted their attention more than m1y\hing alee. !!'hen they saw themselvea at full length they Hemed to be ,.reatl.y deli�hted .. " It wae however a tull length completely comm111 U taut. Thoso braYea and aquawa had come to Waebiagtou 111 native lack ot' costume and nre dressed in "American" clothe■ to visit 'the Pros1dsnt. The mirrors may have consoled them ror the hated. cloth s11 1 since they were succeHt'Ully "rest.rained• during the vhit :t'rau shedd1D.G most ct them, (But they ahed their shoes as soon as they l"&ached. the lawns. ) These atate mirrors have been replaoed over and oTer eeain. Usually the discarded mirrors have beeo prollll)tly sold . ­ probably because a :Jh:1t a Rouse parlour mirror was 1'ound t o be a very saleable article f'or lesa o.::rtcial Washington dr"lwing-rco?U. i'fe have. however, one end possibly a palr that. l!Jly be quite old, ... da:ting an appearance well baok to the Civil ':;er and 1 te BUbsequent renovations. This one ia now tuilt firmly 0118 into the wall of the C!Lina bhibi t room of the Grcund "P'loor, and. we.a :plBced there by Mrs. Ta:rt I uni er whose eager <lecor­ aUve interest ellloe, all the great mirrors of' the houae were shifted (though not, 'WSt. of them, ror the 1'irst . } She seems ta have 1 t and its onrtner mirror in tb.e Rooaevol tian Blue Boom. No. 011 1 aee Plate XVIII No. 0118 1 see Pl.ate SIX

But on.a waa n.ot a Blue Room sequ1a1 tion o:t' thai adminis­ tration.; the o 'tber one .11111f have been, since 'there is a. house meillory that one wae oopied 1'rom the other because the Roosevelta admired the design telt tbe need ot two in the Blu• Room. 1o1rs. 0117 Tart t'eeliDg the need or none 1 the second (cop7?) went to the s'l:oreroom where it until 1920. Then a ne" reception room in the ground floor 1.ema.D4ed a wall mirror and tba t was brought back to the houee and placed against the wall or the most easterly graund tloor room.. Rectangular, gilt. ei1 .plar than most- � tbs State mirrors , the aidea two pilastere claoaically crowned with cap1tala 1 the top ornamented with two "terminal urns ond 0.118 centor urn enclosed in a broken pediment, the •hole border lined with an inner e.nd enlivened with fi"Y& rosettes. the mirror is plainly Bllpire or late "Empire in f'eeliug. �uite -possibly tt goes back to the van Buren redecontion or the Blt!e Roon:i 1 when he added OrtlQID&Dts to the Oval SaloCD, end changed its upholstery and curt:1ina tram llrimaon to blue. It ia 1 perhaps, howeYer , & pUrcbase of' ¥rs. Graat•s who did buy C1r­ namenta ror her :parlours , though her attachment ror the claasic 1 like that of' her timee 1 clid not ek'tend ae a rule to turnstura. Art to her period was c. but n.rt waa expressed only in a handle­ abla objec,t of uo possible uea. Funt ture waa aometting �rniture was o:t a com!orte.ble conventionality. Whoever tirat wae attracted to thie mirror. whe,her MarUn Van Buren. or Mre . Grant, "111 continue a mystery. We are certain on:J.y 1t was in the Blue Room in the tiu ot Preeidim t Hayes {who bought no turniture a't all, that ie discoverable. ) However, it •• 'banished tor President Ar'thl:lr or ror President Clndland, 'for the delighttu.l reason that it did not lfJlld itaelt wel1 to t'loral decont1on, uppaTentl.y. The Cleveland Blue Boom mirror l'RUI decorated. with a aeriaa or little gilt leaves, amone whtch might be cunningly hidden the wires ot the ne" electric light bulbs. Cleveland ;arttes were en.livened by clusters ot little red, white and b1u.e lightings nestlillg among the tlowera; and tµey 1D1et nestle up and down the sides ot mlrrora, too. The late Empire tytie had no proviaion tor tbatJ And the late 3mpire waa detinitelyout 1 in consequence, till the twentieth century came in, •i th 1 ts sl1t.htly eontemptuoue ettUude to ulectric light bulbs 1 qua bulbs. By Jara. �ooanelt's time orch1d11 "ere tbe corr•et decoration for partiee, and a.ny- mirro'l', howev� old in p■\tar.D 1 will rei'lect an orchid. No otber State :mirrors are extent. J'udging tr0tu o1d. pic­ tures, we are tartuna.te perhape the.t there ta no auld syne strain on our eeutiments - specially in the ca:ie ot the dining room pair •painted drab." But the State Rooms decorations .-er• not the only onea with th.air mirrors. the 1atter belt" ot the nine­ teen century eveey room on the eeoood i"lcor hacl. ite mirror. Even the o-rtiee roams had. one each, over the tireplaee.


Plate I

Plate I Roosevelt Electric Lantor:c. and StandaNe lard1n1m-ea and Preaident•:J See.l B&Dqu♦ttaa Noa. 680�71 Thia hall wsa liset redecorated in the Roc-aave1t Mndnlstrat.ion 1n 1903 1 ':Thon the colwm.1111 were 1ntrc,duc&e.. The walle .. n4 ccl.WXIAB are cTes.J, the curtains cr1maon.

Plate II ..:All: OOlmIDOR

Plate II

Roo...-olt eleotr1a atandarda and light, banquettes Noe. 660-671 Uonroe mttbl.c. oon.eole No. 01.03 and. bron.z& can.dalabra No. 0108 This Corridor -wu lut redeooi-ated in the Booee:velt Mtnn1atrat1on in 1903. '1'h& wollo "'1d ••U1?Jg 01'0 o>emn ,n1 11>.rt pe1at. The oupet and pol'tiares. are crim8on. 'l'he Pert:ro1t is President :'.cKinle1 by lf1llillll D. �

Plate III

Plah III !bo•nelt El.eotrio standard end Ste.1r-gai.o; Orant muble urn• No. 00'7 Thia etllllina, YU built in t.he Roo■ffal1i ldta1n181:rati.OD, 1n uoa repl.&oing the publ1o atainey to th& EJ:eoutiYe Otticea on the second noor The ,ortrait 1a ot Preaid.eJlt Taft b;, .Andere zorn Plete IV Roam

Plate IV Roosevelt Piano No. 05C a:id Bench !,:'o. 54•; Ba..'lt:;,uettes !ro. 551-63; Consolas no. 5u4-? A.t.dirona Uo. 05°; !'irttools tro. 0&4; .Tsrdinivrea ?fo. 06�; Chaut!eliors ot Linccln �o. eel; Bust ot Was.bJngton No .. 082 ::.cJCinley Ve.set; No, 006 !.on::-oe Sofea No. 5r2-3; t�nuchnira le. 55€-71; t;ids chairs :No. 5?2..:s; Open Stde cha1ra No. Me-9; No. �,30-l Portrait of Pr-,aid.ent ;TB.S'l.trigtou by Stuart ';hts roe� was larst re,tin.:1 s?-ed for the Roesevolt Adr!.inistr{ition in 1903, when the &ntire interior was renew'ld. ':'he wslls e.nd ceilinrs &Tit whi,:e, the t'ur::tture i;otlt •1th blue brocade, the ct:.r�air,.a g:o-ld ♦

Plato V

Plato V

();)Ol1d&'O Tllb--clu'lir NO. b�t; S148 ohai:ra Ho. 58e-01; Con1olea Uo. 5$10-60; Btagen r.o, 596; 'Jol"ktable No. 606: Seth• i:o. 803; Tiptable !lo, 598; Jor411liore 110, OM; Rug No. 3; Lllatre :,nroe Clook !Yo, ..>ea; tJnkD.ow ValMU9 NO. 071; 1'>0NYalt acli:t"ODB r.o. 08'1 Port,,att ot :?reaWent Polk by lleel7; Portrait of Preo11lont Jollll <,,.1Do97 l.4m1a �Y Healy. Th11 r0011. was la■t redecorated 4u:rillcJ; the Oooliclge: Adm:iniat:ra-tiou, The mantel 1• a i'lb.111e ltou.H or:ifline.l, rc..mcved tro:.i. the Jtate Dbl11•3 lloom in 1905. The , are green... brocad.e, the o-irpet gree� umohairs gN9ll and piDk brocade, cb.ei rei,ata ,eold.

Plalo VI Blllo llOao

Plate VI lt>oaevelt .Al'lllChair• N"o. 611-14; Side ahaira XO. 815-23; :rootatool Ho. '529-31; .AILGiYOna Ho. 094 ?.:e:\:el.; Ol:umae.Uu; Sideliahts .::.Onroe Clack No. 005; CenaJ..eatickai lf'o... 092 'l'b1a room ••• laat retiniehell 1n tho Booeevelt A.ilm1D.1at:retion in 1903. Th• wallo and ourta:lna wi,re rene.ed 1n tbe ;itlaon .Administration �o 11ello and ourtaina ere t.l!q>il'•-bluo oilk, ombroid..,ed in sold thread, �• tul'lliture le white and gilt, 1D blue and whUe brooede

J'late VII

Pl.ate VII Rooee\Pelt so.ta• 65Z..5; Chair• 636-42; Chaadaller; Sidal1ghta; Andirons No. 094 Cool1clge UB!lto:i.-urna No. 09Q and Rug !lo. 2 Hard.1D8 :.tant•l-atatue No. og!S; uomoa Vaaee No. 0101 ot PNB1dient Grant by Ulke; President Aclma.e b:, Healy Thi• rooa ••• redecorated in the D>oecnalt .A.dmin1strai1on in 1903 and renewed iD the Coolida;o .A..dlmniatrat1on. It• Walle, aarpet end upholeter:r are mnroon.

Flate VIII South Portico

Pl.ate VIII Hooval" Windaol' al'lnOhairs Ma. <M>l-40e; ftioker e.:mcheir No. �78-8J?i Lerge w1obr ?:o. 383-4 Buga No, 19 end 20

Plate IX sto.te Boom

PlAte IX a,oaevolt Amcbairo l!o. 5l7-152J.; Sida choir• 4g:5-51a; J'Uec7all8 No. 0106 �. cl!,mdslier mid eide llSht• »-tlmr ?ol>l• No. 6158 ond Jardinierao l!o. OJ.0? coolidg• concUutiou Painting ot Caetle crog Ce117<Jn. by F:rClk de Haven., on loon.. Thia rooti wae laat Nldeco�atecl during the DooaeTdlt J.cim1nia\ratton in 1903 'l'he paneUiDg ie �liah oak, the til'epl.aoe. grey atone, the l1Sht• aU•er; end cu.rte.ins sd carpet are · ,green.

Plde J:

Pl"to J: Hooeev• 1' l,adder-l>aok J.nooho1ro !lo. 523-4: �ol>le No. 11&3; Conaole !lo. 536; serving table l!o, 542 BooHTeJ.t Ol'er-ocinaole ll1rror }k). �. ovsrmaxrt.el ::1rror lto. 06S Rue• WC,. l; Siile Ughto Hoover J.n.ohaire nos... O?s-82 Thia rowr. we.a l.aat :i-edeoore:t;ed in. Uie lloetaevelt .14m1Diatr.a.tion ia. 1903 !Z'he walls end ceilUlg ue butt and o.ream: this rug red ll!LM green: the ourta1Da arimson. 'l'he oba1r-upl10latery blook leather

Second Corridcr .. Center

!lot• :::III

Pl.e1'e Xr:II DooNYOlt l)oalc Nb. 23"/; t.ad4erbacll: -hair )lo, 523 Cool1c!go kJra7 CUp NO. 052 (Oil CIOU4h-tallle) noover oral Table �- '100: stc41Dg Lmtp no.. 233t Deak Laup liO.. Otil; Piano Lelllp No. 04.2Equeetrian Statue :hTo. 0165; D9ek-atetue l� .. 066 11111011 B,g 9:1, o; }"'1'U•a1t ot ?rea:ldellt lllohenall 11,- ChoM Thia oorridol' lt'U turn1abs4 by- 1.?r1. Hoovu, and the bookou•• bUilt. The grasa•oloth walls ore ll:lleo�. 'l'ho upholohr:ln;; ODd pcrtiorea "2'0 in green end grergr<1an.

Second Corridor. '.l::ast End XIV J"oh:a.eon Jzmchaira :tro. 196-'1; Cabinet Tab.le .No. 209; SOf'a Jro. 218; .Al'moha1rl 199-200 aooa.-.alt J.rmchotr bl' Deak !IO, 1GB; contorli@ht &4 Sl.dali@hta COolitige B>okeesee Koe. 21&-l?t Harding .Rua No. 10 Buohanen Vaeea no. 044-5-6; J!ollnley ::rerndil!lh No. 04:3 R00ver DNk No. 355 rhie room •aa eeisembled f'or t:ra. Hoover. The wall• gz,"U&­ cloth (•:t.iaonJ; the leather turniture blaok and rod.

Plate XIV

Plato XT:'.I

llol'tb Stucly

lloor l6

Plato l.VII l'.oKinley llooker 110, 1!8; U>lU'Oe 814" Clla1r llo, 192; Onkno-.n Table NO, 2116 Jolmeol:I Deak-chair No, 55; S14e Chair Y.o, IIOli-6 :iuecn Deak 110. 57 !,oo11ff&lt La:np No, 011!8 The wiDdow-curte.tna are bl.ue brocade, the o-erpet blue.

North Bedl'ocal ct &ill Poor 14.

Plate XV'III

Plato XVIII RoDH'Hl't .894 No. 4.0; Mell'.1nlq W.1nt'ChB.1r 11'0. 41; U.nlmolm Ccucb NCI. •II�. llaDtel•mil'ror No. Oll; Cre111\ .lnlohAir Ne, 41; Clock Ho. 010; Ve.u Buren Vaaas lfo. Olil. 1'.bU rooa •• arranged tor Mrs. Rco?er, Tho curtl'l.ino o.n.d ch81rc:onra ara blue brocade, the 'o•d hougln8e blue tartota. the corpot blue.

Laree North Bodroaia Door ll

P1ate XXI

Plate DJ: RDoa.,.•lt Bed ?Jo.. 8; Dre11■er No. 21; Dre■aer-ohair NO. 1.e; Ara-abe:lr No. 15 i'TZ1t:lne-table No. 23; Center tabJ.o No. 22 1:u-ror No. �; L&p No. 01.58 orant Am-ohair !lo. l:'l-14; :.:oKil>ley 7/:I.Jlgchal.Z 110. 10-ll; Tart Cb..,e.l-glaoo 110, 19 Unknown Couoh No. lS; !'.miteJ.-urns No. 06.. :.:Onroe Desk-chair Ho. 1'1 Thia room wee fiD1ahed ancJ turn.1abed 1n the Flooaevelt J.dminiatration in l5i03. It ie hung in rose brocade and tatteta..

Small Northeaet Bedl'OCln Door ll

Pleb llll Hcoenelt Bureau No. 2; Side Cha.ire :Roe. 3-4-t LDP No. OJ.Sa •iloon Do4 No. l; J"olmaon Uirror 110. 037; lllllala"" Vans 110. oa Thia belll'oOm turntturo io .petnte<l white end grey; it• ourtaine ore rose.

Plate D:II

p)Ate XX'I

Plato XX'I .&rtbur CTeratutted Sidooheir l!oo.128-9; .&rmobalr• !lo. 130-131 Jlol(inl07 Center !able &o. l.M; Rooeevelt lblg end L1"'1t• l!oover Ovo.1. .&rmchai"" !loo. 218-•Z 1"b.1a room ·1.aa eri,mp;ed by Lra. BooYar. The couehea, D.ltch cupboard, Small C&binata 1 pteturea and ol'!laJPD'te are heN� Carpet and. oha1r-velO'llr ia black; the curtains lettuce-green tat:rata; the chair broc:adaa green.

Oval Ilrawii,g Boom, !forth

Plata ll"fI JIDossveJ.t Boo.k:=ase l{o. 125; V1trine No. 1.86; �tetool Ito. 524 lloovor "11lChe:lr (aquare-baok) &o. 138-9; i'erra ootta buot No. 02li The corner oupbovde WN"O made opea.-abelve4 and crowned with • ab.ell tor M:r■• Eoover.

>'late XXVI

.l:ppot.a'tlli!tR.t Room., Ground. l"loor Door 1.

Plate XXIX Rooeevel'i Settee Ne. •o?, Ta.p.,atry ltci. 0132, conaole No.. -408 1 Vases Nci. 0114B Uneoln a.■• or ,olm Br�t, No, 012e Cool.11!ge l'lllnUog or �he �1 D•Oraa7 b7 4• Iaazlo, No, 0140; Bug !lo. 12.

0h1u Rao.n, Ground nocir Door 2

Plate .xll Un!mown 111rrcr 110. !118, Arthur Jard1n1eroo !lo. 0180, 0ll'il (rotlectocl) Coolidge Breokonr145• Chalr Ho•. 4l.4o Thie room wae Ulld.e into s China Display Room "tor the second Jira,. Wilbon. Th& chine 1e r-ep.reeentati.Te ot each .Administration ..

Plate XXX

Plate DCXI 0,-al. Boom, G1'0und P'loor Door a

Plate DXI Jlonroe Con.sole No. 4.20; :.!irror No. 012'1; Candelabra No. 0125 nooaavelt oon:red aide oh&ir• 1101. '29-30; Cane aid• ohair• No•• -t.:U-�; J.rmcbalr Ho. 4.25-8; ot r.ateyett& No. 01.U Gl'ont Clooll: !lo. 01211 Portreit or P.residcmt Clneland by J'"ohn90n Thie room ••• :returniahed tor Ura. Roever; the rug en.4 red-brocade curtaina end cove:r-e on the JboHYelt f'urn1t.ure were no-..

Southwest Room, Ground. .Floor Door�

Plat• =r

WUacn .1'1re1aat No. "36; .um-chair 50. «o Ven Buren conaole wo. 4.38 D:X>anel.t Vuee h�e. 011..frO; No. 0121:Rug. wo. 18 Grant Clook No. 0131; UDJcncnm 5':atue Ho. 0l.29 Hoover Eogravin@ or \.e.ahington, No. 0lSl The rua ia gre■n-oentllltOd, the chair and Hat are oover■d in green velvet

Plate XXXIl

'l'l>p tloor Boil>oam Iloor 35

Pla'te DXIII Coolidge Bede lio. aw-,.5; "1m--chl!iz No. 25e-7; Deak BO. 202, 317; Cbair No. Bureau No- uo-:ue; 141?TOr Bo, :ll.4-ol5; Bodtable N<>. lltl?-301 nlaou Bocker No. 259; Herding SOrean No .. 309; Hoove:r- Bug ?fo. 26


White House History Editorial Note The following index, which is arranged by presidential administration, is one of the three indexes created for inclusion in Mrs. Hoover's furnishings book.

lllDRX C state Cval P.oom ?:o, E>6B .A,r.1ehairs (Blue 11:lor.i) Gilt wood, carved. upholstered seat 56G 570 e:nd oval baok, fro:o. Peria .,20 571 r J..& te 7,t,.14 In East RoOI:1 state Oval Room 110. 5'12 Sideohairs (Blue 11:lw) 575 above 5?4 In East Rootl J"Ai:r:9 ?.:01:nOE !'late IV 575 lSl.7 - 1825 No. 576 Sidechaira state Ovel. 8:)om (Blue lbol!I) Open back, matohing above state Dining Rocm to 5'J.9 Uo. 17 Side�, :..:aa.1son•;.:o!ll.'Oo. Ueart­ In It:>o:t. ehaped baok 1 top carved '11th 1'8.D !lo. 58l. O'ttanans, matohiD.8 above State OVe.l Rocrn above two roa�e P.15 rt l'lato XXI (Blue lloom) 582 In Eaat Room In 1e:rce northeast Bedroom { do,:ir 12) state Dininc 11oom ?-:o, 583 Sofas State Oval Boom No. ,4 Sidecbdre, 11ke 1'1 (Blue Room) 84 Nine reet long, matching above oor o :.7i hsll ( est A ) 1 r' d 4 te l :C 4 ,;plD P,z,j si !:o�::!�l �:'� w No. ln Eaat :Ro00 Sitting iloolll No. 088 Clock In Pree1dont 1 s study (doo!" UlJ (Rod Room) GUt bronze, stallding tigure ot No. 156 Sidechaira, like l.7 15? In South Room at head of atairs 1:annibal, trom Perie P.l8J rla te V ( door 27) l.58 In Green Room l.5g ;;o. 092 Candelabra .date 7.XIV l.00 Pair, bl"onze, Bill6le light, square !I. 18 No. 165 Sota� Virginie. tigured pedestals, trom Paris Fratt111 rtde, rl8hog�·. reotanguler In Bl.uo Room ¥11; te 1;.. • l,,S('e 12 ?�o. 093 Clook State 09'111 Room back and arms, upholstered, rolled r.1s A.l!lte XXIV Gilt bronze, sea.tod tigure or (Blue Room} front aupporta, bulbous bee� l&ge. , troc Faria L!in6l'1'a, dial on Bhiel J.! in Alexandria by Harman, 1821 d P. 18 In South Ro01ll e.t head ot ate.ire In Blue Room (door 27) Ho. 0101 t.:entel-urns, pair Sittlna: Room, whita a.� £ilt 1 vignethe (Hod Room) Uo. 170 Te.01.e, Etlpire Sitting Room or Eor.ier end Bellisariue :!arble top, mahogany t'rm9, three {Rad Room) In Red .Boom pillare in socle, braaa iilate MIV :e trim.1.ed, tl'Ol'I Pe.ri11 No. 0103 console ( pair to 0145: l!'ein Hall .?.La 1:Brble, trout p1llers, aoe.nthua-carved In Sou�h Root:1 at head ot atair11 Ha\e II In !Jain corridor (door 27) !lo. 192 Sidecl':.air, like: 17 cerd ncom uo. 0108 Candelabra, patr State Dining Room {Green AcomJ Bronze, woraan' a :r1gure on globe, r'.15 In l!orth Bed:roor: west of' hall }late r.II P, 19 (door l.4) f'rom Paris il:. te :1 State :lining Room lfo. 207 Sidec!, like 117 In Lie.1.a. Corridor Sittins Boom .?.15 In Second Corridor, east ond 1:0. 0112 Bust ot Vespuciue :·arblo, originally olrlled by 11a.ahin,gton {Red Room) no. 228 Sidechaira, like l7 p. l.2 22\1 r In Second Corridor r idor 230 No. 0113 BU:o; �:i�: stttfe*·�!J!� Roca 231 o ned by Waahington .. late Z ii• 12 _ • 12 ��!:O�y w ::o. 277 Sidechair, like. 17 In :ru Small SouthHet Room { dcor 29) N'o. OllDA Vases, pair Card a::iom Ho, 420 Conaole, State oval Ro<n Larg&, dark blue, marble (Green Room.) ,,_. i.'9 v Gilt 1'004., leureJ. pattern CU'l'ing (Slue-=) t t Paasy and n-an1c11n·a .tla"';e 5, y14 ;:: ;:,1: r 20 marble top., tl'om. .rlate XY.X 1 Paris In Southee.l!!lt :room, Grou nd tloor { door l) .Hate 20 111 1, 48 1;0. 0115B Vase In oval .ibom.1 Ground Floor { door 3) State Oval RQa:i state Dini� Boom :�o.. 457 Coneol.ea, L:adieon-ttonroe Large, porcelain, grey, marble baae 1 (Blue Roa:>) l�ehoeeny, mal'ble to}), mirror baalce, 458 v1enette of' country soene, :rrom Puta ,. 19 oaned bird tront support rlate .;. i,.1: In Southoaat room, Ground tl.oor { door l) In GroW1d Corrid.or "'lato li.?, y.M r:ote:

t, origir.a! ::-o-'!�io� :..s :ncwr., 1 t is Ui von ln rii;ht 1 ta llB518t in C0!!15UHinc text. .i'reaent -oei tion doscribcd in la:,t line is show n in piotures.


