HOT OFF THE PRESS SUPPLEMENT TO KOMPASS # 5
FOOTNOTES AND SUGGESTIONS FOR DEEPER EXPLORATION (Reponsibility for the content, accuracy and formatting of footnotes lies solely with the authors.)
PEACE PUNK MOSSARAT QADEEM, PP. 4 & 5 About the institution she co-founded, linking opportunities to communities: http://paimantrust.org/ Mossarat Qadeem gives a touching short talk at Harvard University Institute of Politics https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zUwDIvgmFek
2 SIPRI Military Expenditure Database © SIPRI 2015 3 https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/ N09/278/78/PDF/N0927878.pdf?OpenElement 4 Conciliation Resources, work in review, 2009. 5 War Prevention Works, 2001. 6 Advancing Peace and Mitigating Crises—Recommendations
Concept paper from the 3rd Security Initiative and the
HANS JÖRG FRIEDRICH ON PAGES 6 & 7
Alliance for Peacebuilding, 2010.
To see how you can advocate for human dignity the world over, please see: http://wfd.de/projekte
and Proposed Language for the Foreign Assistance Act (FAA)
7 Making Terrorism History by Scilla Elworthy and Gabrielle
Rifkind, Random House, 2006.
8 See resources of Global Partnership for the Prevention of Armed A GLOBAL STRATEGY FOR BUILDING PEACE BY DR. SCILLA ELWORTHY, P. 8-10 1 More conflicts are now ended by negotiated settlement than
by military victory (42:23 in 1990s; 17:4 between 2000 and 2005).
Conflict (GPPAC) http://www.gppac.net/publications-archive .
9 GPPAC Issue Paper 4: Joint Action for Prevention Civil Society
and Government Cooperation on Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding: Nepal, Ministry of Peace and Reconstruction
PLEASE DONATE TO PEOPLE WHO DO PREVENTION WORK BY CULTIVATING PEACE IN AFRICA, ASIA, PALESTINE AND SOUTH AMERICA Weltfriedensdienst e. V. Am Borsigturm 9, 13507 Berlin Phone: +49 (0)30 253 990-0 Fax: +49 (0)30 251 18 87 www.weltfriedensdienst.de
Spendenkonto 505 Bank für Sozialwirtschaft BLZ 100 205 00 IBAN: DE06 1002 0500 0003 1475 05 BIC: BFSWDE33BER
“VALUES ARE ABOUT CONNECTION...”
Instrument Contributing to Stability and Peace, 5 July 2016,
2 Preventive thinking is not just a successful method in chess
EU Commission, Joint Communication to the EP and the Council.
or in family disputes. It is a necessity. It is a comprehensive
Elements for an EU-Wide Strategy Framework to Support Security
approach in all phases of conflict, before violence breaks out,
Sector Reform [SWD (2016) 221 final].
in periods of transitional justice and in post-conflict re-
habilitation. It works on the basis of different perceptions
about the dynamics of conflicts. It depends on tolerance for
diverse narratives, on (trans-border) dialogue, and on vigilance
against hate speech and growing discrimination.
EU Kommission und Hohe Vertreterin für Außen- und Sicher heitspolitik, Kapazitätsaufbau zur Förderung von Sicherheit und Entwicklung – Befähigung unserer Partner zur Krisen prävention und –bewältigung, Brüssel, 28.4.2015,
Shared Vision, Common Action: A Stronger Europe. A Global Strategy for the European Union’s Foreign and Security Policy,
vorgelegt Federica Mogherini, June 2016.
5 For more on peace through gendered conflict prevention see: ty/facts-and-figures Fork Films, 2008.
Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Regulation Proposal
for Amending Regulation (EU) No 230/2014 (...) Establishing an
BY HEIDI MEINZOLT, P. 13
Nations and Conflict Prevention: A Collective Recommitment,
human rights in Mexico: https://www.pbideutschland.de/cont-
S/2015/730, 25.9.2015 https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/
6 See also the EU Commission and High Representative for
5 See also the Report of the Secretary General on the United
The amazing TED Talk of Elworthy on Non-violence: https://
4 See also the Civil Peace Service,
3 Aktionsplan Zivile Krisenprävention: http://www.auswaertiges-amt. in: Forum Crisis Prevention, (Hg.) (2015), Beispiele gelungener
Kriegsprävention — ein Überblick; http://www.crisis-prevention.
