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G Guide to o De evelopin ng S Superio or

R Re ese ea arcch S Skiillss

L2L L Learning 2 L Learn


R Rese earch & Inquiry Wh heel Rese earch is an ongoing o and d organic pro ocess which changes the e more you explore. Mastery of the fund damentals off research will wi enable yo ou to enjoy and apprecia ate true life-lo ong learning g.


Research Skills Continuum Grade

Grade

Grade

Grade

9

10

11

12

Report Type

research report

research report

research essay (thesis)

research essay (thesis)

Report Length

one (1) page

two (2) pages

2 – 4 pages

1500 words

Purpose Paragraph

yes

yes

yes

yes

Body Paragraphs

two (2)

four (4)

at least four (4)

at least five (5)

Conclusion Paragraph

yes

yes

yes

yes

Brainstormer

yes

yes

yes

yes

Question Generator

yes

yes

yes

yes

Focus Statement

yes

yes

yes

yes

Information Sources

two (2)

four (4)

at least five (5)

at least five (5)

Trailblazers

two (2)

four (4)

at least five (5)

at least five (5)

Outline Organizer

yes

yes

thesis outline

thesis outline

In-text Citations

yes

yes

yes

yes

Reference Style

APA or MLA

APA or MLA

APA or MLA

APA or MLA

(concept map or KWS)

(rough draft)


Grade 9 - Academic Grade Goal: To prepare a one (1) page report with two (2) sources of information (Introduction, 2 body paragraphs, conclusion, with in-text citations and references page) supported by 2 properly formatted Trailblazers.

Basics

Stage 1

Preparing for Research • • • •

Define information needs Explore information Identify ways of organizing information Relate prior knowledge to information tasks

Stage 2

Accessing Resources • • • •

Locate a variety of appropriate resources Select information appropriate to needs Gather information from resources Collaborate with others to share findings

Stage 3

Processing information • • • •

Analyse and evaluate information Test ideas to adjust research Sort information Synthesize findings and formulate conclusions

Stage 4

Transfer of Learning • • • •

Revise product according to purpose, audience and format Present research findings in a variety of forms for a variety of audiences Reflect on and evaluate product and process Transfer new information skills and knowledge

Breakdown □ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □ □

Understand the details of the assignment: → type, task, due date, number of sources, etc Use Brainstormer (Concept Map or KWS) Develop effective research questions – 5W’s & H Create a Focus Statement Develop an effective search strategy

Introduce Library Databases Introduce “Free” vs. Subscription Internet idea Access LRC Virtual Library Databases on very specific topics Perform limited & specified searches Introduce & practice use of Trailblazer Practice note taking/making skills: → Direct quotations → Paraphrasing → Summarizing Engage with feedback Explore Copy & Paste strategies Reflect on learning up to this point Collaborate on findings Use two (2) sources of information

Reflect on the process Decide if prepared to move forward Prepare an outline of key information included in report Descriptive feedback provided Students complete self-assessment checklist Reflect and decide to move forward into next stage

□ □ □ □ □

Introduce Documentation Styles (APA or MLA) Review tips for avoiding plagiarism Prepare rough draft of report using Outline Organizer Conference for descriptive feedback Self-assessment/evaluation of rough work with a view to improvement

□ □

Prepare polished copy of research report Submit polished copy

Complete 3-2-1 Reflection → 3 very important points I’ve learned → 2 questions or comments I still have → 1 idea for using this learning in the future…


Grade 10 Grade Goal: To prepare a two (2) page report with four (4) sources of information (purpose, four (4) body paragraphs, conclusion with in-text citations and references page) supported by four (4) properly formatted Trailblazers.