�i!!:d :::�


no. 0125

Candelabra. pair, Sitting 9:Jom Bronze, :t'igurea on aquare [Re4 'l:>om) pedestal, six lighta, tram. :Paris Plato XXll • ID oval Romn, Groun.d Floor ( door 3) No. 012'1 l.Urror state oval Roan :rreme, gilt mcmlded, rounded ;top, (Blue 3oom} aimpl.e fluting, over �.10nroe 0011sole J :ate XXXI from Faria In oval l!oclll, GrOW14 Floor (door l} �late 23, p 48 No. 0145 Console ;.:ai.n Hell Pair to 0103, A!arble, rront. _pillars aaanthua c&l"Ve4 • 16 In .3a:Jt Entranoe veatibule, Ground .Ploor P.lS

Am>Rl!l\Y JADi\'.8011 1829 1837 271


?. :lO No.


Ohair . ii.aho&e.DY', curved baok mid Hat, in leat:he:-. Preaanted by �:u:100 Plate 9, p.�J lD China &>om, Ground nool" (<loor2) Canclleatand st..te oval Ro0111 Bronze, tiYe :feet tel11 double (lilue Booll} tier ot cl!l.ndl&-hl'enobea Napaleon•e, p.reaented b;y General Pattereon In Green &><mi :'.AIITIN V/JI 1l1JR!N 1837 l.8&1


i.. 32 No,






"r. 35 No. 0100


Blue :Room !flat I poat baok, upholaterf;td1 rilt trerme, six lass Plate ll, p .. Z5 In OYal Roan, Groun4 :1'1002' ( door 3) Console Green Room Cilt 'lilOOd frame. arched support, legs reeded, with ribbon oarYing, �1-ta 11, p 33 marb1e top

In OVol. llo<n, Groun4 l!'loor ( <loor 3) stato DiDing Room. Cona.ole : :ahogany, :tront suppoJ!ts oarved Hate XJX;I bird.a, lower, ahel.t In Southwnat kooo\, Gl"OWld !'l.oor (door 4) Vasei,, pair Bble !loom (?) 1.'all, 1:lright blue,'kB ot French lovers •·lAt• �III In north Bedroom nst or ball

(door 14) Vu:ee, pair state Dining Room Tal.1 1 masenta, braH tilagree base and throat, Yignettea ot •lL.te 1£,. l'• 34 !.!ario Antoinette and Ohar1otte Cordey In Red Room

P,3 IM:Ji>X C No. l?� to 176 ;. .,43 No. 075

No e 0l23 .•.42


P.45 �Oe 196 19? :-.45 +lo. 199 200 P .,45 No. 205 206 ,>.45 No. 209 P .45 No. 212 P45 No. 453 to 456

No. 037 Jl.44

?�o. Olll BuBt ot President Van lltren cracked, d.rapad sbou.ldera, ai4&bu.rns; ? • .32 .'late 10 n or Mn. Lajor Veui Buren s ii•:.? In �-:n� No. 0130 Table Green Room ltarble 1 pecleatal with ecantbua carv1DS, j,ll ato XVII ootagonal top In Terrace Ve21tibule No e 53 liardrobe BtcrAN.&c: State Oueet Room .laln.ut, dark, .mirrored door (door 23) pierced caning at finials Carved to:;, 1 In large llortbwest Bedroom ( door 18-lg) No. eo Bed State Gueat Boon: "Stat,i,", ( so-oe.lled Prince or Wale• (door 23) or Lincoln). Nine -reet long, tell :.-1&-:.:e l�, .P 37 oval head-board, ovel panel, heavy oe.rving ot graIJeS end birds, no tootbOQ'd Ju 1arge Northwest Bedroom ( door 18-19) Uo, 61 Bureau state Guest Room llarble top, drawers, heaYily carved (4oor 23) mirror rrem.e with brack:ata large uorth.waat Bedro om {door 1&- 19 ) No, 74 Ta� s ta)�e.�e�\•� Round, center J :marble top, heavy (door 23) pieroe4 carving, birae and neat ot egga. : l!;,p39 r ge 1forthwest Bedroom (door 18-1 ) 1:89 Uoe 320 SO'taTo. Staf.12-J:.:i•&f� Lounge tyPe, overstur-ted., ountng (c1oor i3) r !1,--.te 14' P 6 In�::��o! ::room (doOr 33} llo. 338 · Cabinet . Green Room ;ra.peneee, black lacquer, gold design 33� Compartments and sta':\d If. 40 .Presented by !'1rst .rape.n.eae Al:IHey In Sec<md corridor No, 044 Vases 045 Pair ot tall je.rdin1eros, one lo• d1Bb, 046 i la.te xr. bronze, dragon do.sign, Buddhist cl tat' set Pres&nted by J'apenese Embr.H:, In Seoond Corr.tdcr iiortrait- ot John Ha!ll'pden by ser1i:. ?. 40 J?l"esented by John ::corego:r, r�.p. .. late XXIII ln Prestdent·a study (door 28)



.AllllA!W,l Lir:COI.11 J.aGl J.a65 No.


Desk Walnut 1 olos11.J top, CIU'Vi1.s, with dra•ers Fro.:l SOldiore • HoJ:LU - Slmmer ... h1t:e Houee In large J.Or1ibwest Bedroam ( door 18-lt 1

FUll:II.W.:,; LIST:..> !lY DA',- OF A(;;!UISITION Sidecboil'a Preisidei:t•s 0.ttica ale.ts, curv1n-:, pierced treron, upholatered. seat Ilt.te XJUil In .Pre_ide?J.t1l!I rtudy (door 28J Clock Black marble, f'our pasta, bron�e orn:olu a:od Cie.l :late 15 ?ram Soldiers' Ho:,e-Swnner :dllte Uouae i;i.Z9 In L:l.rge Northwest BedrOQm (door 18-19) Bust of J'ohn Bright \Yhite mn.rblee PresenteC, by Thoms Blaine In Oval Room, Ground ll'loor (door 3) :"l ... t r.. x:ax :.Nmm",1 JOHNSON 1855 - 1860


l:0lffiOE LI: CC:.:, J"ACXSON VAN BVJUl:N BtiCH»f.All

1'lJliln'l'IJRE LISTED Fl lll<l'E OJ' ACllll'ISITION

Il-:Elr C

Armchair RevolviDc, laather-covered 1 carved frame Proeiden.t's chai r ot Cabinet set In -U :1orth Study (door 16) J.rmcbairs Tall sloping backe i lae.ther covered Part of Cebinet set :rn Second Corridor I mui t ent'I Armchairs Low. ouned back and a�, plBin lee.-t her uphol.stered. Part ot Cabinet set In Seeond Corridor, eaa t on('I Sideeheirs tow, square upholetored back Port ct' Cabinet �•t In -11 North Study (door 16) Table Heavy, long, walnut, carv&d, cbose&d, o 1gll t side :1u1d aud drawers Part or C&btnat aat In second Corz-1�or, eaet e.nd sofa Leu.• carved 1':'ama, rectangular, U, S. Shield on cre3te Part or C8binet .aat In Second CO:r:-idor, &aat end Consoles lfalnut, carved !'ront legs, plain back 1ecs, U.S.Sb1old in center front. In CrounO Corridor Mirrors OV&l' mmtel, moulded gilt, U.S. Shield on c:r-eet. In amall northeast and Nc>rthwest 'ledroO!IS (doors 2 9 and ll)

ULYSSES s. onANr 1677 lBe9 Hoe

13 14 �J. M Noe 30 Noe


,.55 No.

41 Room :·J....te nu; cabinet Room (door 2?)

Cabinet Ro01n (door 27) :r·1ato Xl7 Cabinet Room (door 2'1) i-lato XVII Cabinet Boom (door 2'1) J.·lc.te XIV

Cabinet RoOCl (door 27) � late 19 �.45 State Dining Room Plate 18, p44 Green Roan .date 1JC.Il

F53 !lo. 69 P. !:2 Ho.


:r.Y.. No. 7? .. JS Noe 109 r.J� No. 11& ll.7 l-'a5-1

PS2 Ho. 263

I' !l4 No. 276 F.55 No. 28J I- e;4 No. 294: P.5�

.. .'J.at1. rAI Chairs overstutted,'tl.6, low In Large Northeast Bedroom ( door 13 ) Amcbair North Bedroom Overatutfed, covered in yello• (door 13) l'late xx brocade, black lase In North Bedroom, oast or hall (door 15) Soto. Overstut'ted, .covered 1n yellow brocade, � 1 .te 7.X matching chair No. 30 In North Bedroom, east ot hall (door 13) Side chair i'lc:.t t. ::Xll · OVerstutted, small In North 1edroom, west or hall {door 14) Ot\om!lll ROUlld, upholstered top lD north Bedroom. wost ot hall (door 14) Side chair Library Low, carved post and arch back, (Oval lloom) .tl.-te 1z• .? 37 leather upholstered aeat. In large Nortl,west Bedroom (door 18-19) Dreseer Northwest. Bedrocm tfa.lnu.t,, side drawers In large Nortb.west Bedroom (door 18... 19) ."lat.; z:::,. Cornw chair F.nst Room Ebony, pierced carving, upholstered seat ?lat" 2:, . In largi, North; (door 18-19) Northwest Jeclroom 'Hard.robe :-Jal.out, very large, three do ore• center mirror In Southwest Bedroom (door 22) Side chairs Small, overetut'tisd In SOuth Bedroom wnt ot Oval Room (door 23) 5;t1S.nd Black, inlaid with mothe:r-ot•peerl In OYal Room, oecond tloor (door 2�) Stand ! lc.te 22 Black, two shelf i>• ti5 In top .tloor bedroan Bookstaa.d Black In top tloor Sota Upholetered in red plush, tringe4, In top floor corridor To.ble oval, red marble top 1 carved ebony In sewing Room, top floor ( dooz- 34) Lounge North Bedroom overetuft'ed headrest. west ot hall In Housekeeper's sitting room, :.�ate top floor {door 40)

\ l

i:::::·.!r:r l!AYEs A:?I'hl,TR Rlue Room � l:; te ::-J,.P4 � ,1. lll � ': :!.::7.1 :-..:cc.I

P.4 HIDE."<

!Jo. No. !.Jo .

i .!J No,

� .el r;o.

i .zi

:!o .


;lureau t,;srble top, mah.ote.ny, tell In Housekeeper ts aedrore., north. side, top :rloor ( door 39) 310 Chair f.a.lf-e.r.'1 1 overstutted, l.ow, rad plush,

�;��� set with. 2'75 and 311 �11. l:;ide chair Low, oveTrtuf'r'ad 1 in red plush, fringed Part 01' set \'11th 310 and ::.76 In Top P'loor Bedroom ( doer 35) 433. nrescreen Moulded r,il t wood trame , crested with eaele, tapestry scene C-it't rrom Au!!:trian Govern!::..ent In Oval Room, Oro�mrJ rloor {door 5 ) 450 Globe Geogru.:phical, ver:-' larr,e , swung in mahogany t'rame In East Entrance vesti�ule 03 Clock Mantel , black r.arble I bronze a

08 r .:;;c. No, 010 No,




i . 5-1

No. 0109

:. .so t;o . 0110

. .so

No. 0121 • ,00 no. c122


!•ll!.-t"c 2Z,y.fS

?:a . 0126 Clock xantel, onyx ali.d t:ro.n2:a omolu In Oval Room, Ground floor (de.or 3} No. Ol�H Clock 49 L:antel , black marble In Southwer;;t liooa:, ground tlocr (:Joor 4 ) t;o . 0136 Clock r. 50 1-!ant:el , bl&ck r=a.rble In Va'.llt cabi:1et Room !�o. 0137 Clock i:�te·l , tlack'tle end r.:alachite, Caleni:iar ,•'3 fa Vault He:3 Jocr. No. 01:-!,8 F'i,2'\.1-re r. fiO Bronze (:, de Gabies) ... 1-:; te 1; , iA.�

7atJa VenS!t in::i gla1, I! , tlud, .-:bite E(:yptien fi�reo , tn three glass :suppcrts ·,11th "'slue ri�s In lar,.-e Northeast Bedroom (dcol" 12) UMumbered Center Piece Gilver canoe on mi!"ror , Fiawotha, Private'.' RoO!n From J'hil.n 1elphl!l Ce!ltenninl , le76 • o 51 In P.rivate- Dinir.. .. rlocm PlatB 21r 1'••1J �...R:'C:tD E, P.A"l.ES Library 1881 1877 (Oval Room)

Ia Corrilcr

�o- 016'1

Library (Oval Room) Fl!lte l.S

Int'i:O���e::! �!��: ��:r 12 ) Clock Black r.:arble, bronze :figure or poet :no.-to '."'.X I:i North Eed.roo=i. eaf>t of hell (door 13) Green Room Clock ?l�ntel� black marble rt th oval. ?late :rn:I n:alachi ta medalliori.s In North 3,edroom, west o-r hall ( door 14) Vases Porcelain blue, vipnettes o f r,rey da:i�1ne ti.l-ures In Southwest Bedroom ( door 22 ) ?owl and Ewer Red Room aronze , raised !'icurea of .Homan goda In ecuth Room, head or stair.11 ( door 27 ) 'Crns ;.:arble , two Ctlrvcd Roman h.Jada ?late III In niches , s�iroay East ::.loo:n Fieuree Bron-ze , mother anO do�phter :1..:.te 4, i,.lZ In Orcund Corridor Fieuroe '3:-onze , ? an1 CUpid , CUpid captive In Ground Corridor Red Room l!'i�rea nron-z.e , cop1 or rir-ure on medioi tor..� in Florence, b:, Miehe.el Ar:. --elo In Oval Rco:::., ,.rcm:id floor (door :3) fled Room P'ir;u.I"e "'!rcmze, cop�• of ti-:.ire on ?.!eeici tomb in Flo::-e nce, by l.�ir-1:Ael Anrelo In Cve.l Room., �i-ound flocr (1r.c::- 3 }

L·. 51

:;c- 5

177 :lust:. Ca.k, hco.·11ly c.e.r•:od, knae-::ole, tlnt top. ! fro;;, timbers of Al'C tic ahip H.?l.S. Resolute Presented by ,ueen Victoria In Preeiden t ' s Ztudy ( door 28 )


No .

CHESI'ER A. AH'IBUR 1881 1885

l• No.





P.5 DmEX C

Presirie!l.t 1 s St:tdy l l:;. le 2f,.i--17

78 Table i'ralnut, elaborately- carved and· inlaid, curved outline In ?:orthwest Bedroom ( door 18-19) 90 Chiffonier �hc:;:a:r:!,•, attached swin;ing mirrcr lZ In Southwest OI'Bssine; Room ( door &l) 95 3ureau ·:�±r'r-nny, ':'fi U:�1t mirror In Southwest Bedrcom. ( door 22 ) 102 Chit!"cnier t:nl:011einy, tsll, with cut mirror brass be.n<lles , carviru_:- on drawer In ::outh'lg'est 3edrocm (door 22) 128 .Side-;:hairs �uare bac::s, En-.oot!ll::; over-Etut'ted 129 Ll in dark volours , f'r ine:ed Ir. cval Roo.":l , se¢ci:::.d tlo�r , doer 2E. )

• • l2


Fer :::tate Di:iine Roorn :-1.... te 22, y.�o

Library i..

t-:crthwest Bedroo:n

Soutt.wect Bedracnn

r;orth',1e:.t 3eG.rco-m Creen Ream

?.:::::::.n:m I.I:-:-3� BY n.;.TE OF 1LC,l"ISI71Cli A;.-:T!!':::R t cLE:\,..ELL.W, :,::-RI!i:.i.�;y P'or For no. 457 Bookcase 'lest Si 'tting Room Green Reem No. 130 .lr::l�baira Jlahoe,any, s::iall , open shalt Cotchi:l!: 1ae-129 Second Corridor 131 .. ::.ate �:-; I::. Oval Rocrr. 1 ceoor,d floor {•.· oor 25 i • �- 5 In Souttweat �oom, irround floor (door 4 ) i :r.. • e N , - ,Cl Oval Room No. 444 Ar.:l.chairs Corridor :ro. 201 Sofas Second floor 445 IM.rk wood !'rarne , upholstered beck Oval, lon"' , -"'Od:roone<l , 202 and seat �.a :lo;nrny f'rame '-'ia+-- 23, JI .C.2 ,._l � -�•El In Ground Corridor In seeoml Co:rridor, east en:1 Oval Room No. 44'9 Setteee �in Hall Uo. 210 Armchairs seecnd Floor to 4152 Dark wood 1":rame, upholstered baok ll!tcl:::ine sofas r:Ol-202 2H - · "-1.1 and seat, ::.e.tohin� above In 3:econd Cor!"idcr, east end • .-.(2 Hate 29 ,. 'it• C.2 In Ground Cor;ridor Seut?.we�t 3adroo:n ::o. 2'i'2 Cer. terte.ble l�o.. 017 Lomp ?:sho'1'any, round, carved cabriole Red Room ;1�•_e 2; ! .1' Cut glass bm,l and shade legs• two drawera ... • ... J In large Northwe,,e-t Bedroom (door l!?-19) .t-In Te-p l'loor Cor::-irlor No. 088 P'ruit etand )rorth Bedroom West end Sittir..g no. 279 Chi:!'�onier Room Dreflden, bowl ot:. tour po!!ts 1 dark blue Painted white, carved Second Corridor w1 th wreathis or roses i?. 63 In se-win( Room, top tloor (door 34} In South Roo:r.. et h68.d ot stairs {Coor 27) Green Room :;o. 29-7 'Il!lble No. 0144A Vaaee Green RooI:t :":alnut, curved outline, carved and SrrE.11, with ha::i,C lea, cilt flowers, 0144B : l&te i!llaid center fir.ial on stretcher Cl ono pink, ·one yellow In 1:0'J.sekeep<=r ' s !ltti:iF' �oom { doc"C" 40) .. . ,., ::i ?�in Corridor In Vault No, 4-5� Cloak ...::.te "."XI.. ; ......L ..l.:J. no. 10 Ar:ncheir Mahogany t tall, heavily carved ;1,� tC 27 I Jl,·:i t-;ehC¥"ony f'rame , tall baok 1 winged , In 11rcund Corridor Private !lining Rcom • • C '7 upholstered Dining table In 11:'crtheaat '98".lroom (door 12) slound , .:::ahceeny , godrooned rim, ... .4ate ':-'.: heavy carved legs on roet !Ile. 11 .Arrr.c1-.air Matchinr: above In stc.te DininP" Booo:i ... • ,... , north f:.edroom In :rortheast Bedroom ( door 12) no. 020 r::antel clock west of hall Frencr., brass end glas3, w.all No. 42 Armehair ;._ .:z In Scut?",..-et:t 9edroorn ( ;iocr 22) Overstuffed , tall back, �ingea , • •c:c �1::i Ball No ,. 0107 J'a!'dini•..:res 1 pair Matching 64 Brass and copper, on pedestal, In North 9edroom west ot' hall ( door 14) . .. EC .:late ZS, V• '. ;' ?:c. 59 BockitW c!"'.eir wrought desicn, t'or potted plan�s President's Study In Stl!lte Dinine Room Mahogany I two wide , three narrow s_pla ts 1 ..- •..:.t Oree:1 Room r:o. 0119 Jardinieres , pair, (one dl!I.Jlllgsd ) leather eaat .. l-"":e :.1, r 7 r�tt"!:e 22, i•• .:.1 In North Study (door 16) canton, tloor , pink and ..-reen No, 63 Sidech&.ir �· .. c.1 In C?::in::i Room, ground floor (door 2 ) Presi dent 's Sll:oking Red Room Flemish, tall back 1 spiral posts, No. 0120 jardinie!'es , 90-ir Room .. ..:. J carved , leather seat Royal :'forceeter, floor� fro::: ,., .'.:l Tiffany, ?i.a�dlad. �oman ,..arden In l.a.rfe �tbwest Bodrocm ( door 18-19 ) ::o. 64 Armchair eeenes, ;;rirl, cupid , doves Si ttt:it;-: P.oom t tall back, winted, like In Ctlina Roa!n, tround fleer (door 2 ) ?forthweet Bedroac No. 0135 !Jant e l clock ch.air 42 , slip covered. In small Nortb.we�t Bedroom ( door 20 } Brass , dial supported on el&phants i • GZ !Io . 7l Davenport West Sitting Boom In Vault Red RoOI!:. Overstuffed I arn::e and back equare , Seeond Corridor tlo. 0139 VaE:e China , white , 1::i.ita.ticn or barre:l slip-covered .....el cactus in bloom In Top Corridor No. 75 ':'ea-table In Northwest Eedroon:. ( doer 18-1.9 ) '.'lest Sitting Room Heavy , drop-lea!', car'\·ed supports Second Co:r.ridor 21 In horth.,,.est 9odrocm (door 18-19) GRCViR CIZT.&LAND 1885 l8e9 No. 83 /a'I::.ohair ?feet Sitting Room 1803 Overstuf'fed , n;atchinr eavenport 7l 1897 Second Cerri dor In Top Corridor 'li'est Window no . 94 Ar!:lchair No, 302 ·:nndow 1ench West Sitt 1ng Room Second Corridor \feed , lonf', plain Tall back, overstu:fted Second Corridor In Oecond Corridor In large :rorth·r.e:it �edrooti:. ( door 18-19) i. .