A GLOBAL NETWORK
15 Source is from January 5th, 2013; http://www.globalissues. Top-100-December-2015.
Affairs, which rigorously expanded its early-warning systems.
11 Advancing Peace and Mitigating Crises — Recommendations
Furthermore, since the 1990s, the UN has initiated a host of
and Proposed Language for the Foreign Assistance Act (FAA)
observation missions and good services that contribute to the
Concept paper from the 3rd Security Initiative and the Allian-
prevention and containment of escalating violence.
ce for Peacebuilding, 2010.
http:// www.un.org/undpa/en/overview. For more on the
12 Source: SIPRI https://www.sipri.org/media/press-relea
UN’s developmental policy efforts with regard to prevention
see also the Fast Facts of the United Nations Development
Programme at http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/
13 SIPRI Database Military expenditure by region in constant US
2 Hanne Margret Birckenbach Estland und Lettland 1991-2001,
try to prompt conflict parties to negotiate by employing private diplomacy and they support multi-party dialogue on post-war consolidation. NGOs are not bound by the narrowly defined mandates of national policy. They can act impartially and talk to various conflict parties without losing credibility. One example of effective networking between national and non-national actors in prevention and peace building is the multi-year project “Strengthening Early Warning, Mobilizing Early Action” supported by the EU Commission, in which the International Crisis Group and the International Peacebuilding Liaison Office (an association of peace-activist NGOs in Europe) take part. These have organized numerous roundtable discussions, for example, on preventing radicalization and Jihadism in Kirgistan and on crisis prevention in Latin America, the Congo and Sri Lanka. In Germany, civilian organizations contributed, in the context of civil conflict resolution and using political dialogue, to the German government’s visible support for peacemaking policy since 1998. For example, under the aegis of the Foreign Office (AA) inter-agency action plan for Crisis Prevention, Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding 3 was conceived and new practical instruments were created (e.g. the Civil Peace Service (ZFD), the Center for International Peace Operations (ZIF), the Working Group on Peace and Development (FriEnt)
and the zivik—civic conflict resolution program at the Institut für Auslandsbeziehungen (ifa)), which contributed to linking national and non-national expertise more systematically. The Civil Peace Service (ZFD) was established by NGOs in cooperation with the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). Acts of war in the former Yugoslavian region provided the incentive for this. By now, ZFD experts are working throughout the world. Since 1999 around 1,000 experts have been sent to over 50 countries. In 2015 275 people were deployed: 115 in Africa, roughly 50 each in Latin America and Asia, about 40 in the Near East and 16 in Southeastern Europe.4 The ZFD plays an important role in both prevention and peace building and reconciliation following violent conflicts. The projects range from violence prevention and conflict resolution in Bolivia, support for human rights defenders in Latin American (e.g. Mexico and Columbia) and Asia (Indonesia/Papua New Guinea, Myanmar), community work in Israel, Palestine and Lebanon to reconciliation schools and peace psychological support in examining a violent past in Peru, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nepal, Myanmar and in the former Yugoslavia. The deploying organizations (Weltfriedensdienst, Brot für die Welt— Protestant Development Service, EIRENE, Forum Ziviler Friedensdienst, Kurve Wustrow—Center for Training and Networking in Nonviolent Action, Peace Brigades International, AGEH, and GIZ) work closely with local partners.
