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R U D O L F W O R K S

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B A U E R P A P E R


RUDOLF BAUER WORKS ON PAPER

with a text by Peter Selz

WEINSTEIN GALLERY


Published by Rowland Weinstein and Weinstein Gallery, San Francisco, in cooperation with the Rudolf Bauer Estate and Archives, San Francisco Published on the occasion of the exhibition Rudolf Bauer: Works on Paper at Weinstein Gallery, May–June 2010 © 2010 Weinstein Gallery. Rudolf Bauer artworks and archive documentation © Rudolf Bauer Estate and Archives. Additional copyright notices below. All rights reserved.

ISBN 978-0-9790207-1-1 Library of Congress Control Number 2010927152

Production and project direction by Briana Tarantino Edited by Jasmine Moorhead Artwork photography by Nick Pishvanov Designed by Linda Corwin, Avantgraphics Printed in the U.S.A. by California Lithographers

Weinstein Gallery 383 Geary Street San Francisco, California 94102 415-362-8151 www.weinstein.com

Barnett Newman artwork © Barnett Newman Foundation/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; digital image © The Museum of Modern Art/Licensed by Scala/Art Resource, New York, and the Museum of Modern Art, New York. Letter from Alfred Barr to Mrs. Solomon Guggenheim, Alfred H. Barr, Jr., Papers, 12.II.3.A., The Museum of Modern Art Archives, New York; image © The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Additional photographs: Rudolf Bauer Estate and Archives, San Francisco; Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum Archives, New York; Rudolf Bauer Papers, 1918–1983, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution; Hilla Rebay Archives, Wessling, Germany.

Front cover: RUDOLF BAUER. RB0567-Untitled (detail). Ink, watercolor, and gouache on paper, 91⁄2 x 8 inches. c. 1918–25 Back cover: RUDOLF BAUER. RB0565-Untitled. Ink and gouache on paper, 117⁄8 x 81⁄8 inches. c. 1915–30


Never was I so impressed instantaneously as when I saw the first Non-Objective painting, a watercolor by Rudolf Bauer. To get such beauty from something that has been produced from the artist’s own imagination appealed to me enormously, because in my business career my object has always been the introduction of something entirely new and created.

— Solomon R. Guggenheim


Rudolf Bauer, Berlin, c. 1917


D O C U M E N TA R I A N S A N D S U RV I V O R S : R U D O L F B A U E R ’ S W O R K S O N PA P E R One of the really interesting aspects of Rudolf Bauer’s art is that his early career is dominated by figurative work. He’s so well known for his abstract work that it’s easy to forget this early period of his career. . . . And it’s interesting to think about these origins because at the very deepest possible sense Bauer’s work is humanist. . . . This is the core foundation of his work, and it’s important to remember that foundation when we come to the later work.

T

—Timothy Anglin Burgard, de Young Museum, San Francisco1

o spend time with Rudolf Bauer’s works on paper is to begin to understand a little more

about this extraordinary artist and to feel all the more keenly that his creative powers cannot be circumscribed by a single term like “Non-Objective” art. It is also to understand the humanity and humor that are integral to his visionary work. For Bauer, drawing and painting on paper was never secondary. It was a constant presence in his life and art. From the very beginning, Bauer made his name and reputation with his works on paper. His early caricatures were featured in popular magazines and newspapers such as Simplicissimus and Figaro. Not only did this represent how Bauer earned his living, it was a key way in which this sometimes reserved and private artist could best connect to the world around him.

Rudolf Bauer’s works on paper at The Museum of Non-Objective Painting, New York

By 1917 Bauer’s career was beginning to flourish, and his works on paper were instrumental to this process. His drawings appeared regularly on the cover of the avant-garde magazine Der Sturm. Then, in the early 1920s, Katherine Dreier acquired thirteen works on paper and the oil painting Andante 5 for the Société Anonyme. This collection brought the most important works of European modern art to the United States for the first time. Dreier later described Bauer’s impact: “We had no artist in those early years whose work so appealed to the public.”2 It was also a watercolor that was requested by Alfred H. Barr, Jr., director of the Museum of Modern Art (see page 6), to be included in the museum’s important Fifth Anniversary Exhibition.3 He had been rebuffed three years earlier by Hilla Rebay with a similar request.4 Perhaps most significantly, it was a Bauer work on paper that first caught the eye of his longtime patron Solomon R. Guggenheim. As Guggenheim explained in a filmed press conference in 1941: “Never was I so impressed instantaneously as when I saw the first Non-Objective painting, a watercolor by Rudolf Bauer. To get such beauty

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from something that has been produced from the artist’s own imagination appealed to me enormously, because in my business career my object has always been the introduction of something entirely new and created.”5 Beyond their reach as ambassadors of Bauer’s reputation, these works on paper are also significant as documentation of a complex historical moment. In the time period surrounding World War I Germany harbored one of the greatest artistic revolutions of the 20th century. As one of the youngest artists associated with Galerie Der Sturm, Bauer was in a unique position to engage with the most innovative avant-garde artists of the time—the German Expressionists, the Futurists, the Cubists including Picasso and Gleizes, as well as the Non-Objective world of Vasily Kandinsky. Bauer integrated each of these diverse influences into his own unique work. By the time of Bauer’s first solo exhibition at Der Sturm in November 1917, the Americans had entered the war and Germany’s defeat was imminent. One month after Bauer’s second solo exhibition in 1918, Germany had lost the war, Kaiser Wilhelm II had abdicated, and the Weimar Republic was born. Germany was sent into a state of disarray both fiscally and culturally. The period has been described as a fourteen-year-long New Year’s Eve Party, alternating between celebration and recovery. Unlike movements before or after it, German Expressionism and the avant-garde art of the Weimar Republic was predominated by works on paper. Oil painting gave way to pencil, charcoal, watercolor, crayon, and gouache. This paper revolution was caused not by simple artistic

Right: Letter from Alfred Barr to Irene Guggenheim requesting a watercolor by Rudolf Bauer for Modern Works of Art: Fifth Anniversary Exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art. Above, the work Abstraction which was ultimately exhibited

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choice but by necessity. It was no longer economically viable for artists living and working in Germany to do involved paintings on canvas in large quantity. There were simply not enough patrons in the position to purchase them. Works on paper provided an opportunity for artists to sell their art cheaply and more frequently with far less of a fiscal commitment on the part of the collector. The primary subject matter of this art was the people themselves. Works on paper gave the artists an opportunity to enter into the lives of their subjects in a new and honest way. As cabarets, theaters, and brothels came to dominate German nightlife, the patrons of and participants in these worlds— women and the men surrounding them—became the central subjects of Bauer’s drawings. Karole Vail, a curator at the Guggenheim Museum, com-