.i. •

i.:ca:nrr.EY ROOSEVELT llllm:ITURE 1.ISTE:J !l'i llAl'E 0? ,'.C;j!JI9ITI0N ?or l'or Pr981dent'ii Smok1118 No. B Bad Large S,:,utheaf"t No.. 1.34' Tsble MahoetmY, tOUl'Poster I canopy top Larae, oblong, ebony-<t-olored , Be:1%-oom Room heavy , oa.rve4 , dolphin BDpporte (Ushar'e O""tice) broken J)a41me.nt boe.dboard . no toot ;') 42.p81 •.• 82 In On.l Room, second :rloor (door 25) bcard . :· 1 .•; :v;{I Sc-colled Prasident Jackson'o No. 161 .....,hair In lar,..e Morth.eaa"' Bedroom., (door 12} Mah0«a,ny trruno, tall back, winred. , llo. 'ii Case of' drawora uphobtered Large ::io.rtheast Mahogany In Soutb Room at hoad o: stairs (door 2? ) Bodroom :t-. t..:. No. 195 Tip-table In lerce Northeast Bedroom (door 12) :1a1.J 21,. p.,•:, No. 12 Slipper chair Large + ' :a , -� L:J.hcga.ny , low Bedroom ?/ :� No. 205 Artaohair In lari:e Northeast Bedro..1'11 (door 12) »thcae.ny !"ra,no, tall back, w1 . �ged, No, 15 .\rJ!lchair Large Northeast Shoraton 1 cushion seat, !al.aid uph<lle tered Bedroom • • r2 In mnall Southeast .Boom (door 20 ) : 1 . ;;e x.<:I In 1arQ:e Horthoast Bedroom (door 12) President• e Bedroom No. 16 Sidochair No. 2� ' Rocking chair .Larei:e Nortteast Tall back, 1f'OOd (door lS-l• l Mutching above Bedroom . £' .68 2, S.! In large Nort:1ea�t Bedroom (door 12 } In Top ?leor sewtng Room (door 34) J; l. -1 .l y_;c no. 321 Rocking chair No. 20 Bedside s .. ,a Large Northeast ad Mahogany, tall back t upl.olatet-ed 1.:0.bogHn:, , &eat. In large Northeast Bedroom (door 12) In snall Southee e't Rooc ( d.oor 29} No. 21 Dressing table L3rF.e Northeast N'o. �22 Rocking chair ?J!lhogany , glas-,-top, no mirror Bedroom MahO!UYI dark, earved dolphin :1· t_ :C{l l!2 large Northeast Bedroom (door 12 ) beads OD 11,ida-rails :�o. 22 Round table Lorge Northeast In South Bedroom wesi or Oval Room l..:a!logany, pedeatal 1 cle.w teet BedroOlll r. s2 (Door 23) In lar�e Northeast Be1room {door lZ) -·· t: 21,p,t: . Green R0OlII No. 23 7.rittnr table No. 598 Tea-table Large Northca$t Mahogany, lrlrge , rlasa-t0IJ Mahotany, heavy, drop-le&t, Bedroom 1. 82 carv■d auppc,rte In lorgc. Northea.ot �edroOM (door 12} .1. • ,. x:� I , CJ -"Larp,s t:n!'the:.ot No. 2-4. ,:erdrobe In Private Dini:ce !loom :ro .. 043 I"ern dish �f�• c::��d��r:r:�/11rror , Bedroot:1 • • 82 Del."k red ehina bo·.·1, in bronze holder , Hon' .s beads, ma:C.e trOlll Io la.rga Northeast Sedroo11: (door lZ) No. 25 Hound table lamp Southeast Bt1droo:n '..:ahorany I gle.fls-top, pedestal, In Second Corridor, end (door 28) 1 .33 No. 066 V11aes claw tcot Tall, dark blae. dul! ro A ),..1n1Ues In larce �ortheast; Bedroom (d,.or lZ) C1ft Ne, 40 Bed Lar6• Northeast In Ea!!t Room, on pedestals Mo.hof:'!D.Y , tour-_post, headboard Bedroom ! . ·.:.� end root board, canopY top T�30DORX ROCiSEVELT In :·ortb Sedroom ·...-ePt of ·ha)..l (door 14) l 1-te rn:Ir · 1909 1901 �edroom No. 48 D:'es&i!JC table (door 28) eloase-top. no r..ll'r-or �ogany 1 ; , C3 Small Northeast No. 2 Bureau In North Bedroom west of hall (door 14) . , 83 Bedroom Painted wht te, wtth mirror No. 49 Table Red Room glass-tcp SDBll I Nu:td , beaded ri--: 1 f'our logs .. s: :,1.te XXII tr. In Smll Northe.ast Bedroom {door ll} Presented Sinall Northeast No. 3- Side chairs In Nort� ')edrou.:1 west ot hall (dco-r 14) Bedroom P31nted white , cane backa , No. 50 Table Red Room cushion seata SC!all, round, beaded rim, tour lega In b.11 m,r· theaat "3edroam (door 11) Presented small NOl"tbeast No. 5 ied stand In North Bedroom west or hell (door l4) Bedroom No. 52 Taa-table Painted white, p;lass-top Oval Roo..:r )lahoS"ny , doub� deck In 11!1Bll Nortb&ast- Bedroom (door 11) (Library) Small Northeast No. 8 t'lri ting tabla In Oval Roo::i ( door 25) ,i:·, 01 Bedroom Painte� ·.:hite, glass-top In small Na.rt'ioast Bed.roorc. (Ooor 11) P,6 I'lDl!JC C

In�� :::n��r:��::�•�==: r:::�!-19)

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l!'IT.:ll'I'UHE L!STlJD Ir! DA'l'.S 0? AC;;))IS!TIO:;








88 89





No, l.0& p,82

No. 106 P, 82 No, 101

r. 85 No, 114, P, 83

No. 119 p,82

!lo, 121 P. 83

!lo. 1215

::-. 81

No, 126 :,. 81

?or &nnll Scutheurt CbH'fonior Bedroom Painted white and gl'ey, i1itl:out ml.nor In :rortl> .Beclroom •••t ot hall I door 14 l a.ireau Smal.1 Soutt.eaat Bedroor:i Painted white and grq, with


,,date XV In -11 llorthwest Bedrooc (door 20 ) &Dall Soutlleaat Side ohaira Beclroom Painted white, cane baoks 1 auehion aea1; In om"1l Southwest .Bed:room (door 21 and BoUtb,..,•t center llec!roo.< (door 2:JJ Large Southeast S1de choir llodl-com Jf.ehogan:r, inlaid, oushion seat ( door 28) In South BadrooL. west ot Oval Room 23) (door Southwest Bedroom sareen Folding, oloth penela (door 22) In Southm,at .Bedroom ( door 22) Jrttin.-{ table Second COrl'i rior, 'lest end In Southweet ( door 22) Large southeast Bedl!li de ■tend Beclroom SQ.Ua.'N I mahogany In southvoat llodroom (door 22) Large Southeast Caee ot drawer• Mahosany. tell .Bedroom In south Bedroom wei,t or Oval Room ( door 23) Table South BedroOD. weet ot OVal !loam . �abogciy, long, drop leat. double support.a In South Bedroor.l west ot oval Room ( door 25) Largei Southe«at �a.rd:robe Larae. mirror in doo�, mahogany, 3edroolll inlaid In South Bedroom 1 door 23) Library Yahocany t'?!SJ"J.8 • gl.aae doora above, Flste XXVI solid doora hel.o.- 1 broken 8J"0h top (poir to 1531 In OV&l. lloor. Cabinet. Library Hahoaimy, amel.l, gleas doora, Pl.ate xnr diamond lo.ttioe

In oval Hoom Amoheir ..tahoe,cmy I Sheraton 1 inloid, P. 83 uphola1atre4 Hat In Oval !loom Bo. 153 .Bookoase :.rehot1cm,y frame , gl.e,aa doora above• P , 81 doors below, broken arch t0p (pair to lBII) In south Room at head ot ateira ( door !lo, 169 Table !found, mahogany, small, tol..r l.sge 1 P, 61 ahelt-stretcber In South Room at head or Bteirs ( door

NO, 1&7

Large Sou.tbellOt Bedroom ( door 28) Pl. te XIII I.ibrary �late xxv

�'1} Library 27)

?lo, lGV Po 81

llo, 195

�- 82 No, 198

r. -81 No, 213

:', Bl 110. 215

�- 81 No. 237 � • 81

No, 270

P, Bl

110. 286 :•, bl Uc. 324P, ?6

]io. 368 '· 83

Jlo, 344 P. S3

Ko. 345 . • 83

lie, ll46

: . 81

No. 347 :-. 82

No. 399 :. 83

Ho, 400 ,·. 83

11,. 407 ;:-. 73

Ro.· 408 ?, 83

l/'Or Table IJbrary Bound, me.hcg!Jl.Y, snall, tour l.eg21, l: l-r ,te XXIV ahell'-1tretcher In South Room at h�&d ot ataira (door 27) Deak Large Norlbeut !itehoe;anyI closing Bedroom In mne.ll Southeast roam ( c2oor 20) President I a study Am.chair . late XIV over&tutted, leather, brflB& na1.le In seaon4 corr140r, eut end Tea-Table Ubl"ary 14ehogsny, doub1e-duok In Second corridor Tea.-'Table 1.ibrery i!ehog1111¥, double-deol: In Preside.ut 1 s StUdy {door 28) Deak Library Kidney ah.sped, raehogeny 1nle.1d .cl.: te XIII In Second Corridol' settee Worth Hall. ?dallogeny trame, plal.n, amll. second Corridor In. Top COrr1dOl' Rooking ohoir S1ttlllS Doom Second Corridor r�ogaJ:11 In 'l'op Floor lloill'oom ( door 38) :i!'ootnool Hod Room Cushion--type , square, bl'Ocade oo�ered '."..ate XI.":I In Oval Room ( door 25 ) Sl:lall Southeest S1deoha1r White end green Boclroom In !fop noor BedroOlll ( door 3'1) Deak Small Southeast �1te end green Bedroom In TOP l!'loor Bodroom ( door 37) :Bocker saau southeal!lt lhite 811d green lledroan Ill Top l!'loor Bedroora ( door 37) Bocker SittlJ>g Boo:n ::ehogany , windeor ty"Jle See0J1d corridor In l!op noor Bedroom ( door 39) Rocker south Bedroom we1t Cherryor oval. Boo:n Ill '?op l!'loor Beill'OOlll ( door 35) Chevel.-mirror Bedroom Uah08,ltllY, oval, on atand Ill Ground Corridor (hat box) Cheval-mirror Kortheaet Bedrocm L:ahogeJlY I oval, on stand. In Ground Corridor (hat box) Gremi Roo:a'l 9


te XXIX Inp=::i::�•�=: !:�da;:!:\::; l.) - l� 1rl"1:t1ng tab.le southeast Bedroom Cabricle legs, cerv1D8, nat top, c1rawera Ill J.ppoint..ient Room, Ground t'loor ( door 1 )


P.8 11WZX. C

For Groun� Corridor

?:J. 411 Cabineta 41.2 11:iaaior. oek, 8111.58 doora, tor Obina ., ., -79 Stook No. 421 Amchairi, Green Room Rolled tope 1 gilded wood, upbol•�ored to 424 �late XXY.I In Oval Rooc., Ground .tloor (door 3) 11o�:U:. Al'mehaire Green Room to 428 Gilded wood, strai{;lit be.cka, :i: late :UXI upholatered .f'. 73 In Oval. Room, Ground Floor ( door 3) No. 4.2,g Side chair■ Groen D:>om 430 011.ded t:ood, cane b&.oks, cushi0D .:. :Ste XXXI aeat r. 73 In Ov& Root:y, Ground floor ( door 3} No. 431 Side c.haire Greeu Jcozn 432 Gilded wood, .!.i��t, oane be<:iks and Ihtr- r.xxI eaate r . 73 In Oval Foot1 1 Ground tloor ( door 3) l!lo. 461 Side chaire State :>1n1na; .BoOI:l to 4.56 t:ahogllllY, stlll�ted ba<:ks end aeata in tapestry 1. 13 In Ground ColTidor NV. 467 Teble Lo:r�e llortl.east ::arble, top, �oe11JJ.7 , lona {wuh- Bedroom 8 l , 83 In :� �!ntaent !Dom., Ground tl� {door l.J tl.ate '• P• 14 ?;c. 466 Toble Large ?Jerblo top, ll"A.1ocan:v, long (-;rashBedroom otond) r . a, In A�:potntment RoCIXl, Ground tloor (door 1 ) ?:io. 4'13 S1 de oha1re State Room. to 475 ?.!ahogmiy, stutted hacks end oeats, in tapeatry ;-. 76 F·late IX Ground Corridor Ne... 477 Sido chairs state D1nin& aoom. to 494 !.:aho�any, stuf.fed beoks and see.ta, in tapestry . :?.ato IX 87, ;-7$ In state Dinine Roal. r. 75 N.;a , 4-'J5 31de c�aire State :)1n1Il{; f:oom to 516 �:ahoge�y, stui'fed books end seats, in ta;,aatry I • 76 rlnte IX • ?1 1 .P "6 Stored i:i :,.ttio :: • 517 Am :n1e1r11 Stato .Jiniug Room through Ou.."-t, ta-1, oerviL.. , bao:-;:s e.nd 521 see.ta a"'te U. '°t't', 1, .?G In state Dini.a& Rooc. r. 17 n:-. 522 C�ina cu1,.board Privato Jintne: Room J..:ehoc;eny, 1nl.atd, tall , glue end soJ.1d doors -· · "8 In l rt vate Dining � J.rm ohaira Privete Dining Room 524 desi.,;i, ladi.!erback • la,tP9 3�,4.0 • ..t.•.?t? ln Private Dining Room r. 79 1;", 525 Side oJ,aire Private Jin1nl3 Room th:rough ::ahoceey, Chil)pez:dale de.sier., aeato 534 r. 79 !n l>rivete Jini1is; Booe.


No. 535 : • 1e ; • 78

t;c. . 538 ; • 76 :;c.. 542 • 78

!;..., . e,43 , 07 54? • • JO

l. . •

�;c • 548 _ . eo

!:c: . 549 _ .n !�c-. 560 '1! i. •

:ic . 551 t:.:rouc;h "l 563 No, 564 tl.:.-oot...:;:h 71 b67 :: - 564 085 l • 7':

!• . • 611


For I·:rivo.te Room doors d i i t z.� , ;:,?IJ a n �ta�'"' nl , In::;i;��:!• J:;�: :c!cete Console PI1:vah Dining :klO:ll i.:ahoo:�:,, Rtl;:ire, lo•e.r· al!.eU : late ln I"rivate Diniue .Room .Footstoola Red Rooz:i. CUehion t:;-:)e , s•-1.'J.lll'e, covsred rad velvet In Pr1vate Dining Boc.c Serving table Pr-1l'ate Dinins: Roo:ll Sl,ere..ton, throe ote:; st.elves .:'late 7.. In l'r1Tete Dining noom :Jh.,ing Room table State .Dining noa::i t , m o eny · � -tea r�, 4C . ,pe .eh g Ino;��a;:i;:1:7�� y:,c, Dea.k tJsher 1 s 01't1ce Closing, uahocecyIn t..e}".;.er• & Ot'tioe '!'"able Uaher' s C1'1'1ce Uahoeany, inlaid In Ushor · e or.rice }} benc� :sat :Roar. Gilt, .?r-..e<:«tr...: . hf:e rv r i �t aooo Piano "Roc.:i Gra.�d, .,;old-leai"ed, :?,&1::ited sera.ile9 - �ate !ii steinvay. Preeente4 In East Hoom aan-:i':.l ettee East F.oOJ.J Gilt l"rmoe, u1,holsterea aoats L late IV In :east Bo® Cor.sole tebloe East Room Gilt, two leg, d.8l"'k r;..orble top ... 1nt:e rt !n ::aot Roo:n Ar:.-ci:4&1re Green Roo..; J.ilded, r-oll-to; , u.1->:,010:tiared seat and ba.ek - 1:...te IV I.e. 1:-ast Ro�c. .A.r=':l-chetra Blue Room t tr1T.. ;ad, a..,,_uD.L"e backa , L l'1te :�� a ;·".'1 � Sideboard


1R . 615 Side chairs hluc Rote. through 'l,;!;.ite, gilt... tril:r:l.ed, shield shaped i ! te �«, p?'.. 623 Oacka, aeata upholBttired 74 Ill Dluo Iboa · :11.ue Roor.i. l:c: . 624 Side c1. eira, & -1.•:arc thmuE:;h Viti te, ;:;1lt-tr1med, seB.te i.....,toletel'tld; L h ..,. , ,,?" 74 62? !n 3lue Room Uo. 628 Settee .Blue Itocr.i nhite :;.oiz.teO. C".r, a silt, lon...: str!li,�t , :._&te :''f, 1, 7 : 'M. back and seot upholstered In 1U.ut1 :Roo:::i. :Jo. 62'i:l Footstools Blue Room 030 ".n:.1 -;e ar.d cilt , upholstered - 1::it-:· :i:-1, 7.: In .Blue Roo=i. N �31 n.:.:. G32 .An:-0:laira fied l«iOIU 033 Square fre.":lfl , covered in ve:lvet , seat . ..:. . te :!! , _ "5 ar.d be.c:; u_pholstcrod In Red :Room 1

r. .

