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A Path Towards Better Bicycle Infrastructure A GUIDEBOOK FOR URBAN PLACE MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATIONS A 2017 TOP ISSUES COUNCIL REPORT A PUBLICATION CREATED BY MEMBERS OF THE INTERNATIONAL DOWNTOWN ASSOCIATION


ABOUT IDA

IDA The International Downtown Association is the premier association of urban place managers who are shaping and activating dynamic downtown districts. Founded in 1954, IDA represents an industry of more than 2,500 place management organizations that employ 100,000 people throughout North America. Through its network of diverse practitioners, its rich body of knowledge, and its unique capacity to nurture community-building partnerships, IDA provides tools, intelligence and strategies for creating healthy and dynamic centers that anchor the wellbeing of towns, cities and regions of the world. IDA members are downtown champions who bring urban centers to life. For more information on IDA, visit downtown.org. IDA Board Chair: Tim Tompkins, President, Times Square Alliance IDA President & CEO: David T. Downey, CAE, Assoc. AIA

IDA Top Issues Councils The IDA Top Issues Councils are a strategic research initiative that brings together industry leaders to produce research briefs on the top urban issues identified by IDA members in the areas of economy, experience and partnership. Each council is led by a chair, comprised of place management professionals sharing their expert knowledge, and supported by both IDA staff and the IDA Research Committee. Those selected to serve on a council contribute their expertise to the growing, relevant body of knowledge on the place management industry. IDA Research Committee Chair: Kristopher Larson, CEO, Downtown Grand Rapids, Inc. IDA Director of Research: Cole E. Judge IDA Research Associate: Faith Broderick

International Downtown Association 910 17th Street, NW, Suite 1050 Washington, DC 20006 202.393.6801 downtown.org

© 2017 International Downtown Association, All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form—print, electronic, or otherwise—without the express written permission of IDA.


I N T E R N AT I O N A L D O W N T O W N A S S O C I AT I O N

Top Issues Council Bicycle Improvements and Policy council co-chair

Raphael Clemente Executive Director, Downtown Development Authority Raphael joined the West Palm Beach Downtown Development Authority in January of 2006, bringing with him a multi-disciplinary background and local knowledge. With experience in land use and transportation planning, human scale design, CPTED, and project management, Raphael has used his skills to find solutions to challenges in ways that have carried downtown West Palm Beach toward its long-term goals of economic growth and a high quality of life for residents.

council co-chair

Karen Kress Director of Transportation and Planning, Tampa Downtown Partnership Karen serves as the Director of Transportation and Planning at the Tampa Downtown Partnership. In her role, Karen manages all aspects of transportation, parking and access throughout Downtown Tampa. A true advocate for transit and transportation, Karen leads Tampa Downtown Partnership’s Transportation and Urban Design Committees, and its Parking Task Force. Karen has been successful in advocating for and bringing transportation options such as Coast bike share, ZipCar carshare, and Downtowner - an app-based electric free ride service. An avid biker, Karen helped found Tampa BayCycle (now called Bike Walk Tampa Bay), a regional cycling education, advocacy and encouragement campaign in 2007 and for over twenty years she has actively volunteered for the Sierra Club’s Inspiring Connections Outdoors program. Acknowledging her efforts, Karen was honored by the Suncoast Chapter of the American Planning Association Planner of the Year in 2014 and in 2017 she was appointed as a Planning Commissioner by the City of Tampa.

council members

Lee Crandell

Errin Welty

Executive Director, Lakeview Chamber of Commerce

Downtown Development Account Manager, Wisconsin Economic Development Corporation Errin is the downtown development account manager at WEDC, working primarily with Main Street and Connect Communities. Her primary focus is working with businesses, property owners and communities to move projects forward and improve the economics of districts. Errin has an undergraduate degree in community development from St. Cloud State and Masters in Planning and Real Estate from the University of Colorado in Denver. Previous experience includes work for the St. Cloud Downtown Council in MN and Downtown Denver Partnership, as well as serving as Vice President of Market Analysis for Grubb & Ellis and as an Economic Development Consultant for Vierbicher.

Aylene McCallum Director of Downtown Environment, Downtown Denver Partnership Aylene plays a lead role in advocating policies and initiatives that improve access to/ from/ around Downtown Denver, especially for transit, bicycles and pedestrians, and develops programs that incentivize individuals to use sustainable modes of transportation. She oversees the Partnership’s research program, including major reports such as the State of Downtown Denver, as well as the collection and management of other important data concerning to Downtown Denver. She also manages the Partnership’s Urban Exploration program and the Transportation and Development Council. Aylene is a co-chair of the Mayor’s Parking Commission and also sits on the Mayor’s Bicycle Advisory Committee.

Luis O. Cardona Director of Economic Development, Downtown Partnership of Baltimore Luis is the Director of Economic Development for the Downtown Partnership of Baltimore. His responsibilities include management of façade improvement grants, parklet programs, code enforcement, and public transportation initiatives. Accordingly, he works closely with state and city DOT officials to promote and support complete streets implementation, and manages his organization’s involvement with regard to pedestrian improvements, traffic impact studies, street conversions, and water transit.

Lee has more than ten years of non-profit experience working to make urban neighborhoods more livable and successful. He first started with the Lakeview Chamber in 2013 as the SSA 27 Program Director. His prior work experience includes four years at the Active Transportation Alliance and four years at the Congress for the New Urbanism. Lee started his career as an editor at PR Newswire, has a B.A. in English from James Madison University, and completed LISC Chicago’s Business District Leadership program in 2016.

Mark Noll Project Manager, Transportation and Sustainability, Midtown Alliance Mark is the Project Manager for Transportation and Sustainability at Midtown Alliance in Atlanta, GA. He focuses on policies and projects that make it easier for people to move around without the need of a personal automobile. Mark received his Master’s in Community Planning from the University of Maryland and has previously worked for the City of Louisville and a small transit consulting firm in Bethesda, Maryland.

Matt Gladdek Director of Policy & Planning, Downtown Durham, Inc. Matt worked in the Massachusetts’ State Legislature as a policy analyst before moving to Durham in 2008 to attend UNC where he obtained a Master’s in City & Regional Planning, and a Master’s in Public Administration. His Master’s Thesis focused on the opportunities and challenges of Business Improvement Districts in North Carolina. He has worked at DDI since January 2014 and is currently finishing the Downtown Durham Master Plan.

Hannah Gugino Placemaking Manager, Midtown Association Sacramento Hannah is the Placemaking Manager for the Midtown Association in Sacramento, California. There, her responsibilities include managing and supporting public space activation projects. She previously served as the organization’s Administrative Coordinator. Prior to working with the Midtown Association, Hannah served in the higher education and community nonprofit fields.


CONTENTS Executive Summary 6 Introduction

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Sections Inform and Educate: Making the case for better bicycle infrastructure

Audience 10 Building the Case

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Collect Data

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Educate

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Case Study: Telling your Story Through the Business Community

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Safety, Accessibility, and Economic Impact: The Case for Protected Bicycle Lanes

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Economic Impact: Impact of Bicycles on Your Wallet

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Four things every downtown champion should know about protected bikeways

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Advocate and Partner Messaging and Language

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Outreach

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Case Studies

Downtown Kenosha’s City-wide Bicycle Plan

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Midtown Atlanta’s Project Website

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Moving Platteville Outdoors: Rountree Branch Trail

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Encourage and Incentivize What Can Your Organization Do

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Bike to Work Day

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Funding

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Case Studies

Downtown West Palm Beach’s Bike Valet

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Crowdfunding a Bike Lane in Downtown Denver

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Downtown Partnership of Baltimore’s Access Pass

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Scioto Greenways: Integration with Planning, Public-Private Partnerships

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Conclusion

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References

Endnotes 34 Resources 34 Additional References

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Photo Credits

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Executive Summary

Bicycling for transportation and recreation, and the need for the infrastructure and policies to support it, is rapidly increasing. This is particularly true in urban centers and the close-in neighborhoods that surround them. Bicyclists can be anyone: a local merchant, a student, a downtown resident or a tourist. And as active lifestyles and urban living become more popular, the demand for bikeable places increases steadily. Along with this, bicycling is an equitable form of transportation that could enhance the transportation patterns of commuters for lower-income populations. In addition to demand, bicycles can (and should) be an important component of the transportation network within urban neighborhoods. The spatial demands of motorized vehicles take up precious developable land in downtowns for parking lots or garages. Drivers circulating in search of a parking space exacerbate congestion on already busy streets. For many trips, especially short ones within urban districts or neighborhoods, the bicycle is the perfect method of efficient and equitable transportation. Urban place management organizations (UPMOs), such as business improvement districts, can play an important and effective role in improving conditions for bicycling, thus improving conditions of safety and walkability. Urban place management organizations are often the most direct connection to stakeholders and decision makers

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within their districts. As such, there are many opportunities to facilitate change. This can range from capital infrastructure investments to simple advocacy. This IDA Top Issues Council report describes three general areas in which UPMOs can make significant contributions to improving conditions for bicycling:

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Informing and educating community stakeholders and local government officials about the benefits of improved bicycle infrastructure and support systems for bicyclists.

