Three Perspectives: Through Their Eyes
Part One Future Fears + the Secret to Success
Part Two Drop it Like it’s Hot: How They Spend It
Part Three Booze-lite: Sober Socialites + the End of Hedonism
Part Four Bite or Flight: The New Landscape of Food + Drink
Part Five Hitting the Right Notes: Music, Brands + Influence
Part Six Getting Tech Close + Personal: Technology, Connections + Dating
Part Seven Your Formula Doesn’t Fit: Get Right with Your Audience
Contributors About the Agency
About the Author
We are Amplify. We are Campaign and The Drum’s brand experience agency of the year.
Krupali Cescau is Brand Director at Amplify and a regular speaker at brand, marketing and youth culture events. She has over 17 years strategic experience spanning law, business consultancy and advertising, working with some of the biggest brand in the world. She has spent a lot of that time following and writing about youth culture trends, technology and ethics.
We put the audience at the heart of what we do, starting with real people, not demographics. We join the dots between people, brands and culture for some of the most innovative and progressive brands in the world - including Airbnb, Google, Nike, PlayStation, Red Bull, Sonos and Spotify.
Young Blood, and the power of youth culture is her passion. Please feel free to contact her if you want to chat further or find out more: email@example.com
To find out more about how we think and do, head to www.weareamplify.com
About the Filmmaker
The Young Blood Series
Bexy Cameron is Amplify’s Head of Content. From documentaries to branded content and short films to commercials her work offers an eye on identity, global issues, insights on youth culture, and an authentic voice which has helped brands such as Nike, Adidas, Converse, YouTube, Google, and Channel 4 to connect to with this sought after audience.
Young Blood is Amplify’s ongoing and ever-growing platform – exploring and celebrating modern British youth culture. As an agency, it’s vital we’re at the forefront of the inspirational but ever-changing attitudes of youth for today, and for tomorrow. The original Young Blood research debuted in 2016 in a white paper, book, seven-part film series and talks. This insight ensured our work was strategically and creatively stronger. More importantly it gave a platform to this creative, thoughtful and pragmatic but often misunderstood audience.
Her documentary work includes writing and conceptualising a Channel 4 series, as well as films investigating religious cults, fan culture, gender, female empowerment, youth culture and the music industry. She has a master’s in cultural studies, was creative director of MySpace and regularly does talks on the future of content and youth culture.
But the world moves quickly on… In 2018 we return with a further deep dive into the hopes, fears and realities of 2,023 18-30 year olds, spanning genders, regions, ethnicities and socio-economic status groups. We know it’s vital for brands to look outside the M25, not just focus on London’s perceived influencers.
About the Photographer Jake Millers is a UK based photographer specialising in fashion and portraiture – working in digital and analogue format.
For Young Blood 2 we asked tough questions. In return we got some frank and equally hard-to-hear answers. This is a good thing. Here lies the beauty of giving your audience a platform to express themselves and how they feel about the state of the world…
Check out more of his work at www.jakemillers.com
Jonathan Emmins | Founder, Amplify
What a difference two years makes.
a positive life experience. They are more aware and understanding of world issues, more political and more future-focussed than we have seen.
Our young audience has done some serious growing up. From the optimism and hopefulness we saw in 2016 we are now experiencing a shift into a more serious, introspective approach. Since Trump and Brexit, they seem to be losing a little of their innocence when it comes to faith in their global family. Their previous despondency towards government and religion has started seeping into their perception of people in general.
They have started to re-evaluate consumerism, and it may not stop them from buying but it does mean brands are going to have to work harder to connect with them. Brands will need to find genuine needs to fill as the focus for retail shifts back to utilitarian purpose: price, quality and design. They will need to tell these stories compellingly and provide opportunities to engage with products and brands in real life.
Not that the prognosis is entirely gloomy. More of our 18-30 year olds are looking internally for happiness and validation than before and becoming more reliant on themselves to create
Across the socioeconomic groups, todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s junior professionals are proving to be the most galvanised, forward thinking and liberal, giving us hope for the leaders of tomorrow.
A mixed methodology approach, using a slightly older audience than our 2016 research (which covered 13-25 year olds). The research was undertaken using an independent online survey agency (Censuswide abide by and employ members of the Market Research Society which is based on the ESOMAR principles) for Stage 1 and a combination of freelance qualitative researchers and internal resource for Stage 2. STAGE 1: Quantitative research of a robust, random sample across the UK, broken down by gender, age, region, city, ethnicity and socioeconomic demographic. Total participants 2,007 respondents aged 18-30
37 in Northern Ireland 140 in Scotland 263 in the South East 176 in the South West 98 in Wales 189 in Yorkshire and the Humber
Breakdown by gender 626 males and 1,381 females Breakdown by age group 600 18-21 year olds 582 22-25 year olds 825 26-30 year olds
Breakdown by socioeconomic group 80 Higher managerial, administrative or professional (A) 296 Intermediate managerial, administrative or professional (B) 538 Supervisory or clerical, junior managerial, administrative or professional (C) 255 Skilled manual workers (D) 407 Semi-skilled and unskilled manual workers (E) 431 Casual or lowest grade workers, and others who depend on the welfare state for their income (F)
Breakdown by region 138 in the East of England 228 in London 179 in the East Midlands 208 in the West Midlands 113 in the North East 238 in the North West
Stage 1 ran from 15.5.18 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 22.5.18 and respondents were paid a standard survey fee
STAGE 2: Qualitative research using telephone interviews, face to face interactions and auto-ethnography from a mainstream sample of 16 x 18-30-year-olds across the UK. Stage 2 ran from 11.6.18 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 6.7.18 and all respondents were paid a standard ethnography fee
STAGE 3: To further bring our findings to life we deep dived into the lives of 3 individuals who we felt represented a spread of our audience and filmed them for further content and opinion. Stage 3 ran from 1.7.18 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 21.7.18 and respondents were paid a standard fee
Three Perspectives: Through Their Eyes
Maclean Sem, 20
Maclean lives in Kennington with his parents and sister. He is at uni studying international relations and in his spare time likes to DJ, make music and put on uni raves where he performs his own music.
“A lot of people base success on money. But I don’t really base it on money, I base it on happiness. And like success is when I’ve reached my ceiling of happiness, as in terms of I am where I want to be. That’s my success... It depends on what you aspire to be. But I don’t really aspire myself to materialistic things. It’s just not me.” “I hate having regrets, which means I hesitated or didn’t focus on what I really wanted. Because having regrets is one of the worst things, because you know you can’t go back in time. Every opportunity that I have, I make sure I focus.”