r.= c n·;:::i,:r:.. rtE L!S'I'ZrJ Ir£ :>ATE CF AC-�:ir.::rl'IC.: i'or For !:'••· · ·o:,z .:.:trror Private :>1nill(; Rooc :;c. U34 A..m.-otsirs Ii.e.nging, rr.Bhog8IVJ rrsia, oeg).e O·rerst·J.t!'cd, riec1.J; t-.:i'ted, red o35 l �- � .• ?� l· •..-. z:.::., In Pr!vate D1n1na lbom valvat. !;.... • 055 :.::.irror Pl'1vate Dintne Room In Hed r.oon L:antel,' , bevol1ed trams, ::,,. 636 Side c�e.ire Red Roam tlet c;ilt flower deaign through Paintetl o1titu and �olC., shield­ . • '":.J 1 :.e '!',, In Private Dinins Room shapt',ld baeka, 5U • • 7E ;. . � .. "'II r . ose ADdirons {:fo\ll" pair&) East Roan In Red �OM Braas, Lou1■ nv No. 644 Cabinet Red RoOlll l... ... . --:· , .. ...... In East .&>om Tall, -ahot;e::ly, 8,l.aes doors, ao1.1d 75 nc. 059 Bwlt East .EbCl!l doors end dra;;-er. Presented Heed of Bonjacin Frenk.1111, bisque In Rod Hooo Pre:1e11ted Ne. 645 Conoole Red .Roca In Boom :.:Mosen:,, dark cierble top . :;.•. te �IS, • , 74 060 Bust PreseI:.ted. East .Rocrn Head ot ThOlElae .retrerson, bi.sque In Red Root:. • • 72 Ko. 600 Sofas Presented r:ed noom 551 In � Overstu.tted.1 U:Pholatered in red velv_et . • "f. 1 1 , • � ::, ..i. • ' ·: In Red !t>ot.1 !lo . 002 1"e'G :Roan 1:: . 654 ;'.;creon Uead. ot oe01•ge t!Hhington, ht.quo , 3tate Dinius; fioon:. Plate r,· I • 'I� Pre&ented l�eav7, naiJ. at-.1dded 1-.t� ':7, � . -::. _ ,77 In State D1nin& .foo.."':I In East .Roo:n !it. 6�5 31<le toble Eut Boom lie:.. 063 Candelabra, eight Ste.ta �nine Roo:t v brancll.e■ ot olootrio liehts . _. :..:.:..ooan:;,, al:l.l"ved e a..;le .Jupporta, :':".J. 7,.,. . , . . ... ..: • ";'7 In �::; :: dark · _ r'Jl& to�.• brnes riomcd No. 0 64 Fire tools In Stets Dining Rooo sets, bl'asa Consoleca state D1n1Jl8 Roo.-: Scall, ;t1ftho.:ar.Y 1 CL""'Ve:d 68';10 In East- Roo.:1 !?o. 065 :ardinieree, tour s t k� ble top. bress r1'1c� Room � e ::-, ,,, . ...; ;i : Bisque , rei,1 1 s and e,:,et • 11 bee.� In �i!�: n ... l. ' · r; In Eaat R-:>om ::c . i;oo 13anquottsa �Mein Corridor !lo. 069 Andirons 071 ?renoh 1",alnut, u;,holatored Green Roa:n In . Corridor - • 7� Bronze, urn deeisn In Green Room ::.,. 672 .Am.-ote.1r State Din1n& RoOlll !to. 070 : :irror, ::e.tohi:1£: Dining Roou �at Green Room :. '• 7-:", .J . 'i� • , 72 Gilt , larce, wall, Roman doaign frame In sooor.d o,,rridor No, 683 S1:lect,tlira In Green Room Green Room }To. 091 .Andiron.a to ase Gilt, sq;uaro-back 3lue Room. ., n Bronze, heav-1 , l"'renc.1 In Stororo->tl . 1 :t.. � _; :;o. Gt.1 Zidecl"�aire In Blue Room Greem Rooa no. 094 J.nd1rone 6C8 Gilt , curved oano backs Red !loom Bron2.e, sphinx In JtOttr<ICD !?o, 6�0 Cabinet In Red 1t>om Orouud Corridor No. 096 ::1.rror :.1sa1on, class-doors , r-or cl.ioa Red ?oan i . 79 In Stororooo Gilt, lerca, Ro=?en deaign trace i- '{6 .:. 1:. "LI.. � ..:. , ,, ':"� :;o. 04. !.:trror In Red .ltxEl. Large Hortl:east wa.11, dr1u111na, gilt tiligreo l:O. OJ.05 Fire toole Bed.roocu State Din1ne Jmm : • C.2 In J.a:roe 1-:0rt.•eD.St Bedroo..--::i. ( door 12 l 0100 Crane l .te .,._�l lio. 026 Andirona Iron Prea!dent ' :J Stucl;y 1 Holland - L t..;, ::' , k'':"7 ,!'••1 .Bronze, �air In state Dining Ro01& In South Roo:i. at head of ate.ire ( door 2'1) No. Oll4J. Vasl!ll!I I two pairs East Room }10 , 030 S.:irror JArge Sc,utheut Oll4B Sevree, white witt. purple t'lowere . :�::.: 3edroom ·.:al.l a dre::,eing, gilt t1Ugreo i.'resented. ... . 7:i In North P.oom \Htst o1' hall ( door 14) In Oround Corridor ' Uc. 033 Fire tools Large Southeaet Roo.'11. ll"o . Oll4C Vases, :pair !:l!l.llt Roam Braa• sevres, ·Wtite \.1th purple flowers "i" - • 83 P1•eddent · e 3tud:, ( door 26) Presented. ?l.... 039 Vaoe ln Southwest, Cround floor (door 4) Sevr�:s, white ,m:i blue. Gi1't In =.all Southaaat Reem I door 29 l


P.10 n:;n:xc

FUR!ITT!Jml USTI:D BY Ill.TE OF AC �-TJ:SITIC!I l!'ol" lfo. 184 Executive Office :i '. ·,7 _ ,85 0Veratu1'ted1 green Philippine loather In Prosident·s study (door 28) Ho. 194 l!lr1 t1ng t•bla Sou.t!:11reat Oresstna Heavy I cerved eupporta, boelte-t ot a>cm tlowera In anall !:orthweet D:reaeins Room ( door 29 J 11o. 204 An!>-chair Tall back, cen-ed1 ap1re.l poata, con-ms. Gitt trom Daughter• or the .American ReYolu.tion In second Corridor, No. 518 Tabla Southwest Bedroom l.tehogan,y, aoall, high, one drawer, • . .1. 1, -:1, P• :.2 slue knob ID North Bedroom waot or hall (door 14) scniene Ground Corridor Pair, !our-told, ple.ln .traue., west end tapeatl'J" penola In Ground Corridor, •eat end Wel.1-rug Persten, embroidered in sem 1-p.reo1oua stonee, pearl fringe, in mehog8Jl7 trOJLO. Gitt In Ground Corridor I Kaat End WII.Llil.! ::01/AJUl TUT No, 0152 Painting 1915 l\109 Sign1ne; ot the Spmish '.Peaoe Protooo1, Large southwest Room . by Thoobald C11a:rtr1111, G1rt. Choul-glus •• (.5 In Ground corridor, hast En4 .]....t, 21-, �.. 4:i i;l!lhogany, Colon1$- 1 ovel He. 0168 Silbauette ot J"olm Tz,lar ID lar� ?Tortheaet Bedroom. ( door 12) Original, by :Sdouart. Gitt. Southwest Dressing Dreasing-ta'bl.e · In China room {door 2). GrollDd tloor t1ahoe,any, with mirror, tJ.ower­ b!UlkBt oarving. IOOIIRO\II liILSOI! ID S<>uthweat DNasillg !loan (door 21) 1913 - 1981 Southweat .Jedrooc. Sideohe.1:ra r..olonial, :-iahogan,y, u:pholatere4, No. l Bed Nortb Bedl-9om leather back Wooden, pa.tnted g:Ny and wb.1.te. n, soutbweet lladrOQIII (door 22) and l:' XIU :r.-. ID small Northwest Bedroom ( door 11) Oreasing !loom I door 21) Ho. 27 Bado Southwest Bedroom North Bedroom Bea tabla 2S Pair, wh1ta enamel and cane In SoUt,n,est Bedroom ( door 22) ot ball r.l.. In North 'Bodroonl out or hell (door 13) Beda Southwest Bldl"oom .d '.. �: tf.', !lo. 29 Bureau Pair I mahogany. colonial, pineappl.e North .Bedroom llfhite enema:.., plate gleH top, east ot hel.l t"1niala mirror, drawers Ia south JloOtJ wost or Oval Roc:c In North Badrooc, out ot hell (door l3I aud stored (door23} No, SoUthweat .Bedroom 31 Rooking chair Ncrtt Bodl'OCll:l Docking oba1r White ena:mel, cane eee.t t�eho__;any, upholstered aeat eaet o-r hall ID ::orU BGdroo,n oaot of hall ( door 13) In Soutll ibCD N•t of' ()Tal lt:>Clrl Ho. 32 Side ehair& {door 25) Kort.h Bedro0i1. llouthwost BGdroom, w:11 te ene:mol, cane eeat eHt ot hall llNoa1ng-table ID t,orth Bad1: ::io ,i. eaet ot" hllll ( door 13) :,Bbos:SDY, oval mirror, Colonial, No, :34 Cbittonl er Pineapple tiniols North Bed:roaa :ibite enamel I mirror, plate gle.ea top ot hall In South Room waet ot Oval Booe In :ro1·th Bedroom of hall (door 13 i (door 25)

GNon Boom No. 0124 Bust Head or tatayette :.iarble, lt':.ite, very heavy� P:reeented XXXI ID oval lloola, Ground tloor (door 3) No. 0128 Bust :a-ead ot N&leon, very small, ot Victory ?L lie 7..XXII COppe:r. Gitt i-.eo In SouthHst Roo:..1 Ground floor (door 4) S1'ato Dining .Boom No. 0152 Tapootr;y J'lemiah, 17th Oent"QrY, grey and greeD P.71 l) _l• ,, JO"JT. (door tloor Ground Hl>om, Appointment ID llO<lroans No. 0155 Teble-1bronze. dea18J1 o-r pillar Eleatrio I tbl'Ough nth tlorol capitol :t-1··.�e ff In second rlocr Bedroau . 1.-l-t ::V.lI Pri'l'ato Dinillg !loom l Yaprac, 16f't. 6 in. by l.9- tt. 9 in. In Pri-.ato Dining llOOlll 4 X11111an, 14 tt. s in. by 19 rt. :r1gured in reda - .76 In South Room at head of stlare [door �).:·la+:: X::II Green RJaa. 18 Green center, t1'.;ured border, No. 15 rt. b:, 20 rt. ln southweat Roam, G�u:n:d floor



�-.a, 8? No. ga 94

No. ?.8)

No. 105 i-.84 No. 111 112



No •


� .84



1Ulm1'IVllB LISTED Br D.lTll 07 .\CQDISl'l'lOII l!'or For llorth BadrOCIJl No. 36 111-iUng table Bu:roeu North .Bedrown •et o� hall Paiatad grey aDd p1nk top rloo:r f .86 In Bast Badroom, top r1oor (door 37) Inlns!;:b «::: ball (doar 13) 'nato XX lllcrth Be4:room lfo. 57 :Bed:eide-atond !lo. 349 Chen.l glaaa l!crth Badroc,o •et ot ball White �l, pl.ate glasa top Square, pe.intad 11h1te top floor P. 86 Jllor•b Bedroom out o� ball (door 131 Iu llonh Badroom ...t or ball (door 13) ,Pa:-e 86 Platf.: XX North Be4roca No.. 38 Dreeeing...table Ii>. �l So!Ulh llor1b Badl"Mat of' hall White ena111.8I, glass top, mirror cane aeat, white top floor P.86 (triple) P. BG Ill liorthwast Bedn,om (door 20) 1 late XX In North lle4ro<llll oeot ot ball (door 13 I !lo. - PlNBeat Billiard Qocm Slmll llcrth Study !lo. 67 )lollll: hllder type, u)l)lclotorod •1th (doer 4) P. 86 alip cover !'late Mahogany I modern, oloeit1g front Pl&te DXII P. 86 .In SOU.tbnst Boom, Oround floor (door 4) ID omoll North Study (doc2' ll!I llorth­ iro. 439 lfo. ?9 119<1 top floor ·Single, wooden., grey and white Cbeatertield, oreratutted, square, 8flD8 P. 86 In mill Northwest bodrOClll ( doer 20) P, 86 :>'la.te Xi' !'rem. u.. s.s. Georp \ta.eh111gtou, _11a,..,. A.t:;.:..pfi Top noor· No. 81 Rocking chair ccnterence ship ( door 4) BadroOll 40 lfoo<lou, painted tJre1 and white . ID Southnet BoolD., Ground "floor (door 4) P. 86 In -11 llorthea■t Badl"oom (doar 20) Armchllira Plate XV 'rop nocr lie. 82 Side chair OVeratull'ed, .mateh1ng e.bove Wooden, painted grey and white Bedroom 40 Plate XXX.l Jrom. u.s.s. George WaahUJgton, Peaae p �6 In -11 l!lorthwoot Bedroom (door 20) Cont'erence Ship. Plato XV Sou theaat BedJ'oam l!lo. 85 Dook Iu sou•hweot Room, Grcurld rloo:r (dOOl" 4) Wooden, painted· grey and. White 11o. e40 J'ootatools State D1n1iag Room l''6 In -11 Ncrthwoot Be4:rocm (door 20) 341 111.hogan.7 tramea, aquare, upbolateracl Plate XV -11 Solltboast �.87 No. 86 Stand, bed.aide like State DIJW18 llocm ohaira Ia Prtfl.te Dining Room Bedroom Wooden, painted �ey anll white :> 86 No. 02, Bellon In lllBll North•••• Badroom (door 20) Plate XV Small, Nd loather !lo. 103 l!l'iting toble P. 86 Iu °'41 Room, Socol14 :rloor ( door 25) lllh0811117, inlaid• arawre P.aa Bo. 024 ifld:iro.aa brooght n-om 11.s.s. George O..l Room Brasa ?.86 ffilsb1ngton (191B ...... Oonfaro11ce Iu OTal Room, Soaoll4 l"looz, (door 2�) Sbip) In SoU.thwest !!edroom (door 22) Stata Diniag Rocm ff04o 118 Writing table .tmouttft Ottioe SilTer, six, tall., hea1'J', branohiJ16 In Vault Kahogan:,, large, hea:T7, o:rt'ice t1Pe, P 66 1111g ll'c. e teat ■hod in 'bn.ea In SOUth B9droom •eat of' oval Room. Belgian·, v x 1.2 tt. G ill. Inaar1pt1on P. 88 (door l!ll) woftn. io reg cen t&r "To the United On.l Boom !lo. 214 Teo-table Statee wit.h eterual grat1tude 1 Bazzlu, Plate XIII Mahogany, double-deck, dr0p-leat Belgium, l$11lD.• 1 .811 In 0Tal Room, second tloor (door 25) ID second Corr1!,1or, �tar President' a Study lfo. 259 Rooking chair lllbogaD:y, dark, cane baok acd 1N1i, ·WARRl:N GAKALIJIL IWIDDIJ r.s7 Plate XXUII ou.ahio:n. 1923 1981 In Soutbwaet Bedroom., Top floor (doer 31) Bed.roa:D top tloor 1110. 281 Chittoaio2' Ro. U6 SDI! Table Libl'IU')' P. 89 !low white (door ;111) JlshOSIIID,7, 811Bll, halt•round. P.86 In 'l'op noor Bedroom (door 317) 1:11. H:>uaekNper•• Boom, to_p t1oor (door- 40} lllorth Bedroom !lo. 282 Chittonier 1110. 172 settee Yoodon, painted grey jllld white Tep ·noor {door 39) P. 89 Elmllll.l, upbolstlNIJ io piak, light side• P,82 In llorth BodrOOIII oest � hall {deer 13) posts. rOI' Oh11l8 Boca (with chain lie. 284a Bedeida ateoa North Bod>"011111 281>, 200, 291), (door 2) 'rop l"lcor (door 40) Woodell, SN7 •11ill pink atr1pe Iu -11 llortlnraot Bedroom (door 11) P.8G In Sowing t!oom, top tlocz, (door 214) !lo. l8l Aah-otall4 Prel!lideu.t • • StudJ In Proaidout•a Study (door 281 P. 89





IIARDI!II OO0LIDG!C 10RNlTUR! LISTED I!!' DATE OJ! ACQIIISITIOII J'or l!or Pre•ident• a Study llo, 21!2 lfb.ll:lock and stand SUnporeb II<>, 100 .ub-a\and SW1.agiog, green awning T·lrte 45,i).�2 In Pradd.eJJt'• Study (door BB) P.89 China Room (door 2) P, �2 In Second Corridor, Palm Boom lio, 289 Sida cbalro (wHb oot'8e !lo, 172) Tlato XII No. 254 Bed• :Mm.hopny t'reDl9, baok in yellow e9200 Southwest Bedroom r1�.te sc, 255 Single, pair. •ple, Colonl•l checked. cotton material 291 Hate XXXIII r. n In Sitting Room (door 40) wp tloor In Southwest Bedl"Omn, top floor N Top t'loor Bldrocm rto. aog Screen (door 31) Plato XllIII Chair Be4room, cOTarai! in tl01rered. chintz Sou thweat Bedroom p £9 llapU, rueb--aeat In top tlOol:' Bodro- (dool:' 3:i) top tloor Prea1dant's Study In Southwest Bedroom, top tloor (door 31) !lo. 036 1ud1n1erea 1/0, 200 aireau Petr, japaneae, green and pink Southwoet Bedroom P. S9 P, 91 lu Preaident'o Study (door 28) Maple, witl:i011t mirror top rloor In SCUthweat, top floor (door �l) No, 005 Group ot J'igurea !lo, 281 Cba1r ScnTaa, whit•, oval group of women soutbweat Bedroom !'late VII r. 91 11!, plain and childrell top floor r. 90 Presented 'by 11. Tard.tau In South•eet Bedroom, top f'loor (door 31) !lo, 282 li'l'iting teble ID Red RoCIII Southwest Bedroom Maple• one drawer RUgllo.10 top floor P. 91 Pereian, 22 tt.. e in. by 9 :tt. 11 in .. In SoU'thweat Bedroom, top t'loor (door 31) :'lnte XIV !lo. 287 Bod.aide table Preeented b:r Charles Crane Southwest Bedroom In second corridor, •st end Jlop].e !'. 91 SOuthweat Bedroom, top tloor (door 31) Offleht",Mt ool1J�tt!)weot S round Flo or No. 273 Wicker cha.ire South Portico c Pl.-i.ttt 1.JI 19119 27. OreR., rocking 1023 91 87!j In sun Porch, top tlc,or and 21e Sou-h No. 39 1'1rdrob• Palm lloom, 'ffHt corridor t Center Bedrooc Mah061lll7, e doore, pediment, !lo, 296 Screen p 92 SOUtheaist Bedroom braes bound pillasteris, cloth :panela Flate 50 ID Hour,ekaeper•e Sitting Jlcoe:i. 1 In llol:'th BedrO<llll eaat of hall (dool:' 13) !lo, 110 CllpbOOl'd Top !l'loor (door <!OJ HOODd t'loor Single door w! th mtrror No, 301 Bedside "table W•et Ce-nter Bedroom p 92 In Southwest Bedroom (door 22) i&aplo, square yf3°fe �}zf South Center BeC:.roomP. 91 110. 122 'll'llrdrobe Iu Bed.rcom, top tloor (door 32) Mll.hogaey, two doore, bre.a■ aedalliona llo,30:I Wicker chaira South portico In North Bedroom, west ot hall (door 14-) 304 P 92 Green, al'ID f·!&te XII Oval Roar:i. p,n305 !iO, lU }Jest or tea.-tablo■ In Sun Porch, top tloor 142 Small I mhogany No. 3011 Tablo South Portico In Room (door 25 l 93 143 Wicker, green, glaaw top 1'91 Oval.= !IO, 144 Neat or t•-table• In SUD Porch, top tloor 9:5 145 Szmll, mahogauy No. 308 Chair \fast Ceot■r Bedroom In OTo.1. Room (door 25) 14e Side, maple, ruah seat Pre■ldent•e StudS P.91 No, 152 St>oking Standa ID. \feat Center Bedroca, top tloal" (door �2) XT.XI!I 178 llllbogar,;y, nnm4 No, 312 Bed 'feat Center Bedroa.m In Pre aid 9llt 'a Stlldy I door 28) 93 179 Maple, thrae-quartera P,91 Prsaident•a Study No, 21e Bookcaeee In West Center Bedroom, top floor (door 32) Sh: shelvea, �ll, eliding glaee 217 No. 314 Mirror South•■■t Bedroma Flato XIV 93 door■ lilaple, Colonial, hanging ;. 91 In &at kd. 1 Second Corridor In Southweet Bedroom, top floor (door 31) XXXI II Oval Roca !lo, 315 llirror !lo. 241 Cot't'e&-te.b1e Weet center Bedrocm P, 91 Wal.111.rt, low, carred lega J1aple 1 Colonial, hanging 93 In Second center corridor In 7foDt Center Badroo:n, top rloor (door 32) XX.UII South Portico No, 245 Wicker chsira No. 316 Bureau •eiit Center Bedroom 24.6 Rocking, s:reen, cuehion seat 11.apl•, l10 mirror XII P, n 91 In Second Corridor, Palm Rocm In lfee1: Center Bedroom, top tloor (door 32 l XT.JCI! I south Portico !IO. 247 Wicker'e West Con't&r Bedroom No. 317 �1t1ng table 248 !locker, green, &l'm, cushion eaat Maple, Clle dra,rar !"late T.Il r. n 91 249 X:O:III (aroehair} Ill Second Corridor, In treat Center Bedroom, top floor (door 32) !'late ��, 1,,.92 Palm Boom. P,12 IRDBXC


n.rm:m.."E !.IS'E::l BY JATi: CF AC;t!I!:I':'IQ?; For llo. 318 Fa;e 91 l1o. 414 1&.ge 94 llo, � 545 ;. 9�M6, 1;0. 5Be through 601 P.95 :10. 592 503 P.95 110. 5g4, : • �s Tio. 5g5 F.. 96

NO, 596 I, 95

No. 5;,a r. 96

:�o. 599 600 r-.�7

no. eol o2 F, 9g

l!o. 603 �.95 no. 604 P. 96 !;o. &Oft F. 97 No. eo? th1'0ugh

r. 96

Chair, U:aple, plain In IJest Center Bedrom:l, top t'loor \door 52) Chair, side 0�1ppendale, rope aeat Gitt In Chine P.oOD., ground tloor (door 2) Ch81.ra, Arm !!ahogany I plain In Ueber' s Ottiae Side oh.airs Dlund, o_pen baoka, Original Heppelwhitee In Green Boom. Dmahair■ Round 1:le10k, aolid u},holstered, axm baolc supports bl'Ooade aovered In Groen 9>om Tub-ohair Ant1qu.e I n Groen noom. :£tegere Tall, two-tiered. railed in brue Ill Green lt)Qm Settee Long, beck solidly uphol stered, spindle erma, six legs In Green 'Room Table Antique, oval, inlaid border ot oirc:lee 1D Green lbol:3. Tip-table :Ce.hoaany. tri1><>d ID Greon Beam ':'ables Pair, mehos:eny, haIr-moon., one drawer In Green. 8:>llC. ifindow seat is Pair, no ams, cushion seat, In Green .Ro0m Settee cball, rounded, I!lri.tChing chair• 5g2-5'£3 In Green ft:!a:n Sew1nc table Sna.11, octagon, aom:part1D1u1:\a undar lid In Oren Room Co!isllod� Bow rrout, 1'our doors In Green BoClll lieet or tea-tables, rour Light f1n1ah, two bl.aid with tlorel sprays, curved atretahsr■ In Green .Roam

Weet Center Bod­ roca, top rloor nate T.XXIII

Uaher' e Ottioe !'1'!. n Green Room �late V Plate -1.c,;i;, ..�6 Green Room Plate V Plate 47,; .96 Green a:>om tb.te ': 4-e,�•• 3€. Green PDom flate r Greanllc>cl> . late ,c • .i-• 'JC. Green 1lo0r:i.