Cabaret life in Berlin during the Weimar era

ments that much of Bauer’s figurative work of this moment in Berlin fits into the satirical tradition of German Expressionists like Otto Dix and George Grosz.6 The up close and personal nature of works on paper gives the viewer an opportunity to see the essence of the individual. As a result of this powerful imagery, simple drawings on paper ascended to the highest level of importance. The subsequent wave of works on paper would go on to define the social and cultural evolution of Germany during the Weimar Republic. The oil paintings that were produced during these years were collected by German museums or resided in the collections of prominent families. Soon after Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany in 1933, he labeled the work of Bauer and his cohorts as “degenerate.” The oils were stripped from the walls of museums and private homes. Many of these seminal works of art were displayed in the Entartete Kunst (Degenerate Art) exhibition of 1937. After that, they were sold at fire-sale prices; if they did not sell, they were destroyed by the Nazis. This act made oil paintings from this period even more scarce. Works on paper, on the other hand, were easier to transport and hide. They found a way to escape and survive. In addition to Bauer’s figurative work, he was creating completely abstract, Non-Objective works on paper. It was in these abstract works that Bauer embraced the visual language of Non-Objectivity as a way to awaken the human spirit and move toward a higher spiritual realm in art. It appears that Bauer worked in both these styles of art simultaneously for about a decade, with the figurative work informing the Non-Objective work and Non-Objective elements being very

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Left: RUDOLF BAUER. Römisches Wagenrennen von Ulpiano Chéca. Ink and gouache on board,111⁄4 x 19 5⁄8 inches. 1905; Right: RUDOLF BAUER. RB0589-Prison Drawing 186. Pencil on paper, 8 x 83⁄4 inches. 1938

prominent in his figurative works. In his Non-Objective works Bauer was able to take risks with new techniques, materials, and symbolic forms. Paper was the perfect vehicle for this approach. Although there can be no question about the grandeur of his oils, there is an intimate, personal side to his Non-Objective works on paper unobtainable in the larger scale work. Some of the most striking examples of Bauer’s Non-Objective work are executed on paper. The works of Rudolf Bauer featured in this exhibition span from 1905–38. In that same time period humanity witnessed the fall of the German monarchy, the Russian monarchy, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and Ottoman Empire. The world felt the impact of the rise of fascism, communism, the final phase of the industrial revolution, and mechanized warfare. Through all of this, these works of art on paper were documentarians and survivors. In many ways we should not have this opportunity: this work should have been sold or destroyed long ago. If not by the hand of man, then by time itself. The story these works tell should have been erased, along with so many great things of this period, but they survived. After spending several months of 1938 in a Berlin prison, Bauer was released with the help of Solomon Guggenheim and Hilla Rebay, his former lover and Guggenheim’s curator. Before he fled Germany for the United States he carefully stored his personal collection of works on paper. After his exile to the U.S. in 1939 he would never see it again. This exhibition is the most complete overview of Bauer’s works on paper since they were put away for safekeeping more than 70 years ago.

ROWLAND WEINSTEIN Weinstein Gallery

NOTES 1. Interview with Timothy Burgard, Ednah Root Curator of American Art, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 2007. 2. Robert L. Herbert, Eleanor S. Apter, and Elise K. Kenney, eds., The Société Anonyme and the Dreier Bequest at Yale University: A Catalogue Raisonné (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1984), p. 56. 3. Letter from Alfred Barr to Irene Guggenheim, November 2, 1944. Alfred H. Barr, Jr. Papers, The Museum of Modern Art Archives. 4. Letter from Hilla Rebay to Bauer, March 30, 1931, quoted in Joan Lukach, Hilla Rebay: In Search of the Spirit in Art (New York: George Braziller, 1983), p. 135. Rebay writes, “The Barr (sic) who is Director of the new museum [MoMA] wants to do an international

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abstract exhibition on one floor of a skyscraper which is known as the ‘new museum.’ It is sponsored by wealthy people and always very crowded. Right now Heckel, Kirchner, Rotluff, Nolde, Kokoschka, Hofer (very good), Dix, Grosz, Klee, Belling, Sintenis and similar sculptors are exhibited there. They had also wanted to borrow Kandinskys and watercolors by you from Guggi [Guggenheim] and me, but I said: refuse, that is no company for you.” 5. Quoted from footage included as part of the 2009 Guggenheimpublished DVD “Art, Architecture, and Innovation: Celebrating the Guggenheim Museum,” Solomon R. Guggenheim Archives, N.Y. 6. Interview with Karole Vail, Assistant Curator, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 2007.


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well remember the Museum of Non-Objective Painting on East 54th Street in Manhattan. There, Solomon R. Guggenheim’s Collection, formerly housed in his suite in the Plaza Hotel,

was exhibited in stately ambience of luxury. The paintings, mostly by Vasily Kandinsky and Rudolf Bauer were set in wide silver-colored frames, hung on gray velour walls, and displayed at knee-height, close to the floor, which was covered with matching thick gray carpet. The paintings were lit with newly invented fluorescent tubes. Music by Bach, Chopin, and Beethoven was piped into this temple of art. At certain unannounced times the Baroness Hilla von Rebay, the Museum’s director and curator, would appear and inform the public that modern art from Manet to Picasso—as exhibited in the nearby Museum of Modern Art—was essentially a preparation for the great Non-Objective art of the future as exemplified by Kandinsky and Bauer. In 1939, MoMA inaugurated its new building on 53rd Street with an exhibition entitled Art in Our Time, but the Guggenheim trumped this with its exhibition The Art of Tomorrow, in accordance with the appellation of the New York 1939 World’s Fair, named World of Tomorrow. I was twenty years old at the time, having arrived from Munich three years earlier, and was somewhat familiar with Kandinsky. But who was Bauer, whose large paintings of rhythmic movement and strong flowing color, were prominently featured in this new museum? I was greatly impressed by The Art of Tomorrow.