Savannah King, 22
Savannah lives with her family in North West London and has a degree in film studies and drama. She is an avid ballet dancer, singer and actress with an interest in writing music. She is also a Love Island fanatic.
“I feel like social media has opened up a lot of new jobs for young people… which may have got them further than if they had done the traditional norm and gone to uni in what is an accepted way of being successful.” “I think the future is what you make of it. If you have passions and goals then it’s up to you daily to get to those goals. I believe in being a good person and being genuine and hopefully getting those things back in return.” “I’m figuring it out as I go. I don’t really where I’m going or what direction life’s bringing me in but I’m taking things day by day and trusting the flow and trying not to force anything.”
Zaine Kellman, 24
Zaine is a photographer, vlogger and LGBTQ+ campaigner. He is passionate about trans rights and representing trans people of colour.
“ Because of the internet, people are starting to see all the different lives you could lead and before that [the] conveyor belt of life was something that’s passed down. Whereas now we are so much more open with everything. We know there are a load more jobs we can go for and we can build our own lives and live life the way we want to live it.” “ We have the tools to change things that didn’t seem able to change beforehand.” “I am grateful for my life. Because of the things I have had to go through and the things I still have to go through I’m grateful that my life has given me the opportunity to change or influence other lives. That’s probably what I’m most grateful for.”
Our hypothesis for this, the second instalment of the Young Blood series, was that the formula brands, media and government apply to young people today does not fit. From our 2016 research, one of the key findings was that there is no black and white and every headline or statement made needs to be nuanced with the complex realities of being a young person in Britain today. This still holds true, but even the assumptions we have been making based on the insights we extracted in 2016 now need to move on. Our audience are looking for small joys and moments of connection in an increasingly insecure global climate. They have had to mature fast and reassess the things they thought they understood about the world. This is why it is so important for us to take a step back and question whether it is fair to hold them to the same formula of life and success that most of us have grown up with.
â&#x20AC;&#x153;A lot of people in general are funnelled through the English school system thinking that success is tied to achieving good grades or doing well at school. Then eventually getting a high paid job, starting a family. I used to hold those values myself, but in the last couple of years, those things have become a little bit less relevant. And whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s actually more important is how you are, how you feel on the day-to-day basis, those [other] things kind of fall away. And I think happiness probably is a good measure of that. I think those things that make me happy are a little bit harder to find lately and they are usually in places that are unexpected.â&#x20AC;? Dean, 24
Future Fears + the Secret to Success
An Era of Hope
indexes on happiness and getting married as measures of success but is also one of the lowest when it comes to making lots of money 2.
A key finding that we used to lead our conversation in Young Blood 2016 was that 42% of our audience thought the definition of success was happiness. With the alarming rate at which the world is becoming more protectionist and less secure, we had concerns that this statistic, that we were so proud of, would change for the worse. We were happily and gratefully wrong. They may not feel the world is getting better, but they are preparing and protecting themselves in the best way possible – by internalising the happiness process. Having a successful career has fallen from 40% to 32% and making a lot of money from 29% to 21% as measures of success. Apparently bigger existential questions are being asked and the answers are about less, not more, about embracing uncertainty. “The notion of a career is something which can evolve quite rapidly. It’s more about being versatile than it is about being very adept at one thing. In order to succeed you have to be willing to evolve.” Dean, 24 Although owning a house gets more important with age1 it pales in comparison to having a family (43%) and achieving your life goals (36%). The older group also unsurprisingly feel having good health was important, but the importance of friends is consistent over all ages.
There are also gendered differences that paint an interesting picture. Having a family is significantly more important to women than to men3 but falling in love is the opposite, with 14% of men and only 11% of women seeing it as a sign of success. Getting married is consistently insignificant (5%) for both groups, confirming that traditional institutions are losing their relevance here. “It’s really hard to find more than a handful of my friends’ parents are still together – it really undermines the whole marriage thing.” Daniel, 30 Other traditional measures of success that are losing significance are having a degree and what university they attend 4 – this is almost a hygiene standard now, and as it is no indicator of future success it has lost its importance. “I’m not going to be compared my parents’ generation because it’s completely different circumstances. I’m not going where they are.” Lydia, 25 And a new measure of success that we were surprised to discover was even less important was a large social media following. It signifies success for less than 1% but we know how hard people try to attract and even buy followers. This may be a case of instant gratification versus real success – a heartening thought for all those who feel the youth place too much importance on it.
“We call ourselves the wolf-pack.” Beth, 24 Where these young people live also has an impact on their view of success. Scotland over
18-21: 8% | 22-25: 10% | 26-30: 13%
Happines: 69% | Getting married: 9% | Making money: 18%
Women: 46% | Men: 35%
Having a degree: 1% | Which university: <1%
59% of 18-30 year olds think that being happy is the most a measure of success
“Happiness is definitely the definition of success because… surely that’s what everyone’s aiming for.” Daniel, 30
“ There’s a more troubling aspect, that general feeling of tying success
in the real world to success on social media. It doesn’t feel like an authentic expression of yourself and also doesn’t feel like an authentic way of receiving feedback from other people about your life either.” Dean, 24
A Touch of Passion
When probed about their passions, we found young people are much more driven to achieve personal goals than societal goals such as owning property5. Mid-level/junior professionals over indexed with the former at 67%, demonstrating their determination and drive. The entrepreneurial and creative spirit is still strong with young people and it shows in where they want to put their energy. It seems women are leading the charge in being open to and curious about the world – they are more likely to want to try everything once and be open to new experiences (38%). Wanting strong relationships, though, is high for both sexes but more important to women than men men6.
Mental health is firmly on the agenda, and for the first time young people are feeling more passionately about it than their physical health7. With government funding being cut to key services, state dependants worried most about their mental health (63%). “There is much more acceptance (sexuality, equality, race) and that’s providing a more positive outlook. It’s definitely progressing our culture. We’re on the right track but there’s still much to be done.” Martyn, 28 In nearly every category the younger audiences are most passionate, except when it comes to owning property. The need to have new experiences and contribute positively to society (both 32%) declines with age but having fun (60%) sees a revival after 25, when young people have the first few years of painful work life under their belts. Scotland shows itself to have a great attitude, with those in Glasgow feeling most passionately about having fun (74%). Positivity and progress are so important to this group.
