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VS-A Index 2014- 2017

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VS-A INDEX 2014-2017


“ There is an Outside, an Inside, and that which lies in between. This space might be only a few millimeters or several meters deep. The study of this space can be detailed in a few sentences, can be developed in a book, or as a full-time endeavor.” “ Il y a l’extérieur, l’intérieur et cet entre-deux, qui peut ne faire que quelques millimètres d’épaisseur ou bien des mètres entiers, dont l’étude peut se résumer en quelques phrases, se développer dans un livre ou devenir un métier à part entière.” “ 世界上有三部分空间:外面,里面,以及夹在外面里面之间的中间空间。这个中间空间有可能只 有几毫米的宽度,也有可能会有几米那么深。那么对于这个中间空间的研究,既可以用几句话来描 述,也可以写成一本书,甚至于作为一项终身的事业。 ” “ 외부와 내부 공간 사이에는 그를 결정짓는 ‘공간’이 있다. 이는 그 깊이가 몇 밀리미터에서 때로 는 몇 미터까지에 이르며, 이 ‘공간’에 대한 연구는 몇 문장에 그칠 수도 있지만, 한 권의 책이 되기 도 하며, 또한 누구에게 생애에 걸친 노력이 된다. ”

This book contains the research and studies conducted by VS-A. This second volume covers the developments between 2014 to 2017. © VS-A Published by VS-A www.VS-A.net ISBN 978 988 13102 0 0 Designed and edition: Thomas Pinte, Bobby Chan Ce livre illustre les recherches et activités des bureaux VS-A ; Cette seconde édition couvre l’activité de 2014 à 2017. © VS-A Publié par VS-A www.VS-A.net ISBN 978 988 13102 0 0 Design et conception graphique : Thomas Pinte, Bobby Chan

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Preface / Préface / 前言 / 머리말

Office / Agence / 事务所 / 사무소

Retrospective / Rétrospective / 回顾 / 회고

Technical Focus / Focus Technique / 技术专题 / 기술적 주안점

Latest Works / Réalisations / 近期项目 / 최근 프로젝트

Essays / Essais / 随笔 / 에세이

VS-A Products / VS-A Produits / VS-A 智造 / VS-A 제품 3


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Preface / Préface / 前言 / 머리말

Gontran DUFOUR & Robert Jan van SANTEN & Naree KIM VS-A Index II marks the beginning of a collection that I hope will be a large one! The first edition was published in 2 languages, which acted as a great means of communication for us both in Asia and Europe. It had enabled us to spread the word about our work through photos, design extracts and anecdotes. For this new edition, we wanted to preserve the original framework, which included both our current projects and a retrospective of those completed between 2014 and part of 2017. However, it will include some new content to liven up this edition. The release of the 2nd edition coincides with a rather unusual period for all of our agencies, which are all currently working on the construction of high-rise buildings: the CFC Tower with the Morphosis agency in Casablanca for VS-A, the Daishin Securities Tower with B&A Architects in Seoul for VS-A.KR and the Hongshuwan Shenwan Huiyun Towers in Shenzhen with the AREP-AUBE group for VS-A.HK. For these past three years, architects, clients and companies have tasked us with more than 250 projects, at various stages of completion and in different countries. Our international development, mainly in the Asian market, had led us to rethink the internal organisation of our offices as well as our production methods. Thanks to that and the investment of Robert-Jan in Hong Kong since 2011, the development of our two agencies in Asia can be possible. I previously mentioned the new aspects of this work. This book honours a handful of personalities, collaborators and/or friends who we asked to contribute to our platform for expression: «The Essays». We are delighted to share current ideas with you, and debate their advantages and drawbacks. We would love to receive your contribution for the next edition. What could be better than contributing to the 3rd edition of VS-A INDEX, which will be celebrating 30 years of VS-A! To close this preface, I would like to thank all the members of the construction industry who have worked alongside us over the past few years. No project could succeed without trust, a good dose of intelligence, empathy or even complicity. Our future experiences will surely be different, with other aims and constraints... but they will be just as exciting! VS_A Index II amorce le début d’une collection qui, je l’espère, sera longue ! La première édition a été pour nous un fabuleux moyen de communication tant en Asie qu’en Europe, avec ses 2 versions linguistiques. Il nous a permis de faire connaître notre travail au travers de photos, d’extraits d’études et d’anecdotes. Pour cette nouvelle édition, nous avons souhaité conserver la trame originale qui inclut aussi bien le travail en cours qu’une rétrospective de nos projets sur les années 2014-2017. Quelques nouveautés viennent toutefois agrémenter son contenu.

La sortie du tome II correspond en effet à une période un peu particulière pour chacune de nos agences, qui ont toutes pour point commun la construction en cours d’immeuble de grande hauteur : la tour CFC avec l’agence Morphosis, à Casablanca pour VS-A, la tour Daishin Securities avec les architectes de B&A à Séoul pour VS-A.KR et les Hongshuwan Shenwan Huiyun Towers à Shenzhen avec le groupement AREP-AUBE pour VS-A. HK.

재정비하는 계기가 되었다. 2011년 로버트-얀 디렉터의 프랑스에서 홍콩으로의 이주는 아시아 사무소의 발전에 원동력이 되었다.

Durant ces trois dernières années, architectes, maîtres d’ouvrages ou encore entreprises, nous ont missionnés sur près de 250 projets, à divers stades d’avancement et dans différents pays. Le développement à l’International, principalement sur le marché asiatique, nous a d’ailleurs conduits à repenser l’organisation interne de nos bureaux mais aussi le mode de production attendue. C’est grâce à cela, mais aussi et surtout par l’investissement de Robert-Jan installé à Hong Kong depuis 2011, que le développement de nos deux agences en Asie a pu se faire.

진정 어떤 프로젝트도 서로 신의와 지성, 공감이 없다면 이루어 질 수 없었다! 마지막으로 지난 몇 년간 우리와 함께 해준 모든 프로젝트 관계자 분들에게 감사를 전하고 싶다.

J’évoquais précédemment les nouveautés de cet ouvrage. Ce livre met en effet à l’honneur quelques personnalités, collaborateurs et/ou amis, auxquels nous avons proposé de contribuer à la tribune d’expression libre : « les Essais ». Nous sommes ravis de partager avec vous les idées en vogue et nous serions ravis de recevoir votre contribution pour le prochain ouvrage.

在这个新版里面,我们想保留原版的框架,包括当 前的项目和在2014-2017完成的项目。但这次会 有新的内容让第二版更生动。

Quoi de mieux que d’apporter votre contribution pour la 3ème édition de VS-A INDEX qui célébrera les 30 ans de VS-A ! Pour clôturer cette préface, je tiens ici à remercier tous les acteurs de l’acte de construire que nous avons côtoyés ces dernières années. En effet, aucun projet ne se fait sans confiance, sans une bonne dose d’intelligence, d’empathie voire même de complicité. L’expérience future sera forcément différente, avec d’autres objectifs, d’autres contraintes … mais elle sera assurément passionnante ! 두번째 브이에스에이 색인 작업을 시작하며, 이번호도 두툼하고 풍성하게 끝맺을 수 있기를 희망한다. 첫번째 브이에스에이 색인집은 프랑스어 뿐 아니라 영어와 중국어로도 번역되어 유럽 뿐 아니라 우리 작업이 덜 알려진 아시아 지역에서도 우리의 작업 도면, 사진 자료 및 작업 발전기를 통해 우리 사무소의 좋은 홍보 수단이 되어주었다.

이번호에는 우리 사무소 구성원들이 직접 쓴 “ 에세이” 장을 마련하여 개인의 취향, 관심사를 담아 각자의 개성이 드러나도록 하였다. 브이에스에이 그룹의 30년을 축하할 다음 호에 담을 에세이에는 관심이 있는 협력업체 동료들의 기고도 환영한다.

VS-A

Index

II

标志着一个大合集的开端!

第一版以两种语言出版,作为我们在亚洲和欧洲沟 通工具。让我们透过照片,设计摘录,和 轶事传达我们的工作。

第二版的出版恰巧碰着我们三家公司的一段不寻 常时期,我们都在做超高层的项目:VS-A 和 Morphosis 的卡萨布兰卡CFC 塔楼 ,VS-A. KR和B&A Architects的首尔大信證券塔楼,和 VS-A.HK和法铁欧博的深圳深湾汇云塔楼。 在过去的三年,建筑师,客户,和企业给了我们超 过250个不同完成度和在不同国家的项目。我们的 国际发展,主要在亚洲市场让我们从新思考内部组 织和工作模式。归功于Robert-Jan从2011开始 投入香港的业务,使得我们能够在亚洲发展两家事 务所。之前提及到这一版的新内容,我们邀请了我 们尊敬的名人,合作单位,和朋友对我们的表述平 台 «The Essays» 作出贡献。我们欣喜地和你分享 我们当前的思想,讨论它们的优势和弱点。我们很 希望在下一版得到你们的贡献。 有什么能比对第三版VS-A index 献同时庆祝VS-A三十周年更好?

作贡

我感谢所有在建造业里跟我们在这几年合作过的伙 伴。项目的成功需要信任,智慧和同理心,缺一不 可。 我们未来会有不同的经历,目标和约束,但会同样 令人兴奋!

이번 호에는 지난 호의 틀을 따라 우리 사무소 그룹의 회고 프로젝트 및 2014년~2017년 작업을 담으면서 몇가지 새로운 이야기를 추가했다. 각 사무소에서는 여러 고층 건물 프로젝트를 진행하였다 : 릴사무소가 모로코 카사블랑카에서 진행한 모포시스 건축사무소와의 CFC 빌딩, 서울 사무소가 진행한 비엔에이 건축사무소와의 대신파이낸스 센터, 홍콩 사무소가 중국 선전에서 진행한 홍슈완 빌딩이 있다. 지난 3년 동안 우리는 건축사무소, 건축주 혹은 시공사가 발주한 250 여 프로젝트를 세계 각국에서 진행하였다. 아시아 지역으로의 그룹의 국제화는 우리 사무소 내부 조직 시스템과 작업물에 대해

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VS-A

VS-A.KR VS-A.HK

.KR

VS-A

2F, 28 Yunposun-gil Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-240, KOREA T: +82 (0)2 6959 9731 mail@vs-a.kr

W2, 9/F The Bedford No. 91-93 Bedford Road Tai Kok Tsui Kowloon HONG KONG T: +852 3590 8237 mail@vs-a.hk

Strasbourg

26 rue du Bassin d’Austerlitz 67000 Strasbourg, FRANCE T: +33 3 20 52 11 44 courrier@vs-a.eu 8

VS-A.KR

VS-A.HK

41 Place Rihour 59000 LILLE, FRANCE T: +33 3 20 52 11 44 courrier@vs-a.eu

Colombo

78 Glennie Street Colombo 02, Sri Lanka T: +94 (0) 11 230 4075 mail@vs-a.hk


Office / Agence / 事务所 / 사무소 Introduction 简介 Introduction 소개 VS-A is a group of design offices that deals with the design and engineering of building envelopes. Our main task is to design expressive, functional and economical façades and coverings that meet the expectations of the client and the architect. Over time, our scope of work includes additional fields like heat transfer, energy, structure, Research & Development, product development, legal expertise, client assistance, teaching, conference speaker, co-author of professional codes & guidelines, and even acting just like architects in some specific situations. We participate in projects involving: • … new constructions, refurbishing, restorations or renovations, • … large and small buildings, • ... national and international players, • ... public or private projects, • ... all kinds of functional programs. From the beginning of a project, we try to write a unique story, binding the architectural and technical concepts, merging them into one. This is how we develop customized solutions with strong character that fit into the overall architectural project. This VS-A Index II aims to illustrate this through a selected number of works. VS-A est un ensemble de bureaux d’études traitant de design et d’ingénierie appliqués aux enveloppes des bâtiments. Notre mission première est de concevoir des façades et des couvertures expressives, fonctionnelles et économiques, répondant ainsi aux attentes du Maître d’Ouvrage et de l’Architecte. Dans le temps, nos missions se sont étendues pour couvrir des domaines complémentaires qui sont : la thermique, l’énergie, la structure, la Recherche, le développement

VS-A office / Agence VS-A

de produits, l’expertise judiciaire, l’assistance à maîtrise d’ouvrage, ... l’enseignement voire même de la maîtrise d’œuvre dans certains cas particuliers. Nous intervenons sur des projets : • … de construction neuve, des réhabilitations, de restaurations ou des rénovations, • … de très grande taille mais aussi de taille beaucoup plus modeste, • … nationaux et internationaux, • … en marché public ou privé, • … avec tous types de programmes. Dès le départ d’un projet, nous cherchons à écrire une histoire originale, rendant les réflexions architecturales et techniques indissociables. Ce faisant, nous développons des solutions personnalisées, avec un caractère affirmé qui s’inscrit dans le projet architectural d’ensemble. VS-A Index II illustre utte démarche en travers de quelques exemples significatifs. 브이에스에이는 건물의 외피에 대한 디자인과 엔지니어링을 하는 사무소 그룹이다. 우리의 주 업무는 건축가와 클라이언트의 기대를 만족하는 독창성 있고, 기능적이며 경제적인 파사드와 외피를 설계하는 것이다. 이에 따라 설계 요구 사항을 충분히 이해하면서 최적의 가격을 제시하는 시공사를 찾기 위한 입찰 도서를 만든다. 입찰 이후에는 시공사 작업을 검토하며 최고의 품질로 시공이 이루어질 수 있도록 한다.

• …초대형에서 초소형에 이르는 모든 규모의 건물, • …국내 및 국제 프로젝트, • …공공 및 민간 프로젝트, • …모든 종류의 프로그램이다. 우리는 언제나 건축과 공학을 아우르는 관점을 통해 그 프로젝트 만의 독특한 이야기를 찾고자 노력한다. 이러한 작업을 통해 전체 건축 프로젝트와 일맥상통하는 외피의 개성 있는 맞춤형 설계 솔루션을 개발하고자 한다. VS-A 所。

是一群专注于幕墙设计和工程的设计事务

我们主要的任务为设计能满足客户和建筑师预期的 功能性,经济的幕墙和立面。 我们的工作范围还包括其他范畴,比如传热学,能 源,结构,研究和发展,产品开发,法律专业,客 户协助,教育,论坛讲师,攒写规范和条例,和在 具体情况下担当建筑师的角色。 我们参与的项目涉及: -新工程,整修,翻新,重建 -大型和小型的建筑 -国内和国际的玩家 -公共和私人项目 -不同功能和用途 在每个项目的开头我们尝试写一个独特的故事, 把建筑和技术的概念融为一体。这是我们把定制 化方案发展嵌入整体建筑项目的手法。这版VS-A index 以项目摘录展示所说的设计理念。

우리의 작업 분야는 시간과 더불어 확장되어 현재에는 열, 에너지, 구조, 법규 검토 및 제정, 파사드 건설관리 , 교육 혹은 건축가 업무에 이른다. 우리가 담당하는 프로젝트는: • …신축 및 개축,

VS-A.HK office / Agence VS-A.HK

VS-A.KR office / Agence VS-A.KR

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VS-A ... VS-A in Lille

... VS-A à Lille

Workspace : Nearby Rihour metro station, in the hyper-centre of Lille, head towards Valery the jewellers and take the passageway leading to the entrance of the building where the name VS-A will appear on the scrolling interphone menu. Inside, circulation is complex due to the constraint of having to link three different buildings on all levels. An elevator with three access directions makes it accessible to people with reduced mobility and reaches the second floor where the VS-A office is located.

Les Bureaux sont implantés à deux pas de la sortie du métro Rihour, dans l’hyper-centre de Lille, il faut se diriger vers la bijouterie Valery et emprunter le passage pour arriver à la porte d’entrée du bâtiment où le nom de VS-A apparaît. A l’intérieur, il faut emprunter une circulation dont la complexité découle de la contrainte de relier les niveaux de 3 différents bâtiments. Un ascenseur monte-charge avec trois directions d’accès permet de rendre l’ensemble accessible aux personnes à mobilité réduite (PMR) et de rejoindre le 2ème étage où se trouvent les bureaux de VS-A.

The VS-A office is one vast open space. It is a 400m² space arranged around a glazed patio. The scheme was designed by the co-directors. It was completed by the end of 2007, during a harsh winter which marked the history of the practice. When we moved in, the premises had no thermal insulation, with single-glazed windows without seals, and a heating system which had to be replaced a few years later. Backup heating and gloves were essential! A real heroic period which the survivors will tell their children and grandchildren for many years to come, after they have told their parents and grandparents! In 2015, we reorganized the production space. 3 workshops were designed along 3 alleys , which form large flexible office spaces. We took advantage of the opportunity to add 3 meeting boxes where the meetings can take place.

VS-A office / Agence VS-A

10

Parler des bureaux de VS-A induit un contresens car il s’agit en réalité d’un vaste espace non compartimenté de 400m² qui s’organise autour d’un patio vitré. Le projet fut conçu par les co-gérants. Les travaux ont été réalisés fin 2007, durant un hiver rigoureux qui a marqué l’histoire du bureau. Le local où nous emménagions n’avait alors aucune isolation thermique, avec des fenêtres à simple vitrage, sans joints et une installation de chauffage dimensionnée pour des locaux en l’état où ils ne seront remplacés que quelques années plus tard. Chauffage d’appoint et gants obligatoires ! Une vraie épopée héroïque dont ceux qui ont survécu parleront encore pendant longtemps à leurs enfants et petit-enfants, après en avoir parlé à leurs parents et grand-parents. En 2015, nous avons procédé à une réorganisation de l’espace de production : 3 ateliers s’articulent sur 3 allées formées par de grands bureaux conçus et fabriqués au sein de l’agence pour une flexibilité optimale de l’espace. Nous en avons profité pour ajouter 3 espaces «box» où se déroulent les réunions de conception à l’agence.


VS-A office / Agence VS-A

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VS-A.HK 香港 VS-A ... VS-A in Hong Kong

... 香港 VS-A

Once I read an advertisement for a conference in Singapore on façade engineering. Few months later, I was prevented from travelling there by the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull (March 2010), and my registration was converted into an invitation to the next conference in Shanghai as a speaker. It was not long after the first contacts I made there, realizing that Hong Kong was ‘THE’ place to go. A meeting with Suzy HUANG was the decisive factor in the set-up of VS-A.HK Limited on 17th January 2011.

我曾读到一则宣传新加坡幕墙工程会议的广 告。数个月后,我因为埃亚菲亚德拉冰盖 (Eyjafjallajokull)火山爆发(2010年3月)而未 能前往新加坡,后来我的注册变成受邀参与接下来 在上海举行的会议,担任演说人。在我首次联络之 前不久,有人告诉我香港是我们「应该」去的地 方。认识黄书成了决定性因素,于是我和黄书于 2011年1月17日成立了 VS-A.HK 香港公司。

With the establishment of the Hong Kong practice, VS-A began to develop a whole series of management and technical tools enabling us to gather and share all the knowledge of the company. The Hong Kong experience enabled Naree KIM to open the Seoul office on 31st of July 2013 following an optimised and even more efficient model. In Asia, these adjectives are not optional. They are imperative and synonymous with survival. We have embarked on our international adventure once and for all. Even if it is still in its early stages, it is already attracting young talented graduates from very diverse backgrounds to apply to us to construct the future together. They are all very welcomed! VS-A.HK Ltd is a limited liability company (Ltd, Limited), which the stakeholders are the owners. The associates numbered three: Robert-Jan van SANTEN, Gontran DUFOUR and Suzy HUANG.

VS-A.HK office / 香港 VS-A

12

成立香港公司后,VS-A 开始发展一连串的管理 和技术工具,这让我们能够开始搜集并实现我们的 专业能提供的一切。香港的经验让 Naree KIM 能 够遵循一种优化、较有效的模式,于2013年9月开 设首尔办公室。在亚洲,这些形容词非我们可任意 选择,它们是必要条件,而且是生存的同义词。我 们已彻底展开国际化冒险,虽然仍处于早期阶段, 但我们已吸引来自不同背景、有才华的青年毕业 生,希望未来与我们共事。我们非常欢迎他们加入 香港 VS-A 是一家有限责任公司(Ltd, Limited) ,股东就是所有人。所有合伙人都有权享有公司 的获利分配,而分得的百分比将依加入公司的年资 而定。2013年6月,合伙人有三名:Robert-Jan van SANTEN、Gontran DUFOUR及黄书。 为了本土化的需求,我们给自己取了个中文名 字:万山丹香港有限公司。万山丹取自创始人van SANTEN 先生姓的谐音。


VS-A.HK office / 香港 VS-A

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VS-A.KR 브이에스에이 코리아 ... VS-A in Seoul

... 브이에스에이 서울 사무소

Naree KIM gained her expertise as a facade consultant in VS-A offices in France and Hong Kong. Upon learning the need for a design-engineering office in Korea, Ms. KIM established VS-A.KR as VS-A’s third office with Robert Jan van SANTEN and Gontran DUFOUR. Since its establishment in 2013, VS-A.KR has provided all facade-related services - from supervising various facade constructions and renovations to active participating in architectural competitions. As of November 2017, VS-A.KR consists of 8 members including five architects and one engineer.

파사드 컨설턴트로서 프랑스와 홍콩 브이에스에이 사무소에서 경력을 쌓은 김나리는 한국에서의 파사드 사무소의 필요성을 인식하고 로버트 얀 반잔텐, 공트렁 뒤푸르 디렉터와 함께 브이에스에이의 세 번째 사무소인 브이에스에이 코리아를 설립하였다. 2013년 설립 이래 다양한 프로그램과 규모의 파사드의 신축, 개축 프로젝트를, 공모전에서 공사감독까지 전 과정에 걸쳐 수행하고 있으며. 2017년 11월 현재 브이에스에이 코리아의 팀은 건축가 5명, 엔지니어 1명 등 총 8명의 인원으로 구성되어 있다.

In terms of the execution of projects, VS-A.KR collaborates with engineers and experts in the offices of VS-A France and Hong Kong offices that specialize in structural, thermal, and glass fields. As a team, VS-A offices share their know-how and perform constant research to develop knowledge. Based on the experience of VS-A.KR, members frequently engage in lectures and speeches in universities and forums to share knowledge and VS-A.KR’s experience.

브이에스에이 코리아는 서울 사무소 팀을 중심으로 프랑스와 홍콩 브이에스에이 사무소 팀들과의 긴밀히 협조 하에 각 분야 (구조, 열, 유리, 복합 기하 등) 의 전문가들로 구성되어 프로젝트를 수행하며, 구성원이 함께 노하우를 나누고 지속적인 연구를 통해 각자의 지식을 발전시켜 나아간다. 아울러 실무 경험을 바탕으로 여러 대학 등의 강연을 통해 브이에스에이 코리아의 기술력과 정보를 알리는 일도 한다. 건축 설계와 엔지니어링 사이의 간극을 줄여 나가며 ‘한국화’된 외피 구현을 실현하는 것이 브이에스에이 코리아의 목표이다.

VS-A.KR has materialized conceptual architectural design through technology. VS-A.KR hopes to contribute to Korea’s facade history and develop facades that blend in with Korean culture.

VS-A.KR / 브이에스에이 코리아

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VS-A.KR / 브이에스에이 코리아

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Milestones / Dates clés 1989

1998

2003

The birth of “Van SANTEN, Façade Engineering Consultants”, with its very first project: the design of an overlay roof for an elementary school in Paris with Christian ENJOLRAS. The project involves developing an extruded aluminium profile that can be used both as roofing and as a brise-soleil.

The firm is renamed “van SANTEN & Associés s.à.r.l.”, first with Jean-Louis Besnard as a partner.

We joined the SNFA, the Syndicat National de la Façade et des Activités Associées [National Union of Façade Engineering and Associated Activities]. Although this organisation mainly includes suppliers and other companies from the sector, we deemed it as important to participate as we do in the Ordre des Architectes [Architects’ Association].

Le bureau s’appelle dorénavant van SANTEN & Associés s.à.r.l., d’abord avec Jean-Louis BESNARD comme Associé.

Création de « van SANTEN, bureau d’études façades », avec le tout premier projet qui fut l’étude d’une sur-toiture pour une école élémentaire à Paris avec Christian ENJOLRAS. Le projet a consisté à développer un profilé en aluminium extrudé qui puisse être utilisé tant sur couverture qu’en brise-soleil.

Affiliation à la SNFA, Syndicat National de la Façade et des Activités associées : bien que cette organisation regroupe principalement les fournisseurs et entreprises du secteur, il nous a paru important d’y participer au même titre que nous sommes inscrits à l’Ordre des Architectes.

1991

2000

2005

First international project with the participation in the design and engineering of Kansai Airport, with Renzo Piano.

Gontran DUFOUR came in the office, he will then become a partner in 2002.

Affiliation with AFEx, Architectes Français à l’Export [French Architects Overseas]. With its roots in France, our firm naturally feels close to French architects that venture abroad. This dynamic association contributes towards promoting the “French Touch” all over the world.

Premier projet à l’international avec la participation aux études pour l’aéroport de Kansai, avec Renzo PIANO. Moving to Lille. This choice is made in the hope of a better quality of life. And it has been an excellent choice: Lille is an extremely pleasant city to live in and has a stimulating work environment. The city and the region treated us well: we have always had 1 or 2 projects on the go with local architects or with the city. Déménagement à Lille. Ce choix était lié à la recherche d’un cadre de vie meilleur. Et assurément c’était un excellent choix : Lille est une ville extraordinairement agréable à vivre, et stimulante pour le travail. La ville et la région nous l’ont toujours bien rendu : nous avons eu, en permanence, 1 ou 2 projets à traiter avec des architectes locaux..

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Arrivé de Gontran DUFOUR au bureau qui va s’associer en 2002 pour devenir cogérant de l’agence.

Affiliation à l’AFEx, Architectes Français à l’Export. Notre bureau a ses racines en France, et se sent naturellement proche des architectes français qui tentent l’aventure à l’international. Cette dynamique association concourt à promouvoir la French Touch à travers le monde


2006

2010

2013

First project in China, with AREP: the iconic XiZhiMen Towers in Beijing. A wholly innovative project in its façades and their maintenance systems.

The firm became a “société par actions simplifiée”, or simplified joint-stock company, and changed its name to VS-A, which stands for Van Santen & Associés. As the firm is growing, the name is designed to reflect the growing importance of the partners in the firm. Robert-Jan designed the firm’s first logo. Around this time, there were the first hints of working as a group of companies, with possible international expansion.

The creation of VS-A.KR Ltd, with Robert-Jan van SANTEN, Gontran DUFOUR and Naree KIM as partners. The choice of Seoul is directly linked to the desire of Naree Kim, who previously worked in the Lille and HK offices, to open an agency in her country. The Seoul office starts to work in August on the Hyundai Card Busan project with the architects One O One. The office is independent both legally and financially.

Premier projet en Chine, avec AREP : les tours emblématiques de XiZhiMen à Pékin. Un projet résolument innovant quant aux façades et leur systèmes d’entretien.

Le bureau devient une s.a.s., et prend le nom de VSA, les initiales de Van Santen & Associés. La société grandissant, le nom devait refléter l’importance grandissante des Associés dans le fonctionnement du bureau. Robert-Jan dessine le premier logo du bureau. C’est aussi le moment des premières esquisses pour un fonctionnement en groupe de sociétés, avec une possible expansion à l’international.

2008 Silver research and technical medal, awarded by the Academy of French Architecture to Robert-Jan van SANTEN. Médaille d’argent de la recherche et de la technique, décernée par l’Académie d’architecture française à Robert-Jan van SANTEN. Moved from the main square in Lille to a 400m² openspace office located on Place Rihour in Lille. Déménagement des bureaux de la grand place vers un open-space de 400 m² situé place Rihour à Lille.

Création de VS-A.KR Ltd, avec Robert-Jan van SANTEN, Gontran DUFOUR et Naree KIM comme partenaires (associés). Le choix de Séoul est directement lié au souhait de Naree KIM, qui avait travaillé précédemment dans les bureaux de Lille et de HK, d’ouvrir une agence dans son pays. L’agence de Séoul commence à travailler dès le mois d’août sur le projet Hyundai Card Busan avec l’architecte One O One. Juridiquement et financièrement, le bureau est indépendant.

2011

2016

The creation of VS-A.HK Ltd, with Robert-Jan van SANTEN, Gontran DUFOUR and Suzy HUANG as partners. The choice of Hong Kong, a real link between east and west, also proved to be fruitful, in terms of both quality of life and professional environment. This is our entrance to the Chinese market more generally, particularly in Shenzhen. The office in Hong Kong is independent legally and financially .

The creation of a new office in Strasbourg with Léa RICHERT, partner architect of the office.

Création de VS-A.HK Ltd, avec Robert-Jan van SANTEN, Gontran DUFOUR et Suzy HUANG comme partenaires (associés). Le choix de Hong Kong, véritable charnière entre l’occident et l’orient, s’est aussi révélé excellent, tant pour la qualité de la vie que pour l’environnement professionnel. C’est littéralement notre porte d’entrée sur le marché Chinois en général, sur Shenzhen en particulier. Juridiquement et financièrement, le bureau est indépendant.

The creation of a new office in Colombo with a permanent resident mainly related to the Waterfront project that’s under construction. Création d’une antenne à Strasbourg avec Léa RICHERT, architecte associée de l’agence. Création d’une antenne à Colombo au Sri Lanka, liée au projet de Waterfront en cours de construction.

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Human resources Ressources humaines ... The

person in charge of Human Resources is, in theory, the first person who candidates contact during their job search. In fact, few applications come to us without having already been in touch with us, they generally will have heard about VS-A during private discussions, conferences or lectures at schools.

Korea, knowledge of the local language is basically necessary; this is slightly less true of Hong Kong, where English is the common language used in the office. It must be remembered that communication is part of our job and we cannot disregard it, unless we want to spend all our time behind a computer screen.

Many students come to us requesting an internship (from engineering schools) or wanting to do their architectural placement in a more unusual setting. This was the case for Gontran (in 1999) and Arnaud (in 2006), for example. Generalists who come to us discover aspects of our work in a few months and, if they take a liking to this field, which combines architecture, design and engineering, are sometimes tempted to take this route later on and to come back once their university studies are over. In 2015, we welcomed an engineer (Ecole Centrale de Nantes + Delft University of Technology) who was involved in writing a thesis on one of our research and development projects. We have some topics that are just waiting for motivated, curious and talented candidates! All three of these qualities are obviously required. Two more can be added: the ability to translate an idea into a drawing quickly and successfully, and to work in a team.

Even though responsibilities are quickly entrusted to those in a project manager position, it must be noted that a period of training is necessary in order to grasp the various facets of our job. 4 to 5 years seem enough to feel confident. But the world of construction evolves so quickly, both from a technical and regulatory point of view and in its tools (Grasshopper, for example). It is therefore vital to be constantly training, or at least keeping informed, to stay up to date. During this time, our team is asked to develop their knowledge towards one or several specialities, so that they can make an interdisciplinary contribution to more projects. These specialities can be related to a material, a group of products or a specific functional or performance field. They must therefore be aware of technological advances in order to keep up to date.

New arrivals are generally qualified architects, architect-engineers, engineer-architects or engineers. Double-diploma courses, which have recently been implemented in some ‘Grandes Ecoles’, or achieved through a post-graduate qualification, like that awarded by the Delft University of Technology, are a good fit for our work, but of course, it is all a question of personality and curiosity. This was the case for Larissa Blaser (Ecole Centrale de Lille + Politecnico di Milano) and for Prashanth and Hyejun , both are architects (architecture + TU Delft). Experienced candidates generally know our firm and want to join us for a long journey. This is the case for Nathalie and Nicolas, for example. Overseas candidates are welcomed into our offices and their integration can be even more smooth when they can work on international projects. In France and

During this period, they will be led by workshop supervisors and technical directors, who will encourage them and help them to develop their passion for this work. Over the years, knowledge is acquired and so is the ability to communicate. Information is shared through the organisation of themed lunches, the writing of themed files that will take place into our electronic document management, participation in collective tasks like filing and the writing of articles for the newsletter or the VS-A Index book. Also to mention is the participation in work or training trips or even active participation in conferences specifically about facade engineering. To do so, it is crucial to be able to introduce the firm, its specific way of working and possibly to create or seize opportunities to work on future projects.

At this stage, upon the proposition of the current partners, the employee may be offered the position of Associate. This status allows them to participate in the distribution of profits, which vary from year to year and are indexed depending on the number of years he’s a partner of the firm. Today, in France, there are 10 partners. This status means that some time spent at the firm must be dedicated to research to improve production and to develop the firm. Answering others’ questions also becomes a priority over your own work. When the partner takes on growing responsibilities within the company and actively contributes to it running smoothly and developing, they can ask to become a shareholding Partner of the company. This is, above all, a financial project that involves buying shares in the firm, following a defined pace and with a calculated share value that follows a mathematical formula double-checked by Ernst & Young. Currently, in France, only Robert-Jan van SANTEN and Gontran DUFOUR are shareholders. The same two are shareholders in Hong Kong along with Suzy HUANG and in South Korea with Naree KIM. Other ventures overseas are planned, which will happen at the right time with the people who have acquired the firm’s ethos and knowledge, are keen to take on this commercial venture and know the country in question well. In conclusion, there are several routes available to evolve within our firm; it is the employee who creates the deciding factors and the timescale for their own development. The firm is proud to see its employees advance! It must be noted that not all employees follow this hypothetical route, sometimes because of the language barrier but more often because of their own wishes. There is no problem with that; we train up a tight-knit team over 3 workshops, to which everyone has chosen to dedicate a significant amount of their time. All of our employees must therefore be thanked for their active and talented participation within VS-A’s companies! And we welcome all talented newcomers in the future! RJvS

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...

La personne responsable des Ressources Humaines est en principe la première personne que des candidats à l’embauche contactent. En réalité, peu de candidatures nous arrivent sans qu’il n’y ait déjà un début d’histoire, une connaissance commune, un centre d’intérêt déjà identifié, une rencontre à une conférence ou à un cours. Nombreux sont les étudiants qui arrivent chez nous avec une demande de stage (écoles d’ingénieurs), ou qui veulent faire leur HMONP (écoles d’architectes françaises) dans un environnement moins classique. C’était le cas de Gontran DUFOUR (en 1999) et d’Arnaud MALRAS (en 2006) par exemple. Généralistes, ils découvrent en quelques mois une ou deux facettes de notre métier et s’ils prennent goût à ce métier mixant architecture, design et ingénierie, ils peuvent être tentés d’emprunter cette voie plus tard, et de revenir une fois leur cursus universitaire conclu. En 2015, nous accueillons pour la première fois un ingénieur (Centrale Nantes + TU Delft) pour faire une thèse sur un projet de R&D. Nous avons quelques sujets en réserve qui n’attendent que des candidats motivés, curieux de tout et talentueux ! Les 3 qualités sont évidemment requises. On peut y rajouter 2 autres : savoir bien et rapidement traduire une idée en dessin à la main, et apprécier le travail en équipe. Les nouveaux arrivants sont généralement diplômés Architecte, Architecte-Ingénieur, IngénieurArchitecte ou Ingénieur. Les filières à double diplôme, récemment mis en place dans quelques grandes écoles françaises, ou obtenus après un post-diplôme comme en décerne TU-Delft, correspondent bien à notre métier mais tout est question de personnalité et de curiosité. C’est notamment le cas de Larissa BLASER (Centrale + Polytechnique Milano) et de Harshad SHITOLE (Architecte + TU Delft). Les moins jeunes qui ont déjà acquis une première expérience et qui connaissent notre bureau souhaitent généralement y entrer pour faire un long bout de chemin ensemble. C’est le cas de Nathalie SIMONNEAU et de Nicolas DELPLANQUE par exemple. Les candidats étrangers sont accueillis dans chacun de nos bureaux avec bienveillance et leur intégration se fait évidemment avec d’autant moins de difficultés qu’ils peuvent travailler sur des projets internationaux. En France et en Corée, la connaissance de la langue du

pays est une quasi nécessité, c’est un peu moins vrai à Hong Kong où l’anglais est la langue de référence au sein du bureau. Il n’en demeure pas moins que la communication fait partie de notre métier et qu’on peut difficilement en faire abstraction si on ne veut pas passer tout son temps derrière des écrans d’ordinateurs. Si assez rapidement des responsabilités sont confiées aux nouveaux arrivants au travers d’un poste de chef de projet, il n’en demeure pas moins qu’une période d’apprentissage est nécessaire pour appréhender les multiples facettes de notre métier. 4 à 5 ans ne sont pas de trop pour se sentir autonome. Mais le monde du bâtiment évolue vite, tant du point de vue technique, réglementaire qu’au niveau des outils de travail (les logiciels de gestion des OPR et les plug-ins avec Grasshopper en sont des exemples). Il faut donc en permanence se former et à minima s’informer pour rester en phase. Durant ce temps, il est demandé au chef de projet de développer leurs connaissances dans une ou plusieurs spécialités, afin de pouvoir intervenir transversalement sur un nombre plus important de projets. Ces spécialités peuvent avoir trait à un matériau, à un groupe de produits ou à un domaine fonctionnel ou performantiel précis. Ils doivent alors faire une veille technologique pour rester en permanence à la pointe de l’information. Durant cette période, ils seront encadrés par les chefs d’ateliers et les directeurs techniques qui veilleront à les encourager et à développer leur passion pour ce métier. Au fil des années, le savoir-faire s’acquiert et en même temps que le faire savoir. L’information se partage à travers l’organisation de lunchs thématiques, la rédaction de fiches thématiques qui alimenteront notre GED (Gestion Electronique de Données), la participation aux tâches collectives comme l’archivage, la rédaction d’articles pour la newsletter ou le livre VS-A Index. Il y a aussi la participation à des voyages d’études, de formation ou même la participation active à des conférences ciblées sur notre métier. Il faudra savoir présenter le bureau, ses spécificités et ses atouts, ses principales références et ses missions, créer ou saisir les opportunités de travail sur de futurs projets.

A ce stade, sur proposition des Associés en place, le salarié peut se voir proposer un statut d’Associé. Ce statut lui permet de participer à la distribution des bénéfices, variables d’une année à l’autre et indexés selon son ancienneté en tant qu’associé au bureau. En France, à ce jour, les associés sont au nombre de 7. Ce statut implique qu’une partie du temps investi au bureau soit destinée à la recherche d’améliorations de la production, et du développement du bureau. Ainsi répondre aux questions des autres devient aussi prioritaire que de réaliser son propre travail. Lorsque l’associé prend des responsabilités grandissantes dans la société, qu’il pourvoit activement à son bon fonctionnement voire à son développement, il peut solliciter de devenir Associé actionnaire de la société. C’est avant tout un projet financier puisqu’il implique un rachat de parts du bureau, suivant un rythme défini à l’avance et avec une valeur d’action calculée suivant une formule mathématique, validée par Ernst & Young. A ce jour, en France, seul Robert-Jan van SANTEN et Gontran DUFOUR sont actionnaires. A Hong Kong, ce sont les mêmes avec Suzy HUANG, idem en Corée du Sud avec Naree KIM. D’autres implantations à l’étranger sont envisagées ; elles se feront à l’heure venue, avec les personnes qui ont acquis le savoir-faire de l’agence, qui sont motivées par une aventure commerciale et qui connaissent bien le pays en question. En conclusion, il y a plusieurs voies possibles pour évoluer au sein du bureau, et c’est l’employé qui crée les conditions déterminantes et le calendrier de sa propre évolution. Et le bureau est assurément fier de voir ses employés évoluer ! A noter que tous les employés ne suivent pas ce chemin théorique, parfois à cause de la barrière de la langue mais plus souvent par souhait personnel. Il n’y a là aucune incompatibilité, nous formons une équipe soudée, répartie en 3 ateliers auquels tous ont choisi de consacrer une partie importante de leur temps. Que l’ensemble des employés soit donc ici remercié pour leur participation active et talentueuse au sein des sociétés VS-A ! Et bienvenue à tous les talents qui nous rejoindront dans le futur ! RJvS

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Human resources Ressources humaines

C

A

Internal organisation of VS-A around the project manager

D

A

Architect

C

Client

D

Developer

PM Project Manager

local office specialists: glass, structure, materials, parametric design & complex geometry, sustainability, energy, daylight analysis, ventilation, flow and thermal simulation, building maintenance units.

VS-A

Specialists Spécialistes

PM

Draftsmen Dessinateurs

R&D

Organigramme des intervenants de VS-A autour du chef de projet A

architecte

C

client

D

entrepreneur

PM chef de projet

General Advisors (Associates)

Conseillés (Associés)

Administration Management Administration

bureau local peut être produit par un autre bureau de VS-A spécialistes: verre, structure, matériaux, géométrie complexe, conception paramétrique, développement durable, énergie, lumière naturelle, ventilation, simu-

Evolution of employees and their experience within VS-A offices Evolution des employés et de leur expérience au sein des bureaux VS-A

50

45

40

35

30

25

Number of employees between 1 & 2 years of seniority Number of employees between 2 & 5 years of seniority Number of employees with more than 5 years of service

20

15

10

5

0

Number of employees less than 2 years of seniority Number of employees between 2 & 5 years of seniority Number of employees with more than 5 years of seniority

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Travel agency in Lyon / Voyage d’agence à Lyon

Travel agency in Lyon / Voyage d’agence à Lyon

Visit in HK with URBANUS Team / Visite à HK avec l’équipe URBANUS

Visit of a glasses supplier / Visite d’un fournisseur de verres

Visit of the Villa Cavrois in Croix / Visite de la Villa Cavrois - Croix

Travel agency in Lyon / Voyage d’agence à Lyon

Visit on site in Séoul / Visite de chantier à Séoul 23


International Development Développement International ... Most

people I meet find development into international markets totally logical and normal. That is true, but can a service be exported like a manufactured product can? First question: why should we export? Through atavism or through memories of childhood holidays, foreign countries are an object of curiosity, a world where people have built cities following different cultural rules and other economic or political models or simply in order to adapt to a different climate. But there is no need to go very far to find new cultures and experiences; Europe is full of contrasting regions! People’s Republic of China The Chinese adventure began with an initial successful collaboration with AREP on a large office project in Beijing (XiZhiMen, cf. VS-A Index 1), which quickly led to a second one in Guangzhou with Buro II. Several visits to the country have brought me face-to-face with locals (LDI then the local façade design office, which is in fact a construction company) and I was pleasantly surprised that the dialogue was simple and to the point, even without an interpreter: we simply and efficiently communicated through drawing! After a few Chinese conferences and shows, the idea is becoming reality: with Suzy HUANG who until then was the head of exports at the Chinese (mirror manufacturer) AVIC, Gontran and I decided to proceed with opening an agency in Hong Kong. This was made official on 17th January 2011 and from 6th March 2011, we began to set up our office in a 4-room apartment in Mei Foo, halfway between Central (the heart of Hong Kong) and Shenzhen. Although there were no particular problems from a technical point of view, as many aspects of the Chinese regulations are similar to those in many other countries, safety aspects are dealt in a very specific way. A clear understanding of the Codes and a lot of other local recommendations is necessary to integrate in the design process. And be aware that even unpublished recommendations can be applicable! Other parts of our work also required a steep learning curve: the commercial element (identifying the decision-maker among the client group, the relationships between the group, the definition of their roles, the limits of their scope of work, negotiation and payment conditions, etc.), communication, HR management, communication with VS-A in Lille and the transposition of internal tools. After almost 7 years and around 70 projects (half of them being paid competitions), Suzy has mastered the commercial and contractual aspects, Robert-Jan is taking care of the technical management and a stable production team is in place. This team is currently centred around Hyejun, a Korean experienced architect heading the Design Team, and Prashanth, an Indian architect who is currently more in charge of calculations. Coincidently, both graduated engineer in Delft (NL). The guiding principle is that, eventually, everyone will be able to do everything: lead meetings, do drawings, draw up spreadsheets, write specifications, etc., rather than having one person for each specific job, which tends to be the model used at local design offices. What else differentiates us from other local design offices? It was hard to put a finger on these differences, as the usual words we use to describe our work are differently understood in China. Here, everyone has a similar

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discourse to ours – yes we do design, yes we care about energy, natural light and comfort, yes we work closely with the architect – even though, in practice, we definitively do not work in the same way. With experience, objectively speaking, our strengths are: - Making sure that the architect’s concepts are reflected in the construction (there is often some distance between the computer-generated image and the constructed reality, and both Clients and Architects mainly communicate using the former as a reference). - Total independence from suppliers and other companies. We can recommend some, but if the Client wishes, we let them manage the contractual discussions directly. - Knowledge of the design of architectural details (the architect’s work is often limited to a few exterior perspectives, a 1:100 drawing and a 3D model on SketchUp, while the local design institutes mainly makes detailed construction drawings, usually closely related to previously built projects). - Ability to carry out geometrically complex or unusual work, which requires the development of new, tailormade technical solutions. - Integration of R&D (Research and Development) programms in our daily life, and more recently, design of in-house products. Following the example of what we experienced in France 20 years ago, we differentiate ourselves from other design and engineering firms who, from the draft stage onwards, only communicate with documents that could be mistaken for construction drawings. A specific bilingual graphic charter had been established in order to respond to the requirements of our clients for each design phase. We are proud that our documents include everything that the Contractors needs for understanding the project as quickly as possible, and for being able to calculate their costs accurately. We always leave some room to allow them to integrate their own technical solutions, and to use their own chosen suppliers in order to reduce the costs. In the interest of all, but firstly in that of the Client! These charters are a guarantee that our designs are specific to this precise project and that there has been no recycling of plans made for other projects... but sometimes our client insists on having ‘Chinese-style’ A3 documents. In that case, we work with local design offices, through a cocontracting or subcontracting contract. We carefully select our partners, and decided to start closely collaborating with YUKE. This office was recently set-up in Shenzhen by a team that till now was mainly working for contractors. An official program for training and sharing of experience has been set up that allows our 2 companies to collaborate with increasing mutual understanding and high efficiency. After being 7 years in China, our motivation is still intact, despite some stumbles. The new construction market is enormous, and the restoration of buildings built too quickly over recent decades is proving to be a second market that is just as promising. China is starting to face challenges in terms of the environment and, above all, is looking to express its own identity. Companies there have an extraordinary production capacity, despite desperately under-qualified staff. Current reforms seem to indicate an impending return to more sensible and wise methods. We must train the individuals who can respond to these aspirations in the future. These individuals will obviously mostly be Chinese. After all, our office is Chinese too.