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Advocating for improvements for bicycling and partnering with other organizations and/or individuals already dedicated to this cause.

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Encouraging and incentivizing bicycling through the development of programs and collaboration with local government, businesses and community partners.

This publication provides methods and examples relevant to urban place management organizations, including case studies and additional resources, on each of the three areas listed above.

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INTRODUCTION

Introduction

In the rapidly evolving transportation landscape, the bicycle will play an increasingly important role as cities strive to provide multi-modal options for their ever-growing populations of urban dwellers. Automobile traffic and congestion, expensive and inconvenient parking options, and the spatial constraints of urban places tend to make single-occupant vehicle use challenging at best. Efficiency, ease of use, and the ability to park almost anywhere make the bicycle perhaps the perfect vehicle for improving individual mobility in downtown and center city areas, and travelling by bicycle is frequently the most cost effective way to get around town if you have to cover more than a few blocks.

citing it as “important,” and 56% citing it as “very important.” Canadian members ranked “bicycle infrastructure” slightly higher, with 63% citing it as “very important.” The survey found that the top urban issues facing downtowns were:

Bicycling is already on the rise as a primary means of commuting, with the number of people commuting by bicycle growing by nearly two-thirds (61%) between 2008 and 2012.1 This represented a faster growth rate than for any other commuting mode, with an even more pronounced growth rate in urban areas. Although the percentage of all workers cycling as a primary form of commuting is still low (one percent in urban areas), this represents nearly one million individuals cycling daily, in addition to many others who chose cycling as a secondary or occasional mode of transportation to work.

“Viable mobility options” was the third ranked priority, with bicycle infrastructure as second priority within that category after pedestrian improvements. This is clearly an issue that impacts downtowns and place management organizations.

In most cases, downtown and urban place management organizations do not implement major infrastructure projects, however, this does not mean that they cannot play an important role in improving of conditions for bicycling. Mobility is a vital element of both economic development and residential quality of life in urban places. Experts agree, from the World Health Organization to the United Nations Habitat program, that transportation is one of the most pressing issues for cities in the 21st Century. With 6 out of 10 people expected to live in urbanized areas by 2030, sustainable transportation systems that increase mobility while decreasing negative impacts are imperative to the success of cities worldwide.2 When surveyed in 2015, IDA members (place management professionals) listed “bicycle infrastructure” as one of the top priorities for their downtown and urban districts, with 89% downtown.org

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Economic Health Character and Authenticity Viable Mobility Options Role of Local Government Social Equity Environmental Conditions

Downtown and urban place management organizations are uniquely positioned to play a powerful role in improving conditions for bicycling and, in doing so, accelerate the adoption of the bicycle as a widely used and accessible mode of urban transport. Even incremental steps can result in immense impacts, with modest infrastructure improvements and simple policy changes leading to significant increases in levels of bicycle usage. This publication is intended to be a resource for urban place management organizations, professionals, and their partners, who together are striving to make bicycling a vital component of developing a complete urban transportation system that is safe, affordable, accessible, sustainable and promotes healthy lifestyles. This document is divided into four sections: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Inform and Educate Advocate and Partner Encourage and Incentivize; and Resources and Other Information

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SECTION ONE

INFORM AND EDUCATE

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INFORM AND EDUCATE

Audience Too often, the dialogue positions bicyclists against motor vehicle drivers in a heated debate over road space or raises concerns about changing neighborhood demographics or social forces. This tension inevitably leads to a greater challenge when asking for support and funding from municipal staff and elected officials. Conversations about building bicycle infrastructure are often littered with a chorus of skeptics questioning the value of such investments. Perhaps you’ve been pelted with some (or all) of these statements at the mere mention of dedicating space for people on bikes: • • • • • • •

“I never see anyone in the bike lane.” “Bike lanes are a waste of money.” “Bike lanes will just make traffic worse.” “Roads are for cars.” “We don’t want to lose parking.” “It’s too (hot, cold, rainy, snowy, hilly) to bike here.” “This isn’t Portland, nobody bikes here.”

Advocates for better bicycle infrastructure are all too familiar with these comments from stakeholders, occasionally even from those who are supportive of cycling. Too often, the dialogue devolves into an argument pitting bikes versus cars. How do we move beyond this unproductive debate and develop a dialogue where better bicycle infrastructure equates safety, economic development, and enhanced quality of life? How do we build a compelling case for better bicycle infrastructure to city officials, business leaders, and the general public? Here, we aim to answer these questions by providing a toolbox of best practices, informative studies, and techniques to help you inform and educate key stakeholders, maintain a productive dialogue, and build a case for better bicycle infrastructure in your community.

As downtown champions, we are uniquely positioned to identify and advocate for bicycle infrastructure, programs, and maintenance that will benefit the larger community. Prior to diving into a project, it is important to identify the problem, establish a vision statement, and demonstrate context and rationale for any future projects. To get started, urban champions should build a library or toolbox of existing materials from which to pull educational materials and use data relevant to your community to support your efforts. They should identify stakeholders and partners who need to be involved in this type of project. Never assume that the general public is aware that a given project is part of a larger plan, policy, or strategy. When you begin engaging with the public regarding a bicycle infrastructure project, demonstrate how it supports existing plans or initiatives that are already part of adopted policy. Often, these plans and studies will serve as a toolbox, filled with data or evidence of public outreach, that will help you build support for your project.

Starting a Bicycle Infrastructure Project 1. Identify the problem. 2. Create a vision statement. 3. Demonstrate context and project rationale. 4. Determine internal capacity and collect data/a

library of existing materials.

5. Identify stakeholders and partners. 6. Observe the level of bicycle education that the

public does/does not have. Do not assume that

the general public is aware the project is part

of a larger plan, policy or strategy.

7. Prove that bicycle plans support existing plans/

initiatives that are already part of adopted policy.

8. Bring your audience along with you.

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Building Your Audience • Who do you need to convince or reach with your message? Make sure you are considering the issue from their perspective when drafting your messaging. • Why would they care? Keep in mind that most likely, most people in your community are not using a bicycle as a regular form of transportation. Businesses may be more concerned with their bottom line than safety. Tailor the message to fit the needs of your target audience. • How will they interpret and respond to your messaging? Proactively try to address common arguments or questions. • Do your projects or initiatives tie into any existing plans or visions for the community? Demonstrate how plans for improving bicycling conditions tie into city-wide plans such as, transit, safety, and pedestrian friendly initiatives.

Audience Checklist • Recruit representative supporters. Certain groups of bicyclists can sometimes be viewed as a fringe element, such as serious recreational cyclists

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or staunch environmentalists who do not represent the mainstream attitudes of the community. For this reason, it is important to recruit supporters who are accepted as part of the larger community and share common concerns. • Coordinate with local bicycle advocacy organization(s). If you have a local bicycle advocacy organization, meet with them to explore opportunities to coordinate efforts. Before jumping into the fray on a major bicycle improvement project in your community, take the time to think through the angles of the issue and develop a plan of action. • Visualize bicycle infrastructure for them. Help people visualize bicycle infrastructure. To do this effectively, there are several excellent technical design guidebooks that provide diagrams and examples of bicycle infrastructure that appeal to a broad audience. It may be useful to implement temporary, tactical, or pilot projects. These will help your community and stakeholders visualize what a street could look like with bicycle infrastructure.

• NACTO Urban Bikeway Design Guide3

• MassDOT Separated Bike Lane Planning

& Design Guide4

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Building the Case for Bicycle Facilities Develop a narrative and effective messaging that resonates with a broad segment of the public. When developing talking points, consider that your audience may be autocentric, misinformed about bicycles, have preconceived notions, or hold biases towards bicycle infrastructure. Reframe your narrative to address concerns that are widely accepted by the public, such as improving safety, convenience, connectivity, and transit affordability. Using language that advances widely accepted community goals will resonate more strongly than if you threaten to take away lanes for motor vehicles or perpetuate any preconceived notions that community members have towards bicycle infrastructure. Consider the following phrases and terms when discussing projects aimed at building better bicycle infrastructure: • • • •

“Safety for all street users” “Accessibility for people, not just vehicles” “Increase viable and affordable travel options” “Increase convenience, comfort, and connectivity”

Demonstrate that Bicycle Infrastructure Improves Safety and Does Not Inconvenience Other Modes of Traffic Bicycle infrastructure can increase overall safety in a number of ways. From protecting bicyclists from motor vehicles to getting them off the sidewalk to provide for a more comfortable walkable experience for pedestrians, improving bicycle infrastructure improves safety across the entire network. It can also connect with transit-oriented development, providing the “last-mile” connection. • How to launch a complete streets campaign: Alliance for Biking & Walking: Guide to Complete Streets Campaigns7 • Selling Biking: A first-of-its-kind quantitative and qualitative study on the messages and images that make people feel good about bicycling8 • Vision Zero: Creating a Vision Zero Movement for Everyone9 Demonstration Projects