“The relationships with the people in my life are the most important to me, whether it’s your blood family, your chosen family, whether it’s your friends, I think it’s implicitly important to have strong connections for your growth as a person.” Tane, 19
Personal goals: 64% | Societal goals: 31%
Overall: 63% | Women: 67% | Men: 54%
Mental health: 59% | Physical health: 46%
“I think that success is when you wake up, and you’re just happy.” 30
Fears for the Future
In 2016, jobs and finances were the single biggest fears our young people had for the future, but in 2018 it is finances and health8. More women than men are concerned about finances and health but considering the gender pay gap, women’s greater life expectancy and the constant pushing of wellness, it is to be expected. Generally, it appears that young people are reassessing what they need to be worried about and the ‘life formula’ previous generations have prescribed comes quite far down the list. “It’s just that people are realising it’s just one option, but I’m aware that there are other options and so I don’t feel trapped by it.” Abi, 23 Finances are the single biggest concern across all age groups with Brexit-based economic insecurity looming. The East of England in particular fears for its financial future, but this is the group that also thinks owning a house is a bigger measure of success than any other region in the country.
When it comes to age, the older groups have more concerns about their health and death while the younger groups are more worried about jobs, loneliness and having a purpose. There is a lot to worry about and where they live seems to play a big role in what that is. Those in Wales are most worried about money, but have reason to be as the region has had higher unemployment than the rest of the country. Interestingly, Londoners, who have been hit by several terrorist attacks worry less about war and terrorism than those in the North East and South East. Some of them feel that there are bigger implications. “I think the threat to me personally is much greater from a restriction of privacy as a response to terrorism than terrorism itself.” Dean, 24
Finances: 58% | Health: 38%
â&#x20AC;&#x153; I worry about money, I worry about losing friendships, about not being good enough and especially with how quickly everything sort of moves, I worry about not being able to keep up.â&#x20AC;? Tane,19
Drop it Like itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Hot: How They Spend It
Silicon Valley, which has been on a disruption streak for more than a decade, is now slowing down and shifting its focus to security, privacy and responsibility until the next tranche of tech is ready. This may go some way to explaining why spending on tech is down. The need to be seen with the latest gadget seems to be waning.
A lot has changed in the last two years in the economy and with consumer spending. Amidst Brexit-fuelled inflation, 2017 saw household spending slow to its lowest annual growth for six years. In 2018, we are seeing more shoppers deserting the high street than during the worst point of the recession in 2009, putting more and more retail jobs at risk. Britons have slashed spending on gadgets, furniture and even nights out whilst they still remain nervous about the economic climate of the country. We explored how the spending habits of our young people have changed from since 2016 and found that although they might be spending less, they are still spending on their three great loves: food, tech and clothing. The difference is not in the makeup of the winners, but in the significant change from 2016 when food made up 16%, tech 23% and clothing 33% of their total spend. Now food makes up a whopping 43%, tech 10% and clothing only 12%. As we are looking at a slightly older audience this time we would have expected a slight uplift in money spent on basics like food, but this data paints another picture. ‘Frivolous’ spending seems to be taking a back seat to food, which fills a basic and social need.
In fashion, the rise in conscious consumerism (encompassing sustainable and ethical fashion) and the growing slow fashion movement and capsule wardrobes may have contributed to the change in spending on clothes we are seeing. Women still spend double on clothes than men do9 which is in line with our 2016 research, and they tend to shop to make themselves feel better more than men10. “I buy clothes and shoes because it makes me feel more confident. When I dress good, when I feel good, then I do better.” Lois, 26 Young people tend to spend more on travel as they get older, preferring quality over quantity and more exotic, luxurious experiences. The younger groups may spend less on travel but they spend more on socialising – both intangible and invaluable things. And this may be indicative of things to come. Almost 7/10 people said they would rather have experiences over material things and 3/10 sometimes feel overwhelmed by the things they own. The youngest group felt most overwhelmed by their possessions and if they are tomorrow’s spenders, we may be witnessing a change in pace for retail altogether.
“I learned to spend it on things that I need.” Sarah, 25 Food has confirmed itself to be a key cultural touchpoint and central to the social aspect of the lives of young people. The rise in food-truck culture, pop-up dining experiences, foodies on social platforms and new cuisines has repainted this basic need into its own colourful world. Tech has seen a global slowdown with smartphone shipments and sales of PCs and tablets in decline.
“Life is made for experiences, be grateful to be alive and embrace every moment.” Lydia, 25
Women: 15% | Men: 7%
Women: 73% | Men: 58%
“ When I was in education I was spending quite a lot on laptops, new phones. But now I’ve had the same laptop for two years, the same phone for the past year.” Lois, 26
Celebrity endorsement has become even less influential than it was in 2016, with 64% of our audience feeling it is unimportant, and that number rising with age. Also less important than in 2016 is seeing a brand on social media (45%). Being on trend seems to be driven from other sources and declines with age11. In the last two years, Instagram has opened up its algorithm to sponsored content and it looks like the influencer bubble may have burst. Less than a third don’t mind being sold to by influencers. But only 21% agreed that they were more likely to do/buy something endorsed by a high-profile individual on social media, whereas 52% disagreed.
However, despite Michael Gove claiming that ‘people in this country have had enough of experts’ it appears our young people are a bit more sensible, with more than half agreeing that they are much more likely to do/buy something if it is endorsed by an expert. So it looks like credibility is more important than cool when it comes to influencing purchases. In fact, across the board it looks as if influence is down, with the opinion of peers and family stillimportant12, but not as much as it once was. Similarly, experiencing a brand or product before buying remains significant with 73% of respondents thinking it is important, just a slight dip on 2016.
“On one hand, it’s sometimes a little bit disingenuous but on the other hand I think it’s quite an interesting new way of advertising. I think they’re kind of just being a bit business savvy.” Sarah, 25
Price and quality are still the most important factors when making a purchase13 and this has remained consistent. When buying, it seems, we are going back to basics, focussing on cost, quality and trial.