Rudolf Bauer paintings in the Museum of Non-Objective Painting, New York

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Rudolf Bauer was born in 1889 in a small town in eastern Germany, which is now part of Poland. In 1904, he settled in Berlin, and like Lyonel Feininger, who, when he first arrived in Berlin, supported himself by sending comic strips to American and German newspapers, and George Grosz, who made caricatures for Esquire magazine, Bauer earned his living by producing cartoons for several of the humor magazines which were so prevalent at the time. He was a talented and highly skilled draftsman who would make drawings with appropriate captions, satirizing the world of fashion, the military, the upper classes, the lower classes, the intelligentsia, etc. In many of his caricatures the comic and the satirical interact. There are delightful drawings of people disporting themselves in scant clothing on the beach and there are clowns and circus scenes. Bauer liked to draw pictures of women with their bosoms partially or fully exposed, encountering strolling gentlemen or seductive hookers walking the streets of Berlin, as well as Rudolf Bauer as a young man

pictures of elegant soirées and hunting parties, drawings of people on their way to the opera and of ordinary types

with large mugs of beer. He drew excellent portraits, including the copy, done in ink and gouache, of the portrait of Friedrich von Schiller, which used to hang in our classrooms in Germany. Bauer continued producing caricatures even after he ridiculed army officers and depicted soldiers shooting from their foxholes. As time went on, he made drawings in which he incorporated Cubo-Futurist elements. In these works, sometimes caustic and sarcastic, Bauer caricatured an epoch. And not all his drawings were humorous. He thought well enough of his caricatures to have them installed in an upstairs room of his own museum, Das Geistreich, in the early 1930s, where they honored the walls surrounding a billiards table and modernist furniture. In 1912 Rudolf Bauer came into his own when he encountered Herwarth Walden and his Sturm circle and saw paintings by Kandinsky and the Italian Futurists. Walden was a great impresario and propagator of new ideas. When many of the old bourgeois values began to crumble in the 20th century, a deep-seated antagonism against foreign culture re-emerged in Wilhelmine Germany and it took extraordinary courage on Walden’s part to open the gates to international modernism. Herwarth Walden was a man who, through his prodigious energy and enthusiasm and the hydra-headed organization which he created, became the catalyst of expressionism in all its guises and of the modern movement in general. He started his enterprise with a journal, Der Sturm, which among many of its contributors published works by August Strindberg, Adolf Loos, Karl Kraus, and

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RUDOLF BAUER. Portrait of Schiller. Ink and gouache on board, 111⁄4 x 195⁄8 inches. 1905


Heinrich Mann. When he first saw paintings by Oskar Kokoschka he brought the young artist from Vienna to Berlin and began printing his work, followed soon thereafter with reproducing paintings by the Brücke artists, who had just arrived in Berlin from Dresden. In 1912 Walden decided to organize the first of hundreds of Sturm exhibitions in his rooms on the Potsdamer Strasse. He added the Munich painters of the Blue Rider to his stable and adopted many of Kandinsky’s ideas about art as well as exhibiting his paintings. Walden introduced the Futurists to Germany, showing their revolutionary paintings and printing their manifesto. Then, in 1913, he created the First German Autumn Salon, which was the first international exhibition embracing all the new trends in art. From France there were paintings by Chagall, the Delaunays, Léger, Picabia; from Italy, all the Futurists; from Russia, the Burliuks, Natalie Goncharova, and Michael Larionoff; Mondrian from the Netherlands; and Klee from Switzerland. America was represented by Lyonel Feininger and Marsden Hartley. Unlike the Armory Show which was mounted in New York the same year and included the moderns among mostly traditional artists, the Sturm exhibition was a great manifestation of what the Guggenheim Collection called years later the “Art of Tomorrow.” The Sturm continued its progressive program during and after the War: there were the “Sturmabende” with lectures and poetry readings; there was the “Sturmschule” which provided training in stage design, poetry, music, as well as painting, and also jobs for young artists like Bauer. The Sturm publishing house issued the writings of Kandinsky, Apollinaire, and others—texts that became seminal to the writings by Bauer and Rebay. During the early years of the Weimar Republic, Walden continued to sponsor artists—Max Ernst, Georg Muche, Kurt Schwitters, László Moholy-Nagy, as well as Rudolf Bauer. Bauer must have been inspired when he saw the first Sturm exhibition in 1912, and soon became part of Walden’s circle. It was there, in 1916, that he first met Hilla Rebay von Ehrenwiesen, and began a life-long, stormy relationship. Bauer’s first design of the cover of the monthly Sturm magazine in May 1917 was in a Cubist style, while the October cover was more fluid and organic. It was in the fall of 1917 that he had his first solo exhibition in the Sturm gallery, which consisted of 120 abstract oil, gouaches, watercolors, drawings, and lithographs. He wrote an introductory text which insisted on a total separation between art and nature and stressed

Interior rooms of Das Geistreich, Berlin

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that the expression of feelings and emotions was the essence of true works of art. He also affirmed the equivalence of music and art. For that reason he gave musical titles, such as Allegretto, Fugal, Presto, Sinfonie, to his canvases in which dynamic floods of strong color gyrate over the surface in energetic movement. Theodor Däubler, poet and eminent critic, wrote with great insight in the Berliner BörsenCourier, “Kandinsky is the first artist, after a long struggle, to discard the object. Bauer was able to instantly produce compositions of painterly-musical feeling. In temperament the significant Russian and the young German are very different. With Kandinsky there is an unexpected blossoming of totally new visions of color. Bauer is close to Cubism and transforms his musical dreams into color. . . . Compared to Kandinsky, his work is more tactile, almost sculptural in character.” In 1918 Bauer had his second solo Sturm exhibition. On that occasion he contributed his essay “The Cosmic Movement” to Walden’s book Expressionism—The Turning Point. In his article Bauer emphasizes again the primacy of feeling in the creative act and proceeds to illustrate graphically ways and means to express different emotions such as calm, restlessness, anger, and doubt by judicious use of line and color. Here he anticipates Kandinsky’s treatise Point and Line to Plane, published by the Bauhaus in 1926, and even Rudolf Arnheim’s more sophisticated text on the grammar of form, based on Gestalt psychology. In 1918, Germany, having lost the War, compelled the Kaiser to abdicate and proclaimed a republic. Artists, in response Der Sturm magazine covers featuring work by Rudolf Bauer

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to the putative November Revolution,


formed the Novembergruppe of painters, sculptors, writers, and architects, in the hope of bringing about a coherent association for a renewal of creative endeavor. Bauer found himself to be among the 22 artists, including Kokoschka, Otto Mueller, Erich Mendelsohn and Max Pechstein, who attended the first meeting in Berlin. Bauer, however, was never active politically during these times of turmoil. The extensive correspondence between Bauer and Rebay also mentions many of the German Dadaists. Richard Hülsenbeck, George Grosz, and Max Ernst were among his acquaintances. He writes about attending the infamous Dada Fair in Berlin and meeting Kurt Schwitters, who wrote an aleatoric chance poem, “Portrait of Rudolf Bauer,” which in his collagist Merz language concludes: “Crackle whirlyfishes first it lets itself be twirled around.” Bauer, however, stayed aloof from the Dadaists, as he did from political art, as he was primarily concerned with

Page from Rudolf Bauer’s 1918 essay “The Cosmic Movement”

his own work and career.