South Korea The South Korea project originated 6 years before its establishment. We met Naree KIM, an architect who graduated both in Korea and in France (!), in the post of project manager for the agency ArchitectureAction, with whom we collaborated on a project in La Roche sur Yon. Two years and a trip around the world later, Naree first joined VS-A, then VS-A.HK before convincing herself, Gontran and me that she would like to go back to Korea and create a VS-A.KR agency. This was founded on 5th March 2014. After a few competitions, another stable team was formed very quickly, with Jaeman PARK and Sunhoo KIM, both architects. Jaeman specialises in parametric design and is interested in all kinds of calculations, while Sunhoo started his university career by studying sustainable development. From our experience, the Korean market is characterised by very low fees for Architects. In Asia, more than anywhere, size and strength are paramount. Aside the bigger architectural companies, the smaller firms need to find niche markets where the rules can be slightly different, on a case-by-case basis. Our first big contract was the new Daishin Head Quaters in central Seoul. For two years, we designed and defended our idea of high quality architecture at a reasonable price. Construction finished in 2017. Our contribution has been welcomed by all as a positive input for the project, but we have not been able to prevent the use of glazing glued on site, the sealing of the façade relying on one single silicone sealant, with a guaranteed lifetime of only two years (!). Buildings are not made in Korea like they are in Europe. We already suspected this, but this experience definitively convinced us. Behind our surprise there is also the urgent need to understand, or even learn, how to build in different ways. Each experience helps us to grow. We have directed our activities towards the opportunities that have come about: with our young colleagues, we have participated in two open architecture competitions and finished 3rd and 2nd respectively. Naree knows many local architects and gives conferences and teaches. Our international accomplishments bring us closer to agencies like Mass Studies, created by Minsuk Cho, an ex-OMA, and the recent call for applications for the restoration of the French embassy in Seoul enables us to spread our close links with some French agencies internationally. VS-A.KR is the only agency hiring only national architects, although foreign architects and engineers regularily join for their internship. This is not a coincidence, as Korea is most certainly an unusual country with a unique language and writing system. We did not want to and could not disregard this exceptional cultural context. It is crucial to us to be near our clients, to listen to them and offer VS-A solutions that are ‘made in Korea’. RJvS


... La plupart des gens que je croise trouve le développement à l’international tout à fait logique et normal. Certes, mais peut-on réellement exporter un service comme on exporte un produit manufacturé ? Pourquoi faudrait-il exporter ? Par atavisme ou par souvenir des nombreux voyages réalisés lors de son enfance, l’étranger est d’abord un objet de curiosité, un monde où des gens ont bâti des villes suivant d’autres règles culturelles, d’autres modèles économiques ou politiques, ou simplement pour s’adapter à des conditions climatiques différentes. Nul besoin d’aller loin pour être dépaysé, l’Europe recèle déjà de tant de régions si contrastées ! La République Populaire de Chine L’aventure chinoise commence avec une première collaboration réussie avec AREP pour un projet immobilier important à Pékin (XiZhiMen, cf. VS-A Index 1), à laquelle succéda rapidement une deuxième à Guangzhou avec Buro II. Plusieurs visites sur place m’ont alors mis face à face avec des interlocuteurs locaux (LDI puis le BET façades local, en fait une entreprise de construction) et contre toute attente, le dialogue fut simple et rapidement concluant, même sans interprète : nous communiquions juste par dessins ! Quelques conférences chinoises et quelques salons plus tard, l’idée se concrétise : avec Suzy HUANG, jusqu’alors responsable export chez le miroitier chinois AVIC, Gontran et moi décidons de nous lancer dans le projet d’ouverture d’une agence à HK. Ce sera officiellement chose faite le 17 janvier 2011 et à partir du 6 Mars 2011 nous installons nos bureaux dans un appartement de 4 pièces à Mei Foo, quartier à michemin entre Central (le cœur de HK) et Shenzhen. Le 1er Novembre 2011 nous déménageons à Kwai Fong dans des locaux industriels plus spacieux. Si l’apprentissage technique ne posait pas de problèmes particuliers, les normes chinoises sont similaires à celles de nombreux autres pays, tous les autres aspects du métier ont nécessité un sérieux apprentissage : le commercial (identification de l’intervenant décisionnaire parmi les différents intervenants, les relations qui existent entre elles, la définition des missions, des limites de prestations, des conditions de négociation et de règlement, …), la communication, la gestion des RH, la communication avec VS-A à Lille et la transposition des outils internes, … Après 7 ans et une soixante-dix de missions (dont une grande partie de concours, souvent rémunérés), Suzy a en charge les aspects commerciaux et contractuels, RobertJan assure l’encadrement technique et une petite équipe de production stable est en place. Celle-ci s’articule à ce jour autour de Hyejun, 2 architectes expérimentés, Prashanth, architecte-ingénieur en charge des calculs, et Evan, jeune architecte chinois. L’idée directrice est que, à terme, chacun sache tout faire : conduire des réunions, faire les dessins, rédiger les fiches de calcul, établir le descriptif, … plutôt que d’avoir des personnes dédiées à une tâche spécifique, qui est plutôt le modèle qu’on retrouve chez les BET locaux. Ce qui nous différencie des autres bureaux d’études techniques locaux : Il fut difficile de mettre un nom sur ce qui nous distingue des autres bureaux, tant les mots usuels que nous employons pour le qualifier résonnent différemment en Chine : ici tout le monde tient un discours analogue au notre : oui on fait du design… oui on fait des calculs thermiques, … oui

on travaille en étroite collaboration avec l’Architecte, … même si à l’évidence nous n’exerçons pas notre métier de la même manière. Avec l’expérience, objectivement parlant, nos points forts sont : - La préoccupation à ce que le rendu « architecte » soit bien reflété par la réalisation (on voit fréquemment un grand écart entre l’image de synthèse et la réalité construite, la communication des intervenants utilisant principalement la première). - L’indépendance totale vis-à-vis des fournisseurs et des entreprises. Nous laissons les clients qui le souhaitent gérer les discussions contractuelles directement avec les entreprises. - Savoir-faire de la conception de détails architecturaux (le travail de l’architecte se limite souvent à quelques perspectives extérieures, au dessin 1/100ème et un modèle 3D sur SketchUp, et le BET ne réalise que les plans d’exécution échelle 1:1, avec usuellement plus de liens avec un projet déjà réalisé qu’avec ce projet en particulier, - Aptitude à réaliser des ouvrages aux géométries complexes ou atypiques, qui nécessitent le développement de solutions techniques nouvelles, sur mesure. A l’instar de ce que nous avons vécu en France il y a 20 ans, nous nous démarquons des bureaux d’études qui dès l’avant-projet ne communiquent qu’avec des documents ressemblant à s’y méprendre à des plans d’exécution. Une charte graphique spécifique bilingue a été établie pour répondre aux demandes de nos clients pour chacune des phases d’études (voir …). Elle fait notre fierté car nos documents comportent tout ce dont les entreprises ont besoin pour comprendre rapidement le projet et pour le chiffrer, tout en disposant d’une petite marge de liberté pour y intégrer leur technicité et de recourir à des fournisseurs de leur choix pour optimiser le prix… dans l’intérêt de tous, mais du client en premier ! Ces documents sont garants que nos études concernent exclusivement ce projet précis, qu’il n’y a pas de recyclage de plans élaborés pour d’autres projets … mais parfois notre client insiste d’avoir des documents A3 présentés à la «Chinoise ». Nous collaborons alors avec des BET locaux, au travers d’un contrat de co- ou sous-traitance. Après 7 années passées en Chine, notre motivation est intacte malgré quelques croche-pieds reçus par tel ou tel autre client. Le marché en construction neuve est énorme, et les réhabilitations des immeubles construits trop vite ces dernières décennies s’annoncent comme un second marché tout aussi prometteur. La Chine commence à relever des défis en termes d’environnement et cherche surtout à exprimer une identité propre à elle. Les entreprises ont une capacité de production inouïe, malgré un personnel qui manque cruellement de qualification. Les réformes en cours laissent présager un retour prochain vers plus de sagesse et de raison. Il nous faut former aujourd’hui les acteurs qui pourront répondre à ces aspirations de demain. Ces acteurs seront bien entendu très majoritairement chinois. Notre bureau l’est aussi.

d’abord le bureau VS-A, puis VS-A.HK avant de partager avec Gontran et moi-même son souhait de rentrer en Corée et de créer une agence VS-A.KR. Celle-ci voit le jour le 5 mars 2014. Après quelques compétitions, une équipe là aussi stable se forme très vite, avec Jaeman et Sunhoo, tous deux architectes. Le premier est spécialiste de dessin paramétrique et s’intéresse aux calculs de toute sorte, le second a débuté une carrière universitaire dans le développement durable. Au travers de notre expérience, le marché coréen est caractérisé par … de très faibles honoraires pour les architectes. C’est évidemment un problème dont les entreprises sont les principaux bénéficiaires. En Asie plus qu’ailleurs, il faut être grand et fort. Comme peu d’architectes le sont, il faut trouver des marchés niche où les règles se définissent un peu différemment, au cas par cas. Notre premier grand contrat concerne le nouveau siège social de Daishin, en plein centre de Séoul. Durant 2 ans nous avons conçu puis défendu notre idée d’une architecture de qualité à prix raisonnable. Le chantier est en cours, les prototypes ont été testés avec des résultats satisfaisants et l’assemblage des panneaux est sur le point de commencer. Notre intervention est saluée par tous comme positive pour le projet, mais nous n’avons pas pu empêcher le recours au collage VEC sur site, une conception d’étanchéité de façade reposant sur une simple barrière d’étanchéité à base d’un mastic silicone … et une durée de garantie limitée à 2 ans. Seulement. On ne construit pas en Corée comme on construit en Europe. Déjà nous ne le pensions pas au départ, mais nous voilà convaincus. Derrière notre étonnement il y a aussi l’impérieux besoin de comprendre, voire d’apprendre, comment on peut construire autrement. Chaque expérience nous fait progresser. Nous avons orienté notre activité au gré des opportunités : avec de jeunes confrères nous participons ainsi à 2 concours d’architecture ouverts, et finiront respectivement 3ème puis second. Naree a de nombreuses connaissances parmi les architectes locaux, donne des conférences et enseigne. Nos références internationales nous rapprochent d’agences comme Mass Studies, créée par Minsuk Cho, un ancien de chez OMA et le tout récent appel à candidature pour la réhabilitation de l’ambassade de France à Séoul permet d’étendre à l’international nos liens étroits avec certaines agences françaises. VS-A.KR est la seule agence où ne figurent que des architectes nationaux. Ce n’est pas un hasard car la Corée est assurément un pays très atypique, disposant d’une langue et d’une écriture uniques. Nous ne voulions ni ne pouvions faire abstraction de ce contexte culturel d’exception. Là aussi il nous parait essentiel d’être proches de nos clients, de savoir les écouter et de proposer des solutions VS-A « made in Korea ».. RJvS

La Corée du Sud Le projet trouve sa source 6 années avant de voir le jour. Nous croisons Naree KIM, architecte doublement diplômée en Corée et en France, dans une fonction de chef de projet pour l’agence ArchitectureAction avec qui nous collaborons sur un projet à la Roche sur Yon. Deux années et un tour du monde plus tard, Naree rejoint 25


國際發展 해외 진출 我认识的大多数人,都发现进军国际市场是理所当 然的。这样说没错,但是服务能像工业产品一样出 口吗?首先,我们为什么要出口呢?根据追溯祖先 或者回忆童年的假日,外国是个令人好奇的东西, 在那个世界里人们根据不同的文化原则、经济模 式、政治形态或者适应不同气候特点修建城市。其 实没必要多此一举去寻求新的文化和经验,欧洲本 身就是这样一个遍布着巨大差异的地区。 中国 进军中国市场始于一次和AREP成功合作的在北京 的大型住宅项目(详见西直门...),而它很快地促 成了我们在广州和Buro合作的第二个项目。多次 到访中国让我有机会和当地人面对面交流(本地院 即本地的幕墙顾问,实际是一个施工单位),让我 惊喜的是,和他们沟通挺容易挺顺畅的,连翻译都 不需要:我们通过草图来交流。 经过几次在中国的峰会和展览之后,这个想法终于 要实现了:通过联合当时还是中航玻璃海外部主管 的黄书,Gontran和我决定推进在香港开设事务所 的事宜。事务所在2011年1月17日正式注册,同 年3月6日在香港中环和深圳之间的美孚,我们租 了一套有4个房间的公寓,成立了我们的工作室。 我们在2011年11月1日搬进了葵芳的一个工业大 楼,有了更加宽敞的办公空间。 虽然在技术层面上没什么具体的问题,因为中国的 规范和其他很多国家的比较相近,但是我们工作的 其他很多方面还急需快速的学习:商务方面(包括 在众多业主中识别出决策者,业主之间的关系,定 位各个业主的角色,服务的范围,谈判协商和付款 条件等),沟通方面,人力资源方面,与里尔总部 沟通方面以及内部工具的转移。 在过去的5年和50多个项目(其中很多是付费竞 赛)中,黄书主导商务和合同方面,Robert-Jan 把控技术方面,组建起了一个稳定的设计团队。这 个团队目前以Hyejun这个经验丰富的建筑师为核 心,Prashanth作为建筑师和工程师负责计算方 面,另外还有中国建筑师方树, 王茹 和胡蓉。我们 的指导原则是,每个人都有能力做所有的工作,包 括组织会议、画图、制作图表,撰写说明等等,而 不是像当地设计公司只是让员工做某一件具体工作 的模式。 这就是使我们不同于别的设计事务所的地方:这种 差异不容易理解,因为通常对我们对自己工作的描 述在中国听起来会与众不同。在这里,其实工作的 内容是类似的: - 是的我们都做设计,都做热工计算,都和建筑师 密切合作,虽然我们实际上不会用完全相同的方式 工作。从经验上客观地说,我们的实力在于: - 确保落成的建筑能够体现建筑师的设计成果(通 常电脑图纸和现实落成的建筑之间总会有差距的, 主要原因是施工习惯性采用以前建筑的经验)

我们第一个大合同是位于首尔中心区的本田总部。 我们用两年时间,通过设计实现我们的愿望:在 合理造价范围内保证建筑设计品质。项目正在施工 中,幕墙模块通过测试并得到了令人满意的结果, 模块的组装即将开始了。因为我们对项目的积极推 进,我们的付出得到了广泛的好评,但我们还是没 能避免结构胶的使用,这是一种只有两年使用寿命

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的硅胶进行简单水密性和气密性处理的方法,这样 是不能满足要求的。在韩国的建筑施工和欧洲的很 不一样。我们质疑过这一点,但是它说服了我们。 在我们惊讶之余,当务之急是去理解和学习怎么样 用不同的方式去建造。每一次经验都有助于我们不 断进步。 我们抓住出现在眼前的机遇并付诸汗水:我们和 年轻的同事们一起参加了两个公开的建筑竞赛, 并且先后取得了第三名和第二名的成绩。Naree认 识许多当地的建筑师,并且出席学术会议和教学 活动。我们在国际上的成就,使我们有幸和Mass Studies这样的事务所密切合作,这个事务所是由 OMA的前成员Minsuk Cho建立的。而近期对法 国驻首尔大使馆修复工作的邀请,使我们能够和一 些法国的事务所进行进一步的国际交流。 VS-A.KR是我们唯一一个只有本土建筑师的事务 所。这并不是巧合,因为韩国确实是一个只有一种 语言和一种文字的与众不同的国度。我们不希望也 不能够忽略这样特殊的文化环境。另外很重要的一 点是,我们应该去和客户亲密接触并倾听他们的需 求,并提供“韩国式”的设计方案。


사람들은 해외 진출을 굉장히 체계적이고 논리적 인 과정이라 여긴다. 물론 그렇기는 하지만 무형의 서비스도 제품처럼 수출할 수 있을까? 일단 왜 해 외에 진출하는가? 유년기의 추억이나 역사적 사건 들을 떠올리게 하는 외국은 호기심의 대상이다. 낯 선 나라들에서는 전혀 다른 환경과 문화를 바탕으 로 그들의 경제적, 정치적 모델에 따라 도시를 구 축한다. 하지만 유럽도 이미 매우 다른 문화와 지 역의 집합체인데 왜 굳이 우리는 새로운 문화나 경 험을 찾아 더 멀리 유럽을 떠나왔을까?

도면을 재활용하여 상세도를 작업하는 경우가 많 다. - 여러 신기술과 노하우를 바탕으로 복합 기하 및 특수한 파사드 작업을 수행할 수 있다. 20년 동안 프랑스에서의 이룬 여러 경험을 바탕으 로, 우리는 설계 초기 단계부터 언뜻 완성된 시공 도면처럼 보이지만, 정작 설계 의도는 잘 담겨있지 않아 오해를 유발하는 상세도를 그리는 몇몇 타사 와 차별될 수 있다고 생각한다.

중국 중국으로의 모험은 AREP 건축사무소와 함께 한 북 경의 대규모 주거 프로젝트(VS-A Index 1의 XiZhiMen 프로젝트 참고)로부터 시작됐다. 이는 얼마 지나지 않아 Buro II 건축사무소와 함께 한 두 번 째 광저우 프로젝트로 이어졌다. 몇 번의 중국 방 문 동안 나는 LDI (사실상 시공자이기도 한 중국 국립 대형 건축 사무소)와 만날 기회가 있었고, 통 역사 없이도 스케치 만으로도 간단하지만 어쩌면 더 정확한 의사소통을 할 수 있다는 것을 깨달았 다. 그 후 중국에서의 세미나와 컨퍼런스 등을 거 쳐 막연한 생각은 현실이 되었다. 그 당시 중국 유 리 제조사 AVIC에서 해외 판매 총괄 매니저였던 Suzy Huang, Gontran과 나는 홍콩 사무소를 열기 로 했다. 2011년 1월 17일에서 3월 6일 사이 우리 는 법인을 세우고, 홍콩 중심부 센트랄과 중국 선 전시 중간 지점인 메이푸에 방 4개 아파트를 임시 거처로 빌렸다. 2011년 11월 1일에는 콰이퐁에 정 식 사무실을 얻었다. 4년이 지난 지금 40여개의 프로젝트 경험을 통해 Suzy 소장은 계약 및 상업적 부분을, Robert-Jan 소장은 기술 부분과 팀 내 인력 배치 부분을 맡아 안정적인 사무소 운영을 할 수 있게 되었다. 두 소 장을 주축으로 시니어 건축가인 혜준 팀장, 시니어 엔지니어인 Prashanth 팀장, 주니어 중국 건축가 인 Evan, Ruby, Yiefi가 홍콩팀을 이루고 있다. 궁극 적으로 모두가 모든 작업을 할 수 있도록 하는 것 이 우리 사무소의 작업 원칙이다: 의사 소통을 하 고, 도면을 그리고, 계산을 하고, 시방서를 쓰고... 우리는 한 사람이 한 작업 만을 하는 기존 분업 시 스템을 지양한다. 우리도 물론 커튼월 컨설턴트라고 통칭되는 다른 파사드 사무도처럼 건축가와 밀접한 협업을 이루 어 통상적인 상세도를 그리고 열계산을 한다. 그 러면 우리가 타사와 무엇이 다른가 묻는다면, 우 리는: - 건축가의 설계 의도가 시공에서 잘 드러 나도록 노력한다 (우리는 얼마나 컴퓨터 렌더링 이 미지와 실제 착공된 건물 사진 사이 간의 큰 차이 에 놀라는가?) - 제작사 및 기타 건설업체로부터의 완벽 한 독립성을 추구한다. 요청 시 복수의 제작사를 추천하지만 단일업체를 선정 하지 않음으로써 건 축주가 공정한 입찰 및 최적의 업체 선정의 기회 를 확보하도록 한다. - 건축 디테일 설계 노하우가 있다. 건축가 의 작업은 3D 렌더링 이미지나 개략 도면 정도의 시각적 지침에 그치고, 커튼월 설계 사무소들은 프 로젝트 마다 디테일을 개발하기 보다, 기존 시스템

우리는 현지에서 원활한 의사 소통을 위해 설계단 계에 따른 이중언어 도면 표기 시스템을 개발하였 다. 이로써 따로 번역할 필요 없이 도서 검토 만으 로, 건축주 및 모든 프로젝트 팀들은 파사드를 잘 이해하고, 시공사 및 협력업체들은 도면에 따르면 서도 어떤 부분은 합리적인 제안을 바탕으로 견적 을 낼 수 있는지 파악할 수 있다. 이는 모두에게 편 리하고, 궁극적으로 건축주의 이익을 위한다. 또한 이러한 도면 표기 방식은 각 프로젝트에 특 화된 맞춤형 설계 디테일 (타 프로젝트에서 재활 용된 것이 아닌) 도면 작업을 용이하게 한다. 때로 건축주가 기존 (현지 커튼월 사무소) 스타일의 시 공도면 납품을 요청하면 현지 커튼월 사무소와의 협업을 하기도 한다. 중국에서의 4년이 지난 지금 몇몇 시행착오가 있 었지만 우리는 여전히 의욕적이다. 중국의 건설 시 장은 크고, 리모델링 공사에 대한 수요도 늘어나고 있다. 중국은 최근 환경에 대한 관심과 정체성을 찾고자 하는 움직임이 강해지고 있다. 시공 현장에 질적으로 노련한 기술자가 부족하지만 양적으로 는 엄청난 시공 능력을 갖고 있다. 현재 한창 진 행되는 개혁 조정으로 더욱 유려하고 현명한 방법 으로 산업 시스템이 개편되고 있다. 이러한 새로운 물결 속에서 인재를 양성하는 것이 우리 사무소의 역할이라고 믿는다. 그 인재의 대다수는 결국 현지 인인 중국인이어야 한다. 결국 우리 사무소도 중국 현지 사무소이기 때문이다.

우리의 첫 대형 프로젝트는 서울 명동에 위치한 대 신증권의 신사옥 건물이었다. 2년 동안 우리는 합 리적인 예산 안에서 고품질의 파사드 설계를 위해 노력했다. 성공적인 목업 성능시험과 시공 과정을 거쳐, 대신 파이낸스 센터는 이제 막 준공되었다. 품질 향상을 위한 우리의 역할은 모두에게 인정받 았지만, 우리의 기술 제안은 다 받아들여지지 않았 다: 유리 구조 실리콘은 현장 시공되었고, 수명이 2년에 불과한 실리콘 단일막 구조로 파사드 수밀 및 기밀이 이루어졌다. 한국의 건물 시공은 그 모 든 면에서 유럽과 매우 다르고, 이를 예상했지만, 경험으로 확신하게 되었다. 우리는 여러 대외적 활동을 통해 우리의 행동 반 경을 확장시키고 있다. 최근 2번의 건축 공모전 참 여를 통해 각각 3등과 2등에 입상하였고, 나리 소 장은 여러 세미나와 대학 강의에 참여하고 있다. 국제적 명성을 가진 프로젝트 경험 덕분에 이전 OMA 시절부터 협업한 조민석 소장이 설립한 매 스스터디스와 같은 설계사무소와 긴밀한 협력관 계를 만들어내었고, 최근 작업한 주한 프랑스 대 사관 공모전 같은 프로젝트는 해외 진출을 꾀하는 프랑스 건축사무소와의 협업 기회가 될 수 있었다. 브이에스에이 코리아는 우리 사무소 그룹 중 유 일하게 오로지 현지인들로만 구성된 사무소이다. 한국은 한국에서만 쓰이는 말과 글을 쓰는 독특 한 나라라는 점에서 이것은 우연이 아니며, 우리 는 이 예외적인 문화 배경을 존중한다. 우리는 한 국에서 한국 클라이언트(건축주/건축가)와 밀접하 게 소통하며 한국화된 브이에스에이의 해법을 찾 고자 한다. 로버트-얀 반잔텐

한국 한국 사무소 프로젝트는 설립되기 6년 전부터 시 작되었다. 우리는 프랑스 La Roche sur Yon 문화 센터 프로젝트를 통해 ArchitectureAction 건축사 무소 팀장이었던 한국인 건축가 김나리를 처음 만 났다. 2년 동안의 프로젝트 협업과 세계 여행 끝 에 나리는 VS-A에 합류하였고, 처음에는 릴 사무 소에, 그 다음에는 홍콩 사무소에서 일했다. 그 이 후 한국으로 돌아가 Gontran과 나와 함께 한국 사 무소를 만들고자 했고, 2014년 3월 5일 서울 사무 소는 문을 열었다. 그 이후 서울 사무소에는 몇몇 프로젝트를 통해 건 축과 출신 재만과 선후와 함께 안정적인 팀이 빠 르게 꾸려졌다. 재만은 파라메트릭 설계과 다양한 계산을 담당하는 반면, 선후는 친환경 건축 설계에 특화되었다. 우리의 경험으로 건축가의 낮은 용역 비는 한국 건축 시장의 특징이며 이는 건축사무소 보다 시공사에게 더 유리한 구조이다. 아시아에서 는 권력과 규모가 무엇보다 우선한다. 대형 사무소 가 아닌 이상 설계사무소는 게임의 법칙이 다른 틈 새 시장을 공략해야 한다.

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Founder and co-owners Fondateur et cogérants

创始人及合伙人 사무소 파트너들

Robert-Jan van SANTEN Function architect founder, partner and co-owner Study architect, graduated from UPA3 Versailles (France) Site Hong Kong Summary Robert-Jan van SANTEN worked for 4 years in “Atelier de Paris” for Renzo PIANO in Paris. He setup “Bureau d’études facade van SANTEN” (1989), which later became “van SANTEN & Associés” (1999), and later VS-A (2010). Under his supervision came the establishments of VS-A.HK in 2011, and VS-A.KR in 2013. Honored with a Silver Medal from the French Académie d’Architecture for Research and Technique in 2008. He is a guest speaker in conferences across America, Europe and Asia. Fonction architecte fondateur, associé et co-gérant Formation architecte dplg Emplacement Hong Kong Résumé Robert-Jan van SANTEN est architecte, diplômé de L’UPA3 Versailles (France). Il travaille près de 4 ans avec l’Atelier de Paris, Renzo PIANO. Il crée le “Bureau d’études façade van SANTEN’ (1989), qui évolue en “van SANTEN & Associés” (1999), puis en VS-A (2010). Fondation de VS-A.HK en 2011 et de VS-A.KR en 2013. Médaille d’Argent de l’Académie d’Architecture Française en Recherche et Technique en 2008. Conférencier sur les thèmes de l’ingénierie liés à l’enveloppe des bâtiments en Europe et Asie. Conférencier dans plusieurs Universités en Europe et en Asie.

Gontran DUFOUR Function architect, partner and co-owner Study civil and environmental engineer, architect Site Lille Summary After obtaining his Technological University Degree in Civil Engineering and Environmental Engineering in 1994, Gontran DUFOUR was awarded Architect D.P.L.G from the architecture school of Lille. Spending 2 years in various architecture agencies, he joined “van SANTEN et Associés” in 1999 where he developed the thermal research team of the office. In 2002, he created with Robert-Jan van SANTEN “van SANTEN & Associés” which became VS-A in 2010. He founded VS-A.HK together with Robert-Jan van SANTEN the following year. He is also a frequent speaker on engineering techniques for building envelopes. Fonction architecte associé et co-gérant Formation génie civil et climatique, architecte dplg Emplacement Lille Résumé Après l’obtention d’un D.U.T (Diplôme Universitaire Technologique) Génie Civil, Génie Climatique en 1994, Gontran DUFOUR est diplômé architecte D.P.L.G. de l’école d’architecture de LILLE. Après 2 ans de missions ponctuelles en agences d’architecture, il intègre le bureau van SANTEN et Associés en 2001 où il développe le pole thermique. Il s’associe en 2002 avec Robert-Jan van SANTEN dans la SARL van SANTEN et Associés, transformée en VS-A en 2010. Fondation avec Robert-Jan van SANTEN de VS-A.HK en 2011. Conférencier sur les thèmes de l’ingénierie de l’enveloppe thermique des bâtiments.

Suzy HUANG Function founder partner Study Master of Engineering Project Managing Site Hong Kong Summary Suzy HUANG has a rich professional experience in glass, being in charge of the export department of AVIC, an important glass supplier in South China. During the 6 years spent in VS-A.HK, she acquired a perfect understanding of the Chinese market regarding clients, architects, consultants and contractors. Has a perfect understanding of both European and Asian culture. 职能 创始合伙人 学历 项目工程管理硕士 工作室 香港 简历 黄书在三鑫特种玻璃海外部工作的经历让其对 玻璃行业有着丰富的经验。在万山丹香港工作室工作六年后,她越来越熟悉中国市场的甲方,建筑师,顾 问以及施工单位。并且对欧洲和亚洲文化都有很好的理解。她对香港公司的管理风格既灵活又富有创意。

Naree KIM Function architect partner Study architect Site Seoul Summary Naree KIM has been working in various architecture firms in France & Korea before joining VS-A in 2010. Between 2012 and 2014, she has been transferred in VS-A.HK. In 2013, with Robert-Jan & Gontran, she founded VS-A.KR. She gives regularly lectures at various universities. Her understanding of both architectural design and technical issues facilitates an efficient communication among the design team, contractors and other parties. Has a good understanding of both European and Asian culture. 직위 프랑스 건축사, 사무소 설립 파트너 전공 건축 설계 및 공학 근무지 서울 경력 김나리는 2010년 브이에스에이 릴사무소에 입사하기전 수년간 프랑스와 한국의 건축사무소에서 일했다. 2012년부터 2 년간 브이에스에이 홍콩 사무소에서 근무하였으며 2013년 로버트-얀 및 공트렁 디렉터와 브이에스에 이 코리아를 설립하였다.여러 대학에서 파사드에 대한 강의 및 강연 경험이 있다. 건축 공학 및 설계에 대한 이해로 디자인-시공 팀 사이에서 효율적인 업무 조정를 한다.

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Robert-Jan van SANTEN - Naree KIM - Gontran DUFOUR

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VS-A & .... ... VS-A and Research Research is a vocation for many of us. Some of us are intuitive and others are methodical. Good research is rarely carried out alone. The history of lightweight façades had been understandably well recorded by some big names, such as PROUVE, FELIX, OTTO etc. and more recently RICE, GREISCH, SOBEK, and the excellent NIJSSE. We are also modestly contributing to advancing this technique with our architects and contractors, without whom nothing is possible. The following list of 15 or more purely technical topics are ones in which we feel that we are/were truly pioneers (the mentioned year refers to the first application on a project, the construction of the prototype or of the application of the patent): - Façades made from heavy extruded stainless steel profiles (1993) - 5m high corrugated and free-standing glazing (Porto, 2000) - Glazing fixed by drawn and bent wire (Pithiviers, 2003) - Curved breathing insulating glass (solving the problem of fatal high stresses in the sealants)(Paris, 2005) - Stick-curtain wall with tensioned mullions (Nancy, 2009) - Unitized curtain-wall façades mainly made from timber profiles (Paris, 2010) - Metallic frames with thermal break through perforation (Stuttgart, 2010) - Structure with plywood box section beams (Clamart, 2011) - Façade panels (175mm) with mineral cladding and vacuum insulation (Lille, 2013) - 6m high insulating, 3D curved and free-standing glazing (Caen, 2010) - Development of a high efficient combination of coated glasses with specific interior solar protections (instead of exterior or integrated) to comply to the requirements for solar protection set by the RT 2012 (French Thermal Regulations) and BEPOS (Positive Energy Buildings), - How to distribute natural light in office spaces around a 7 floors’ deep patio (Paris 2011) - Calculation of constraints in the sealants of insulating curved glazing (2014) - Geometric algorithm to make façades with an orthogonal framework, rectangular glasses but with discontinuous lines in both horizontal and vertical direction (2015) - Tall glazing with integrated pre-stressing (instead of cable structure or glass fins) (2016), - ublo, the first 3D printed window (2017) - ufo, the first window without frame, therefor with a Uf=0 W/m2K (2017) For several years already, students studying architecture and/or civil engineering have been coming to us to do second or final year work placements. We like to involve them in research projects that can occupy up to 75% of the time they spend with us. As a side note, in the field of building envelopes, seldom person’s names are associated to the innovations. As an example, who invented the structural glazing façade ? The first

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large-scale constructions date from the beginning of the ‘70s. Industrial chemists did, if you believe the publicity of certain companies. But there must have been a pioneering architect, structural engineer or entrepreneur. So far, no name is associated with this technique : let’s find it out !

innovations dans le domaine de l’enveloppe des bâtiments. Au fait, qui a inventé les façades en verre extérieur collé, dont les premières réalisations à grande échelle datent du début des années 70 ? Des industriels chimistes à en croire la publicité de certaines marques. Mais il doit bien y avoir un Architecte, BET ou Entrepreneur précurseur identifiable : il faut le chercher !

... VS-A et la Recherche C’est une vocation pour nombre d’entre nous. Il y a ceux qui ont l’intuition, et ceux qui ont la méthode. Une bonne recherche se fait rarement tout seul. L’histoire des façades légères a bien entendu été marquée par quelques grands noms comme PROUVE, FELIX, OTTO … et plus récemment RICE, GREISCH, SOBEK et bien entendu NIJSSE. Modestement, nous contribuons également à faire avancer la technique, avec les Architectes mais aussi les Entrepreneurs sans lesquels rien n’est possible. Voici un panel de plus de 15 sujets purement techniques où nous nous sentons vraiment précurseurs (l’année réfère à la première application, à la réalisation d’un prototype ou au dépôt du brevet international) : - Les façades à base de profilés en acier inoxydable extrudés (Lille, 1993) - Les montants en acier inoxydable extrudé (Lille, 1998) - Les vitrages de grande hauteur (5m), ondulés et autoportants (Porto, 2000) - Les vitrages attachés par des tréfilés (Pithiviers, 2003), - Le verre bombé respirant, (Paris, 2005) - Les montants tendus (Nancy, 2009) - Les façades rideaux de type bloc, à base de profilés en bois (Paris, 2010) - Les profilés de menuiserie à coupure thermique par perforation (Stuttgart, 2010) - Structure avec des caissons en bois (Clamart, 2011) - Les panneaux de façade compacts (175mm) avec parement minéral et isolant sous vide (Lille, 2013) - Les vitrages isolants de grande hauteur (6m), bombés 3D et autoportants (Caen, 2010) - Comment répondre à la RT 2012 et au BEPOS avec des protections solaires intérieures ? - Comment amener de la lumière naturelle vers des plateaux de bureaux autour d’un patio de 7 étages de profondeur (Paris 2011) - Maîtrise du calcul des contraintes dans les joints de scellement des vitrages isolants bombés (2014) - Algorithme géométrique pour faire des façades à trame orthogonale, avec des verres rectangulaires mais aux lignes horizontales et verticales discontinues (2015) - Façade avec vitrages de grande hauteur avec précontrainte, sans câbles ni raidisseurs en verre (2016) - ublo, la première fenêtre imprimable en 3D (2017) - ufo, la première fenêtre sans menuiseries, avec par conséquent un Uf=0 W/m2K (2017) Depuis quelques années, des architectes et/ou des ingénieurs viennent régulièrement de grandes écoles ou universités pour faire un stage de 2ème ou 3ème (dernière) année. Nous aimons bien les impliquer sur ses sujets de recherche qui peuvent occuper jusqu’à 75% de leur temps passé à l’agence. Rarement des noms précis sont associés aux grandes

... VS-A and construction failures When a legal expert calls us, it is never to talk about something good. A problem with glass, leaking water, poor acoustic isolation performance etc. The subjects are obviously varied and it is important to remember that most of the failures in the construction industry involve the façade. Glass that yellows, protective coating that blisters, glass that moves (too much), whose tint isn’t consistent etc. We eve came across a precast concrete façade panel that, for more than 30 years, was only held in place by the silicone sealant ! Helping legal experts during the investigation stage is a highly valuable learning experience. We learn about everything that we must pay attention to during our own projects. Finding the exact cause of a problem sometimes also requires getting help of computer simulations, and we sometimes involve laboratories of testing facilities. It is not unusual that we get later on involved to design and coordinate the repairing works.

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1. Façades made from extruded stainless steel profiles (Lille, 1993) Les façades à base de profilés en acier inoxydable extrudés (Lille, 1993) 2. Extruded stainless steel mullions (Lille, 1998) Les Montants en acier inoxydable extrudé (Lille, 1998) 3. Full-height (5m), corrugated and free-standing glazing (Porto, 2000) Les vitrages de grande hauteur (5m), ondulés et autoportants (Porto, 2000) 4. Glazing fastened by drawn wire (Pithiviers, 2003) Les vitrages attachés par des tréfilés (Pithiviers, 2003) 5. Breathable curved glass (Paris, 2005) Le verre bombé respirant, Wagram (Paris, 2005) 6. Tensioned posts (Nancy, 2009) Les montants tendus (Nancy, 2009) 7. Curtain-wall façades based on wooden profiles (Paris, 2010) Les façades rideaux de type bloc, à base de profilés en bois (Paris, 2010) 8. Wooden profiles with thermal break through perforation (Stuttgart, 2010) / Les profilés de menuiserie à coupure thermique par perforation (Stuttgart, 2010) 9. Structure with wooden chambers (Clamart, 2011) Structure avec des caisons en bois (Clamart, 2011) 10. Full-height (6m) insulating, 3D curved and free-standing glazing (Caen, 2011)/ Les vitrages isolants de grande hauteur (6m), bombés 3D et autoportants (Caen, 2011) 11. How to respond to RT 2012 (Thermal Regulations) and BEPOS (Positive Energy Buildings) with interior solar protection (Bordeaux, 2011) / Comment répondre à la RT 2012 et au BEPOS avec des protections solaies intérieures ? (Bordeaux, 2011) 12. How to reduce natural light on the N-1 (Paris, 2011) Comment faire descendre la lumière naturelle au N-1 ? (Paris, 2011) 13. Large brise-soleils (Casablanca, 2015) Les brise-soleil de grandes dimensions (Casablanca, 2015)


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VS-A & ....

... VS-A et les Experts Lorsqu’un expert judiciaire nous appelle, ce n’est jamais pour parler de sujets réjouissants. Un problème de verre, de fuite d’eau, de mauvaises performances d’isolement acoustique, … Les sujets sont évidemment variés et il est important de rappeler que la majorité des sinistres dans le bâtiment concernent l’enveloppe. Des vitrages qui jaunissent, des revêtements qui cloquent, des vitrages qui bougent (trop), dont la teinte n’est pas homogène, … on a même rencontré un panneau béton qui, pendant plus de 30ans, ne tenait que par un joint périphérique silicone ! Assister l’expert judiciaire durant les phases d’investigation constitue une expérience à haute valeur pédagogique : on y apprend notamment tout ce à quoi il faut faire attention lors de nos propres projets. Trouver les causes exactes d’un problème requiert parfois aussi d’avoir recours à des modélisations et simulations informatiques pointues, si ce n’est d’impliquer un laboratoire. Il n’est pas rare qu’à la fin de l’expertise, une mission de maîtrise d’œuvre nous soit confiée pour coordonner les travaux de

Elles m’ont d’ailleurs appris beaucoup de choses … et parfois leur contraire : telle disposition était tout à fait possible pour l’une, alors qu’elle était inconcevable pour l’autre ! Cela peut surprendre ou amuser, mais parfois cela peut aussi sérieusement perturber un projet lorsque l’entreprise, en cours de route, se montre réticente à suivre la direction que nous avions décrite dans notre cahier des charges. Avec le recul, il n’y a rien de très surprenant en cela : comme des athlètes, plus ils sont bons, plus leur domaine de compétence se restreint : allez demander à FOSBURY de lancer le marteau ! Même avec un bon entraineur cela risque de ne pas être terrible, mais ce sera toujours mieux que si on le demandait à un banquier… ce que certaines entreprises semblent devenir. Dommage !

mise en conformité.

Mais nos relations avec les entreprises sont généralement très bonnes et comment peut-il en être autrement quand on partage un objectif commun, et qu’elles s’efforcent de réaliser ce que nous dessinons ? Avec certaines entreprises, une vraie relation de confiance, de respect et d’amitié s’est installée. C’est nécessairement gagnant-gagnant pour tous. Des valeurs auxquelles le bureau tient, et qu’elle s’efforce de partager avec ses employés.

... VS-A and Contractors

... VS-A and Suppliers

When our firm was established in 1989, there were no professional guidelines for constructing curtain walls, and it was the contractor who played an important role alongside architects in directing their work. Although my 4 years spent in Renzo PIANO’s Paris office gave me a solid grounding in design, it’s a euphemism to say that contractors have taught me a lot (if not all) about manufacturing, assembly and installation techniques.

Suppliers don’t really like us... but it’s not reciprocal ! We are curious and want to know and understand everything about every small detail. We very rarely recommend a product or supplier in our tender documents. Neutrality is imposed by public procurement laws, and is also appreciated by private clients who have quickly understood that this enables them to obtain the most competitive prices for a given quality. Our architects endeavor to remain within the typological, architectural and performance specifications of a project, without stating preferences for one product over another. The choice of supplier is entirely down to the contractor who is going to carry out the work. They sometimes state this in their construction drawings, but more commonly we discover their choice when they present their samples and the visual mock-up (VMU). It is up to the supplier to convince us that they can meet the demands of the project.

In fact, they have taught me many things, and sometimes other contractors will tell me the exact opposite ! This may seem surprising or even amusing, but when a contractor is reluctant to follow the course of our specifications, it can seriously disrupt a project. However, our relationship with contractors is generally very good. How can it be otherwise when we have a common target, and when the contractors try to understand what our drawings mean, and how they can integrate solutions from their own expertise. On some projects we have established a real relationship of trust, respect and friendship, which is a win-win situation. Our firm holds to these values and endeavors to share them with our employees.

... VS-A et les Entreprises Lorsque le bureau fut créé en 1989, il n’y avait pas de règles professionnelles pour la construction des murs rideaux, et c’étaient les entreprises qui jouaient un rôle important dans la prescription de ces ouvrages auprès des architectes. Bien que mes 4 années passées au sein de l’agence parisienne de Renzo PIANO m’aient donné de solides bases quant à l’aspect design, il est un euphémisme que de dire que les entreprises m’ont énormément appris (si ce n’est tout) concernant les techniques de fabrication, d’assemblage et de montage.

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Having said this, some specific suppliers are interested by our activities, particularly when we can collaborate with them at the design and development stages of new products. When we get in touch with the supplier’s R&D team, we always meet passionate and enthusiastic people who are in perfect harmony with our own team !

... VS-A et les Fournisseurs Les fournisseurs ne nous aiment pas particulièrement. Ce n’est pourtant pas réciproque ! Nous sommes curieux, voulons tout savoir sur tout, … mais ne mentionnons que très rarement un produit ou un fournisseur dans notre dossier de consultation d’entreprises. Une neutralité imposée par nombre de règles relatives aux marchés publics, mais qui est également bien appréciée par les Maîtres d’Ouvrages privés qui ont vite compris que cette

manière de prescrire était celle qui permettait d’obtenir les meilleurs prix. Même nos dessins cherchent à rester dans la définition typologique, architecturale et performantielle des ouvrages avec un descriptif contraignant quant aux performances et aux attentes architecturales, mais sans marquer une préférence pour un produit ou un autre. Le choix du fournisseur revient entièrement à l’entreprise qui réalisera l’ouvrage : il est parfois cité dans l’offre de l’entreprise, mais plus fréquemment nous le découvrons lors des études d’exécution et/ou du prototype. A lui de nous convaincre qu’il répond bien aux demandes du projet. Nous intéressons tout de même certains fournisseurs, notamment lorsque nous pouvons collaborer à la conception et mise au point de nouveaux produits. En prise directe avec la cellule Recherche & Développement du fournisseur, nous rencontrons alors des hommes passionnés et enthousiastes… en parfaite phase avec nos propres chercheurs !

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4 8 5 1. Test on glazing sample Test d’un échantillon de vitrage 2.Glazing test Test d’un échantillon de verre 3-4.Glazing site visit Visite d’une usine de verre 5.Test on glazing sample Test d’un échantillon de vitrage 6.Prototype testing for Wagram hostel Essai sur le prototype de l’hôtel Wagram 7.Glazing samples Echanillons de vitrage 8.Glazing site visit Visite d’une usine de verre 9.Corporation breackfast session Déjeuner de présentation à l’agence


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VS-A & .... ... VS-A and the Conferences

... VS-A et les Conférences

VS-A attend many conferences, big and small, with two targets: communicating about our activities, projects and research, and listening to our colleagues, both architects and engineers present and explaining theirs. Exchanges at these face-to-face meetings are also more interesting than what we can read in magazines or glean from the internet. We love exchanging anecdotes, approaches, hopes, unsuccessful or ongoing research, solutions and difficulties encountered as this is our passion, but also a day-to-day reality for many of us. It helps us to get to know each other and encourages future collaborations. Without any doubt, we love conferences!

VS-A participe à de nombreuses conférences, grandes et petites, et ce avec un double objectif : communiquer sur nos activités, projets ou recherches, ... et écouter les confrères architectes ou ingénieurs, présenter et expliquer les leurs. Les échanges lors de ces rencontres face à face sont autrement plus intéressants que ce qu’on peut juste lire dans les magazines ou glaner sur internet. Échanger sur les petites histoires, la démarche, les envies, les recherches et solutions non abouties ou non retenues, les difficultés rencontrées nous parlent car c’est notre passion mais aussi le quotidien de nombre d’entre nous... Elles permettent de mieux nous connaître, de nous faire connaître et elles augurent souvent de collaborations futures. Pas de doute, nous aimons les conférences !

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1. Technology for the service of architecture, Gontran DUFOUR & Robert-Jan van SANTEN, Lille - France / La technique au service de l’architecture, Gontran DUFOUR & Robert-Jan van SANTEN, Lille France 2.Conference Advanced Building Skin, Goktug GUNEY, Bern Switzerland / «Conférence on advanced skin building», Goktug GUNEY, Bern - Suisse 3.Student visit in the VS-A Office, Larissa BLASER, Lille - France / Visite des étudiants de l’école d’architecture de Marne la Vallée, Larissa BLASER, Lille - France 4.KGBC Conference, Sunhoo KIM/ Seoul - South-Korea/ Conférence KGBC, Sunhoo KIM, Séoul, Corée su sud 5.World Façade Forum, Robert-Jan van SANTEN, Sri Lanka / Forum Mondial de la Façade, Robert-Jan van SANTEN, Sri Lanka 6.Perspective EU conference - Biennale d’Architecture, Léa RICHERT Venice - Italy / Conférence Perspective EU - Biennale d’Architecture, Venise, Léa RICHERT, Italie 7.Day & Night of the architecture, Nicolas DELPLANQUE, Tournai Belgium / Journée et Nuit de l’architecture, Nicolas DELPLANQUE, Tournai - Belgique 8.CSTB conference, Gontran DUFOUR & Robert-Jan van SANTEN Paris - France / Conference au CSTB, Gontran DUFOUR & Robert-Jan van SANTEN Paris - France 9.Ekopolis conference, Nicolas DELPLANQUE, Paris - France / Conférence Ekopolis, Nicolas DELPLANQUE, Paris - France 10.Gansam Seminar, Seoul - Korea Séminaire Gansam, Séoul - Corée du Sud

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VS-A & .... ... VS-A and The Sport & Culture

... VS-A, le Sport & la Culture ...

Each of our companies have a very different and specific approach for these topics, and both the management and the employees play a decisive role in setting the rules. There is no direct relation with the work, but there are indirect mutual benefits. So we all agree on the fact that people need time to practice sports and attend cultural events. In our offices, most of the employees are smart champions. And those who aren’t yet, are just on their way to become so.

Nos entreprises ont des positions différentes et spécifiques sur ces sujets, et tant la direction que les employés jouent un rôle décisif dans la mise en place des règles. Cela n’a pas de relation directe avec le travail, mais il existe toutefois des bénéfices mutuels indirects. Nous sommes tous d’accord sur le fait qu’il est important de prendre le temps de faire du sport et de participer à des événement culturels. Dans nos bureaux, la plupart de nos employés sont des grands champions. Et ceux qui ne le sont pas encore sont sur le point de le devenir.