18-21: 32% | 22-25: 27% | 26-30: 26%
Peers: 60% | Family: 66%
Price: 90% | Quality: 93%
“I don’t have much money so I want good quality – it must last. I do as much research as possible.” Beth, 24
63% would rather shop online than in a store
When it comes to what they buy, young people today have grown up with their eyes wide open to the abuses and exploitation of people and the environment. We found our youngest group are much more worried about ethical production than our oldest group14 but that overall, there is a significant rise of 8% from 2016. This is also true of the importance of locally made goods (up to 12% from 4%) with carbon footprints firmly on the agenda, leading to the trend of hyper-localised goods (ingredients/materials sourced within walking distance). Now 14% are motivated by brands that express progressive values. “I would rather buy into brands that give back or do good as opposed to already successful or large profit making companies. I believe in sustainability in terms of keeping our carbon footprint as low as possible and therefore I favour companies and brands that consider this important too.” Georgina, 27 So, it’s not surprising that they want their brands to make statements about their beliefs15. What is surprising is who they want these statements for. 41% think it is unimportant how a brand they purchase makes others see them, so it looks like they value reinforcing their own beliefs for themselves, not others.
18-21: 40% | 26-30: 34%
2016 research: 8% | 2018 research: 20%
“I’ve got Veja trainers. They’re vegan. I’m not vegan but it helps the environment so that’s at least something.” Beth, 24 It seems that the consequences of fast fashion are becoming more significant as nearly half of our audience prefer to buy fewer, better quality things. 45% worry about the environmental impact of what they buy and 37% worry about the ethical implications but 40% still prefer cheap, fast fashion. “On the one hand it’s really bad for the other side of the world, but then I do participate in it and so I feel kind of ambivalent.” Abi, 23 At a time when high street visits are steadily declining and nearly 1 in 10 town centre shops are lying empty, 63% of our audience agree that they would rather shop online than in a store. The online experience is now so slick that even the offline element (delivery, returns, etc.) has become seamless enough that the new norm is buying with the expectation of returning most of the order. “I tend to shop online and buy in bulk, and end up refunding 80% of the items.” Lois, 26
â&#x20AC;&#x153;I do have a fear of the world dying, because obviously there is a lot of plastic waste. I do think recycling needs to be taken more seriously.â&#x20AC;?
Booze-lite: Sober Socialites + the End of Hedonism
“My generation, who were at university back in 2009, we were seven days a week drinking. It was rather incessant. This generation of young people that go out once, twice a week, that’s considered quite a lot.” Daniel, 30
The Rise of Mindful Drinking
Britain’s drinking culture has always played a significant role in its identity. From a cheeky half at a traditional pub to binge drinking at the weekends, our relationship with alcohol plays a central part in our socialisation process. It’s no secret that the number of young people drinking has been declining for a decade, but this is not unique to the UK – it seems to be a worldwide trend, even in places like Russia where alcohol consumption is traditionally high. A 2017 Eventbrite report found that 70% of millennials are more likely to brag about how long it’s been since they last drank than how much they last drank, and our findings confirm this trend. Nearly half of our 2,007 respondents are embarrassed about Britain’s drinking culture and 57% agree that our drinking culture is out of control. The interpretation of ‘drinking culture’ can be informed not only by ‘binge drinking Britain’ as depicted by the media, but also where you live and your personal experiences. “Drinking culture in Brighton is quite big, popular. Lots of people come down to drink for the weekend.” Lois, 26 Londoners are most proud of their drinking culture16, but why wouldn’t they be? London has a 24/7 approach to entertainment with cocktail bars, clubs and hipster artisanal breweries/
distilleries popping up everywhere. In a place where you can show culture and sophistication through your alcohol choices (both consumption and location), it is more about discovery and new experiences than a formulaic approach to binge drinking your way through the weekend. “There’s an energy in London when the sun comes out. People in the street, chatting, having drinks after work.” Beth, 24 Women’s relationships with alcohol are also changing, with the days of the pint-drinking ‘ladette’ far behind them. They are more likely to think Britain’s drinking culture is out of control or embarrassing and are more wary of alcohol and drugs generally. Women are more sensitive to unpredictable and potentially dangerous situations than men and this demonstrates their natural scepticism for anything that might create unsafe situations. This, along with the growing trend of healthonism, means more women are choosing less alcohol. Socialisation is still important though and so we will be seeing the rise of non-alcoholic botanicals and spirits, and a new tranche of premium flavoured tonic waters – basically, soft drinks for discerning adults. “Women have more danger of something bad happening to them or something going wrong and I would definitely… be on higher alert. Stevie, 23
London: 26% | Base: 21%
The End of Hedonism
services and the embarrassing behaviour of our youth on holiday, where they are regularly touted to be the worst behaved in Europe.
The Office for National Statistics shows young people are less likely to drink than any other age group, but when they do they still consume more units in a single session, preferring to binge on a Friday and Saturday night and stay sober for the rest of the week. Still, when asked about quantity versus quality, 48% said they would prefer to drink less but better quality alcohol (with only 20% disagreeing with this). Of course, the older the respondent, the more likely they were to agree, whereas 42% of our youngest group stated they would drink more if alcohol was cheaper (compared to the 29% average). Interestingly though, drinking seems to rise steadily with socioeconomic status, with professionals more likely to be regular drinkers than those on average incomes. The price of alcohol may not be a defining feature but it definitely plays a role. “People really want to boost their personal profile – a night out is no longer just a night to get paralytic, it’s time to build relationships with your friends. The younger generation understand that a lot more.” Daniel, 30 For years Britain’s media has bemoaned the binge drinking culture of the young, regularly showing scenes of violence and chaos after last orders everywhere from regional town centres to Mediterranean islands. Much of this reporting centres around the strain on public
But we are seeing a shift in this need for excess sun, sex and sangria, with attitudes to alcohol changing the focus of holidays and travel. They are no longer looking for bar crawls and bar brawls but more culture and cocktails. Just as there is a drive for more sophisticated experiences at home, the same applies abroad and the future of institutions like Club 18-30, which were the embodiment of holiday hedonism, are now uncertain. In the near future we will see them replaced with better quality hotels, more cultural experiences and big-name DJs that bring an air of exclusivity and urban cool, which is so important for those social media accounts. Over half admit that how their holiday would look on social media influences their booking choices. Drinking may be part of the experience now, but it’s no longer the reason for it. “We went South America – it’s drinking pisco sours, in France automatically switched to wine, Germany switched to beers. I think it’s become more a speciality thing, in the same way that you would have a fondue in the Alps, it’s exactly the same protocol.” Daniel, 30
“ I don’t think weed is the gateway drug, but a lot of people seem to think it is – if that is a concern then it’s not worth it.” Stevie, 23
The ‘Just Say No’ Revival
In our 2016 research we looked at rebellion and found that young people had a much less self-destructive attitude, preferring to change the status quo than get off their heads. So it really isn’t surprising that young people are rebelling against their parents’ idea of rebellion by staying away from alcohol and drugs.