Rudolf Bauer with a group of fellow artists from the “Abstraction” section of the Great Berlin Art Exhibition, c. 1926. Photo published in the newspaper Der Welt Spiegel

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Bauer’s Non-Objective work intrigued Katherine Dreier, whose Société Anonyme included it in its first exhibition in 1920. This was Bauer’s first contact with the American art world. Dreier, with the guidance of Marcel Duchamp and Man Ray, picked up the banner for modern art after Alfred Stieglitz had closed his 291 Gallery in 1917. The Societé Anonyme, which exhibited and acquired some of the best modern European and American art, was the first museum of modern art and it exhibited Bauer’s work again in 1921 and 1928. It was a floating museum without a permanent home, mounting important shows in Brooklyn, Worcester, MA, and Detroit, and it was finally donated to the Yale Art Gallery in 1941. In a letter to Bauer in 1949, Dreier reminded the painter that his work was in her collection and ended cogently: “I hope this does not mean that you have given up your painting, though that can easily happen.” As, indeed it did. In the 1920s and 30s, as Bauer continued to explore the possibilities and opportunities of NonObjective art, his paintings and watercolors, like Kandinsky’s, became more geometric. Solomon R. Guggenheim began to purchase paintings by Bauer under the counsel of Hilla Rebay, who had painted Guggenheim’s portrait in 1928. In addition to acquiring paintings by Bauer, Guggenheim also appointed him as his agent for the acquisition of abstract paintings by leading European artists. In 1930 Bauer was able to establish his own private museum of NonObjective painting in Berlin which he called Das Geistreich (“The Realm of the Spirit”). It was meant to be a temple of the art of the future with paintings by Kandinsky, Rebay, and many of Bauer’s own. The villa was surrounded by a park and became a fashionable salon. In a report in the Berliner Tageblatt (March 8, 1934) we read about a tea party for a small circle of the elite,

Das Geistreich, Berlin

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which included a princess, a state secretary, a field marshal, and various aristocrats. In 1930, Bauer took a trip to Dessau to finally meet Kandinsky at the Bauhaus. He also began to enjoy an international reputation. His painting Symphony (c. 1929) from the Guggenheim Collection was featured on the cover of the October 1933 Bulletin of the Museum of Modern Art, announcing the Museum’s exhibition of Cubism and Abstract Art. The following year a Bauer painting was included in the Museum’s important show Modern Works of Art: Fifth Anniversary Exhibition. Two years later Rebay organized a traveling exhibition of the Guggenheim Collection which opened in Charleston, South Carolina, and went on to Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Chicago. Bauer himself came to America to see the exhibition in which he was represented with sixty paintings. Among other artists in this initial show were Kandinsky, Rebay, Moholy-Nagy, Paul Klee, and Albert Gleizes. In 1937, after returning from

RUDOLF BAUER. Sinfonie 23. Oil on canvas, 291⁄2 x 39 1⁄ 2 inches. 1919

Paris where several of his paintings were included in an exhibition at the Jeu de Paume, he found that the Nazis had closed Das Geistreich and, having been denounced by a Nazi member of his family, he was arrested by the Gestapo in 1938, for being a “Degenerate Artist” and for speculating in foreign currency. During his time in jail the painter produced a series of remarkable geometric drawings. It took the intervention of Bauer’s friend and mentor F.T. Marinetti, members of the von Rebay family, as well as lawyers and dollars from Guggenheim to have him released, and in 1939 he sailed for the U.S., never to return to Germany. The Museum of Non-Objective Painting opened in its own location in New York in June 1939. The gallery concept and design were in keeping with Bauer’s Geistreich. The permanent collection included Moholy-Nagy, Balcomb Greene, Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart, Rolph Scarlett, Maria Vieira da Silva, Jean Xceron, and, of course, Hilla von Rebay, a large number of Kandinskys, as well as 215 Rudolf Bauers. It constituted a major collection of mostly Non-Objective work. Under Rebay’s direction, it also presented 74 temporary shows and numerous traveling exhibitions between 1939 and 1952. The list of artists in these exhibitions constitutes a compendium of just about all of the European and American modernists. The temporary space on 54th Street was also the venue of lectures and of abstract films by Viking Eggeling, Oskar Fischinger, Norman McLaren, Hans Richter, James Whitney, and Thomas Wilfred.

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Left: RUDOLF BAUER. The Holy One (Red Point). Oil on canvas, 513⁄8 x 513⁄8 inches. 1936. Collection of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York; Right: Trylon and Perisphere, New York World’s Fair, Flushing Meadows, Queens, New York, 1939–40

Rudolf Bauer’s painting, The Holy One (Red Point) (1936) with its tall red pyramid standing next to a large yellow circle, was featured on the cover of the Guggenheim Collection’s catalogue for the second Charleston show (1938) and again appeared as the frontispiece of the first NY show. It was undoubtedly the inspiration for Wallace Harrison’s Trylon and Perisphere, the logo of the 1939 World’s Fair. In this context it is worth noting that Bauer’s painting Blue Triangle (1934), in which a squat pyramid serves as the base for an upside-down obelisk, appears like a two-dimensional model for Barnett Newman’s famed sculpture, Broken Obelisk (1963–69). Certainly, there is an affinity. Bauer’s geometric paintings were related to the hard-edge paintings of his time, to the Abstraction-Creation and Circle et Carré in Paris and the American Abstract Artists group, founded in New York in 1936. Again, Bauer stayed aloof from joining these compatible associations. Rudolf Bauer had turned to geometric abstraction in the late 1920s. His paintings, watercolors, gouaches, and drawings were now done with mathematical precision. He created compositions of circles and squares, rectangles and triangles, targets and vectors, spirals, ellipses and ovoids, as well as free forms and doodles, arranged in rigorous formal order. While related to Kandinsky’s painting of the Bauhaus and Paris periods, Bauer’s paintings do not turn to oriental splendor, but his canvases have a great sense of the real; many of them actually are not all that non-objective. A blue circle is a circle of blue color and a black triangle is just that, looking ahead, so it seems to me, to later minimal painting. Furthermore, Bauer, the former caricaturist, frequently admits humor, indeed, a sense of wit, into his pictures. There is no doubt that Bauer was a fine painter who produced work of great merit. His career was not helped, however, by the Baroness’s unrestrained adulation. We read in her essay in The Art