Green Room '.:late- V. Green Room r1au 'l. Green Boom Groen HoolU Hate t" :'late 47,,i,9&,

GreNt Boom nate 47,:,: .. 9t­

G2'•en Jbam

F late 4.6, p96


Ho• 6'3

ldu!'t'iu iste.nd Mahogany, snail, three-tiered In Ovol !lrawi.n;.-ro010 ( door 28) Mirror South Center Wall., gilt, U!JJ)tre, :Peinted. ■cane Bedrocm at top ca In North Center Bed.roam., •e•t ot hall i. 92 (door 14) No. 019 llirror Southwest :xre.s.eWa.11, gilt, entiqua, painted. tloral ing Boom lar.e 92 design ID Southwest DreeeiD& P.oa:n ( door 21) No. 021 lUrror Southwest Bedroom Wall, gilt, antique, paintee. ship Pa.:e !:t2 scene In Southwest Bed.roan (door 22) No. 027 Ce.ndl.e1tiok8, pair OVal Roan Tbree eookete, bl'OllZe ti&UJ"e Pla...e, 7.XI\" �oen :El.izabeth, :=arble baae, Pare !33 crystal dro11a In Sout h :Roan. at head or ?\"o. 02g Bust t:.arble I scall, or woman Pape 93 Gitt Plate XXIV In South Room at head or Ste.ire No. 032 cup Gold, dr9€0D dea1gn� with oover, Na.TY Fla to XIII toot ball trophy out In center Corridor 1 eecond r1oor l!o. 048 statues Q4g oreen bronze, two teet high, Aaeending !.:Orn, Descending Niebt 1 by Wainmen. Plate XU. Gitt face 9� In Palm Roor.:i., West corridor no. 06g Gi.rsndole, Green Boan Bronze column 1 tive bronze orms with r&.2e- 97 cryatel drO:;>a ; •r:e 93 No .. 012


I.D Grean R:Ja:n. Cigaratte box, whit& and. :,ellow Gift t- 98 In Green Doom uo .. 073 sot or thl:'ee aebtrays Pewter, snal.1 Gitt In oreen B:xl'l 1:0. 074 Bo•l GreyI red t riL'lminga Pace 98 Gift In Green Boom. N'o. 0'75 Bowls, ]J&.il" Fala green, scattered f'loral design Pa,::e 98 Gitt In Groen Ft:iom no. O'l'l Bc,rl Chinese, blue, pink 'ouse border, on Pac e 98 eta�d, Gitt In Green Boom r;o. 0?2

Green Room Pl.o.te V Green Room Hate V Green :RoC1:J I'l.ate V Groen Roa:i:

Gree n k>om ?late V.

P.l¼ nmxxc

l'or Green !ban. no. 070 01 gerette bor: aervod Red lei,quered., Pa� 97 Gitt In Re4 Green B:>m 110. 0'19 Bowl !ball, sr&en-tlcn.e:red, grelfll inside .Pa!!• 98 Gil't In Green Boan · No. 080 Bowl Gre8ll Beam. Chineae, cream, re.ieed !'lol"al design ol.d, red, green Paee 98 Plate V !:J

In Green Jt>om. Green P.oom. No. 081 Bex Square, gre&n and white en.mnel, inai de turquoiee. P, �7 In Greem Boen O:raen Boan No .. 082 Soent-bottle Agate, tan-shaped Gitt P, 98 In Green Room. Greem Boom !lo. 083 Jar Stoa•, grey, oraolclod aurteoe Git11 P 98 ?late V In Green Boca No.. 084 Jara Black and sreen poroelaiu, oened ebony 11a, ancl atendai :Plate"! P. 97 Gitt In Green B:>om. Green Room no. 085 :Plate Matching 0715, pale gre«m Gitt -'• ,C In Green a>cm ro. 086 Box etna.11, chine, ol)long, scena on lid Gitt P. 97 • In Green Roam no.. 08'7 Box Green Room Qul.1 1 china, ootas:on, aoene on l.14 Gitt P.98 In Green .BDam. 1;0. 068 cup· and saucer Green lt>om Canton w 1th cover Gin P. 98 In Green Room Green Room 1/o. 089 Set ot boolta Slall, leather bound, laather itolder P. 98 Gitt In Green Boc:m uo. 097 Girendole lle.d Room PtJ.r to 069 Gitt P 97 Plata !56, 1>• 75 In Bod Room l7o. 099 l"'l'DS :.:ast Rocm • !erble, mnall 1 il•' e head handles P. 94 Plata VII In :Red �om


No. l.40

�- 110

110. 147 151

Ji• no No. 154 , •. 1.

110. 155 157 �• lU llo. 1'11 P• lv, Jfo. 180 p. 111 No, 182 195 11. 110

No. 185 110 No. 185 18'/ "• llO

!lo. 81S 225 �. llu Bo. 824 227

rt.: lli .!•


No. 233 1-'• lVb


l'UllN1TUR!: LIST:l!l BY ;JATE ml AO(lUISITIOI! l 0140 Paintiog lo. Clock Boc:ID ot .french l'ora1c:n ottioe By de Laszlo Gitt In lppo-t llo<111 (dom' l} l!o. 0147 lllldo.- :Jedalllo118 COat of Arma ot ll'uhington tmdl7 throush Gitt �-9�0™ In But Terrace .&ubusaon, 15, by 21 !!116· llto, 2 Red, 111"1> Pree1de:at• a Seal in. ester P,95 Ill ied Room l AUbueaon, 15- by 21 !!116 Green, with Preaident•a Seal No. 3 in Center P, 95 Ill Green Roan Iran, 9 by 18 Rug In .&,ppoin-nt -• Ground l'loor (door !lo. lS Tapeatry Rug cow or Baldiohol �apeatry 110. l.� Presented by Norae-.JUrican :-. 94


In Cedar lt>CID ·Grass aqua.res, 9 by ·12 Rug Green end Natul"al oolor !lo, 1� In Sollth Portioo 20 tlmwmbe:re4 Cend.l8t!lt1cks Z.ight, silver In state Dining a>ca Lustre, large, crystal brac,ket■ encl pendents. F.renah 97 In GNen Roam


Red Hom. "-l•to VII Green Room. rlate T President' a Stut, l)

south PDrtico Plate XI! State Dining Roen 38,p.17 Gnlen Bocm Plate V

l!llRBEl!rH0011ER l92i - 1933 Rota;

0l'1g1Jl ot article i■ indicated in l'ii#lt hand column. "".Ja,Yt'lower"·l19ana trom. the Preoideut'e Yacht de­ OOCDieaionead in l.92Q. "hecutive Ottice" mBIIDlB f'urn1ture i,reaented and f'ound not necHaary there.

:;o. 2& Table

l«nmd, drop leaf, maboaeny p. 110 Ill Second CO:rridor ;io. 6V .umohai.r Upholstered. hi&h-beeked, wi;apd, p. 110 scalloped apron In Preoi clllnt•• study ( door ll8) No. 111.4 Table r:�1"1fer P• 106 curved stretchers Uehoge.?JY'• oval, hee,;y. : · In south Beclroom, west or 0Yal !loan ( door 23 I No. 121e Table Executive Ci"tiee Walnut smell. caned lega In OVel Room, Second COrriclor (door 25} I

!URN1'l'!ll!I LIS'l'BD Ill' D&TB 01' =ISITIOII iroa 110. 25& C&blneta Moytlanr 235 Walml"I:. IDlllll, gl.aae doors, Dlll'lt f'rame 1 O&l""H4 a.rma, p. h:, l'lor"\h 81!111, Second Corridor blgh eqw,ra back No. 242 stand In OVal Boan, Seoolld ll'loor ( door 211) JlahogBJll' • low. aquare 1iop, Arm-cbaira thicll: podeatel p. 1C7 sate. 110. 137 ID. Plalm Roa11., Second COl'Tid.o:r :la•,e Ul/I In 0...1 Boom, Seoond noor (door 2ti) Ito. 24:1 Stand llaytlower Jlaytlotrer 1"100...lamp .·• 1:-7 lfahopny, h1Sh, CUll""84 4Dd carved legs .Mahogany• roWld. ped.aetel, .t'!!rte X!lI lD Second. Corl"idor ear,,ed. ata.nde.rd., ellk ebade llo. !Cl Table In 0ml. Room., second noor , door 25 J Painted. 1r0o4, drOp-leat. grfl7 and green :;,. 103 Arm-ohlltr■ • X:I In � Rocm, saco.nd Corridor Mshogaay tramoa, oval backs, No. I� .Arm-cba.1Z'I wide sea ta, curv-ing arms l:-'• i.4, l... lP? 207 ?.15.ple treme, upbcla'tared seat and back 1-llate .ul� In O'ftl .Room, Seoond Floor (door 25) In Top Floor Bedro- (doors 51-:12) Cendleetan4 !lo, 298 .um-chair Jlsy�lower RoWld, a.mall, pedestal !'rsme cc'f'&red: and upholatered in ;_,. 102 In south Room at baod ot stairs (door 231 velCNr I wood legD Wind.�eeata In Bouaelceeper•a Sitti.n.g Room, llahogaey, uphol•tere4, opaa end.a, xnv top noor (door 40} ma tohing 110:uoe vha1i-• llo. 1186 l'oD .. tooJ.a In Soutb. Room at bead or ataira (doar 27) :128 llllbopllJ f'H:Jio, upbolatered top Tabla : • nr ID Oftl Roam, S.oond ncor (door 25) llllho«&DY, deep 1quu-. 1 c.trop-1..Z ,.:late 69 1 lt • 102 No. 329 eenab In Second. Corridor ona, mabtiP.DY b■ama, oebriole leg•, L Siok er•• Stand ,jh 111 upholataed top. llahogany • -1l In Preatdent•• study (door 28) In PNaidan.t•e Stud1 (door 28} Plata .,?,:,l llo. seo Al'moba1ra Al'm-oheira W1.D4aw, clart 1 e_plat 335 Square upholatved baok, eee.t- 1n Pbte :::>2, p. lC In South Portico tapestry JD&hog,my 1'r6m8 Ill President•• Study (door 28) Sqlia:r&i;')a]l:.:hac,k;,:and::zaM:1tfll"Qdmb:te:lri:, Sota --�;. -ramr..J>al.l and Deep, long, ov-eretutted, tbrae. cuah1ons, brown laetber Ilate "i7, p. 111 !IO. 31lli Deak In President•• 9t,,dy (door 28) nat top, ottlca type l!IQ'rlawer Arm-chair In. Second Contd.or, Rd •• l.7 Large. onratutte4, brown l.ea1iher ?ls,;e XIV1-bte e:1. :,. 111 Sideebairs No. 3�6 In President• a St>idy (4oor 28) OYal baolc, wide aea"I:, uphol&iereG, 3159 Booker ·-· _u caned legs Large, upbol■terad. in "brom leather In second corridor tn Proaident • a Study ( door 28) .rlate 54, pl07 110. 1170 ..u..-ebatr .Dm-abalra J.'• no Oval back 1 upholaterad, ca"9d lega On.l backe, wide eNta I curved arma • Ill second. Corr14cr XXl'I IIBbogelly trsma, No, 1171 sidechaira In o.a1 Roam, Beoolld nOOl' (door 25) CbilJP"f1dale, pre-revolutionuy to 575 �1decba1ra ,,.. 10:'. Gitt lletAing ·-· In Oval aoca, 8eC0Dd. C01"2"1d0l" Ill 0n.1 ;ioam, Seocmd noor (doar 25) l-lr,te :-r.1 No. &7'1 .b'm-cha1r .J.l.' becutiTe Ottica 1ficker, large, round. back Otera tutted, low• upholsteired in l'ls"te I.I.iI ;,.10� In Bollth Pol'tico green and 7.tlow fflour 11o. 378 irm-ohaira In Praotdent•• stud)>' (door 28} Wicker, removable seat to 1582 lleytlonr ll'loor-Imw In SOllth Portico Ml'Jhogany-, round. ped.eetal, c82"Yed at:a.D4al"d, silk Un.Cle In aeaond Coff14e


--- -:I:



P.16 INlllX C No. 383 384 1·'"l; No. 388

• • 1-.. No. 391 J: . 112 No. 392 t

• ::2

No. 393

No. 395 No. 395 •o.. 39'7 , . : 1� No. 401 to 40tl _ . lO� .No. 409 to 410 . .. l.l No. 415 101 Iro. 416 417 lCl 418 No. 434 ,. lCI



, "'7

J:Q . 04-7 . •: x 1ro . 050 , • i:� No.


l!OOVER FURIII'WR& LISTED BY DAXE OJ' AC.)JISITIO!I For For Arm-chairs Maytlower No. 45� Deok Wicker, large , round back l'le:t-top, knee hole , ott'ice type -.• 101 In South Portico In Southwest Room, Ground !'loor (docxr 4 ) Arm-chair No. 443 Chair Gilt, :saddle eeat, oval back Mahogau.y , ewivel ' . ::1 Stored In Sout-h'l'est Room, Ground noor (door 4 ) Teble Mayflower No. 472 sora Snell, Colonial, tor telephone OVeretutted, long , black leather _ • 100 In South Room 'lll'eet or Oval Room (door 25) In Ground Corridor secretary No. 537 Tea-cart Cow o� !.!onrCle • s, mahogany I braaa Wa.lllUt , t,ro-dack ?la.r!:ile top, bre.aa re.ilillF drawer,i, bound In Pr1Tete D:! Boca: Oitt In South Roasn at hMd ot stairs (door 87) No. 506 screen Bureau Antique., painted court scenes I dark brown Copy ot Mrs. llonro�• a , mahogany, brass, In Green Boom marble top, bra8a railing, wide l&lytlower No. 646 Nest ot tea-tlble.e � r.ara:were bound to &49 11!.b.cgany I tour lege I double stretchers In Sotlth Room at head or stairs (door 27) In Red Rocm Armchair Tables Desk, copy o't Monroe • a, •hogmy, :Mahogany, top, card tablee, teet , leather seat and ca?T&d pedestals {not pair} shoulder In Red Room In south Room. at lett o� Stair■ (door 27) Nayf'lonr No .. &S9 Table Pedestal� Copy ot Monl"08• a , mahogany I Bmall, In Pr1vate Dining Boom rOUDd, tripod No. 673 .bm--chairs :. In South Room at head o:r stairs {door 27) . :.:. Chippendale design, "Robert J4orrie" to 682 Tla)a table In Pr1vate Dining Room i_;o l'J5 Copy ot Monroe 's• mahDFl!Ulf, round , Gitt . , No. 5n Tabla um.rble top, b:ral!!le railing. two arawera Small, insignia on or i . 1(:1 In South Room at head or ate.ire (door 27) wood trom u.s.s. Constitution Oard In AppointmSlt Room (door 1) Copy or Monroe' e, mahop.ny, tolding 1 No. 59g Bench inlaid High 1 mahogM.7 top I caned In south Room. at bead at stairs (door 2'7 ) cabriole leg.e., .for l!iot'a table Table In .President's study (door 28) 1 Copy at V:onroe s , mahogauy 1 oblong , No. 700 'fable high l!ltretchere, L'Uncan 'Myt-te teet Light, mahogany, ovel, ped.eatal. t :. 1, . In South Room at head o:t stair■ (door 27) "' ...� nm.can Ptytte f'eat A.rm-chaira In Sec011.d Corridor 1findaor, mhogany No. 701 J.rm.-cbaira In south Portico to 800 'l'or musicalee, gold f'rair.e I curved oval Arm-ehe.ira Executive Of'tice back 1 saddle seat, upholstered High becked, wt.aged, overstutted , In Ea111t Room. and Stored cm-Ting armi,;, orawel•em.broidery No. 023 Mirror In Appo,intment Boom, Gro,!Ild ll'loor (door l ) Mahogany f'nlme , eagle and thirteen Sideboard Gitt In South :Room "eet of oval Room (door 23) 09.rk c:>e.k, inlaid, carved. , m1:r-rora, No. 025 woQd trom SUJ.gre,ve Manor, Terra cotta, head of baby , inscribed , 'Washington' a Boma In Cbina Room, Ground l"loor (door 2 ) �-• lJ.J In� V:�R!�:cond ll'loor (door 2:i) Al"m-chaire ltly:tlonr l!D.ytlower No. 034 Clock Dark wood t'ramo, eano back and eeet e tr ng �-• lll In In Ground Corridor o e Bookcasei No. a.o Lamp Mabogeny, Sl!Bll, glass doore Del!lk, bronze , double light !n Sou tb:weat Room, Ground Floor ( door 4) Pl"esident's Study (door 28)


Le!:lp 'l'abl� , bronze I xeede-c1 st�adard, throe teet In Second Corridor . ls..._ r, "T!:" '"lase Rookwood, cream Second Corridor �ayi"lower F1cor-.lemp Uotel. South Room east at cvel Room Lemp Cllina, crear..-eolored Second Corridor _ , t ,.. XIII

China, :tellow, l"a1sed dea1c,. ---n of birds In .!Jocond Co1•ridor No. v� l.mllp ' ' Table, pottery. tan and creen • •l , In ,. alro. Roor3 1 Jecond Corridor .t'l t e :::u Uo. 05U Bust Bis ,.ue, reproduction ot �.:onroe ' s -•" head o f La.te,yette rn south Boom a.t heari of stairs ( door � ) .. ... � , :::r::! !'.:1. vl04 ...'ire.screen !1·011 1 seven-tetld :-:.:. te, �-, • ..:. . • State .:Jining ll';)ou no. 0133 ...:::.1l'aving of' Lont;i"allow Gif't ,11 til autoeraph • J �::. In 13outhwest Roo:1 1 Ground Corridor 1� -· e • · , �· . : -;{ door 4) Ko. 0134 Zngra;,-ing o-f Lincoln .Jxecuti•1e O::'f'iee In ::Out�uest Row, around Corridor . • :::-1 1. door 4) no. 0141 .,:edeat !lls :'or bust� l�-,0142 C:oncrete ; :2. t-e 1 , _ 'le'., vl43 In Ground Corridor ?10 , 0151 :uigraving of' .. a�.ington �ecutiva Oftice -! l In .$out:r.uest Hoo!41 Ground .Floor ( door 4 j "'l .te "O'.I.:.:. !:o. Ol6C �tatuette of ,eorge .. Gitt �que5t�ia..--i , bi5q_(..;.0 1 on black and silver peae.o-;al i. l •� :::.:;: In .Jeoond Corridor ::o. .:'.fl....b 7ese r;artr.e:r are. l•O•..)CiBn , 011ee • '.rll. ; :onroe 1 _,, l .t:- : . 1 � • .. .. In SoutL RooM, ::-.ea..._ oi" ate.ire t door 27) ::o� 0172 1:·1ot-,.u-e Gitt Libe�J Jell, H.:iladelvbia • •• • In Ap,ro1nt!'lent �toOir. 1 door ll 1J ::o. 21 :..riental. , 4' G" x 7 :.:8Yf'lower ln r.resido• t • ::i Jt1..i.d7 {door 28) L:JG ::a. 22 Orienta.:, 3 1 2" x 10'13'' l.:eyf'lower 1..- :•renide.,t 1 ,. st:u'iy ,· -'l.oor 28) Rue ::o. 23 Qrien-tel., iP8tt x 11 1 7"" !!e,y.fl01rar In Pre•1dent• a S11uc!:r ( door 28) :•�--flower Rue :.o. 24 Ol"'i11nt-al ,. a,tg., 'x: ., . In President • • S1'1tey , <!o<>r 28) • • 1-0 -i:


�:::d :!!f;� �d � i!t

Orientei, 3 1 x 6 1 :rn r1•e�ident 1 s St..:d:, { door 2r ) Cl'iente.l, 3'6" x 3 1 2" : In To1) ]'loor Bndl'oon ( door 3{!; Fl'J.C �;o. 2? ,, :::-!_!".te.1, 2 1 11" x 4�e:, In i.ousel:ee;c:r 1 � Sitting Room ( door 41)} Yen,:> t7o. 28 1...riental, C 1 4 '1 Jt 14 ' C " l:a:rflower Ii: :-o, 7lcor Bedl'0Ol:. ( doo:r :53} .fi'; ::o. 29 {..�•iental, 2 ' 2" :x 4Tl0 , !Ir. r::1op 71.cor E..:d.roc: _ ( door .;:,£.) :t-ruc :;o, ....a ...!tel. , .e 1 2·1 x 4' 1.?" ::v:tlc·.� er In '�op .?loor .,:; ...._roo ; { door 39) :a.,.; :;o. ::;1 lriental 1 .1 1 ,_ '.. • rr.. -:'01, -'loor .;edroor:i. 1 d.; :::; :·c. :2 i..:-1-::::tel, 3 , 10·1 x c • 1 : •1 ..:..-.. ... ,. uri:i-ior ( dool' 3£i l lL...:; .;.., . -�·.:.entnl 1 i 1 10" X 2' In 201 Cor1•id'1-r \ J.v.;i1• :s,;i) h i,_; __ o. M L::'ier.tnl, ? 1 4'' x 4'4" .:..o.:1-flowe1· Ir:. �O;' cv::.·rh.or \ doc..· 40) :..a:_."'i'lt ·.. er Hu� �·�- ir. Cr:i.e.,:tal, l-.1 1 611 x 7 ' 'tl" ::n .1.:op co:·�,1dor 1 �oor 40} fu.8 :;o . .. .- J.:.', 3,!J_n x 5 1 tn _a;;fle;o,e::;_n To; i;o1•ridDr { door 40) ;..�•f'louer Rt.1g �;..;,. 3? Cl'i,mt $1., :!. 'l" x 4 011 In So1itt t'.00.1 ,. est of OVal Ro01� ( door 23} Ru& .:.o. 58 Chine<>e, 2'4" x 4. , 4u . t.a:,;i'lO\,er In .3outl;. &:,o:;. f.:OS't ot l:Ve.l :\,c.. (d ,or 23) Rug ;;e, . :31-' Cl.inuse , :: • o� x 4•10" _Ei:::,tlower ln soutl.aast 3e[µ"oor� ( door J2) R"J.£ 1;c. 40 Cl:.inea e , 4 • e11 x E ' lO" :.:e;z.•!'lower In Bedl-000. ( dcor :?2) :ro . 41 !Jhineae 1 3- 1 1o tt x e• ::,:eyrlewer !n Southwest Bod.rem_ ( door 22.) U.ig !-Jo. 42 0::-iente.l, G ' :>" x 3'8" :A{:!'lcwer Iu '.tio1-th etu,t• ( doer 16) Rua 1!o. 43 C.:-iental, 3 , g,,. x 6 ' 10" 1.:ey!'lotter !n r:ortJ:. Study ( doo1· lG J R.lg !,o, 44 Criontal t:� In ?op :11:JOl' Bedrc.oo ( doo;- 40} Unnw:.bered screen to:- :n:,ving ;,icturee In Jecond Carrid.or Gitt ;ovilll; Picture I'rojeotors, Pair In 36oond Corridor :?ortrai t of : :.r�. . ronroe Gitt ,. ... .. 3Y l::ber:. Coning ( ui'ter Bell.J�n �-;est) :tn South Bc.0;21. head of stairs { door .:;?) Pain.tin...:;, Ct.:stle Cl.•eg Con:,on On Loen '"" - l . ;:'. . t"it 7 3y Frank de Haven In Ctate DiDil..g RoollJ. F-ror.: nntione.l ...:useum Portrait � Josepl". Head by Gilb�:-t. Stuc:rt vn Loa.""l In South Roial1 l,ead of stairs ( .ioor 27} .::ii �rtrcit, ··cry :;ot"kinson by Benj. -,:est Crn Loan. In South r10om liead 01" eta.ire l dool" 27} Ru: J<o. 25

liug: ::o. 26


p,]IJ rn= c

anc:i= LIST",;;,


Fvr On Loan

t,i. 1:4

Portreit, of .e. lady, by Gilbert Stuart In South Room at. beaC:. o'E C,'"tairs :-!... '4;e :-.XIV (door 2'1) Piano (�\!sew ro. 3243) .Antique 1 .Astor &. Company In South Room at head o� Jtair.a (door 27) From :.ationel ::1seum.