Demonstrate That it Works When crafting your community talking points, demonstrate through case studies, infographics, visual representations and testimony that investing in bicycle infrastructure has been successfully implemented and adopted by comparable communities (size, land use, demographics, etc.). Demonstrate that Bicycle Infrastructure is Good for Business Increasing the number of bicycles on the street is good for business. Being that bicycles are moving at a slower pace than most cars, they are more prone to stop and shop. Additionally, being that bicycles and their riders have less room to fill up in one trip, they will make multiple stops throughout the week, heightening their propensity to spend more and shop local. Protected Bike Lanes Mean Business:5 Case studies on how 21st century transportation networks help new urban economies boom.6 12

Another option is to build and test it. Using your budget and project goals as a guide, you may consider a demonstration project that takes place over a day or weekend, a pilot project that may be put in place and studies for perhaps six months or a year, an interim design, or a long-term capital investment. • • • •

Road diets can be demonstration projects.10 The Tactical Urbanism Guide is a great resource if you want to build support for a project by allowing people to experience it. Engaging the arts community and incorporate the design of bike parking as a form of placemaking. For an example, see the Louisville Downtown Partnership’s artistic bike rack program.11 Quick Builds For Better Streets: A New Project Delivery Model for U.S. Cities:12 Researched and co-written by Jon Orcutt, policy director of the New York City Department of Transportation from 2007 to 2014, it is built on interviews with staff in eight leading cities to IDA

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INFORM AND EDUCATE

• • •

create a practical list of nine things cities need for a program that completes what we’re calling “quick-build” projects. Non-separated lane mechanisms can also be installed temporarily as demonstration project. As a case study, the Minneapolis Bike coalition spent $600 to install a pop up bike lane last year during four open streets events. St Louis Park, a Minneapolis suburb, tried out three different types of bike lanes spanning 1.5 miles to determine a best practice. Hosting events like open streets and ciclovias can highlight the diverse audience for cycling. Creating a demonstration project with bicycle corrals to show how they benefit businesses, like they did in Los Angeles.13

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toured New York City bicycle infrastructure and met with New York City Department of Transportation staff responsible for revolutionizing New York City’s high easeof-use bicycle network. Within several weeks of returning to Denver, city staff redesigned one of downtown Denver’s major corridors to include the city’s first buffered bike lane.

Demonstrating the Value of Bicycle Infrastructure 1. Focus on key community concerns such as,

safety, mobility, and economic development

outcomes. 2. Share examples and case studies from similar communities. 3. Highlight key data points. 4. Explain the benefits or road diets and how

Bring Your Audience Along With You: Learning Exchange Taking your city’s elected officials, key city staff members as well as your own organization’s leadership on a best practices trip to other cities can have a significant impact on your community’s ability to visualize and actually experience high quality bicycle infrastructure. These types of trips can be as involved as creating a multi-day experience for more than 100 leaders, to a more informal experience that may last just a couple of hours for a handful of individuals. For example, the Knight Foundation hosts an annual study tour of Copenhagen, Denmark for communities.14 Every year in downtown Denver, the Downtown Denver Partnership (DDP) hosts well over 100 business and civic leaders on a best practices trip to another downtown in North America. The annual Urban Exploration trip offers attendees 15-20 sessions on different aspects of city building, but ultimately, every year, one of the most popular sessions is always the downtown bike tour. This type of engagement inspires their downtown business community to include building high quality bicycle infrastructure into their vision for downtown Denver, and exposes individuals who may not otherwise experience this the benefits of bicycle infrastructure in a downtown environment. In 2009, the Downtown Denver Partnership hosted a small, informal trip to New York City for key city staff members, a City Councilwoman, and bicycle advocates. Attendees

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they have been implemented successfully in the

past. 5. Conduct a pilot, temporary or quick-build test.

CASE STUDY:

Bike Macon– Macon, Georgia In 2016 Bike Macon, in Macon, Georgia, collaborated with 8-80 Cities, the Knight Foundation, and over 80 volunteers to build a “pop-up” bike network. The network consisted of more than five miles of bike lanes provided valuable feedback on public perception, what worked and what didn’t, and is leading to permanent bicycle improvement on Macon’s streets. Demonstration projects such as this, even at a much smaller scale, can have a powerful impact on moving stakeholders and municipal leaders to support and fund permanent projects.15 Another great example is Minimum Grid in MidTown Columbus, GA16 that establishes a comprehensive network of bicycle and pedestrian connections among the entertainment and business district of Uptown and the 24 diverse neighborhoods of MidTown.

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Collect Data Specific to Your District Determine the Need Bicycle-related data specific to your district is an invaluable tool when advocating for better bike infrastructure, effecting change in bicycle policy or as a tool to educate the community. An important first step in developing a data collection program is to determine your capacity as an organization to collect and analyze data. While some downtown organizations have programs and staff dedicated to bicycle policy, planning, and outreach, most do not. If your organizational capacity is limited, don’t be afraid to start small. Also, consider that it is natural for data collection programs to develop and change over time. There are a wide variety of types of district-specific data and methods for collection. This section will provide a sampling of resources that can be used to assist you and your organization in data collection. It is important that you determine which methods of data collection align with your organization’s goals and resources.

• • • •

To get an accurate count, conduct you counts on either Tuesdays, Wednesdays, or Thursdays. Make sure you get a wide cross sample by counting event and non-event days, commute and peak hours. Use all available bicycle counting resources such. as, clickers, pen and paper, as well as volunteers. Create an orientation for volunteers, or seasonal contract employees, so that they see the importance and value of the data they will be collecting.

Invest in Automated Bike and Pedestrian Counting Technology Depending on the type and duration of data collection – investing in technology can be extremely beneficial. For long term trends and data collection, investing in inductive loops are beneficial as they are installed in the bike lane pavement. Pneumatic tubes suited for short-term data collection. Investments in technology are better suited for organizations that are able to allocate a substantial amount of resources towards bicycle infrastructure and data collection.

Bicycle Counts Bicycle counts are an excellent method for demonstrating the value of bicycle infrastructure improvement, tracking growth in ridership over time, and combatting the common refrain of, “nobody uses the bike lane.” Having up-to-date data is necessary for tracking trends, prioritizing infrastructure improvements, and understanding bicyclists behavior. Methods for Conducting Bicycle Counts The tools for bicycle counts vary across a spectrum, ranging from manual counts and surveys to more permanent technological investments such as inductive loops. Conduct Manual Counts and Surveys Manual counts and surveys are best suited for organizations with limited financial resources. These can be conducted by yourself as a downtown organization or in partnership with a bike advocacy agency. When initiating bicycle counts and surveys remember the following:

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When Investing in Bicycle Counting Technology, it is Important to Pick the Right Tools • Passive Infrared: can be used on a sidewalk or path and senses a variation the thermal contrast, however it cannot distinguish between bicycles and pedestrians. • Active Infrared: can be used on a sidewalk or path, senses an interruption in the infrared beam and can distinguish between bicycles and pedestrians. • Video Playback: can be used anywhere and is monitored by individual video analysis. • Piezometric Tube: can be used on-street or a path and senses pressure on the tube, however it can not distinguish between bicycles and pedestrians. • Piezometric Pad: Is similar to a piezometric tube, however pads are more appropriate for a side walk or path, rather than on-street. • In-pavements magnetic loop detectors (or inductive loops): can be used on the street and detects when metal passes over a magnetic field.17

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Bicycle Count Resources • Active Living Research: Bicycle and Pedestrian Counts18 • Alta Planning: Innovation in Bicycle and Pedestrian Counts19 • Bike Arlington: Counting Bikes to Plan for Bikes20 • City of Minneapolis: Bicycle and Pedestrian Counts21 • LA Bike Count22 • Minnesota State DOT: Bicycle and Pedestrian Data Collection Manual23 • National Bicycle and Pedestrian Documentation Project24 • NCHRP Guidebook on Pedestrian and Bicycle Volume Data Collection25

While some downtown organizations have programs and staff dedicated to bicycle policy, planning, and outreach, most do not. If your organizational capacity is limited, don’t be afraid to

START SMALL

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Bicycle Photos and Video Like data, being able to present photos of the streets will help tell your story. Photos can range from historical to present day situations. Historical photos are useful in that they show how many streets were once two-way, slowmoving, and multimodal, not the auto-dominated streets that many cities deal with today. It is equally beneficial to have photos of the current situation on the road. Presenting documentation, whether it be photos or videos, of bicyclists and motor vehicle drivers in precarious situations helps your audience visualize issues of safety, discomfort, or other concerns.