1 Pray the Devil Back to Hell. Directed by Gini Reticker.
WAR IS GENDERED, SO PEACE IS, TOO Peace Brigades International about security strategies and
PEACE PUNK PASCAL HUBATKA, PP. 11 & 12 16 Andy Carl, Executive Director, Conciliation Resources
14 Source: http://www.sipri.org/media/pressreleases/2015/SIPRI10 http://www.visionofhumanity.org/
(foundation for peace); pp. 55-61, by
Manish Thapa: http:/www.gppac.net/
1 This applies to, among other things,
done by the Department for Political
A GLOBAL STRATEGY FOR BUILDING PEACE
the professionalization of the work GLOBAL NETWORK
deciding priorities and choosing the most effective organizations to carry them out, as well as for monitoring their impact. BREAKING THE CYCLE OF VIOLENCE The cycle of violence starts with atrocities causing terror and trauma, followed by grief and then anger. If nothing is done at this stage, anger leads to the drive for retaliation and revenge, causing further atrocities. Thus, the cycle of violence is perpetuated over generations and even centuries.
AT NATIONAL LEVEL: TEN GOVERNMENTS TO BUILD NATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURES FOR PEACE Creating an Infrastructure for Peace means developing mechanisms—at national, district and local levels—through which all relevant stakeholders can co-operate in systematically building peace and preventing violent conflict.8 If there is no national strategy to contain violence, it can quickly develop into civil war. One of the first countries to establish an Infrastructure for Peace was South Africa, where leaders realized the risk of civil war after Mandela was released and before negotiations could lead to elections. Now the governments of Ghana and Kenya are pioneering the implementation of their own Infrastructures for Peace. Both countries had general elections recently and these structures (even in embryo) helped in preventing and reducing post-election violence. The costs are small compared to post-conflict efforts; for example the first three years of setting up an Infrastructure for Peace in Ghana cost some $2.5 million and was paid by UNDP. Other countries such as Costa Rica now have a Ministry of Peace.9 Together with countries listed as peaceful in the Global Peace Index,10 such as Botswana, Norway, New Zealand, Qatar, Switzerland, Slovenia and Vietnam, a grouping could emerge known as Champions of Peace. These Champions of Peace could pioneer the overall strategy, and pave the way to the transformation of conflict worldwide. The UN could invite all member countries to appoint a senior level executive (an Undersecretary of State for Peace Building in the US, and equivalent posts in other countries) to design coherent conflict prevention policies and ensure necessary resources and coordination with foreign and defence ministries.
LIMITS OF PREVENTION EFFORTS AND CHALLENGES Despite the networks described above and avowals made to crisis prevention and peace building that one reads in the statements of international organizations and some governments, preventive approaches are severely limited in reality. Thus, the UN—although it represents 193 countries and is clearly mandated under international law to pursue global prevention and peacekeeping—is only as strong and capable of acting as its member states wish it to be.5 UN institutions have to virtually beg these countries for every single measure. One sorry example of this is when the UN, from fall 2014 to the end of 2015, both emphatically and futilely asked its member states to ramp up its world food program so that people who had fled the Syrian civil war could receive humanitarian aid in neighboring states. The refusal of mem-
BY DR. MARTINA FISCHER, PP. 14-16 LOCAL PEACE NEEDS A
ENABLE QUALIFIED WOMEN TO FILL
7 United Nations High Commissions for Refugees (2010): “Iraqi
Flucht, Gewalt vorbeugen, Zusammenleben fördern, Rückkehr
Refugees in Syria Reluctant to Return to Home Permanently:
erleichtern, (online file of the ZFD),
Survey” (UN High Comm Refugees, Geneva).
8 For more information see www.newclimateforpeace.org.
PEACE PUNK MARTIN ZINT, PP. 16 & 17
PREVENTION THROUGH INCLUSION
BY HELGE SWARS, P. 20
The global population is expected to increase to approximately 8.3 billion by 2030.1 At the same time, demographic imbalances will increase, especially with growing young population groups in the Middle East, Central Asia and SubSaharan Africa.2 Urbanization will continue to increase to about 60 percent in 2030 and 70 percent by 2045.3 Together these developments will pose enormous challenges in terms of jobs, housing, transportation, and healthcare, along with growing land, water, and energy demand. By 2030 global demand for food, water, and energy is estimated to grow, respectively, by approximately 35, 40, and 50 percent.4 This is happening against the backdrop of increasing environmental degradation and climate change. When and where climate change converges with other pressures such as population growth, uneven economic development and environmental degradation, states and societies can become overwhelmed and fragile. Climate change often acts as a threat multiplier by compounding existing risks.
department of Weltfriedensdienst here: http://wfd.de/material/.