In France, the office organizes yearly trips to visit some of our distant projects, but the reduced working time allows each person to practice sport or attend cultural events in a more individual way. It’s interesting to remind that Lille was European Capital of Culture in 2004, and hosts multiple national and international renowned cultural events. It is obviously one of the most active cities regarding culture. We can mention some employees that practice sport in a more intense way : Myriem GUEDOUAR (hand-ball), Camille BENOIT (dance), Gontran DUFOUR, Cécile OVREL (Horse riding) … In Asia, working times are longer and people get more easily disconnected from any sport activity or cultural events. In Hong Kong, some of us practice table tennis and the table is located in the middle of the room, while others practice gym together. Cultural activities are … not that numerous in this city that focuses more on finance, shopping and eating. Although this is not totally true ! There are fantastic opportunities for hiking, and many of us go hiking during the weekends. Some Friday nights our office transforms into a concert place. Kevin, at both the guitars and the drums directs a little orchestra which includes some employees and relatives. Last but not least: travelling is extremely popular here, mainly because it’s easy and relatively cheap: China, Taiwan, the Philippines, Vietnam, Nepal, South-Korea, Singapore … are just so close that many explore those places within 2-3 days journeys! In Korea, Naree introduced from the very beginning the cultural after-noon break. It happens once every month, and time is spent all together to visit museums or attend other cultural events. Obviously, we see our work as a cultural activity, obviously very close to architecture but also to art in all its various expressions. The observation and understanding of artworks allows us to develop more easily innovative concepts in our work. There’s also a table for table tennis in the office, but the small area around has logically switched its function to a convenient storage and meeting place. Last but not least, Sunhoo is a passionate of fashion, and marathon-runner Naree climbs mountain high.

En France, nous organisons des voyages annuels pour aller visiter certains de nos projets à l’étranger, mais le nombre limité d’heures de travail permet à chacun de faire du sport et de participer à des événements culturels de façon plus individuelle. Il est intéressant de rappeler que Lille a été élue capitale européenne de la culture en 2004 et a accueilli de nombreux événements culturels de renommée nationale et internationale. Il s’agit sans aucun doute de l’une des villes les plus actives sur le plan culturel. Certains de nos employés pratiquent du sport de façon plus intense : Myriem GUEDOUAR (handball), Camille BENOIT (danse), Gontran DUFOUR, Cécile OVREL (équitation)… En Asie, le nombre d’heures de travail est plus important, ce pourquoi l’on a plus souvent tendance à mettre de côté toute activité culturelle ou sportive. À Hong Kong, certains d’entre nous jouent au pingpong ; la table est située au milieu de la pièce. D’autres font de l’exercice ensemble. Les activités culturelles ne sont pas très développées dans cette ville qui place les finances, le shopping et la restauration au centre de ses préoccupations. Bien que cela ne soit pas tout à fait vrai ! Il existe de nombreuses possibilités pour faire de la randonnée aux alentours de la ville. Beaucoup d’entre nous partent en randonnée le week-end. Certains vendredis soirs, notre bureau se transforme en une salle de concert. Kevin, à la guitare et à la batterie, dirige un petit orchestre composé de certains employés et proches. Dernier point, mais pas des moindres : ici, il est très populaire de voyager, car c’est plutôt simple et relativement bon marché. La Chine, Taïwan, les Philippines, le Vietnam, le Tibet, la Corée du Sud, Singapour... tous ces pays sont si proches que certains partent les visiter pendant deux ou trois jours. En Corée, Naree a introduit dès le départ la pause culturelle de l’après-midi. Une fois par mois, les employés visitent un musée ou participent ensemble à un événement culturel. Nous considérons évidemment notre travail comme une activité culturelle, très proche de l’architecture, mais aussi de l’art, dans plusieurs de ces aspects. L’observation et la compréhension des œuvres d’art nous permet de développer plus facilement des concepts innovateurs dans notre travail. Il y a également une table de ping-pong dans le bureau, mais le peu d’espace qui l’entoure est utilisé à des fins de stockage et comme lieu de réunion. Dernier point, mais pas des moindres : Sunhoo est passionné de mode, et la coureuse de marathon Naree escalade de très hautes montagnes.

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Extensions Extensions ... ENERGYPRO

... OP-EN

... OP-EN

Energy Pro is a Franco-Romanian company that has been located on our premises since their set-up in 2011. They are specialists in energy, power and utility supplies. The areas in which our competences converge enable us to put in place research and development programs, and our fields of work can be extended when we collaborate on projects. We have collaborated indeed on many projects in France and abroad, like the refurbishing of social housing.

Legal experts do sometimes contact us not only to investigate the origin of problems and failures, but also to repair them. Some clients do also contact us directly as they know us or heard about us. For them, we created OP-EN, an architectural branch office.

Pour répondre aux demandes d’experts judiciaire et de certains maitres d’ouvrages, nous avons créé la société d’architecture OP-EN, OPeration-ENveloppe. Il s’agissait de lui transférer les demandes que VS-A pouvait recevoir pour des missions de maitrise d’œuvre, et de savoir y répondre avec une qualification et une assurance professionnelles appropriées. OP-EN intervient principalement en réhabilitation, en maintenance et en travaux après expertise judiciaire.

... ENERGYPRO Energy Pro est une société franco-roumaine que nous hébergeons dans nos locaux depuis leur création en 2011. Elle est spécialisée dans l’énergie, les courants forts et les fluides. Les zones où nos compétences se croisent nous permettent de mettre en place des programmes de R&D, et nos champs d’intervention sont élargis lorsque nous collaborons sur des projets. Nous collaborons de fait sur de nombreux projets en France et à l’étranger, notamment en réhabilitation de logements sociaux.

We’re convinced, in VS-A group, that part of our work deals directly with architecture. Most of the construction details can and should be designed according to architectural considerations. A detail can tell a story on its own, but also tell a collective story with the adjacent details. A construction detail can, in some extreme conditions, even become the inspiration for the whole project. When it comes to designing small works when there is no Architect, we decided in Lille to create OP-EN, a small architectural firm integrated in VS-A. We are convinced that when we work on a project, there is a part of our work that directly relates to Architecture. Our façade details can express some abstract independent aesthetic values, but most of the time they tell a story. This story can be related to the different parts of the project, but most of the time we try to link them to the real original concepts of the project. Since our work is so close to the Architect’s work, it is not that surprising that, sometimes, we take the lead.

Nous sommes convaincus chez VS-A que nos missions de bureau d’études comportent un volet architectural bien réel: le détail constructif peut avoir une beauté et une cohérence technique autonomes, mais surtout il peut raconter une histoire, faire partie de l’histoire du projet, jusqu’à définir une expression architecturale fédératrice de tout le projet.

OP-EN / Image Index / P 36 - 37 1.Sarbise footbridge, Lambersart - Lille Passerelle Sarbise, Lambersart - Lille 2.Consulat de Pologne renovation, Lille

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Réhabilitation du Consulat de Pologne, Lille 3.University library, Pau Bibliothèque universitaire, Pau 4.Curious ORIGAMI, Lille Curieux ORIGAMI, Lille 5.Alcide de Gasperi Tower, Luxembourg Tour Alcide de Gasperi, Luxembourg Totem Aéroville, Orly 7. Housing Meaux street, Paris

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39 Curieux Origami / Architect : OP-EN / © Gaston François BERGERET


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History Histoire

Giovanni VASANZIO

... If you have been fortunate enough to have already strolled in the magnificent gardens of the Villa Borghese in Rome, and have visited the museum there, the name of Giovanni VASANZIO will not be completely unknown to you. The fame of this architect is essentially due to his work on the villa Borghese. He first assisted Flaminio PONZIO in the design of the plans then took over the project after the architect’s death in 1613. Sculptor and engraver in equal measure, he brought his own personal touch to façade architecture. After this project, one of the park avenues was named after him and he was commissioned by Cardinal BORGHESE to work on the expansion of the Villa Mondragone. He designed in particular the Acqua Paola Sisto fountain.

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But did you know that the name Giovanni VASANZIO actually refers to a Dutchman called Jan VAN SANTEN? The architect, born in 1550 in Utrecht spent the best part of his life in the eternal city where his name was Italianised. In particular he assisted the architect PONZIO to create the façades of the villa Borghese. Could he have been the first ever façade consultant? Robert-Jan VAN SANTEN was one of the first, if not the first architect in France to create an engineering consultancy dedicated exclusively to façades in 1989.

Mais saviez-vous que le nom de Giovanni VASANZIO désigne en réalité un hollandais appelé Jan VAN SANTEN? L’architecte né en 1550 à Utrecht passa la majeure partie de sa vie dans la ville éternelle, où son nom fut italianisé. Il assista notamment l’architecte PONZIO pour réaliser les façades de la villa Borghèse. Serait-il le précurseur des consultants façades ? A son instar Robert-Jan Van SANTEN fut l’un des premiers, si ce n’est le premier architecte en France à créer en 1989 un BET consacré exclusivement aux façades.

No relationship has been discovered, but this is a wonderful story of psychogenealogy. Two men, two eras, with a shared passion!

Aucun lien de parenté n’a encore été trouvé, mais cela reste une belle histoire de psycho généalogie. Deux hommes, deux époques, et une passion commune !

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vous avez la chance de vous être déjà promenés dans les somptueux jardins de la Villa Borghese à Rome, et de visiter le musée qui s’y trouve, le nom de Giovanni VASANZIO ne devrait pas vous être totalement inconnu. La notoriété de cet architecte tient essentiellement de son travail sur la villa Borghese. Il assista d’abord Flaminio PONZIO dans la conception des plans puis prit les rênes du projet suite au décès de l’architecte en 1613. Egalement sculpteur et graveur, il apporta sa touche personnelle à l’architecture de la façade. Suite à ce projet, l’une des rues du parc fut nommée en son honneur et il se vit confier par le Cardinal BORGHESE les travaux d’agrandissement de la Villa Mondragone. Il y dessina notamment la fontaine dell’Acqua Paola Sisto.

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1.Villa Borghese plan 1613 2.Villa Mondragone 1615 3.Fountain of Acqua Paola 4.Viale Giovanni VASANZIO, street name

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iii. 评论 / Testimonial / Témoignage Aurélien PASQUIER

建築師

Architect Architecte The office project, named YIDIAN, is the outcome of intentions that were completed thanks to the important cooperations among all the contributors. With an open mindedness, the client allowed us to stand firm on our architectural objectives by giving us his confidence. We were able to surround ourselves with experts in order to turn our intentions into reality. Thus the team of Robert-Jan van SANTEN (VSA) joined the Jacques Ferrier Architectures (JFA)’s team. JFA / VS-A The spirit and the context of the project were sent to Robert-Jan since the first exchanges of ideas. VSA technicians started to provide services for Jacques Ferrier Architecture in order to “build the idea.” Then they put forward a further set of technical and architectural solutions. From then, some exciting discussions and exchanges about aesthetics, constructability, economics, materials, etc… were launched. The complicity between JFA and VSA has contributed to the rationality of the project and at the same time gave us an advantage on developing the architectural aspect. JFA / VS-A / Client Discussions about the design were regularly sent to the client in order to get a final solution. The economics of the project and the customer’s attention have quickly became a legitimate driving force in the design. The successful cases of VSA have undergone the test of our architectural requirements and the limited economical budget. To avoid the bad influence of the economy, Robert-Jan van SANTEN followed the standard requirements, which brought added value. JFA / VS-A / Contractor Company This design work wouldn’t be realized without cooperation, an understanding, and a perfect relationship with the company. Since the first designs, VSA insisted on moving closer to become in symbiosis. The contractor company’s ability and Chinese regulations have been taken into account since the VSA’s earliest proposals. The team of VSA’s engineers and architects was quite aware that the company’s validation to VSA’s drawings was an absolute requirement for them to retake the drawings, and to realize them by the company. The contractor company quickly realized that there was no competition, but a complementary relationship. Through this teamwork, we finally achieved a project today which satisfies all contributors.

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YIDIAN

Jacques FERRIER Architectures

YIDIAN办公楼项目,从设想转换为现实,离不开诸位参与者的 精诚合作。 客户本着开放的精神,给予我们充分的信任,使我们能够坚 持我们的建筑目标。我们荣幸获得了众多专家的支持,他 们的帮助是设想变成现实的必要条件。此外,Robert-Jan van SANTEN(VSA)团队也加入到了Jacques Ferrier 建筑 (JFA)团队之中。 JFA / Vs-a 项目的设想和其背景资料早在初次交谈时,我们就已经交付给 Robert-Jan。VSA的技术人员齐聚至Jacques Ferrier 建筑单 位共同“商讨计划”。之后,他们过渡到更深阶段,提议了一系 列技术和建筑措施。

自此,我们对建筑美观,可建性,经济,原料等展开了热烈的 讨论。JFA与VSA之间配合默契,评估了项目造价,合理地 安排了施工,同时我们也获得了建筑上的优势。

JFA / VS-A / 承包商 如果没有与承包商的通力合作,完美的理解和默契的配合,该项 目的设计是不可能实现的。

JFA / VS-A / 客户 我们将设计中的讨论定期传给客户,以获得一份最终的方案。 项目的经济方面考虑,客户正当的要求,都迅速成为设计的推 动力。VSA的成功经验, 经受了我们对建筑方面的要求,以及 紧缩财政预算的考验。

从第一份设计开始,VAS 就坚持贴近承包商,与他们紧密结 合。我们在VSA的首份提议中,已经考虑了承包商的能力和中国 现行的规范。VSA的工程师和建筑师团队深知:图纸能获得承 包商的批复,这是承包商按图施工,完成项目的绝对先决条件。 承包商方面,他们也能迅速理解我们之间不是竞争关系,而是互 为补充。

为了避免遭受经济的影响,更确切地说,Robert-Jan SANTEN 遵循了上述条件,为项目带来了增值。

van 借助这种团队合作,今天我们终于完成了项目施工,全体参与者 均非常满意。 撰文 / Text by / Texte de Aurelien Pasquier

Yidian offices, Shanghai - China Bureaux de Yidian - Shanghai - Chine

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YIDIAN

Jacques FERRIER Architectures SHEN Bing 沈兵

項目業主 / Client / Maître d’ouvrage 华鑫置业(集团)有限公司

China Fortune Properties 与罗伯特先生的缘分的建立是在田林路200号项目,当时在立面 设计上确实遇到了问题,JFA 的方案通过国内幕墙公司深化后, 其节点不论在体系还是在成本上都无法达到项目的预期,使得整 个项目进入了岌岌可危的状态。当时在 JFA 建筑师王峤女士的 推荐下,我们决定请罗伯特先生帮助推进项目的立面设计。 记得第一次和罗先生见面是在冬天,特别提醒一下,上海的冬天 还是比较寒冷的,但罗先生的一身短打装束让我们为之侧目。经 过简短的会晤之后,罗先生就开始着手他的工作,随后的方案汇 报让大家又为之侧目,这样的设计已经远远超过了幕墙节点设计 范畴,更多的是让我们看到罗先生把一项技术设计提升到了艺术 设计的领域的功力,不是建筑师的建筑师。合理的体系,合理的 逻辑,合理的工艺,为田林路200号项目的顺利推进添上了浓重 的一笔!在此对罗伯特先生表示诚挚的感谢,同时也感谢王峤女 士大力推荐!

撰文 / Text by / Texte de SHEN Bing

I met Robert-Jan through the project at No. 200, Tianlin Road. We had a problems regarding facade design. After in-depth studies by local curtain wall companies, the details of the JFA scheme cannot achieve project expectations, both in terms of systems and cost, which caused the project to be in a critical situation. Recommended by the JFA architect Ms. Wang Qiao, we decided to seek help from RobertJan regarding the project’s facade design.

J’ai connu Robert Jan autour du projet 200 Tianlin Road. Nous sommes arrivés avec des problèmes sur le design de la façade. Après une étude approfondie du projet de JFA et du mur Rideau, il était impossible d’aboutir aux attentes du projet que ce soit au niveau du fonctionnement, ou du coût, ce qui a mis le projet en péril. Recommandé par Mme Wang QIAO (architecte de JFA), nous décidons de demander de l’aide auprès de Robert Jan.

The first meeting with Robert-Jan was during winter, and was impressed by his clothing. The winter in Shanghai is quite cold, but Robert-Jan was dressed in a short-sleeved shirt. After a brief discussion, RobertJan set about his work and presented a very striking scheme report later. His design, exceeds conventional curtain wall detail design, elevating technical design to a form of artistic design. He is truly an architect of architects. Such reasonable system, logic and process greatly facilitate the project at No. 200 Tianlin Road. For this, I would like to express my gratitude to RobertJan and to Ms. Wang Qiao for her recommendation!

J’ai rencontré Robert Jan en hiver, même si l’hiver est plus tempéré à Shanghai, je me souviens que Robert Jan porté juste une chemisette et un pantalon, ce qui est très impressionnant. Après une courte discussion, Robert Jan nous a présenté son travail et plus tard une synthèse du projet très impressionnante. Un tel design dépasse beaucoup celui du mur rideau, il élève le design technique à un design artistique. C’est vraiment l’architecte des architectes. Son système de logique facilitera grandement le projet 200 Tianlin

SUN Hua 孙华

承包商 / Contractor / Entreprise 上海科胜幕墙有限公司

Shanghai Kesheng Curtain Wall Co., Ltd. Société Curtain Wall de Kesheng Shanghai SARL 至法国 VS-A 外墙顾问公司: 首先非常荣幸的能与贵司在上海田林路200号工业研发楼外幕 墙工程设计工作中进行技术合作,并感谢贵司对本项目的技术 指导。 田林路200号工程中难度和重点在于法国JFA建筑事务所设计的 立面遮阳系统。在遮阳系统深化过程中,双方根据各自国家的设 计技术、生产经验能力对材料的选择进行了深入的交流,最终确 定了采用陶土板与铝板两种不同材质所结合的遮阳板效果。在结 构体系、构造系统深化过程中,双方相互交流沟通,合理优化结 构截面,最终推选出的方案既满足了建筑师的断面尺寸要求,又 符合了国内的幕墙规范;并充分利用了两种材料的力学和加工 特性,让材料供货商快速加工出货,从而为业主节约大量资金 投入。最终本工程外遮阳系统效果得到了JFA建筑师及业主的认 可,并满足了业主的既定目标工期。 最后,再次感谢法国 VS-A 外墙顾问公司对本项目的帮助,我 司希望能与 VS-A 外墙顾问公司在今后的工作中再次合作,相 互携手,共创未来!

撰文 / Text by / Texte de SUN Hua

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First of all, it is our great honor to have technological cooperation with your company in facade engineering design for the industrial R&D building at No. 200, Tianlin Road, Shanghai City. Thanks for your technical guidance in the project.

Très heureux de notre collaboration technique et du travail de design dans la recherche et le développement du Bâtiment 200 rue de Tianlin à Shanghai. Je vous remercie pour votre collaboration sur le présent projet.

The project’s difficulty and key point lies in the facade sun-shading system designed by France JFA Architectural Firm. In the process of deepening the sun-shading system, both sides had in-depth exchanges on material selection according to design technology, production experience and capacity of their respective countries, and ultimately adopted sun louver made of both argil plate and aluminum plate. In terms of the structural and tectonic systems, both sides reasonably optimized the structural section through mutual communication and exchange. Their final scheme did not only meet architects’ requirements in terms of section size, but also conforms to facade specifications in China, and makes full use of the two material’s mechanics and processing features, which therefore allowing material suppliers to supply goods rapidly, ultimately saving a huge amount of money for owners. Finally, the project’s external sun-shading system received recognition from JFA architects and owners, and met stated objectives and satisfied the owner’s expected construction periods.

La difficulté réside dans le système de brise-soleil conçu par la firme française de JFA Architecture. Au cours de l’élaboration du système de protection solaire, les deux parties ont fait un échange à propos du design, de leurs expériences respectives, des capacités de chaque pays. On a décidé d’utiliser de la céramique soutenue par une fixation en aluminium. La structure et le système tectonique ont été optimisés par la communication et les échanges entre les deux parties. En plus de répondre aux exigences de l’architecte, il est conforme aux normes chinoises, le brise soleil permet d’utiliser pleinement les spécificités techniques des deux matériaux, de s’approvisionner rapidement par des fournisseurs locaux et ainsi d’économiser de l’argent.

Finally, our appreciation again to VSA Facade Consultants Company for their assistance in this project. We hope to have further cooperation with VSA Facade Consultants Company in future!

Enfin l’efficacité du système de brise-soleil a reçu la reconnaissance de JFA et du propriétaire. Nous remercions encore une fois de l’aide de VS-A, dans l’attente d’une future coopération avec VS-A, main dans la main pour un avenir radieux !


Yidian offices, Shanghai - China Bureaux de Yidian - Shanghai - Chine

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Markus PROSSNIGG Coop Himmelb(l)au Architect Architecte

Markus PROSSNIGG

Senior project Partner Architecte Associé

... Born in1970 in Graz, Austria, Markus Prossnigg was educated at the Technical University of Graz from where he received a Dipl.-Ing. degree in Architecture in 1997. He also studied at the Ecole d’architecture de Montpellier in France in 1992/93. From 1997 to 2002 Mr. Prossnigg worked at the office of Arsène Henry et Triaud in Bordeaux/France where he was the Project Architect for several housing and industrial projects. In 2002 Mr. Prossnigg joined Coop Himmelb(l)au in Vienna. During the past years he has been active mainly on projects based in France and China. He was currently responsible for the Musée des Confluences in Lyon, France and the Museum for Contemporary Art and Planning Exhibition in Shenzhen/China.

... Né en 1970 à Graz en Autriche, Markus Prossnigg

est diplômé de l’université d’architecture de Graz en 1997. Il a étudié à l’école d’architecture de Montpellier en France lors de l’année 1992/93. De 1997 à 2002 Mr.Prossnigg a travaillé comme architecte chef de projet chez Arsène Henry et Triaud à Bordeaux/France. En 2002 Mr.Prossnigg rejoint l’équipe de Coop Himmelb(l)au à Vienne. Durant ces dernières années il était en charge des projets en France et en Chine.

Confluence Museum, Lyon - France Musée des Confluences, Lyon - France

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Confluence Museum, Lyon - France Musée des Confluences, Lyon - France

... « When I think of our collaboration with VS-A,

clarification ”. Quite the contrary, technical mastery serves as a tool in the development of projects, to maintain and underpin both feasibility, and all the other aspects involved in a design project.»

réfléchis et judicieuses aux questions complexes, ce qui satisfait (et parfois surprendra !) les architectes les plus créatifs ; mais tout en sachant rassurer les clients et les entreprises.

The expertise, experience but also the inventive approach taken by this practice has given rise to some ingenious and insightful responses to complex issues, satisfying (and even surprising!) the most creative architects; and bringing peace of mind to clients and contractors alike.

... « Ma réflexion immédiate par rapport à notre collaboration avec l’agence VS-A est d’avoir un vrai partenaire solidaire à nos côtés, qui nous aide à élaborer et à avancer dans nos projets et notre architecture.

Le travail ne se concentre pas uniquement à une « clarification technique ». Bien au contraire, la technique, qui est parfaitement maîtrisée, sert comme outil dans l’élaboration des projets, pour maintenir et pour souligner, en plus de la faisabilité, toutes les facettes du concept d’un projet.»

The work does not focus exclusively on “technical

Le savoir-faire, l’expérience mais aussi l’esprit inventif de ce bureau permet de proposer des solutions très

what springs to mind is that it has provided us with a really supportive strategic partner to assist us in developing and moving forward our design and architectural projects.

Text by / Texte de Markus PROSSMIGG

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Xavier GONZALEZ Atelier Brenac + Gonzalez Architect Architecte

Xavier GONZALEZ

Co-owner

... Founded

by Olivier BRENAC and Xavier GONZALEZ in 1981, Atelier Brenac + Gonzalez has grown to be one of the most highly-respected architectural firms in France. Parallel to the achievements and competitions, the workshop focuses on developing a permanent research that focuses on the development of housing typologies and the protection of the environment.

... Créé par Olivier BRENAC et Xavier GONZALEZ

en 1981, l’Atelier Brenac + Gonzalez est devenue une des agences d’architecture française incontournable. Parallèlement aux réalisations et concours, l’atelier s’attache à développer une recherche permanente qui porte plus particulièrement sur la mise au point de typologies de logements et sur la protection de l’environnement.

... «The drawing up of a project is a long process which travels from the imagined through to the visible and this transformation is permanent throughout the concept planning period and then construction. The Brenac-Gonzalez architectural workshop has designed many projects with the Robert Jan Van Santen engineering consultancy and each experience has released the same energy and the same alchemy. The intuitive spark of the first idea and its contribution to the project, on contact, suddenly becomes possible. Models are made, dimensions became real, thicknesses are converted into profiled pieces, seals or standards. The solutions envisaged at the outset evolve. They are no longer limited to joinery but extend to the outer structure, to the covering, detail is all-pervasive and procure technical intelligence and architectural cohesion. Examples such as Building 270, with its windows with random projections, or that in Toulouse with its multicoloured boxes, or the Lycée Guillaume Tirel (school) with its rigour and repetition are demonstrations of the fruits of such collaboration. The collège Jean Perrin, and various professional schools which are currently being constructed also demonstrate mastery of the interfaces between exterior wall facings, outdoor joinery, and functional or environmental elements. Together, we precisely determined the transformation of a simple rolling shutter into cladding, terracotta

segments into glazing units, etc. Each time invention plays its part and ideas are turned into solutions, a new pleasure every time. »

... «L’élaboration d’un projet est un long processus qui

mène de la pensée au visible et cette transformation est permanente pendvant toute la période de conception puis celle de la réalisation. L’Atelier d’Architecture Brenac-Gonzalez a collaboré à des nombreux projets avec le bureau d’étude Robert Jan Van Santen, et chaque expérience a dégagé la même énergie et la même alchimie. L’étincelle intuitive de l’idée première et sa mise en place dans le projet devient, à son contact, soudain possible, on plonge dans l’échelle, les dimensions deviennent réelles, les épaisseurs se traduisent en profilés, en étanchéité ou en normes. Les solutions envisagées du départ évoluent, elles ne se limitent plus à la menuiserie mais s’étendent à l’enveloppe, à la vêture, le détail envahit le tout et procure intelligence technique et cohérence architecturale. Les exemples comme le bâtiment 270, avec ses fenêtres aux saillies aléatoires, ou celui de Toulouse avec ses boîtes multicolores, ou encore le lycée Guillaume Tirel avec sa rigueur et sa répétition en sont la démonstration et le fruit de cette collaboration. Le collège Jean Perrin, et les différents lycées professionnels qui sont en cours de chantier aujourd’hui prouvent également la maîtrise des interfaces entre parements extérieurs, menuiseries extérieures, éléments fonctionnels ou environnementaux. Ensemble, on règle avec précision la transformation d’un simple volet roulant en vêture, des écailles de

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CFA Hôtel Régional - Gennevilliers

EMGP 270 - Paris

Collège Jean PERRIN - Nanterre

Quai Ouest - Boulogne-Billancourt

Internat au Lycée Guillaume TIREL - Paris

CNFPT - Lille

Le Coruscant - Saint-Denis

École hôtelière IFA - Saint-Gratien

CHU - Poitiers

Médiathèque LOUIS ARAGON - Choisy le Roi

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Manufacture Nationale de Sèvres OPPIC Client Maître d’Ouvrage

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Verrière sur cours : Vues diverses

53 Verrière sur cours : Vues diverses


Retrospective Rétrospective

回顾 회고

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i. TGI Lille Jean WILLERVAL 1998

Location Lille, France Program Tribunal VS-A PM Robert-Jan van SANTEN Client Tribunal de Grande Instance de Lille Mission APD à AOR Services system & architectural optimisation Expertises glass specification, complex geometries, building maintenance

... Justice

must be done for WILLERVAL. Jean WILLERVAL was a visionary architect who has not always been loved by the people of Lille, given the impact of his work during the era of their construction between 1960 and 1980. The Lille Courthouse, his first work of national stature, is no exception. This is because of its function, its location in the centre of Vieux-Lille, its imposing concrete-panel prefabricated walls, its status as a high-rise building, as well as its electric light bulbs which were placed too high for easy replacements without significantly increasing its operating costs. However, this building bursts with interesting plastic features. The brutalist materials are perfectly appropriate here. The imposing ornamental details have always characterised judicial buildings, and its details were perfectly designed and often simply sublime! The small 100m-wide ventilation shafts in polished anodised aluminium, the alabaster columns, the bronze gutters: it is all a pure delight for us as lovers of details! The issue that brought us to look at this building was the curtain wall of the concourse. It was designed by Pilkington and was made from tempered glass suspended at the corners , and hanged one over the other until the highest one, which is held mechanically. It is a system that is quite similar to the greenhouses in the Parc de la Villette, constructed some fifteen years later by Peter RICE. Each thread is stabilised by a pair of glass cantilevered mullions, placed perpendicular to the glass. One is fixed to the ground, the other to the ceiling. All of this is extremely sophisticated and confirms the architect’s avant-garde nature. However, some faulty details do let this work down. Including glazing that smashes regularly. A competition was organised and we were declared the winners. Our project responded to two of the project’s main constraints: firstly to maintain a traditional style as expressed by the client, and secondly to have a tailor-made response with raw materials and maximum transparency due to its location. Our proposal was a glass curtain wall with fullheight mullions that were as thin as possible, which had two lateral and symmetrical grooves that acts as continuous rabbets to hold the glass. Blocks placed at the corners of the glass panes would allow a transom-free structure. The mullions were made from extruded stainless steel, with two supports at the top to act as clamps. This allowed the cross-section of the mullion to be as small as possible. The extrusion production process, which followed the UgineSéjournet process (French patent from 1941) gave the profiles a surface finish similar to laminated profiles. The initially planned stretching of the metal is in fact pointless, as the straightness of the profiles is wholly satisfactory. The compactness of the profile had one major disadvantage: its

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mass required 3 profiles wielded together. The wielding was carried out on the construction site and required 4 hours of intermittent work. The site did not present any particular problems, except the destruction of the existing façade. Its unpredictable nature meant that we had to resort to demolition by explosives! 10 tonnes of glass exploded on a Sunday morning at the Courthouse in Lille. This motivated us all to reconstruct the new façade quickly. It is best not to make enemies in these places.

... Il faut rendre justice à WILLERVAL. A Jean WILLERVAL,

architecte visionnaire et pas toujours bien aimé des Lillois tant ses œuvres, construites entre 1960 et 1980, portent l’empreinte de leur époque. Le Palais de Justice, sa première œuvre d’envergure nationale, n’y échappe pas à la fois à cause de : sa fonction (…), son emplacement au cœur du Vieux-Lille, ses imposants murs en panneaux préfabriqué en béton, son statut d’Immeuble de Grande Hauteur et ses ampoules électriques placées trop haut pour en permettre le remplacement aisé sans augmentenr significativement les frais de fonctionnement. Ce bâtiment regorge pourtant de qualités plastiques : le brutalisme des matériaux y est plus qu’ailleurs parfaitement approprié, les modénatures imposantes caractérisent depuis toujours les lieux de justice, et les détails sont parfaitement dessinés, et souvent simplement sublimes ! Les petits châssis de ventilation naturelle de 100mm de large en aluminium anodisé poli, les trumeaux en albâtre, les goulottes de canalisation des eaux pluviales en bronze : c’est un pur plaisir pour les amateurs de détails que nous sommes ! Le problème qui a justifié notre intervention est la verrière de la salle des Pas-Perdus. Verrière au sens d’ouvrage en verre. Elle a été conçue par Pilkington, à base de verres trempés pincés à leurs angles, suspendus les uns aux autres jusqu’au verre du haut maintenu mécaniquement. Un système finalement assez proche de celui des serres de la Villette réalisé une quinzaine d’années plus tard par Peter RICE. Chaque trame est stabilisée par une paire de raidisseurs en verre placés perpendiculairement à la paroi vitrée et fixés en porte à faux, l’un fixé au sol, l’autre au plafond. Tout ceci est extrêmement sophistiqué et confirme le caractère avantgardiste de l’Architecte. Quelques détails défaillants auront toutefois raison de cet ouvrage dont des verres cassent régulièrement. Un concours de bureaux d’études est organisé dont nous

sommes déclarés lauréats. Notre projet répond à deux contraintes fortes : celle exprimée par le maître d’ouvrage d’avoir un ouvrage traditionnel, et celle du lieu, qui demande une réponse sur mesure : emploi de matériaux bruts et recherche d’une transparence maximale. Notre proposition sera la réalisation d’une verrière avec des montants toute hauteur, aussi fins que possible, et dont les deux gorges latérales symétriques forment la feuillure continue pour maintenir les vitrages. Le calage aux coins des verres rend inutile les traverses. Les montants sont en acier inoxydable extrudé avec un double appui rapproché en partie haute faisant office d’encastrement. Cette disposition permet d’obtenir la plus faible section qui soit pour le montant et la fabrication par extrusion suivant le procédé Ugine-Séjournet (brevet français datant de 1941) confère aux profilés un état de surface proche de celui de profilés laminés. L’étirage, préconisé initialement, s’avérera inutile puisque la rectitude des profilés était tout à fait satisfaisante. La compacité du profilé a un inconvénient majeur : sa masse oblige à recourir à 3 profilés qui doivent être raboutés par soudure. Chaque soudure à cœur sera réalisée sur le chantier, et nécessite 4heures de travail discontinu. Le chantier ne posa aucun problème particulier, hormis la dépose de la façade existante : façade existante dont l’état aléatoire nous obligea à prescrire une démolition par explosifs ! 10 tonnes de verre ont ainsi explosé un dimanche matin au Palais de Justice de Lille. Cela nous a tous motivés pour vite reconstruire la nouvelle façade. Mieux vaut ne pas se faire d’ennemis en ces lieux. RJvS


TGI Lille / Architect : Jean WILLERVAL / Photographie : VS-A


View from the interior courtyard / Vue depuis le patio intérieur

ue depuis le patio intérieur

Vue depuis le patio intérieur

View from the interior courtyard of the explosion of the existing facade / Vue depuis le patio extérieur de l’explosion de la façade existante

Longitudinal section from the inside of existing facade / Coupe longitudinale depuis l’intérieur sur façade exis-

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Coupe sur verrière : Projet / Façade RÉFECTION DE LA FAÇADE VITRÉE DU PALAIS DE JUSTICE DE LILLE existante Projet Façade existante

va n SAN T EN & Associés

Raidisseurs verre Montant acier inox

Rehabilitation of the facade of the Lille courthouse / Réfection de la façade vitrée du palais de justice de

Comparison of different structural amounts / Comparaison de différents montants structurels à inertie identique

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Montant acier inox de la façade

n

profil inox

-ci 80

20

35

180

Ø48

Projet

CTION DE LA FAÇADE VITRÉE DU PALAIS DE JUSTICE DE LILLE 80

steel mullion Montant en acier inox de la façade peFacade de stainless calage du/ verre

Stainless steel mullion prototype / Prototype du montant en acier inox

Vitrage haut

Cale Polyamide Support de cale Montant acier inox Cale Polyamide

Glass calibration principe / Principe de calage du verre

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v


View from the interior courtyard / Vue depuis le patio intĂŠrieur

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Forum H36 / Architect : KLEIN & MÛLLER/ Photographie : KLEIN & MÜLLER


ii. Forum H36 KLEIN & MÜLLER 2001

Location Luxembourg, Luxembourg Program Education VS-A PM Robert-Jan van SANTEN Client Paul WÜRTH Mission APD à AOR Services system & architectural optimisation Expertises glass specification, complex geometries, building maintenance

... THis

Forum is in more ways than one the focal point of the Geesseknäppchen school campus in Luxembourg. The entire project was designed by the Swiss town planner Nadir Touaa. It consists of five buildings entrusted to five architectural agencies. The group is being assisted by two consultancy companies in its façade development: the excellent German agency MEMMERT and ourselves. We have been appointed by the Luxembourg Public Construction Administrative Division to work on the American International School with the Michael Wild Agency; on the Adeline Mayerich high school alongside the TETRA agency , and finally on the Forum with the KLEIN & MULLER agency. The Forum is essentially a large refectory area for students, as well as being a function room which can be used to host examinations or shows. Since the outset, the project had a circular plan with a diameter of approximately 60 metres. Our involvement proposed the following: a saw tooth façade in order to avoid a faceted glass facade (which would not be attractive in this project); windows which can be opened for natural ventilation (as recommended by the Swiss energy company BASLER); horizontal shutters which are curved and provides a sunshield, and whose density varies according to how they are positioned. The periphery of the space was crowned with a colourful glass cap so that people will not have to close the external venetian blinds at midday, whenever the students are in the refectory area, and whenever the sun is bright enough. The issue of maintaining the façades resulted in some interesting solutions: we recommended to place small balconies on each floor, and the efficiency of which had been secretly tested on the TGI façade in Lille by a local Lille-based cleaning company. According to the specialist, this method worked well, but we soon realised that it would work even better if the cleaner was left-handed (like me). With a video to help, I presented our solution to the project manager who replied that in Luxembourg, building maintenance is not carried out by right- or left-handed people but rather by very unqualified staff, and even those on unemployment benefits and such. And bang! We were then forced to have footbridges with railings around the periphery on all levels. We will finally be able to convince the customer to opt for footbridges equipped with mobile railings, which is not only a more aesthetic solution, but a more economical one too! Public money shouldn’t be used any differently in Luxembourg than anywhere else. Our relationships with other consultants are generally superb, and this has been reaffirmed by this project. However, we did not see architectural issues in the same way, and proof can be provided here with two examples: For the peripheral canopy, the BET structure refused to use any cantilever beams in excess of two metres, while four are needed. It is impossible to resolve the situation by any other means apart from designing a dual-level structure, one made by them, and the other developed by us. There is

always a solution, even if sometimes the result is somewhat original! And, as for the framework for the dome-shaped central area, the same agency will develop our underlying beam proposal, but in a rather more complex form. They will also receive a well-deserved compensation for their work. We have to learn how to make the best of everyone, and to freely celebrate the successes. Because of its extensive size, the project included a number of areas far from the façades, where there was consequently little natural daylight. We therefore proposed a centrallypositioned light shaft, installed on the upper section using a skylight titled towards the north, and which peaks six metres higher than the initial cover. A conical shape had been retained in order to provide maximum diffuse light, and to channel this into the multi-purpose room on the ground floor. Its walls are made from curved glass so that the restaurant upstairs can also benefit from natural light. I do try to visit the college refectory at least once during each of my visits to the Grand Duchy. And the experience is even more enjoyable when I am able to do so with my wife, whom I met when on this project when she was a project manager working for the architect.

... Ce

Forum est à plus d’un titre le point d’orgue du campus scolaire de Geesseknäppchen au Luxembourg. L’ensemble du projet a été conçu par l’urbaniste suisse Nadir TOUAA. Il comporte 5 bâtiments dont la réalisation est confiée à 5 agences d’architecture respectives. Ce groupement est assisté pour le développement des façades par 2 bureaux d’études : l’excellent bureau allemand MEMMERT et nous-même. Nous sommes ainsi missionnés par l’Administration des Bâtiments Publics du Luxembourg pour nous occuper de l’American International School avec l’agence Michael WILD ; du lycée Adeline Mayerich avec l’agence TETRA et enfin du Forum avec l’agence KLEIN & MULLER. Le Forum est d’abord un grand restaurant scolaire pour les lycéens ainsi qu’une salle polyvalente pouvant faire office de salle d’examen ou de salle de spectacle. Le projet a dès le début été doté d’un plan circulaire d’environ 60 mètres de diamètre. Notre intervention va successivement proposer : une façade à redents pour éviter un facettage des vitrages (peu attractif sur ce projet) ; des châssis ouvrants pour la ventilation naturelle (préconisée par le bureau d’énergie suisse BASLER) ; des brise-soleil horizontaux cintrés formant la protection solaire et dont la densité variera en fonction de l’orientation. L’ensemble est couronné d’une casquette en verre coloré sur toute la périphérie afin de ne pas avoir besoin de fermer les stores vénitiens extérieurs à midi, lorsque les lycéens occupent le restaurant et que le soleil est suffisamment haut. La question de l’entretien des façades a donné lieu à d’intéressantes solutions : nous avons proposé de placer un petit balcon à chaque étage et à chaque redent, dont l’efficacité avait été testée en catimini sur la façade du TGI de

Lille avec une entreprise de nettoyage lilloise. Cette méthode fonctionnait bien selon le spécialiste, mais nous nous sommes vite rendu compte que ça fonctionnait d’autant mieux si le nettoyeur était gaucher (comme moi). Vidéo à l’appui, je présente notre solution au maître d’ouvrage qui me répond qu’au Luxembourg, l’entretien des façades est effectué ni par des droitiers ou des gauchers, mais par un personnel particulièrement sous-qualifié. Nous voilà imposés d’avoir des passerelles avec garde-corps sur toute la périphérie, à tous les niveaux. Nous réussirons finalement à convaincre le client d’opter pour des passerelles équipées d’un garde-corps mobile, solution plus esthétique mais aussi plus économique ! Ce n’est pas au Luxembourg que l’argent public doit être considéré autrement qu’ailleurs. Nos rapports avec les autres bureaux d’études sont généralement excellents, et cela s’est encore confirmé sur ce projet. Cependant, nous n’appréhendons pas les enjeux architecturaux de la même manière, en-voici la preuve par deux exemples : Pour la verrière périphérique, le BET structure refuse de faire des poutres en porte-à-faux de longueur supérieure à 2 mètres, alors qu’il en faut 4. Impossible de débloquer la situation autrement qu’en concevant une structure sur 2 niveaux, une faite par lui, l’autre développée par nous. Il y a toujours une solution, même si parfois le résultat est un peu original! Ensuite, pour la charpente de la couverture centrale, en forme de dôme, le même bureau développera sans difficultés notre proposition de poutres sous-tendues, pourtant autrement plus complexe. Il recevra d’ailleurs pour ce travail un prix bien mérité. Il faut apprendre à tirer le meilleur de chacun. Et apprécier sans retenue les réussites. De par sa profondeur, le projet comportait de nombreuses zones bien éloignées des façades, et donc peu éclairées naturellement. Nous avons donc proposé un grand puits de lumière en partie centrale, surmonté en partie haute par une verrière inclinée vers le Nord et culminant 6 mètres plus haut que la couverture initiale. Une forme conique fut retenue pour faire entrer un maximum de lumière diffuse, et pour la canaliser vers la salle polyvalente au rez-de-chaussée. Ses parois sont en verre bombé afin que le restaurant à l’étage profite aussi de la lumière naturelle. A chacune de mes visites au Grand-Duché, j’essaye d’aller au moins une fois dans ce restaurant scolaire. Et l’expérience est d’autant plus agréable quand je peux le faire avec mon épouse, rencontrée sur ce chantier alors qu’elle était chef de projet pour l’architecte. RJvS

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Interior glass cone, with skylight crossing the whole building.

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South facade, with the external circular louvers and the glass canopy.

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iii. Pôle Nautique Agence Search 2006 - 2011

Location Mantes-la-Jolie, France Program Swimming Pool VS-A PM Robert-Jan van SANTEN & Arnaud MALRAS Client Communauté d’Agglomération de Mantes en Yvelines Mission APD à AOR Services system & architectural optimisation Expertises glass specification, moucharabieh, sloping facade

... The French agency SEARCH contacted us for the first time

when they had just won this competition. It was essentially their first competition. Caroline BARAT and Thomas DUBUISSON are nonetheless very experienced with an impressive career path that includes positions with OMA, PERRAULT and GEHRY for instance. Their working method is completely atypical: everything, absolutely everything is designed and decided using models. Even before drawings are created. Their large agency is full of models, of all scales, of different materials, with some parts cut away, and bits of recycled projects. They sit on tables, hang from walls and windows … A real hodgepodge. But this way of working physically with the product produces miracles! The sublime mashrabiya fretwork on the south façade, for example, obviously could not have been designed otherwise. Grasshopper would have provided hundreds of solutions and variations, but a model provided a simple, efficient and sublime solution. And when one can manufacture something simply using paper, we can imagine that the contractor must be able to follow up just as easily… Unfortunately, we were in a recession and the contractor chosen responded with an under-estimation of the complexity of the work. Probably deliberately. This is inexcusable and causes irreparable damage to public contract. The completed project demonstrates the great architectural qualities of the project … but some construction details reveals only the difficult history of the construction. Glass façades tell a story that is highly characteristic of our profession. They are a strong architectural concept and an ambitious, tailor-made technical solution. It is a real battle against companies that would prefer to simplify the technical side and save money at the expense of architecture. Take a simple 15-metre-high curtain wall as an example, it is considered simple for its elegance and delicacy, but it is actually made of formidable technical complexity. The geometry and height of the façades, as well as the volume of the project produced an architectural concept that intends to mark the verticality of the curtain wall with deep laminated timber mullions, and erase its horizontality: this curtain wall has no transoms, just silicone joints between pieces of glass. After long negotiations during the execution phase, the result almost reached our expectations. The lack of transom meant that production and installation of mullions must be highly accurate. The tiniest discrepancy has repercussions on the depth of the rabbets, the width of the mullions and the thickness of the joins between panes. This time, it is not possible to rely on the transoms to adjust the mullions during installation, nor can they be relied upon to support the mullions against mechanic instabilities such as leakage under wind pressure, or buckling under the weight of the glass. Of course, the key is the width of the mullions: the thinner

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the mullion, the more character the façade has. The thicker the mullion, the simpler the calculations and installation. The objective is to satisfy both architectural and mechanical requirements. Our pre-sizing, which was already very advanced, envisaged laminated timber mullions of a cross-section of 420mm x 112mm. The contractor, after a rough sizing, suggested a 420mm x 140mm cross-section. After weeks of discussion between developer, company, building inspector and client on hypotheses, calculation methods and architectural quality, the contractor staunchly refused to refine its calculations. We assigned a neutral design office for external arbitration. The CALVI design office, which specialises in wooden structures, finally judged that a 420mm x 112mm cross-section is acceptable. Three calculation methods and three different results. A compromise after hours of negotiations.

... L’agence

française SEARCH nous sollicite pour la première fois après avoir remporté ce concours. Quasiment son premier concours. Caroline BARAT et Thomas DUBUISSON ont cependant déjà une maturité et un parcours professionnel impressionnant, passant par OMA, PERRAULT, GEHRY … Leur méthode de travail est totalement atypique : tout se conçoit et se décide en maquette. Même avant d’avoir fait quelque dessin. Et leur vaste agence est remplie de maquettes, à toutes échelles, avec les matériaux les plus divers, avec des parties écorchées, des bouts de projet recyclés. Elles sont posées sur des tables, accrochées aux murs ou aux fenêtres, … Un pêle-mêle incroyable... Et cette manière de travailler physiquement le projet produit des miracles ! Le sublime moucharabieh en façade sud par exemple, n’aurait bien évidemment pas pu être conçu autrement : d’un casse-tête en CAO auquel Grasshopper permettrait de trouver des centaines de solutions et de variantes, il ressort par la maquette une solution simple, efficace et sublime. Et quand on sait le fabriquer simplement avec du papier, on s’imagine que l’entreprise doit savoir suivre tout aussi facilement… Pas de chance, c’est la crise et les entreprises retenues ont répondu en sous-estimant la complexité des travaux. Probablement délibérément. C’est impardonnable et irréparable en marché public. Cette réalisation confirme les grandes qualités architecturales du projet … mais certains détails constructifs ne racontent que la difficile histoire du chantier. Les façades vitrées présentent une histoire très caractéristique de notre profession. Un concept architectural fort, une solution technique adaptée et ambitieuse, une véritable bataille face à l’entreprise qui souhaite simplifier la technique et l’économie au dépend de l’architecture.