Other Potential Data Other data that your downtown organization can use to understand trends, bicycle behavior and articulate the story to your intended audience include:

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• Traffic studies: Consider using change in delay (seconds), rather than level of service (LOS) grades. • Repurposing vehicle lanes: If looking at a bike lane network, consider calculating percent of vehicle lanes miles being repurposed. • Use outside resources: Leverage bike share data if available (i.e., number of rides, desire lines). • Commuter Surveys: Tap into surveys already being conducted on how people get around downtown. The DDP surveys downtown employees every year to track their mode of commuting to work and have been able to track a notable increase of cycling, justifying further investment in bicycle infrastructure. • Bikeshare: If you have a bikeshare program, it often has great data about routes, busiest hub locations, time of day, etc. Can use to justify new or improved infrastructure.

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Educate Ways to Leverage Information and Tell the Story Aside from illuminating bicycle trends, behaviors, safety concerns, and areas of needed infrastructure improvements, data can help tell the story of bicycles and bicycle infrastructure. As a downtown organization, it is imperative to use the information gained from investments in bicycle counting methods to keep the public informed. Well-communicated data can show

the successes of bicycle infrastructure and build upon positive momentum. This is especially true when telling the before and after story of a project. Having data to evaluate the project and prove the success of the bicycle intervention is necessary to communicate to both your staunchest advisories and fiercest advocates. Being equipped with data can also inform policy, advocacy, planning, marketing, education, and public opinion.

CASE STUDY:

Telling your Story Through the Business Community Telling the story and communicating to your audience can vary in size, scale and medium. In Chicago, local advocates worked with business owners to place op-eds in local papers and meet with city council people, lending credibility to the issue. Don Wilson, CEO and founder of a large principal

trading firm, wrote a compelling op-ed to the Crain’s Chicago Business entitled “Why Chicago business needs protected bike lanes.”26 This is an example of engaging a major employer to make the case to the community about the business value of protected bike lanes. He writes:

“The connection between low-tech transportation and high-tech jobs is not readily obvious. A bike-friendly environment will boost Chicago’s ability to attract talent — and retain the robust technology sector that the city has worked so hard to cultivate. Bike-friendliness can influence where an individual decides to live and work. In a 2009 survey of recent transplants to Portland, Ore., 62 percent of respondents said the city’s bike-friendliness was a factor in their decision to move there. Chicago-based technology company GrubHub Inc. showcases Chicago’s new protected bike lanes as part of their recruitment strategy. Protected bike lanes are one of the best ways to make biking safer and to lower crash rates. After New York introduced protected bike lanes on 9th Avenue in Manhattan, crash injuries for all street users decreased 56 percent. I know how challenging it can be to lure technology talent to Chicago, particularly when alternative cities may appear more attractive and a better fit for an active lifestyle. At my firm, DRW Trading Group, high-tech professions represent a significant portion of our employee base, and more than a third of the employees in our Chicago headquarters are under 30. They are at an age where it is often easy to pick up and move on to a more attractive career opportunity — or more attractive city. All of Chicago, not just trading firms, cannot afford to lose this talent. Currently, about 40 employees — more than 10 percent of DRW’s workforce — bike to work on a regular basis, a group that includes me. I started primarily so I could get some exercise. I quickly realized that biking is one of the fastest and most efficient ways to get around our city. Now on those rare occasions that I do drive and I’m stuck in rush-hour traffic, my car feels frustratingly slow in comparison. The 100 miles of protected bike lanes being installed in neighborhoods across the city, including through the heart of Chicago’s business district on Dearborn Street, will go a long way toward making Chicago a bike-friendly city and encouraging more people to bike to work. This shows that Chicago is serious about being bike-friendly — and about being tech job-friendly.”

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Topics to Consider When Telling Your Story By and large, your target audience will be interested in the economic impact, safety, and accessibility that comes with bicycle infrastructure. For example, when surveyed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 71% of Americans indicated that they would like to bicycle more, but fewer than half felt that their communities were designed for making bicycling safe. Therefore, it is appropriate to assume that when communicating the data and telling the story of bicycling in downtown, addressing concerns of safety is of the utmost importance. It is necessary to be prepared to address economic impact, safety, and accessibility. Crafting sample messaging for your audience is one way of navigating the conversation and building on the positive momentum of bicycle infrastructure.

Building Your Case and Proving It People want safer streets: And a National Highway Traffic Safety Administration survey found that 71 percent of Americans would like to bicycle more, but fewer than half feel that their community is designed for making biking safe.

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Sample Messaging: “Everyone should feel safe on our city’s streets—whether driving, walking or riding a bike. Whether you’re an 8-year-old child or 80-yearold grandmother, you should be able to ride a bike in the city without fearing for your safety. To make biking safe and easy for everyone, a bicycle network designed with all kinds of people in mind is needed.” Source: Active Transportation Alliance, LCIGR15

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Safety, Accessibility, and Economic Impact: The Case for Protected Bicycle Lanes “When US cities started building them in significant numbers five years ago, they discovered that this little change- putting curbs, pots, planters, or parking spaces between bicycle and auto traffic- makes a huge different to a street. Since then, the US has collectively rewritten the book on designing for bicycles. Protected bike lanes are now the gold standard for comfortable riding on busy greets.” (People for Bikes) Knowing that your community has concerns regarding safety, and accessibility, helps make the case for investing in protected bicycle lanes. Protected bike lanes are designed with all levels of ridership and types of users. They make biking a safe and easy option for those that may not feel comfortable bicycling

on the street. Roger Geller, Bicycle Coordinator for the Portland Office of Transportation, found that there were four types of bicyclists in Portland that can be translated to other communities, too. He categorized Portlanders into the following groups based on their relationship to bicycle transportation and stressed that we need to focus on the 60%- those who are interested and curious about bicycling, but nervous about safety. It is for this group that we need to design bicycle infrastructure. The strong and the fearless: 0.5% The enthused and confident: 7% The interested, but concerned: 60% The no-way, no-how: 33%27

Four Types of Transportation Cyclists in Portland

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[by proportion of population]

What are Barrier/Separated Protected Bike Lanes?

Barrier Protected Bike Lanes Reduce Injuries

Barrier protected bike lanes use physical barriers to separate people riding bikes from motorized traffic. They are often located next to the curb, rather than between moving traffic and parked cars. By providing people on bikes with their own protected space, the design helps people of all ages feel more comfortable biking on city streets. Statistics show barrier protected bike lanes encourage more people to bike while improving a street’s overall safety for everyone whether they walk, bike or drive. They help reduce conflicts by encouraging predictable and responsible behavior by all street users. As a result, the street becomes a safer place for everyone.

New York City’s barrier protected lane on 9th Avenue led to a 56% reduction in injuries to all street users and an 84% reduction in sidewalk riding. A study published in the American Journal of Public Health in 2012 found that risk of injury is 89% lower biking on barrier protected bike lanes compared to major streets with no bike infrastructure.29

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Barrier Protected Lanes Increase Ridership Following installation of a protected bike lane on Kinzie Street in spring 2011, bicycle ridership on Kinzie increased 55%. New York City’s Prospect Park West barrier protected bike lane also saw a 190% increase in weekday ridership, with 32% of people biking under age 12.30 19


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Economic Impact: Impact of Bicycles on Your Wallet Bicycle infrastructure generates jobs, increases business revenues, improves real estate values, and saves money in transportation costs. The Political Economy Research Institute estimated that for every $1 million invested in bicycle infrastructure, 11.4 full-time equivalent jobs were created, compared to the 9.6 created from pedestrian projects and the 7.8 from road only projects.31 Not only will these projects provide employment opportunities for the construction, they also connect people to employment opportunities as a low-cost transportation option. Biking is good for business, besides being a fun, healthy and sustainable way to get around urban districts in an efficient manner. Shoppers who bike tend to stick closer to home and travel shorter distances than those driving. An economic impact study conducted on Sunday Streets in San Francisco found that 44% of businesses reported an increase in customer activity and sales. Bikeshare location and activity tend to have similar results. In a recent study of the Capital Bikeshare system in Washington, D.C. Businesses located in close proximity to bikeshare stations saw a 20% increase in sales and 70% of them were positively impacted.32

Other studies have shown that customers arriving by bike stop more frequently and spend more money per month than other customers (though they may spend less per trip).33 The faster a credit card is passing by a storefront (i.e.; zooming past in a car), the less likely it is to end up at the register. Slower speeds make your storefront more noticeable and make it easier to convert passers-by into loyal customers. Customers and employees arriving by bike also keep more parking spaces open for other customers who drive. Bicycle infrastructure has also been shown to increase land values. Walkable urban places (“WalkUPs”) have been associated with high office rental premiums than office rentals in drivable suburban places. Additionally, Complete Street projects have been shown to increase property values of nearby areas in Orlando, FL. and Dubuque, IA. Bicycle Infrastructure has a positive impact on: • Safety • Accessibility • Economic Impact • Health and Wellbeing