Only 20% of our audience feel that drugs expand their mind whereas 60% feel that drugs are killing us. A renewed focus for these groups on mental health also plays a role, with most striving for a balanced and healthy mind and understanding the links between substance abuse, depression, anxiety, etc.
Bite or Flight: The New Landscape of Food + Drink
A Food Truck Frenzy
Our relationship with food is becoming more demanding and sophisticated, with our insatiable appetite for the new giving rise to a booming street food culture across the UK. Once a way for immigrants to bring their cuisines to the table, now food trucks are carefully designed and marketed, often by those leaving traditional jobs to be their own bosses and try something new. Recognition of this trend doesn’t come higher than a recent street food vendor in Thailand being awarded a Michelin star for her crab omelettes.
that they care about where and how their food is sourced. This isn’t surprising when we consider the frightening regularity with which they encounter food scandals. There is a definite climate of wariness about the origin of what is on our plates. “When I make buying decisions myself, I do them in quite a conscious way and I don’t mind spending a bit more money to get high quality food from sources that I’m comfortable with.” Dean, 24 Some street food vendors are putting a stake in the ground, with Street Feast’s Yum Buns no longer serving prawns as they can’t make them work commercially and ethically. Similarly, Kerb Food’s The Growlers use only carefully sourced meat from Scotland and compostable napkins and boxes with the aim of becoming zero waste. With 62% of young people being aware of the impact their eating choices have on the environment and the rise of conscious consumerism, they are more likely to have this need met by a small vendor than a chain of restaurants.
Britain has always welcomed varied cuisines but often been guilty of bastardising them to suit the local palate. Now we are seeing a renewed interest in authentic and localised cuisine, which is the perfect formula for a small-output outfit such as a food truck. Young people aren’t just satisfied with Indian food, they want Goan fish dishes or Sri Lankan Kothu. Origin and authenticity are important to show the sophistication of the eating audience. “You get to taste the world.” Beth, 24 But interestingly, most people assume that as food trucks and street vendors are small and seem to veer toward authentic ingredients, those ingredients must themselves be high quality and ethically sourced. 65% of our 18-30-year-olds stated
“We can’t just ignore the consequences of what we’re eating and what’s being affected by that. We do have the power to create a demand for something else more sustainable, more ethical, instead of being selfish.” Lydia, 25
8/10 would buy healthier and ethically sourced food if it was cheaper
The Naughty Vegan
You have to have been living under a rock not to have noticed the tide of vegan options and eateries opening up in the UK. In the last few years, health was at the centre of these offerings, but there seems to be a backlash against the Buddha Bowl with unhealthy vegan dishes, wings, burgers and the like taking over. Although 32% of our respondents think veganism is a fad, we know they are conscious about the environmental impact of their eating habits so with new food technology making meat substitutes more available, perhaps young people are seeing the start of an eating revolution they haven’t accepted yet?
“People are jumping on it because it is ultimately going to help the planet. Humans in general.” Georgia, 24 In any case, healthy eating remains deeply embedded in young people and even though 45% agree that they choose convenience over quality, there is an argument that most find it harder to eat healthy if money is tight. There is a break between intention and action with nearly 8/10 stating they would buy healthier and ethically sourced food if it was cheaper, especially in the younger groups. And if we needed any more confirmation that booze is out and food is in, we found 65% agreed that they would prefer to spend their time and money on dining out with friends than drinking with them.
“I am really excited about the lab grown burger. It could have quite an impact ecologically.” Dean, 24 So the jury is out on veganism being a fad. The North East thinks it is more than any other region17 but surprisingly, London which has a strong vegan scene doesn’t know (44%). Maybe it’s an indication of the number of food fads and diets that sweep the capital on a regular basis.
“I love food and I think as I get older it becomes more of a focal point at family and friend gatherings. Food is life.” Christina, 29
North Eat: 41% | Base: 32%
“Making adjustments to the way that that company operates in response to an ecological need – that’s a much better way of doing it than just to say, oh, we’re sponsoring this random party. I’m more interested if a drinks brand would say that they’re reducing the amount of sugar than sponsoring a random charity.” Dean, 24
Sugar: Public Enemy Number One
When consumers are looking for healthy food, low sugar content is now the most important factor. Food launches with low/reduced/no sugar claims have been steadily rising, with 86% of consumers believing sugar is bad for their health. The same is true when it comes to soft drinks, with this year’s government levy impacting formulations and increasing reduced sugar alternatives. 92% of young people will buy a soft drink because it tastes good but 56% will choose it based on the sugar content, and 53% because it’s the healthy choice. Women are more worried about the overall health of soft drinks (healthy choice and sugar content), as they are about food. This means sometimes not picking a soft drink at all, as demonstrated by the surge in sales of bottled water, which in 2017 outsold cola in retail for the first time.
The soft drink industry in the UK is worth £1.5 billion, so the payoff between taste and impact on health in the minds of young people cannot be overstated. Low-calorie energy drink sales are up 46% to appeal to consumers who are increasingly demanding healthier options within the energy sector. “You see brands switch out from plastic bottles to glass, or aluminium cans, it’s like, yeah, great, good on them, right on!” Georgia, 24 Relatively less important at 18% are the cultural associations of the brand with sport or music sponsorship, etc., but if a soft drink is doing good things for a charity or the environment, 36% would buy it on that basis. Again, for the socially minded youth, social purpose in brands is vital.
“I drink a lot more water than I used to, a lot more carbonated water because it gives me that feeling that I am drinking an interesting drink.” Dean, 24
We found that women worry more about price point than men18 but we have seen they are more concerned about finances than men generally.
Women: 85% | Men: 76%
Hitting the Right Notes: Music, Brands + Influence
Passionate and Young
Youth and music have always had a passionate love affair and it seems we are just as enthralled as ever by it. Music is so intertwined with identity that over half of our audience feel that the type of music they listen to defines them. “It’s like a massive part of creating community and finding people who are the same.” Tane, 19
45% saying it is the main topic of conversation between them and their friends. Only 15% stated that music is not important to them, demonstrating just how powerful and pervasive it is. “There’s stuff going on all the time. Especially with apps like Dice, where you don’t have to pay a booking fee – I’ll go to a gig every week.” Beth, 24
In places like London where there is access to live music and exposure to huge variety, nearly 6/10 feel more passionately about it than anything else. Half of our respondents state that music is their number one passion, with women feeling it more than men19 and our younger groups over indexing. Men, however, talk about it more with
Young people have grown up experiencing free music for the first time probably in history, and with all due credit to them, decided that they are willing to pay for it. 71% think artists should be paid fairly and so we see the rise in subscription based music models. For the 34% who think all music should be free, YouTube has it covered.