Un simple mur rideau, d’une quinzaine de mètre de haut. Simple par son élégance et sa finesse, mais en réalité d’une complexité technique redoutable. La géométrie et la hauteur des façades, le volume du projet, conduisent le concept architectural à marquer la verticalité du mur rideau par de profonds montants en lamellé-collé, et à faire disparaitre son horizontalité : ce mur rideau n’a pas de traverse, de simples raccords silicones entre vitrages. Après de longues négociations en phase d’exécution Le résultat est «presque» à la hauteur de nos attentes. L’absence de traverse implique une très haute précision de fabrication et de pose des montants. En effet le moindre écart se répercute sur la profondeur des feuillures, la largeur des montants et l’épaisseur des raccords entre vitrages. Cette fois, il n’est pas possible de compter sur les traverses pour le réglage des montants à la pose. Il n’est pas non plus possible d’y compter pour le maintien des montants vis-à-vis des instabilités mécaniques -déversement sous les charges de vent, flambement sous le poids des vitrages. Bien sûr, l’enjeu réside donc dans la largeur de la section des montants : plus le montant est élancé, plus la façade gagne en caractère. Plus le montant est épais, plus les calculs sont simples, plus la pose est simple. L’objectif : l’optimum architectural et mécanique. Notre pré-dimensionnement, déjà très poussé, prévoit des montants de section bois lamellé-collé de 420 mm par 112 mm. L’entreprise, après un dimensionnement grossier, propose une section de 420 mm par 140 mm. Après des semaines de discussion entre le maître d’œuvre, l’entrepreneur, le maître d’ouvrage et le Bureau de Contrôle sur les hypothèses et les méthodes de calcul… sur la qualité architecturale… L’entreprise, impassible, se dit dans l’incapacité d’affiner son calcul. Nous avons donc missionné un bureau d’étude indépendant pour un arbitrage extérieur, spécialisé dans les études complexes du bois, le Bureau d’Etude CALVI, qui a finalement tranché : une section de 420 mm par 112 mm est acceptable. Trois méthodes de calcul, des résultats différents. Un compromis trouvé après des heures de négociations. Un résultat «presque» à la hauteur. RJvS & AM


Pôle Nautique / Architect : Agence Search / Photographie : Emile DUBUISSON


Detail of the south facade / DÊtail de la façade sud

Mashrabiya prototype / Prototype de moucharabieh

Mashrabiya prototype / Prototype de moucharabieh

Mashrabiya prototype Prototype de moucharabieh

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Mashrabiya prototype Prototype de moucharabieh

Mashrabiya prototype / Prototype de moucharabieh


Pôle Nautique / Architect : Agence Search / Photographie : Emile DUBUISSON


North facade under construction

North facade

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Interior view

North facade + landscape around and on the building

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iv. IGN Météo France Lot A Laura CARDUCCI 2007 - 2011

Location Saint-Mandé, France Program Administration VS-A PM Robert-Jan van SANTEN Client Ministère du Développement Durable Mission DD till tender analysis Services system & architectural optimisation

... Envelope

engineering consolidates numerous technical specialities, and includes those related to materials, to thermal insulation to airtightness, wind effects, and others, as well less technical specialities such as ergonomics and psychology. Laura CARDUCCI had just won the competition for this administrative building. She contacted us, following the recommendation of the BRENAC-GONZALEZ agency with whom we have already worked with on a number of projects. The building has a simple geometry, a conventional internal layout and all its windows are laid out on the façade. The goal of the contracting authority was to achieve a High Environmental Quality (HEQ) ranking with a High Energy Performance (HPE) label and an Effinergie 2005 Low Consumption Building (LCB) level. This goal was achieved due to the invaluable contribution of the TRIBU agency with their highly ingenious measures, particularly with respect to a cooling network glued to the underlying slab surface (there are no suspended ceilings). A simple façade for simple programs. The enclosure and covering was created economically and identically around the periphery with pierced shear walls, generously heatinsulated externally and comprised of insulated glazed windows with low-emission coating and wood joinery. The surroundings were taken into account with an outside screen installed 800mm in front of all the façades. The purpose of this screen is to shield the offices from traffic noises from the North. It is comprised of glass panels and installed in a non-connective way to prevent a chimneyeffect which might encourage the spread of fire. To add visual interest to this 100m urban façade, the glass panels integrates subtle variations in slope. Clear and laminated glass lie at passage level with tilted point-fixed structural glazing systems, where the upper part of the glass panel is held by two studs and very small tooled polyamide shims in the corners. We performed loading and shock tests before the launch of contractor bidding. The architect asked us to design wooden blinds for efficient protection against the sun from the South. Individual powering was given priority over general powering, but this was abandoned in the end due to high-maintenance concerns (there are more than 1000 blinds). Is this really a solution worthy of an energy efficient building? We thus developed an atypical drive system for the blinds with a view to allow what we imagine to be easier manoeuvring from the inside. This required simply opening the window and, without leaning outside, pushing apart or pulling together two levers fixed to the blinds with die-cast aluminium parts. This action pivots the blinds by 90° (and not 180°). Akin to motorcycle stands, the springs allowed for a single open

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or closed position, which guarantees an interesting façade composition at all times with somewhat random openings. As a precaution, the contracting authority asked that a prototype is to be made available to employees and unions for trial purposes. This was adopted unanimously! We were told that a joke was going around that, when arriving at the office in the morning, you had to open/close the blinds 10 times, like a body building exercise. In reality it is not a joke because it really is an exercise, and an exercise that is good for you!

... L’ingénierie

des enveloppes regroupe beaucoup de spécialités techniques, de celles liées aux matériaux, à l’isolation thermique, à l’étanchéité à l’air, aux actions du vent … Mais aussi certaines moins techniques comme l’ergonomie et la psychologie. Laura CARDUCCI venait de gagner le concours pour ce bâtiment administratif lorsqu’elle nous a contactés, suivant les recommandations de l’agence BRENAC-GONZALEZ avec qui nous collaborions déjà sur de nombreux projets. Le bâtiment est d’une géométrie simple, d’une distribution intérieure très conventionnelle et avec des fenêtres régulièrement disposées en façade. L’ambition du Ministère du Développemùent Durable était d’avoir un classement Haute Qualité Environnementale (HQE) avec un label Hautes Performances Energétiques (HPE), niveau Bâtiment Basse Consommation (BBC) Effinergie 2005. Une ambition à laquelle l’efficace contribution de l’agence TRIBU permettra de répondre avec quelques dispositions fort ingénieuses, notamment au niveau d’un réseau de rafraichissement collé en sous-face de dalle (il n’y a pas de plafond suspendu). A programme simple des façades simples. Le clos et couvert est réalisé de manière économique et identique sur toute la périphérie par un voile percé, généreusement isolé thermiquement par l’extérieur et comportant des fenêtres en vitrage isolant à couche faiblement émissive et menuiserie bois. La prise en compte de l’environnement se fera au niveau d’un écran extérieur disposé 800mm devant toutes les façades. Au Nord, cet écran a vocation à protéger les bureaux du bruit routier. Il est composé de panneaux verriers, disposés de manière non jointive pour ne pas créer une cheminée susceptible de favoriser la propagation du feu en cas d’incendie. Pour animer cette façade urbaine longue de 100m, de subtiles variations d’inclinaison des vitrages ont été introduites. Les verres clairs et feuilletés reposent au niveau des coursives avec des attaches VEA rotulées, tandis qu’en partie haute le vitrage est maintenu par 2 ergots et

de minuscules cales polyamide usinées en coin. Des essais de chargement et de chocs furent réalisés par nous-même, avant le lancement de la consultation des entreprises. Au sud, l’architecte nous demanda de concevoir une protection solaire à base de volets bois. A la motorisation générale fut préférée une motorisation individuelle, à laquelle nous renoncions finalement par crainte d’induire trop de maintenance (il y a plus de 1000 volets). Et étaitce vraiment une solution digne d’un bâtiment économe en énergie ? Nous avons alors développé pour les volets une cinématique atypique, dans le but de permettre une manœuvre que nous imaginions aisée depuis l’intérieur. Il s’agit juste d’ouvrir la fenêtre et sans avoir à se pencher audehors rapprocher ou écarter 2 manettes solidarisées aux volets par des pièces en aluminium moulé. Cette action fait pivoter les volets de 90° (et non 180°). A l’instar des béquilles pour motos, des ressorts ne permettent qu’une position ouverte ou fermée, ce qui garantit par tous temps une composition intéressante de la façade, avec des ouvertures un peu aléatoires. Par précaution, la maitrise d’ouvrage demanda qu’un prototype fut réalisé puis mis à disposition des employés et des syndicats pour l’essayer. Il fut adopté à l’unanimité ! Il nous fut rapporté qu’une blague circulait comme quoi, le matin en arrivant au bureau, il fallait ouvrir/fermer les volets 10 fois, comme si c’était un exercice de musculation. La réalité est que ce n’est pas une blague car c’est bel et bien un exercice, et qui fait du bien ! RJvS


IGN Météo France Lot A / Architect : Laura CARDUCCI / Photographie : JLMOTTE


Technical drawing / Dessin technique

3D Picture / Image 3D

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Realisation / RĂŠalisation

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ACTUALITÉS

System for opening / Système d’ouverture

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exé N� �� ����

couvertures vertes

System for opening / Système d’ouverture

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couvertures vertes

exé N� �� ����

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View from the exterior / Vue de l’extérieur

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v. Les Quinconces Atelier 3, BABIN + RENAUD 2008 - 2014 Location Le Mans, France Program Cultural Center VS-A PM Nathalie SIMONNEAU, Gontran DUFOUR Client Ville de Le Mans Mission Tender to Construction / DCE Ã Construction

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Les Quinconces - Le Mans / Architect : BABIN + RENAUD - Atelier 3 / Photographie : Cécile SEPTET

... After several weeks of work on the housing project at Porte Montmartre in Paris, Jean-François and Eric ask me about creating conceptual details for the Théâtre du Mans. We quickly put together the contractor team to design the façades of the complex, built on the old car park of the famous Le Mans 24 hours. * This complex is divided into 3 parts: The theatre and its over 12-metre-high façade needed to stand out, with a sleek shape. It materialised as optimised mullions that rested at the top on a set of rods, which transmits minimum effort onto the roof structure, thus preserving its outstanding sleekness. There are no transoms to ruin this verticality. Only edge-to-edge joints in a quincunx mark the outline of the panes of glass. Cinema: The contrast between the opaque volume of the screening rooms overlooking the totally glass foyer has led us to develop a glazed façade with no mullions. Through an upper and lower rabbet, the glazing is juxtaposed to maximise the transparency of the entrance to the Pathé cinema.

Exhibition room: This space is at the back of the complex, where the old Le Mans 24 Hours car park was located. It is characterised by large corten steel vertical louvres, whose orientation can be adjusted according to how the exhibition rooms are being used. Their creation was the subject of numerous constructive exchanges with the company Coveris. Their exceptional size and corten steel entails a significant weight.

... Après quelques semaines de travail sur l’opération de logements située porte Montmartre à Paris, JeanFrançois et Eric me questionnent sur l’élaboration de détails conceptuels pour le théâtre du Mans. Très vite, nous intégrons l’équipe de maîtrise d’œuvre pour concevoir l’ensemble des façades du complexe implanté sur l’ancien parking des fameuses 24 heures du Mans. * Ce complexe se divise en 3 parties : Le théâtre et sa façade de plus de 12 mètres de haut se devait d’être manifeste et élancée. Elle s’est concrétisée par des montants optimisés reposant en tête sur un jeu de bielles qui transmet un minimum d’effort sur la structure de l’auvent, préservant ainsi

sa finesse manifeste. Aucune traverse ne perturbera cette verticalité. Seuls des joints bord à bord en quinconce marquent la trame des vitrages. Le cinéma : c’est le contraste entre le volume opaque des salles surplombant le hall d’entrée complètement vitrée qui nous guide à développer une façade vitrée sans montant. Réalisée par une prise en feuillure haute et basse, les vitrages se juxtaposent pour maximiser la transparence de l’accueil du cinéma Pathé. La salle d’exposition : le volume se trouve à l’arrière du complexe en lieu et place de l’ancien parking des 24 heures du Mans. Il est marqué par de grandes vantelles verticales en acier corten, leur orientation peut varier en fonction de l’usage des salles d’exposition. Leur réalisation fut l’objet de nombreux échanges constructifs avec l’entreprise Coveris. Leur taille exceptionnelle en acier corten entraine un poids de vantelle orientable conséquent. Gontran DUFOUR

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Theatre facade Façade du Théâtre

1. Détail du raccord en partie haute

3. Coupe horizontale sur coupe verticale avec raidisseur de verre sur 12.65 m

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2. Détail courant en partie haute


Theatre facade - Les Quinconces - Le Mans / Architect : BABIN + RENAUD - Atelier 3 / Photographie : Cécile SEPTET


Cinema facade Façade du Cinéma

4. Châssis fixe détail courant

6. Détails de la façade Nord-Est

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5. Châssis fixe détail haut


Cinema facade - Les Quinconces - Le Mans / Architect : BABIN + RENAUD - Atelier 3 / Photographie : Cécile SEPTET


Exhibition façade Façade de la salle d’exposition

7. Coupe courante des lames en acier corten mobiles

8. Détail de la porte d’entrée

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Exhibition facade - Les Quinconces - Le Mans / Architect : BABIN + RENAUD - Atelier 3 / Photographie : Cécile SEPTET


vi. Tour Odéon Alexandre GIRALDI 2008-2015

Location Monaco, Monaco Program Housing Tower VS-A PM Robert-Jan van SANTEN, Marion BERGERIE, Myriem GUEDOUAR Client Marzocco Mission DD till tender analysis Services system & architectural optimisation

... For

VS-A, the Tour Odéon is a flagship project, both literally and figuratively. This tower in Monaco has 57 floors and is 220m above the ground and contains the very highest quality housing.

The tower’s lighting was sub-contracted to Yann KERSALE, who is an artist-specialist in this area. 12 x 6mm LED strips in sections were placed between the panes so that the external lighting is never seen from the inside.

The MARZOCCO contracting authority had asked us to develop this project, which was designed by Alexandre GIRALDI, who won over a wealthy, demanding clientele by displaying an ability to provide high-end services. We have already analysed the Teotista, with the WILMOTTE agency, also based in Monaco, and therefore we were familiar with the expectations.

Thus, the balcony guardrail is not trivial. Like the doors and windows, it is part of the façade structures that users appreciate and touch, a bit like a piece of furniture. We kept this in mind to be able to design them correctly.

The procurement procedure for public contracts prompted us to draw up highly performance-based bidding documents, with numerous very ambitious technical constraints such as structural silicone glazing façades with curved and fireproof spandrel glass. 3 ATEX type procedures were required.

propre comme au sens figuré. Cette tour de 57étages de hauteur, culmine à Monaco avec une hauteur de 220m au-dessus du sol et abrite des logements de luxe.

In Monaco in general, and on a high building in particular, balcony treatment is primordial: - for the client, m² of balcony is sold as a habitable m², - for the user, the magnificent view over the Mediterranean must be maximised while ensuring protection from the wind. In addition, they ensure significant sun protection for the openings to the housing units. - for the inhabitants of Monaco: the balconies constitute a real façade in themselves, and define the appearance of the tower. Here is how the balustrade was designed : To encourage transparency from the inside, we opted for a glass balustrade, with studs every 3.2m. For an elegant appearance from the outside, these studs are concealed behind the glass. The window is of laminated glass which is hot bended with a blue-tinted component and decorative screen printed pattern with white/grey dots according to the Architect’s drawing and black dots to conceal the slab nosing and the attachments. The upper transverse structure is voluminous to take into account the range, but more importantly to provide a sense of comfort and safety to people leaning on it. It is of polished stainless steel for limited maintenance and tests were carried out to ensure that it does not heat dangerously when exposed to the sun. The horizontal lines of the balustrade merge with the lines of the curtain wall to enhance the visual unity of the façade. Last but not least, we have defined an implementation system using prefabricated components with attachments that are fully adjustable in forward and rotational movement to ensure perfect alignment.

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... Pour VS-A, la Tour Odéon est un projet phare, au sens

Le maître d’ouvrage MARZOCCO nous demande de développer ce projet conçu par Alexandre GIRALDI en définissant des prestations haut de gamme, aptes à séduire une clientèle fortunée et très exigeante. Nous avions précédemment étudié la tour Teotista, avec l’agence WILMOTTE, elle aussi Monégasque et nous connaissions donc bien les attentes. La procédure d’adjudication des marchés nous a orientés à faire un dossier d’appel d’offres très performantiel, avec de nombreuses sujétions techniques assez ambitieuses, comme les façades en verre extérieur collé (VEC), avec des allèges vitrées bombées et pare-flammes. 3 procédures de type ATEx furent exigées. A Monaco en général, sur un immeuble de grande hauteur en particulier, le traitement du balcon est primordial : - pour le client, le m² de balcon se vend comme un m² habitable, - pour l’utilisateur, la magnifique vue sur la mer méditerranée doit être valorisée, tout en restant à l’abri du vent. Accessoirement ils assurent une appréciable protection solaire aux baies des logements. - pour les habitants de Monaco : les balcons forment une vraie façade en soi, et définissent l’aspect de la tour. Voici comment le garde-corps a été conçu: Pour favoriser la transparence depuis l’intérieur, nous avons opté pour un garde-corps vitré, avec des montants espacés de 3,2m. Pour l’élégance de la vue depuis l’extérieur, ces montants sont masqués derrière le verre. Le vitrage est en verre feuilleté, cintré à chaud, avec un composant teinté en bleu et une

sérigraphie décorative à points blancs/gris, suivant le dessin de l’Architecte, et à points noirs pour masquer le nez de dalle et les attaches. La traverse supérieure est volumineuse pour tenir compte de la portée, mais surtout pour donner un sentiment de confort et de sécurité aux personnes qui s’appuient dessus. Elle est en acier inoxydable poli pour limiter la maintenance et des essais ont été faits pour s’assurer qu’elle ne s’échauffe pas dangereusement lorsqu’elle est exposée au soleil. Les lignes horizontales du garde-corps coïncident avec celles du mur-rideau, afin de renforcer l’unité visuelle de la façade. En dernier lieu, nous avons défini un système de mise en œuvre par composants préfabriqués, avec des attaches parfaitement ajustables en translation comme en rotation, afin que les alignements soient parfaits. La mise en lumière de la tour fut sous-traitée à Yann KERSALE, un artiste spécialiste en la matière. Les barrettes LED de 12 x 6mm en section furent placées entre les vitrages, afin que l’éclairage extérieur ne soit jamais perçu depuis l’intérieur. La rambarde de balcon n’a ainsi rien d’anodin. Comme les portes et les fenêtres, elle fait partie de ces quelques ouvrages en façade que les utilisateurs côtoient et touchent, un peu comme un meuble. Il faut avoir ça en tête pour les concevoir correctement. RJvS


Odeon Tower - Monaco / Architect : Alexandre GIRALDI / Photographie : VS-A


Caractéristique selon l’orientation

PRESENTATION

TOUR CCK PRESENTATION

TOUR ODEON TOUR CCK

CASINO DE KNOKKE TOUR ODEON

Characteristic depending on the orientation / Caractéristique selon l’orientation

ENTATION

TOUR CCK

TOUR ODEON

ciation des verres selon l’orientation Légende :

Differentiation of glasses according to the orientation / Différenciation des verres selon l’orientation

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CASINO DE KNOKKE

CASI


Pression des vents de la tour Côté montagne

Côté mer

Pressure wind tower / Pression des vents de la tour

Process of creating waves on balconies / Processus de création des vagues sur les

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vii. Musée des Confluences Coop HIMMELB(L)AU 2009-2015 Location Lyon, France Program Museum VS-A PM Nathalie SIMONNEAU, Gontran DUFOUR Client Département Rhône-Alpes Mission Tender to Construction Appel d’offre à Construction

... Some projects seem destined for us. Back in 2001, we collaborated with Jacques Ferrier to take part in the competition for the future Musée des Confluences in Lyon. Alas, we lost… 8 years later, following the departure of the engineering consulting company due to technical problems with the envelope, Jean Loup Patriarche, in collaboration with Coop HIMMELB(L)AU, calls us to put together a general contractor team responsible for taking over the current documents to create new tender documents in 3 months. This challenge was our last chance to finish the project… I still remember it now – Robert-Jan and I walked into that construction site portacabin to introduce ourselves to Grégory Perrin, the project manager at the time and still the authority on the museum. This was the genesis of a close, 6-year collaboration to build this outstandingly complex project, which can be divided into 6 parts: The first part of the building is made up of a mainly glazed monumental area, known as the Crystal. The Crystal’s structure literally rests on that of the Cloud, which required an in-depth study of the movements in the glazing brought on by movement in the structure caused mainly by climate loads. A parallelogram test was carried out firstly in order to check that the movement

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was compatible with the dimensions of the frame and secondly to anticipate specific cushioning for the panes that needed it, thus avoiding all contact between the panes and the groove in the profiles. This project has motorised louvres for comfort ventilation, air supply and smoke evacuation in the area. These louvres were made with structural silicone glazing frames and underwent a specific study to develop joints that would ensure that these tilted frames are watertight. The main slope of the roof plummets down to become one of the major elements of the architectural project, the gravity well. This part ensures the transition between the rectangular panes to faceted glazing, and, bit by bit, becomes an interior element. The heated glass is made up of 2 semilenses and boasts quadruple glazing. One of the glass layers has an active, low-emissivity surface that acts as an element connected to electrodes, thus increasing the temperature of the glazing. This heated glass ensures that snow on the outside melts not only in ordinary snowfall, but also after an accumulation from an avalanche from the roof.


Musée des Confluences - Lyon / Architect : Coop HIMMELB(L)AU / Photographie : : Duccio MALAGAMBA

The cone is made up of curved glass bonded on just two sides. These panes are all of different shapes, slightly tilted and held at the bottom by safety clamps. Access to the interior of this construction is assured by a lifting hatch door at the bottom of the cone. The many-shaped glass panes are all faceted and sometimes crooked. Their distinctiveness lies in the need to check the movements of the glass panes when the frame undergoes a parallelogram test, due to the movements of the metal framework supporting the construction because of climate loads. Gontran Dufour

... Il y a des projets qui nous sont prédestinés. C’est en 2001 que nous participons avec Jacques FERRIER pour le concours du futur Musée des Confluences de Lyon! Hélas, perdu… 8 ans après, suite au départ de l’entreprise générale BEC face à des difficultés techniques sur l’enveloppe. Jean Loup PATRIARCHE associé à Coop HIMMELB(L)AU nous appelle pour intégrer l’équipe de Moe en charge de reprendre les dossiers en cours pour réaliser en 3 mois un nouveau DCE. Ce défi était l’ultime chance pour finaliser le projet… Je nous revois, Robert-Jan et moi-même rentrer dans ces bungalows de chantier désertés pour nous présenter à Grégory PERRI, alors en charge du projet et qui reste encore aujourd’hui le référent historique

du Musée. Ce fut la genèse d’une collaboration étroite de 6 ans pour réussir à construire cet ouvrage d’une complexité hors norme qui peut se diviser en 6 parties : La première partie du bâtiment est composée d’une monumentale zone d’accueil largement vitrée, baptisée le cristal. La structure du cristal s’appuie littéralement sur celle du Nuage, ce qui a nécessité une étude approfondie des mouvements des vitrages entraînées par les mouvements de structure dû principalement aux charges climatiques. Une vérification de la mise en parallélogramme des vitrages a donc été réalisée afin de vérifier dans un premier temps la compatibilité des mouvements avec la dimension de la feuillure et dans un second temps de prescrire des calages particuliers pour certains vitrages le nécessitant, évitant ainsi tout contact entre les vitrages et le canal de fixation des profils.

vers des vitrages facettés, et devient progressivement un élément intérieur. Le vitrage chauffant est composé de 2 demi-lentilles dont le verre est un quadri-feuilleté. Une des couches du verre possède une surface active à basse émissivité faisant office de résistance connecté à des électrodes, produisant ainsi une montée en température du vitrage. Ce vitrage dit chauffant permet donc d’assurer la fonte de la neige dans le cas courant mais aussi celle qui pourrait être accumulée dans le cadre d’une avalanche produite depuis la toiture. Le cône est composé de vitrages cintrés collées sur seulement 2 bords. Tous de géométrie différentes, ces verres sont aussi légèrement inclinés, et retenue en partie basse par des pattes de sécurité. L’accès à l’intérieur de cet ouvrage est assuré par une trappe relevante en partie basse du cône.

Cet ouvrage possède des ouvrants motorisés servants à la fois pour la ventilation de confort mais aussi pour les amenées d’air et de désenfumage de cette zone. Ces ouvrants ont été réalisés avec des cadres VEC, et ont fait l’objet d’une étude spécifique pour développer <<des joints permettant d’assurer l’étanchéité de ces châssis inclinés.

Les verrières aux géométries multiples sont toutes facettées et parfois gauche. Leur particularité réside dans la nécessité d’élaborer une vérification des mouvements des vitrages par rapport à la mise en parallélogramme de l’ossature, dû aux mouvements de charpente métallique, support de l’ouvrage, en raison des charges climatiques.

Le versant principal de toiture « s’effondre » pour devenir un des éléments majeurs du projet architectural, le puits de gravité. Cette partie assure la transition entre les verres de formes rectangulaires

Gontran DUFOUR

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Gravity wells Le Cristal

1

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4

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1. Capot 2. Pattes de fixations ponctuelles du vitrage 3.Joint cadre vulcanisĂŠ 4.Cadre triangulaire menuiser en aluminium 5. Joint silicone sur fond de joint

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Gravity wells Le Cristal

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Gravity wells Le puit de gravitĂŠ

DĂŠtail du raccord en partie haute

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MUSÉE USÉEDES DESCONFLUENCES CONFLUENCES- -LYON LYON M

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Détail du raccord en partie haute

Vue en en coupe coupe des des 22 poutres poutres du du cône, cône, Ech: Ech: 1/75 1/75 Vue

Soudagedes des Soudage poutressur surles les poutres consoles consoles

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Exploded glazing cone geometry des and glazing of 49.23mm floors and 4 arranged / Eclaté des vitrages du cône et géométrie des vitrages des 4 étages et des 4 rangés Epaisseur équivalente vitrages: 98

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View from the Museum hall / Vue depuis le hall d’entrée du Musée © VS-A

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viii. H36 - Stuttgart MBA/S Matthias BAUER 2009 - 2014 Location Stuttgart, Germany Program House VS-A PM Robert-Jan van SANTEN Client Private Mission DD till tender analysis Services system & architectural optimisation

... Matthias

... Matthias

BAUER is a former employee of OMA. We once worked on an exciting restructuring project of a large shopping centre in the centre of Stuttgart… and he recontacted us for this project which is intended to be his own home.

BAUER est un ancien de chez OMA. Nous avions travaillé sur un passionnant projet de restructuration d’un très grand centre commercial au cœur de Stuttgart… et il nous recontacte pour ce projet destiné à devenir sa propre maison.

The project is not a very big one, located in a geographical area a bit far from our base, in a country where the German thermal regulations are known to be restrictive… But it has a clever geometry that meets local regulations by imposing a double-sloped roof, and daringly, concrete masonry that acts as both structure and thermal insulation, which will be visible from both outside and inside. The issue of bay windows in such a complex is a new subject, and not an easy one.

Le projet n’est pas très grand, localisé dans une zone géographique un peu éloignée de notre base, dans un pays où la réglementation thermique allemande est réputée très contraignante … Mais il est d’une géométrie astucieuse pour répondre à la réglementation locale imposant un toit à 2 pentes et audacieuse, avec une maçonnerie béton à la fois structurelle et thermiquement isolante, qui sera apparente tant à l’extérieur qu’à l’intérieur. La question des baies vitrées dans un tel complexe est un sujet nouveau et pas évident à réaliser.

The project contains macro and micro challenges. The macro challenge is to define thermal performances for all components to meet German regulations. The Transsolar design firm will provide an overview, but will not perform any calculations. With the committed Architect, Naree and an energy engineer from the firm, we were finally going to complete the design of the whole outer structure and play around with the Ug (heat transfer coefficient passing through a windowed component), Up (idem, through a slightly opaque wall), λ (lambda, for the heat conductivity coefficient passing through material) and ψ (psi, for heat transfer passing through a linear thermal break) values. The first pleasant surprise: the Ug of a leading-edge triple glazing demonstrates, in the vertical position, an Ug of 0.38 W/m².K. With an unpleasant surprise: we must nonetheless reduce the glazed surface. We prefer to resolve the problem by concentrating on the metal joinery and we are developing a thermal break principle using perforations. A 3D analysis showed us that insulation gains are considerable and significant, which certainly makes it the most economical thermally broken structured steel joinery on the market! After a number of years, Forster, a steel process development engineer would use the same design but with more sophisticated technology. The micro challenge is to place the joinery in this wall without creating a risk of condensation. Yet again, thermal simulations are used to design a table meeting this requirement, by precisely defining the area that must be treated by with a vapour-barrier. The project will endure numerous trials and tribulations, and will at the end be sold to a private client who will certainly live there happily and comfortably: the high thermal inertia ensures unsurpassed temperature control.

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Le projet comporte des macro et micro défis. Le défi macro est de définir des performances thermiques à l’ensemble des composants pour répondre à la réglementation allemande. Le bureau Transsolar est chargé de faire la synthèse, mais se refuse à faire le moindre calcul. Nous décidons de faire toute l’étude de l’enveloppe pour accompagner Matthias qui était très impliqué, Naree et un ingénieur thermicien du bureau vont s’occuper de l’ensemble des calculs, et jongler avec les Ug (coefficient de transmission thermique au travers un composant vitré), les Up (idem, au travers d’une paroi légère opaque), les λ (lambda, pour coefficient de conductivité thermique propre à un matériau) et les ψ (psi, pour la transmission thermique au travers d’un pont thermique linéique). La première bonne surprise : le Ug d’un triple vitrage à la pointe de la technologie affiche, en position verticale, un Ug de 0.38 W/m².K. Mais une bonne surprise s’accompagne trop souvent d’une mauvaise : il nous faut quand même réduire la surface vitrée. Nous préférons résoudre le problème en nous concentrant sur les menuiseries métalliques et développons un principe de coupure thermique par perforation. Un calcul en 3D nous démontrera que les gains en isolation sont significatifs et déterminants, ce qui en fait certainement le profilé de menuiserie acier à coupure thermique le plus économique du marché ! Forster, un gammiste acier, reprendra quelques années après le même concept, mais réalisé avec une technologie plus sophistiquée. Le défi micro est de placer la menuiserie dans ce mur sans créer un risque de condensation. Là encore, des simulations thermiques vont permettre de concevoir un tableau répondant à cette exigence, en définissant précisément la zone qui doit être traitée en pare-vapeur. Le projet connaîtra beaucoup de vicissitudes, et finira par être vendu à un client privé qui y vit certainement heureux et confortablement : la forte inertie thermique du béton assure une régulation thermique sans pareil. RJvs


Image 3D

Realisation / RĂŠalisation

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1.

3. 1.interior view of the villa with portholes / vue intĂŠrieure de la villa avec les hublots 2.exterior view / vue extĂŠrieure 3.portholes / hublots 4.photography from the garden / vue depuis le jardin

2.

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4.

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ix. BMVR O.M.A 2010 - 2016

Location Caen, France Program Library VS-A PM Robert-Jan van SANTEN, Emilie DEVELLE Client Ministère du Développement Durable Mission DD till tender analysis Services system & architectural optimisation

... O.M.A had not won a competition in France for some

time. But under the leadership of Clément Blanchet, they won the Caen Media Library competition. This also foreshadowed their success for other competitions. The building is particularly atypical, with a cross-shaped plan, circulation cores positioned at the ends and on the 1st floor, and in the centre of a large reading room. The architect’s team included the IOSIS Centre Ouest design office (engineering) and the IOSIS Concept-ELIOTH design office (sustainable development). There was still, however, near the end of the EPA, nothing worth considering for the façade of this reading room, and OMA called us to discuss this. Any solution with non-transparent costs was excluded from the outset. All of the “obvious” solutions were reviewed: glass stiffeners, corrugated glass, structural silicon glazing and structural glazing systems... until one of my quickly sketched drawings of stiffened glass in its centre immediately made Clément felt excited! … A few days later, we were surprisingly made aware that everyone saw something different in the sketch, but it didn’t matter: the OMA interpretation had been approved and was ready to go. This meant fitting a 6.2 x 2 m piece of insulating glass onto fully conventional and flat edges, but whose exterior glass underside protrudes by around 40 mm providing sufficient resistance to reinforce the glass on the 6.2 m free span in between the floor slabs. The architect’s contractual partners were less enthusiastic to begin with, and had not planned to include the development of an experimental façade as part of their offer. This will create some tension and deadlock. Last but not least, we had an assignment shared by Elioth and the OMA to take part in analysing this solution up until its implementation with static prototype testing. The contracting authority has in fact requested that the technical feasibility and architectural advantages undergo a full-scale verification prior to approval of the architect’s proposal. Elioth is using relevant shape research software to optimise the curves to reduce the stress inside the glass under wind loads. The file was submitted to the Italian mirror manufacturer Sunglas, who provided their input and retain the central curves in place. The other parts will be curved as seen fit so there is as little stress as possible in the glass during manufacturing! The immediate benefit is that this reduces optical distortions, which was one of the user’s concerns. More good news: the static tests showed that the glazing is certainly quite rigid and durable, and that the contracting authority, who made the trip, was sold on the idea. Final important elements: the impact of this type of

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geometry on the glass’s thermal insulation performance: the air gap is marginally in excess of 1 m3, which is HIGHLY unusual and it is easy to foresee that convection will improve Ug performance levels. We can safely say that the Ug will fall between the Ug of traditional-style insulating glazing and that of glazing with an air gap of 400 mm. The explanation was both convincing... and sufficient. The façade was completed with very reasonable implementation costs: the joinery was straightforward and installed very quickly.

... O.M.A

pour optimiser les courbes afin de diminuer les contraintes dans le verre sous charge de vent. Le fichier est transmis au miroitier italien Sunglas, qui y ajoute logiquement son grain de sel et ne retient que les courbes centrales, axées. Les autres parties seront bombées selon son feeling afin qu’il y ait le moins de contraintes possibles dans le verre lors de sa fabrication ! L’avantage immédiat est que cela réduit les distorsions optiques qui était une des préoccupations de l’utilisateur. Autres bonnes nouvelles : les essais statiques démontreront que le vitrage est assurément assez rigide et résistant, et le maître d’ouvrage, qui a fait le déplacement, est emballé par l’aspect.

n’avait pas remporté de concours depuis un certain temps en France et sous l’impulsion de Clément BLANCHET ce concours pour la médiathèque de Caen est gagné. Le bâtiment est éminemment atypique, avec un plan en croix, des noyaux de circulation placés aux extrémités et au 1er étage, en son centre une grande salle de lecture. L’Architecte a dans son équipe les BET IOSIS Centre Ouest (ingénierie) et IOSIS Concept-ELIOTH (développement durable), mais vers la fin de la phase ADP, il n’y a toujours rien de sérieux pour la façade de cette salle de lecture et OMA nous appelle pour échanger sur ce sujet.

Derniers points importants : l’impact de cette géométrie sur les performances d’isolation thermique du verre : la lame d’air fait un peu plus d’1 m3, c’est très inhabituel et il est aisé de prédire qu’il y aura de la convection qui va atténuer la performance du Ug. Nous nous aventurons, sans risques, à dire que le Ug sera compris entre le Ug d’un vitrage isolant classique et celui d’un vitrage avec une lame d’air de 400 mm. L’explication est jugée convaincante et suffisante. La façade est sortie à un coût de réalisation finalement très raisonnable : la menuiserie étant traditionnelle ce qui a permis une pose très rapide.

Toutes les solutions avec des montants opaques sont exclues. Toutes les solutions « évidentes » sont passées en revue, les raidisseurs en verre, le verre ondulé, le VEC, le VEA, … jusqu’au moment où un de mes croquis, rapidement esquissé d’un vitrage raidi en son centre fait immédiatement s’enthousiasmer Clément ! … Quelques jours plus tard, nous nous surprenons en comprenant que chacun a vu dans ce croquis une idée différente, mais qu’importe : l’interprétation d’OMA est validée et c’est parti.

RJvS

Il s’agit de réaliser un vitrage isolant de 6,2 x 2m de surface, aux bords parfaitement classiques et plans, mais dont le ventre du verre extérieur, saillant d’une quarantaine de cm donnera une résistance suffisante pour rigidifier le vitrage sur les 6.2m de portée libre entre dalles. Les partenaires contractuels de l’architecte sont moins enthousiastes au début, et n’avaient pas prévu d’inclure dans leur offre le développement d’une façade expérimentale. Cela créera quelques tensions et blocages. Finalement nous aurons une mission partagée entre Elioth et OMA pour participer aux études de cette solution jusqu’à la réalisation avec essais statiques d’un prototype. Le maître d’ouvrage a en effet demandé que la faisabilité technique, et l’intérêt architectural soient vérifiés grandeur nature avant de valider la proposition de l’Architecte. Elioth utilise un intéressant logiciel de recherche de forme


Preliminary approach for different shapes stiffening the glass.

Prototype of the first double curved glass, produced by sunglass (Italy)

Mechanical test of the first IGU with 1 curved and 1 flat glass

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During construction

Finished elevation

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x. #Cloud.Paris PCA 2011-2015

Location Paris, France Program Offices VS-A PM Gontran DUFOUR, Bérénika CHUDZIAK Client Société Foncière Lyonnaise Mission DD till tender analysis Services system & architectural optimisation

«... Located in the heart of the district surrounding

the Paris stock exchange”, #Cloud.paris has been subject to significant reconstruction work where technical and environmental issues became significant with regards to obtaining a three star certification: HQE, BREEAM and LEED. And of all this in record time! The architectural concept is based on reinterpreting the initial writing on the building’s façade from the 1950s. The architect wanted to place a greater emphasis on horizontal and vertical lines whilst maintaining the framework. Various concepts called for innovative answers. Because of its exposure, we had to test some technical boundaries we had become accustomed to seeing within the service industry. Let us start with light: for this project, it was essential to incorporate natural light into deep patios so that it could be directed towards plateaus. The building’s opalescent, even immaculate colour provides a high reflective light rate. We were then able to supply the lower reaches of patios and offices with light by placing reflective strips on the façade, all while protecting the building. The geometry of the patios and the reflection of light created by façade elements, cladding, and glazing, allowed us to provide levels of light capacity as part of a brand-new construction. In addition to this, the geometry of the cladding profiles which produced the wire-mesh had been dimensioned carefully in order to be able to implement the C+D locally as part of two-tier fire protection procedures without having any visible impact on the façade. The second concept combines light and winter thermal performance levels: glazed surfaces help with the former but not with the latter. We have therefore worked between glazing surfaces which make up 70% of the overall building façade, and those associated with carpentry. We have reduced heat loss by limiting the woodwork surfaces by refining certain profiles. Furthermore, each carpentry profile has been subject to maximising final thermal capacity in order to reduce a loss in heat. All of this is required to achieve an overall balance between light and heat.

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Studies carried out on dual-skin façades are among this project’s ambitious topics. • Optimising this type of typological performance is linked to the dimension of ventilation holes. Reducing ventilation holes improves dual-skin performance levels, however it does mean that the outer skin is at risk from steaming up. We have implemented a 3D fluid calculation model in transient (dynamic) mode throughout the design phase in order to assess and optimise the number of days when there is a risk of steaming up. This assessment has been verified by a CSTB steam-retardant test carried out during running programs.

framework profiles. The extractors are positioned inside the PRS steel beam to the right of the connection in between the façade and the skylight. Add to this thermal studies conducted by Elithis, the integration of acoustic panels, and the issue of dazzling to which -- incidentally -- a solution was found as part of our collaboration with the designer Noé Duchaufour Lawrence via the atrium’s interior furnishings.

• The design of extruded aluminium profiles consisting of the 3 x 3 m glazing support frame has been guided by the search for a reduced mass with a load capacity required for circulation inside the boxes.

As the building outer structure’s engineering consultants, our role is to ensure the link between architectural ambitions, concepts and techniques. Introducing pathways between architectural and technical trains of thought allows you to configure construction details which are consistent with architectural designs, and vice-versa on occasions. Such developments involve much to-ing and fro-ing and cooperation between all stakeholders, including the inspection bureau.

• The 3 x 3 m glazing is characteristic of this façade, particularly within the curved section. Prototypes were used during the project’s aspect validation phase to determine the type of glazing and which layer to use.

The outer structure is no less subject to regulatory and economic constraints and has to meet increasing demands in terms of performance. These generally relate to comfort, energy supplies, safety, and sustainability.

A significant part of the the #Cloud.paris project façades can also be found on indoor patios. The structure of the large atrium is atypical. The allinclusive framework and metalwork is a real challenge, given its 16 metres in height for a total of 420 m² of skylight, which is supported on three building blocks separated by expansion joints.

All of these technical and performance issues have been studied via intense teamwork with the PCA and businesses without any conflict, although some deadline requirements have led to quick decisions being made. The SFL had an ambitious program, but they also provided us with methods for exploring and meeting their requirements.

Because of the building’s specific geometry, we had very little height to work with, and this meant we were unable to create a vertical drop without impacting on the façades of adjacent offices. We therefore split the horizontal section of the atrium into 30 small skylights of approximately 4 x 4 m. These were processed in isolation by allocating a slight slope. The steel structure in between these skylights includes all of the rainwater piping network and feeds it towards the drainage system.

Project owners are still seeking success with increasingly more expressive, atypical structures despite the dire economic situation. It is this type of high-value technical and architectural projects that we are most often called for. #Cloud.paris is a good example: it allowed us to experiment and innovate! ”

It was quite a challenge to integrate the atrium’s mechanical smoke extraction system inside our

GD


x. #Cloud.Paris PCA 2011-2015

Emplacement Paris, France Programme Bureaux VS-A PM Gontran DUFOUR, Bérénika CHUDZIAK Client Société Foncière Lyonnaise Mission APD à construction Services interface technique et architecture, optimisation des coûts

«... Implanté

au cœur du quartier de la Bourse de Paris, #Cloud.paris a fait l’objet d’une reconstruction lourde où les critères techniques et les enjeux environnementaux étaient particulièrement élevés afin de viser une triple certification : HQE, BREEAM et LEED. Et tout ceci en un temps record ! Le concept architectural s’appuie sur la réinterprétation de l’écriture initiale de la façade du bâtiment des années 1950. Tout en conservant la trame, l’architecte a souhaité accentuer les lignes horizontales et verticales. Plusieurs concepts appelaient des réponses innovantes. Compte tenu de son exposition, il a fallu en effet repousser certaines limites techniques de ce que nous avions l’habitude de voir dans le tertiaire. Débutons par la lumière : il était primordial pour ce projet d’amener la lumière naturelle au fond des patios, pour la conduire ensuite au cœur des plateaux. La couleur opalescente voire immaculée du bâtiment a permis d’obtenir tout d’abord un taux de réflexion lumineux élevé. Puis, en plaçant des lames réfléchissantes sur la façade, nous sommes parvenus à acheminer la lumière au fond des patios et des bureaux, tout en protégeant le bâtiment. La géométrie des patios, la réflexion lumineuse des éléments composant les façades, bardage et vitrages, nous ont permis à atteindre des performances lumineuses d’une construction neuve. De plus, la géométrie des profils de bardage réalisant la résille a été judicieusement dimensionnée pour pouvoir localement réaliser le C+D dans la protection incendie entre 2 tiers, sans aucun impact invisible en façade. Le second concept mêle la lumière et les performances thermiques hivernales : quand pour le premier il faut maximiser les surfaces vitrées, il faut à l’inverse la limiter pour le second. Nous avons donc travaillé entre des surfaces de vitrages représentants au total 70% de la façade du bâtiment et celles des menuiseries. En limitant les surfaces de menuiseries par la finesse des profils, nous avons réduit les déperditions thermiques. De plus, chaque profil de menuiserie a fait l’objet d’optimisations thermiques aux éléments finis pour réduire ses déperditions thermiques. Tout ceci afin d’obtenir un équilibre global entre lumière et thermique. Les études menées sur les façades double peau constituent un des sujets ambitieux du projet. L’optimisation des performances de cette typologie réside dans le dimensionnent des orifices de ventilation. Réduire

les orifices de ventilation améliore les performances de la double peau, mais engendre un risque d’embuage de la peau extérieure. En phase de conception, nous avons réalisé un modèle 3D de calcul d’écoulement de fluide en mode transitoire (dynamique) pour évaluer et optimiser le nombre de jours avec risque d’embuage. Lors de l’exécution, cette évaluation a été vérifiée par un essai d’embuage au CSTB. Le dessin des profils en aluminium extrudé constituant le cadre support du vitrage de 3 x 3 mètres a été guidé par la recherche d’une masse vue réduite avec une capacité portante nécessaire à la circulation à l’intérieur des boites. Les vitrages de 3 x 3 m caractérisent cette façade, notamment dans la zone cintrée. Le choix du type de vitrage et de sa couche a fait l’objet de prototypes dans la validation de l’aspect de l’ouvrage. Sur le projet #Cloud.paris, une partie non négligeable des façades se trouve également sur les patios intérieurs. La charpente du grand atrium est atypique. Ouvrage de charpente-serrurerie-façade tout en un, c’est un véritable défi avec ses 16 mètres de hauteur qui représente un total de 420 m² de verrière, supportée sur 3 blocs de bâtiment séparés par des joints de dilatation. En raison de la géométrie particulière du bâtiment, nous disposions de très peu de hauteur, avec l’incapacité de créer un dénivelé sans impacter les façades des bureaux adjacents. Nous avons donc décomposé la partie horizontale de l’atrium en 30 petites verrières d’environ 4 x 4m. Ces dernières ont été traitées isolément en leur attribuant une faible pente. La structure acier entre ces verrières contient tout le réseau de canalisation des eaux pluviales en l’acheminant vers le réseau d’évacuation.

cohérence avec les concepts architecturaux, et parfois viceversa. Cette élaboration se fait sur la base d’aller-retours et nécessite l’implication de l’ensemble des intervenants, y compris la maîtrise d’ouvrage. L’enveloppe n’en est pas moins soumise à des contraintes réglementaires et économiques, et doit répondre à des attentes grandissantes en termes de performances. Celles-ci ont généralement trait au confort, aux flux énergétiques, à la sécurité et à la durabilité. Tous ces sujets techniques et performantiels ont été étudiés par le biais d’un intense travail d’équipe avec PCA et les entreprises, sans conflit, même si certaines exigences de délai ont imposé des décisions rapides. SFL avait un programme ambitieux, mais nous a donné en amont les moyens de les étudier et de concrétiser ses exigences. Avec un contexte économique toujours morose, les maîtres d’ouvrage cherchent encore à se démarquer avec des architectures atypiques, de plus en plus expressives. C’est d’ailleurs dans ce type de projets complexe à valeur ajoutée technique et architecturale qu’on nous appelle le plus souvent. #Cloud.paris en est un bel exemple : il nous a permis d’expérimenter, d’innover ! » GD

Un joli défi a été l’intégration du système de désenfumage mécanique de l’atrium à l’intérieur de nos profils de charpente. Les extracteurs sont placés dans la poutre acier en PRS au droit du raccord entre la façade et la verrière. C’est sans compter aussi sur les études thermiques menées avec Elithis, l’intégration des panneaux acoustiques ainsi que le sujet de l’éblouissement qui trouve d’ailleurs sa solution dans notre collaboration avec le designer Noé DUCHAUFOUR LAWRENCE via le mobilier intérieur intégré à l’atrium. En tant que bureau d’étude de l’enveloppe du bâtiment, notre rôle est d’assurer le lien entre les ambitions architecturales, les concepts et la technique. La mise en place de passerelles entre la réflexion architecturale et technique permet de configurer des détails constructifs en

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Facade onon Richelieu street Facade Richelieu street Facade on Richelieu street Façade dede la la rue Richelieu Façade rue Richelieu Façade de la rue Richelieu

Rotunda surevelation Richelieu Surélévation delalarotonde rotonde Richelieu, 1962 Rotunda surevelation Richelieu 1962 1962 /1962 Surélévation de lade rotonde Richelieu, 1962 Rotunda surevelation Richelieu / /Surélévation Richelieu, 1962

Research & pre-sizing of the ventilate facade / Research & pre-sizing of the ventilate facade / Research & pre-sizing of the ventilate facade Recherche et pré dimensionnement de la/façade ventilée, croquis Recherche et pré dimensionnement de la façade ventilée, croquis Recherche et pré dimensionnement de la façade ventilée, croquis

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112 110

Double skin box prototype / Prototype du caisson double peau Double skin box prototype / Prototype du caisson double peau Double skin box prototype / Prototype du caisson double peau


Facade on Richelieu street, 2015 / Faรงade rue Richelieu, 2015

Double skin box with fireman access / Caissons double peau et vue sur les ouvrants pompiers.