1902 - 1908 1;:rs. -:-.:uUbon, .by unknown (af'tl!tl' Stuart) J" .duchanan, by Chase le , � :. ..1. �l Uilliam. !!aKinley, by Murphy Theodore Eooaevalt, by su.:rsent :.i•e, Tb.eoa.ore Roosevelt, by Cl'artram

On l.oan

1908 - 1912 .. illilllll Tart, by zorn

1'707 - 1801 George :1 aBhine;ton, by Stuart, .:UOO

- .Lri�e- IY

1865 - 1869 Thome.a J"effe1•son, 'by- Stuart •• � •..-1 . . '· _ .,. 'Tohn $1nay Adam.s 1 by "Sealy �a:-tin Van 1 by :.ealy ••• • �l - -� ;, .. •··• ;, .Tohn'fy-le.r, byllcely ••• � •• �•••-'l./,. .. , 1'• ':"f'l J'emel!!I Polk, b;r Healy .... , ••••••,;.c•• "'"" "': :�lle.rd Fillm'-lre I by lle ely' ftenklin Pierae, ...y :1ea4' Abrl!lbmn Lincoln, by Cogswell •• "'.::. ""-• ": , Ulysses S, GrDllt I by Ulke , •• •. • �1:t."'"1.. '7.i!

1923 - 1929 t:r-s. Uncolu, by I elm :-.lrs •. Coolid.?;e, by Christy


l9ES - 1"33 :.Ira. :.;olll'Oe I by COtl:lng ( alter J"est) t:ar:ren Larding I by , :ora ooo1idge, by l,.apkiJteon

1001 - l.B85 J.'homs.s J"ef't'a;•son, by .ADdrews••••• ... :'l- � ,·. 1, t ... ::rs. :-olk, by G. Dl"Ur,1 ..,l:Tases s. Ol'ant I b·1 1.eClear , ,(- • :. .Jai;.es Gtf..•field, by Andrewe l,uthel!'!'ord t.aycs, by l:..UI1t1Dt,ton Chester .Artl:ur, by A!l4rewe 4


-1. • 4'

'16 !!5










'-19 100

no. 101 Ho, J."8 110. 113

Yo. 135

,. 12C

No. 15:J

.• �lS

No, 162 103 No. 164

!10. 191 ,. • :,17 ]'lo. 256

:;,), 238 ·'" 121

·.,a1:drobe Lalu,.;any. <:o·.�le <l.oor, nc:, -.11rror 1 cl'U'Ved t.ird on crest In Soutb:r1eat BedrooLl (door 22) J.1'm-ohe1r overstuffed, 1t0dern In Southwest Jl"es.siDg Room ( door 21) .Ar.l-ehair ()Veratutfe d, round and a.nm In lerge southyeat Bedroom ( door 22) Arm-chair Over.etut'ted, tall, straieht back In large .Jouthlf&st :Jedroom ( door 22) AI'm-'ohe1r Solid rosewood bttek: 1 upholsto:red ·front _nnd .eeat ...._ In large Southwest Bedroom ( door 22) 1 'I Side chairs Solid 1:osewood backs, upho.:..stere d • r front and seat



No. -e39 •• l . No. 240 No. 253 .. • l J 1;0. 265 •• 1:., no. 26-6 -?.

,!02 No. 288

In large Southwest Bedroom. ( door 22) .A.m.-el..air Overstutted, tall hack L.1. large �·orthwe=it �. ...edroom (door lb-19) Pedestal ,ialnut, carved stBI!"'.Ull'd, eq,1ere top In South Bedroo.m •••� of OVal Room (door 23) .Dresser ::ahogw..y' lJr-t!BS keyholss tn South B"edl'oom west ot OVal. Roo::i ( door 25} stend ttEbony". 1>iel'Ced oarvinc, si.e-U' under tap Tn oval E.oOl:1 (door 25} Tabl.e Tea, foldinu 1 square drops' Jn State :lining Room Chair o

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Jn�:;-;: �r�!�:�=��: (=�) Ann-chairs llide r .ai.a,:;eny t'rames, amoatt., u:P,Loletered nnd be.ok In South ROOl!l. et head ot stair& (door 27) Sota . .'ide bevelled meh0'18DY tram 8'1Ua,red with anns, plain lep: tL. i-«3om at 11ead of stairl!!I ( door 2-?'} -· 1-ctf: ���� 1 overatutted In Joutheut ::lresain& Room , door 29) Tall-case clock : ,:ilio, -�, three f' Aaron .,11.LIU'd. ... h. '.e 107 In Seconu Corridor Tab1e Bound, to:P seg. 1£mted ir. lit{h1i and dark wood, emall brass stars, "':,1111 teet In :;orth :,all, Second Corr140r -1• _,.

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Chair WOod, la• 1 • oarved back ,,.:16 Ill llortheaat Bathroom { door ll) llo, l8 LoUllgO 0Veratuffed 1 head reot, small em In North e Bedro0?J1 ( door 12} 110. 43 'l"able �:ahogmiy, mnell t one �e.wer In StOl'el'OClll No. 46 Loul>a• OVerstutted. head rest, fringe 11?' In Horth Bedl'oom Yest ot hall (dOor l.4} No, 5J. '?able Dark, s,iu&l'e , carved 1ega :, . In !lorth study (iklor 16) x.o. 54 Hassook Square, upholetered r In North .Bedroo : west of' hall {door 14) llo. 65 .Aim-chai:te 66 Carved fremee, oreat of rosea, open ams, le ather eea-t In J-orthY1est Bedroom (doo� 18-19) No. G? Al1!1-chair Pair to 268 ..,,. ll� low, carved frame, pi erced under arms . leathel" aee.t and back ll· In top co1•rtdor r.o. 66 Sideohe.i.r Open back dee ign of: ci relea, low, leather seat, In Northwe st Bedroom et desk { door 18-19) 93 Stand .,al.nut, UDder-a..... e�, carved ed{:e .. i:..J ::n Nortblfsi,t Bedroor.-. ( door lb-l.9' .


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Table Round, teavy ei!U"Ve-d r,iedesteJ., three :reet, top ::mrble with wida border In Appointment Jtoom., ground tloor 1i Table Like No. 259 In Top Corrido.r stand ::bony, heavily carved with birds, round, rcr potted ,l.ents I.n i:orthweot Bearooc: (door l.8-19) Table t:ehogany, s;;;.all.j. drop lee.r, -arawer, gl.ass knobe In Palm Roo:.n Second Corridor Table Ebony, small, drop-l.e.a:t' 1 dre.wer, heavily cuved legs In ::orth Study (door 16) .Arm-chair Pair to 6'1 low, car?ed trame, :,ierced under arms 1eether back and aee.t In Top oor.ridor Tt'tble Round, meho;::any, heavily carved pedestal, , three. teet, wood top (l.ike E3ii r>.ll.d 240) In Top Corridor LoUllge Head end qi_a.rt e r 8l'IllS 1 overatutt'e d rn '!'op Floor Bewlll;! Room ( iklor 34) Chiffonier

"Jood, plain In 'rop noor �w1ng Room (door S-1-) A;mr-c.hail" Overatutt'ed In .Hau.11ckeepe r's S1tt1:og :Ebom, top floor (door 40} Side chaira solid roeewood backs 1 upholstered scat and tront In J:oueekoep6l"'s Sit.ting Room, Top Floor (door 40) llosk C1osing, ii.laid In Houae}(eeper t a Sitting .RoO:'" , Tor, .Floor {door 40) Table -,le.lnut, elaboratoly in1Bid 1 uneveu outline, .. , t1n1aled streto1�er In I�ouse.:c.eper•a Si1tt1ng Room, Top Fl00F�td00I-·4JJ) BUreau Walnut, carved, marble 'top In Top Floor ( door 36) Tabllll Dark, tor ohockers· in mother-at-pearl. In �orthweat a,edroom {door 16-19) TabJ.e, dining Oak, round, e1aboretely oarnd leas In Nor,:;h Drasail!:g Room, Ground Floor ( door 10) :, ,., �' , �-1�1


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::o. c.;1 aowl n."!.U 00'1�:r scroan !..ol\� cr1,•, red lt�<:,.�:-;r, Thro� .!'old, ocmtcr hie}leat, trc::.o Dlc.c!;. a=: .:.::!.lt de:.!� convc::tiona.l cnrv1ng, cloth �nola ·• l· :n ::ta.a� :.:na ...econ! Co�:-i®r In south Bo«..� wost o� oval Ro� (door 2::5) ·;nneo .OOviein;;ort .J:-O!',zo, :·�1.:-, :"er =.en�ol, c::.�.e... k :.!•; 't:&, Ovoraeuttod, t;1'4,aorod back o.nd an::u, :-. ll:: t�r.,!J.oLJ, :.!lU:r/ ,· -� "' �1 :.!..:· t: In largo ...outh110:,t !k:d:-Q0.1 ( door :>-2} '."n U:-con :\O"Q'i. :;o. �z Divan .:.:_.:.t..1 ::: ·1eao �bor.:, f'rc,::o, carvo4, b,:i.ok and cm:s :."tite, �;;:a!cJ, e�.!::c., b,:";,� :ct-�::oA"..ed. end 3Cat l.lp?:.olzitorod at;,li-.�cd. .. Q":,Jl" l!lio:1 For ! iioo."'l ln lnrgo 1:o::;�;".0:03� uCd.---o.x:. \d"°:..� l;;i-l�) In Southwoat a:,o., . Cround :5'loor (door ,) ::o. 0102 ·;oa�o Pedoatal ::.c.i·Q0 1 �:itc;,-�:rtts, ;orc..:10.:.:1. �.-::.:-�le ! Walnut, 5-tuai·c to;•, Of!!.ral '11gnot"t;o:, ot 0:-!\i::.ttll :'1(,,."U?'CD In S�Nro«t !:i net Roo=. �:o. 4($1' Fedoatala :;o. 0,1& !:irror Round, COVCl'Od 1n red velvet 470 For cround Corridor .:o.l.l, i;!lt :--u.l-'iod tre:, .», lea!' l!a3�. r• �Zv In Stororooc biU. pior�cJ. croot (11�o Oll) •• 12:, :;o. 02 'laooa In J.:.�1nt:::ent lt00;.:, :i:Oi.;td, llcO;"" {door 1) Fair, .r.all., ereon :::cde.llio!is o� :;o, 0!17 .:.:1r1-or p-aintod b-'.lttor!"lios ,;c:a, t:!lt. :.�.:.l•:O'd; 1":-t..�1', s� to;:, In lcreo ::ort:;i;oat ijod.N>o:';'.l (door lZ) ::,illcotors, r�eottcn, liko ,,)llO No. 05 �c.v1n.:, Ju color In J.::opo1nt::ior.t :JN:aai� �, J.l"e'..m.1 Floor {dco: l) tady Wae.1nst,ou• a R•coption l�c.. Oll8 :.:1rror ·,:all 1 &ilt :-..o:Udod. trr..o li�o cbo70 In llll."£0 ?rol"thcsat ll<td.roo..'"'1 (40<>-r l&--lVl .. l�t,.. H, J;, :::­ ::o. oe :!�tol-urno ... 14) L"'l. Ct.ins. rocr.i, G:-ound. tlcor (door .2} rru.r, .,r')()NC-lcir. rm<: o"()lil., .,it'.!'-.out ::ondloa No. Oi,:k Stct\lotta 'li:;p:.otus ·11:la;;ca on ri\•o� CC:.nll, .!NO:,-�:-onze, Cree·-:: Athlo-:c In 5"'xtt Fw«.. tit ?.ood or ..,;toira (,eor 27} . ;,5ti, :.. , •• �:., ln z.cut�.--;<i:st �:::�. �ro.i.r.d. rlc:.,:- :di:.or 4) :.o. 07 Ce,t1-.U.0st1c�s :.:.!:-t0r, l?dr, 1>l"aoi,, �all, or-/etal drOpa -.;cl, t:1U. noul;!od !':-r..o • .fi:.;•.tre-Locd on c!"eat In ::orth iJOdreo:-o. cut ot croa.a hall (doo1• 13) • l:>;t• 7X In ::ortt; :>�os1:lg r.oo:�, ;;:ro-md ?lCQ::- (.-!O?.:- l?') 09 :.�1r%'0J' llo. OlCI- �ar.ror Ornc:;.ontol, :.,ountad -;op, g1lt-mould tro::>o, Gilt, ::¥>�14ed free, -r!eliaa:tc dceit:n dca1(ln or rra1t (�o1r to 015) 1� sou-:?i r.:.oo. a-e }'.ooi or :r�c.:!.ra {:'!cor �?) In �:orth nodroo., out ot c:-uaa tell �do.:>1· l�) ilr.t� ::x. Clock ::o. ()11 ;.::1:t"l'Or �oll, ?:o::c?t J b::-a::::s. �1 (;leas ornc=ontal, <;ilt-:-:.ould 0'0,t:.o, loot dontsn, In r:1 · ::i!:iins r::oo=. • :.(\t,. :c;::.:1 l'Ortroit bieh crozt ln ?�orth !3-0droo::i �at ot hell (do-or 14) 3onjc..-:1n �ar.!:ltn, b7 ltcr..,!c.::!r. -ilaon oto:rcolor In fro::1:!o:.:t'!I O��dy \door 28} 1:0. OlZ aue.:;o. o Oriontal. 3110"' t-:r 7 1 8"' :!dno, bocoh (\1\d Q'IOO, !"ro:iod By � o?,:-. ::enr-; !:oooT, !MU ln ,.jeconcl Co:rriJ01•1 7.n:,t ...::.d In .'o� sedroo:: ot Crouo-�!oll (dool" 1•}r:.:1;• · ,:-:, .... t..:1:;,l:; �:o. vricr.:�e,l, b'-l:" b::; 3•�• !io. ,)15 !"il"l"()J" In Zc«:ond Co�il.!or 1 .?:aei :!::r.J. :P&11' to 0$ Jruf; ::o_. J.l l'rincos:i. .SOiwnra, 4' by 3,,,.., In lfll'�,o ::ortlarest- atidroo:a �dool· l�-19) • 1,,";,. l �, � • �·: ll'l -.1-'t'-:-Cl'OQQ !\o. .>lG ·:a.oos hl:$. ::o. l� Oriontal h"U.•u;or, 4,-... b:, e•ti•, :..n.n�ol.-�=-n.3 1 ,oreQla.1:i In ":op �l:.or Bcd.'"'CO;l tdoo� 38} - �.., . ."i;;uc�t-00 01' churc.. .on� ch.B.lot RU,£ ::o. 11 or-1cm.tnl 1 3' b:, 4'5" In lar,:so !\orttr..o:st. 11-odroo:,; (<hor 18�;. ..,) l'bte !t ,, ,, • !:::. In aOt:thoa.::.t :)roc.zi=s F.:.o::L ( doo::.- 20) :.o. ,10 � tot-uro lila.C.iC 6.:l:l �it:o l!neoln• a Hc�o:s:,t1on to a-enorol G?"u::t (wit:. ko:,) Ir.: li:u-�o �:o,.•t:rwo.ot Bodroco \�foor ll!-lL-) r;1:.·l"'vr '':Ze.d�a:on"' ·:<.rr-.l �... :i., r-.�Dl"c �;il� tre:.o, podin ·r,,-;, :�not ... f1;ot Jronz.c �lr,.;.uo \.it:1 :'i,iato:7 la z.1•.e�i.J.01.:: 1:. ... t••,;,.:r· l ctoo:- ..,..•}


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Mary Lincoln A New Look at the First Lady


Ifue story her relatives liked to tell, one day, 14-year-old Mary Todd rode her pony over to Ashland, the Kentucky home of the distinguished Henry Clay. The year was 1832, and Clay was run­ ning for the presidency for the sec­ ond time. When he informed his young neighbor that he was going to the White House, she responded that she, too, intended to live there. Perhaps apocryphal and surely exag­ gerated, the story has survived because it reveals Mary Lincoln's lifelong aspira­ tiop.s.1 Unlike many of her predecessors, she wanted to be first lady. She intended to use her posi­ tion to further the goals of the Union and in the ulti­ mate example of personal politics, the standing of what she referred to as "our Lincoln party." With the possible exception of Dolley Madison, hers was the

Poised and dignified in the photograph made by Mathew Brady ( above), Mary Todd Lincoln strived to transform the aging White House into an elegantly appointed mansion suitable for such fine entertaining as the "Grand Presidential Party at the White House" (opposite) held by the Lincolns on February 5, 1862.


most institutionally self-conscious tenure of nineteenth-century first ladies as well as many in the twenti­ eth century. 2 Only recently has the role of first lady received scholarly atten­ tion from historians and political scientists. 3 In the nineteenth century this oversight was even more pronounced. First ladies simply came with their husbands. They took no oath of office; they did not swear to serve to the best of their ability. They had no staff or salary, and, save for an occasional mention in the local press, they were largely unknown to the American public. They advertised no special projects, even nonpartisan ones, such as in modem times Lady Bird Johnson's beautify-the-high­ ways, Nancy Reagan's just-say-no-to-drugs, and Michelle Obama's eat-more-vegetables campaigns. Rather, nineteenth-century first ladies had taken their only official oaths during their marriage services when they promised to honor and obey their hus­ bands. And that, of course, meant moving wherever he went. Once in Washington, there was no manual as to how a first lady should proceed. Had Mary Todd Lincoln followed the examples of such predecessors as the grieving Jane Pierce, the shy Abigail Fillmore,

and the unhappy Margaret Taylor, she would have remained mostly upstairs in the family quarters. No children had lived in the White House since John Tyler's administration in the 1840s. Now the home of three children-17-year-old Robert, 10-year-old Willie, and 7-year-old Thomas (Tad), she might have opted for the conventional, acknowledged role of mother. That she did not abandon, but also immedi­ ately began to develop, the powers of her status as first lady once Lincoln took office suggests the degree to which she had already considered its possibilities. Mary Lincoln understood that the position of first lady could be used in a ceremonial sense to enhance the prestige of the presidency. The elegance of her dress and grace of her manners as first lady could set American standards of fashion and deco­ rum. The grand rooms of the White House could be employed as a showcase for the nation, their space elegantly decorated to display to haughty foreign ministers from London, Paris, and Madrid the power of the United States. The White House could be used as a center for political and intellectual discussion. It could, through social events arranged by the first lady, bring the American people together, permitting them personal access to their president. Such encoun­ ters were especially important during the Civil War. At a moment in the nation's national history when states challenged the authority of the federal government, establishing the primacy of the White House could deliver symbolic testimony as to the authority of the national capital. Americans could identify with "their house." Beyond its two functions as the president's workplace and the setting for the nation's social events, the president's home could reflect to the people the domestic side of their nation­ al leader. To varying degrees Mary Lincoln tried to develop these potential functions during her tenure from 1861 to 1865.4 The day after Lincoln's nuanced inaugural speech invoking "the better angels of our nature," Mary Lincoln and her cousin from Springfield, Lizzie Grimsley, investigated her new home. They were not impressed. Given its dingy rooms, peeling paint, bro­ ken furniture, and soiled curtains, they concluded that, while it was bigger with its thirty-one rooms, it was no better than a third-rate hotel. 5 There was not enough matched china to serve more than ten. Like 44 WHITE HOUSE HISTORY (Number 45)

During the first two decades of her marriage, Mary Todd Lincoln (below in the 1840s) bore four sons, lived in Washington, D. C., for a portion of her husband's term in Congress, and managed the family home in Springfield, Illinois, to which crowds descended during the presidential campaign of 1860 ( opposite).

indifferent renters, previous residents had done little maintenance. Lincoln's immediate predecessor, the bachelor James Buchanan, had used most of the annual appropriation of $20,000 to build a conserva­ tory for plants. His young niece Harriet Lane, who served as his hostess, had sold James Monroe's chairs and bought more gold spoons, but she was not inter­ ested in the interior decoration of the White House or its use as a political platform. Still, as his "first lady," during a time when the term began to be used more frequently, Harriet Lane spared the nation the inelegant terminology of "first wife." Unlike most first ladies, Mary Lincoln had pre­ pared for her new role. As a housewife in the Illinois capital of Springfield where she lived from 1838 to 1861 after moving from Kentucky and marrying Abraham Lincoln, she had been a close observer of state politics. She intuitively understood the signifi-

cance of social events as more than casual affairs. Her lively strawberry parties brought together the power elite of the state. 6 The now famous Lincoln home on the corner of Jackson and 8th streets pro­ vided two parlors for her decoration. Intent on the best, she ordered carpets from St. Louis to improve her home. When Lincoln was elected to the Thirtieth Congress, she accompanied her husband to Washington in the winter of 1847 at a time when most wives stayed home. She lived in a crowded boarding house on Capitol Hill with her sons Robert and Edward, observing life in the capital and talking politics to other boarders. She attended at least one of the P0lks' stuffy presidential receptions, where dancing was not permitted and neither food nor drink was served. For Mary Lincoln they provided a cautionary tale. 7 Back in Springfield, she observed her husband's

political failures and then in the late l 850s his rapidly growing national stature in the new Republican Party that climaxed in his nomination for president in 1860. A few months later, after Lincoln heard that the Republican ticket had carried Pennsylvania, he hur­ ried home from Springfield's telegraph office, calling out in acknowledgment of their partnership as he turned onto Jackson Street, "Mary, Mary we are elected. " 8 Shortly thereafter Mary Lincoln traveled to New York to shop for clothes worthy of her new sta­ tus as the nation's premier hostess. Mary Lincoln's home improvements at the White House began almost immediately after Lincoln's inauguration. The first order of business was to improve the interior. Yet after Confederate troops fired on Fort Sumter and Lincoln called up 75,000 militia, the families of government officials were abandoning the city. From the windows of the Mary Lincoln: A New Look at the First Lady 45

When Confederate forces neared Washington, D. C., Mary Todd Lincoln chose to stay in the White House with her husband despite his suggestion she return with the children to the safety of Springfield, Illinois. The children, pictured with their parents below in an engraving by J. C. Buttre after the original by Francis Bicknell Carpenter, included (left to right) Willie, Robert, and Tad.