Women: 51% | Men: 49%
81% of young people think life without music is uninteresting 64
Brands and Culture
Brands are becoming more involved with music as a way to connect with their audiences and in a country where 81% of young people think life without music is uninteresting, it is a good strategy. In places like London, where most musical brand experiences happen, 54% think brands being involved in culture makes it better, but the rest of the country aren’t seeing the benefit as much, with only 43% agreeing. “It’s a quite complex line with brands and culture. It’s a fine line between celebrating and working with and then profiting off, I think.” Tane, 19
with any type of cultural movement but can be more informed by getting a more diverse and representative mix of people working brand side, to show real appreciation and understanding. “It’s like they take this preconceived conception of what our culture is and they don’t take into account any of the political or cultural implications.” Tane, 19 Finding and supporting cultural movements is a value exchange. Who else was going to hero and sponsor grime before it became mainstream but the brands grime had already claimed as its own? 35% of people feel that brands are pushing the boundaries of culture in a positive way – this is a challenge to brands to be respectful leaders, not followers.
So we asked our respondents about whether they think brands are intruding or taking up the mantle with culture and found that over half feel that brands are guilty of cultural appropriation. Brands must be cautious when associating themselves
“I’ve been making YouTube videos for probably about a decade now. I can create content that other people can watch, and then they might feel inspired or, y’know they might find the courage to do it themselves so that’s what I really like doing.”
Our young audience see themselves as influential – 62% feel they can influence their peers, which is up from 2016 – but they don’t want to be called influencers as this is now a real job and one that is open season for criticism. Only 18% see themselves as influencers on social media. 41% do not want to be more influential on social (with 26% not having an opinion either way.) Could it be the start of a backlash against influencer culture?
For the 34% that want to be more influential on social media, we have to ask why. They are less likely to buy from influencers and don’t want their influencers selling to them, so that takes the money reason out. Perhaps they enjoy the power of being an authority and being in the know. In any case, we can see that influence is reverting back to tighter circles, which was confirmed with the diminishing importance of peer and family opinion on purchases.
“ It’s actually very, very easy [to be an influencer]. You just have to sell out, basically, and just take the exact same type of picture that everyone already does and get sponsored by the exact same brands. As long as you are shameless about it, you’re fine.” Erik, 19
Getting Tech Close + Personal: Technology, Connections + Dating
“I am not scared of artificial intelligence itself, but I’m maybe scared by what humanity has the potential to do with it.” Abi, 23
Whilst debates rage as to whether it’s OK for AI to impersonate humans and ethics desperately try and catch up with an industry whose motto has always been ‘it’s easier to ask forgiveness than permission’, the world needs to ask itself if we are ready for the next stage in human evolution. Although 81% of our audience feel that if technology is used in the right way it can be a force for good, there is significant mistrust and suspicion surrounding AI and new technology. The youngest tend to hold the strongest and most positive opinions on tech, which seems obvious considering the world they grew up in, but even they are aren’t completely confident about where this drive to innovate will take us. 36% of our audience think that AI will destroy us – a strong and damning indictment, but unsurprising when you look at the content we consume surrounding it: from Metropolis in 1927, to Blade Runner in 1982, to AI Artificial Intelligence in 2001 to Westworld now, we have almost always projected our worst fears into a future with machines.
Even when given tech that will entertain us, such as VR in its simplest form, there is still wariness about it. Half of our respondents think VR will make people even more antisocial. This is in line with a report by Doteveryone that found 50% of people in UK said the internet has made life a lot better for people like themselves, but only 12% say it’s had a very positive impact on society. They are worried about cybercrime, online abuse, extremist groups using digital platforms and fake news online, and don’t feel tech companies are held accountable enough. “I mostly worry about social media. You can choose who you want to follow, you can choose the kind of ideas that you are exposed to. The internet has definitely helped with the radicalisation of a lot of young people.” Sarah, 25 We asked our audience about Net Neutrality – something that is the subject of huge debate in the US but hasn’t hit our shores yet. Over half have an opinion (which is high for a fairly complex issue that is not being covered as extensively by the media here as in the US) and men tend to be more savvy about it than women. Over 50% agree Net Neutrality is important and should be protected, over indexing for our 18-21 year olds. This demonstrates that young people are keeping an eye on global tech developments and issues, whether they are affected by them or not.
“I think it is not what the movies say. It’s making things a bit more efficient, making things faster.” Sarah, 25 When we are given an artificial intelligence that can help us, such as Watson for Oncology, we find ourselves deferring back to the familiarity of a human to feel safe. (The programme was eventually shelved as it was found that oncologists didn’t think they needed it when they agreed with it and didn’t think it was competent when they didn’t.) Our propensity to think that eventually our progress will be disastrous keeps us fearful. “You still always need a humanist side or AI is going to make people really lazy.” Beth, 24
Generally, we found dismay and ambivalence toward the data sharing issue. 4/10 young people feel out of control and unable to do anything about their data being shared, not just on a personal level but also as a global group of tech users. They have lost their faith in the tech companies they used to love after the recent data and election scandals, Russian hacking, whistle-blowers etc. “I don’t care about social media anymore. It was so exciting when it first happened.” Beth, 24
But there is an area where they have embraced technology and used it to make more real-world connections, and that is with dating apps.
So we asked our audience if they believed in happily ever after and 44% of men and 61% of women agreed they did. In fact, half of women were scared of ending up alone compared to 45% of men. So there seems to be a marked difference in how young men and women approach dating and relationships and what they want from them.
7/10 young people find it less intimidating talking to someone online than in person. Interestingly those in the higher socioeconomic groups find it more intimidating than those in the lower groups. 64% think online dating is really helpful for those who aren’t confident in real life – this is especially true for women. This might go some way to explaining the proliferation of apps to help you find everything from a hook up to a happily ever after.
It seems nearly 3/5 of our audience think how much traction they get on their profiles is very influential on their self-esteem, and this is especially true for women. But despite this, over half of all our respondents really like dating apps, maybe because nearly half feel like they have fewer and fewer opportunities to meet potential partners in real life.