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xi. Showroom BMW Paris CARBONDALE 2011-2013

Location Paris, France Program Showroom VS-A PM Robert-Jan van SANTEN, Léa RICHERT Client BMW Mission DD till tender analysis Services system & architectural optimisation

... Erik

CARLSON is an architect I met at OMA, before his career brought him to Louis Vuitton and then to create the Carbondale company with his business partner Pierre Tortrat. Following our first collaboration on the glazing at Longchamp in Hong Kong, he asked us to take part in the design of the glazing and door for the BMW showroom, located on Avenue Georges V in Paris, right next to the Champs Elysées. Car manufacturer showrooms have always had mainly, or even excessively, glazed façades. The façade of the Peugeot showroom on Avenue de la Grande Armée in Paris was an excellent example (unfortunately, it has since been demolished and replaced by a more ordinary bolted glass system façade). The recent Renault showroom by Franck Hammoutene was mainly developed around innovative interior concepts, while the Citroën one, designed by Manuelle Gautrand (whose site does not mention a façade consultant, but Arnaud de Bussiere did work on this project), is dressed with an expressive glass wall façade, the priority of which is not transparency. We therefore needed to go back to basics! This was done on this showroom, with a façade of 2 large lateral bays of 7.2m x 4.5m and a narrower central bay to hold the entrance. The dimensions of the lateral bays did not allow one piece of glazing, so they inevitably had to be reconfigured. To minimise the impact of this, we cut the bay into 2, introducing a horizontal joining line between the pieces of glass at 3.2m high. Each piece of glass was framed on 3 sides, so the connection was limited to a simple silicone join. It still needed to be as thin as possible. To achieve this, the upper glass was placed onto corner blocks, which were lodged into the peripheral frame and were height-adjustable. It was therefore possible to to place the upper glazing precisely, just above the lower glazing, and to achieve a completely straight join. Professional rules impose a minimum joint height of 4mm, which was adhered to on the project, and authorise movement of up to 25% of the height. The thickness of the 2 layers of glass was therefore adjusted so that, in the wind, the 2 edges become distorted almost identically. This variation in thickness is not noticeable, thanks to the use of extra-clear glass. These two bays, with their spectacular dimensions, have therefore complied with almost all norms (the corner supports were the only variation) and have therefore been considered as traditional works. They were produced by the

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company SAM+ at a particularly reasonable construction cost, given their slightly unusual nature. The story of the entrance is just as exciting, with two automatic 4.5m-high sliding doors. The interest lies in the absence of central mullions, which are necessary to emphasise the BMW logo located on the inside, in line with the entrance.

... Erik

CARLSON est un architecte que j’ai rencontré chez OMA, avant que son parcours le mène à travailler chez Louis Vuitton et ultérieurement à créer la société Carbondale avec son associé Pierre TORTRAT. A la suite de notre première collaboration pour la vitrine de Longchamp à Hong Kong, il nous a demandé de participer à la conception des vitrines et de la porte d’accès du showroom BMW, situé avenue George V à Paris, juste à côté des Champs Elysées. Les showrooms des fabricants de voitures ont depuis toujours des façades largement, voire excessivement vitrés. La façade du show-room de Peugeot située avenue de la Grande Armée à Paris, en était un excellent exemple (malheureusement démolie et remplacée par une façade bien plus ordinaire en VEA). Le récent showroom de Renault par Franck HAMMOUTENE a surtout été développé autour de concepts intérieurs novateurs, tandis que celui de Citroën, conçu par Manuelle GAUTRAN (son site ne mentionne aucun consultant façade mais Arnaud de BUSSIERE a bien travaillé sur ce projet) est habillé d’une expressive façade-verrière mais dont la transparence n’est pas le maître mot. Il fallait donc revenir aux sources ! Ce fut chose faite avec ce showroom dont la façade comporte 2 grandes baies latérales de 7,2m de large par 4.5m de haut, et d’une baie centrale plus étroite où sera logée la porte d’entrée. Les dimensions des baies latérales ne permettaient pas de passer avec un seul vitrage, et le redécoupage de la baie était inévitable. Pour en minimiser l’impact, nous avons découpé la baie en 2 ; introduisant une ligne de raccord horizontale entre verres placée à 3.2m de hauteur. Chaque verre étant pris en feuillure sur 3 côtés, ce raccord pouvait se limiter à un simple joint silicone. Encore fallait-il qu’il soit le plus fin possible ! Pour y arriver, le verre supérieur fut placé sur des cales en coin, logées dans l’épaisseur de la menuiserie périphérique et ajustable en hauteur. Il fut ainsi possible de placer le vitrage supérieur avec une très grande précision au-dessus

du verre inférieur afin d’obtenir un joint dont les bords soient parfaitement parallèles. Les règles professionnelles imposent une hauteur de joint minimal de 4mm, valeur aussi retenue pour le projet et autorisant des mouvements d’amplitude limitée à 25% de la hauteur. L’épaisseur des 2 vitrages feuilletés fut donc ajustée de sorte que sous l’action du vent, les 2 bords se déforment de manière quasi identique. Cette variation d’épaisseur n’est pas perceptible du fait d’avoir retenu du verre extra-clair. Ainsi ces 2 baies, aux dimensions très spectaculaires se révèlent conformes à la quasi-totalité des règles de l’art (le calage dans les coins était la seule dérogation) et ont été considérés comme des ouvrages traditionnels. Elles ont été bien réalisées par l’entreprise SAM+ et à un coût de construction particulièrement raisonnable compte tenu du caractère quand même un peu atypique. L’histoire de la porte d’entrée est également passionnante, avec 2 vantaux coulissants automatiques de 4,5m de hauteur. La particularité réside dans l’absence de montants centraux, rendue nécessaire pour bien mettre en valeur le logo BMW placé à l’intérieur, dans l’alignement de l’entrée. RJvS


Showroom BMW

Showroom BMW

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xii. Daishin Finance Center B&A 2014 - 2015

Location Seoul, Korea Program Offices VS-A PM Naree KIM, Sunhoo KIM, Jaeman PARK Client Daishin Securities Mission SD ~ Construction Drawing Review Services system & architectural optimisation

«... Working in many different countries, it occurs

frequent gust of wind in this region. We are glad to see this rationalization of the code, based on the realities. We do support this kind of rationalization in local codes and hope to see more and more “rationalized” codes in Korea.

Daishin HQ building is the first high-rise project in which VS-A.KR participated throughout the process from design till construction. When we started working in Korea, we had no doubts about technique but we knew we had to learn the Korean way of doing. This went with some surprises.

Naree KIM

that our “common sense” based on our experiences can be in conflict with local practice. To reach a wellbalanced conclusion, we realize that sincere and constant communication is crucial among the whole project team.

Code and its customary application: Careful reading of the Korean wind code (architectural structure 2009) helped us to feel confident when we proposed a surface roughness class A (for dense urban environment) for this project, located in the center of Seoul. First calculation sheet and first surprise: in Korea, almost nobody uses the class A! The highest wind speed ever (over 15 years) recorded in the site (Jung-gu) was 25.6m/s while the Korean code defines Seoul basic wind speed as 30m/s. 15% increase of the wind speed means 22,5% increase of the wind pressure : that’s not a small difference ! Moreover, according to statistics, average wind speed in Seoul has been reduced, due to urban densification during last 10~20 years. Yet, strong custom to follow after the roughness of the existing neighboring buildings resulted in no existence of building of roughness A (urban zone) in Korea. Code and its realistic application: In the beginning, the Contractor and the Client felt uncomfortable with this “unusual” roughness A. We explained how this roughness A is reasonable and realistic, based on the urban densification and statistic wind data. Also, the selected wind roughness was generating substantial cost savings. After several discussions, all of us come to an agreement to use roughness A for design wind load of the façade. Rationalization of the Code: A new Korean wind code (architectural structure 2016), validated in May 2016, defines Seoul basic wind speed as 26 m/s which decreased by 15% from the previous speed of 30m/s. While, that of Jeju has increased by 10% from 40m/s to 44m/s, due to

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대신증권 명동사옥 프로젝트: 지역화의 교훈 우리는 세계 여러 다른 지역에 프로젝트를 하면 서 이미 경험을 통해 기술적으로 당연하다고 생 각했던 부분도 지역적 관습과 상충할 수 있으며, 지역적 관습과 기술적 혁신 사이의 적절한 균형 을 이루는 결정에 이르기 위해서 진실하고 끊임 없는 소통과 합의가 필요하다는 것을 깨닫는다. 대신 빌딩은 브이에스에이 코리아가 설계부터 시 공까지 참여한 첫 프로젝트이다. 이 프로젝트 또 한 우리의 경험을 통한 판단과 지역적 관례 간에 차이로 몇몇 예기치 못했던 협의 과정을 거쳤다. 법규와 그 관례적 적용: 한국 풍하중 관련 법규(건축구조기준2009)를 검 토하고 본 프로젝트가 위치하는 서울의 명동 지 구가 밀도가 높은 도시 환경에 해당하는 노풍도A 지구에 해당한다고 확신하였다. 구조계산서를 검 토 받고 알게 된 놀라운 사실: 한국에서는 거의 아 무도 노풍도 A지구를 적용하지 않는다! 고층 빌 딩이 많은 대도시의 도심 조차, 10층 미만의 중층 건물지구인 노풍도 B지구로 해석하고 있다. 우리 는 좀더 서울의 풍속 데이터를 찾아보기로 했다. 기상청 자료에 따르면 지난 15년간 서울 중구의 최대 풍속은 25.6 m/s이지만 서울의 기본 풍속은 전례가 없는 30m/s이다. 그 이유는 한국 기준에 서 정하는 기본 풍속은 이미 안전성을 확보하기 위해 15~20% 상향 조정된 것이기 때문이라고 하 는데, 구조 계산시 안전율을 감안하여 설계하므로 이는 안전율이 중복 적용되는 결과를 초래한다. 또한 지난 10~20년 사이 도시화에 의한 고층 빌 딩의 증가로 지표면이 거칠어져 서울의 평균 풍 속은 감소한 것으로 나타난다. 그러나, 도시 밀도 가 높아져도 관례에 따라 주변 건물의 노풍도를 따르니 어느 곳에도 도심지에 해당하는 노풍도 A 에 해당하는 건물이 존재하지 않게 되었다.

법규의 현실적 적용: 시공사와 건축주는 통상적이지 않은 노풍도 A의 적용을 부담스러워 했다. 하지만 최근 현장 주변 건물의 고층화로 프로젝트의 노풍도를 “도심지” 의 노풍도인 A로 보는 것이 합리적이라는 우리의 의견이 있었고, 이는 상당한 물량 감소, 즉 가격 절감에 도움을 줄 수 있는 사항이기도 했다. 몇 번 의 협의를 거쳐 본 프로젝트의 외장재의 구조 노 풍도는 A로 합의될 수 있었다. 법규의 현실화: 2016년 5월 26일에 발효된 건축구조기준 2016 에서는 도시화에 의해 평균 풍속이 느려진 서울 의 기본 풍속이 30m/s에서 26m/s으로 15% 감소 되었다. 반대로 최근 돌풍이 많이 불었던 제주는 40m/s 에서 44m/s으로 10% 상향 조정 되었다. 우리는 이처럼 사실에 기반한 현실적인 법규 개 정을 환영하며, 한국에 안전하면서도 합리적이고, 지역 환경에 맞는 기준이 더 많아지기를 바란다.


Daishin HQ Project / Architect : B & A / Photographie : VS-A KR


Urban densification in site zone (Jung-gu) : Green building is the project. Buildings in red have 10 stories or more, while those in yellow are less than 10 stories buildings. 프로젝트가 위치한 중구의 도시 밀집화. 녹색 건물이 프로젝트이며, 붉은색 건물은 10층 이상, 노란색 건물은 10층 미만 빌딩을 의미한다.

Distribution map of high-rise buildings around the site, with the wind rose of Seoul: wind directions are the West and North-East, where there are mostly high-rise buildings. 바람장미를 중첩시킨 프로젝트 현장 주변의 고층건물 배치도: 프로젝트 현장은 강한 바람이 불어오는 서쪽과 북동쪽에 고층건물로 둘러싸여 있다. 118


Performance Mock Up (PMU) testing of tower curtain wall in August 2015. 2015년 8월 실시한 타워 커튼월 성능 목업.

Visual Mock Up (VMU) testing of tower curtain wall in September 2015. 2015년 9월 실시한 타워 커튼월 비주얼 목업. 119


Interior view of the tower façade showing operable opaque window. 불투명 개폐창을 보여주는 타워부의 내부 전경. 120


Façade composition: protruded square fixed glazed part & operable side window. You can notice the adhesive tapes on the glass, related to the on-site gluing, which will be removed later. 파사드 구성: 돌출된 정사각 고정부와 개폐측창. 121


xiii. Dacheng HQ URBANUS 2014 - on going

Location Shenzhen, China Program Offices VS-A PM FANG Shu, Hyejun AN Client Dacheng Funds Mission Full scope Services system & architectural optimisation

«... This

project tells the story of a not that high project surrounded by giant high-rise buildings. It also tells the story of a client who wants his headquarters to nevertheless be an outstanding building. The Architects consequently wanted the project to look like a jewel among pieces of ordinary glass, and their first approach was consequently to design a double skin façade to provide a feeling of depth. We mentioned that in tropic humid climates, such works do not perform like in continental climates with drier air, and the risk of condensation is obviously something to consider. Also our experience in Europe taught us that the perception of a double glass skin is highly dependent on the exterior weather conditions: sometimes the outer skin will just be invisible! We suggested that the feeling of depth could more consistently be provided by opaque elements located in between the 2 skins, and started introducing deep mullions and inclined panels. These would catch the sunlight at different moments and create some sparkling effect. To deal with the local climate, we proposed a single skin that would jump in and out between the inclined panels. A challenging concept regarding the construction and the required water-tightness, but that was facilitated by the Architects who accepted to apply a design rule that will keep all the sealants in one plane. As a consequence, the 550mm deep façade is in reality a 250mm deep unitized curtain-wall, with inserted boxes that jump in. The Architects located randomly these boxes to create a texture rather than a pattern. This proposal also reduced the construction costs, which was not coincidentally an interesting sideeffect! I’m pleased to mention that the façade was constructed by Fangda, a performing contractor in Guangdong province that rapidly understood the design intents and positively reacted on our proposed technical solutions. RJvS

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这个项目的故事讲述在一群超高层建筑中别树一格的建筑物,以 独特的外观呈现一座显赫的总部大楼。 建筑师的初衷是想在平凡的建筑群里面,项目以独特的宝石外观 效果突围而出。他们第一个想法是设计一个可以有视觉深度的双 层幕墙。我们提出,双层幕墙在热带气候性能表现不能像在内陆 较干燥的气候一样,需要考虑到凝结的问题。加上,我们在欧洲 的经验告诉我们双层幕墙的外观是根据外面气候而变异的。有时 候双层幕墙的外层会变得完全透明和不可见。我们建议在双层幕 墙中嵌入不透明构件比如倾斜面板,和增加立柱深度达到有深度 的视觉效果。倾斜面板会在有太阳光照射时产生反射,在不同光 学情况下制造独特的闪耀表面视觉效果。 为了应付本地的气候,我们提出了一个单层幕墙方案。这个单层 幕墙在倾斜面板间穿插营造双层幕墙的视觉效果。为了实行这个 在防水性能上具挑战性的方案,建筑师接受了把所有防水胶条放 在同一平面上的设计规则。结果,貌似是550mm深的幕墙其实 是250mm 深的单元式系统,以不透明面板和密封空间的视觉交 错产生充满层次感的立面。建筑师随机地安排透明和不透明部 分,使得立面不只是一个图案,而是一种充满质感的视觉感受。 这个单层幕墙方案解决气候性能要求和美学意图的同时,建造价 格也得到优化。不得不提的是幕墙承包商方大,他们很快就明白 了项目的设计意图,并积极地推进我们提出的技术解决方案。


Dacheng HQ / Architect : Urbanus / Photographie : DAYONGSTUDIO


INSIDE

INSIDE

INSIDE

OUTSIDE

OUTSIDE

OUTSIDE

Concept: The single skin facade concept is created by a straight facade with inserted volumes 单层幕墙以直行幕墙再植入容量构成

Facade unit type variation

Double skin like single skin facade

幕墙单元变化

模拟双层幕墙的单层幕墙

Inclined panel

Inclined panel

倾斜板面

Inclined panel

倾斜板面

倾斜板面

Inclined panel 2 倾斜板面 2

Inclined window screen

Added transom 添加横柱

倾斜板面

Screen glass 倾斜板面

1.

250

550

3.

550

5.

550

6.

Inclined panel 倾斜板面

250

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Operable part 开启部分

2.

550

Operable part 开启部分

4.

7.


Visual Mock Up (VMU) testing of podium curtain wall in November 2016 塔楼帷幕视觉样板测试 2016 11月

Site inspection in July 2017 场地检测 2017 7月

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Quality control at Fangdaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s factory (Guangdong)

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Site photo in August 2017 / Photographie : DAYONGSTUDIO 场地照片 2017 8月

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Façade composition: Single skin facade which gives off the visual effect of a double skin facade / Photographie : DAYONGSTUDIO 场地照片 2017 8月

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Technical Focus Focus Technique 技术专题 기술적 주안점

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2012-

158

Quai Ouest

BRENAC & GONZALEZ 2012 - 2016 Location Boulogne Billancourt, France Program Offices VS-A PM Quentin DESPLECHIN, Gontran DUFOUR Client Emerige

Photo : BRENAC & GONZALEZ

Context Located in Boulogne-Billancourt, opposite Canal + and TF1, this office building enjoys east, south and west exposure, opposite the Seine. The sound and the flexible structure of the existing building allowed for transformation. The existing offices could therefore be renovated. The new façade and its “crystal” envelope play with the light on the banks of the Seine like a jewel would. This prismatic façade exploits and reveals the particularities of the site, the curvature of the façade and the presence of the Seine. The base module of double-skin chambers gives the whole façade unity. The double skin

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is made up of folded glass, which gives depth to the façade and forms a diagonal line that, once assembled, crosses the whole façade, thus revealing the building’s continuity and curvature. Similarly, the façade takes advantage of the location of the plot and plays with the kinetic aspect of its location at the corner of two roads.

Contexte Situé à Boulogne-Billancourt, face à Canal + et TF1, cette immeuble de bureau bénéficie d’une exposition Est, Sud, Ouest, face à la seine. La structure saine et flexible du bâtiment existant autorisait une mutation. Les bureaux existants pouvaient donc être réhabilités.

La nouvelle façade et son enveloppe « cristal » joue avec la lumière du bord de seine à la manière d’un joyau. Cette façade prismatique exploite et révèle les particularités du site, la courbure de la façade et la présence de la seine. Le module de base des caissons double peau donne à l’ensemble de la façade une unité. La double peau est constituée d’un verre plié qui donne du relief à la façade et dessine une diagonale que l’assemblage fait courir sur toute la façade, révélant la continuité et la courbure du bâtiment. De même la façade tire parti de la situation de la parcelle et joue sur l’aspect cinétique de sa position à l’angle de


2012-158 / Quai Ouest - BRENAC & GONZALEZ

Constraints and requirements When the project began in 2012, AXA was our developer. AXA asked Brenac&Gonzalez to reinvent and breathe new life into this office building. The architects had free reign in their proposals and even we had few constraints. As soon as the request was made by AXA, our premise was to have a partially double-skin façade with 3mx3m elements that were as thin and as light as possible. Moreover, the choice of using double-skin chambers was motivated by various considerations and beliefs. In fact, the principle of the double skin guarantees optimal efficiency for the envelope: it acts as a heat buffer, an acoustic shield, protection against poor weather and solar protection. This outline allowed the architect to fine-tune the image of the building and, on this basis, to file for a building permit. Once the building permit was obtained, the building passed from AXA’s hands into those of Emerige. With this change in client, new requirements appeared and the list of constraints got significantly longer. After an interruption of nearly 2 years, it was in autumn 2014 that, in a new design phase, the technical specifications became more precise. The design of the envelope is therefore the result of a succession of decisions dictated by several issues arising from the project itself and from the constraints imposed by the client: • Restoration: existing concrete structure • Normative framework: developer’s refusal to go through ATEX certification • The comfort and thermal efficiency of the envelope: BREEAM (Very Good), HQE Restoration (Excellent), BBC Effinergie rénovation label • Architectural image: faithfulness to the architectural image • Fire safety: accessible façade • Acoustics: Reduction of noise pollution • Finances: Cost optimisation • Construction site: Speed of implementation During the design phase, then during the contractor’s construction documentation review, these conflicts fed our reflection and guided us in our choices.

Existing building / Immeuble existant

Contraintes et exigences Lorsqu’en 2012 le projet démarre AXA est notre maître d’ouvrage. AXA fait appel à Brenac&Gonzalez pour réinventer et donner une nouvelle vie à cet immeuble de bureau. Les architectes étaient libres dans leurs propositions et nous-même avions peu de contraintes. Dès le lancement de la commande par AXA, notre postulat était d’avoir une façade partiellement en double peaux, avec des éléments de 3x3m les plus fins et les plus légers possible. De surcroit, ce choix de caissons double peau était motivé, par des considérations et des convictions multiples. En effet, le principe de double peau permet de garantir des performances optimales pour l’enveloppe : tampon thermique l’hiver, bouclier acoustique, protection aux intempéries des protections solaires, etc... Cette esquisse permit à l’architecte d’affiner l’image du bâtiment et, sur cette base, de déposer un permis de construire. Une fois le permis de construire obtenue, le bâtiment passe des mains d’AXA à celles Emerige. Avec ce changement de maître d’ouvrage de nouvelles exigences apparaissent et la liste des contraintes s’allonge de manière significative.

Après une interruption de bientôt 2 ans, c’est à l’automne 2014 que durant cette nouvelle phase de conception que les orientations techniques se font plus précises. Ainsi la conception de l’enveloppe est le fruit d’une succession de décisions dictées par plusieurs problématiques issues du projet lui-même et des contraintes énoncées par le maître d’ouvrage : • Réhabilitation : structure béton existante • Cadre normatif : refus du maître d’ouvrage de passer par un ATEX • Confort et performance thermique de l’enveloppe : BREEAM (niveau Very Good), HQE Rénovation (niveau Excellent), Label BBC Effinergie rénovation • Image architecturale : respect stricte de l’image architecturale • Sécurité incendie : façade accessible • Acoustique : Affaiblissement des nuisances sonores • Economique : Optimisation des coûts • Chantier : Rapidité de mise en œuvre Lors de la phase de conception, et ensuite durant les études EXE de l’entreprise, ces contraires ont alimenté nos réflexions et orientés nos choix.

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The history of a design: A jewel to sculpt From 2012, in order to bring the façade to life, the architect thought up the first sketches of 3m x 3m glass “boxes”. By folding them, we managed to increase the inertia of the glass, thus keeping the total weight of original facade unchanged, which was the main constraint for conserving the existing structure. This fold needed to reveal a sharp edge: a line. The architect had ultimately used this fold as the building’s signature feature, with its chambers, like sculpted diamonds and crystalline jewels sparkling in the sun. We first tried to “lighten” the chamber by optimising the thickness of the glass. The glazing therefore needed to be made up of one pane only with a frame on all 4 sides. We therefore imagined that a single square pane could be folded diagonally, moulded through thermoforming. The use of prestressed glass (thanks to the fold) framed on 4 sides significantly reduced the thickness of the glass and therefore the weight of the facade unit. This is how we responded to the project’s overall technical constraints. Regarding Eurocode 1, the geometry of the chambers makes the dimensions of the glass favourable: “For façades that include an interior waterproof wall and an exterior permeable wall that is uniformly permeable across its surface, the force exerted by the wind on the exterior wall can be calculated from Cp,net = 2/3.cpe for pressure and Cp,net = 1/3.cpe suction. The force exerted by the wind on the interior wall can be calculated from Cp,net = Cpe – Cpi. In other words, the wind load is fully applied to the façade acting as the envelope, and coefficients can reduce the wind load applied just to the exterior glazing of the double skin.

Draw & detail VS-A, tender consultation / Dessin & Planche VS-A, carnet DCE

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2012-158 / Quai Ouest - BRENAC & GONZALEZ

Histoire d’une conception : Un joyau à sculpter Dès 2012, pour animer la façade, l’architecte avait imaginé depuis ses premières esquisses des « boîtes » de 3m x 3m vitrées. C’est en les pliants que nous avons réussi à augmenter l’inertie du verre sans changer son poids, principale contrainte pour conserver la structure existante. Ce pli devait révéler une arrête vive : une ligne ; et en définitif l’architecte a exploité ce pli pour en faire l’écriture du bâtiment avec ces caissons comme autant de diamants sculptés, des joyaux cristallins scintillant au soleil. Dans un premier temps, nous avons donc cherché à « alléger » le caisson en optimisant l’épaisseur du vitrage. Pour cela, il fallait que le vitrage soit réalisé d’un seul tenant et pris en feuillure sur 4 côté. Nous avons donc imaginé qu’un simple vitrage carré puisse être plié sur sa diagonale, façonné par thermoformage. L’usage d’un vitrage précontraint (grâce au pli) et pris en feuillure sur 4 côtés permettait de réduire significativement l’épaisseur du verre et donc le poids du caisson, et ainsi nous répondions à l’ensemble des contraintes techniques du projet. Au regard de l’Eurocode 1, la géométrie des caissons rend favorable le dimensionnement des verres : « Les façades comportant une paroi intérieure imperméable et une paroi extérieure perméable avec une perméabilité à peu près uniformément repartie, la force exercée par le vent sur la paroi extérieure peut être calculée à partir de Cp,net = 2/3.cpe pour les surpressions et de Cp,net = 1/3.cpe pour les dépressions. La force exercée par le vent sur la paroi intérieure peut être calculée à partir de Cp,net = Cpe – Cpi ». Autrement dit, les efforts de vent sont pleinement appliqués sur la façade faisant le clos et couvert, de même des coefficients permettent de réduire les efforts de vents appliqués uniquement sur le vitrage extérieur de la double peau.

Place a square of paper whit and without fold / Tenue d’un carré en papier sans et avec pli

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It should be noted that this shape, which is advantageous for the sizing of the glazing under pressure winds, is a lot less appropriate for suction. Nevertheless, the Eurocode 1 standard is kind to us, with a higher reduction coefficient for low pressure (Cp,net = 1/3.cpe) than for high pressure (Cp,net = 2/3.cpe). Finally, the façade extends in 2 ways, yet has no corners. Diagonal lines cross the whole façade and reveal the continuity and curvature of the building. Once more, this configuration is favourable for the sizing of the glazing, as wind pressure is at its highest on the corners of buildings. We then needed to design the case of our future jewel: an aluminium frame that holds the 4 sides of the glazing and allows for high and low ventilation thanks to the arrangement of 50mm-high upper linear orifices, as advised by French building regulation 33.1. Although it was still at the sketch stage, the architect was not entirely satisfied with this solution. Despite our efforts to reduce the radius of the curve of the fold, the architect feared that we would not achieve the desired crystalline prism effect. We therefore needed to perfect our design and find a way to reveal the diagonal line. The diamond was there... But we still needed to cut it. From the tender document phase, we imagined that the diagonal line could be sculpted by the light. We were convinced that the addition of a reflective layer to the glass would reveal the diagonal line by increasing its reflective power, which would reflect the environment differently on each of the building’s faces.

Coefficient of reduction of wind forces according to Eurocode 1: Overpressures and Depressions Coefficient de réduction des efforts de vent selon l’Eurocode 1 : Surpressions et Dépressions

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2012-158 / Quai Ouest - BRENAC & GONZALEZ

A noter que cette forme avantageuse pour le dimensionnement du vitrage, vis-à-vis des efforts de vents en surpressions, l’est beaucoup moins pour les efforts en dépression. Néanmoins, L’Eurode 1 nous a été favorable avec un coefficient de réduction plus important pour la dépression (Cp,net = 1/3.cpe) que la surpression (Cp,net = 2/3.cpe). Enfin la façade se développe sur 2 voies, et pourtant, elle ne présente aucun angle. Les diagonales courent sur toute la façade, révélant la continuité et la courbure du bâtiment. Là encore, cette configuration est favorable pour le dimensionnement des verres puisque les pressions de vent sur les angles des bâtiments sont sur ces zones les plus élevées. Il nous fallait maintenant concevoir l’écrin de notre futur joyau : un cadre menuisé en aluminium prenant en feuillure le vitrage sur ses 4 côtés et permettant une ventilation haute et basse grâce à l’aménagement d’orifices linéaires supérieurs à 50mm de hauteur comme le préconise le DTU 33.1. Bien qu’encore au stade du dessin, l’architecte n’était pas pleinement satisfait de cette solution. Malgré nos efforts pour réduire le rayon de courbure du pli, l’architecte craignait ne pas retrouver l’image du prisme cristallin tant souhaité. Il fallait donc parfaire notre conception et réussir à révéler la diagonale. Le diamant était là … mais encore fallait-il le tailler. Dès la phase DCE, nous avons donc imaginé que la diagonale puisse être sculptée par la lumière. Nous étions convaincus que l’ajout d’une couche réfléchissante sur le verre permettrait de révéler la diagonale en augmentant son pouvoir réfléchissant, qui ainsi réfléchirait différemment l’environnement sur chacune de ses faces. Detail_VS-A, top and bottom ventilation hole / Détail_VS-A, orifice de ventilation haut et bas

137


Premier de série C’est en décembre 2015 que l’effet que nous présentions a enfin pu être visible lors de la présentation du premier de série. Cette présentation a fini de convaincre l’ensemble de l’équipe de maîtrise d’œuvre. Grâce à la couche réfléchissante sur le verre, la diagonale prise entre 2 réflexions différentes permit de donner un aspect immatériel à cette ligne.

Travail d’optimisation Une forte contrainte économique nous a amenés à intégrer très tôt cette donnée dans notre conception. Avec un travail de hiérarchisation des façades et d’optimisation des coûts pour respecter l’enveloppe budgétaire : - Traitement différencié des façades en fonction de leurs visibilités, Façade sur cour réalisée en enduit ; - Mise au point dès la phase de conception d’un profil unique de menuiserie appliqué sur l’ensemble du projet ; - Optimisation des dimensions des vitrages caissons, voir ci-après. Le plus grand vitrage, appelé « Jumbo » produit par les miroitiers possède des dimensions standardisées de 3210 x 6000 mm (bord brut). Il fallait que 2 vitrages puissent être fabriqués dans un seul « Jumbo » et ainsi limiter le taux de chute. Les dimensions des vitrages ont donc été dimensionnées pour répondre à cette contrainte.

/ Photos, caisson prototype (décembre 2015)

138


2012-158 / Quai Ouest - BRENAC & GONZALEZ

First Series It was in December 2015 that the effect we presented was finally visible during the presentation of the first series. This presentation had finally convinced the entire team of prime contractors. Thanks to the reflective layer on the glass, the diagonal taken between 2 different reflections provided an immaterial aspect to this line.

Optimization work A strong economic constraint led us to integrate this data very early in our conception. The hierarchization of the facades, and the value engineering allowed the envelope budget to be respected: - Differentiated treatments of the facades according to their visibilities; - Facade on courtyard made of plaster; - Development of a single profile of frame applied throughout the project during design stage; - Optimization of the dimensions of the box glazing, see below. The largest glasses, called «Jumbo» produced by the glass manufacturers has a standardized dimension of 3210 x 6000 mm (raw edge). It was necessary that 2 windows could be manufactured in a single «Jumbo» and thus limiting the rate of waste. The dimensions of the glazing were therefore dimensioned to meet this constraint.

/ Planche_VS-A, carnet DCE

139


2014-

1527

Tour Casablanca

MORPHOSIS Location Casablanca, Marocco Program Offices VS-A PM Nicolas DELPANQUE, Séverine HUET Client CFC

CFC Tower - MORPHOSIS / Tour CFC - MORPHOSIS

Context

Contexte

Determining how much heat will be brought by the sun’s rays is an essential aspect of the energy survey of a building. Grasping solar gain is the basis of passive strategies for successful projects. Faced with increasingly ambitious energy goals and increasingly expressive architecture, our agency wanted to examine the issue of determining solar gain for a complex façade. For this reason, a calculation tool is currently being developed at the VS-A offices. The challenge involved with the tool is to enable the study of solar protection for almost infinite shapes and materials.

La détermination de l’apport de chaleur par rayonnement solaire constitue un aspect essentiel de l’étude énergétique d’un bâtiment. La maitrise des gains solaires est le fondement-même des stratégies passives des projets performants. Face à des objectifs énergétiques de plus en plus ambitieux et une architecture de plus en plus expressive, notre agence a souhaité approfondir la question de la détermination du facteur solaire d’une façade complexe. A ce titre, un outil de calcul est actuellement en cours de développement au sein de l’agence. L’enjeu de l’outil est de permettre l’étude de protections solaires aux géométries et aux matérialités quasi infinies.

140


2014-1527 / Tour Casablanca - MORPHOSIS

Modelisation / Modélisation

Physical phenomena/challenges?

Phénomènes physiques / enjeux ?

One one hand, the spatiotemporal changes of meteorological factors brings about instant variation on the effect of the sun’s rays and its energy spectrum On the other hand, the nature and temperature of the material govern the phenomena of transmission, reflection, absorption and emission, according to the wavelength and impact of the rays. The singularity of the issue thus lies in its geometric and thermodynamic dimensions.

D’une part, l’évolution spatiotemporelle des paramètres météorologiques entraine une variation instantanée de l’incidence du rayonnement solaire, et de son spectre énergétique. D’autre part, la nature et la température du matériau régissent les phénomènes de transmission, de réflexion, d’absorption et d’émission, suivant la longueur d’onde et l’incidence du rayonnement. Ainsi, la singularité de la problématique réside dans sa dimension à la fois géométrique et thermodynamique.

Calculation approach

Approche de calcul

The façade system is modelled as a group of M layers. Each layer is characterised by bidirectional energetic transmission and reflection data on both sides. This kind of data, presented as a matrix, describes the energetic intensity and direction of propagation of directional radiation when it reaches a surface, for a specific spectral range. From this data, the underpinning calculations enabled us to determine a solar factor value for the whole system, according to 145 directions of incidence over a semi-circle. From the site’s meteorological data, we calculate, for every hour of the year, the system’s solar factor, taking into account the course of the sun and the exterior climatic conditions.

Le système de façade est modélisé comme un ensemble de M couches. Chaque couche est caractérisée par des données énergétiques bidirectionnelles de transmission et de réflexion, pour les deux faces de la couche. Ce type de données, se présentant sous forme de matrice, décrivent précisément l’intensité énergétique et les directions de propagation suivies par un rayonnement directionnel, quand celui-ci atteint une surface, pour un domaine spectral défini. A partir de ces données, les calculs sousjacents permettent de déterminer une valeur de facteur solaire, de l’ensemble du système, en fonction de 145 directions d’incidence, couvrant une demi-sphère. A partir des données météorologiques du site, nous calculons, pour chaque heure de l’année, le facteur solaire du système en tenant compte de la course du soleil et des conditions climatiques extérieures.

The key to the method lies in the use of bidirectional energetic data. As such, the tool includes a ray-tracing algorithm that can generate data of the effect on material, through virtual 3D geometry modelled in the CAD software Rhinoceros. SH

Le point clef de la méthode repose sur l’utilisation de données énergétiques bidirectionnelles. A ce titre, l’outil intègre également un algorithme de lancer de rayons permettant de générer ces données via une géométrie 3D virtuelle, modélisée sur le logiciel de CAO Rhinoceros, à laquelle est affecté un matériau. SH 141


Case study: Casablanca

CFC

TOWER

in

The façade system is made up of three layers: an exterior brise-soleil (1), Low-E insulating glazing (2), an interior canvas blind (3)

Tool interface / Interface de lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;outil

The bidirectional data for layer (1) is generated through the ray-tracing algorithm from using the geometry of the brise-soleil affected by a white concrete material from the matrix. The bidirectional data of layers (2) and (3) have been generated through the information provided by the manufacturer. The hourly solar factor calculation has been made for each mid-season (21st March and 21st September), summer (21st June) and winter (21st December).

Assessment / possibilities offered by the tool The results obtained highlight the variability of the solar factor over the course of the day and enable us to grasp the periods with high solar gain more accurately. Within the context of the CFC Tower project, the study enabled us to determine the efficiency of the brise-soleil and therefore to decide on a choice of interior solar protection. There are many possible applications for this tool. It could be a justification tool in the case of precise calculations or even an optimisation tool during the design phase. This latter application makes sense within the use of the ray-tracing algorithm integrated into the tool. This virtual replica of experimental set-ups is highly interesting as taking measures on a prototype remains time-consuming and costly. The measurements of bidirectional energetic data of products offered by glass and solar protection device manufacturers are more and more common. Laboratories have goniophotometers, which can take measurements, and some offer regularly updated databases. Brise soleil Moke up / Prototype de brise-soleil

142


2014-1527 / Tour Casablanca - MORPHOSIS

Exemple d’études : Tour CFC à Casablanca Le système de façade se compose de trois couches : un brise-soleil extérieur (1), un vitrage isolant Low-E (2), un store toile intérieur (3)

Figure 2 : Variation du facteur solaire horaire global sur une journée type de mi-saison (21 Mars)

Figure 4 : Variation du facteur solaire horaire global sur une journée type de mi-saison (21 Sept)

Les données bidirectionnelles de la couche (1) sont générée par l’algorithme de lancer de rayons à partir de la géométrie du brise-soleil affectée d’un matériau de type matrice cimentaire de couleur blanche. Les données bidirectionnelles des couches (2) et (3) ont été générées via les données des fabricants. Le calcul du facteur solaire horaire a été réalisé pour la mi-saison (21 mars et 21 septembre), l’été (21 Juin) et l’hiver (21 Décembre). Bilan / possibilités offertes par l’outil Les résultats obtenus mettent en évidence la variabilité du facteur solaire au cours d’une journée et permettent d’appréhender de manière plus fine les périodes de forts apports solaires. Dans le cadre du projet de la Tour CFC, l’étude a permis de déterminer l’efficacité du brise-soleil et de fixer en conséquence le choix de la protection solaire intérieure.

Bilan / possibilités offertes par l’outil Figure 3 : Variation du facteur solaire horaire global sur une journée type d’été (21 Juin)

Figure 5 : Variation du facteur solaire horaire global sur une journée type d’hiver (21déc)

Les applications de l’outil sont diverses. Il peut être outil de justification dans le cas de calculs précis ou bien outil d’optimisation au cours d’une phase de conception. Cette dernière application prend tout son sens à travers l’utilisation de l’algorithme de lancer de rayons intégré à l’outil. Cette réplique virtuelle des bancs expérimentaux présente un intérêt fort dès lors que la réalisation de mesures sur un prototype reste une démarche consommatrice. Les mesures des données énergétiques bidirectionnelles des produits proposés par les fabricants de verre et de dispositifs de protection solaire sont de plus en plus courantes. Les laboratoires s’équipent de goniophotomètres permettant de réaliser les mesures et certains proposent des bases de données régulièrement mises à jour.

143


Calculateur de Rayonnement Solaire / Solar Radiation Calculator

Program Research & Development / Recherche & Développement VS-A PM Yoan CORCOS Expertises Solar radiation, mechanical calculation, thermal calculation, glass calculation

Context VS-A has developed a software able to calculate the direct solar radiation received by a façade for any location of the building and for any orientation and tilt of the façade. Calculation can be made considering maximum direct radiation or considering the weather data relative to the location of the building. The calculator determines the incident solar radiation depending on the building location and then the received solar radiation depending on the facade configuration. We then developed this tool further to include diffuse radiation (see p.150). YC

Contexte VS-A a developpé un document capable de calculer le rayonnement solaire reçu par une façade pour toute position du bâtiment et pour toute orientation et inclinaison de la façade. Le calcul peut être fait en considérant le rayonnement direct maximum ou en considérant les données météorologiques relatives à l’emplacement du bâtiment. Le calculateur détermine le rayonnement solaire incident, qui dépend de la localisation du bâtiment, puis le rayonnement solaire reçu, qui dépend de la configuration de la façade. YC

Script Rhino & Grasshopper

144


2015-

105

Jeju Dream Tower Casino

SIAPLAN Location Jeju, Korea Program Casino VS-A PM Naree KIM, Jaeman PARK, Sunhoo KIM Client Lotte tour

Context Façade of Jeju casino project is cladded by the hexagonal convex-concave metal panels with circular windows. On plan, outlines of the casino building is mostly straight while every corner has fillet curves of different radii so that strict standard and precise drawings are necessary for the accurate & homogenous installation of hexagonal convexconcave façade panels. Images as follows are the extract of the Design Development drawing package including characteristics of the various modules along straight/ curved parts, folded angles of the each module, spacings between modules, distances from the façade axis etc. We believe that construction of precision can be achieved by good communications among the project team through such detailed drawing works.

CONVEX CONVEX CONCAVE CONCAVE

HEXAGONAL HEXAGONAL EXTRUSION EXTRUSION

CONVEX CONVEX CONCAVE CONCAVE CONVEX CONVEX

HEXAGONAL HEXAGONAL PATTERNS PATTERNS

HEXAGONAL HEXAGONAL PATTERNS PATTERNS

WITH PERFORATED CIRCULAR WINDOWS WITH PERFORATED CIRCULAR WINDOWS

FOLDED FOLDED SURFACES SURFACES

BY EXTRUDING HEXAGONAL PATTERNS BY EXTRUDING HEXAGONAL PATTERNS

HEXAGONAL HEXAGONAL PATTERN PATTERN PROJECTION PROJECTION

HEXAGONAL HEXAGONAL PATTERNS PATTERNS

WITH PERFORATED CIRCULAR WINDOWS WITH PERFORATED CIRCULAR WINDOWS IN FOLDED FACADE SURFACES IN FOLDED FACADE SURFACES

This This podium podium façade façade type type A A is is inspired inspired by by rock rock pattern pattern of of Jeju Jeju Island, Island, which which is is hexagon. hexagon. This hexagon This hexagon pattern pattern is is applied applied to to the the developed developed surface surface of of façades. façades. Then Then the the facade facade had had designed designed folded folded shape shape in in plan. plan. Each hexagon hexagon becomes becomes one one cladding cladding panel. panel. Each Consequently, convex convex and and concave concave hexagonal hexagonal cladding cladding panels panels are are created created by by row. row. Consequently,

HEART HEART SPADE SPADE HEART HEART

PATTERNS OF FACADES 1 1 PATTERNS OF FACADES Scale NONE Scale NONE

문맥 VIEWS OF EXTERNAL HEXAGONAL CLADDINGS & CIRCULAR WINDOWS 2 2 PERSPECTIVE Concept of hexagonal convex-concave panels 육각 요철 패널의 컨셉 PERSPECTIVE VIEWS OF EXTERNAL HEXAGONAL CLADDINGS & CIRCULAR WINDOWS Scale NONE Scale NONE

VS-A.KR VS-A.KR

KR KR

NK NK

DRAFTER DRAFTER

JEJU JEJU DREAM DREAM TOWER TOWER Architect : Architect :

TITLE TITLE ::

SIAPLAN SIAPLAN

SUBTITLE : SUBTITLE :

FACADE FACADE INFORMATION INFORMATION

2015-105 2015-105

FACADE CONCEPT & PATTERN FACADE CONCEPT & PATTERN

PODIUM PODIUM

N° PROJECT N° PROJECT

CONCAVE MODULE CONCAVE MODULE

DD DD

-

FACADE FACADE

LEVEL LEVEL

PHASE PHASE

Regular Regular 120° 120°

Regular Regular 120° 120° Regular 120°

variation variation pointpoint <120°<120°

A A

INDEX INDEX

curved part <120° curved part <120°

Regular 120°

variation point <120°

curved part <120°

ED R PA T

A0.02

RV CU

convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex 3

12 12 0° 0° 10 10 79 79

concave

FLAT PART FLAT PART

0° 12

convex

79 10

A0.02A0.02

A.001 A.001

DRAWING NUMBER DRAWING NUMBER

CONCAVE MODULES

RT PA ED RT RV0° PA CU12VED R CU 1079

concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave

2 A0.02

convex 3 3convex

concave

convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex convex

concave concave

DATE DATE

INT.

concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave

0° 12 0° 12

2 2 A0.02A0.02

2016-09-30 2016-09-30

INT. INT.