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Left: RUDOLF BAUER. Blue Triangle. Oil on canvas, 51 x 50 inches. 1934. Collection of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York; Right: BARNETT NEWMAN. Broken Obelisk. Cor-ten steel, in two parts, 24 feet 10 inches x 10 feet 11 inches x 10 feet 11 inches. 1963–69. Collection of the Museum of Modern Art, New York, and installed in the museum’s Donald B. and Catherine C. Marron Atrium

of Tomorrow catalogue that “in this collection is represented the development of a genius, the greatest of all painters, spiritually the most advanced artist whose influence leads in the future. Rudolf Bauer, whose every work of Non-objectivity is an accomplished masterpiece and so extraordinarily organized that no form, no point, could be eliminated or changed without upsetting the perfect organization of his creation.” Rebay’s infatuation with Bauer and Bauer’s good personal relation with Solomon Guggenheim, his chief patron, led him to believe that he would have a major voice in the direction of the new museum, which, he hoped, would be a great temple of art in the New World, based on his Geistreich in Berlin. He also expected to have a major say in the selection of its architect. But Rebay consulted with Walter Gropius and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Wallace Harrison, and for some time with the visionary Frederick Kiesler, who had migrated to Rudolf Bauer and Filippo Tommaso Marinetti at Bauer’s Das Geistreich Museum in Berlin, 1930s

New York in 1931 and was

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brought to Rebay’s attention by the distinguished art dealer, J.B. Neumann. In 1943, however, she contacted Frank Lloyd Wright, who, she felt was the man for the job. In this same year, America’s greatest architect and one of its richest men, Solomon R. Guggenheim, signed the contract, where upon the copper magnate purchased the property on Fifth Avenue at 89th Street, facing Central Park, where the Guggenheim Museum stands today. Soon after his arrival in America Bauer signed a contract with Guggenheim to trade 110 works and the eventual donation of his entire estate to the Guggenheim Foundation in exchange for a monthly stipend, a mansion in Deal, N.J., facing the Atlantic ocean and a Duesenberg car. It appears that Bauer, not well versed in English at the time, signed this document upon Rebay’s guidance, but soon regretted what he had done, realizing that he signed away his life’s work for a relatively low annual retainer. He felt that he had been cheated and blamed his former lover, Rebay, who in 1943 was briefly detained by the U.S. government as an “enemy alien.” Their relationship deteriorated and they wrote resentful, angry letters, full of accusations and recriminations. Bauer, also penned antagonistic, inFernand Léger, Hilla Rebay, Hans Richter, and Rudolf Bauer, at Rebay's home in Greens Farms, Connecticut, c. 1941

sulting letters to Mr. Wright, which the architect evidently never bothered to answer. In 1944, Bauer married his

former housekeeper and also sued Rebay for slander, which was the final expression of his animus. During the last fourteen years of his life, the painter never picked up a brush again. Solomon Guggenheim died in 1949, and Hilla Rebay was forced to resign three years later when James Johnson Sweeney was appointed director of the Foundation. He dismantled the unique treatment of the space and framing of the paintings and painted the walls white. When he presided at the opening of the Frank Lloyd Wright building, there were no Bauers on the slanting walls, even though he was still highly regarded in Germany. In 1950 an article in Leipzig’s Zeitschrift für Kunst called “Painting in the Spirit of Music” signifies him—together with Rebay, Moholy-Nagy, and Morris Graves as leading abstract painters in America. At the new Museum, however, things looked dismal for the artist. He received a letter from Jerome Ashmore, professor of philosophy at Columbia University, who reported to him in 1953 that “much of the work shown is mainly of value to a pedantic historian of art. Of the cosmic spirituality reflected in your

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work there is none. . . . The exhibition hanging in that Fifth Avenue location today takes the observer no place while you take the observer to eternity.” It took years to reinstate Bauer’s reputation as a modernist painter of significance. It must be remembered that his private museum in Berlin served as the model for the original venue of the Guggenheim Collection and that his painting Blue Triangle predicted one of the icons of modernist American sculpture. It was not until 1968 that his paintings were shown again at the Guggenheim museum in a tribute to Rebay. Then, in 1969 and 1970, there were solo exhibitions at the Galerie Gmurzyska in Cologne and at Hutton-Hutschnecker in New York, followed by shows in Brussels, Wiesbaden, and London. In 1987, Thomas M. Messer, who succeeded Sweeney as the Guggenheim’s director for many years, observed that, “There was a time when the works of Rudolf Bauer were exhibited too often at this institution. I believe we are now coming out of a time when his work has been exhibited too little.” Aside from shows in Milan, Berlin, Stuttgart, London, Zurich, Chicago, and elsewhere, Bauer’s work returned to the Guggenheim in 2003 in its reprise of The Art of Tomorrow, an exhibition that was shown in New York, Munich, Murnau, and Berlin. After many years of disregard, Bauer is finally reinstated in his place as an eminent figure in the history of abstract painting. To quote William Faulkner: “The past is never dead, it’s not even past.”

About the author: Peter Selz is a distinguished art historian, whose expertise ranges from German Expressionism to kinetic art to California modernism. Born in Germany, Selz emigrated to the United States in 1936 and obtained his doctorate at the University of Chicago. He is the author of the 1957 German Expressionist Painting, one of the first English-language books on that subject. He became Chief Curator in the Department of Painting and Sculpture at the Museum of Modern Art in 1958, leaving in 1964 to become the founding director of the Berkeley Art Museum and professor of the History of Art at UC Berkeley. He currently lives and works in Berkeley.

RUDOLF BAUER REVISITED

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P L AT E S

RB1251-Untitled Gouache and ink on board 125⁄8 x 187⁄8 inches c. 1905

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB2191-Untitled Watercolor, pastel, gouache, and ink on paper 223⁄4 x 123⁄4 inches c. 1918–25

WORKS ON PAPER

21


RB1721-Eier Ausverkavft (Eggs Clearance Sale) Pastel, watercolor, gouache, and ink on paper 101⁄8 x 81⁄4 inches c. 1914–25

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB0646-Untitled Watercolor on paper 163⁄8 x 143⁄8 inches c. 1910–25

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB1992-Untitled Gouache, pencil, and ink on paper 151⁄4 x 101⁄4 inches c. 1918–25

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RUDOLF BAUER

RB1990-Untitled Pencil on paper 151⁄8 x 113⁄8 inches c. 1918–25


RB2240-Untitled Watercolor, gouache, ink, and pencil on paper 187⁄8 x 135⁄8 inches c. 1910–13

WORKS ON PAPER

25


RB0631-Untitled Gouache, watercolor, and pencil on paper 161⁄4 x 12 inches c. 1910–12