Basics

Stage 1

Preparing for Research • • • •

Define information needs Explore information Identify ways of organizing information Relate prior knowledge to information tasks

Stage 2

Accessing Resources • • • •

Locate a variety of appropriate resources Select information appropriate to needs Gather information from resources Collaborate with others to share findings

Stage 3

Processing information • • • •

Analyse and evaluate information Test ideas to adjust research Sort information Synthesize findings and formulate conclusions

Understand the details of the assignment: → type, task, due date, number of sources, etc

□ □

Review Brainstormer (Concept Map or KWS) Review Developing questions → 5W’s & H Review Focus Statements Review how to develop a search strategy

□ □

□ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □

□ □ □

Transfer of Learning

Stage 4

Breakdown

• • • •

Revise product according to purpose, audience and format Present research findings in a variety of forms for a variety of audiences Reflect on and evaluate product and process Transfer new information skills and knowledge

□ □ □ □ □ □ □

Review of Online Library Databases Review “Free” vs. Online Subscription internet concept Review and expand use LRC Virtual Library Databases with limited topics and specified searches Review of Trailblazers Review note taking/making skills with sheets Review Copy & Paste strategies Collaborate with peers on findings Reflect on learning at this stage *crucial Use 4 sources of information Reflect on the process Decide if prepared to move forward Review task, due date, number of pages Product – Prepare a 2 page report using 4 sources of information (Intro, 4 body paragraphs, conclusion, with in text citations and reference page) Prepare an outline of key information Teacher & TL provide descriptive feedback and students complete self-assessment checklist Reflect and decide to move forward into next stage

Explore & review documentation Styles (APA & MLA, based on subject area) Review tips for avoiding plagiarism Prepare rough draft of report Conference with teacher & TL for descriptive feedback Self – assessment/evaluation of rough work with a view to improvement Submit research report Complete 3-2-1 Reflection → 3 very important points I’ve learned

→ 2 questions or comments I still have → 1 idea for using this learning in the future…


Grade 11 Grade Goal: To prepare a 2 - 4 page research essay (thesis) with at least five (5) sources of information which supports the thesis (purpose, at least four (4) body paragraphs, conclusion with in-text citations and reference/works cited page) supported by at least five (5) properly formatted Trailblazers.

Basics

Stage 1

Preparing for Research • • • •

Define information needs Explore information Identify ways of organizing information Relate prior knowledge to information tasks

Stage 2

Accessing Resources • • • •

Locate a variety of appropriate resources Select information appropriate to needs Gather information from resources Collaborate with others to share findings

Stage 3

Processing information • • • •

Analyse and evaluate information Test ideas to adjust research Sort information Synthesize findings and formulate conclusions

Stage 4

Transfer of Learning • • • •

Revise product according to purpose, audience and format Present research findings in a variety of forms for a variety of audiences Reflect on and evaluate product and process Transfer new information skills and knowledge

Breakdown □ □ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □ □ □

□ □

Understand the nature of the assignment (task, due date, number of sources, etc.) – to prepare a 2 – 4 page research essay (thesis) Brainstorm research topics/ideas Brainstorm research questions Develop a Focus Statement Submit Focus Statement for descriptive feedback Develop an effective search strategy

Review briefly how to access Online Library databases (LRC Virtual Library) Trailblazers given to students Begin research Conferencing opportunities – to discuss how research is going and any changes to focus of essay Self-assessment checklist of research notes (Trailblazers) Descriptive feedback from teacher & TL on research notes Students reflect on their learning up to this point and answer the question of whether or not they are prepared to move forward in the process (enough evidence to support thesis?) Use at least 5 sources of information

Review task, due dates, number of pages Prepare an outline of thesis, main supporting arguments and key supporting evidence/information Teacher & TL provide descriptive feedback and students complete peer edit Reflect and decide to move forward into next stage

Complete review task (online or group activity) of

□ □ □ □ □ □

Documentation Styles (APA or MLA) Complete review task (online or group activity) on avoiding plagiarism Prepare rough draft of research essay Conferences with teacher & TL for descriptive feedback Peer edit of rough drafts with very specific criteria and concentration on strengths and areas of improvement Submit research essay Complete 3-2-1 Reflection → 3 very important points I’ve learned → 2 questions or comments I still have → 1 idea for using this learning in the future…


Grade 12 Grade Goal: To prepare a 1500 word research essay (thesis) with at least five (5) sources of information which supports the thesis (purpose, at least four (4) body paragraphs, conclusion with in-text citations and reference/works cited page) supported by at least five (5) properly formatted Trailblazers.