“I kind of grew up from, like, 11 years old having a mobile phone and I haven’t really had a relationship since then without it.” Abi, 23
“Social media just replaced being popular on the playground. Everyone always wants to be liked whether it’s reality or it’s artificial.” Daniel, 30
â&#x20AC;&#x153;As every young person, we check our phones for at least 20 minutes in the morning before we actually start our day and do anything.â&#x20AC;? 76
Your Formula Doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t Fit: Get Right with Your Audience
With the exception of those at the extreme ends of the spectrum, the Western world is becoming more liberal – this is true even of those traditionally leaning to the right. The reason we feel this may not be the case is because the left is getting far more liberal too, which means the divide seems greater. It has previously been assumed that the youth are the most progressive of these liberals and what we found did not refute this.
There is a significant difference here with only 22% of 18-21 year olds versus 52% 22-25 year olds agreeing with this. “It’s not right to say it’s freedom of speech when it might bring violence or something like that.” Stevie, 23 So what is going on? The younger groups believe in freedom of speech, even if it means those views are hateful, but they also feel you should be sensitive to the feelings of those around you. Our theory is that they believe in doing the right thing, not by force or because it is prescribed, but because they know it is the right thing to do. You should be able to voice contradictory points of view as long as it is done in a mutually respectful manner. They may have a rude awakening in store.
72% agree with the statement that ‘most people are unconsciously biased against people that aren’t like them’. Here is a generation who are willing to accept their shortcomings and not afraid to hold a mirror up to themselves and society. They have a greater understanding of human nature and the human condition than most would give them credit for. Interestingly, in Birmingham, an area with significant diversity, only 67% agreed.
Finally looking at a subject that has been very topical of late, we asked our 2,007 18-30-yearolds whether they thought white people have an unfair advantage in the world and 4/10 agreed, again slightly over indexing in the 1821 age group. In Glasgow and Edinburgh nearly half of all respondents agreed, demonstrating yet again that Scotland seems to think more progressively than the rest of the UK.
“The new generations needs to be taught how to not be biased against people so that it is just bred into our culture.” Georgia, 24 When they were asked if it was important to be sensitive to the feelings of those around them, 71% of men and 80% of women agreed, with those in junior managerial positions over indexing, possibly due to seeing the need for diplomacy and teamwork in the workplace. Cardiff had most in agreement with 88%. So, you would be forgiven for believing that this is a group that is very aware of the impact of the words they use and the potential they have for offence. But when asked if political correctness had gone too far nearly 6 out of 10 agreed. The number of people in agreement rose with age and was highest in Cardiff and lowest in Birmingham, which seems like a complete departure from the previous findings.
“It’s mad from hundreds of years of believing that white men are better, they get better jobs, better positions, from the beginning.” Georgia, 24 In all of the areas explored above, skilled manual workers were the least liberal of the socioeconomic splits. In 2016, we explored the rise of working class culture in our piece ‘From Council to Catwalk’. The conversation has shifted since that time from a celebration of, to the appropriation of working class culture. Over half of our respondents thought working class culture was being exploited negatively and without benefit or credit to the people it came from.
3/4 of all young people agree that free speech is vital to our society but half of them also believe those with hateful views should be denied a public forum i.e. talking at universities.
“Like things like upcycling – you just don’t throw things away [but] the upper classes are making things look rustic and poor, which I think is just wrong.” Georgia, 24
The conservative viewpoint throughout history has been that if you normalise or glamorise non-mainstream behaviour, you will encourage it. This thinking was used to drive LGBTQ culture underground and create fear and mistrust around it. Our findings are a clear indication of how misleading that line of thought has been and how much our audience disagree with it. “I’d want marriage to get to a point where it was regarded as equal for everyone.” Tane, 19 We asked our young audience if they felt a change in expectation to explore their own gender identity and sexuality now that gender expression has become less taboo in UK society. At a time when gender is a hot topic and there is more visibility than ever for the LGBTQ community, 79% of our audience feel no change in pressure to explore their own sexuality or gender identity, demonstrating that normalising a behaviour doesn’t necessarily encourage it. “There’s less pressure because everything’s more accepted.” Beth, 24
Even though the toxic masculinity conversation has been happening for a while now, it does not seem to have reached a critical mass where young men feel confident to just be themselves. Even though 89% of women think it is acceptable for men to cry, only 78% of men feel that it is. “We need to stop the idea that feelings and talking and showing emotions is just a female thing. It might help with men’s mental health issues as well.” Stevie, 23 Women, on the other hand have felt the power of the feminist movements that have swept the world of late. 51% of women think the increase in female solidarity has had a positive influence on male behaviour (compared to 46% of men). It is worth considering that for men, outward behaviour may have been tempered but internal beliefs and attitudes have yet to catch up. “[After #MeToo] you don’t have that fear of being told that you’re lying and that you made it up or you’re attention seeking – you have people backing you for like the first time.” Georgia, 24 We may see evidence of this when it comes to their views on traditionally female roles. 86% of women feel household chores should be shared, but only 77% of men feel the same way. Similarly, although men believing they should share childcare duties equally is probably at an all-time high, it is still statistically significantly lower than women20. It is understandably hard to evolve men’s thinking when the signs they are getting from society through unequal paternity leave, etc. seem to contradict this. Shared parental leave (with countries like Germany leading the charge) is becoming more popular but has not reached the mainstream – it will be interesting to see how this changes as demand for gender equality grows.
We also explored gender stereotypes and uncovered a quite significant difference in the way young men and women think. Just over half of all respondents agree that gender stereotyping has a negative impact on children (with that number rising to 6/10 for Londoners, and women feeling more strongly about it than men). 34% of men think children should know what society expects of them as males or females compared to just 24% of women. Men are seeing the future, understandably, through their own experiences and over half admit that it’s hard for them to know what is expected of them today.
Women: 85% | Men: 75%
“You tend to always feel like people are looking at you, so you try to do what a man would do, and not cry, get hench, get money, have a nice car. Them concepts, they’re just false. A man is just who you wanna be.”