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RUDOLF BAUER

RB1694-Untitled Watercolor and pencil on paper 151⁄8 x 113⁄8 inches c. 1910–12


RB0659-Untitled Charcoal on paper 181⁄2 x 16 3⁄8 inches c. 1915–25

RB1653-Untitled Pastel, gouache, and ink on paper 12 1⁄8 x 11 inches c. 1915–25

WORKS ON PAPER

27


RB1446-Keipa Pastel, ink, and pencil on paper 111⁄4 x 87⁄8 inches c. 1918–25

RB2350-Beulchen Watercolor, gouache, and pastel on paper 97⁄8 x 8 inches c. 1918–25

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB0566-Untitled Ink and gouache on paper 121⁄2 x 85⁄8 inches c. 1915–25

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB1789-Untitled Pastel, watercolor, gouache, ink, and pencil on paper 18 x 107â „8 inches c. 1933

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB1466-Maxe Watercolor, pastel, gouache, and ink on paper 12 x 81⁄4 inches c. 1918–25

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB2314-Untitled Watercolor, gouache, and ink on paper 121⁄2 x 111⁄2 inches c. 1918–25

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB1971-Untitled Watercolor, pastel, gouache, colored pencil, and ink on paper 85⁄8 x 117⁄8 inches c. 1918–25

RB1555-Untitled Collage, pastel, gouache, and ink on paper 97⁄8 x 133⁄4 inches c. 1918–25

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB2244-Untitled Watercolor, gouache, and ink on paper 203⁄4 x 171⁄8 inches c. 1910–15

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB1701-Wasserstoffsuperoxyd (Water-material-super-oxide) Watercolor, gouache, and ink on paper 101⁄2 x 81⁄2 inches c. 1912–25

RB1678-Untitled Watercolor, pastel, and gouache on paper 81⁄4 x 127⁄8 inches c. 1912–25

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB2546-Untitled Watercolor, gouache, pastel, ink, and pencil on paper 193⁄8 x 91⁄2 inches c. 1918–25

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RUDOLF BAUER

RB1588-Untitled Watercolor, gouache, and pencil on paper 93⁄4 x 43⁄4 inches c. 1918–25


RB2400-Untitled Chalk and charcoal on paper 191⁄2 x 157⁄8 inches c. 1912–25

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB1934-Untitled Pastel and charcoal on paper 161⁄4 x 101⁄2 inches c. 1910–18

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB1935-Untitled Pastel and charcoal on paper 173⁄4 x 113⁄8 inches c. 1910–18

RB1963-Untitled Pastel and charcoal on paper 163⁄4 x 117⁄8 inches c. 1910–18

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB1585-Ankara Pastel, gouache, and pencil on paper 12 x 51⁄8 inches c. 1910–18

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB1461-Untitled Pastel and pencil on paper 141⁄2 x 101⁄2 inches c. 1910–18

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB1944-Untitled Watercolor, pastel, gouache, and pencil on paper 191⁄4 x 10 3⁄4 inches c. 1918–25

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RUDOLF BAUER

RB1986-Untitled Pastel, colored pencil, and pencil on paper 17 3⁄4 x 111⁄8 inches c. 1918–25


RB1995-Untitled Watercolor, gouache, pastel, and ink on paper 145⁄8 x 101⁄8 inches c. 1910–25

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB2233-Untitled Pastel and charcoal on paper 241⁄8 x 151⁄2 inches c. 1910–25

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RUDOLF BAUER

RB0599-Untitled Gouache and watercolor on paper 18 x 103⁄4 inches c. 1914–25


RB0552-Untitled Gouache and pastel on paper 181⁄2 x 13 inches c. 1914–25

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB2634-Untitled Pastel and charcoal on paper 227⁄8 x 187⁄8 inches c. 1910–20

RB2179-Untitled Pastel, gouache, charcoal, and ink on paper 207⁄8 x 16 inches c. 1910–20

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB2189-Untitled Pastel and charcoal on paper 211⁄4 x 16 inches c. 1912–25

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB1998-Untitled Pastel and gouache on paper 201⁄4 x 161⁄4 inches c. 1910–20

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB2222-Untitled Pastel and charcoal on paper 22 x 183⁄4 inches c. 1910–20

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB1250-Untitled Pastel and ink on paper 19 x 217⁄8 inches c. 1910–20

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB2418-Untitled Charcoal on paper 221⁄2 x 16 inches c. 1910–24

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB2192-Untitled Pastel, gouache, charcoal, and ink on paper 201⁄2 x 157⁄8 inches c. 1918–25

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB1978-Untitled Watercolor, gouache, ink, and pencil on paper 181⁄8 x 121⁄2 inches c. 1914–18

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB1854-Untitled Charcoal and ink on paper 185⁄8 x 113⁄8 inches c. 1910–18

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RUDOLF BAUER

RB2145-Untitled Charcoal on paper 235⁄8 x 151⁄2 inches c. 1914–18


RB0090-Von Bismarck, Kaiser Wilhelm II, and Von Hindenburg Watercolor and ink on card 143⁄4 x 93⁄4 inches c. 1910–18

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB2287-Untitled Watercolor, charcoal, and pencil 143⁄4 x 111⁄4 inches c. 1914–18

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB2283-Untitled Watercolor, pastel, gouache, and charcoal on paper 165⁄8 x 111⁄2 inches c. 1914–18

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB2178-Untitled Pastel and charcoal on paper 161⁄2 x 223⁄4 inches c. 1914–18

RB2186-Untitled Pastel and charcoal on paper 151⁄2 x 241⁄8 inches c. 1914–18

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB2238-Untitled Pastel, gouache, and ink on paper 243⁄4 x 153⁄8 inches c. 1914–18

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB2146-Untitled Charcoal on paper 221⁄2 x 19 inches c. 1914–18

RB2143-Untitled Pastel and charcoal on paper 205⁄8 x 183⁄4 inches c. 1914–18

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB0645-Furios kampfender Soldat Pastel and ink on paper 15 x 12 inches c. 1914–18

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB1240-Untitled Ink on paper 41⁄4 x 127⁄8 inches c. 1905–25

RB1201-Untitled Charcoal on paper (with watermark) 93⁄8 x 185⁄8 inches c. 1910–18

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB1249-Untitled Pastel, gouache, and ink on paper 145⁄8 x 111⁄2 inches c. 1916–25

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB0042-Portrait of Josef Giampietro Pastel on paper 22 x 16 inches c. 1913–20

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB0145-Untitled Ink and gouache on paper 113⁄4 x 151⁄4 inches c. 1915–25