79 10 79 10

convex convex

A3 A3

FORMAT FORMAT

FLAT PART 120° 120° 1079 1079

concave concave

FLAT PART FLAT PART CURVED PART

DOCUMENT DOCUMENT

CONCAVE MODULES CONCAVE MODULES CONCAVE MODULE

CURVED PART CURVED PART

DRAWING DRAWING

FLAT PART CURTAIN FACADE CURTAIN WALLWALL FACADE

12

CURTAIN WALL FACADE

1201° 20° 10 79 1079 1079

제주 카지노 파사드의 외장재는 원형창을 포함한 오목-볼록으로 뾰족하게 접힌 육각형 금속 패널로 설계되었다. 카지노 건물 평면 외곽선은 대부분 직선이지만 모서리 마다 서로 다른 반경으로 둥글게 굴려져 있어, 오목/볼록 패널의 균일한 설치를 위해 엄격한 기준과 정확한 도면 작업이 필요했다. 아래 이미지들은 카지노 파사드 기본설계 도면의 발췌본으로 직선구간과 곡선구간에 따라 필요한 모듈의 특성 (벌어진 각도), 종류, 모듈 간 이격 거리 및 기준선에 대한 내용을 담았다. 우리는 이러한 엄격한 기준에 따라 제작된 상세 도면 작업을 통해 보다 시공자 및 협력사 간의 소통을 원활히 하여, 꼼꼼하고 정밀한 시공이 이루어질 수 있다고 믿는다.

convex

120° 120° 120°

120° 120° 120°

120° 120° 120°

120° 120° 120°

120°

1079 1079 1079

1079 1079 1079

1079 1079 1079

1079 1079 1079

1079

EXT.EXT.

EXT.

CONCAVE MODULES HORIZONTAL SECTION DIAGRAM CONCAVE MODULES HORIZONTAL SECTION DIAGRAM 22 2 CONCAVE MODULES HORIZONTAL SECTION DIAGRAM ScaleScale 1:50 1:50

concave concave

concave

D

E RV CU RT PA

FLAT PART

20

CURTAIN FACADE CURTAIN WALLWALL FACADE

°

9

07

>1

SIAPLAN

<1

Architect :

FLAT PART FLAT PART

2

DRAFTER

R0T° <P1A2 <120° ED RT RV PA CU VED R 0° CU 7912 >10 < 0°

JEJU DREAM TOWER JEJU DREAM TOWER JEJU DREAM TOWER

>1079

NK NK

VS-A.KR

DRAFTER Architect DRAFTER Architect :NKSIAPLAN : SIAPLAN

9 07 >1 79 0 >1

KR

INT.

<1

KR

INT. INT.

< <120°120° 120° <120° 120° <120°

>10 79 >1079 >1079

1079 1079 >1079

120° 120° 120°

120° 120° 120°

120° 120° 120°

1079 1079 1079

1079 1079 1079

1079 1079 1079

CURTAIN WALL FACADE

EXT.EXT.

FACADE INFORMATION INFORMATION TITLE TITLE : :FACADE

FACADE INFORMATION

3

120°

1079 EXT.

CONVEX MODULES HORIZONTAL SECTION DIAGRAM CONVEX MODULES HORIZONTAL SECTION DIAGRAM ScaleScale 1:50 1:50 CONVEX MODULES HORIZONTAL SECTION DIAGRAM

Scale 1:50

VS-A.KR VS-A.KR

0° <12 0° <12

KR

<120°

Geometry 1 of hexagonal convex-concave panels 육각 요철 패널의 기하

<12 <12 0° 0°

>10>10 79 79

33

FACADE DIAGRAM DEVELOPPED DEVELOPPED FACADE DIAGRAM ScaleScale 1:50 1:50 DEVELOPPED FACADE DIAGRAM

<120°

11

79 >10 79 >10

cladding panels installed along facades which or curved. perfect match Hexagonal Hexagonal cladding panels areare installed along thethe facades which areare flatflat or curved. ForFor thethe perfect match Hexagonal cladding panels are installed along the of facades whichpanels are flat curved. For the perfect match of hexagonal claddings along the façade surfaces, different modules of hexagonal panels designed. of hexagonal claddings along the façade surfaces, different modules hexagonal areorare designed. of hexagonal claddings along the façade surfaces, different modules of hexagonal panels are designed. parts (type both convex concave modules have folded angles of 120 . And ForFor thethe flatflat parts (type A1,A1, A3 A3 andand A7),A7), both convex andand concave modules have folded angles of 120 . And For the (axis flat(axis parts A1, A3 1079mm. and1079mm. A7), both convex and concave modules have folded angles of 120 . And distances between panels to(type axis) is always distances between panels to axis) is always distances between panels (axis to axis) is always 1079mm. other hand, curved parts (type folded angles of convex panels On On thethe other hand, for for thethe curved parts (type A2,A2, A4,A4, A5 A5 andand A8),A8), folded angles of convex panels areare Onofthe hand, for the curved (type A2, A4, A5between and A8), vertices folded angles of convex panels are variable, while those ofother concave always 120 Inparts this manner, distances between vertices of folded variable, while those concave areare always 120 . In.this manner, distances of folded variable, those of always 120 . In this manner, claddings always equal to 1079 mm, so that itare creates more uniform image ofdistances facades. between vertices of folded claddings areare always equal towhile 1079 mm, so concave that it creates more uniform image of facades. claddings are always equal to 1079 mm, so that it creates more uniform image of facades.

>1079 >1079

concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave concave

Scale 1:50

Scale 1:50

TITLE :CONCEPT SUBTITLE : COMBINATION SUBTITLE : COMBINATION OF CLADDING MODULES CONCEPT OF CLADDING MODULES SUBTITLE : COMBINATION CONCEPT OF CLADDING MODULES

2015-105 2015-105PODIUM DD DD DRAWING DRAWING A3 A3 2016-09-30 A.002 PODIUM - 2016-09-30 A.002 A A 2015-105 DRAWING - DOCUMENT DD A3DRAWING 2016-09-30 N° PROJECT FACADE FACADE LEVELPODIUM PHASE DOCUMENT FORMAT N° PROJECT LEVEL PHASE FORMAT DATEDATE DRAWING NUMBER INDEX A.002 NUMBER INDEX N° PROJECT

FACADE

LEVEL

PHASE

DOCUMENT

FORMAT

DATE

DRAWING NUMBER

A INDEX

145


9250 9250 1105011050 7650 7650 7050 70506000 60007100 7100 1200 1200 9250 11050 7650 7050 6000 7100 1200

7F

7F

7F

+123,250

+123,250

CURVED_A_part : A2 part CURVED_A_part : A2 part CURVED_A_part : A2 part

FLAT_part : A1 part FLAT_part : A1 part FLAT_part : A1 part

7F handrail line

7F handrail line

FLAT_B_part : A3 part FLAT_B_part : A3 part FLAT_B_part : A3 part

CURVED_B_part : A4 part CURVED_B_part : A4 part CURVED_B_part : A4 part

7F handrail line

+123,250 +116,150

6F

6F

+116,150

6F 5F+116,150 +110,150 5F

+110,150 +110,150 +103,100

4F

4F

+103,100

4F

+103,100

3F

+95,450

3F

+95,450

3F

+95,450

2F

+84,400

2F

+84,400

2F

+84,400

1F

1F

1F

soffit line

soffit line

+75,150 1F +75,150

6000 6000 6000

5F

1 Module Location; Developed elevation_front facade 1 Module Location; Developed elevation_front facade 1 Module Location; Developed elevation_front facade soffit line

1F

Scale 1:500 +75,150

1F

Scale 1:500

Scale 1:500

Front facade top handrail endline

+123,250 6F +116,150

6F

+116,150

6F 5F+116,150 +110,150 5F

+110,150 +103,100

4F

4F

T_B FLA T_B _B FLA FLAT

+103,100

4F

+103,100

3F

+95,450

3F

+95,450

3F

+95,450

2F

2F

+84,400

2F

+84,400

1F

RV

ED

ED

_B

_B

0 0 0 Horizontal Plan for Developed elevations

ED Horizontal _B Plan for Developed elevations Scale none Horizontal Plan for Developed elevations Scale none

1F

+75,150 1F +75,150

soffit line

soffit line

Scale none

1F

soffit line

Scale 1:500 +75,150

Scale 1:500 KR

KR

RV

RV

CU

2 Module Location; Developed elevation_back facade 2 Module Location; Developed elevation_back facade SK JEJU DREAM TOWER facade Location; Developed elevation_back VS-A.KR 2 Module SIAPLAN SK JEJU DREAM TOWER

1F

CU

CU

+84,400

1F

FLAT_A

CU

+110,150

6000 6000 6000

5F

FLAT_A FLAT_A

C RV URV ED CEUD _A R_VA ED _A

9250 9250 1105011050 7650 7650 7050 70506000 60007100 7100 9250 11050 7650 7050 6000 7100

+123,250

+123,250

CURVED_D_part : A6 part CURVED_D_part : A6 part Front facade top handrail endline CURVED_D_part Front facade : A6 part top handrail endline

CU CU RV RV ED CEUD _C R_VC ED CU _RV RVED_D ED_D C CU CURVED_D

7F 7F 7F

CURVED_C_part : A5 part CURVED_C_part : A5 part CURVED_C_part : A5 part

Scale 1:500

VS-A.KR

DRAFTER

Architect :

Architect : SIAPLAN Type ofVS-A.KR hexagonal convex-concave panels SK JEJU DREAM TOWER Architect : SIAPLAN 육각 요철 패널의 타입

TITLE : MODULE LOCATION SUBTITLE DEVELOPEDLOCATION ELEVATION TITLE : :MODULE

2015-105 PODIUM N° PROJECT PODIUM FACADE 2015-105

TITLE :

2015-105

PODIUM

FACADE

LEVEL

PHASE

N° PROJECT

FACADE

LEVEL

PHASE

SUBTITLE :

DRAFTER

KR

SUBTITLE :

DRAFTER

FLAT_A_part: A1 part

DEVELOPED ELEVATION

MODULE LOCATION

N° PROJECT

DEVELOPED ELEVATION

CURVED_A_part: A2 part

DD DRAWING DDPHASE DRAWING DOCUMENT

- LEVEL -

FLAT_B_part: A3 part

DD

A3 2016-09-30 FORMAT 2016-09-30 DATE A3

A.010

DRAWING A.010 NUMBER

A AINDEX

DOCUMENT

FORMAT

A3

2016-09-30

DATE

DRAWING NUMBER

INDEX

DOCUMENT

FORMAT

DATE

DRAWING NUMBER

INDEX

DRAWING

A.010

A

CURVED_B_part: A4 part

1200

7F handrail line 7F

+123,250

elevation_front facade 1 Module Location; Partial Developed CURVED_C_part: A5 part Scale 1:200

7F handrail line ( front facade ) 7F

CURVED_D_part: A6 part

Front facade top handrail endline

+123,250

2 Module Location; Partial Developed elevation_back facade Scale 1:200

HP1

HP2

HP3

HP4

HP5

HP6

HP7

HP8

HP10

HP11

All parts concave module

A1&3 convex module

A2 convex module

A4 convex module

A5 convex module

A6 convex module

A1&A2 convex

A2&3 convex

A3&4 convex

A5&6 convex

connection

connection

connection

connection

HP12

HP13

All parts All parts concave concave vertical half

Up & bottom capping

HP14

HP15

HP16

A5 convex

A5&6 convex

A6 convex

Up part capping

Up part capping

Up part capping

HP17

HP18

All part All part concave concave quarter 1

quarter 2

convex shape capping Back podium facade upper capping panels

COLORS IN DEVELOPED ELEVATION

concave shape capping FOR_All of bottom capping panels & Front podium facade upper capping panels CONVEX & CONCAVE ELEVATION DIAGRAM

HORIZONTAL PLAN DIAGRAM

The number of All hexagon panel is 10,017

QUANTITY

4906

2484

851

299

550

836

23

23

23

22

88

383

25

1

38

3

3

3 Module informations Scale none

KR

VS-A.KR

SK DRAFTER

JEJU DREAM TOWER Architect :

SIAPLAN

Module of hexagonal convex-concave panels 육각 요철 패널의 모듈

146

TITLE :

SUBTITLE :

MODULE LOCATION

DEVELOPED ELEVATION DETAIL 2

2015-105

PODIUM

N° PROJECT

FACADE

LEVEL

DD PHASE

DRAWING

A3

2016-09-30

A.012

A

DOCUMENT

FORMAT

DATE

DRAWING NUMBER

INDEX


1079

1079

1079 742

935

540

392

200

540

100

250

1.1-an/pv-ST

0

1.3-pa/pv-CD

40

40 467

1.1-an/pv-XB

∅760 INNER CIRCLE

935 467

600

120

∅800 OUTER CIRCLE

1039 ∅800 OUTER CIRCLE

120

GL01

∅684 GLASS OPAQUE

40

60

1.1-an/pv-WF

60

0

200

!F

1 OPAQUE WINDOW ELEVATION

2.2-gv/pv-AB/WD 935

Scale 1:8

2.2(o)-gv-ST EXT.

69

INT.

3 OPAQUE WINDOW VERTICAL SECTION DETAIL

∅800 OUTER CIRCLE

Scale 1:8

EXT.

380

1.1-an/pv-ST

∅760 INNER CIRCLE

311

392

742

1.3-pa/pv-CD

100

54

1.1-an/pv-XB

∅684 GLASS OPAQUE

48

250

GL01

230

1.1-an/pv-WF

INT.

80 20 80

2 OPAQUE WINDOW HORIZONTAL SECTION DETAIL

180

Scale 1:8

VS-A.KR

JEJU DREAM TOWER

JL DRAFTER

Architect :

SIAPLAN

1079

TITLE :

WINDOW DETAIL

2015-105

PODIUM

SUBTITLE :

OPAQUE WINDOW

N° PROJECT

FACADE

1079

DD

LEVEL

PHASE

DRAWING

A3

2016-09-30

DOCUMENT

FORMAT

DATE

A.302

A

DRAWING NUMBER

INDEX

1079 540

742 200

392

200

540

935

KR

Detail of hexagonal concave panels 육각 오목 패널의 상세

100

250

1.1-an/pv-ST

0

1.3-pa/pv-CD

40

40 467

1.1-an/pv-XB

∅834 STRUCTURE

∅700 INTERIOR FINISH

∅760 INNER CIRCLE

935 467

600

120

∅800 OUTER CIRCLE

1039 ∅800 OUTER CIRCLE

120

GL03

∅661 GLASS CLEAR

40

60

1.1-an/pv-WF 4.1-no-GK

60

0

200

Scale 1:8

2.2-gv/pv-AB/WD

935

1

200

!F

VISION FIXED WINDOW ELEVATION

2.2(o)-gv-ST EXT.

INT.

3 VISION FIXED WINDOW VERTICAL SECTION DETAIL Scale 1:8

1.3-pa/pv-CD

EXT.

1.1-an/pv-ST

392

742

∅800 OUTER CIRCLE ∅760 INNER CIRCLE

1.1-an/pv-XB

100

∅661 GLASS CLEAR

1.1-an/pv-WF GL03

∅700 INTERIOR FINISH

230

250

4.1-no-GK

∅834 STRUCTURE

80 20 80

2 VISION FIXED WINDOW HORIZONTAL SECTION DETAIL JEJU DREAM TOWER

VS-A.KR Detail of hexagonal Architect convex panels : SIAPLAN 육각 볼록 패널의 상세 KR

JL

DRAFTER

INT.

180

Scale 1:8

TITLE :

WINDOW DETAIL

2015-105

PODIUM

SUBTITLE :

VISION FIXED WINDOW

N° PROJECT

FACADE

LEVEL

PHASE

DRAWING

A3

2016-09-30

DOCUMENT

FORMAT

DATE

A.303 DRAWING NUMBER

A INDEX

147


105 105

SIAPLAN 2015SIAPLAN

Location Jeju, Korea Program Casino VS-A PM Naree KIM, Jaeman PARK, Sunhoo KIM Location Jeju, Korea Client Lotte tour Program Casino

SIAPLAN

VS-A PM Naree KIM, Jaeman PARK, Sunhoo KIM Client Lotte tour

1079

1079

HP2

HP2

HP3

HP2

HP7

INT.

ON 1079 HP1

HP1

1079 HP1

HP1

1079

1079

1079

HP2

HP2

HP2

HP2

HP2

1063

1063

2

볼록 패널 평면도 HP1

EXT.

HP1

1079 1079 HP1

INT.

HP1

HP1

2 A.110

HP1

1079 1079 HP1 HP1

HP1

HP1

HP1

HP1

1079 1079 HP1

HP1

1079 1079 HP1

HP1

HP1

HP1

HP1

HP1

EXT.

HP1

HP1

1079

HP1

HP1

HP1

1079

INT.

136

TOWER 136

TOWER TION

N

HP1

1079 1079 HP1

HP1

HP1

1079

1079

1079

HP1

HP1

HP1

1079

1079

1079 HP1

HP1

HP1

HP1

HP1

HP1

HP1

HP1

HP1

1079 HP1

HP1

1079 HP1

1079 HP1

HP1

1079

1079

HP1

HP1

HP1

HP1

HP1

HP1

3 CONCAVE PART HORIZONTAL SECTION HP1

Scale 1:50 INT.

HP1

SUBTITLE :

JEJU DREAM TOWER VS-A.KR TITLE INFORMATION : FACADE DRAFTER Architect : SIAPLAN JP

KR

INT.

SUBTITLE :

FACADE A7 & A8 : TYPICAL DEVELOPPED ELEVATION, PLAN AND SECTION

JP JEJU DREAM TOWER CONCAVE PART HORIZONTAL SECTION VS-A.KR Concave part horizontal section

3

Scale 1:50

오목 패널 평면도

TOWER

DRAFTER

TITLE :

148

KR

VS-A.KR

SUBTITLE :

JP DRAFTER

Architect :

SIAPLAN

FACADE INFORMATION

FACADE A7 & A8 : TYPICAL DEVELOPPED ELEVATION, PLAN AND SECTION

JEJU DREAM TOWER Architect :

SIAPLAN

669

1200 669

1200

6691200 669

669 1200

1200 1200669 669 6691200 1200 1200669

1200 669 669 6691200

1200 1200669 669 6691200 1200 1200669

669 6691200 1200 1200669 HP2

7F

1079

1079

1079

HP2

HP2

HP2

HP2

HP2

HP2

1079

1079

1079 HP1

HP1

HP1

HP1

HP1

HP1

1079

1079

1079

HP1

HP1

HP1

1079

1079

1079

HP1

HP1

HP1

HP1

HP1

HP1

HP1

HP1

2 A.110

1079 HP1

HP1

Scale 1:50 HP1

4 CONVEX VERTICAL SECTION Scale 1:50

N° PROJECT

TITLE :

1079 HP1

HP1

HP1

4 CONVEX VERTICAL SECTION PODIUM FACADE

LEVEL

DD PHASE

FACADE INFORMATION

7F

+12

7F

+12

7F

+12

+123,250

HP1

SECTION 2015-105 TITLEHORIZONTAL : FACADE INFORMATION 3 CONCAVE PART FACADE A7 & A8 : TYPICAL DEVELOPPED ELEVATION, PLAN AND SECTION Scale 1:50

HP2

HP1

1079

HP2

HP2

HP2

HP1

2 A.110

HP1

1079

1079

1079

HP1

HP1

KR

136

2 A.110

HP1

HP1

HP2

HP2

HP2

HP2

HP1

2 A.110

HP1

HP1

TION

HP1

HP1

HP1

1079

HP1

HP1

HP1

HP1

HP1

TION

HP2

HP1

HP1

HP1

Scale 1:50

HP1

1079

HP1

HP1

HP1

HP2

HP1

HP1

HP1

HP1

HP2

2 A.110

1079 79 10SECTION 1079 2 CONVEX1079PART HORIZONTAL 1079

1079

HP2

HP3

HP1

HP1

1079

HP7

HP3

CONVEX PART HORIZONTAL SECTION1079 1079 section1079

1079

HP2

HP2

+123,250

1 A.110

HP3

EXT. HP1 1079 1079 Convex part horizontal Scale 1:50

1079

HP2

HP2

HP2

HP3

2

1079

HP2

1074

HP3

HP2

HP2

7F

HP2

HP7

HP3

HP3

HP3

HP2

CONVEX PART HORIZONTAL SECTION

1079

1200 1200669

669 1200

1079 HP2

1063

1063

HP2

HP3

HP2

Scale 1:50 INT.

HP1

1 A.110

HP2

1079 1079ELEVATION 1079 DEVELOPPED Scale 1:50 HP2

+123,250

1079

HP2

HP2

1079

7F

1079

1200

ON

1

HP7 HP3

1 A.110

669 6691200

HP3

HP2

HP7

HP3

+123,250

2 A.119

1200 1200669

HP3

HP2

1074

1063

2 A.119 3 A.119

669 6691200

1063 HP3

HP7

HP2

1063

1063 HP3

EXT.

HP3

HP3

HP2

+123,250

1200 1200669

HP2

HP3

HP2

HP2

3 A.119 2 A.119

HP1

HP1

6691200

HP2

HP3

7F

HP2

HP7

3 A.119

HP1

HP1

5 CONCAVE VERTICAL 4 CO 5 CONCAVE VERTICAL Scale 1:50

HP1

1200

1063

1079

HP2

HP2

7F

792

Scale 1:50 HP2

1079 1079

HP7

HP2

1 A.110

792

HP2

HP3

+123,250

792

HP2

HP2

1074 1079

HP3

HP3

HP2

HP2

HP2

1063 1079

63

10 1079 1079ELEVATION 1079 DEVELOPPED 1063 HP3

1074

HP2

792

HP7

HP2

7F

Scale 1:50

HP2

EXT.

这种工作模式能够促进我们各个办公室之间的合作。

DEVELOPPED ELEVATION 1 1079

1079

HP2

792

1

HP7

1079

HP2

1 A.110

EXT.

1074

1079

背景

792

HP2

HP7

HP2

背景

792

HP2

HP2

1 A.110

792

1079

792

1079

Scale 1:50

792

1074 HP7

1 DEVELOPPED

792

Scale 1:50

EXT.

EXT.

这种工作模式能够促进我们各个办公室之间的合作。 以下的图纸摘录显示我们技术图纸的做法。这些图纸都是按照严 2 A.119 格的绘图规格,包括172个图层,和158种颜色。标志可以包含 文字说明,或者提供编码做参考,包括具体用途,材质,和表面 处理等资料。 ELEVATION

2 A.119 2 A.119

1 DEVELOPPED ELEVATION

EXT.

以下的图纸摘录显示我们技术图纸的做法。这些图纸都是按照严 2 A.119 格的绘图规格,包括172个图层,和158种颜色。标志可以包含 This way of working was set to facilitate ∅800 ∅800 ∅800 文字说明,或者提供编码做参考,包括具体用途,材质,和表面 collaboration between our different offices. 以下的图纸摘录显示我们技术图纸的做法。这些图纸都是按照严 2 处理等资料。 A.119 格的绘图规格,包括172个图层,和158种颜色。标志可以包含 3 A.119 文字说明,或者提供编码做参考,包括具体用途,材质,和表面 这种工作模式能够促进我们各个办公室之间的合作。 处理等资料。

792

Developed elevation Scale 1:50 전개 입면도

2 A.119 3 A.119

792

EXT.

6691200

2

A.119 DEVELOPPED ELEVATION

∅800

2 A.119 3 A.119

6691200

1

1079 3 ∅A.119 800 2 A.119

1200 1200669

2 A.119 3 A.119

∅800

669 6691200

∅800

3 A.119 1079 2 A.119

1200 1200669

∅800

A.119

3 A.119

669 6691200

∅800

1079

1079

∅800 3

∅800

1079

∅800

1200 1200669

1079

1079

1200 1200669

3 ∅A.119 800 2 A.119

1079

∅800

∅800

1079

EXT.

6691200

1079

1079

1079

669 6691200

∅800

∅800

669 6691200

∅800

1079

1079

INT.

These few extracts illustrate our way of making CAD Context INT. EXT. 792 drawings in HK. They are drawn following a strict 792 graphic chart, including 172 layers and up to 158 These fewcolors. extracts of making CAD different Theillustrate legendsour canway be written in full drawings in HK. They are drawn following a strict the text or referring to a code that gives the function, graphic chart, including 172 layers and up to 158 material, the finish… 1079 1079 1079 different colors. The legends can be written in full Context INT. EXT. 792 792 text or referring to a code that gives the function, the This way of working was set∅800 to facilitate ∅ 800 ∅ 800 material, the finish… These few extracts illustrate our way of making CAD 1079 1079 1079 collaboration between our different offices. drawings in HK. They are drawn following a strict 3 up to 158 This of working set∅800 to facilitate graphic layers and ∅800 waychart, ∅including 800 was172 A.119 collaboration between our different offices. in full different colors. The legends can be written 背景 text or referring to a code that gives the function, the 3 material, the finish…1079 A.119 1079 1079

1200 1200669

∅800

∅800

1079

3 A.119

63

N

∅800

1079

1079

669

1200 ∅800

∅800

1079

1200 1200669

1079

1079

1200

∅800

63

N

EXT.

669 6691200

1079

Context 792

EXT.

1200

Location Jeju, Korea Program Casino VS-A PM Naree KIM, Jaeman PARK, Sunhoo KIM Client Lotte tour

63

ON

Casino Jeju Dream Tower Casino

Sca

Scale 1:50

4 CO

DRAWING

A3

2016-09-30

DOCUMENT

FORMAT

DATE

Sca

DR

2015-1 2015-105 DD DRAWING PODIUM A3 2016-09-30 N° PRO SUBTITLE : FACADE A7 & A8 : TYPICAL DEVELOPPED ELEVATION, PLAN AND SECTION CONVEX VERTICAL SECTION CONCAVE VERTICAL

4

Scale 1:50 N° PROJECT

TITLE :

SUBTITLE :

FACADE

PODIUM

N° PROJECT

FACADE

SUBTITLE :

PHASE

5

1:50 DOCUMENT Scale FORMAT

DATE

FACADE A7 & A8 : TYPICAL DEVELOPPED ELEVATION, PLAN AND SECTION

2015-105

TITLE :

LEVEL

FACADE INFORMATION LEVEL

DD PHASE

FACADE INFORMATION

DR

2015-1

4

Sca N° PRO

DRAWING

A3

2016-09-30

DOCUMENT

FORMAT

DATE

FACADE A7 & A8 : TYPICAL DEVELOPPED ELEVATION, PLAN AND SECTION

CO

DR

2015-1

N° PRO


792 INT.

INT.

EXT.

792

INT.

792

INT.

EXT.

792

INT.

792

INT.

EXT.

792

INT.

1200 669 1200

Vertical sections 2 단면도 A.119

669 1200 669

3 A.119 2 A.119

669 1200 669

669 1200 669

1200 669 1200

1200 669 1200

2 A.119

1200 669 1200

3 A.119

669 1200 669

669 1200 669

3 A.119

669 1200 669

1200 669 1200

669

669

INT.

1200 669 1200

669

669

INT.

+123,250

23,250

7F

+123,250

7F

+123,250

23,250

1200 669 1200

1200 669 1200

669 1200 669

669 1200 669

1200 669 1200

1200 669 1200

669 1200 669

669 1200 669

Horizontal section details 평면 상세도

ONVEX VERTICAL SECTION L SECTION ale 1:50

1200

1200

L SECTION

5 CONCAVE VERTICAL SECTION 5 CONCAVE VERTICAL SECTION

Scaledetails 1:50 Horizontal section 평면 상세도

ONVEX VERTICAL SECTION ale A.119 1:50 A L SECTION

RAWING NUMBER

1200 669 1200

7F

1200 669 1200

23,250

137

Scale 1:50

INDEX

105A.119 DD PODIUM - SECTION A ONVEX VERTICAL

ale 1:50 FACADE OJECT RAWING NUMBER INDEX LEVEL

PHASE

DRAWINGCONCAVE A.119 A3 A 2016-09-30 VERTICAL SECTION

5

1:50 DOCUMENT Scale FORMAT

DATE

DRAWING NUMBER

INDEX

149 137


2015-

1433

Jierong Tower

5th Architects Location Shenzhen, China Program Office tower VS-A PM Kevin, CHENG Client Vanke

Context

背景

We like explaining the concepts that have led to the specific design of the façades for this project. It is important that all parties understand the story that shows how the conceptual and aesthetic qualities are linked. It might also show how some technical questions can be answered without interfering with them.

我们热爱解释幕墙设计背后的概念和设计的由来。我们非常重视 各合作单位对于幕墙设计如何结合概念和美学的了解。同时,本 个案显示如何在不影响概念和美学的前提底下解决技术性问题。 在做定制设计时,所有问题都是需要充分考虑和预计的。虽然承 包商总是能够提出其他解决方案,但是起码设计团队能够提供一 个技术性的方案,充分表明设计方案的可行性。

When you make a bespoke design, all the questions must be considered and anticipated. Although the contractor can finally go for a different solution, at least there is one technical answer that the design team proposed to show the idea is feasible.

A

M

N

AI

A

折面 150

INT.


A M AI VI EW

点 视 主

N

A

折面幕墙的几何关系由建筑师提出。

INT.

建筑主视角方向采用玻璃材质。

GLASS 玻璃

20 0

N

AI

EXT.

M

GLASS 玻璃

EW VI

0

其他位置采用石材,表现建筑非常有张力的一面。

20

ARCHITECTURE 设计概念

STONE 石材

STONE 石材

INSULATION 保温层

ALUMINIUM 铝

FACADE UNIT 2

强烈推荐采用模式化幕墙

此文件为幕墙招标图纸。幕墙施工图纸将由相关幕墙承包方负责。 CLIENT 建设单位

INT. VS-A.HK Façade Engineering 万山丹幕墙顾问 Unit 708, Prosperity Center, 77-81 Container Port Road, Kwai Chung, N.T., HK 万山丹香港 香港新界葵涌货柜码头路77-81号大鸿辉中心708室 Tel: +852 3590 8237 - mail@vs-a.hk / www.vs-a.hk

HK

VANKE 幕墙单元2 万科捷荣创富科技(深圳)有限公司

ARCHITECT 建筑设计单位

DRAWING TITLE 图名

NOTE 备注

A-TOWER FACADE A-塔楼幕墙

FIFTH ARCHITECTS 第伍建筑

EXT.

FACADE DESIGN CONCEPT 2 设计概念 2

DOCUMENT TITLE PROJECT NO. 折面模数不断重复,几个模数可以重复利用在大部分幕墙上。 工程分类 工程篇号 PROJECT TITLE 工程名称

JIERONG TOWER 万科滨海置地大厦

HK2015-1433

DESIGN STAGE 设计阶段

TD 招投标阶段

DRAWING NO. 图号 DATE 年-月-日 REVISION 修订

2016-10-22

SCALE 比例

2015-12-18

SHEET SIZE 图幅

A.02 A3

FACADE UNIT 1

幕墙单元 1

visible gap at the unit connection 单元接交界处缝隙可见

为实现完美的转角设计,以达到建筑师的要求,转角单元需要3D模型。

INT.

FACADE UNIT 2 幕墙单元2

FACADE UNIT 1

EXT.

幕墙单元1

GLASS 玻璃

PERFECT corner

PERFECT corner

完美的角部

完美的角部

STONE 石材

WINDOW 玻璃

at 万山丹幕墙顾问 a less visible position VS-A.HK Façade Engineering Unit 708, Prosperity Center, 77-81 Container Port Road, Kwai Chung, N.T., HK 基本在视线范围之外 INT.

VANKE 万科捷荣创富科技(深圳)有限公司

ARCHITECT 建筑设计单位

万山丹香港 香港新界葵涌货柜码头路77-81号大鸿辉中心708室 Tel: +852 3590 8237 - mail@vs-a.hk / www.vs-a.hk

设计概念

ALUMINIUM 铝

此文件为幕墙招标图纸。幕墙施工图纸将由相关幕墙承包方负责。

CLIENT 建设单位

HK

INSULATION 保温层

ARCHITECTURE

图名 FACADE DESIGN CONCEPT 3 设计概念 3 为达到自然通风需要加开启扇,但是对立面的完整性影响不大。 DRAWING TITLE

NOTE 备注

DOCUMENT TITLE 工程分类

FIFTH ARCHITECTS 第伍建筑

PROJECT TITLE 工程名称

UNIT DIVISION

A-TOWER FACADE A-塔楼幕墙

JIERONG TOWER 万科滨海置地大厦

PROJECT NO. 工程篇号

DESIGN STAGE 设计阶段

HK2015-1433 TD 招投标阶段

DRAWING NO. 图号 DATE 年-月-日

2016-10-22

SCALE 比例

REVISION 修订

2015-12-18

SHEET SIZE 图幅

DATE 年-月-日

2016-10-22

SCALE 比例

REVISION 修订

2015-12-18

SHEET SIZE 图幅

A.03 A3

在幕墙主视面上没有开启扇存在。

单元分隔

EN

RE

SC 考虑到安全问题,在石材位置不设开启扇。

ST E ON

开启扇的开闭,不影响外立面的整体效果。

材 石

EXT.

PERFORATED SCREEN to hide window

natural ventilation 自然通风

穿孔铝板隐藏后面的开启扇

穿孔板背后的开启扇位于阴角位置,靠近立面石材。

WINDOW 玻璃 at the inner most corner

开启扇可以更靠近阴角位置,以加大立面石材的面积。

在阴角最角落位置

INT.

当开启扇非常靠近转角位置时,将于转角竖框产生冲突。

SCRE

为避免这种冲突,幕墙的单元分割被放置在两侧。

EN

E d) ON se ST rea c 材 (in 石 加)

所以,幕墙的单元模数是Z字型的。

(增

EXT.

SHIFTED UNIT DIVISION POSITION 改变模块的分隔位置

GLASS 玻璃

Z字型单元模数对模块的精确度要求更高。

STONE 石材

INSULATION 保温层

ALUMINIUM 铝

此文件为幕墙招标图纸。幕墙施工图纸将由相关幕墙承包方负责。

VS-A.HK Façade Engineering 万山丹幕墙顾问 HK

Unit 708, Prosperity Center, 77-81 Container Port Road, Kwai Chung, N.T., HK 万山丹香港 香港新界葵涌货柜码头路77-81号大鸿辉中心708室 Tel: +852 3590 8237 - mail@vs-a.hk / www.vs-a.hk

CLIENT 建设单位

ARCHITECT 建筑设计单位

VANKE 万科捷荣创富科技(深圳)有限公司 FIFTH ARCHITECTS 第伍建筑

NOTE 备注

DRAWING TITLE 图名 DOCUMENT TITLE 工程分类 PROJECT TITLE 工程名称

FACADE DESIGN CONCEPT 4 设计概念 4 A-TOWER FACADE A-塔楼幕墙 JIERONG TOWER 万科滨海置地大厦

PROJECT NO. 工程篇号 DESIGN STAGE 设计阶段

HK2015-1433 TD 招投标阶段

DRAWING NO. 图号

A.04 A3

151


ARCHITECTURE

设计概念

曲面穿孔铝板从内部看创造了一个柔性角部。

INT.

它为幕墙增加了柔性界面和新元素。

EXT.

CURVED INNER CORNER 曲面阴角

A1: REGULAR FAÇADE A1: 常规幕墙 LIGHTING INTEGRATION

A1 HORIZON 横向剖面

灯光可以设计在穿孔铝板之后,创造一种特别的视觉感受。

灯光一体化设计

4

INT.

灯光设计不在我们的工作范围,需灯光设计师进一步考虑。

EXT.

P2

A1.21

1

GLASS 玻璃

STONE 石材

INSULATION 保温层

ALUMINIUM 铝

此文件为幕墙招标图纸。幕墙施工图纸将由相关幕墙承包方负责。

VANKE 万科捷荣创富科技(深圳)有限公司

ARCHITECT 建筑设计单位

DOCUMENT TITLE 工程分类

FIFTH ARCHITECTS 第伍建筑

PROJECT TITLE 工程名称

A1.31

玻璃位置剖面

1:50

JIERONG TOWER 万科滨海置地大厦

VS-OPAQUE PART 实墙位置剖面

1:50

CEILING FINISH

SHEET SIZE 图幅

1:50

4300

CEILING FINISH

4300

4300 HK

152

ARCHITECT 建筑设计单位

EXT. 室外

地板完成面

INT. 室内

VANKE 万科捷荣创富科技(深圳)有限公司 FIFTH ARCHITECTS 第伍建筑

立面

FLOOR FINISH

地板完成面

4300

Unit 708, Prosperity Center, 77-81 Container Port Road, Kwai Chung, N.T., HK 万山丹香港 香港新界葵涌货柜码头路77-81号大鸿辉中心708室 Tel: +852 3590 8237 - mail@vs-a.hk / www.vs-a.hk

ELEVATION

CEILING FINISH

EXT. 室外

此文件为幕墙招标图纸。幕墙施工图纸将由相关幕墙承包方负责。

VS-A.HK Façade Engineering 万山丹幕墙顾问

A1-2b

吊顶完成面

FLOOR FINISH

地板完成面

CLIENT 建设单位

2050

A3

地板完成面

吊顶完成面

INT. 室内

P1

-

FLOOR FINISH

地板完成面

FLOOR FINISH

EXT. 室外

A.05

5

FLOOR FINISH

4300 INT. 室内

2015-12-18

3

CEILING FINISH

地板完成面

REVISION 修订

竖向剖面

吊顶完成面

FLOOR FINISH

SCALE 比例

VS-VENTILATION

地板完成面

吊顶完成面

2016-10-22

1

FLOOR FINISH

地板完成面

TD 招投标阶段

DATE 年-月-日

A1.33

2

FLOOR FINISH

DESIGN STAGE 设计阶段

DRAWING NO. 图号

HK2015-1433

1

4300

1

PROJECT NO. 工程篇号

A-TOWER FACADE A-塔楼幕墙

A1.32

1

VS-VISION PART

FACADE DESIGN CONCEPT 5 设计概念 5

DRAWING TITLE 图名

NOTE 备注

4300

CLIENT 建设单位

4300

Unit 708, Prosperity Center, 77-81 Container Port Road, Kwai Chung, N.T., HK 万山丹香港 香港新界葵涌货柜码头路77-81号大鸿辉中心708室 Tel: +852 3590 8237 - mail@vs-a.hk / www.vs-a.hk

4300

VS-A.HK Façade Engineering 万山丹幕墙顾问 HK

NOTE 备注


A1 HORIZONTAL SECTION 横向剖面

1:50

4

COLUMN CENTER LINE 结构柱轴线

1

P2

A1.21

1

P2 P0

P0 P1

2050

P2

P0 P1

2050

A1-2b

A1.33

P2

1

P1

1900

INT. 室内

P0 P1

2050

A1-2b

P1 2050

A1-2b

F1

EXT. 室外

A1-2b

A1-2b

1

N

1:50

ELEVATION 立面

1:50

4300

5

1

FLOOR FINISH

2

3

地板完成面

CEILING FINISH

4300

吊顶完成面

FLOOR FINISH

4300

地板完成面

EXT. 室外

相关幕墙承包方负责。 DRAWING TITLE 图名 DOCUMENT TITLE 工程分类 PROJECT TITLE 工程名称

A1 GENERAL FACADE DRAWING 1 A1 大样图-1 A1 REGULAR FACADE A1 常规幕墙 JIERONG TOWER 万科滨海置地大厦

PROJECT NO. 工程篇号 DESIGN STAGE 设计阶段

HK2015-1433 TD 招投标阶段

DRAWING NO. 图号 DATE 年-月-日 REVISION 修订

2016-10-22

SCALE 比例 SHEET SIZE 图幅

A1.11 1:50 A3

153


SCHEMATIC DESIGN PACKAGE MODEL VANKE CONCEPT JIERONG TOWER. 2016-01-27

FAÇADE ELEVATION 幕墙立面

.HK

概念模型

Interior Mullion Capping 室内竖框盖板

从外立面到雨篷 折叠概念

Upper Spandrel FAÇADELobby TO CANOPY Column FOLDINGSteelCONCEPT

“折叠”是本项目最大的设计特征,因此很有必要 将折叠这一概念从外立面延续到大堂位置。

Because of the zig-zag Upper perimeter of the tower facade, it makes Moulded Glass sense to continue the folding logic into the lobby. 上方压模玻璃

但由于规范要求大堂需采用平板式幕墙立面,因此 将“折叠”这一概念直接从塔身转向至雨篷,也是 另一种形式的延续。见右图概念模型。

Ground Since regulations mandate forFlat an Glass arcade with a flat façade to surround the lobby, the 地面高度平板玻璃 folding can turn into the canopy as shown in the paper model on the upper right image.

大堂上方层间窗

钢立柱

VS-A.HK - Unit 708, Prosperity Center, 77-81 Container Port Road, Kwai Chung, N.T., HK - (852) 3590 8237 - mail@vs-a.hk - www.vs-a.net 万山丹香港 香港新界葵涌货柜码头路 77-81 号大鸿辉中心 708 室

Steel Gutter Plate 钢材水槽板

Bent Laminated Glass 弯面夹胶玻璃

Exterior Canopy Capping 室外竖框盖板

154

EXPLODED AXONOMETRIC 轴视分解图

Page 74 / 83


SCHEMATIC DESIGN PACKAGE VANKE JIERONG TOWER. 2016-01-27

SCHEMATIC DESIGN PACKAGE VANKE JIERONG TOWER. 2016-01-27

.HK

.HK

OUTSIDE FAÇADE 幕墙外立面

OUTSIDE FAÇADE 幕墙外立面

INSIDE FAÇADE 幕墙内立面

INSIDE FAÇADE 幕墙内立面

双向立面 内立面VS外立面

DUAL FAÇADE INSIDE VS OUTSIDE

外立面视角展示了折叠型外立面从塔身延续到大堂 位置,下方为简约式的平板幕墙单元。 内立面视角展示了上方折叠幕墙和下方平板幕墙的

The outside view shows a folded canopy running along the facade 155 under which is a simple flat glass facade. The inside view shows a minimalist steel crease between the folded upper glass and the

双向立面

DUAL FAÇADE


A1: REGULAR FAÇADE A1: 常规幕墙

A1 HORIZONTAL SECTION 横向剖面

1:50

4

COLUMN CENTER LINE 结构柱轴线

1

P2

A1.21

1

P2 P0

A1.32

1

VS-VISION PART 玻璃位置剖面

VS-OPAQUE PART 实墙位置剖面

1:50

VS-VENTILATION 竖向剖面

CEILING FINISH

CEILING FINISH

3

CEILING FINISH

4300 FLOOR FINISH

FLOOR FINISH 地板完成面

4300

地板完成面

4300

地板完成面

EXT. 室外

INT. 室内

2

吊顶完成面

4300

4300

FLOOR FINISH

EXT. 室外

1

地板完成面

吊顶完成面

4300

INT. 室内

4300

CEILING FINISH

地板完成面

A1-2b

1:50

FLOOR FINISH

地板完成面

吊顶完成面

FLOOR FINISH

A1-2b

5

FLOOR FINISH

地板完成面

吊顶完成面

A1-2b

EXT. 室外

立面

3

FLOOR FINISH

地板完成面

A1-2b

F1

P1 2050

ELEVATION

1:50

4300

2

FLOOR FINISH

P1 2050

1

1:50

4300

1

P0

P1

2050

A1-2b

A1.33

1

P2

P0

1

P1 2050

A1.31

P2 P0

P1

1900

INT. 室内

EXT. 室外

INT. 室内

此文件为幕墙招标图纸。幕墙施工图纸将由相关幕墙承包方负责。 CLIENT 建设单位

VS-A.HK Façade Engineering 万山丹幕墙顾问 HK

Unit 708, Prosperity Center, 77-81 Container Port Road, Kwai Chung, N.T., HK 万山丹香港 香港新界葵涌货柜码头路77-81号大鸿辉中心708室 Tel: +852 3590 8237 - mail@vs-a.hk / www.vs-a.hk

ARCHITECT 建筑设计单位

DRAWING TITLE 图名

NOTE 备注

VANKE 万科捷荣创富科技(深圳)有限公司

A1 GENERAL FACADE DRAWING 1 A1 大样图-1

DOCUMENT TITLE 工程分类

FIFTH ARCHITECTS 第伍建筑

PROJECT NO. 工程篇号

A1 REGULAR FACADE A1 常规幕墙

PROJECT TITLE 工程名称

DESIGN STAGE 设计阶段

JIERONG TOWER 万科滨海置地大厦

CORNER HORIZONTAL SECTION

HK2015-1433 TD 招投标阶段

横向剖面

6 ≈151

≈2051

P0

°

1

1

≈40 A1.26

1

P1 P0

2050

≈49

.55

°

P2

≈40

°

.45°

.55

P2 ° .45 2050

A1-3b

°

P0

P1

≈151

0.9

≈8

P1

2050

A1-3b

≈49

≈49.5

2050

A1-4b

2050

P0

P1

≈49.5

≈151

P1

P2

≈40

≈4 0.4 5°

≈40

P1

P0

≈1749

P2

≈49.5

.45

°

9.1

≈9

P0

A1-2a

≈40

P0

≈2077.1

≈1771.2

1900

.45°

P1

.55

P0

≈151

≈151

4

2050

2050

A1-2b

3

P0

2050

2

P2

≈151

.45°

A1-2b

P1

°

A1-2b

≈49 A1-2b

P2

A1.25

.55

P0

E

2050

.55P0 °

P2

P1

1900

F4

≈2051

A1-3b

1900

≈151 2050

≈49

A1-5a

.45°

≈40

°

A1-5a

1900

P0

P2

F2

°

P0

P1 ≈49 .5

° .55 ≈49

° 90 ≈1748.9

≈1749

2050

P1

.45 ≈40

F4

A3

°

P2

2050

P1

A

1:50

SHEET SIZE 图幅

F3

1900

.55

P1

A1.11

90

P0

2050

P1

.45° ≈40

.45°

.45°

1900

≈40

2050

P1

≈49

REVISION 修订

SCALE 比例

A1-4a

1

≈40

A1-2a

A1-3a

≈151

≈2051

E

A1-3a

.55

1900

A1-3a

≈49

F1

≈49

2016-10-22

1:50

A1-1a

F2

DRAWING NO. 图号 DATE 年-月-日

A1-1b 此文件为幕墙招标图纸。幕墙施工图纸将由相关幕墙承包方负责。

VS-A.HK Façade Engineering 万山丹幕墙顾问 HK

156

Unit 708, Prosperity Center, 77-81 Container Port Road, Kwai Chung, N.T., HK 万山丹香港 香港新界葵涌货柜码头路77-81号大鸿辉中心708室 Tel: +852 3590 8237 - mail@vs-a.hk / www.vs-a.hk

CLIENT 建设单位

ARCHITECT 建筑设计单位

VANKE 万科捷荣创富科技(深圳)有限公司 FIFTH ARCHITECTS 第伍建筑

NOTE 备注

DRAWING TITLE 图名 DOCUMENT TITLE 工程分类 PROJECT TITLE 工程名称

GENERAL FACADE DRAWING-2 大样图-2 A1 REGULAR FACADE A1 常规幕墙 JIERONG TOWER 万科滨海置地大厦

PROJECT NO. 工程篇号 DESIGN STAGE 设计阶段

HK2015-1433 TD 招投标阶段

DATE 年-月-日 REVISION 修订

2016


HORIZONTAL SECTION DETAIL 横向节点

A

1:5

HORIZONTAL SECTION DETAIL 横向节点

INT. 室内

EXT. 室外 ventilation hole

1:5

B

1

thermal insulation (e.g. mineral wool)

通风口

关于幕墙厚度从200mm改成250mm,请参见按实际 尺寸修改后的文本页

保温层( 例如:矿物棉)

3mm aluminium panel

3mm aluminium panel

3mm厚铝板

Dimension affected by the changing of facade thickness from 200mm to 250mm. Refer to separate sheet showing profiles accurately drawn in these dimensions.