You can download publications of the public relations
A film trailer about an extraordinary project: “For the last 20 years, an incredible permacul-
CREATING A NEW CLIMATE
ture project has been growing in Zimbabwe.”
LUKAS RÜTTINGER, PP. 18 & 19 1 US NIC 2012: Global trends 2030:
THE ENVIRONMENT AND PEACE ARE CLOSELY LINKED—AS CONFLICTS SUCH AS SYRIA SHOW. WE NEED TO MAKE BUILDING MORE RESILIENT STATES AND SOCIETIES A PRIORITY IN ORDER TO ADDRESS THE CHALLENGES OF SOCIAL AND CLIMATE CHANGE ALIKE.
FACILITATORS OF PREVENTION
Alternative worlds. Retrieved Jan. 9th,
2015, from https://globaltrends2030.
Find the latest report about last year‘s projects in the new
BY JUDITH OHENE, WELTFRIEDENSDIENST, P. 21
ber2012.pdf; UK MoD 2014: Strategic trends programme:
global strategic trends - out to 2045. Shrivenham: UK Ministry
BEYOND CONFLICT CYCLE
CREATING A NEW CLIMATE FOR PEACE
BY DR. CHRISTINE SCHWEITZER, PP. 22 & 23
2 Rüttinger, L. et al., A New Climate for Peace: Taking Action on
1 See, for example, Zweiter Umsetzungsbericht des Bundeskabi-
Climate and Fragility Risks (Adelphi/International Alert/
netts zum Aktionsplan Zivile Krisenprävention, May 2006 –
Woodrow Wilson Center/European Union Institute for Security
Studies, EUISS): Berlin/London/Washington, DC/Paris, 2015).
2 Reinhardt Rummel, Deutscher Einfluss auf den Ausbau ziviler
the Richard Dimbelby Lecture,“ Retrieved Dec. 10th, 2014, from
3 Johan Galtung, “Three Approaches to Peace: Peacekeeping,
UN-DESA 2014: World urbanization prospects: The 2014
Peacemaking and Peacebuilding” in Peace, War and Defence— Essays in Peace Research Vol 2. (Copenhagen: Ejlers, Christian,
revision. New York: United Nations.
4 “The New Global Middle Class: A Crossover from West to
Krisenintervention der EU, 2006.
4 Claudia Major, Tobias Pietz, Elisabeth Schöndorf and Wanda
East” in: China‘s Emerging Middle Class: Beyond Economic
Hummel, Toolbox Crisis Management: From Civilian Crisis
Transformation. Li, Cheng (ed.): Washington, DC:
Prevention to Peacebuilding: Principles, Actors, Instruments
Brookings Institution Press; UK MoD 2014: Strategic Trends
(Berlin: German Institute for International and Security Affairs
Programme: global strategic trends - out to 2045. Shrivenham:
and the Center for International Peace Operations, 2012), p. 7.
UK Ministry of Defence; US NIC 2012: Global trends 2030:
5 Ibid, p. 6
Alternative worlds. Retrieved Jan. 9th, 2015, from https://glo
6 Conflict Barometer (Heidelberg: Heidelberg Institute for Inter-
7 This is the case in the Federal Republic of Germany’s recent
national Conflict Research, 2016).
5 Wadid, E., Katlan, B. and Babah, O. 2011:
White Paper and, it is to be feared, in the impending guidelines
“Drought Vulnerability in the Arab Region: Special case study,”
for crisis prevention that the German government will develop
Syria contributing paper (2010), United Nations Office
over the summer of 2016.
for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR), Global Assessment
8 Civil peace-keeping is one example of this kind of civil instru-
Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2011, Geneva: UNISDR.
ment. See for example: Christine Schweitzer, Hintergrunds-und
6 United Nations, Office of the United Nations High Commissio-
Diskussionspapier: Ziviles Peacekeeping: Dokumentation einer Fachtagung vom 1 November 2014, Nr. 39 (Minden: Bund für Soziale Verteidigung, 2015).
ner For Human Rights, Special Procedures of the Human
Rights Council, UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food:
Mission to Syria from 29 August to 7 September 2010, Sept.