RB1917-Untitled Watercolor and gouache on paper 163⁄4 x 103⁄4 inches c. 1915–25

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB1617-Untitled Watercolor, gouache, and ink on paper 9 x 65⁄8 inches c. 1914–20

RB2012-Untitled Pastel and charcoal on paper 163⁄4 x 183⁄4 inches c. 1916–25

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB1991-Untitled Gouache, charcoal, and pencil on paper 187⁄8 x 131⁄2 inches c. 1910–20

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB1355-Untitled Watercolor, gouache, and ink on paper 153⁄4 x 11 inches c. 1918–22

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB0626-Untitled Gouache and pen on paper 171⁄8 x 121⁄8 inches c. 1912–25

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB2373-Untitled Charcoal and chalk on paper 17 x 113⁄8 inches c. 1912–20

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RUDOLF BAUER

RB1206-Untitled Ink and gouache on paper 73⁄4 x 57⁄8 inches c. 1916–24


RB1210-Untitled Ink and gouache on paper 141⁄2 x 113⁄8 inches c. 1916–25

WORKS ON PAPER

71


RB1680-Kabluka Notuka Pastel, gouache, ink, and pencil on japon paper 103⁄4 x 85⁄8 inches c. 1918–25

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB2588-Untitled Watercolor, gouache, pastel, and ink on paper 13 x 95⁄8 inches c. 1918–25

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB1977-Halb und Halb (Half and Half) Watercolor, gouache, and ink on paper 125⁄8 x 85⁄8 inches c. 1918–25

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB1828-Untitled Watercolor, gouache, ink, and pencil on paper 143⁄4 x 93⁄4 inches c. 1918–25

RB2630-Untitled Pastel, gouache, and charcoal on paper 201⁄2 x 161⁄4 inches c. 1910–16 WORKS ON PAPER

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RB1948-Untitled Watercolor on paper 12 x 83⁄4 inches c. 1912–20

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RUDOLF BAUER

RB2326-Mary E. Watercolor, gouache, and ink on paper 121⁄2 x 9 inches c. 1912–20


RB1134-Untitled Gouache on paper 177⁄8 x 111⁄2 inches c. 1912–20

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB1658-Untitled Gouache and ink on paper 111⁄8 x 85⁄8 inches c. 1916–25

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RUDOLF BAUER

RB1317-Philippi Gouache and ink on paper 103⁄4 x 73⁄8 inches c. 1916–25


RB2030-In tamengesellschaft Watercolor, gouache, pastel, and ink on paper 103⁄4 x 83⁄4 inches c. 1916–25

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB1610-Y Colored pencil, gouache, and ink on paper 147⁄8 x 121⁄2 inches c. 1916–25

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB1482-Untitled Gouache and ink on paper 81⁄4 x 11 inches c. 1916–25

RB1393-Untitled Gouache and ink on paper 81⁄8 x 71⁄4 inches c. 1916–25

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB1400-Untitled Gouache and ink on paper 103⁄16 x 83⁄8 inches c. 1916–25

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RUDOLF BAUER

RB1009-Untitled Pastel, ink, and gouache on paper 171⁄2 x 111⁄2 inches c. 1916–25


RB1649-Untitled Ink on paper 121⁄4 x 91⁄2 inches c. 1916–25

WORKS ON PAPER

83


RB2399-Untitled Chalk and ink on paper 191⁄2 x 10 1⁄4 inches c. 1910–20

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB2577-Untitled Watercolor, gouache, pastel, and ink on paper 81⁄2 x 81⁄4 inches c. 1916–25

WORKS ON PAPER

85


RB2395-Untitled Gouache, pastel, and ink on paper 181⁄4 x 6 inches c. 1918–25

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB2620-Untitled Watercolor, gouache, and ink on paper 181⁄2 x 12 inches c. 1918–25

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB2327-Violetta Watercolor, gouache, charcoal, and pencil on paper 125⁄8 x 71⁄2 inches c. 1920–25

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB1262-Untitled Ink and gouahe on paper 111⁄2 x 8 inches c. 1916–25

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB2706-Untitled Lithograph with remark (Ink marker) 95⁄8 x 53⁄8 inches c. 1914–25

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB2616-Untitled Ink on paper 211⁄2 x 165⁄8 inches c. 1912–25

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB1035-Untitled Gouache on board 243⁄4 x 171⁄2 inches c. 1916–25

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RUDOLF BAUER

RB1565-Untitled Watercolor, gouache, and ink on paper 115⁄8 x 5 inches c. 1916–25


RB1078-Untitled Gouache and ink on paper 163⁄4 x 103⁄4 inches c. 1916–25

RB1613-Untitled Gouache and ink on paper 10 x 61⁄2 inches c. 1916–25

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB2614-Untitled Gouache, pastel, ink, and pencil on paper 91⁄2 x 73⁄4 inches c. 1916–25

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB2403-Untitled Pastel, gouache, and ink on paper 181⁄4 x 91⁄8 inches c. 1916–25

RB2318-Untitled Watercolor, gouache, and ink on paper 123⁄8 x 7 1⁄4 inches c. 1916–25

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB1063-Untitled Pastel, ink, pencil, and charcoal on japon paper 141⁄4 x 103⁄4 inches c. 1916–25

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RUDOLF BAUER

RB1655-Lebrun Pastel and ink on japon paper 103⁄4 x 81⁄2 inches c. 1916–25


RB1657-Untitled Watercolor, pastel, gouache, and ink on japon paper 81⁄2 x 105⁄8 inches c. 1918–30

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB1232-Untitled Ink on paper 16 x 101⁄2 inches c. 1916–25

RB1105-Untitled Pastel, gouache, ink, and charcoal on paper 111⁄2 x 151⁄4 inches c. 1914–19

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB1652-Untitled Pastel and pencil on paper 101⁄8 x 101⁄8 inches c. 1918–25

WORKS ON PAPER

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RB1015-Untitled Ink and gouache on paper 177⁄8 x 11 inches c. 1916–25

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RUDOLF BAUER

RB1029-Untitled Ink on paper 141⁄4 x 103⁄4 inches c. 1918–25


RB2537-Untitled Ink on paper 171⁄8 x 10 inches c. 1918–25

WORKS ON PAPER

101


RB1380-Untitled Ink on paper 101⁄4 x 7 inches c. 1912–20

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB1882-Untitled Gouache and ink on paper 14 x 10 5⁄8 inches c. 1912–20