3mm厚铝版

honeycomb stone panel cladding 蜂窝石材板

250

FIRE PROTECTION 3mm galvanized steel panel

190

60

防火设计 3mm厚镀锌钢板

1

fire resistant insulation

fixing clip (fixed on the stone panel)

耐火保温层

3mm aluminium panel 3mm厚铝板

固定夹片(固定在蜂窝石材板上)

190 250 1 lighting installation (refer to lighting consultant's drawings)

60

10

50

160 250

50°

20

° .55 ≈49

0.4

≈13

AP13

AP12a

290

横向剖面

40

25

125

250

0

R20

500

HORIZONTAL SECTION

60

200

玻璃类型请参阅玻璃报告

灯光安装:参照灯光顾问的图纸

P2

680

Refer to GLASS REPORT for glass type.

1:30

1

结构柱轴线

1

430

COLUMN CENTER LINE

窗格栅: 3mm厚穿孔铝板(开孔形式由建筑师确定)

A1

0

43

0

43

0

43

P0

P0

A A

2050

1

10

fire resistant insulation 耐火保温层

AP1 AP2b AP2

F1

P1

2050

A1-2b

P0

P0

.33 A1 1

2 1.3

P1

15

P2

完成面对齐

P2

45 15

安全扶手: (40X20X3规格铝管)

1900

B

P2

EXT. 室外

防火设计 3mm厚镀锌钢板

STRUCTURAL SAFETY HANDRAIL (40x20x3 rectangular aluminium tube)

1 1 .3

INT. 室内

FIRE PROTECTION 3mm galvanized steel pane

WINDOW SCREEN 3mm perforated aluminium sheet (perforation pattern is to be confirmed by the architect.)

370

5

GL1

60 20 50

° 90

P1

2050

A1-2b

A1-2b

A1-2b

INT. 室内

EXT. 室外

此文件为幕墙招标图纸。幕墙施工图纸将由相关幕墙承包方负责。

VS-A.HK Façade Engineering 万山丹幕墙顾问 Unit 708, Prosperity Center, 77-81 Container Port Road, Kwai Chung, N.T., HK 万山丹香港 香港新界葵涌货柜码头路77-81号大鸿辉中心708室 Tel: +852 3590 8237 - mail@vs-a.hk / www.vs-a.hk

VERTICAL SECTION_VISION PART HK

竖向剖面

CLIENT 建设单位

ARCHITECT 建筑设计单位

1:30

NOTE 备注

FIFTH ARCHITECTS VERTICAL 第伍建筑SECTION DETAIL

HORIZONTAL SECTION 2 横向剖面图 2

DRAWING TITLE 图名 DOCUMENT TITLE 工程分类

A1 REGULAR FACADE A1 常规幕墙

PROJECT TITLE 工程名称

JIERONG TOWER 万科滨海置地大厦

竖向节点

PROJECT NO. 工程篇号 DESIGN STAGE 设计阶段

HK2015-1433 TD 招投标阶段

DRAWING NO. 图号 DATE 年-月-日

2016-10-22

REVISION 修订

SCALE 比例

A1.22

1:30/1:5

SHEET SIZE 图幅

A3 1:5

1

A

FLOOR FINISH 地板完成面

A1 - VISION

4300

A

A1 - VISION

1

VANKE 万科捷荣创富科技(深圳)有限公司

A1.23

1100

60

1

B A1.22

1

CEILING FINISH

吊顶完成面

3200

1

A1.21

B

1

WINDOW SCREEN 3mm perforated aluminium sheet (perforation pattern is to be confirmed by the architect.) Curving process can be extrusion,stamping or rolling. Perforating process can be by punching or CNC (computer numerical control)

A1 - VISION

4300

250

A1 - VISION

1

3mm aluminium panel 3mm 厚铝板

窗户格栅 3mm穿孔铝板 (穿孔形式由建筑师设计) 曲面板可以是型材,冲压或者滚压成型 穿孔可以通过冲孔或者计算机数控切割实现 FLOOR FINISH

A

1

4300 INT. 室内

A1 - VISION

60

地板完成面

EXT. 室外

1

Dimension affected by the changing of facade thickness from 200mm to 250mm. Refer to separate sheet showing profiles accurately drawn in these dimensions. 关于幕墙厚度从200mm改成250mm,请参见按实际 尺寸修改后的文本页 此文件为幕墙招标图纸。幕墙施工图纸将由相关幕墙承包方负责。

VS-A.HK Façade Engineering 万山丹幕墙顾问 HK

Unit 708, Prosperity Center, 77-81 Container Port Road, Kwai Chung, N.T., HK 万山丹香港 香港新界葵涌货柜码头路77-81号大鸿辉中心708室 Tel: +852 3590 8237 - mail@vs-a.hk / www.vs-a.hk

CLIENT 建设单位

ARCHITECT 建筑设计单位

VANKE 万科捷荣创富科技(深圳)有限公司 FIFTH ARCHITECTS 第伍建筑

NOTE 备注

DRAWING TITLE 图名 DOCUMENT TITLE 工程分类 PROJECT TITLE 工程名称

VERTICAL SECTION 1 竖向剖面图 1 A1 REGULAR FACADE A1 常规幕墙 JIERONG TOWER 万科滨海置地大厦

PROJECT NO. 工程篇号 DESIGN STAGE 设计阶段

HK2015-1433 TD 招投标阶段

DRAWING NO. 图号 DATE 年-月-日 REVISION 修订

2016-10-22

SCALE 比例 SHEET SIZE 图幅

A1.31

1:30/1:5 A3

157


2017-

1474

Shenzhen North Station

Mecanoo

Location Shenzhen, China Program Office tower VS-A PM Robert-Jan van SANTEN Client Government of Longhua District Urban Planning, Land & Resources Commission of Shenzhen Municipality Mission Competition (1st Prize) Summary Our client MECANOO is a successful Dutch architectural firm that manages so far to work in Asia without having a local office. The competition site is the Shenzhen North Station. On this spot in the center of Shenzhen, 12 towers are to be planned based on the concept of portraying the imagery of Chinese mountains, among which 1 super tall high rise building, expected to approach 400m. VS-A HK and KR were approached to provide consultation for the general facade planning in the masterplan, as well a schematic design specific for the major super tall high rise building.

任務 竞赛 (一等奖) 概要 我们这次的合作伙伴MECANOO是一家位于荷兰 的建筑公司。即使没有在亚洲设立本地公司,却成功地 发展无数项目。竞赛场地位于深圳北站。总规划以十二 座塔楼体现中国山脉美学的概念。其中一座超高层预期 高达四百米。VS-A HK 和 KR 负责项目的总规划幕墙 咨询,和提出超高层塔楼幕墙的设计方案。







Concept The facade concept erupted from the intention to optimize daylighting and thermal performance with the existing building orientation, which is angled at 45 degrees towards the north. 

概念 幕墙设计概念源于在已定的建筑朝向(朝北四十五 度)前提下优化日照采光和熱力性能。

1F

TOP VIEW level 00 scale 1:1000 26

158

mecanoo Urban design of Shenzhen North Station Shenzhen, China

27

mecanoo Urban design of Shenzhen North Station Shenzhen, China


N

N BEST

AVERAGE

AVERAGE

AVERAGE

因为朝北四十五度,使得四个立面在白天均匀地面向东和西面的太 阳,因此有较差的性能。最理想的朝向是正面向北,这个朝向可以让 北和南立面避免阳光的暴晒,东西里面则可以使用遮阳改善性能。

AVERAGE

We argued that due to the 45 degree tilt towards the north, all four existing facades will have the same poor daylight and thermal performances through out the day, as all four sides are subjected to the harsh sun conditions from the east and west direction. An ideal orientation would be to have the building facing the north perpendicularly. This would allow at least two facades (north and south) to have good daylight and solar shading performances, while the other two facades can be improved with solar shading devices.

GOOD

Current Orientation

Ideal Orientation

N ORIGINAL MASSING

WIND RESISTANCE

INDIRECT SUNLIGHT FOR OFFICE

PODIUM TO GROUND

VIEW MAXIMIZATION

SETBACK / EXCAVATED FORM ORIGINAL CONCEPT

The forging of the ideal orientation with the existing one resulted in the formal manifestation of a twisted tower. The ‘twisting’ of the tower is achieved by the formal manipulation technique of slicing, creating incisions which would change the orientation of the facades and generate new geometric conditions. The slicing would also generate the aesthetic effect which mimics the geological strata of Chinese mountains which traces back to the architect’s initial intention.

MOUNTAIN GESTURE / HIKING-LIKE EXPERIENCE PODIUM CONNECTS THE GROUND

在现有朝向实现理想朝向效果的概念以‘旋转塔楼’的形式呈现。塔 楼的‘旋转’是透过切割的形式处理技巧改变现有的朝向,同时创造 新的几何条件。这种切割技巧同时让塔楼轮廓展示模拟中国山脉岩石 表面的美学效果,满足建筑师的设计概念。

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Shenzhen North Station by Mecanoo

The twisting tower concept was then developed into a 幕墙设计根据之前的旋转塔楼概念发展,变成了‘旋 twisting facade design, which adapts the initial principles 转’幕墙设计。所有玻璃面板将会面向北或南面,而不 of the massing strategy into a facade strategy. BALCONY/ All glassEXTERNAL 透明面板即面向东或西面。这个幕墙设置使得幕墙能够 CIRCULATION panes will face either the north or south orientation, while 有效的引入理想朝向带来自然光和热力性能,同时阻挡 the opaque panes will face east and west. This would allow 从不利的朝向带来的苛刻阳光。 the buidling to introduce optimal daylighting and thermal performances from the best orientations into the building, while protecting the building from the harsh orientations.

N

160

Proposed Facade (Glass panes facing north/south)

INDIVIDUAL ACCE


The facade will start with flat glass at the bottom, since there would be shading cast by the surrounding buildings, flat glass would allow for optimal light transmittance. As the tower increases in height, the glass panels twist to direct to the best orientation (North and South).

因为考虑到塔楼周围其他建筑所带来的阴影并保持透光率,塔楼底部 的幕墙面板之间会是没有倾斜度的。面板的角度随着塔楼高度而增 加,使得幕墙转向最好的朝向(南北)。

Precentage to the peak radiation orientation

Solar radiation reduction during summer % 100

kwh 16000

80

14000

Energy on SE facade (per year)

12000 60

10000

40 20 0 N

NE

E

SE

S

SW

W

Orientation

8000

HOTEL NW

energy(kw)

6000 4000 2000

N

SE facade area: 16460m2

N

0 0

N

10

SE

20

30

40

50

angle from SE(°)

S

Sunlight hours comparison on orientation Hours 250

200

Existing Orientation

Ideal Orientation

OFFICE

150

rotated 45°

100

Original orientation

50

Taken June as the month for testing the peak value

0

The first study examines the energy exerted on the glass pane in relation to its Energy to sun angle (per day*) angle from the tower’s SE facade. During summer, the sun is located almost 30 at 90 degrees from the south at noon. As the glass pane gradually becomes 25 perpendicular to the South, it receives the less energy.

以上第一个研究探索了玻璃面板角度和所接受的太阳能的关系。在夏 G-Value required to achieve the same total radiation/m2 inside the buildin 天,太阳和水平线成几乎九十度的关系,因此当玻璃面板越和南朝向 1 成平衡关系,玻璃面板将会接受更少能量。

20 第二个研究探索了朝向和夏天太阳光日照時數的关系。现有的建筑朝 向使得四个立面的日照時數都是相同的。但是理想朝向则让南北立面 The second study examines the 15sunlight hour exerted on the facade in relation energy 接受较少的日照時數。 to the orientation during Summer. The existing orientation causes all four 10 elevations to receive the same sunlight hours, while the ideal orientation allow acceptable level of energy that goes into the building 5 North and South elevations to receive less sunlight compared to East and West.

COMMERCIAL

0

0 N

E

S

W

N

N

E

S

W

N

*Taken the hottest day in summer for testing

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16

nt

A

15

id W

of

e

th

m co

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as

Gl

ue aq Op

th

14

B

ne

po

EXTERIOR

13

45°

12

11

INTERIOR

10

9

8

7

6

B

A

5

4

TOTAL UNIT LENGTH (400+1600)

1958

1994

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1905

1858

1795

1741

1992

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1907

1847

1773

1675

1997

1972

1922

1849

B 1749

1618

1488

20°

3

1998

2

1

1672

TOTAL UNIT LENGTH (800+1200)

TOTAL UNIT LENGTH (1000+1000)

TOTAL UNIT LENGTH (1200+800)

A

Twisting logic 01 The first twisting logic sets the total facade unit length to be a constant, while the glass (or opaque) pane angle and length changes. OPAQUE This allows the facade to have variations in depth and width. This also allows the facades at the top of building to accomodate the interior partitions of the hotel program, as well as achieving the pixelated visual 1998 1958 TOTAL UNIT LENGTH aesthetic in the rendering images of the building. (400+1600)

1995

1448

1584

1415

1196

转向逻辑01 第一个转向逻辑基于保持幕墙单元面板总长度,以改变玻璃或 不透明部分长度使得角度变异。这可使改变幕墙单元深度和宽度,配合塔 楼上层酒店的室内分隔,并产生颗粒化和整体不一的视觉效果。 1994

1988

1975

1960

1940

1918

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1905

1858

1795

1741

1970

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1907 Opa que

1847

1773

1675

1749

1618

1488

1672

TOTAL UNIT LENGTH (800+1200)

1992

14

12

TOTAL UNIT LENGTH (1200+800)

s

as

Gl

1972

1997

1584

1415

INTERIOR

45°

13

EXTERIOR

A

15

TOTAL UNIT LENGTH (1000+1000)

Depth of the unit

16

11

1922

B

1849

1448

1196

Width of the unit

10

9

8

A

7

6

25°

5

B

4

3

2

15°

A

1

Twisting logic 02 The second twisting logic sets the facade unit depth and OPAQUE width to be a constant, while the glass (or opaque) pane angle changes. The angle of one pane will determine the length of each pane. This logic would allow for a greater control over the depth and width of each unit, therefore easier to adapt to the architectural requirements. The downside of this logic is the inability to achieve small angles for the gradation.

162

B

转向逻辑02 第二个转向逻辑先设置单元深度和宽度,以改变玻璃或不透明 面板角度为参数。其中一块面板的角度订立两块面板的长度。这个逻辑更 能掌控每单元的深度和宽度,因此更容易配合建筑的需要。 但这个逻辑并 不能套用在较小的角度上。


Without shading

Horizontal lamella

The design process is then proceeded by a thermal analysis to test the efficiency of the integration of an opaque part directly in the facade. It is proved that its integration would allow the building to satisfy the green building qualification, supported by our daylight analysis data. It would also remove the need for an interior blind, and provide the best interior daylighting condition. This would satisfy 2.2 of 5.2.4 from DBJ/T 15-83-2017, as well as LEED requirements.

Proposed Facade Design

之后,我们使用了热力分析测试植入不透明部分带来的日光照射性能 和效率。测试证明了幕墙系统能够使得建筑达到绿色建筑条件。因为 植入不透明部分能够满足室内日照条件,幕墙不需要多加外置遮阳 板。测试满足了 2.2 5.2.4 DBJ/T 15-38-2017 和 LEED 要求。

th

% 75

p de

Inward operable window

Total radiation per day during working hours: 44881.00kWh

Total radiation per day during working hours: 32051.29kWh

For a climate like Shenzhen, solar radiation control is crucial as it is hot through out 75% of the year, and the remaining 25% is mildly cold at an average between 13 °-19 ° celcius. Therefore, it is important to reduce thermal heat gain in the interior, which can be achieved by the glass angle of the facade, as well as the insulated opaque part. This would optimize the energy used for cooling during 75% of the time during the year.

Total radiation per day during working hours: 20908.68kWh

对于深圳的气候环境来说,控制太阳能辐射是重要的,因为一年的 75%都是热天,其余的25%维持在13°-19° 度左右。因此,透过玻 璃倾斜角度和不透明面板减少室内的热增益是非常重要的,优化一年 75%时间降温所使用的能源。

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Software to calculate direct and diffuse irradiation LOCATION INFORMATION City (selected from list) Latitude (+ to N) Longitude (+ to E) Time Zone altitude

PEAK VAL

Strasbourg 48.55 7.63 1 154

CONTEXT INFORMATION Climate (see 3.1.3 for reference) Context (see 3.1.3 for reference)

Tropical

Nearly tropical Big city

Industrial

Context surface (selected from list) (see 3.1.2 for reference)

Winte Date 2/28/2017 2/28/2017

total direct diffuse

(W/m2) 285.88 87.18 285.88

Spring Date 5/31/2017 5/31/2017 5/31/2017

total direct diffuse

(W/m2) 277.06 115.16 277.06

Summe Date 6/22/2017 7/1/2017 6/22/2017

Temperate

Nearly temperate Town

total direct diffuse

(W/m2) 249.42 0.00 249.42

Rural

High mountains

Urban environment Only for urban environment option: Light colours

Relatively light colours

Relatively dark colours

Dark colours

Only for cold climates:

Snow in the winter

on the façade

COMPARISON WITH THE WEATHER DATA calculated

weather data

correction coefficient

Total Irradiation

860.7

920

1.07

Apply

Direct Irradiation Diffuse Irradiation(calculated refers to clear sky while weather data to cloudy sky)

720.4 156.9

784 497

1.09 3.17

Apply

0=horizontal

PEAK VALUES orientation of the façade (from 0 to 360) OF IRRADIATION 0=North

164

Autum Date

total

264.35

9/1/2017

direct diffuse

2.93 264.35

9/1/2017 9/1/2017

2. Results

FAÇADE INFORMATION tilted angle of the surface (from 0 to 90 )

(W/m2) 249.42 0.00 249.42

Winter Date 2/28/2017 2/28/2017

total direct diffuse

(W/m2) 285.88 87.18 285.88

Spring Date 5/31/2017 5/31/2017 5/31/2017

Hour 12:00:00 PM 6:00:00 AM 12:00:00 PM

total direct diffuse

(W/m2) 277.06 115.16 277.06

Summer Date 6/22/2017 7/1/2017 6/22/2017

Hour 1:00:00 PM 7:00:00 PM 1:00:00 PM

(W/m2)

Autumn Date

total direct diffuse

Apply

(W/m2)

We can calculate the irradiation for every inclination and orientation.

90 ⁰ 0⁰

Hour 1:00:00 PM 1:00:00 PM

N

软件可以计算所有角度和朝向的太阳 辐射数据。

Incidence angle Direct radiation

70.8⁰ Diffuse radiation Glass pane inclination Facade orientation

70.4⁰

N

Hour

total

264.35

9/1/2017

12:00:00 PM

direct diffuse

2.93 264.35

9/1/2017 9/1/2017

6:00:00 AM 12:00:00 PM

79.1⁰

The above software can be used to calculate peak direct and diffuse irradiation exerted on a glass pane according to different orientations. Variables includes the facade orientation, the angle of the glass, and the location of the facade. The irradiance data generated from the software could then be interpreted and used as a parameter to control the precise angle for the facade units.

以上的软件可以根据朝向和角度计算玻璃面板所接收的直接和漫反射的太 阳辐射。参数包括幕墙朝向,玻璃面板角度,和所在地区。软件计算的辐 射结果可以作为调整幕墙单元的参数,控制单元玻璃面板角度。

By inserting the city name , the climate type and the context type as well as the orientation and the inclination of the facade. it calculates the peak value of solar irradiation and the date and time that this happens.

同时,软件抽取官方的气候数据与计算取值作比较,并计算更正系数供使 用者选择是否应用在计算结果上。要注意软件所计算的漫反射辐射最大值 是根据明朗天空状态计算,而官方气候数据的慢反射辐射是根据多云天空 状态计算。

Moreover the values of the existing weather data are automatically recalled (peak diffuse, direct, total irradiation) in order to calculate a correction coefficient and decide if to apply it to the calculated values or not. Especially for the peak diffuse radiation should be noticed that the calculated data refer to the value of diffuse radiation for clear sky, while the ones of the weather data to a cloudy sky.

输入城市,气候类型,环境,幕墙朝向和角度后,软件可以计算太阳辐射 的最大值,以及取值的具体时间和日期。


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2017-

1458

Gwangkyo Galleria

OMA+Gansam Location Suwon, Korea Program Commercial VS-A PM Jaeman PARK, Naree KIM, Sunhoo KIM Client Hanhwa

Context Parametric design is a trendy concept. It usually stands for complex geometry because that its most spectacular application and alike pioneer office Zaha HADID Architects, many architects have followed and discovered its almost endless possibilities. We started with Rhinoceros and Grasshopper in 2008, when Zaha HADID Architects asked us to collaborate on the Olympic Aquatic Center (see VS-A Index I). That collaboration convinced us that those tools are indeed excellent … but not only for complex curvy geometry.

The Galleria project is an ongoing collaboration with OMA Hong Kong & Gansam architects. The project has a schism in the façade with a prismatic geometry. Almost 2500 triangular glasses, all with different dimensions, shapes, inclinations… Although the technical solution developed for the project uses only classic constructive materials, such complexity required definitively a different approach than an ordinary façade.

2 . AV E R A G E W E I G H T O F G L A S S L O O P FA CA D E S 유 리 파 사 드 의

문맥

CALCULATION PROCESS 계산 과정 갤러리아 프로젝트는 OMA 홍콩 사무소와 파라메트릭 설계는 최근 점점 보편화되는 간삼건축사무소와의 협업 프로젝트이다. 본 추세이다. 자하 하디드 건축사무소는 이를 프로젝트는 프리즘 같아 보이는불규칙한 이용한 복합 기하 건축의 선구자라 할 수 있고, 파사드로 구성되어 있다. 이를 위해 거의 2500 그 뒤로 많은 건축가가 추세를 따라 그 영향력을 1. Elements facade structure 파사드 구조의 구성 장의 삼각유리패널이 각각 다른 크기와 모양, 발견하였다. 우리 사무소는 2008년 자하 하디드 Referring the image 1, facade structure consists of primary structure (colored in red) & secondary structure (colored in blue). 경사각으로 설치된다. 본 파사드를 위해 개발된 건축사무소와 런던 올림픽 수영장 (VS-A Index For connection pieces, aluminium frames, joints and others, 20% of the weight has been increased. 기술 솔루션이 오직 통상적인 건설 자재를 이용한 1편 참조)을 협업하면서 3d 모델링 프로그램 1 참조, 파사드 구조는 붉은색으로 표시된.KR 주구조와 파란색으로 표시된 부구조로 이루어져 있다. 각종 연결재, 유리 프레임, 부속품을 것이기는 하나, 이 정도로 복잡한 그림 파사드 공사에는 Rhinoceros와 알고리즘 모델링 프로그램인 기존 파사드 보다 특별한 접근법이 필요하다. Grasshopper를 사용하기 시작했다. 수영장 2. Glass surfaces 유리 패널 프로젝트를 통해 알고리즘을 이용한 도구 사용에 Glass surfaces as per the image 2. 대한 잠재력을 깨달았고, 그 이후 우리 사무소는 그림 2와 같은 유리패널들을 기준으로 하였다. 복합 기하을 위한 설계 뿐 아니라 2 . AV각족 E R A 파사드 G E W E I G H T O F G L A S S L O O P FA CA D E S 유 리 파 사 드 의 평 균 중 량 분석 및 계산용으로 확대하여 사용하기 시작했다. CALCULATION PROCESS 계산 과정

G WA N G G YO G A L L E R I A

IMAGE 1 : ELEMENTS OF FACADE STRUCTURE

1. Elements facade structure 파사드 구조의 구성

IMAGE 2 : GLASS SURFACES

DD PACKAGE - 01 DRAWING

Referring the image 1, facade structure consists of primary structure (colored in red) & secondary structure (colored in blue). For connection pieces, aluminium frames, joints and others, 20% of the weight has been increased.

기본설계 도서 - 01 도면

그림 1 참조, 파사드 구조는 붉은색으로 표시된 주구조와 파란색으로 표시된 부구조로 이루어져 있다. 각종 연결재, 유리 프레임, 부속품을 고려해 20% 중량을 가산하였다.

2. Glass surfaces 유리 패널

CLIENT

Glass surfaces as per the image 2.

HANWHA GALLERIA

그림 2와 같은 유리패널들을 기준으로 하였다.

ARCHITECT

OMA Hong Kong + Gansam IMAGE 1 : ELEMENTS OF FACADE STRUCTURE

IMAGE 2 : GLASS SURFACES

FACADE ENGINEERING

.KR

VS-A.KR KR TEAM

Naree KIM, Partner Jaeman PARK, PM Sunhoo KIM Sebastien MAITENAZ

HK TEAM

Robert-Jan van SANTEN, Partner Prashanth RAGHUNATH, PM Maria GKIOKA

PHASE

DD DATE OF DIFFUSION

166

2017-03-24 .KR

2017-03-24 Page 17


IN1 . TR O D UT RICANTGU ION 머(J리 RANDOM L AT I ON AVA말 S C R I P T ) 자바스크립트를 이용한 무작위 삼 각 기 하 생 성 GENERATE 3D MODEL USING GEOMETRIC DATA FROM EXCEL 엑셀의 기하정보를 이용한 3D 모델링

CHAOTIC TRIANGLES 무질서한 삼각기하 파사드의 구현

무질서해 보이는 삼각형면으로 이루어진 파사드를 기하적 규칙을 적용해 자동 생성하는 방법

문제 해결을 위해 처음에는 직관적인 접근으로 몇몇 시도를 해보았고, 어떤 규칙을 통해 무질서한 삼각면을 자동 생성할 수 있으리라 예

3차원 기하를 다루는데 익숙해져야 했고, 캐드 소프트웨어들도 여러 기능이 있지만 일단 이 모든 기하를 생성하기 이전에 이를 해석하는 수 있는 엑셀파일을 만들었다.

다음 단계로 수학자와 함께 문제를 논의했다. 2차원 공간에서 제한된 점에서부터 삼각형 자동 생성 코드를 만든 후, 실제 3차원 공간의 1 어졌다.

자바 프로그램을 이용한 수학적 접근은 몇 분 만에 수백만 가지 경우의 수를 만들어냈다. 이를 몇 가지 기준 제한을 적용하여 원하는 경우 지를 생성할 수 있었다.

모든 기하 정보 값은 그래스호퍼 (3D 모델링을 위한RHINO 프로그램의 플러그인)를 이용, 엑셀 파일에서 건축가의 RHINO 3D 도면 파일

는 분석하고자 하는 일련의 점 그룹을 선택하면, 프로그램은 모든 경우의 수를 3차원 이미지 모델로 보여준다. 점 중에 몇 개를 움직이면 2017-03-24

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By a mathematic approach we calculated that with 9 random points there were up to 135 different possibilities to create a surface with 10 triangles… Step by step, we added additional constraints to let the Architect set the final geometry. From Excel we managed to go via Grasshopper directly onto the Rhino drawing.

우리는 수학적으로 접근하여 무작위로 선택한 9 개점으로 10개의 삼각형을 만드는 135가지 경우의 수를 구했다. 이를 바탕으로 차근차근 건축가가 원하는 최종 기하에 가까워지도록 추가적 수식을 더해갔다. 엑셀로 추출한 데이터를 알고리즘 툴인 Grasshopper를 이용하여 라이노3d 모델로 생성하였다. 좀 더 쉽게 사용할 수 있게 하기위해 수학 알고리즘을 Grasshopper로 변환하였다.

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3 . C H E C K G E O M E T RY B Y C R I T E R I A ( G H ) 그 래 스 호 퍼 를 이

A. ANALYZE DIHEDRAL ANGLE BETWEEN TWO ADJACENT SURFACES OF FA

LATEST 3D

FACETED GLASS .KR

Grasshopper tool was also used for analysing the geometry of glass panels modelized by the Architect. Considering cost effectiveness and constrcutability of these façades of complex geometry, with the Architect and the suppliers, we set the rules for maximum glass panel size, allowable edge angles of triangular glass panel and allowable connection angles between glass panels. By analysis, panels which need correction of geometry are colored as shown on the above image, so that the Architect can easily modify them.

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Grasshopper 툴은 건축가가 만든 유리 패널 모델의 기하 분석하기 위해 쓰였다. 불규칙하게 보이는 유리패널 파사드 시공에 있어서 경제성과 시공성을 고려하여 건축가 제조사와의 협의를 통해 합리적인 유리 패널의 규격, 삼각 유리 패널의 모서리각, 유리 패널 간의 접합각에 대한 가능한 범위를 정했다. 결정된 기준이 건축가 모델에 부합하는지 분석하여 수정이 필요한 유리 패널은 좌측 상단에 보이는 이미지와 같이 다른 색깔로 표시하여, 건축가가 쉽게 수정할 수 있도록 하였다.


3 . CH ECK G EOM E T RY BY C RI T E RI A ( G H ) 그래스호퍼를 이용한 일련의 법칙에 적 합 한 기 하 분 석 A. ANALYZE DIHEDRAL ANGLE BETWEEN TWO ADJACENT SURFACES OF FACETED GLASS 유리 파사드의 이면각 분석

PROCESS USING GH

3 . C HE C K GE OM E T RY B Y C R I T E R I A ( G H ) 그래스호퍼를 이용한 일 련 의 법 칙 에 적 합 한 기 하 분 석 A. ANALYZE DIHEDRAL ANGLE BETWEEN TWO ADJACENT SURFACES OF FACETED GLASS 유리 파사드의 이면각 분석 RESULT

We developed VS-A’s own GH script to measure the dihedral angles and visualize the range with different colors.

ISOMETRIC VIEW 2017-03-24

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ELEVATION VIEW WIREFRAME

NORTH-EAST

NORTH CORNER

NORTH-WEST

SOUTH-WEST

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The ranges of 60-90 degree and 270-300 degree have sharp angles between two surfaces and they’re critical for facade structures. In that case, the vertex should be adjusted by the architect.

60~90도 혹은 170~300도에서 두 유리 패널이 접합되면 날카로운 접합각으로 인해 파사드 구조 설치되기 어렵다. 위는 이를 분석하여 수정이 필요한 접합 모서리를 표시하여 건축가가 수정할 수 있도록 하였다.

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structural elements into

elements are fixed onto vision. The system could

gular glass planes in vari-

파사드 구조로 구분할 수 있다.

파사드 구조의 상부는 상하로

시스템으로 적용할 수 있다.

용할 수 있는 입체적 그리드이

PRIMARY STRUCTURE 주구조

SECONDARY STRUCTURE 부구조

As the overall configuration of the geometry is volumetric rather than in one plane, for convenience we can categorize the structural elements into ‘primary’ structural elements and ‘secondary’ structural elements. The primary structure follows more conventional rhythm with vertical and diagonal elements (in elevation). The ends of these elements are fixed onto the slab as pinned connection. The system here is considered as self standing with the upper fixing having vertical sliding provision. The system could be reversed also with a hung facade system and a sliding joint at the bottom. The secondary structure divides the spaces inbetween the primary elements to form the complex triangular grids to take triangular glass planes in various inclinations. All the connections between the elements are considered as welded.

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기하의 전체 배치는 평면적이 아닌 입체적이지만, 2017-03-24 편의상 파사드 구조를 주구조와 부구조로 Page 34 분류하였다. 주구조는 입면에서 봤을 때 거의 직선에 가깝게 일정한 리듬으로 배치된 부재와 그 부재 사이를 연결하는 대각선 부재를 말하며, 이 구조들은 건물 슬래브에 핀구조로 접합된다. 이 파사드 시스템은 상단 접합부가 수직방향으로 이동가능한 자립구조로 간주되며 경우에 따라 하단 접합부를 수직이동가능한 매달린 구조가 될 수 있다. 부구조는 주구조 사이의 공간을 복잡한 삼각형 그리드를 형성하며 분할하여, 삼각 유리 패널이 수많은 경사각을 가지며 형성된다. 모든 접합은 용접을 통한 강접합이다.


C. ANALYSIS SHEET OF ERRORED GLASS PANELS 규칙에 어긋나 C. ANALYSIS SHEET OF ERRORED GLASS PANELS 규칙에 어긋나

Maximal size of glass panel is set for cost effectiveness. With the GH analysis tool, we checked whether size of the each glass panel is within the limit. .KR

경제성을 고려하여 최대 유리 패널 규격을 정해 각 유리 패널이 규격 범위 안에 들어오는지 확인한다. .KR

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4 . GENERATE THE C ON ST R U C T I VE D E TAIL S ( G H ) 그래스호퍼를 이용한 파사드 디테일 모 델 생 성 B. TRAPEZOIDAL SECTION STRUCTURE MODELING 사다리꼴형 파사드 구조 시스템 모델링

4 . GENER ATE THE C ON ST R U C T I VE D E TA I L S ( G H ) 그래스호퍼를 이용한 파사드 디테일 모 델 생 성 C. DOUBLE RODS STRUCTURE MODELING 이중 원통형 파사드 구조 시스템 모델링 2017-03-24

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Glass pane division sizes are optimized for its manufacturing process. 유리 패널의 분할 및 규격은 제작 과정을 고려하여 최적화되었다.

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2017-03-24 Page 21


TYPE 2 PLAN

Departm

Scale 1:1

: total 77

Materia

- Stainle

- Additio

after w

.4

- Weigh

9.7

79

14

- Volum

1 42

78

Type 2

.71°

.15 °

67.11°

150.0

43

.69

°

5.5 14

9.3 14

91.34°

7.5

7.5

.0 15

2085.0 1787.9 150

30

301.2

80

962.5

80

301.2

30

150

TYPE 2 AXONOMETRIC VIEW

Dep

Scale NONE

: tot

2

6

6

- Sta

- Ad

aft

.5 7

40

.

70

95

40

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17 87 .9

We also started thinking at how a contractor would react during a classic tender stage, and how to convince him to accept working on this project. On the other hand, it was also very important to keep the project within a reasonable budget. The traditional way of splitting the work between the design team and the contractor seems not appropriate at all. Therefore we set up a method that extracts all useful information for construction from the geometry as drawn in the Rhino file. Although we’re still far from the tender stage, we successfully tested the method. We’re able to make by an (almost) automatic method the construction drawings of all components for making a full scale mockup by a local workshop. This is making complex geometry feasible. It is time saving, it is cost saving … and it gives us the natural opportunity to extend our implication on a project till the very end of the construction.

우리는 입찰 단계에서 이러한 복합기하 파사드 시공의 어려움에 대한 시공사의 우려를 최대한 줄이기 위해 본 파사드의 분명한 규칙과 논리에 대한 설명 문서를 제작했다. 한편 본 프로젝트에서 특히 중요했던 예산 범위 내의 시공을 가능하게 하기 위해 일반적인 설계-시공팀의 역할 분담은 적합하지 않았다. 우리는 Rhino 모델 파일로 그려진 기하로부터 모든 유용한 정보를 추출하거나, 그 반대가 가능할 수 있도록 하는 툴을 개발하였다. 몇몇 테스트를 거쳐, 목업 테스트에 필요한 파사드 구조를 포함한 콤포넌트에 대한 제작도면 작업을 (거의) 자동화하는데 성공했다. 이러한 작업들은 복합기하 건축에 시공성, 경제성 및 효율성을 가져다주며 우리의 관여를 준공까지 연장시킨다.

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2012-

0123

Two Towers

ZHUBO

Location Shenzhen, China Program Office tower VS-A PM Naree KIM Client MINGSHENG & GUOYIN

01

2012-123 ZHUBO- TWO TOWERS FACADE ANALYSIS 20121011

Context

We presented in VS-A Index I (p222-233) the study carried out with ZHUBO Architects for the podium of the so-called 2 towers project. The study started in 2013, and concerned an almost 4000m² glass vault with most of its glasses being single or double curved. The 裙楼东南角透视图 architectural intention was to clearly go for horizontal profiles, and avoid point fixings. End of 2017, 2 years after the termination of the first tower, the construction of the podium starts.

11 / C.

结构 STRUCTURE 装配 Assembly

共享大厅效果图

VS-A.HK

- Unit 708, Prosperity Center, 77-81 Container Port Road, Kwai Chung, N.T., HK - Tel: +852 3590 8237 - mail@vs-a.hk www.vs-a.hk

万山丹香港 香港新界葵涌货柜码头路 77-81 号大鸿辉中心 708 室

174

背景 我们在VS-A Index I (p222-233)展示了在和筑博合作的双塔楼 项目裙房的具体研究。研究在2013年开始,牵涉到大约4000m2 以单或双曲面玻璃构成的拱顶。建筑意图使用横向型材和避免 点固定。在2017年尾,即取消第一栋塔楼的两年之后,裙房开 始了工程。

VS-A.HK


175


176


Our design / 我们的设计

Although we’re not involved in the construction stages of this project, the Architect kept us informed about the situation and when a first part of the project finally was build, he invited us to have a look at the result. The result is a good example of how a contractor can develop a detail based on our design. Many things changed, which would probably have been a bit different in case we were appointed for reviewing the construction documents. The changes are obviously due to the use of technologies that the contractor is familiar with. As it concerns facades, all such changes have obviously a visual impact. Both details are compared in these pages to illustrate this topic, and we believe that such changes are still within an acceptable range.

The design proposed by the contractor / 承包商推荐的设计

Some architectural changes or additional information were also proposed by the architect, based on the visual mock-up. Glass is a simple material but its appearance is really hard to anticipate during the studies, influenced by the continuously changing internal and external light conditions. When glasses are single or double curved, it becomes even more difficult. Next VS-A Index will for sure show you the final result !

即使我们并没有参与施工阶段,建筑师一直告知我们关于项目的 最新状况,并邀请我们去看施工成果。 成果展示了承包商如何可以按照我们的设计,发展方便他们施工 的节点。如果我们被委任做施工图审核,也许承包商的节点跟我 们的设计不会有那么大的差别。可是,所有改动是为了方便施 工,但是明显地影响了外观。本页展示了两种节点的差异。 基于视觉样板,建筑师提出了一些建筑改动。玻璃是一种简单的 材料,但是因为不断改变的外部和内部光线,使得玻璃外观总是 难以预测。当玻璃是单曲或双曲时,预测玻璃外观变得更难。下 一本VS-A Index 一定能够展示本项目的最终成果。

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2017-

1463

Bao’An Public Culture and Art Center CAAU+ECADI Location Shenzhen, China Program Exhibition and performance hall VS-A PM Shunquan ZHONG, Hyejun AN Client Shenzhen Bao’An district city Sports and Tourism Bureau

1.3. 1.3.1.

Bao’An Art Center is a 100m tall tower with a complicate form of stacked boxes. Because of its special building form, this building has several FAÇADE TYPES AND BMU terraces and soffits (=includes in façade scope) on different levels and locations. These terraces and soffits split the façade with different zones that MAJOR FACADE require different approach of BMU system.

Bao’An Art Center is aTo100m tall tower with aarea, complicate formsystems of stacked boxes. efficiently cover façade 3 types BMU Because of its specialare building form, this building has several terraces and proposed. soffits (=includes in façade scope) on different levels and locations. These + R the typefaçade (BMU with on roof ) terraces and soffits split different zones that require different + T type (BMU on terrace) approach of BMU system. + S type (BMU on soffit) R typearea, system used BMU to cover majority the façade. To efficiently cover façade 3 istypes systems areof proposed. For those area where is difficult to reach by R system but close from terrace, T type system is proposed. R type (BMU on For roof)those areas neither R type and T type cannot reach, S type is proposed.

BMU SYSTEM & FACADE COVERAGE 自然通风窗户制动器 + + +

T type (BMU on terrace)

BENEFIT S type (BMU on ARCHITECTURAL soffit)

All 3 types can be temporarily installed when in use, So the building can remain clear when BMU systems in use. R type system is usedaretonot cover majority of the façade. For those area where is

difficult to reach by R 宝安公共文化艺术中心是一个以盒子状几何堆砌出来的100米高 system but close from terrace, T type system is proposed. 大楼。因为特殊的建筑形式,建筑在不同的楼层和位置有跟幕墙 For those areas neither R type and T type cannot reach, S type is proposed. 设计有关联的拱腹和阳台部分。这些阳台和拱腹把幕墙分开为不 同的区域,这些区域需要使用不同的擦窗机系统。

KEY PLAN 2

65

ARCHITECTURAL BENEFIT 为了有效地覆盖幕墙范围,建议使用三种擦窗机系统。 All 3 types can be temporarily installed when in use, So the building can remain clear when BMU systems are not in use. + R 类型 (擦窗机在屋顶) 2 3

1

1

+ T 类型 (擦窗机在阳台) + S 类型 (擦窗机在拱腹)

13

M

R12

2

R13

4

13F类型。难以用R类型接触到而接近阳 幕墙大部分范围可以使用R

1.3.2. INTERIOR台的建议使用T类型。R类型和T类型都不能接触到的地方建议 FAÇADE 12F 11F 使用S类型。 To be designed R13 R13 R12 10F 9F

建筑好处 8F 三种类型在不被使用时都能藏起,使得建筑外观不被影响。

8F

R10

R9 T5

B

3 LEGEND

13F 12F 11F 10F 9F

T5 S7

R5 T1

7F 6F 5.5F 5F 4.5F 4F 3F 2.5F 2F 1F

7F

R9 1.3.3. SKYLIGHT T5 To be designed

R5

6F 5.5F 5F 4.5F 4F 3F 2.5F 2F 1F

T5

R9

T1

T1

T5 R5

T1 T1

5 5

178 VS-A.HK - W2, 9/F, The Bedford, No. 93 Bedford Road, Tai Kok Tsui, Kowloon, HK - (852) 3590 8237 - mail@vs-a.hk - www.vs-a.net

S7

S9

13F 12F 11F 10F 9F

R1


Major facade is covered by 3 types of BMU system. Major facade is covered by 3 types of BMU system. KEY PLAN

65

2

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1

KEY PLAN

2

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13

4 R10

2

13F 12F 11F R13 10F 9F 13F 8F 12F 11F R9 7F R13 10F 6F 9F T5 S7 5.5F 5F 8F R9 4.5F 7F 4F 6F S7 T5 3F5.5F 2.5F 5F 2F4.5F 1F 4F 3F 2.5F 2F 1F

R12

M

R12

T5

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LEGEND

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T1

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LEGEND

T1 T1

of BMU system.

9 9

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122

R13

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R13 R13 R13

R12

R10 R9 R9 T5 T5 R5 R5 T1 T1

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R9 T5 T5T5

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T1

55

S7 T5

T5

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233 13F 13F 13F 12F 12F 12F 11F 11F 11F 10F 10F 10F 9F 9F 9F 8F 8F 8F 7F 7F 7F 6F 6F 6F 5.5F 5.5F 5.5F 5F 5F 5F 4.5F 4.5F 4.5F 4F 4F 4F 3F 3F 3F 2.5F 2.5F 2.5F 2F 2F 2F 1F 1F 1F

3

R12 R12R13

R9 T5 T5 T5

T5

R5 R5 R9

T1 T1

13F 12F 11F R13 10F 9F 13F BMU DESIGN REPORT 8F 12F BMU DESIGN REPORT 11F 7F R13 10F 6F 9F 5.5F S7 5F 8F 4.5F 7F 4F 6F 3F5.5F 2.5F 5F T1 S7 2F4.5F 1F 4F 3F 2.5F T1 2F 1F

BAO’AN BAO’AN ART ART CENTER CENTER SHENZHEN SHENZHEN BA

2 4 E COVERAGE DE EM & FACADE COVERAGE 窗户制动器 3

13F 13F 12F 12F 11F 11F 10F 10F 9F 9F 8F 8F 7F 7F 6F 6F 5.5F 5.5F 5F 5F 4.5F 4.5F 4F 4F 3F 3F 2.5F 2.5F 2F 2F 1F 1F

3

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65 5 6

13F 13F 13F 12F 12F 12F 11F 11F 11F 10F 10F 10F 9F 9F 9F 8F 8F 8F R10 7F R10 7F 7F 6F 6F 6F 5.5F 5.5F 5.5F 5F 5F 5F 4.5F 4.5F 4.5F 4F 4F R5 4F 3F R5 3F 3F 2.5F 2.5F 2.5F 2F 2F 2F 1F 1F 1F

R10 R12 R12 R13

R7 T5

R10 R10 R7 R10

T5 T5 T5 T5 S7 T1 R5 R5 R5 T1

T1 T1

T1

13F 12F 11F 10F 9F 13F S9 13F 12F 8F13F 13F 12F 11F 7F12F 12F 11F 10F 11F 6F11F S6 10F 9F R12 5.5F10F 10F S9 9F T5 8F 5F 9F 9F 4.5F 8F 7F 8F 8F R5 7F 6F S6R10 4F 7F 7F T5 3F5.5F 6F T5 T5 S3 6F 6F 5F 2.5F5.5F T5 5.5F 4.5F 5F 2F5.5F T5R5 5F 5F T1 1F4.5F 4F 4.5F 4.5F 4F 3F 4F 4F S3 3F R5 2.5F 3F 3F 2.5F 2F 2.5F 2.5F T1 2F 1F T1 2F 2F 1F T1 1F 1F

4 6 5 R12

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此文件为幕墙招标图纸。幕墙施工图纸将由相关幕墙承包方负责。

VS-A.HK - W2, 9/F, The Bedford, No. 93 Bedford Road, Tai Kok Tsui, Kowloon, HK - (852) 3590 8237 - mail@vs-a.hk - www.vs-a.net CLIENT 建设单位 BAO'AN CITY SPORTS AND TOURISM BUREAU 万山丹香港 香港九龙大角咀必发道93号 The Bedford 9楼W2室 13F VS-A.HK Façade Engineering 万山丹幕墙顾问 13F

NOTE 备注

13F

13F 13F 深圳市宝安区文体旅游局 12F 12F 12F 此文件为幕墙招标图纸。幕墙施工图纸将由相关幕墙承包方负责。 11F CAAU+ECADI 11F 11F NOTE R13 10F 华东建筑设计研究院 建设单位 BAO'AN CITY SPORTS 10FAND TOURISM BUREAU 备注 R13 10F 9F 9F 9F S9 深圳市宝安区文体旅游局 R9 8F S9 S9 ARCHITECT 8F R9 8F R10 建筑设计单位 CAAU+ECADI 7F 7F 7F 华东建筑设计研究院 6F 6F 6F R7 S6 5.5F S7 5.5F 5.5F 5F S7 T5 T5

W2, 9/F, The Bedford. No. 93 Bedford Road Tai Kok12F Tsui, Kowloon, HK HK 12F ARCHITECT 11F 万山丹香港 香港九龙大角咀必发道93号 The Bedford 9楼W2工作室 建筑设计单位 - www.vs-a.net VS-A.HK - W2, 9/F, The Bedford, No. 93 Bedford Road, Tai Kok Tsui, Kowloon, HK - (852) 3590 8237 - mail@vs-a.hk 11F Tel: +852 3590 8237 - mail@vs-a.hk / www.vs-a.hk CLIENT 10F

10F 万山丹香港 香港九龙大角咀必发道93号 The Bedford 9楼W2室 9F万山丹幕墙顾问 VS-A.HK Façade Engineering 9F S9 8F Tsui, Kowloon, HK S9 Road Tai Kok W2, 9/F, The Bedford. R10 No. 93 Bedford R10 万山丹香港 香港九龙大角咀必发道93号 The Bedford 8F 9楼W2工作室 7F Tel: +852 3590 8237 - mail@vs-a.hk / www.vs-a.hk 7F 6F R7 S6 6F R7 S6 5.5F T5 5.5F T5 5F T5 T5 5F 4.5F 4.5F R5 4F R5 4F 3F 3F S3 2.5F S3 2.5F 2F 2F T1 T1 1F T1 T1 1F HK

R5 S3 T1

T1

5F 4.5F 4F 3F 2.5F 2F 1F

T3 T3

T4 T4 R4 R4 T1 T1 T1 T1

5F 4.5F 4.5F 4F 4F 3F 3F 2.5F 2.5F 2F 2F 1F 1F

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Latest Works Réalisations

近期项目 최근 프로젝트

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VS-A CHRONICLE OF TALL BUILDING PROJECTS 万山丹超高层项目图鉴 JIERONG 140M 60000M2

TOUR CASABLANCA 122M 21000M2

GIONEE HEADQUARTERS 95M 50000M2

BAO’AN PUBLIC CULTURE AND ART CENTRE 95M 60000M2

DAISHIN HEADQUARTERS 88M 53000M2

CASA DA MUSICA 40M 54000M2

TEOTISTA MONACO 70M 7000M2

LEMOINE HOUSE 8M 500M2


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SHENZHEN NORTH STATION (12 TOWERS) 400M 1200000M2

SHENWAN HUIYUN CENTRE 350M 560000M2

HONGTU PLAZA 268M 128000M2

YI FANG DA TOWER 261M 160000M2

TOUR ODEON 170M 80000M2

CMA CGN 143M 94000M2

KEELLS WATERFRONT 140M 420000M2

DACHENG FUNDS HEADQUARTERS 140M 30000M2


Maison des Sciences et de l’Homme Saint-Denis, France 2007-035

Architect : Agence SEARCH Client : Université de Paris XIII VS-A PM : Arnaud MALRAS, Quentin DESPLECHIN Contractor : SMAC

Mission Tender to construction Resume SEARCH agency called us upon the announcement that they had won the competition. The project is ambitious in volume, with some spectacular cantilevered zones which the client was so excited about that he forgot about the low budget he himself had allocated to the project during the competition. The major concerns were to provide protection against the sun, facilitate the penetration of natural light into the premises, and to consider the direction of the shutter openings. HQE provided us with no help and together, one fine summer’s day, we opted to give priority to the solar protection function…

Porte Montmartre

Architect : Atelier 3, BABIN + RENAUD Client : Paris Habitat VS-A PM : Aurore MAYEUR Contractor : BLUNTZER

Paris, France 2008-029

Mission Tender Analysis Summary Situated at Porte Montmartre, this multipurpose building presents a very unique façade. On the lower floors, large curtain walls open out onto the town. At the same time, sun screens positioned as a second skin ensure the privacy necessary for the intended purpose (dance studio, crèche, library). On the upper floors, the façade extends behind weathering steel cladding. Here again, with the relative exposure of the façade, several spacing elements make this a dynamic structure: glass ventilation louvres, banners etc...