Four Things Every Downtown Champion Should Know About Protected Bikeways Where right of way exists, many cities are installing on-road protected bicycle facilities. This type of facility provides a physical barrier between cyclists and motor vehicle traffic. Protected bike lanes offer the highest standard of safety and comfort for cyclists and encourage significantly more people to choose cycling for trips in city centers and downtown areas. Data Consistently Demonstrates That Protected Bike Lanes Reduce Crashes for Everyone – Whether You Drive, Walk or Bike • Since its installation, the protected bike lane on 9th Ave. in New York City has experienced a 56% reduction in injuries to all street users, including a 57% reduction in injuries to cyclists and a 29% reduction in injuries to pedestrians.34 • New York City; Portland, Ore.; Berkley, Calif.; Davis Calif.; and cities across Australia, Canada and Europe have found as bicycle ridership grows, the risk of injury or death in a crash with motor vehicles decline.35 Protected Bike Lanes Increase the Number of People on Bikes While Reducing Congestion • Bicycle lanes add transportation capacity without taking much space. Most of the time they are incorporated by narrowing existing traffic lanes. In some cases, streets 20

with excess road space are reconfigured to more safely accommodate people on bikes and in cars. It is Good for Downtown When More People are Riding Bikes • Bicycle lanes help support local business. Traveling by bike encourages more frequent stops than a car. Two municipal studies conducted in Toronto and San Francisco showed that “while motorists may spend more per visit, cyclists tend to visit [local merchants] more often, are more numerous, and spend more per month.” • Biking is also good for downtown families. The average American household spends $8,758 per year on car payments and vehicle operating expenses – more than they spend on food. Bicyclists save around $10 daily on a ten-mile round-trip commute. Riding a Bike is Good for Your Personal Health • Adolescents who bike are 48% less likely to be overweight as adults. • Adults who bike to work have better weight, blood pressure and insulin levels.36 • Women who bike (or are active) for more than thirty minutes a day have a lower risk of breast cancer.37 IDA

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SECTION TWO

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ADVOCATE AND PARTNER

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Messaging It is important to have an effective messaging strategy; from the language you use, to who delivers your message. Developing effective messaging for community outreach is vital to building a broad base of support for improving conditions for bicycling. Increasing the number of people who use bicycles for transportation can often be a misunderstood and contentious topic in many communities. Working with the right messenger can make your delivery more powerful. Based on the audience you need to reach, consider who may be the most effective messenger. It is not likely to be the strong and fearless recreational cyclist or the 20-something on the fixed gear bike who does the Critical Mass ride at 5:00pm on last Friday of each month. The most hardcore cyclists who tend to ride on even the most challenging and unsafe roads can be counterproductive to your efforts when trying to garner broader community support. It is more effective to recruit the 60% who are “interested, but concerned,” who more likely to be representative of the community you wish to connect with and either use a bicycle for transportation or would if it were safe and convenient to do so. There may be local advocacy organizations already doing this work that can lend their support to your efforts. The most effective messenger often may not be your organization. Your audience may be more likely to listen to their peers. Identify a partner who has influence with your decision-makers and community and build a partnership that can help gain support. Are there prominent businesses or community leaders who care about the issue and would be willing to sign on to an op-ed, sit in on a meeting with the city or speak up at a public meeting? If necessary, you can ghost write op-eds so that you’re only asking them to edit and sign it, which is a much lower time commitment. Put together a “key messages” document and distribute it to your partners to ensure you and your team can stay on message when talking to press or communicating to stakeholders. An effective advocacy campaign will clearly articulate the problem, solution and desired action. Even if your organization 22

cannot actively advocate for a project, you can help facilitate a constructive public dialogue. Section Takeaways • Identify key messengers • Focus on language • Define your audience • Work with partners

Language Matters The language we use defines an issue. Language can be used to unify and show commonality, or it can be used to divide and marginalize, whether intentionally or unintentionally. Commit to using these terms when talking about transportation in order to help create a constructive public discourse that unifies rather than divides people. “People” Rather than labeling people as “drivers” or “cyclists,” which can be used to categorize people as “other,” use the word “people.” Referring to “people riding bikes” helps to humanize the issue and can remind your audience that people – women, children, grandparents, teachers, doctors, etc. - may use more than one mode of transportation to get around your community. This is particularly true when considering those who may feel the most vulnerable bicycling in urban areas, typically women and older people. “Crash” Avoid using the word “accident,” which assumes nobody is to blame and gives the impression nothing could have been done to avoid it. Use the term “crash” Avoid Focusing on the Negatives and Perceived Dangers of Bicycling Doing so can often dissuade would-be supporters, as they may not want to advocate for an activity that is viewed by many as risky. Find ways to remind naysayers that many people are already using bicycles as transportation safely and conveniently every day. IDA

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Outreach Get Ahead of the Issue: Downtown and urban place management organizations can get ahead of the issue by educating their community and stakeholders about the benefits of bicycling and the value of infrastructure that supports it before any projects are proposed in their community. Once a project is proposed, it can often be hard to catch people up on the basics of the issue, since the discourse typically becomes reactionary after proposing change. Local advocacy organizations can be helpful partners in educating the community. Invite them to present to your organization on what other communities are doing long before there are any hot topic bike projects proposed on

your streets. Engaging businesses in other programming related to bikes, such as a bike-friendly business program or bike events, can also help to educate businesses and better prepare them to have conversations about improving infrastructure in the future. (See section Encourage and Incentivize). If the first time your community truly talks about bicycling is when a project is proposed that will remove parking or a traffic lane, then your job will be much more difficult. A community that is already informed on the issue (for example, knows what a protected bike lane is) will be better equipped to have a constructive dialogue about a project.

CASE STUDY:

Trolley Extension Sparks City-Wide Bicycling Plan When a 2014 proposed trolley extension drove interest in downtown transportation, Downtown Kenosha, Inc., took the lead in shifting the conversation to include walking and biking as additional critical transportation modes. The organization hosted a series of multi-modal

During Project Planning Robust outreach to adjacent businesses during planning for a bicycle facilities project can help improve the function of the infrastructure and make it more successful. Downtown organizations can help facilitate constructive dialogue between the municipal agency and business community, and help to connect the project team to the appropriate contacts at each affected or concerned business. It is also important to work with municipal staff and the project contractor to help disseminate information and public meeting notices to keep local businesses and community members involved. Engaging businesses in the process can help ensure that street designs account for loading and other business operation needs. This will help to avoid unforeseen issues or surprises during the build-out. Setting up one-on-one meetings between impacted businesses and project staff can downtown.org | Š 2017 International Downtown Association

field trips in partnership with Smart Growth America through the downtown district, ultimately catalyzing public interest sufficiently to foster creation of both a downtown transportation plan and an update to the city-wide comprehensive bicycling plan.

lead to collaboration and information sharing that will head off unnecessary controversy over design details and decrease the likelihood that contentious debate will occur during public meetings. UPMOs can also request a seat at the table with local transportation authorities. In many cases, DOTs will regularly convene meeting groups comprised of business and community leaders to address cycling and related infrastructure challenges. Mayoral bicycle advisory commissions, technical advisory boards, and other related bodies are places where UPMOs will generally be welcomed to discuss projects. This can be a critical area for urban place management organizations to participate in demonstrating support for cycling projects. It may also aid in the implementation of downtown area plans related to multi-modal transportation. Participating in these arenas – ahead of major projects – can go a long way toward addressing concerns, reducing opposition, and winning minds. 23


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ADVOCATE AND PARTNER ADVOCATE AND PARTNER

CASE STUDY:

Midtown Atlanta While working on their comprehensive transportation plan for Midtown Atlanta, Midtown Alliance built a projectspecific website that served as a two-way communication tool between the transportation planners and the community. The website functioned as a platform to inform and educate the public in several ways:38 •

First, infographics presented the projected growth in the district and the vital role a multi-modal transportation network, including better bicycle infrastructure, could play in using limited street space more efficiently to support new growth and development. Second, it provided links to studies indicating changes in travel preferences and the value of a safe, convenient bicycle network in dynamic, urban environments. Third, it provided links to historical photos of

Midtown’s streets filled with people, bicycles, and streetcars (1910s and 1920s are best) to demonstrate that streets can play a vital function in moving people, not just cars. Conversely, the website played a vital public engagement role by giving the community the opportunity to educate the transportation planners on their needs. People were encouraged to drop a pin on an interactive map and share their mobility-related issues and ideas relevant to that location. This format collected over 1,000 comments from the public that were analyzed and aggregated around common themes to demonstrate the overwhelming demand for improved bicycle and pedestrian safety and accessibility. The results were relayed to city officials and other key stakeholders and cemented financial and political support for a robust bicycle network throughout the district.

Midtown Alliance built a project-specific website that served as a

TWO-WAY COMMUNICATION TOOL between the transportation planners and the community.