WORKS ON PAPER

103


RB1780-Untitled Ink on paper 203⁄4 x 153⁄4 inches c. 1916–25

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RUDOLF BAUER

RB1883-Untitled Ink on paper 153⁄4 x 103⁄4 inches c. 1916–25


RB2621-Untitled Gouache and ink on board 26 x 181⁄2 inches c. 1916–25

WORKS ON PAPER

105


RB1158-Untitled Ink on paper 111⁄8 x 111⁄4 inches c. 1914–20

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB1728-Untitled Gouache and ink on paper 155⁄8 x 107⁄8 inches c. 1912–18

WORKS ON PAPER

107


RB4009-Untitled Ink and pencil on paper (Ink proof master) 151⁄8 x 101⁄2 inches c. 1912–17

108

RUDOLF BAUER

RB4040-Untitled India ink, China ink, and pencil on paper (Ink proof master) 17 x 115⁄8 inches c. 1914–25


RB1268-Untitled Ink and pencil on paper (Ink proof master) 12 x 6 inches c. 1915–20

WORKS ON PAPER

109


RB2713-Untitled Ink and pencil on paper (Ink proof master) 133⁄8 x 61⁄8 inches c. 1913–20

110

RUDOLF BAUER


RB0510-Untitled Colored pencil on paper 93⁄8 x 121⁄2 inches c. 1925–38

WORKS ON PAPER

111


RB2648-Untitled Ink on paper 181⁄4 x 115⁄8 inches c. 1916–25

112

RUDOLF BAUER


RB2681 Ink on board (Ink proof master) 151⁄4 x 9 inches c. 1914–25

WORKS ON PAPER

113


RB1339-Untitled Ink on paper 123⁄8 x 91⁄4 inches c. 1916–21

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB1223-Untitled Ink on paper 123⁄8 x 75⁄8 inches c. 1916–21

WORKS ON PAPER

115


RB1420-Untitled Ink on paper 91⁄8 x 8 inches c. 1916–25

116

RUDOLF BAUER


RB1373-Untitled Ink on paper 125⁄8 x 91⁄2 inches c. 1916–30

WORKS ON PAPER

117


RB1211-Untitled Ink on paper 115⁄8 x 93⁄4 inches c. 1916–25

118

RUDOLF BAUER


RB1770-Untitled Pencil on japon paper 171⁄8 x 133⁄4 inches c. 1920–30

WORKS ON PAPER

119


RB1431-Untitled Ink and pencil on paper 15 x 101⁄4 inches c. 1920–30

120

RUDOLF BAUER


RB1290-Untitled Gouache, ink, and pencil on paper 171⁄4 x 125⁄8 inches c. 1925–38

WORKS ON PAPER

121


RB1153-Untitled Watercolor on paper 19 x 251⁄2 inches c. 1916–20

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB1274-Untitled Watercolor and gouache on paper 181⁄4 x 113⁄8 inches c. 1918–24

WORKS ON PAPER

123


RB2673-Untitled Watercolor and gouache on paper 181⁄2 x 113⁄4 inches c. 1918–24

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB0592-Untitled Gouache on paper 13 x 81⁄2 inches c. 1916–20

WORKS ON PAPER

125


RB0652-Komposition Watercolor, pencil, colored pencil, and gouache on paper 61⁄2 x 103⁄8 inches c. 1915–25

126

RUDOLF BAUER


RB0593-Lyrische Komposition Pastel and watercolor on paper 121⁄4 x 191⁄4 inches c. 1915–24

WORKS ON PAPER

127


RB2678-Untitled Watercolor, gouache, and ink on paper 15 3⁄4 x 23 5⁄8 inches c. 1925–30

128

RUDOLF BAUER


Two Counterpoints Watercolor, tempera, and ink on paper 125⁄8 x 85⁄8 inches 1926

WORKS ON PAPER

129


RB0387-Untitled Watercolor on paper 171⁄8 x 121⁄2 inches c. 1918–26

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RUDOLF BAUER


RB1422-Untitled Watercolor and gouache on paper 13 x 93⁄4 inches c. 1917–25

WORKS ON PAPER

131


RB1160-Untitled Pastel on paper 71⁄4 x 11 inches c. 1916–25

132

RUDOLF BAUER


RB0653-Untitled Gouache, ink, and pencil on paper 191⁄2 x 123⁄4 inches c. 1918–30

WORKS ON PAPER

133


RB1287-Untitled Watercolor, gouache, and ink on paper 193⁄4 x 123⁄4 inches c. 1918–30

134

RUDOLF BAUER

RB0655-Untitled Gouache on paper 171⁄4 x 125⁄8 inches c. 1918–30


RB0654-Untitled Gouache on paper 183⁄8 x 125⁄8 inches c. 1920–30

WORKS ON PAPER

135


RB0657-Untitled Gouache and colored crayon on paper 19 x 125⁄8 inches c. 1918–25

136

RUDOLF BAUER


RB2672-Untitled Pastel, gouache, and pencil on paper 20 x 13 inches c. 1918–25

WORKS ON PAPER

137


RB2660-Untitled Watercolor and gouache on paper 243⁄4 x 19 inches c. 1916–24

138

RUDOLF BAUER


RB1437-Untitled Watercolor, gouache, and pencil on paper 13 x 81⁄8 inches c. 1914–25

WORKS ON PAPER

139


RB1172-Untitled Watercolor, gouache, pastel, ink, colored pencil, and pencil on paper 191⁄4 x 121⁄2 inches c. 1920–26

140

RUDOLF BAUER


RB0384-Untitled Watercolor, gouache, and crayon on paper 203⁄4 x 15 inches c. 1925–30

WORKS ON PAPER

141


RB0359-Untitled Pastel, colored pencil, and ink on paper 20 x 147⁄8 inches c. 1920–25

142

RUDOLF BAUER


RB0371-Happy Watercolor, ink, tempera, and conte crayon on paper 171⁄8 x 123⁄4 inches 1925

WORKS ON PAPER

143


RB0207-Prison Drawing 10 (double-sided) Pencil on paper 61⁄4 x 61⁄2 inches 1938 RB0586-Prison Drawing 183 Pencil on paper 6 x 81⁄4 inches 1938

RB0207-Prison Drawing 10 (side 2)

RB0581-Prison Drawing 178 Pencil on paper 61⁄2 x 81⁄4 inches 1938

RB0216-Prison Drawing 19 Pencil on paper 41⁄2 x 6 inches 1938

RB0223-Prison Drawing 26 Pencil on paper 51⁄2 x 7 inches 1938

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RUDOLF BAUER

RB0222-Prison Drawing 25 Pencil on paper 6 x 9 inches 1938



Rudolf Bauer: Works on Paper