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White House the Lincolns could observe Confederate forces across the Potomac River, massing for a possi­ ble attack on the capital of the United States. For protection a force of Zouave soldiers camped in the East Room. The mischievous Tad Lincoln found a Confederate flag, which he briefly flew from a sec­ ond story window of the White House. Lincoln encouraged his wife to take the children and return to Springfield or take up residence in New York. But she stayed. Intuitively understanding the importance of an ally in the federal bureaucracy, she convinced her husband to appoint her friend William Wood as commissioner of public buildings, the key official overseeing White House expenses. Then, accompa­ nied by Wood-itself a controversial arrangement at a time when proper ladies traveled only when chap­ eroned by male relatives-she took the train in early May to Philadelphia and New York. There she ordered expensive fabrics and rugs, discussed color schemes with the most established purveyors in the 46


United States. Alexander Stewart, the owner of the fashionable Marble Palace on Fifth Avenue, hosted a party in her honor, but in Washington the local mer­ chants were furious that this pretentious first lady had taken the White House business to Philadelphia and New York. It was the beginning of her bad press.9 Mary Lincoln made three trips to New York in 1861. In the process she reversed the customary arrangement between commissioner and first lady. Now it was Mary Lincoln who decided how the $20,000 appropriation would be spent. Besides the scrubbing and plastering in the White House, she ordered an elegant green imported Brussels rug for the East Room and new damask draperies for the Red Room. The latter were so handsome that guests were soon observed snipping material from their tas­ sels. In the fall the first lady made one of her most expensive purchases at Haughwout's Glassware on lower Broadway. With the political crisis of the nation in mind, she ordered a 190-piece set

When Prince Napoleon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte, a nephew of Napoleon I and cousin of Napoleon IIL visited the White House with his entourage in August 1861, Mrs.Lincoln organized a suitably elaborate event complete with a performance by the Marine Band. Napoleon (wearing a red sash) is seen beside President Lincoln on the South Portico. The detailed illustra­ tion, very much out of scale, includes the tents of Union soldiers encamped on the South Lawn to protect the White House.

of Limoges china, decorated in the center by a fierce American eagle holding the U.S. Coat of Arms in its talons with an intertwined gold border around the edge. During a civil war, she believed that her china should display national icons, unlike the choices of later first ladies-Julia Grant's bouquet of flowers or Lucy Webb Hayes's buffalo in a snowy woods. Not surprisingly given her good taste, Mary Lincoln's china has stood the test of time and has become one of the most popular designs of presidential china. The cost of nearly $3,000 might have deterred a less determined, more frugal first lady, but not Mary Lincoln. 10 By fall the White House shone with elegance and a woman who understood the importance of set­ tings was pleased by the ornate downstairs rooms. So, too, were the visitors who complimented her improvements. Now the public spaces of the White House were available as a stage for her social events, and according to one long-term White House employee, the Lincolns opened the White House to

more visitors than other administrations. 11 Mary Lincoln organized presidential receptions, levees, and State Dinners. Secretaries of state had previously managed these last, but in the summer of 1861 when Napoleon's nephew Lucien visited, she organized the event and proudly spoke French. (He later reported the food and wine were abominable.)12 In the mansion's newly refurbished settings, Mary Lincoln provided opportunities for conversa­ tions among public officials in an age of face-to-face politics-what Catherine Allgor has called social space and parlor politics. Understanding what mod­ ern observers call the power of performance as a function of presidential leadership, she aimed to pre­ side over events that would establish the authority of the Lincoln party. Thereby she intended to dispel rumors that Lincoln was an uncouth vulgarian from the frontier. In the process she became an American celebrity known as "The Republican Queen." 13 Such expensive improvements came with criti­ cism, not only from her husband but from his official Mary Lincoln: A New Look at the First Lady 47





111 IISIIIC llll

Mary Todd Lincoln continued her shopping in Philadelphia, at William H. Carry! & Brothers, "Importers and dealers in curtain materials and trimmings of every description. " r.





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Listed on the 1861 invoice from Carryl's confirmed at the bottom to be correct by "Mrs. A. Lincoln" (opposite), are lace curtains, French brocades, and gilt cornices. Also described on the invoice that totaled $7,500 is the suite of furniture purchased for "the Prince of Wales Room," a guest bedroom (pictured above in the 1890s): "l Rosewood Bedstead, 2 Arm Chairs, 4 Wall Chairs with 1 Wash Stand, 1 Bureau & 1 Sofa," and "l Rich Rosewood Centre Table." The bed is now famously known as the "Lincoln Bed" Among the other surviving pieces of the suite now displayed in the Lincoln Bedroom are the rosewood marble-topped center table carved with grapevines, clusters of grapes, and exotic birds (right), and one of the two arm chairs (opposite).

Mary Lincoln: A New Look at the First Lady 51

".:...­ Y, INL-{8-twD ff Jo, L w. I LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

One of the Lincolns' many famous White House parties, the January 1862 New Year's Reception in the Blue Room is pictured above in the largely apoc­ ryphal illustration President and Mrs. Lincoln are seen here greeting military leaders, members of the cabinet, and other prominent guests. The following month they would be distracted from their next grand soiree by the illness of their third son Willie (opposite). He would succumb to typhoid fever on February 20 at the age of 12.



circle as well. Lincoln declared the White House the best house he and Mary had ever inhabited and in an angry scene reported by his secretaries, the president dismissed her interior decorating as "flub-a-dubs" during a time when government funds were needed for soldiers. 14 Thus the very impetus for her White House campaign-that during a threatening civil war the building must display the nation's power­ became the ironic reason to limit spending on parties and interior decoration. She had overspent the $20,000 budget and only through the legerdemain of a budget transfer and a deficiency appropriation was it possible to pay the bills. To be sure-and this is often forgotten amid complaints about her extrava-

gance-it was the responsibility of the com­ missioner of public buildings to determine the spending on the White House. He signed the expense vouchers. Lack of oversight cost Wood his job, and a new commissioner kept closer watch on the first lady, though Benjamin French hardly dissuaded her from her intentions. 15 The famed Mary Lincoln parties, organized without the help of assistants, took place during the capital's social season. Attired in both borrowed gowns from Alexander's as well as lavishly decorated dresses created by her seamstress, the for­ mer slave Elizabeth Keckley, Mary Lincoln became something of a sensation in the press-a nineteenth-century celebrity. Visitors found their host charming, elegant, and gracious. A few select friends, political leaders, writers, and intellectuals gathered in the Blue Room in one of the first salons in American history. In the larger rooms, crowds-as many as three thousand on some occasions-gathered during her receptions where Union soldiers met their commander­ in-chief firsthand. Foreign ministers and cabinet officers shared information and exchanged ideas more freely than in formal settings. And sometimes the first lady cor­ nered officials to advance some of her own patronage demands for positions in the mili­ tary for relatives or the need for the Army Department to buy horses from Kentucky. 16 No matter what was happening on the battlefield, the message from the White House suggested the conti­ nuity of the republic. Like modern first ladies but none before her time, Mary Lincoln adopted a public cause. In her case it was visiting sick and wounded soldiers in Washington's hospitals. Sometimes she brought her young sons; more often she came alone with flowers and special food and sat by the bedside of the wounded. Occasionally she wrote letters for those who were incapacitated. Encouraged by her seam­ stress Elizabeth Keckley, Mary Lincoln raised money to support Washington's growing communities of the formerly enslaved, thus establishing her credentials as

an abolitionist. 11 In the winter of 1862, the nadir of Union mili­ tary operations, Mary Lincoln planned a special cele­ bration to lighten spirits and through its magnifi­ cence convey the power of the government. The party was by invitation, angering those who had been left out, but for those who arrived at the White House portico a little before 9:00 in the evening on February 5, 1862, the soiree was a superb affair. Mary Lincoln wore a white silk evening gown; the Marine band played "The Marseillaise" and the new "Mary Lincoln Polka"; and a New Yark caterer had concocted sugary molds on war themes such as the ship of state and Fort Pickens. During this high­ point of her campaign to develop the position of first lady, Willie Lincoln lay upstairs dying of typhoid fever. 18 Then three years later when she was recover­ ing from her grief and anticipating another four years in the White House, Abraham Lincoln was assassinated, and life was never the same for this ambitious first lady. Given Mary Lincoln's personal tragedies in the


ir �"' :::,

Mary Lincoln: A New Look at the First Lady 53

at Bellevue Place, Batavia, 111s. REMARKS.




M or S,




HISTORY (N umber45)



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The ledger of the Bellevue Sanitarium, in Batavia, Illinois, lists "Lincoln, Mary" as patient 208, age 56, admitted May 20, 1875. Sent to the asylum involuntarily by a court order prompted by her only surviving son Robert, Mrs. Lincoln would eventually be freed with the help of Myra Bradwell, one of the nation's first female lawyers. Following her release she would travel in Europe and live alone in Pau, France ( opposite bottom) until 1881. She died in Springfield, Illinois, in 1882.

the aid of on� of the nation's first female lawyers, Myra Bradwell, and eventually gained her freedom. 20 Then as further evidence that she was not insane, only a sad, neurotic old woman without a family, she lived alone in Pau, France, until returning to Springfield where she died in 1882. In a nation where mental illness is a stigma, Americans remember "crazy Mary Lincoln," rather than the elegant and charming Mrs. President Lincoln who had tried so hard and at times effectively to create a new under­ standing of the role of first lady.

White House as well as her energetic role as first lady, we might expect a sympathetic evaluation of her tenure. This is not the case. Despite recent efforts at her rehabilitation, she remains one of the nation's most disliked first ladies. She is portrayed as corrupt, attention-seeking, and extravagant, and her contribu­ tions are overshadowed by often unsubstantiated claims of her malfeasance. Certainly she was ahead of her times. She violated established protocols and customs, infuriating government officials who believed that women had no place in public affairs. Some of these criticisms reflected-and still reflect­ dislike of her unfeminine assertion of power, and these gendered interpretations established her histori­ cal reputation. At times she behaved as an unseemly provocateur in her own story. As Mrs. Widow Lincoln she lobbied Congress for a larger pension, tried to sell the soiled dresses from her White House days, and established herself as a fervent spiritualist. These were not activities that endeared her to the American people. Ultimately Mary Lincoln's incarceration in a mental institution solidified her dismal reputation. The shabby story began in 1875, four years after her third son, 18-year-old Tad, had died. Restless and unhappy, living in a Chicago hotel, she shopped recklessly in the stores. She invited spiritualists to her room where they sought to recall her dead loved ones...:..._Eddie, Willie, Tad, and, of course, the man she called her "all," Abraham Lincoln. She took too much of the era's solution to insomnia, chloral hydrate. In response, her only surviving son, Robert, orchestrated a kangaroo court that, without testimo­ ny from even her lawyer, declared her in loco mentis. Sent to an asylum, Mary Lincoln displayed her sani­ ty by working tirelessly for her release. She enlisted


Katherine Helm, The True Story of Mary, Wife of Lincoln, (New York: 1928),1-5.


For an assessment of Dolley Madison's contributions to national politics, see Catherine Allgor, Parlor Politics, (Charlottesville, Va.: University of Virginia Press, 2000.)


Not until the 1980s and 1990s did American historians begin to study the role of First Ladies and their status as an institution. See especially Carl Sferrazza Anthony First Ladies: The Saga of the Presidents' Wives and their Power (New York: William Morrow, 1990) and Lewis Gould, ed., American First Ladies (New York: Garland Publishing,1960).


Jean H. Baker, Mary Todd Lincoln: A Biography (New York: W.W. Norton, 1987) 179-:-80.


Elizabeth Todd Grimsley, "Six Months in the White House," Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, (1925-7),47-8.


For a description of one of her parties in Springfield, see Mary Lincoln to Emilie Todd Helm, February 16, 1857 in Justin Turner and Linda Levitt Turner, Mary Todd Lincoln: Her Life and Letters (New York: Alfred Knopf, 1972), 48.


Baker, 136.


Walter Stevens, "A Reporter's Lincoln" (St. Louis: Missouri Historical Society, 1916), 46.


Baker, 184-5.

10. Harry Pratt and Ernest East, "Mrs. Lincoln Refurbishes the White House, Lincoln Herald, 47 (February 1945), 12-22; Bill of Alexander Stewart Company, Department of Interior, Commissioner of Public Buildings Account, 1861-2, RG 42, National Archives, Washington, D.C. 11. William Crook, Through Five Administrations (New York: Harper's, 1905), 52. 12. Baker, 198-9. 13. New York Times, February 23, 1861; Springfield (Massachusetts) Republic, June 7, 1875; Turner and Levitt, Letters, 111. 14. Daniel Mark Epstein, The Lincolns: Portrait of a Marriage (New York: Ballantine Books, 2008), 350. 15. Benjamin French to Mary Lincoln, September 28, 1861, Records of the Commissioner of Public Buildings, RG 42; Entry September 8, 1861, Benjamin French Journals, French papers, microfilm Edition, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 16. Mary Lincoln to Thomas Scott, October 3, 1861, Turner and Levitt, Letters, 107. 17. Mary Lincoln to Thomas Sweney, April, 1863, Ibid., 149; Mary Lincoln to Abraham Lincoln, November 3, 1862, Ibid., 14-1. 18. For a description see Baker, 206-7. 19. Baker, 315-50.

Mary Lincoln: A New Look at the First Lady


A Century o.f Role Models First Ladies Elevating Girl Scouts CYNTHIA B .

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he is very glad ind�ed to become the honorary president [of the National Board] of the Girl Scouts of America [sic] and she hopes that this excellent undertaking may meet in the future with all the success that it has had in the past." 1 With this brief note from her secretary, First Lady Edith Bolling Galt Wilson established a precedent for what was to be a century-long relationship between first ladies and the Girl Scouts of the United States of America, the official full name of the organization. Many first ladies have served as the honorary presi­ dent of the Girl Scouts, an association that has spanned national and global changes including eco­ nomic booms and depressions, wars and celebrations, and battles won and lost for civil rights across a spec­ trum of groups that include women. These challenges are reflected in the actions and work of both the women who stepped into the role and the organiza­ tion they served. Many books, articles, and films have observed, dissected, hypothesized, and other­ wise mused about the wives of the nation's presidents and the ways in which they have or have not provided insight into women's roles: from mother to hostess,


from advocate to celebrity, and from activist to polit­ ical intruder. As the very notion of a first lady has ebbed and flowed, so has this honorific relationship with the Girl Scouts. Seventeen first ladies have served as honorary presidents of the Girl Scouts, and an examination of records, letters, news reports, and objects illuminates this relationship. Fundamentally, what is revealed is that each of these women, in her own way, has stepped forward to lend her credentials and the weight of her position to elevate the potential of girls, modeling the mission of Girl Scouts around "courage, confidence, and character."2 Origins and Traditions A fledgling organization established in 1912 in Savannah, Georgia, the Girl Scouts almost immedi­ ately began looking to cement its role on the national stage. Working within a suffrage context that denied women the right to vote, Juliette Gordon Low, founder and president, instinctively grasped the importance of bringing on well-known people to

Girl Scouts founder and first president, Juliette Gordon Low, pictured (left, far right) with Troop 1 in Washington, invited First Lady Edith Wilson (below) to be the organization's first honorary president, begin­ ning a long tradition that continues today. First Lady Florence Harding (opposite with Girl Scounts at the White House) was the sec­ ond to accept the invitation, serving from 1920 until her husband's death in 1923.

offer public affirmation and support for her move­ ment. In 1913 she established the organization's main office in Washington, D.C.,3 and she sought to garner support from the wives of financiers, philanthropists, and high-level officials, including Ellen Axson Wilson, a fellow "Savannahian" and President Woodrow Wilson's first wife. Low understood the prestige first ladies could lend to organizations spear­ headed by women, perhaps following the example of First Lady Caroline Lavinia Scott Harrison, who supported the founding of the Daughters of the American Revolution and effectively served as its first president general. Just a little over a month after Wilson's inaugura­ tion in 1913, Low wrote that she had seen "the wife of the President.... I told her frankly we wanted [her] .. . as chief Girl Guide or Girl Scout. "4 This entreaty did not succeed, however. Mrs. Wilson declined, but she did write that "it only remains for me to say again that I stand always ready to help in the way and at the time that seems easiest and best."5 Ellen Wilson died of Bright's disease the following year, and when the pres­ ident remarried, Low approached the new first lady, Edith Bolling Galt Wilson, asking if she would consid­ er serving as the honorary president of the Girl Scouts. Mrs.Wilson accepted, thus beginning a tradition that continues to this day. By 1920, the Girl Scouts had established a more 58 WHITE HOUSE HISTORY (Number45)

formal invitation procedure, with the national board voting to request that Florence Kling Harding "accept the office of Honorary President of the Girl Scouts." She accepted, but three years later tendered her resignation upon the unexpected death of her husband, "severing one of the most pleasant among the many delightful associations that have been my privilege in recent years," she wrote.Responding immediately with regret and appreciation, the board voted to ask the new First Lady, Grace Coolidge, "to accept the Honorary Presidency."6 Over time, the Girl Scouts began anticipating a new first lady, preparing a formal invitation and background materials just days after presidential elections or, in some cases, following up quickly after

unexpected changes in the office occurred.In return, the women always responded positively, as Mamie Eisenhower did when she wrote on her personal sta­ tionery a month after the election of her husband, stating that she looked "forward to meeting . . . the Officers of the Organization of January 20, 1953."7 Jacqueline Kennedy's social secretary, Letitia Baldrige, phoned the first lady's acceptance a few weeks after John F. Kennedy's inauguration, while Rosalynn Carter took more time to consider the invi­ tation; an internal Girl Scouts memo documented the first lady's thought process by requesting that there be "no public announcement of her acceptance ... [as] she will not be accepting all requests of a similar nature simply on the basis of tradition but rather on A Century of Role Models: First Ladies Elevating Girl Scouts 59

a firm belief in and commitment to the work such organizations are doing."8 First Lady Claudia ("Lady Bird") Johnson accepted the Girl Scouts' invitation to become hon­ orary president less than three weeks after the assas­ sination of President Kennedy, sharing in her own handwriting that "both Lynda and Lucy were Girl Scouts and ... it was a happy and constructive part of their life," while Betty Ford sent her simple acceptance the same month Richard Nixon resigned.9 Other first ladies moved into the role through a full investiture ceremony. Nancy Reagan participated in a carefully staged event that featured Brownies offer­ ing bouquets of flowers, the presentation of pins, and the recitation of the Girl Scout Promise, while Barbara Bush held an investure ceremony in the East Room, with two of her staff members wearing their own Girl Scout sashes. 10 Proximity to Power Not surprisingly, first ladies and the Girl Scouts saw opportunities to align interests through the hon­ orary presidential role. Whether related to personal

interests or to their husband's administrative priori­ ties-and in some cases both-the wives' proximity to power, as well as the iconic status of the Girl Scouts, offered advantageous conditions all around to further agendas and programs. A precedent was set with the first honorary presi­ dent. Edith Wilson took up the Girl Scout cause with fervor just as the organization began emphasizing patriotic service with the U.S. entry into World War I. Girl Scouts knitted belts, socks, scarves, and gloves for soldiers and learned first aid and Morse code, while the first lady led public campaigns to boost sup­ port for American soldiers. Revealing her political acumen, given that the president had run for reelec­ tion only one year earlier as an antiwar candidate, Edith Wilson encouraged the Girl Scouts to sell Liberty Bonds, even enhancing the project by offering an American flag to the troop that sold the most bonds. She surprised the winners-Philadelphia's Troop 57, which sold bonds totaling more than $308,000---by presenting their prize in person in June 1918, with scores of patriotic scouts looking on, all recorded by the national press. 11