Stage 1

Basics Preparing for Research • • • •

Define information needs Explore information Identify ways of organizing information Relate prior knowledge to information tasks

Stage 2

Accessing Resources • • • •

Locate a variety of appropriate resources Select information appropriate to needs Gather information from resources Collaborate with others to share findings

Stage 3

Processing information • • • •

Analyse and evaluate information Test ideas to adjust research Sort information Synthesize findings and formulate conclusions

Stage 4

Transfer learning • • • •

Revise product according to purpose, audience and format Present research findings in a variety of forms for a variety of audiences Reflect on and evaluate product and process Transfer new information skills and knowledge

Breakdown □ □ □ □

□ □ □

□ □

□ □ □ □ □ □

Understand the nature of the assignment (task, due date, number of sources, etc.) – to prepare a 1500 word research based essay Students work independently for the most part on this assignment with ISU periods once/week ISU periods are for scheduled conferencing between students and their teacher or the TL Prepare a Focus Statement and search strategy for descriptive feedback during at least one conference (more if needed)

Two conferences at this stage – students must show research notes that highlight excellent sources of information and reflect knowledge creation (what will they do with the information and why –information intents) Trailblazer idea now extends to allow the students flexibility in creating their own note taking/making format but in keeping with the intention of this tool Students reflect on their learning up to this point and answer the question of whether or not they are prepared to move forward in the process and submit for feedback Using at least 5 sources of information

Review task, due dates, product details Product – Prepare a 1500 word research essay using at least 5 sources of information to support a thesis. Depending on the subject area, students will use either APA or MLA documentation styles. Oral Defense of Thesis – students are required to defend their thesis with their supporting arguments and evidence by creating some type of visual display (google docs, ppt, etc) and then orally defending it with gathered evidence and main supporting arguments. Teacher and TL share descriptive feedback around this presentation

Complete review task (online or group activity) of Documentation Styles (APA, MLA, based on subject area) Complete review task (online or group activity) on avoiding plagiarism Prepare rough draft of research essay Conference with teacher & TL for descriptive feedback Submit research essay Complete 3-2-1 Reflection → 3 very important points I’ve learned → 2 questions or comments I still have → 1 idea for using this learning in the future…


Research Skills Path Brainstorm ideas ↓ Generate possible Research Questions ↓ Pick most interesting Research Question ↓ Write a Focus Statement ↓ Seek out Research Sources ↓ Take Research Notes using Trailblazers ↓ Create a Reference sheet (APA/MLA) ↓ Create Rough Draft using Outline Organizer (include in-text citations)

↓ Create Polished Copy ↓

SUCCESS!


appendix of research documents


“The Brain nsto orm mer”” Conc cept Map Version • What do o you know about the top pic? • What a re you curio ous about? • How are yo our ideas co onnected? • What do you u want to kno ow? • Whatt questions ddo you have e? • What are e the key wo ords & ideas? •


“The Brainstormer” KWS Version • What do you know about the topic? • What are you curious about? • How are your ideas connected? • What do you want to know? • What questions do you have? • What are the key words & ideas? •

K

What do I already know…?

W

What do I want to know…?

S

What are my key search terms?