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ADVOCATE AND PARTNER

CASE STUDY:

Case Study: Moving Platteville Outdoors The Moving Platteville Outdoors (MPO) David Canny Rountree Branch Trail (RBT) project was a community collaboration that involved various local partners including Main Street, City, Regional Planning and the business community. The 3-mile RBT pedestrian and bicycle trail surface was inconsistent and in poor condition, with several infrastructure problems impacting accessibility and connectivity. The MPO project eventually completed all trail connections, fixed the infrastructure problems, and paved and provided lighting for the entire 3-mile corridor by: Fundraising Matching grants, fundraising, leveraging resources between partners. The partners took the initial $100,000 investment and leveraged it to acquire additional funding. Key Messaging The collaboration noted the following benefits for the community from having the trail: • Improve safety–The trail provides safe, off-road access to more than 30 businesses. • Promote a healthy lifestyle–Studies show that access to trails helps to promote physical activity; positively impacting health, lowering health care costs, and reducing absenteeism.39 • Improve economic development potential – Studies show that trails enhance the marketability of a locale, influence business location decisions, increase the value of nearby properties, boost spending at local businesses, and increase tax revenues for the community.40 • Increase tourism—This is the longest paved and lighted trail in the region and the connection to the Platteville-Belmont trail (as of the time of this writing the project was still under construction) will link Platteville to over 250 miles of state trails. • Provide connections – While the RBT physically connects our community by linking the UWP campus, Business 151 corridor, and Keystone

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retail center the MPO collaboration built organizational connections and brought the community together for a common cause. Build leadership and volunteerism – Possibly the most important community impact is the leadership and volunteerism instigated by MPO. Groups and individuals from across the community stepped up to help at all stages of the project.

Collaboration Community-wide collaboration was used to lead the project. Partners included the city, the arboretum, the local economic development corporation, a community fund, and local businesses. They formed the Moving Platteville Outdoors collaboration, with several representatives from each lead organization that met monthly to collaborate on all decision-making. Each partner also made a financial contribution. The partnership of four organizations from diverse sectors of the community helped to ensure that a range of different people were involved and that no one organization or sector was overwhelmed. The ongoing partnership between the city and PCA has proved to be an innovative way for the community to manage the trail. While the city owns the trail, most ongoing maintenance, cleanup, and management are taken care of by volunteers from the PCA. Other communities can look to the MPO Rountree Branch Trail project as a model of public-private partnership and broad collaboration to accomplish great things for the community. By dividing responsibilities between several groups from various sectors of the community the project helped develop leadership. Lastly, the project can serve as a model for how a collaborative project can help build organizational capacity and volunteerism and a model that place management organizations can utilize for bicycle infrastructure such as trails, greenways, and even parks.

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SECTION THREE

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ENCOURAGE AND INCENTIVIZE

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There are many ways to encourage people to use bicycles for transportation. More than anything else, the greatest encouragement is a safe, convenient network of bicycle facilities that allows people to go where they want and need to. End of trip facilities, such as bicycle parking, showers, and even bicycle repair stations add value to the experience. This is especially true for daily commuters who often need to clean up and change clothes and occasionally fix a flat tire.

What can your organization do? • •

Work with developers as plans are being finalized to encourage them to include adequate secure bicycling parking. Highlight developments that include premier bicycle facilities and create a competitive atmosphere by recognizing developments that offer highquality bicycle amenities. Create a bicycle infrastructure and amenities map, promoting buildings that are bicycle friendly and safe routes into your downtown.

Programs and campaigns designed to encourage bicycle use vary as much in their type as they do in their effectiveness – or lack thereof. The most basic programs can be as simple and straightforward as encouragement for bicycling. This can be in the form of standalone marketing materials or messaging built into your organizations larger communications platform. More robust programs can involve special events, perks such as rewards from local businesses, or financial incentives such as parking “cash out” programs. These programs allow employees to choose between a parking space, or a cash equivalent payment. Spectrum Health, in downtown Grand Rapids, MI, implemented a cash out program after expanding their downtown office space. Twenty-six percent of employees opted to participate in the program, which began in February of 2016 – a percentage that has remained relatively steady regardless of weather and employee turnover. The program alleviated an on-site parking shortage while also providing an additional perk for many employees. It is very helpful to work with existing programs that may already be in place. Advocacy organizations often organize “Bike to Work Day” events to raise awareness and create a buzz around cycling. The place management organization doesn’t have to do it all on their own. Some organizations may have embedded within their governance structure a Transportation management organization/association (TMO or TMA), that increases their capacity within local transportation efforts. These organizations can manage parking district wide, operate public transportation systems, and provide facilities and programs for other options to single occupant vehicle travel, including bicycling. Specific to bicycling, TMAs can provide “emergency ride home” programs in the event of an emergency or health issue that may create a sudden need for a bicycle commuter to have the use of a vehicle.41 One very common campaign to promote cycling is National Bike Month, created and backed by the League of American Bicyclists.42 For much of the nation this is in May, however, due to local climates some states celebrate during other months. 28

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Bike to Work Day The Downtown Denver Partnership, which operates as the TMA in Downtown Denver, organizes an annual Bike to Work Day celebration that attracts over 500 riders each year to downtown Denver’s Skyline Park. The Downtown Denver Partnership uses a combination of federal funding, as well as corporate sponsors, to fund Pedal for Pancake, as it is dubbed, and offer free pancakes, coffee, chair massages and bicycle tune-ups for bicycle commuters participating in the annual bicycle celebration.

an incentive for customers arriving via bike, such as a discount or free item to say, “thank you for riding your bike.” There are some model programs out there, including Downtown Tampa’s “Bike Friendly Tampa,”44 which certifies local businesses as bike friendly and promotes business specials targeting cyclists – everything from bike amenities on site to discounts or free perks for patrons arriving on bike. 45

Many local transportation planning organizations, such as “metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs),” promote bike commuter challenges43 during National Bike Month. This challenge encourages businesses to sign up to compete for the most miles traveled to and from work by employees without the use of their private motor vehicles. At the end of the month, a winner is recognized. In downtown Tampa, select routes are designated from each direction on Bike to Work Day. Meet up locations and times are published with a ride leader. All riders then congregate in a central park for coffee and bagels. Working with community stakeholders is another effective way to increase the use of bicycles as transportation and build momentum for facilities within your district. Merchants can offer

West Palm Beach Downtown Development Authority’s Bicycle Valet Program – 12 years, and thousands of bicycles parked. In 2005, the West Palm Beach DDA hosted their first bicycle valet program in conjunction with Sunfest, a five-day music festival on the city’s downtown waterfront. The goal was to capitalize on the shortage of parking during the event by providing safe, convenient bicycle parking immediately adjacent to the festival entrance as a perk to encourage people to use their bicycles rather than drive. The response was overwhelming, with over 100 bicycles parked on the service’s first night. Since that time the program has grown each year, with over 700 bicycles parked during the 2017 festival. The Bicycle Valet program is an effective way to demonstrate to individuals that it is easy, convenient and fun to get around by bicycle.45

Funding Federal funding through Congestion Mitigation & Air Quality (CMAQ) allocates funds through a state department of transportation or local metropolitan planning organization (MPO) than can support programs in qualifying areas to promote and support bicycling as a mode of transportation. There are also private foundations with mission statements that may align with the values of the program you are producing.

Hospitals, health insurance companies, and large employers may also be likely partners. Local governments (community redevelopment areas, metropolitan planning organizations, city, county, department of transportation, etc.) can be important funding partners for the installation of infrastructure to support bicycling, such as more racks, bikeshare programs, maps, and other programs.

CASE STUDY:

Case Study: Crowdfunding a Bike Lane in Downtown Denver In late 2014, the Downtown Denver Partnership led an innovative funding approach for an enhanced bike lane crossing their downtown. To augment the city’s investment in a city-wide protected bike lane plan, the Downtown Denver Partnership hosted a crowdfunding campaign that matched contributions from the Gates Family Foundation downtown.org | © 2017 International Downtown Association

and the Downtown Denver Business Improvement District. Over six weeks, the Downtown Denver Partnership used the crowdfunding site, ioby.com to raise $36,085 from 200 individuals and companies, showcasing broad community support for the project.

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a CASE STUDY:

Downtown Partnership of Baltimore While UPMOs can do much to encourage their own employees to bike to work, there are opportunities to incentivize the greater public using generosity. While a third of Baltimore’s jobs reside downtown, access to those jobs is complicated by the fact nearly a third of Baltimoreans lack access to a car. When Baltimore Bikeshare debuted in the fall of 2016, the Downtown Partnership of Baltimore (DPOB) identified an opportunity to encourage cycling downtown while simultaneously removing a financial barrier to bike share – and, by extension, the jobs to which they connect. Shortly after Baltimore Bikeshare’s launch, DPOB created the Downtown Partnership Access Pass. This program offers an 80% discount on monthly bike share passes to any resident receiving aid from the Maryland Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP or food stamps). An initial contribution of $10,000 funded over 300 monthly memberships, and the organization also created marketing materials used to lobby other organizations to contribute to this initiative. Shortly after the program’s launch, a local real estate investment trust (REIT) donated $2,000 to this cause. Via this program, DPOB demonstrated a commitment not only to downtown cycling but to transit equity. Since some UPMOs, particularly business improvement districts, are often affiliated with large financial institutions, colleges, and other influential partners. Such programs humanize cycling by increasing access to members of the community for whom cycling may be their most viable transit option.