During World War L Girl Scouts aided the war effort by sewing socks and other such items needed by the troops. 60 WHITE HOUSE HISTORY (Number 45)

Subsequent first ladies more overtly leveraged their relationship with the Girl Scouts to address national issues. Lady Bird Johnson, for example, acti­ vated the organization to help launch and power her campaign to beautify America's highways, landscapes, airports, and parks, a program that became an inte­ gral part of Lyndon Johnson's "Great Society" plat­ form. With "at least two sizes of Brownie and Girl Scout uniforms [still] hanging in [her] closet ... when [they] got to the White House"-a reference to her daughters' membership in the organization-she began activating youth service organizations, begin­ ning with the Girl Scouts, the summer after the presi­ dent's inauguration. 12 Grounded in her belief that beautification projects could soothe an America rife with dissent over the civil rights movement and the Vietnam War, and struggling with poverty and pollu­ tion, Lady Bird Johnson utilized the Girl Scouts to implement "planting campaigns, and education cam­ paigns, and cleanup campaigns" and to participate in the White House Conference on Natural Beauty." 13 "Rejoic[ing in the knowledge] that the Girl Scouts intend to lead the Nation in [this] worthwhile under­ taking,"14 the first lady also described the organiza­ tion's efforts as "exactly what we need to transform the delight of debate to the art of action." 15 During the nation's Bicentennial celebrations, Betty Ford played a more ceremonial role as honorary president. Once herself a Campfire Girl, Ford wore an adult uniform to open the four-day 1975 Girl Scout National Convention held in Washington, D.C. Before 25,000 cheering people, she lit a torch on the grounds of the Washington Monument and accepted a 200th Birthday Book depicting projects the Girl Scouts' organization and its "hometown heroines" would undertake in their communities in commemora­ tion. The first lady stated that the Girl Scouts' efforts would remain "constant in its goal of 'freedom of expression' for the individual,"16 and one could specu­ late that, given her concurrent and very public work to promote passage of the Equal Rights Amendment, these comments during such a high-optics, female-cen­ tered event, set within perhaps "safe" patriotic festivi­ ties, were not necessarily coincidental.17 First Lady Barbara Bush, whose personal pas­ sion was reading and literacy, partnered with the Girl Scouts and its "Right to Read" national service proj-

ect by publicly kicking-off the effort in Miami Beach during the Girl Scouts' Triennial Convention in 1990, ultimately receiving national awards for their work. 18 Five years later, First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton highlighted the importance of the Girl Scouts by mentioning the organization in her book, It Takes a Village: And Other Lessons Children Teach Us." She also donated a portion of the proceeds from its sales to the Girl Scouts, writing that she hoped the contribution could "make a difference in [the Girl Scouts'] continuing efforts and that America's 'vil­ lages' will support the work of [the Girl Scouts]."19 The Girl Scouts, in turn, supported Hillary Rodham Clinton's efforts two years later to preserve national treasures by assisting during her tour of the M'Clintock House, the New York site where the "Declaration of Sentiments" was drafted for the First Women's Rights Convention in 1848. Clinton's speech unabashedly addressed the importance of women in American history, particularly remarking she could not "think of a better place to unveil the Girl Scout 'millennium patch,"' and encouraging the girls to "honor the work of the women and men who met in Seneca Falls 150 years ago."20 Material Culture: Reflecting the Story Objects held and valued by first ladies are them­ selves a treasure trove that reveal stories about these women and the times in which they lived, and those connected to Girl Scouts, as well as photographs, documents, audio recordings, and film, also illumi­ nate the relationship between them. The 1923 Harris & Ewing image of Grace Coolidge tasting a cookie on the White House lawn and the engraved acknowl­ edgment of a sympathy card from President and Mrs. Kennedy upon the death of their infant son, Patrick, are just two of the hundreds of artifacts that provide a window into the interesting, thought-pro­ voking, and very human association.21 Perhaps the object with the most circuitous story is one intended for the White House collection: an oil painting of Lou Henry Hoover by the American female portraitist, Lydia Field Emmet.22 Instead, today it is part of the Girl Scouts Collection seemingly due to a series of twists and turns spanning nearly two decades. The portrait, painted in a small room later used by Margaret Truman as her bedA Century of Role Models: First Ladies Elevating Girl Scouts 61

room because the artist believed that space offered the best light, captured the first lady sometime in the early winter of 1933 seated on a brocade-covered chair from Elizabeth Monroe's Sitting Room.Lou Hoover's fingers hold her glasses, which are attached to a long necklace. Both Lou Hoover's and the Girl Scouts' keen interest in nature might be referenced in the gilt wood frame carved with a pomegranate-type motif. As early as 1931, the Girl Scouts anticipated presenting a portrait of Lou Hoover as a gift to the nation for installation in the Executive Mansion, given her close affiliation with the organization. She had in fact served as national president of the Girl Scouts prior to becoming honorary president during her time as first lady. She worked diligently on behalf of the organization and continues to this day to be held in high esteem for her efforts.It took well over a year, however, to obtain Lou Hoover's consent to sit for the portrait, and then to identify and finalize the artist, a life-long friend of Anne Hyde Choate, god­ mother of Juliette Gordon Low.23 Foreshadowing other challenges ahead, U.S.Grant III, director of the Office of Public Buildings and Public Parks of the National Capital, responded to a Girl Scouts' inquiry about the government accepting the portrait, stating that Lou Hoover did not "wish to accept her own portrait for the White House" but instead "would prefer to have the matter kept in abeyance until the new administration can act upon [the] very gracious offer."24 Just days after the Hoovers departed Washington, D.C., in 1933, following the inaugura­ tion of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the Girl Scouts' national president, in a fund-raising appeal for the portrait, noted the organization's pleasure with it, stating that the first lady's "likeness has been caught ...the pose is characteristic, and ... the coloring and general atmosphere of the picture is delightful."25 Emmet concurred in a letter the same day, writing that she had "heard in an indirect but quite authentic way ... that Mrs. Hoover [had seen] the picture framed and finished before she left the White House, and that she and Mr. Hoover were greatly pleased with it."26 Two months later, however, the former first lady shared different sentiments when writing to the wife of Washington correspondent Mark 62 WHITE HOUSE HISTORY (Number 45)

Sullivan, stating that "the people [at the White House] were unanimously against it"; although "they liked the pose very much ...all but one felt the fea­ tures and details were perhaps too well painted-and expression not enough! In other words, a maid seemed best to express it by saying that it looked just like I did sometimes when ...rather tired and ... resting, looking out of a window and not thinking of anything! Which really did not seem . be the way I wanted to look at the White House forever!­ but was just exactly the way I was while she was painting me."21 An exasperated Emmet, upon learning the por­ trait was not admired, wrote to Girl Scouts a differ­ ent account of the reaction to the painting by the first lady, who told her "that people ...remarked upon the pose and the gesture of the hands as being very characteristic" and further that "Mrs.Hoover was so unhurried and relaxed in appearance during the hours she set aside for posing [because] she watched the progress [of the work] in the mirror, which ...[had helped] avoid the lack of bored fixity which often results from posing." Emmet further recounted other positive comments, including one from a White House usher, who said that it was "a very wonderful picture of Mrs.Hoover ...[that] says something."28 First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt privately pressed Lou Hoover at the Girl Scout Convention in Boston in 1934 regarding when the White House would

Among the treasures relating to the first ladies in the collections of the Girl Scouts of the USA are a photograph of First Lady Grace Coolidge tasting a Girl Scout cookie in 1923 (oppo­ site) and a portrait of Lou Henry Hoover by Lydia Field Emmett (right).

receive the portrait, and after­ ward the former first lady sat in Emmet's New York studio for "trifling details" to be changed on it.29 Four years later, howev­ er, the work remained with the artist, prompting her to inquire about its ultimate disposition. In part to protect her own reputa­ tion, Emmet asked whether the Girl Scouts would like it for its headquarters. The national pres­ ident responded that Eleanor Roosevelt was again asking for the portrait but that Lou Hoover wanted to review it yet another time! 30 What decisions ensued can only be surmised, but correspondence shortly thereafter reveals the portrait was shipped to the Girl Scouts and not to the White House. Seven years later, in 1944, Lou Henry Hoover died. Hope for a final Executive Mansion destination for the portrait rose one more time, however, when in 1950, the National Gallery of Art borrowed it for the sesquicentennial exhibition, Makers of History in Washington, 1800-1950. During that period, the director of the museum and chair of the Commission of Fine Arts, David Finley, asked the Girl Scouts if the organization would be willing to donate the por­ trait to the White House, as there was no portrait there of Lou Hoover. "Apparently, Mr. Hoover likes our Girl Scout portrait of her better than any other that was ever done," wrote a Girl Scouts board mem­ ber' and the oil once again went to the Executive

Mansion, this time for "inspection by President and Mrs. Truman" prior to being permanently "placed with the [other] White House portraits." 31 Inexplicably, fate stepped in once again, as President Herbert Hoover's secretary wrote in November that he had selected a different portrait of his wife for the White House upon the completion of the building's restoration. 32 The portrait eventually returned to the Girl Scouts, where it has remained ever since. One of the most spectacular and valuable objects in the Girl Scout collection is the emerald­ and diamond-encrusted Girl Scout "Thanks Badge" Juliette Gordon Low commissioned Cartier to create as a gift for Edith Wilson. Then honoring those who were not Girl Scouts but who went above and beyond to help the organization, this specially craftA Century of Role Models: First Ladies Elevating Girl Scouts 63

FIRST LADIES IN UNIFORM Lou Henry Hoover poses in her Girl Scout uniform (opposite); the uniform and hat are now preserved in the Girl Scouts' collection. First Lady Florence Harding posed in her uniform, with dog Laddie Boy beside her, on the South Portico in 1922 (right). Mrs. Nixon wore her uniform on a visit to the Girl Scout National Headquarters in New York in 1970 and First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, wore a sash with badges while participating in a Girl Scouts Smoking Prevention event at the White House in 1996.

A Century of Role Models: First Ladies Elevating Girl Scouts 65


COOKIES! While serving as first ladies of the United States and honorary presidents of the Girl Scouts of the USA, Eleanor Roosevelt (opposite, 1942), Bess Truman (right) and Mamie Eisenhower (below) helped to promote the Girl Scouts' annual fundraising efforts by accepting boxes of the famous cookies at the White House.

A Century of Role Models: First Ladies Elevating Girl Scouts 67


Clockwise from top left: First Lady Nancy Reagan participates in cere­ monies commemorating the 75th year of the Girl Scouts, 1987. Mrs. Reagan's "Just Say No" program inspired the "Say NO to Drugs" badge. First Lady Barbara Bush was sworn in as the Honorary President of the Girl Scouts in 1989. Her literacy programs inspired the "Right to Read" Badge. In 1996, First Lady Hillary Clinton accepts a Girl Scouts t-shirt. Girl Scouting entered a new millennium in 2000 during Mrs. Clinton's tenure as honorary chair.



First Lady Laura Bush visits with Girl Scout Troop 92 in Dallas, Texas, 2006. First Lady Michelle Obama (right) welcomed Girl Scouts to the White House to camp on the South Lawn in 2016.

A Century of Role Models: First Ladies Elevating Girl Scouts 69

zation to shine a light on a particular passion, espe­ ed piece in the shape of a three-leaf clover was pre­ cially if that passion elevated the president's objec­ sented to Edith Wilson during her 1918 Philadelphia flag-presentation trip, with Low explaining its "talis­ tives. The connection began with Edith Wilson, who manic function wherever there were Girl Scouts." 33 ceremoniously pinned the first Gold Award recipient at the Executive Mansion, eliciting excitement from With emeralds symbolizing a strong relationship and Juliette Gordon Low, who proudly proclaimed, "We the renowned maker signaling the pin's importance, are plucking up honors by the roots." 37 It continues it may be inferred that Juliette Gordon Low aimed to strengthen and elevate the bond between the Girl into the present with, most recently, First Lady Michelle Obama, who hosted a campout complete Scouts and the first lady of the land with this gift.34 Forty years later, in 1958, Edith Wilson returned the with a climbing wall, on the White House Grounds.38 pin in its original red leather presentation box as a For the past century first ladies have generously offered their time, energy, and the prestige of their "surprise gift" to the Girl Scouts at a special tea in Washington, D.C. 35 role to the Girl Scouts of the United States of Markedly different from fine art or jewelry, a America. Some of the contribucrewel pillow cover designed tions were subtle and by Julie Nixon in 1970 quiet, like those of Bess nonetheless also provides 0 insight into both the Girl Truman, who wrote a brief 0 note acknowledging the Scouts and the occupants of the White House. Nixon, her­ Girls Scouts' international w friendship project, self a Brownie when her 0 "Schoolmates Overseas," father was vice president, used 0 0 a colorful pattern with bees, "which create[d] good will 0 between the different counbutterflies, and flowers as an 0 z tries and bridge[d] any difembroidery kit to be sold ferences created by lanthrough Family Circle maga­ To MG WOODROW WILSON FROM JULIETTE LOW IN BEHALF OF GIRL SCOUTS zine, the proceeds from which guage and geological situa0 were to establish an endow­ tions." 39 No doubt the end of World War II and the ment to support recruiting and retaining adults to extend nuclear bombs dropped on � and maintain Girl Scouting in �'i: Japan were on her mind. � Others helped the Girl low-income urban and rural areas. President Richard M. Nixon established the Scouts simply by marketing the organization's famous cookies, sending telegrams of congratula­ Environmental Protection Agency that same year, tions for various achievements, and hosting Girl and it seems reasonable to consider that this legisla­ Scout birthday parties at the White House. tion may have influenced the nature motif designed Relationships also continued after first ladies left the by his daughter. Certainly First Lady Patricia White House, evidenced by Jacqueline Kennedy's Nixon's interests could also have been at play, as she thanks in 1964, typed on mourning stationery, for a wrote in her letter for the 1969 annual report of the Girl Scouts about the organization's "direct contact bookmark for Caroline that was to go in her special 36 Brownie Handbook,40 and Lady Bird Johnson's let­ with the beauty of [America]." ter written on LBJ Ranch stationery in 1969, express­ ing appreciation for "the support of the beautifica­ Conclusion tion program through the National Youth First ladies have served many roles as the hon­ Conference on Natural Beauty and Conservation."41 orary president of the Girl Scouts over the past cen­ tury, from exchanging pleasantries to hosting events, Perhaps Pat Nixon summed up best the regard in which first ladies have held the Girl Scouts when to using their position to elevate Girl Scout pro­ she wrote admiringly in 1970 of the organization's grams as well as leveraging the power of the organi<( UJ


"youth and adults [as] makers, not takers. They are doers, not idlers. Savers, not wasters. How important these principles are today."42 And, in light of the power that the position of first lady of the United States brings to the position of honorary president, the Girl Scouts of the United States of America hon­ ors all that first ladies have contributed to bring national attention to initiatives that benefit girls and young women. NOTES I.

Edith Benham to Mrs. [Juliette Gordon] Low, October 16, 1917, First Ladies of the United States Series, Personality Record Group, Girl Scouts of the United States of America Records (hereafter GSUSA). New York.


See the following statement on the website of the Girl Scouts of the United States of America: "Today we continue the Girl Scout mission of building girls of courage, confidence, and character, who make the world a better place,"


Three years later Low moved Girl Scouts' office to New York, emulating similar moves of other national youth organizations such as the Boy Scouts and the Campfire Girls and further signaling her efforts to elevate the Girl Scouts to the national stage.


Juliette Gordon Low to Mabel Gordon Leigh, April 27, 1913, Gordon Family Papers, item 38759, MS318-18-201, Georgia Historical Society, Savannah. Available online at the Digital Library of Georgia,


Ellen A. Wilson to Mrs. [Juliette Gordon] Low, May 21, 1913, Gordon Family Papers, MS318-18- 201, ibid.


National board meeting minutes, December 16, 1920, 132, and September 20, 1923, 143, National Board Meeting Minutes and Verbatims, Office of the National Board Record Group, GSUSA.


Mamie Doud Eisenhower to Mrs. Roy F. Layton, December 5, 1952, First Ladies of the United States Series, Personality Record Group, GSUSA.


Mrs. Charles U. Culmer to Mrs. John F. Kennedy, February 3, 1961, and Kathleen B. Ross to Frances Hesselbein, December 22, 1976, ibid.


Lady Bird Johnson to Mrs. Holton R. Price Jr., December 9, 1963, and Betty Ford to Mrs. William McLeod Ittmann, August 30, 1974, ibid.

10. "Installation of National Honorary President Nancy Reagan," May 15, 1981, ibid. 11. "President's Wife Gives Colors Here to Girl Scout Unit," Philadelphia Inquirer, June 27, 1918, 1. 12. Claudia ("Lady Bird") Johnson, oral history interview 32, by Michael L. Gillette, August 3-4, 1982, transcript, Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum, Austin, Tex., online at 13. Lady Bird Johnson, audio diary, February 25, 1966, annotated transcript, 8-9, ibid.

19. Hillary Rodham Clinton, It Takes a Village: And Other Lessons Children Teach Us (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996), 47; Hillary Rodham Clinton to Mary Rose Main, December 19, 1996, First Ladies of the United States Series, Personality Record Group, GSUSA. 20. First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, remarks at M'Clintock House/Women's Rights National Historic Park, July 15, 1998,Waterloo, N.Y., July, 15, 1998, online at First_Lady/btml/generalspeeches/1998/19980728-3482.html. 21. President and Mrs. Kennedy to [Girl Scouts of the USA], August 20, 1963, First Ladies of the United States Series, Personality Record Group, GSUSA. 22. Lydia Field Emmet (1866-1952) studied under William Merritt Chase and William-Adolphe Bouguereau. Her works include a mural in the Women's Building at the 1893 Columbian Exposition, illustrations for Harper's Magazine, and a stained-glass window for the Tiffany Glass Company. She eventually became best known for her portraits of children. 23. Lydia F. Emmet to Mrs. [Frederick H.] Brooke, December 7, [1932], First Ladies of the United States Series, Personality Record Group, GSUSA. 24. U.S. Grant III, [Washington, D.C.], to Mrs. Nicholas F. Brady, New York, February 27,1933, ibid. 25. Mrs. Frederick Edey, President, [GSUSA] to Mrs. Edgar Rickard, Treasurer, GSUSA, March 8, 1933, ibid. 26. Lydia F. Emmet, New York, to Mrs. Edgar Rickard, Treasurer, GSUSA, March 8, 1933, ibid. 27. Lou Henry Hoover, Stanford University, California, to Mrs. [Mark] Sullivan, May 10, 1933, copy in ibid. 28. Lydia F. Emmet, New York, to Mrs. Edgar Rickard, Treasurer, GSUSA, May 11, 1933, ibid. 29. "Mrs. Roosevelt Seeks Portrait of Mrs. Hoover for White House," New York Times, [1934].

30. Mrs. Paul Rittenhouse to Lydia F. Emmet, February 20, 1937, First Ladies of the United States Series, Personality Record Group, GSUSA.

31. Helen Woods (Mrs. Arthur) to Mrs. C. Vaughan Ferguson, September 22, 1950, ibid. 32. Bernice Miller, secretary to Mr. Hoover, New York City, to Mrs. C. Vaughan Ferguson, November 29, 1950, ibid. 33. Quoted in "President's Wife Gives Colors Here to Girl Scout Unit." The pin has 64 one-point single-cut diamonds, 36 caliber-cut emeralds, approxi­ mately 3-4 points each, and 1 brilliant-cut ruby approximately 6 points in size. The emeralds and the ruby are mounted in 18 carat yellow gold; dia­ monds are set in the shape of three spirals completing a circle surrounding the clover. 34. Eleanor Putzki, "The Best Girl Scout in America," Literary Digest 56, no. 3 (January 19, 1918): 56. 35. Marie Smith, "Girl Scouts Get Back 'Thank You,'" Washington Post, c. November 1958]. 36. Patricia Nixon, "A Message from the Honorary President of the Girl Scouts of the USA,'' 1969 Annual Report Girl Scouts of the USA, April 1, 1970, Annual Reports Sub-Series, Governance and Corporate Administration Series, Publications Record Group, GSUSA.

14. Lady Bird Johnson to Mrs. Holton R. Price Jr., June 8, 1965, First Ladies of the United States Series, Personality Record Group, GSUSA.

37. Daisy [Juliette Gordon Low] to[?], [after October 16, 1917], item 3828, MS318-18-204, Gordon Family Papers; Putzki, "Best Girl Scout in America."

15. Quoted in "Roundup Ending for Girl Scouts," Greencastle (Ind) Daily Banner, July, 24, 1965.

38.­ obama-hosts-girl-scouts-at-the-White-House.html.

16. Quoted in "First Lady Opens Girl Scout Meet," Waco (Tex.) Tribune­ Herald, October 27, 1975.

39. Bess W. Truman to Mrs. [C. Vaughan] Ferguson, January 9, 1950, First Ladies of the United States Series, Personality Record Group, GSUSA.

17. A decade after leaving the White House, Betty Ford stated at a dinner in her honor, "Girl Scouting has taught girls to reach beyond themselves . . . to reach beyond their horizons," and she reiterated her "support for an amendment to the Constitution that will guarantee the equality of women." Quoted in "Green & White Selects Bluebird: Betty Ford Gives Scouting Report at Awards Dinner," Los Angeles Times, May 15, 1985.

40. Nancy Tuckerman to Mrs. C. E. Cortner, February 6, 1964, ibid. 41. Lady Bird Johnson to Mrs. Margaret W. Price, January 31, 1969, ibid. 42. Patricia Nixon to [Girl Scouts of the USA], February 25, 1970, ibid.

18. Luisa Yanez, '"Put Girl Power to Work,' Barbara Bush Tells Scouts," Sun Sentinel, October 23, 1990.

A Century of Role Models: First Ladies Elevating Girl Scouts 71


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