Question Generator Using the concepts/curious questions/ideas from your Brainstormer, generate possible questions by playing with parts of the table below. Choose and refine one of questions that spark your curiosity.

defended

deduce deduced

determining

determine determined

isn’t/wasn’t

discovery (of)

effects

discover

effect

discovered

effected by

might/might not

Why

should/shouldn’t

evaluation

evidence

evaluate

(of/for/against)

evaluated

will/will not/won’t explaining

explain explained

classify

extrapolate extrapolated

formulate

classified

formulated

changing

hypothesizing

change(s)

hypothesize

changed

hypothesized

causing

inferring

infer

caused

inferred

calculating

interpreting

interpretation(s)

calculation

extrapolating

formulating formulation

classifying

cause(s)

calculate calculated

investigation(s)

analysing

analyse analysed

interpret interpreted investigating

investigate investigated

lead to

affected by

leading (from) supporting

resulting

understand

support(s)

result(s)

understood

supported

resulted

reflecting

questioning

quantifying

reflect

question(s)

quantify

reflected

questioned

quantified

proving proof

understanding

prove proved

predicting

predict(s) predicted

observing

observe observed

measurement(s)

affect

observation(s)

leading (to)

prediction(s)

affects

reflection(s)

analysis

would/wouldn’t extrapolation

communicated

defend

is/was/are

Who

explanation(s)

(of/for/against)

deduction

consequence(s)

deducing defensible

communicate

defending defence

communicating

does/doesn’t

Which

evaluating

did/didn’t

Where

discoveries

could/couldn’t

When

inference(s)

classification

communication

can/can’t

What

determination

How

measuring

modelling

measure

model(s)

measured

modelled


Research Question & Focus My Research Question is‌

My Focus Statement is‌ Refine the purpose of your research question by completing the following:

I am researching ________________________________________________________________ because I want to find out _________________________________________________________ in order to help my audience understand _____________________________________________ Example: I am researching black holes because I want to find out what they are and what causes them in order to help my audience understand why their existence is necessary in the universe.


Research Trailblazer Citation Information (APA or MLA) (Complete as much of this as possible)

Analog (Handwritten) Author: Title: Subtitle: Date of Publication: Publisher: Date of Access: (for Website/Online Database) URL: OR

Digital (Cut & Paste) Citation Builder - www.studygs.net/citation.htm


Citation Examples APA

MLA

(Sciences, Social Sciences)

(English, Humanities)

References (APA)

Works Cited (MLA)

Canada Year Book, (1997). Retrieved February 21, 2009, from Ministry of Industry, Statistics Canada http://www.estat.ca.

Canada. Minister of Industry. Statistics Canada. Canada Year Book, 1997. Ottawa: 2001. 21 February 2009 http://www.estat.ca.

Child Welfare League of Canada. (1996) The Young Offenders Act, Its Implementation and Related Services: A Child Welfare Perspective. Retrieved May 13, 2008 from http://www.cfcefc.ca/docs/00000282.htm.

Child Welfare League of Canada. The Young Offenders Act, Its Implementation and Related Services: A Child Welfare Perspective. March 1996. 31 May 2009 http://www.cfc-efc.ca/ docs/00000282.htm.

Hynes, Robert. (1997, November 12) Street Kids: Behind the Scenes. Ottawa Citizen, p. A6. Retrieved February 27, 2009, from http:/www.ottawacitizen.com/rec.html.

Hynes, Robert. “Street Kids: Behind the Scenes.” Ottawa Citizen 12 November 27 February 2009 http://www.ottawacitizen.com/ rec.html

Stavsky, M., & Thompson, D. (1994) The Homeless. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.

Stavsky, Marcia and David Thompson. The Homeless. San Diego: Greenhaven Press. 1994.

Webber, M. (1991). Street Kids: The Tragedy of Canada’s Runaways. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Webber, Marlene. Street Kids: The Tragedy of Canada’s Runaways. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1991.