9 Stephen Ryan already pointed this out in 1995. See Stephen
7th 2010, retrived from: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/
Ryan, Ethnic Conflict and International Relations (Aldershot:
Dartmouth Publishing Company Ltd., 2nd edition, 1995).
3 Lagarde, C. 2014: “A New Multilateralism for the 21st Century:
PEACE PUNK BART WEETJENS, PP. 24 & 25
Ramaphosa (South Africa); Fidel Ramos (Philippines); Cornelio
To see how people in Africa use HERORats to detect land mines
Sommaruga (Switzerland); Eduardo Stein (Guatemala); Ramesh
and tuberculosis, watch these groundbreaking videos at:
A VIRTUAL EVOLUTION BY EMMANUEL LETOUZÉ, PP. 26-28 1 Michael Lund “Preventing Violent Interstate Conflicts: Learn-
ing Lessons from Experience,“ in Searching for Peace in Europe and Eurasia: An Overview of Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding Activities (Paul van Tongeren, Hans von de Veen
7 Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research (HIIK),
2016: Conflict Barometer 2015. Heidelberg.
8 United Nations General Assembly, 2005: 2005 World Summit
Outcome Document. UN document A/RES/60/1, 60th session,
resolution adopted by, the General Assembly, 60/1.
and Juliette Verhoeven, eds., 2002; Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner).
9 United Nations, 2015: Transforming our World: The 2030
Agenda for Sustainable Development. UN Doc. A/RES/70/1 (2015).
ONLINE INFORMATION ABOUT THE AGENDA 2030 at
3 2011, p.78
4 “Big Data, Small Wars, Local Insights: Designing for Development
with Conflict-Affected Communities” http://voices.mckinseyonso-
The Future Starts Now: touching video clip about the past and future of Agenda 2030 (at the lower left):
velopment-with-conflict-affected-communities/; Letouzé, IPI,
2012, IPI 2014?.
www.iciss.ca/menu-en.asp (last visited July 12,2016)
6 S. 8, Absatz 1.35
OF INTERACTIONS AND CONNECTIONS BY HAGEN BERNDT, PP. 32-34 An interview with the author in
Telepolis abut conflicts in refugee
camps in Germany at: http://www.
full/scientificamerican0814-64.html and https://www.weforum.
A global network of governments, NGOs and businesses work-
ing together to strengthen inclusiveness, trust and innovation
in the use of data to address the world‘s sustainable develop-
A soundtrack that connects the past and the future :
ment efforts. http://www.data4sdgs.org/.
VISTA ANNE-DOERTHE BEER UND JOACHIM CHRISTOPH WEHNELT, P. 35
A CHANCE FOR TRANSFORMATION BY DR. WOLFGANG HEINRICH, PP. 29-31
1 Friends Commitee on National Legislation, June 29th, 2016:
Invest in Smart Security. http://fcnl.org/issues/ppdc/smart_security/ ). 2 Chalmers, Malcolm, 2004: Spending to Save? An Analysis of the Cost Effectiveness of Conflict Prevention. Centre for Inter-
ONE ISSUE ONE TOPIC
national Cooperation and Security, Department of Peace
Studies, University of Bradford, June 12th, 2004
3 The case studies: The Balkans 1989-2003; Afghanistan 1989-
2003; Rwanda 1989-2003; Sudan 2004-2018; Af-ghanistan
2004-2018; Uzbekistan 2004-2018.
A WELTFRIEDENSDIENST E.V. MAGAZINE
CULTIVATING PEACE THE FUTURE OF PREVENTION
4 The ICISS members were: Gareth Evans (Australia), co-chair;
Mohamed Sahnoun (Algeria), co-chair; Gisèle Côté-Harper
(Canada); Lee Hamilton (United States); Michael Ignatieff (Ca-
nada); Vladimir Lukin (Russia); Klaus Naumann (Germany); Cyril WFD_Kompass_N°5_RZ_20161108.indd 1