â&#x20AC;&#x153;I see on the news that young people are depressed or that they are taking drugs, one of the two.â&#x20AC;? Georgia, 24
Missing the Mark
The way youth is portrayed by the media was the reason we decided to create Young Blood in 2016. We felt that young people in Britain were being given an unfair deal and were generally misunderstood and misrepresented. Our research showed how wrong the stereotypes were and the need to look at every stat with nuance and reasoning. “That we are lazy, don’t want to work, that we spend too much time on our phones, that we don’t care about anything. And that’s just not true, we work so hard.” Stevie, 23 We asked our audience if they felt that their background and community was accurately portrayed across various mediums today. Generally, TV was the most accurate with 50% of our audience agreeing they were fairly reflected. This may be due to the rise of more specialised, diversified content and the fact that there is now so much choice that broadcasters are working harder to get it right.
44% thought films accurately depicted them and their communities but only 1/3 felt advertising did a good job. In fact, 52% felt advertising did not reflect them accurately. Lack of diversity and a fantastical view of the world may be to blame for this but as a discipline, it is clearly not hitting the right notes with the audience. Unsurprisingly, 66% felt that politicians get it most wrong, yet again confirming how out of touch politics is with young people in Britain. “They are mostly old white men, they have nothing in common with us and don’t really try to understand us.” Stevie, 23 Across all of these mediums, white Irish, gypsy and Irish travellers felt the most grossly misrepresented by the media.
We have always seen our young audience as an optimistic and resourceful one, but they have had a lot to contend with in the last couple of years. The rise in populism, Trump, Brexit and the seemingly endless list of institutions, people, brands and media that they can no longer trust has taken its toll on them.
thought the world was getting better and only 25% agreed, with nearly half disagreeing. â&#x20AC;&#x153;We are so back in Thatcher era.â&#x20AC;? Georgia, 24 Even though there has been progress for womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s equality, they are feeling it worse than men possibly because the progress has come with the knowledge of so many previous transgressions that they may not have been fully aware of.
Unfortunately, our most disappointing and disheartening finding is that understandably it seems optimism is waning. This previously positive and open group were asked if they
But we have always talked about this audience as a grateful, positive and aware group so it was important to explore if these deep-rooted values have shifted. When asked if they feel they have a good life compared to others in the world of their age, 55% agreed and only 6% disagreed. This is certainly fewer than expected for a group living in a relatively secure, wealthy Western democracy, but is indicative of their dissatisfaction with the climate of the nation. The youngest group felt most grateful21 as did those in Scotland and the South West22.
18-21: 60% | 22-25: 55% | 26-30: 50%
Scotland: 60% | South West: 60% | Base: 55%
When asked if they had a good life compared to others in the UK however, only 35% agreed and 12% disagreed. Perhaps the perfect social media profiles they see daily have more of an impact than they realise, even though they understand how heavily curated this content is. Almost half, though, stated that they didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have a good or bad life compared to others their age in the UK, which shows that most appreciate that their peers are probably going through the same ups and downs as them. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Yes, I am definitely grateful for my life.â&#x20AC;? Stevie, 23
Whether mainstream or niche, all brands share the same challenge – an audience that is ever-evolving and impossible to pigeonhole. Today, attitudes and opinions of young people change faster than ever. It is acceptable and even encouraged to evolve your point of view as more information becomes available and as we all know, the speed of information spread is exponential. We could see this as another example of the youth being fickle, or we can see this as a genuine attempt to learn and grow – it’s never been easy to admit you are wrong. As marketeers this leaves us in a dangerous position if we don’t have our finger on the pulse. From our research, we have gathered some key take-outs which should be viewed as a starting point for brands looking to understand the youth market. 1. They are internalising the process of happiness. This means traditional approaches of materiality bettering their lives will be less and less effective. If you can help them fill a genuine need you will have their respect.
5. Give them experiences. This is an experiencedriven group who are still galvanised by participation in the brands they love. Give them stories and connect with them through a culturedriven encounter that they can learn something from and socially share. You will gain more brand love from that than just talking about your product ATL.
2. Location influences opinion. We have seen that everything, from measures of success to attitudes towards brands in culture and drinking, varies with region. A one-size-fits-all approach is unlikely to resonate with everyone in the same way but localised activations give you the option to tailor your messaging to hit home.
6. Use technology and their data responsibly. They are looking for a hero in this area and their ambivalence toward data sharing demonstrates their feelings of helplessness. Although most feel the government should be doing more, they would welcome a brand that takes a stand and fights their corner.
3. Goals are changing from societal to personal. Advertising feels out of touch to young people because it hasn’t moved on in the way that they have. Diversity, breaking traditional norms and realistic portrayals of cultures and roles are vital to show your brand is moving with the times.
7. Gender issues are not going away. We still have a way to go with gender equality and making both men and women feel more secure in their own skins. Brands can do their part by not shying away from equality issues and creating change from the ground up within their own businesses. Similarly, in a climate where exploration of gender identity is more acceptable than ever, brands with progressive attitudes should proudly lead the charge.
4. Don’t underestimate expertise. It doesn’t matter how much reach your influencer has, it’s more important to look at credibility and if they are knowledgeable in their field. Young people appreciate the business savviness of influencers but it is also open season for criticism of them if they are not experts in the things they are selling. Overt selling falls into the category of endorsement and should be avoided.
8. They have so much to worry about. As a brand, be part of the solution, not the problem. Do your bit for the environment, reassure them on your supply chain, ditch the plastic at your events, demonstrate your support for progress and generally, show them you understand and care about the things they do. Your energy will be well spent.
Whilst we try and figure out this young generation, they are trying to figure out the world. In 2016 we reported an optimistic, wide-eyed, idealistic group who saw the world as their oyster. In 2018, global events have taken the shine off somewhat and although progressive attitudes are still prevalent, their faith in the world has taken a dive. They no longer feel we, as a global community, are pushing in the same direction to make things better. Influence circles have tightened and practicalities have taken over frivolities. We always knew they were hustlers with work-arounds for every problem, but now we are seeing the beginnings of a more introspective approach to life. Instead of asking how they can be successful in the traditional sense (wealth, marriage, social status) more of them are asking how they can be successful without it. Could we be witnessing the beginning of a different way of life? We continue to look on this group with wonder and respect. As bad as things might seem, they are navigating stormy waters with their wits and a strong moral compass, striving in their own way to make things better. 97
Written by Krupali Cescau Special Thanks Georgia Hussey, Tosh Ohta, Elizabeth Cowie, Joe Stone and our 2,023 interviewees and contributors Principal Photography by Jake Millers www.jakemillers.com Book Design by 27 www.27london.com Printed by Twist www.twist-print.co.uk
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