CASE STUDY:

Scioti Greenways: Integration with Planning, Public-Private Partnership The Columbus Downtown Development Corporation (CDDC) led the revitalized Downtown Columbus Riverfront project, creating the signature amenity for the community and a gleaming example of what a public-private partnership can accomplish. The concept of the Scioto Greenways, as with most great ideas, came directly from the community. The genesis of the concept came out of the 2010 Downtown Strategic Planning process, which ultimately resulted in 12 catalytic projects designed to make Downtown Columbus a hotbed of activity for residents and visitors alike. Out of all the ideas presented to the community in the strategic plan, idea number 12 (the Scioto Greenways) became priority number one. CDDC was tasked with taking this concept, which was embraced by the community, and making it a reality. While technical and complex, this idea wouldn’t sit on a shelf as part of a plan. CDDC’s mantra is to think big and act bigger. Following a feasibility study, CDDC secured $36 million in funding from generous public and private partners and began the hard work of restoring the riverfront. Scioto Greenways consisted of three primary components: • • •

Removal of the low-head Main Street Dam. Restoration of the Scioto River channel to its natural width. Creation of 33 acres of new urban greenspace complete with 1.5 miles of multi-use pathways, nearly 800 trees and more than 75,000 plant features.

In November 2013, the project began. After working against an aggressive 24-month schedule during a period of record-low temperatures and record rainfalls, the Scioto Greenways made its public debut, right on time and on budget, in November 2015. 30

CDDC didn’t just support this concept; it led the way. This idea accomplished what other plans had struggled to achieve over the past 100 years, a connected, active and healthy river system that serves as a community asset. The Greenways is the final piece in the transformation of the riverfront that has led to more than $400 million in private sector activity that’s been built, under construction or in the pipeline. The Downtown Columbus Riverfront is a jewel in the revitalization efforts, building upon the existing success of The Scioto Mile, another publicprivate partnership led by CDDC that opened in 2011. But beyond facts and figures, the Scioto Greenways has succeeded in the most important way. The community has embraced it; and runners, joggers, walkers and cyclists can be seen using it in all weather conditions. Canoes and kayaks are now a regular site on the downtown riverfront. Visitors not only have a beautiful means to traverse our community, but they can be inspired by awe-inspiring architecture and amazing cityscape vistas as they walk through the core connector of the downtown. The achievements of the Scioto Greenways can be measured in concrete terms: • •

The project has brought over 1.5 million annual visitors to the riverfront. The enhanced riverfront has created $400 million of investment in office, residential, retail and entertainment in the surrounding River South neighborhood to date. The Scioto Greenways has served as a front yard and catalyst for the new Scioto Peninsula Neighborhood, leveraging an additional $130 million of on the west site of the River. Downtown Columbus residential population is poised to hit 8,000 by the end of 2017.

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Conclusion Urban place management organizations are often the leaders of change in the communities they serve and can play a critical role ushering in a new era of mobility. Improving conditions for bicycling yields significant benefits, both economic and social. With such outcomes squarely within the wheelhouse of urban place management organizations, incorporating programs and projects designed to assist with the growth of cycling as a mode of transportation into the work plans of downtown organizations makes perfect sense. Urban place management organizations can play an important and effective role in improving conditions for bicycling, thus improving conditions of safety and walkability. These organizations are often the most direct connection to stakeholders and decision makers within their districts. As such, there are many opportunities to facilitate change. This can range from capital infrastructure investments to simple advocacy. This IDA Top Issues Council report describes three general areas in which UPMOs can make significant contributions to improving conditions for bicycling: 1. 2. 3.

Informing and educating community stakeholders and local government officials about the benefits of improved bicycle infrastructure and support systems for bicyclists. Advocating for improvements for bicycling and partnering with other organizations and/or individuals already dedicated to this cause. Encouraging and incentivizing bicycling through the development of programs and collaboration with local government, businesses and community partners.

As urban areas continue to grow and mobility challenges increase, even small steps can produce measurable results. The focus should be on steady improvement over time, with the ultimate goal of the bicycle becoming a safe and convenient way for people to travel to and within urban places. Even the cities considered as having the most developed cycling infrastructure highest levels of bicycle use were not always that way. However, with time and leadership from the group of stakeholders living and working in the downtown center, tremendous improvements can be made over time to benefit both the economy and the community.

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REFERENCES

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Endnotes Resources Additional References Photo Credits

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Endnotes

Resources

1. American Community Census, 2014 Report 2. World Urbanization Prospects, UN DESAís Population Division, 2014 3. http://nacto.org/publication/urban-bikeway-design-guide/ 4. http://www.massdot.state.ma.us/highway/DoingBusinessWithUs/ ManualsPublicationsForms/SeparatedBikeLanePlanningDesignGuide.aspx 5. https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B8tOk7_upXv5RE5CeDZLcTk3eUU/ view?usp=sharing 6. http://store.peopleforbikes.org/collections/printed-reports-resources/products/ protected-bike-lanes-mean-business 7. http://www.bikewalkalliance.org/resources/reports/guides/37-alliance-guide-to- complete-streets-campaigns 8. http://b.3cdn.net/bikes/fe605db6923d331d94_ecm6iaia5.pdf 9. http://www.bikewalkalliance.org/component/content/article/9/691 10. https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/road_diets/case_studies/roaddiet_cs.pdf 11. https://www.louisville.com/content/bike-racks-gone-artsy 12. http://b.3cdn.net/bikes/675cdae66d727f8833_kzm6ikutu.pdf 13. http://peoplest.lacity.org/bicycle-corrals/ 14. https://knightfoundation.org/articles/27-civic-leaders-knight-communities-visit- scandinavia-study-tour 15. http://www.880cities.org/the-power-of-pop-up/ 16. https://www.knightfoundation.org/grants/201550698 17. http://bikepeddocumentation.org/application/files/3214/6671/7814/NBPD_ Automatic_Count_Technology_overview.pdf 18. http://activelivingresearch.org/sites/default/files/ALR_Brief_Bike-PedCounts_ Feb2013.pdf 19. http:\altaplanning.com\wp-content\uploads\Innovative-Ped-and-Bike-Counts- White-Paper-Alta.pdf 20. http://www.bikearlington.com/pages/biking-in-arlington/counting-bikes-to-plan- for-bikes/ 21. http://www.minneapolismn.gov/pedestrian/data/pedcounts 22. http://www.la-bike.org/ 23. http://www.dot.state.mn.us/research/reports/2017/201703.pdf 24. http://bikepeddocumentation.org/ 25. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/22223/guidebook-on-pedestrian-and-bicycle- volume-data-collection 26. http://www.chicagobusiness.com/article/20121211/OPINION/121209832/why- chicago-business-needs-protected-bike-lanes?X-IgnoreUserAgent=1 27. https://www.portlandoregon.gov/transportation/article/158497 28. City of Portland, Roger Gellar 29. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5105030/ 30. ìBarrier Protected Bike Lanes Mean Safer Streetsî, Active Transportation Alliance. 2011. Retrieved from: http://activetrans.org/node/7767 31. Political Economy Research Institute 32. ìBicycling & Walking in the United States: Benchmarking Report 2016î. Alliance for Biking & Walking. 2016. Washington, D.C. Retrieved from: www.BikeWalkAlliance. org/Benchmarking 33. http://www.citylab.com/commute/2012/12/cyclists-and-pedestrians-can-end- spending-more-each-month-drivers/4066/ ; https://www.sfmta.com/sites/default/ files/projects/PolkIntereptSurveyFindings.pdf ; http://www.cleanairpartnership.org/ files/BikeLanes_Parking_Business_BloorWestVillage.pdf 34. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5105030/ 35. Statistics Library/Facilities Statisticsî. People for Bikes. 2017. Retrieved from: http:// www.peopleforbikes.org/statistics/category/facilities-statistics 36. http://www.peopleforbikes.org/statistics/category/health-statistics#health- benefits-of-bicycling 37. Exercise Reduces Risk, but benefits Disappear if Women Stop Exercisingî. BreastCancer.org. 2017. Retrieved from: http://www.breastcancer.org/research- news/exercise-reduces-risk-if-continued 38. http://www.midtownatl.com/about/midtown-transportation/midtown-bicycle- routes 39. Health Enhancement Research Organization, 2015 40. The Economic Benefits of Open Space, Recreation Facilities and Walkable Community Designî. Active Living Research. 2012. May 2010. Retrieved from: http://activelivingresearch.org/files/Synthesis_Shoup-Ewing_March2010_0.pdf 41. http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm44.htm 42. http://bikeleague.org/bikemonth 43. https://nationalbikechallenge.org/ 44. https://www.tampasdowntown.com/getting-around/bike-and-walk/bike-friendly- tampa/ 45. http://www.downtownwpb.com/things-to-do/sunfest-bicycle-valet/