APA

MLA

In-Text (Embedded)

In-Text (Embedded)

Citation Example

Citation Example

Homeless Children and Crime

Homeless Children and Crime

Homelessness among children is leading to an increase in the number of crimes committed by youth. The number of teens living on the streets of major cities has doubled in the last decade and crime rates among young people appear to be rising proportionately (Canada, 1997, p. 126). Children, without the security of a stable place to live and secure adult relationships, can easily become disenchanted with society (Stavsky & Thompson, 1994, p. 145). It is important however, to look at the reasons why children run away and how their experiences on the street affect their behaviour. There seems to be disagreement among the experts as to why teens leave their homes and turn to life on the street. “Public and expert opinion offer a hodgepodge of views as to why kids run away from home” (Hynes, 2009). It seems that most runaway children are escaping abusive situations at home, and that few leave home just because they have disagreements with parents over little items like curfews and homework. One runaway states,

Homelessness among children is leading to an increase in the number of crimes committed by youth. The number of teens living on the streets of major cities has doubled in the last decade and crime rates among young people appear to be rising proportionately (Canada 126). Children, without the security of a stable place to live and secure adult relationships, can easily become disenchanted with society (Stavsky and Thompson 145). It is important however, to look at the reasons why children run away and how their experiences on the street affect their behaviour. There seems to be disagreement among the experts as to why teens leave their homes and turn to life on the street. “Public and expert opinion offer a hodgepodge of views as to why kids run away from home” (Hynes). It seems that most runaway children are escaping abusive situations at home, and that few leave home just because they have disagreements with parents over little items like curfews and homework. One runaway states,

Although my dad had always been a drinker and a gambler, he’d never squandered our rent or savings before. Poverty soon forced us to move to Regent Park (with more than 10,000 residents, the largest public-housing complex in Canada). With the heartbreak came more drinking for both of them. Drunk, my dad couldn’t work steady any more, so he’d work on and off. He’d sober up for work and tank up after work. The fights between them became more violent; he’d smack her around and she’d smack me around (Webber, 1991, p. 156). According to Dr. Jeffrey Palter, Executive Director of “Homes for Youth”, a government agency dealing with homeless teens, there are numerous risk factors that affect a child’s decision to leave home and become involved in criminal activity. These include poverty, violence, addictions, neglect, racism, and community apathy. He stresses, however, that “ through supporting parents, provided that the support is maintained over the long-term, the effects of poverty, community breakdown and racism on young people are greatly mitigated and delinquency thus largely prevented” (Child, 1996).

Although my dad had always been a drinker and a gambler, he’d never squandered our rent or savings before. Poverty soon forced us to move to Regent Park (with more than 10,000 residents, the largest public-housing complex in Canada). With the heartbreak came more drinking for both of them. Drunk, my dad couldn’t work steady any more, so he’d work on and off. He’d sober up for work and tank up after work. The fights between them became more violent; he’d smack her around and she’d smack me around (Webber 156). According to Dr. Jeffrey Palter, Executive Director of “Homes for Youth”, a government agency dealing with homeless teens, there are numerous risk factors that affect a child’s decision to leave home and become involved in criminal activity. These include poverty, violence, addictions, neglect, racism, and community apathy. He stresses, however, that “ through supporting parents, provided that the support is maintained over the long-term, the effects of poverty, community breakdown and racism on young people are greatly mitigated and delinquency thus largely prevented” (Child). NB for MLA – you may double space “block quotations” and Works Cited entries


3 Types of Research Notes Brief overview

Colour Code: BLUE

Condense

Condense information

(Summarize)

What was the Big Idea? Overall, what was information source about?

Colour Code: BLACK

Restate

Restate author’s ideas in your own words

(Paraphrase)

Keep author’s ideas intact, even if you don’t agree with them

Colour Code: RED

“Word for Word”

Word for word copy of relevant information

(Direct Quote)

Put information in “quotation marks”


Research Notes


Research Notes


Reflection What have I learned as a result of consulting this source of information?


Research Outline Organizer This is the Rough Draft Creator 0. Title of Report Title: _____________________________________________________________

1. Purpose Paragraph Explain the purpose of your research. What are you including in the presentation of your information to support your purpose and why?