There are many excellent resources available to assist downtown organizations with improving conditions for bicycling and most are available on the web at little or no cost. Why reinvent the wheel? Associations and Advocacy Organizations Association of Pedestrian and Bicycle Professionals www.apbp.org/ Canada Bikes www.canadabikes.org/cycling-walking-infrastructure-proposal/ League of American Bicyclists www.bikeleague.org/ People for Bikes http://www.peopleforbikes.org/ The Street Trust www.thestreettrust.org/ Transportation Alternatives www.transalt.org Facilities Design and Infrastructure Canadian Urban Transit Association. Public Transit: Building Healthy Communities. Issue Paper 48. May 2017. http://cutaactu.ca/ FHWA Bicycle and Pedestrian Program www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/ bicycle_pedestrian/ NACTO Urban Bike Guide https://nacto.org/publication/urban-bikeway- design-guide/ National Center for Bicycling and Walking www.bikewalk.org/ Bicycle Facilities Case Studies and Statistics Active Living Research: Canada Bikes http://activelivingresearch.org/sites/ default/files/Dill_Bicycle_Facility_Cost_June2013.pdf Bicycle Parking https://cyclesafe.com/case-studies/ Bicycle Safety http://www.pedbikesafe.org/bikesafe/index.cfm Pedestrian and Bicycle Resource Initiative http://pbrila.org/ Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center http://www.pedbikeinfo.org/ planning/sample_casestudies.cfm People for Bikes http://www.peopleforbikes.org/statistics/category/ facilities-statistics Bicycle Counts Active Living Research: Bicycle and Pedestrian Counts http://activelivingresearch.org/sites/default/files/ALR_Brief_Bike- PedCounts_Feb2013.pdf Alta Planning and Design: Innovation in Bicycle and Pedestrian Counts: http://altaplanning.com/wp-content/uploads/Innovative-Ped-and-Bike- Counts-White-Paper-Alta.pdf Bike Arlington: Counting Bikes to Plan for Bikes http://www.bikearlington. com/pages/biking-in-arlington/counting-bikes-to-plan-for-bikes/ City of Minneapolis Bike Counts http://www.minneapolismn.gov/ pedestrian/data/pedcounts LA Bike Count: www.la-bike.org Minnesota State DOT Bicycle Data Manual: http://www.dot.state.mn.us/ research/reports/2017/201703.pdf National Bicycle and Pedestrian Documentation Project http://bikepeddocumentation.org/ NHRCP Guidebook on Pedestrian and Bicycle Volume Data Collection: https://www.nap.edu/catalog/22223/guidebook-on-pedestrian-and-bicycle- volume-data-collection Transportation Research Board. National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Web-Only Document 229: Methods and Technologies for Pedestrian and Bicycle Volume Data Collection: Phase 2. http://www.trb.org/main/blurbs/175860.aspx Urban Place Management Organizations Downtown Denver Partnership: Commuter Survey http://www.downtowndenver.com/getting-around/downtown-denver- partnership-releases-results-of-annual-commuter-survey Downtown Grand Rapids: Biking http://downtowngr.org/get/biking Downtown Yonge BIA: Active Transportation http://www.downtownyonge.com/planning/active_transportation.html

IDA

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Bicycle Improvements and Policy


References

Photo Credits

Advocacy Advance. (2014, June). “How Communities are Paying for Innovative On-Street Bicycle Infrastructure.” http://www.advocacyadvance.org/docs/PayingForInnovativeInfrastructure.pdf

COVER Downtown Tempe Authority. (2014) Mill Avenue Woman with Colorful Bikes. Tempe, AZ.

Alliance for Biking and Walking. Bicycling and Walking in the United States: 2016 Benchmarking Report. Web: http://www.bikewalkalliance.org/resources/benchmarking Alliance for Biking and Walking. Building Equity Race, ethnicity, class, and protected bike lanes: An idea book for fairer cities. 2016. http://www.bikewalkalliance.org/resources/reports/race-ethnicityclass-and-protected-bike-lanes America Bikes. (2012). “National Poll: Americans Support Funding for Sidewalks and Bikeways.” America Bikes. http://bikeleague.org/sites/default/files/America_Bikes_White_paper_final.pdf Bike Week sees pop-up lanes protect cyclists from vehicles on Winnipeg streets. CBC Canada. June 20, 2017: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/manitoba/bike-week-winnipeg-1.4169731 Brasuell, James. Study: The Quality of Bike Infrastructure Matters, Planetizen. 12 May 2017. Web: https://www.planetizen.com/node/92716?lipi=urn%3Ali%3Apage%3Ad_flagship3_company%3BL uSlEL08RW%2B8IO8GOXNa0g%3D%3D

Downtown Winnipeg BIZ. (2017) Orange Bike. Winnipeg, MC, Canada. Alta Planning and Design. (2017) Bike Lane. Location unknown. PAGE 4 Downtown Tempe Authority. (2014) Mill Avenue Handmade Pops and Bikes. Tempe, AZ. PAGE 24 Alta Planning and Design. (2017) Bike Lane. Location unknown.

Brown, B.B., Smith, K.R., Hanson, H., Fan, J.X., Kowaleski-Jones, L., & Zick, C.D. (2013, March). “Neighborhood Design for Walking and Biking: Physical Activity and Body Mass Index.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 44(3). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3690570/ pdf/nihms-437549.pdf

PAGE 25 Downtown Winnipeg BIZ. (2017) Blue and Yellow Bike. Winnipeg, MC, Canada.

Clifton, K., Muhs, C., Morrissey, S., Morrissey, T., Currans, K., & Ritter, C. (2013, February). “Examining Consumer Behavior and Travel Choices.” (Oregon Transportation Research and Education Consortium, OTREC-RR-12-15). http://ppms.otrec.us/media/project_files/OTREC-RR-12-15%20Final.pdf

Page 28 Downtown Tempe Authority. (2014) Bike Riders. Tempe, AZ.

The Community Guide. Physical Activity: Built Environment Approaches Combining Transportation System Interventions with Land Use and Environmental Design. Dec 2016. Web: https://www.thecommunityguide.org/findings/physical-activity-built-environment-approaches Health Economic Assessment Tool. World Health Organization. Web: http://www. heatwalkingcycling.org/

PAGE 31 Downtown Norfolk. (2017) The Plot Bike. Norfolk, VA. Page 32 Clemente, Raphael. (2017) San Francisco bike plaque. San Francisco, CA.

Garrett-Peltier, H. (2011, June). “Pedestrian and Bicycle Infrastructure: A National Study of Employment Impacts.” Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. http://www.peri.umass.edu/fileadmin/pdf/published_study/PERI_ABikes_ October2011.pdf Goff, Phil. Detroit gets a new bike share system. Alta Planning and Friends. Web: http://blog. altaplanning.com/detroit-gets-new-bike-share-system/?lipi=urn%3Ali%3Apage%3Ad_flagship3_ company%3BLuSlEL08RW%2B8IO8GOXNa0g%3D%3D Larsson, Naomi. Beirut is more beautiful by bike, street art reinvents a notorious city- in pictures. The Guardian. 2017. Web: https://www.theguardian.com/cities/gallery/2017/jun/15/beirut-bikestreet-art-chain-effect-in-pictures?mc_cid=ccad68a754&mc_eid=7f65e4e828 Leinberger, C.B. & Lynch, P. (2014). “Foot Traffic Ahead: Ranking Walkable Urbanism in America’s Largest Metros.” http://www.smartgrowthamerica.org/documents/foot-traffic-ahead.pdf Marshall, W.E. & Garrick, N.W. (2011, March). “Evidence on Why Bike-Friendly Cities Are Safer for All Road Users.” Environmental Practice, 13:1. http://www.cycle-helmets.com/bikes-safer-all-roadusers.pdf Monsere, C., Dill, J., McNeil, N., Clifton, K., Foster, N., Goddard, T., Berkow, M., Gilpin, J., Voros, K., Van Hengel, D., & Parks, J. (2014, June). “Lessons From The Green Lanes: Evaluating Protected Bike Lanes In The U.S.” National Institute for Transportation and Communities. http://trec.pdx. edu/research/project/583 National Complete Streets Coalition. (2014, May). “Dangerous by Design.” 2014. http://www. smartgrowthamerica.org/documents/dangerous-by-design-2014/dangerous-by-design-2014.pdf National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2013, October). “2012 National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behavior, Volume 2: Findings Report.” http://www.nhtsa.gov/staticfiles/nti/pdf/811841b.pdf New York City Department of Transportation. (2013, November). “Making Safer Streets.” http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/downloads/pdf/dot-making-safer-streets.pdf Pucher, John and Buehler, Ralph. City Cycling. The MIT Press. October 2012 Smart Growth America. (2015, March). “Safer Streets, Stronger Economies: Complete Streets project outcomes from around the country.” http://www.smartgrowthamerica.org/documents/ saferstreets- stronger-economies.pdf U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.). “Health People 2020: Physical Activity.” http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives/topic/physical-activity.

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2017 A Path Towards Better Bicycle Infrastructure  

This publication provides methods and examples relevant to urban place management organization (UPMOs), including case studies and additiona...

2017 A Path Towards Better Bicycle Infrastructure  

This publication provides methods and examples relevant to urban place management organization (UPMOs), including case studies and additiona...