___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________


2. Main Body of Report This is where you are organizing your research into a logical sequence which will serve as a skeleton of your presentation of information. Create a heading for each observation.

You MUST Include your in-text citations as you go along!

________________(heading) ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

________________(heading) ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________


___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

________________(heading) ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

________________(heading) ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________


___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

________________(heading) ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________


3. Conclusion Paragraph Briefly summarize your findings. Refer back to your original purpose.

___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________


Research Report Peer or Self Edit/Assessment Form High Research

Areas of Assessment

Sources of information and use of resources

● Used a variety of challenging, reliable & appropriate resources ● Used appropriate evidence & examples ● Creatively fulfilled purpose

Thinking & Inquiry Purpose Information Crediting of Sources

Communication Organization Use of visuals

Application Language Conventions Overall Presentation

● Covered topic with outstanding information ● Credited sources accurately

Very Good ● Used several reliable & appropriate resources ● Made effort to use evidence & example

● Completely fulfilled purpose ● Covered topic with appropriate information

Adequate ● Used minimum number of resources for basic information ● Used some evidence & examples

Needs Work ● Used too few resources ● Used little evidence & few examples

● Fulfilled purpose

● Did not fulfill purpose

● Covered the basics

● Omitted important information

● Credited sources accurately

● Credited sources accurately

● Provided incomplete credits

● Used easy to follow order

● Order confusing at times

● Order hard to follow

● Visual highly interesting & supportive of purpose

● Visuals interesting, easy to understand & supportive of purpose

● Visuals somewhat interesting & supported purpose

● Visuals messy & unorganized, hard to understand

● Showed outstanding effort

● Showed effort

● Showed fair effort

● Showed little effort

● Few errors

● Few errors

● Several errors

● Many errors

● Supported ideas with lots of details

● Supported ideas with adequate details

● Weakly supported ideas

● Ideas not really supported

● Demonstrates a high level of competence

● Demonstrates considerable competence

● Used logical, easy to follow order

● Demonstrates some competence

● Demonstrates limited competence


Research Report Rubric Criteria

K

I

C A

Knowledge

Inquiry

Level 1

Level 2

(3-) Level 3 (3+)

(4-) Level 4 (4+)

Research

Limited accurate & relevant research

Some accurate & relevant research

Considerable accurate & relevant research

Well-chosen, accurate & relevant research

Research Question (Purpose)

Report shows limited focus around a central question

Report is somewhat focused around a central question

Report is well focused around a central question

Report is effectively focused around a welldefined central question

Analysis & Explanation

Offers little analysis & explanation

Offer some analysis & explanation

Offers considerable analysis & explanation

Offers thorough & insightful analysis & explanation

Sources

Sources are limited; careless documentation

Some sources are appropriate & well documented

Most sources are appropriate & well documented

All or almost all sources are appropriate & well documented

Conclusions

Show limited logic & insight

Show some logic & insight

Show considerable logic & insight

Show a high degree of logic and insight

Organization

Limited clarity and effectiveness in presentation of ideas

Some clarity and effectiveness in presentation of ideas

Ideas are clearly and effectively presented

Ideas are clearly presented in a highly effective & creative manner

Use of visuals

Uses few visuals effectively

Uses some visuals effectively

Uses many visuals effectively

Uses all or almost all visuals effectively

Language Conventions

Limited accuracy & effectiveness

Some accuracy & effectiveness

Considerable accuracy & effectiveness

Shows a high degree of accuracy & effectiveness

Titles, headings & layout show limited competence

Titles, headings & layout show some competence

Titles, headings & layout show considerable competence

Titles, headings & layout show a high degree of competence

Communication

Application Overall Presentation

NR


Research Skills Reflection …important things you learned…

3

→ → → …questions/comments…

2

→ → …idea for how to use this process in the future…

1


Online e Accce esss Rese R earch h Skkills Folder Goo ogle Drive e


Ide eas… …

Guide to Developing Superior Research Skills  

high school student guide

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