Espace Culturel des Jacobins Le Mans, France 2008-030

Mission Tender to construction Services Glass specification, solar protection, thermal simulations, building maintenance, structure Resume This mixed cultural program involves two opposed architectural programs. The theater is a transparent glass building, and the cinema a monolithic stone one. These two building are joined by a monumental awning. The main challenge came under the implementation of a 14-meter high glass façade which is suspended at the awning frame , and subjected to movements up to 140mm. We designed a façade suspended by braces which followed this movement. This insulating low iron glass gives an incredible transparency and a lightness effect to this part of the envelope.

Tour Odéon

Mission ACT Résumé Situé Porte Montmartre, ce bâtiment à programme mixte développe autant de façade que de particularité du programme. Sur les étages bas, de grands murs rideaux permettent une ouverture sur la ville. En même temps, les brises soleil posés comme seconde peau assurent l’intimité nécessaire aux activités qui y sont prévues (salle de danse, crèche, bibliothèque). Aux étages supérieurs, la façade se déploie derrière un parement d’acier patinable. Là encore, devant la relative exposition de la façade, plusieurs dispositifs de mise à distance donnent sa dynamique à l’ouvrage : ventelle en verre, drapeaux, …

Architect : BABIN + RENAUD Client : Ville du Mans VS-A PM : Nathalie SIMONNEAU Contractor : DUVAL + COVERIS + EDM Mission APD à AOR Services Vitrage, protection solaire, simulation thermique, entretien du bâtiment, structure Résumé Ce programme culturel mixte implique deux programmes architecturaux. Le défi principal fut la mise en œuvre d’une façade de 14 mètres de hauteur suspendue aux châssis de l’auvent et soumise à des mouvements pouvant aller jusqu’à 140mm. Nous avons conçu une façade suspendue par des bracons reprenant ces mouvements. Les doubles vitrages de cette façade en extra clair donnent à cette partie de l’enveloppe une incroyable transparence et un effet de légèreté.

Architect : Alexandre GIRALDI Client : Groupe MARZOCCO VS-A PM : Marion BERGERIE Contractor : VINCI

Monaco, Monaco 2008-067

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Mission APD à AOR Résumé C’est à l’issu du concours dont ils venaient d’être lauréats, en Avril 2007, que l’agence SEARCH nous a appelés. Le projet présente une volumétrie ambitieuse, avec de spectaculaires zones en porte-à-faux qui ont séduit le maître d’ouvrage au point de lui faire oublier, le temps du concours, le faible budget alloué par lui-même pour réaliser ce projet. Si le projet présente une profusion de typologies de façades, l’étude des volets extérieurs méritent d’être un peu détaillée. Assurer la protection solaire ou favoriser la pénétration de lumière naturelle dans les locaux était une des premières questions, dont dépendait le sens d’ouverture du volet.

Expertises Glass specification, thermal simulations, maintenance, structure Summary The creation of a high tower consisting mainly of top-of-the range accommodation, particularly in the upper level that houses “ the most expensive apartment in the world”. The site is managed by Vinci, who selected the Italian contractor Tosoni to create the façades. Three Atex were involved, one of which has a bonded exterior glass curtain wall façade comprised of screen-printed convex blue glass. The louver provides fireprotecting properties for 1 hour at a height of 1,200m. Five successive laboratory tests will ultimately be necessary to validate this performance. One of the challenges of the project was to make the contractors aware of the top-of-the-range quality of the project with the necessary level of finishing work.

Expertises Vitrage, simulations thermiques dynamiques, maintenance, analyse d’écoulement des fluides, structure Résumé Réalisation d’une tour de grande hauteur comportant principalement des logements haut de gamme, et notamment en partie supérieure où est situé l’appartement qui serait «le plus cher au monde». Le chantier est mené par Vinci, qui a retenu l’entreprise italienne Tosoni pour réaliser les façades. 3 Atex sont au programme, dont une concerne une façade mur-rideau VEC, en verre bleu bombe sérigraphié et dont l’allège assure une protection pare-flammes 1 heure sur 1,2 m de hauteur. 5 essais en laboratoire successifs seront au final nécessaires pour valider cette performance. Un des enjeux du projet et de faire prendre conscience aux entreprises le caractère très haut de gamme du projet, avec le niveau de finition qui s’impose.


Logements Porte Montmartre / Architect : BABIN + RENAUD / Photographie : Cécile SEPTET

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Musée des Confluences

Architect : Coop HIMMELB(L)AU Client : Région Rhône-Alpes VS-A PM : Nathalie SIMONNEAU Contractor : Vinci

Lyon, France 2009-001

Mission Tender to Construction Summary This was a long-term project which we were associated with in 2009. Our practice made every effort to meet the architect’s expectations, defined beforehand by COOP HIMMELB(L)AU to the finest detail. We had also added our own specific studies, such as crystal condensation, the definition of the crystal glazing both in the developable geometry of the glass and the effects of the formation into parallelograms of the structure, and its impact on glazing.

Cité du Surf

Architect : Steven HOLL Client : Ville de Biaritz VS-A PM : Bérénika CHUDZIAK Contractor : GTM - Groupe VINCI

Biaritz, France 2009-005

Mission Consultation of construction drawings and assistance for contract award phases on behalf of the general contractor GTM - GROUPE VINCI Summary : Structual silicone glazing façade with steel structure, with unusual attention to construction details. Large surfaces of transparent and translucent glass.

MUCEM

Mission Consultation en phases PRO et ACT pour le compte de l’entreprise générale GTM - GROUPE VINCI Résumé : Façade en VEC sur ossature acier, avec un soin tout particulier des détails constructifs. Verres transparents translucides de grandes dimensions.

Architect : Rudy RICCIOTTI Client : EMOC VS-A PM : Marine LE COGUIEC

Marseille, France 2009-008 Mission Design of and assistance with the exterior joinery package, including establishing descriptions, financial estimates and a technical analysis of the offers. Summary Two totally glazed buildings covered in a fine net of Ultra-High Performance Fibre-Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC). Exposition space: inverse structural glazing curtain (smooth façade on the inside) with large glazed surfaces (3m/5.5m). Façade mullions are integrated on the outside, with compact UHPFRC mullions and glazing installed through disuniting in administrative area. Wooden façade on the interior: curtain wall with glued laminated timber profile and clapboard cladding.

Centre PROUVÉ

Mission Mission de conception et d’assistance (y compris l’établissement des descriptifs, des estimations financières et de l’analyse technique des offres) du lot menuiseries extérieures. Résumé Deux bâtiments totalement vitrés recouverts d’une fine résille de béton fibré ultra-haute performance (BFUP). Espace exposition: mur-rideau en «VEC inversé» (façade lisse à l’intérieur) avec des vitrages de grandes dimensions (3m/5,5m) et des montants de façade, à l’extérieur, en administratif avec des montants compacts en BFUP, montage du verre par dévêtissement.

Architect : Marc BARANI + Christophe PRESLE Client : Communauté Urbaine du Grand Nancy VS-A PM : Marion BERGERIE

Nancy, France 2009-029

Mission Schematic design to practical completion Summary The Palais des Congrès in Nancy, located 300m from Nancy railway station, was built from the ancient postal sorting office designed by Claude PROUVE. A parallel railway extension contributed as a gateway to the city of Nancy. The façades were designed to create premises opening out onto the city in all senses.

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Mission Appels d’offre à construction Résumé : Le bureau s’est attaché à respecter dans les moindres détails, les exigences architecturales définies au préalable par COOP HIMMELB(L)AU auxquelles nous avons ajouté notre étude spécifique pour reprendre des sujets non abouties pendant les précédentes études ; comme la condensation du cristal, la définition des vitrages du cristal tant au niveau de la géométrie que sur les effets de mise en parallélogrammes de la structure et de ses incidences sur les vitrages.

Mission APS à AOR Résumé Le palais des Congrès de Nancy, situé à 300m de la gare de Nancy, se construit à partir de l’ancien Tri postal de Claude PROUVE. Une extension, en parallèle des voies ferrées contribue à faire l’image de l’entrée de ville sur Nancy. Les façades ont été imaginées afin de crée un objet ouvert sur la ville dans un double sens intérieur/extérieur.


Centre ProuvĂŠ / Architect : Marc BARANI / Photographie : Olivier DANCY


Internat au Lycée Guillaume TIREL Paris, France 2009-032

Mission Design, optimization and detailing Summary A grammar school boarding house in the center of Paris. Cladding and sliding shutters in mirror-polished stainless steel, “bar code” beaded external glazing on the ground floor.

CNFPT

Mission APS à DET Résumé Internat attenant à un lycée dans le centre de Paris. Bardage et volets coulissants à galandage en inox poli-miroir, Châssis VEP en RDC “code-barre”.

Architect : BRENAC & GONZALEZ Client : CNFPT VS-A PM : Clément DUFOUR-LEFORT Contractor : SODEREC, PMN

Lille, France 2009-128 Mission Schematic design to tender analysis Summary The Centre National de la Formation Publique Territoriale (CNFPT – the national training center for territorial personnel), situated at the Porte de Valenciennes on the ZAC (business improvement area) EURALILLE 2 led the architects to the development of a “micro urban interior” principle in terms of the general organization of space and flow of people. VS-A worked on the entire façade, from the angled folded metal cladding to the creation of the curtain wall on the inner road, made from single-piece extruded steel at a height of 7 m. The contractor PMN did a great deal of work on the profile to avoid joins.

Médiathèque Andrée CHEDID Tourcoing, France 2009-137

Mission Schematic design to tender analysis Summary For this ground floor extension project, VS-A has designed the whole building envelope (light superstructure, roof, façade). The ‘beehive’ façade with wooden structure bears the roof directly. VS-A has developed a made-to-measure envelope, made up of a wooden structure with insulating chambers which have a structural as well as joinery role, in order to preserve the monolithic effect of the extension. A major detail consists of minimising the thickness of the roofing and minimising its impact on the glazed hexagons on the upper side of the façade, while ensuring the functions of load bearing, thermal insulation, watertightness and runoff of rainwater.

CCI Picardie

Mission APS à AOR Résumé Le Centre National de la Formation Publique Territoriale (CNFPT), situé porte de Valenciennes sur la ZAC EURALILLE 2 a amené les architectes au développement d’un principe de « micro urbanité intérieur », dans l’organisation générale des espaces et des flux. VS-A a travaillé sur l’ensemble de la façade, du bardage en métal déployé à angle plié à la réalisation du mur rideau de la rue intérieure en acier extrudé sur 7m de hauteur en une seule pièce. L’entreprise PMN a su relever tous ces défis.

Architect : D’HOUNDT + BAJART Client : Ville de Tourcoing VS-A PM : Arnaud MALRAS, Emilie JOET Mission APS à AOR Résumé Pour ce projet d’extension en rez-de-chaussée, VS-A a conçu l’intégralité de l’enveloppe (superstructure légère, couverture, façade). La façade constituée en « nid d’abeille » à ossature bois porte directement la couverture. VS-A a su développer une enveloppe sur mesure, constituée d’une ossature bois en caisson isolé ayant un rôle structurel combiné à celui d’une menuiserie, afin de préserver l’effet monolithe de l’extension. Un détail majeur a consisté à minimiser l’épaisseur de la couverture et minimiser son impact vu dans les hexagones vitrés en rive haute de façade, tout en assurant les fonctions de portée, isolation thermique, étanchéité et écoulement des eaux pluviales.

Architect : CHARTIER CORBASSON Client : CRCI de Picardie VS-A PM : Mathieu MEKERKE Contractor : TRACER

Amiens, France 2009-179

Mission Schematic design to construction supervision Summary Design office work for TRACER, manufacturer and installer of vegetal façades. Design of vegetal façade with variable slopes and orientations.

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Architect : BRENAC & GONZALEZ Client : Région île de France VS-A PM : Léa RICHERT Contractor : BATEG

Mission APS à DET Résumé BET pour TRACER, entreprise fabriquant et posant des façades végétalisées.Conception de la façade végétalisée avec des pentes et des orientations variables.


CRCI dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Amiens / Architect : CHARTIER CORBASSON / Photographie : CHARTIER CORBASSON


Grand Alpha

Architect : LOCI ANIMA Client : Grand Angoulême VS-A PM : Aurore MAYEUR Contractor : COVERIS

Angoulême, France 2010-023

Mission Tender package Summary Opposite the railway station, this multimedia center considers itself worthy as the world capital of the comic strip. Piled-up parallelepipeds convey the designer’s objective. The structure is emphasized by façades finished in distinct colors but of identical materials and geometry.These distinct volumes are linked by the central hall. This completely glazed element constitutes both a link between “worlds” and breaks the interior/ exterior frontier by opening the médiathèque onto the garden.

Tracer Missions

France POUR TRACER - FRANCE (2010-2014) SIONS PONCTUELLES

VS-A

2010-035

Mission DCE Résumé Située face à la gare, la médiathèque se veut à la hauteur de la capitale mondiale de la Bande Dessinée. Les parallélépipèdes empilés traduisent les intentions du programme. Ce découpage est mis en valeur par un traitement des façades avec des couleurs distinctes, même si de matérialité et de géométrie identiques. Ces volumes distincts sont reliés par le hall central. Cet élément totalement vitré constitue à la fois le lien entre les «mondes», et casse la frontière intérieur / extérieur en ouvrant la médiathèque vers le jardin.

Client : Tracer VS-A PM : Mathieu MEKERKE

ingénierie de l’enveloppe

MAITRISE D’OUVRAGE Mission BET Project for TRACER, company manufacturing TRACER and installing green walls MISSION pour TRACER, entreprise fabriquant posant des façades SummaryBET Carrying out design briefsetand undertaking studies for végétalisées; the structure, engineering and budget of more than 50 different SPECIFICITES projects. CONCEPTS Studies&deof green walls, loading hypotheses, modelling Réalisation notes de calcul, d’études pour la structure et pour l’ingénierie de l’enveloppe pour plus de 50 projets différents; loads, checking constraints, load bearing analysis. Projects Etudes de murs végétalisés, hypothèse de chargement, modélisationfor des charges, vérification des contraintes, analyse des des-administrative carried out different types of buildings: centes de charge. buildings, town halls, shopping centres, schools, sports facilities Missions réalisées pour différentes typologies de bâtiment : bâtietc... ments administratif, mairie, centres commerciaux, écoles, équipements sportif...

Mission BET pour TRACER, entreprise fabriquant et posant des façades végétalisées Résumé Réalisation de notes de calcul, d’études pour la structure et pour l’ingénierie de l’enveloppe pour plus de 50 projets différents. Etudes de murs végétalisés, hypothèse de chargement, modélisation des charges, vérification des contraintes, analyse des descentes de charge. Missions réalisées pour différentes typologies de bâtiment : bâtiments administratif, mairie, centres commerciaux, écoles, équipements sportif...

CHEF DE PROJET Mathieu MEKERKE

Piscine Plein-Sud

Architect : BEAL & BLANCKAERT Client : Ville de Lille VS-A PM : Clément DUFOUR-LEFORT Contractor : Nord France Construction

Végétalisation de la façade d’un Lycée © TRACER

Lille, France 2010-130

Mission Schematic design to tender analysis Summary Timber/stainless curved swimming pool steel façade on a very busy street. Stainless steel punctuates the façade, giving it vibrancy. It also creates an interplay with passing cars and lends a sense of movement to the timber cladding.

Logement Ourcq Jaurès Paris, France 2010-171

Végétalisation du centre commercial Océania © TRACER

Mairie de Chalon-en-Champagne© TRACER

Mission Construction drawing to tender package Summary This residential building at the heart of Paris was designed with full-height sliding aluminum panels on its balconies: All the panels slide on a steel railing fixed in the slab nosing. This whole structure has bespoke pierced holes.

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Analyse des contraintes des charges © VS-A

Axonométrie du bac à fleurs © VS-A

Mission DCE à ACT Résumé Façade courbe bois/inox attenante à une rue très fréquentée. L’inox vient rythmer et faire vibrer la façade, de plus il crée de l’interaction avec le passage des voitures et met en mouvement le bardage bois.

Architect : Laura CARDUCCI Client : BATIGERE VS-A PM : Emilie JOET Mission PRO, DCE Résumé Ce bâtiment de logement situé au cœur de Paris est remarquable, notamment, de par ses balcons habillés de panneaux coulissants toute hauteur. Ces derniers sont fixés à même les garde-corps, mis en œuvre en nez de dalle. Cette optimisation structurelle permet une intégration complète du mécanisme. L’ouvrage ainsi construit révèle un entre deux intérieur/extérieur où la lumière est tamisée par une perforation spécifique des panneaux.


Médiathèque l’ALPHA / Architect : Locci Anima / Photographie : Philippr le ROY


Ecole IFA Saint-Gratien Saint-Gratien, France 2010-211

Architect : BRENAC & GONZALEZ Client : Chambre des Commerces et de l’Industrie de Versailles VS-A PM : Quentin DESPLECHIN Contractor : SNRB + AXIMA + STAB Mission Schematic design to practical completion Summary The façades of the école hôtelière IFA à Saint Gratien (hotel school of Saint-Gratien) are enlivened by a pattern that alternates vertical windows and bespoke aluminum cladding. Hidden in the opaque parts, convenient openings have been designed to give future users the option to naturally ventilate their space. Light is brought into the lower floors of the building by a double-height fritted glass wall along the whole length of the building.

Médiathèque de Caen Caen, France 2010-227

Architect : OMA Client : Ville de Caen VS-A PM : Nathalie SIMONNEAU, Robert-Jan van SANTEN Mission Glazing design for book shop area Summary Our involvement in this project was first requested by OMA in order to help them design a 6.2m-tall glazed façade, ideally without walers or mullions... and on a limited budget. The solution was quickly found: the insulating glazing will have an exterior glass with an inside part to give it the necessary rigidity, while the interior glass will remain flat. We then helped the generalist design office to develop the solution. Several geometries were tested at the calculation stage, but the curved glass supplier will have the final word. The supplier prioritised ease of manufacturing, with an interesting side objective to reduce optical distortion in the glass. During static trials, the glass with this geometry proved to be perfectly effective!

Saussure

Mission Etudes des vitrages de l’espace librairie Résumé Notre intervention sur ce projet fut dans un premier temps demandé par OMA pour les assister à concevoir une façade vitrée de 6.2 m de haut, idéalement sans raidisseurs ni montants ... et avec un budget limité. La solution fut rapidement trouvée : le verre isolant aura une glace extérieure avec un ventre pour lui donner la rigidité nécessaire, alors que le verre intérieur reste plan. Dans un 2ème temps, avec le BET généraliste, nous avons aidé à la mise au point de la solution. Plusieurs géométries furent testées en calcul, mais c’est le fournisseur du vitrage bombé qui aura le dernier mot. Il a privilégié la facilité de fabrication, avec un corollaire intéressant qui est de réduire les déformations

Architect : BARTOLO & VILLEMARD Client : ICF La Sablière VS-A PM : Clément DUFOUR-LEFORT Contractor : HERVE

Paris, France 2011-001

Mission Construction drawing , tender package, tender analysis Summary This project, in close proximity to the railway, intends to provide winter gardens that are entirely enclosed by glass on a big part of the rim of the housing. The removable glass screens reinforce the building’s sound-proofing and thermal quality, VS-A realised this work in its entirety by connecting public and private space.

Bon Secours

Mission PRO DCE ACT Résumé Le projet, en proximité des voies ferroviaires, propose des jardins d’hiver entièrement vitrés sur une grande partie de la périphérie des logements. Les écrans vitrés amovibles renforcent l’affaiblissement acoustique et la thermique du bâtiment, VS-A a réalisé l’ensemble de cet ouvrage faisant la liaison entre l’espace public et l’espace privé.

Architect : ZUNDEL & CRISTEA Client : 3F VS-A PM : Goktug GUNEY Contractor : Eiffage Construction

Paris, France 2011-002

Mission Schematic design to construction Services System & architectural optimization, price optimization Summary The façades are designed to meet the energy performance requirements for HQE certification despite the extremely limited façade thickness. The available space has been optimized by the use of ultra-thin motorized folding sunscreens and optimized design for thermal isolation. The opaque parts of the façades are clad with enameled white glasses to reduce the need for cleaning maintenance and to preserve the appearance of this medical building.

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Mission APD à AOR Résumé Les façades de l’IFA de Saint-Gratien sont animées par un rythme entre une série de menuiseries verticales et un bardage en lame d’aluminium extrudée sur mesure. Dissimulés dans les parties opaques, des ouvrants de confort ont été pensés pour offrir aux futurs utilisateurs la possibilité de ventiler naturellement leurs espaces. L’apport de lumière aux niveaux inférieurs est réalisé par un mur rideau sérigraphie en double hauteur qui parcourt le rez-de-chaussée du bâtiment.

Mission APS à construction Services Interface technique & architecture Résumé Les façades sont conçues pour répondre aux exigences énergétiques de la certification HQE malgré une épaisseur de façade très limitée. L’espace disponible a été optimisé grâce à l’utilisation de brise-soleil pliables et motorisés extrêmement fins. Les parties opaques des façades sont vêtues de panneaux VEC émaillé blanc afin de donner une plus grande durabilité et faciliter la maintenance des façades de l’établissement médical.


Bon Secours / Architect : ZUNDEL & CRISTEA


Fondation Vasarely

Architect : BMR + PA GATIER Client : Fondation VASARELY VS-A PM : Nathalie SIMONNEAU

Aix en Provence, France 2011-010

Mission Competition and concept to construction Services Restoration Summary Restoration and upgrading to ensure compliance with safety standards of the 1974 façade structures designed by Victor VASARELY. The façades consisting of two-tone anodized aluminium panels will be entirely restored. The original skylights will be restored and protected by a solar protection designed in accordance with the principles developed by the artist.

BMW Georges V

Architect : CARBONDALE Client : BMW VS-A PM : Léa RICHERT

Paris, France 2011-032

Mission Design development to construction Services System & architectural optimization Summary Design of a shop from windows (7x5 m²) without any mullions or transom. Creation of an automatic sliding door 3.4x5 m².

Médiathèque Louis Aragon Choisy-le-Roi, France 2011-079

Mission Design development to construction Services System & architectural optimization, price optimization Summary Designed as a volumetric ribbon, this building is enveloped with a double-layer façade. The first layer includes big double-glazed surfaces ensuring air and water-tightness. The exterior layer is made of expanded aluminum panels that optimize daylight and gives solar protection by varying the density of the stretched metal panels.

#Cloud.Paris

Mission APD à AOR Services Interface technique & architecture Résumé Showroom de BMW, avenue Georges V, près des Champs Elysées. Notre intervention s’est principalement concentré sur la création de deux vitrines de taille exceptionnelle (7x5 m ²) sans montant ni traverse. Création d’une porte coulissante automatique grand traffic de 3,4x5 m².

Architect : BRENAC+GONZALEZ Client : SADEV 94 VS-A PM : Bérénika CHUDZIAK Contractor : EIFFAGE Construction Mission APD à Construction Services Interface technique & architecture, optimisation des coûts Résumé Conçu tel un ruban volumétrique, ce bâtiment est enveloppé d’une façade double peau. La première peau t comprend de grandes baies vitrées assurant l’étanchéité à l’air et à l’eau. La deuxième, composée des panneaux en métal déployé contribue à la protection solaire en préservant l’éclairage naturelle. L’idée était d’optimiser la lumière du jour tout en ayant une protection solaire suffisante en utilisant la variation des ouvertures dans les panneaux en métal déployé.

Architect : PCA Philippe Chiambaretta Architecte Client : SFL, Société Foncière Lyonnaise VS-A PM : Bérénika CHUDZIAK Contractor : VINCI

Paris, France 2011-086

Services System & architectural optimization, price optimization Summary Ambitious renovation of an office complex in the heart of the stock Exchange District in Paris to create a prestigious business center aiming at HQE/BREEAM/LEED triple sustainability certification. The façades, inspired by 1950s standards, have a simple, modern look. The main components are glass, aluminum and concrete cladding. The geometry is extremely elegant and the details aim for perfection, in relation with the buildings around.

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Mission Concours, développement des concepts pour la construction Services Restauration Résumé Restauration et mise en conformité des règles de sécurité des ouvrages de façades datant de 1974, suivant les principes définis par le plasticien Victor VASARELY. Les façades composées de panneaux/œuvres bicolores en aluminium anodisés seront entièrement restaurés, et les verrières d’origine seront restaurées et protégées par des sur-verrières conçues selon les principes développés par l’artiste.

Services Interface technique & architecture, optimisation des coûts Résumé Restructuration d’un ensemble de bureaux au cœur du quartier de la Bourse pour créer un centre d’affaires de hautstanding. Le projet vise la triple certification environnementale HQE/BREEAM/LEED. Les façades sont inspirées de l’écriture initiale des années 1950. Très rythmées et rigoureuses elles sont composées principalement de verre, aluminium et du béton (BFUP) ce qui donne une image élégante, pure et moderne, bien insérée dans le site parisien.


Médiathèque Louis ARAGON / Architect : BRENAC & GONZALEZ / Photographie : Stefan TUCHILA


Trivaux Garenne / Architect : Gaëtan le PENHUEL / Photographie : N/A

Shenzhen Yi Tai Office

Architect : Urbanus Client : Tencent VS-A PM : Naree KIM

Shenzhen, China 2011-0126

Mission Competition Summary The Yi Tai competition was our first collaboration with URBANUS BJ. The idea was to create a unifying pattern for the towers. The honeycomb language became favourable as it had strong geometrical rules that allowed all the towers’ façade to be organized according to different floor heights, as well as different programs. The depth of the honeycomb pattern is controlled to provide an optimal solar shading condition.

Tencent Binhai Mansion Shenzhen, China 2011-0129

Services Competition Summary This was a very ambitious competition with OMA HK for the Headquarters of Tencent in Shenzhen. With an outstanding programmatic arrangement of large scale, OMA sculpts everything into a single tower with very deep office spaces. The curtain-wall reveals by its gradation the megastructures developed along with WSP. An Important design intent for the façade was to achieve a similar appeal for both day and night, which led to a natural gradation of transparency achieved through glass specifications.

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任务 竞赛 项目概述 怡泰竞赛项目是我们与都市实践首次合作的项目。设计 理念是为塔楼创造一个均质的图案。最终我们选择了蜂窝形作为 建筑外表皮的表达语言,因为它的几何规则可以使外表皮纹理有 序地组织起来以对应不同楼层和功能的空间分布。蜂窝形幕墙的 进深也是通过计算得出以优化室内遮阳效果。

Architect : OMA Client : Tencent VS-A PM : Gilles VANDERSTOCKEN 任务 竞赛 项目概述 这是位于深圳的腾讯总部大楼的竞赛项目,建筑师为 香港大都会建筑事务所。大都会对此建筑功能和体量的布置堪称 杰出,以具有雕塑感的大进深单塔楼实现了全部办公功能。幕墙 通过渐变效果以表现内部由科进配合设计的巨型结构。此次幕墙 设计的主要概念之一是实现一个外观在白昼夜晚均有相似表现的 幕墙系统,并通过对玻璃规格的控制来实现自然渐变的通透性体 验。


Pacemar

Architect : ZUNDEL & CRISTEA Client : PACEMAR SAS VS-A PM : Goktug GUNEY

Paris, France 2011-143

Services Competition design system & architectural optimization Summary The architectural intention of this project was to recreate the building envelope from scratch. The proposed solution is a low-tech ventilated double-skin façade, without any vertical support system. Ventilation is naturally regulated through the vertical gaps between the glasses and uses the natural wind of the river coast to cool the air gap of the double skin.

Nortia

Roubaix, France 2011-160

Services Concours, interface technique & architecture Résumé L’intention architecturale de ce projet était de recréer totalement l’enveloppe du bâtiment qui globalement subissait une rénovation assez lourde. VS-A a proposé une double peau low-tech, qui respire à travers les joints verticaux, en supprimant tout système porteur vertical. La ventilation est régulée naturellement grâce aux interstices verticaux entre les vitrages et utilise le vent naturel des berges pour refroidir la lame d’air.

Architect : SERIES & SERIES, WONK ARCHITECTURE, Olivier SABRAN Client : NORTIA VS-A PM : Quentin DESPLECHIN Contractor : Holbat Mission Structure & facade engineering Summary The extension of the Nortia headquarters looks like a gleaming prism on a glass base. In order to reflect its surrounding context, the upper volume was designed as an alternation between reflective glazed parts and mirror polished stainless steel panels, which are also implemented on the roof. The transparency of the ground floor is realized by an aluminum curtain wall.

Trivaux Garenne

Mission BET structure & façade Résumé L’extension du siège social de Nortia se présente sous la forme d’un prisme miroitant posé sur un soubassement en verre. Cherchant à réfléchir son contexte environnant, le volume supérieur a été pensé sur la base d’une alternance entre des parties vitrées réfléchissantes et un bardage en inox miroir également présent en toiture. La transparence du rez-de-chaussé est, quant à elle, matérialisée par un mur rideau à base de profilés aluminium.

Architect : Gaëtan le PENHUEL Client : Ville de Clamart VS-A PM : Myriem GUEDOUAR Contractor : Leon GROSSE

Clamart, France 2011-194

Mission Design, calculation, optimization and detailing Services System & architectural optimization Summary This sports center is part of the reconstruction of the Trivaux-Garennes school campus. We worked on the design and optimization of the timber framework with complex waveshaped roofing made out of aluminum standing seam panels. The polycarbonate curtain wall is supported by a steel structure, which also supports the timber framework.

Hôpital de Knokke

Mission Design, optimisation et détails, note de calculs Services Interface technique & architecture Résumé Ce centre sportif fait partie de la reconstruction du campus Trivaux Garennes. Nous avons travaillé sur la conception et l’optimisation de la charpente bois à géométrie complexe et de sa couverture ondulée réalisée avec des bacs aluminium à joints debout. Le mur rideau en polycarbonate est soutenu par une structure en acier, qui soutient elle-même la charpente en bois.

Architect : BURO II & ARCHI + I Client : Knokke-Heist VS-A PM : Ajeng ANGGITA

Knokke, Belgium 2011-211

Services System & architectural optimization Summary Ventilated double skin façade of the new Knokke Heist hospital. The outer skin consists of very large (4m x 1.70m) inclined fritted glass panes and horizontal colored glass panes held in place by structural glazing attachment pieces. The point-fixed structural glazing system to hold the inclined panes is made with die-cast aluminum pieces. The curved geometry of the building was optimized to create conical glazed volumes.

Services Interface technique & architecture Résumé Réalisation de la façade double peau ventilée du futur hôpital de Knokke Heist. Cette façade en écaille est composée de verres inclinés de très grande dimension (4m x 1.70m) et de verres horizontaux colorés maintenus par des attaches VEA. Les verres inclinés sont maintenus en 6 points à l’aide de pièces en aluminium moulées dessinées spécialement pour le projet et réalisées sur mesure. La géométrie courbe du bâtiment a été optimisée afin de pouvoir réaliser des volumes vitrés de forme conique.

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Porte Pouchet

Architect : Bruno MADER Client : SEMAVIP VS-A PM : Aurore Mayeur, Léa RICHERT

Paris, France 2011-225

Mission Schematic design to practical completion Summary this joint program integrating municipal workshops, a fire station and a sports field is positioned as a screen between the periphery and the city. The ‘pleated’ glass facade evokes the pace of the traffic, but the very large bay windows create visible breaks in the building, allowing a (visual) link to be made with the background. On the sports ground side, a wooden frame with integrated sliding shutters offers both the privacy required by the fire station located at the rear and the access to the walkways running along the length of the building. While on the ground floor, this predominantly glazed level acts as a base for the other floors.

CHU Poitiers

Architect : BRENAC & GONZALEZ Client :CHU de Poitiers VS-A PM : Quentin DESPLECHIN

Poitiers, France 2012-030

Mission Design development, construction drawings, tender package Summary Building consisting of two wings linked by a large central space. The façades have a pixelated appearance that was made possible by altering opaque pixels (aluminum panels in 4 shades) and glazed pixels (timber/aluminum frame). The central space is naturally lit by two large steel curtain walls as well as an ETFE canopy. The canopy membranes are screen printed. These membranes are movable; this mobility enables the quantity of light and the solar factor to be varied.

Serres de la Cité des Sciences Paris, France 2012-033

Summary Designed in 1983 by Adrien Fainsilber and Peter Rice, the greenhouses of the Cité des Sciences et de l’Industrie in Paris are a landmark in point-fixed structural glass systems. However, the building has seldom been maintained over the past 20 years, and some glass panes have been breaking at the rate of about one every other year. During the diagnosis phase, we highlighted that the delicate structural design requires good maintenance in order to allow the structure to breathe freely. Dirt may have started to obstruct relative rotations that may have resulted in glass breakage – even though the causes are certainly multiple.

Tolbiac Chevaleret

Mission APD PRO DCE Résumé Bâtiment constitué de deux ailes réunies l’une et l’autre par un grand vide central. Les façades ont un aspect pixélisés, cet aspect est rendu possible par une alternance de pixels opaques (cassettes aluminium, 4 teintes) et de pixels vitrés (châssis bois/ aluminium). Le vide central est éclairé naturellement par deux grands mur-rideaux acier ainsi qu’une verrière ETFE. Les membranes de la verrière sont sérigraphiées. Ces membranes sont mobiles ; cette mobilité permet de faire varier la quantité de lumière et donc le facteur solaire.

Architect : Adrien FAINSILBER & Peter RICE Client : Cité des Sciences (EPPDCSI) VS-A PM : François GRAVELINE Résumé Conçue en 1983 par Adrien Fainsilber et Peter Rice, les serres de la Cité des Sciences et de l’Industrie sont une référence incontournable pour les systèmes de V.E.A. (verre extérieur attaché). Cependant, l’ouvrage n’a été que trop rarement entretenu pendant 20 ans, et des vitrages se sont cassés à raison d’un tous les 2 ans environ. Pendant la phase de diagnostic, nous avons mis en valeur le fait que la conception structurelle sophistiquée demande un bon entretien pour qu’elle puisse continuer à respirer librement. La saleté a pu commencer à gêner la rotation des éléments entre eux ce qui a pu entraîner la casse des vitrages – même si les causes sont certainement multiples.

Architect : Marc MIMRAM Client : ICADE VS-A PM : Goktug GUNEY Contractor : EIFFAGE Construction

Paris, France 2012-072

Mission From competition design to construction Summary The architectural intention was to create a volumetric composition with superposition of transparent glass and perforated opaque façades. VS-A has developed two different unitized façade systems, which are able to meet all the challenges that presents to this bridging building over a high-speed train station in Paris. Unitized elements allow high thermal performances, modularity, high speed of construction, and a high tolerance to the important structural movements and vibrations caused by trains and the long span of the steel structure.

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Mission APS à AOR Résumé Ce programme mixte intégrant des ateliers municipaux, une caserne pompier et un terrain de sport se poste comme un écran entre le périphérique et la ville. La façade vitrée « plissée » s’accorde au rythme du trafic, mais les très grandes baies créant des failles dans le bâtiment permettent de faire le lien (visuel) avec l’arrière. Coté terrain de sport, les châssis avec volets coulissant intégrés offrent à la fois l’intimité nécessaire aux chambres des pompiers situées à l’arrière et l’accès vers les balcons filant le long du bâtiment. Alors qu’au Rez de chaussée, cet étage largement vitrés apparait comme un socle pour les autres étages.

Mission Concours à DCE Résumé L’intention architecturale était de créer un jeu volumétrique en superposant des façades vitrées transparentes et des façades opaques perforées. VS-A a développé deux systèmes de façades cadre préfabriqués capables de répondre à tous les défis de ce bâtiment-pont construit au-dessus de l’une des gares grandes lignes de Paris. Les cadres de façade préfabriqués ont une très bonne performance énergétique, offrent une modularité et une vitesse de pose qui réduit le temps de chantier, sont capables d’absorber des mouvements structurelles d’une charpente métallique élancée et des vibrations causées par le passage des trains.


Serres de la CItĂŠ des Sciences - Paris / Architect : Adrien FAINSILBER & Peter RICE


Waterfront

Architect : Cecil BALMOND Client : John Keels Holding VS-A PM : Léa RICHERT

Colombo, Sri Lanka 2012-088 Services System & architectural optimization, price optimization Summary The architect initially called us for the design of a complex and variable geometry façade. The complexity resulted from the use of a prefabricated industrial façade system (this façade represented 20,000m²) while preserving its geometrical features. We then proposed to design all the project façades (400,000m²) in keeping with this concept. The result was a cohesive framework façade concept, varying according to the geometrical, architectural and energy concepts.

Services Interface technique & architecture, optimisation des coûts Résumé L’architecte nous a initialement appelés pour la conception d’une façade à géométrie complexe et variable. La complexité résultait du fait d’utiliser un système de façade préfabriqué et industriel (cette façade représentait 20 000m²) tout en conservant la particularité géométrique. Ensuite, nous avons proposé de concevoir l’ensemble des façades du projet (400 000m²) en conservant le même concept. Il en résulte un système de façade cadre déclinable selon les concepts architecturaux géométriques et énergétiques.

Créteil Valophis

Architect : Michel FERRANET Architectes Client : OPH Valophis Habitat VS-A PM : Myriem GUEDOUAR

Créteil, France 2012-148

Mission From competition design to practical completion Summary Energy program of the project aims to be one of the first Positive Energy Office Building in Paris. Façades are composed by unitized double skin façade elements with timber structure. While wooden units offer an excellent thermal isolation, energy production is provided by photovoltaic panels integrated on the modules.

Season

Mission Concours à AOR Résumé Le projet se décompose en deux ouvrages : une résidence jeunes travailleurs accolé au siège des bureaux de l’OPH Valophis Habitat. Le programme énergétique du projet a été conçu de manière à ce que le bâtiment devienne l’un des premiers immeubles de bureaux à énergie positive de la région Parisienne. L’enveloppe des bureaux est réalisée en façade mur rideau composée de modules intégrant une partie transparente et une partie opaque. Tandis que la partie transparente permet la pénétration de la lumière dans le bâtiment, la partie opaque composée d’un caisson prismatique intégrant un panneau photovoltaïque apporte au bâtiment l’énergie nécessaire à son bon fonctionnement..

Architect : Jean-Paul VIGUIER + Agence SEARCH Client : SEFRI CIME VS-A PM : Lin LU

Paris, France 2012-151

Services System & architectural optimization, price optimization Summary Lot 5 of ZAC Clichy Batignolles in Paris is designed to receive offices and commercial equipment and aiming for HQE/BREEAM/LEED sustainability. All facades are studied in accordance to their environmental context in order to develop the most economic and efficient solar protection. The south-west façade outer solar protection is especially studied to achieve a very high solar protection performance while keeping a large glass facade and sufficient natural lighting.

Le Conex Lille, France 2012-153

Architect : CHARTIER CORBASSON Client : ICADE VS-A PM : Harshad SHITOLE, Nathalie SIMONNEAU, Nicolas DELPLANQUE Services System & architectural optimization, on-site test, price optimization Summary Located in downtown Lille, this office building was designed to offer new urban connections within an area divided by its various scales and typologies. The idea of a fluid, kinetic shape was therefore developed as an economic and light wooden framework façade system including vertical solar protection. The shape and density of these outer solar protectors are the result of a sunlight analysis.

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Services Interface technique & architecture, optimisation des coûts Résumé Ce projet de bureaux et de commerces s’inscrit dans le projet d’aménagement urbain des anciennes friches de la SNCF. La situation aux abords immédiats des voies ferrées soulève la problématique de l’entretien des façades depuis l’intérieur, auquel s’ajoutent l’intégration des protections solaire pour un projet qui fonctionne sans climatisation. Le fonctionnement et la menuiserie de chaque types de façades sont minutieusement étudiés pour répondre à l’image architecturale ainsi qu’à l’ensemble des contraintes techniques. Des murs rideaux de grande hauteur sont suspendus au RdC afin d’éviter les vibrations lors du passage dues trains.

Services Interface technique & architecture, test sur site, optimisation des coûts Résumé Situé en centre-ville, cet immeuble de bureau a été pensé pour offrir à la ville de nouvelles connections urbaines dans un quartier actuellement découpé par des échelles et des typologies différentes. L’idée d’une forme fluide et cinétique a donc été développée sur la base d’un système de façade léger et économique en ossature bois comprenant des brise-soleil verticaux. Une étude de l’ensoleillement des façades a permis de définir le rythme et le nombre de ces protections solaires extérieures. bâtiment l’énergie nécessaire à son fonctionnement.


Yidian Offices / Architect : Jaques FERRIER / Photographie : Jonathan LEIJONHUFVUD


Yidian Office

Architect : Jacques FERRIER Architecture Client : Shangai Yidian Group VS-A PM : Lin LU

Shanghai, China 2012-158

Services Structure Design + Price Optimization + Detailing Summary Yidian building facades are characterized by vertical ceramic fins, which have a double functionality: solar protection and architectural aesthetics. Our research with the architects focused on the optimization of the structure and materials as well as the construction cost. We also assisted the local contractor in the study of constructive feasibility and detail development.

Quai Ouest

Architect : BRENAC & GONZALEZ Client : EMERIGE VS-A PM : Quentin DESPLECHIN

Boulogne-Billancourt, France 2012-158 Mission Schematic design, design development, construction drawings, tender package Summary The building is in a prime position at the intersection of the Quai du Point du Jour, du Pont d’Issy and between the CANAL+ and TF1 television stations, opposite the river Seine, with a 150 m south and west façade. Its restoration is a major project. The architects’ concept is to give the effect of a diamond on the street-facing façades and to make the back simple and uniform. VS-A is working on all the building’s façades. The design work focused on the economy of the ventilated panels in an origami pattern, which contributed to some extent in the size reduction of the glass panes, while reinforcing the architectural image of the project.

Interikea

Bayonne, France 2012-172

Mission APS-APD-PRO-DCE Résumé Le bâtiment idéalement situé au croisement du Quai du Point du Jour, du Pont d’Issy, entre CANAL+ et TF1, face à la Seine, et offrant une façade de 150 m sud et ouest conduit à une réhabilitation lourde. Le concept des architectes est de donner l’effet d’un diamant sur les façades rue et une simple uniformisation des façades arrière. VS-A travaille sur l’ensemble des façades du bâtiment, le travail sur l’économie de projet des caissons ventilés formant l’origami, qui a consisté en partie à réduire la dimension des verres, a renforcer l’image architecturale du projet.

Architect : SIGN Architecture Client : INTERIKEA VS-A PM : Lucas BERGERIE, Nathalie SIMONNEAU Services system & architectural optimization Summary Located within Ametzondo zone on the edge of Bayonne, the IKEA shopping center is due to be completed in 2016. For this project, we have been commissioned as facade experts to prepare the tender documents.

Water At-Traction

Services interface technique & architecture Résumé Situé au sein de la zone d’Ametzondo, en périphérie de Bayonne, le forum commercial IKEA devrait voir le jour courant 2016. Le bureau d’étude façade VS-A a été missionné sur ce projet en tant qu’expert en menuiseries extérieures et ouvrages vitrés afin d’apporter ses compétences au projet en vue d’établir un dossier de consultation.

Architect : Face B Client : Concours International ArchTriumph VS-A PM : Arnaud MALRAS

Paris, France 2012

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任务 结构设计,成本优化,节点设计 项目概述 本项目幕墙以垂直陶瓷竖挺为主要设计理念。竖挺同时 提供美学和遮阳的功能性。我们的研究专注在结构,材料,和成 本优化,同时协助当地承包商研究建造可行性和节点扩初设计。

Services Competition Summary With the theme of «The Narrow Streets of Paris», the footbridge designed by VS-A as a structural design office in the heart of the French capital goes against the view of the «Grand Boulevards of Paris». Near the imposing Pont Neuf, the Water At-traction footbridge reclaims the traditional structure of the bridge by working as a vault: it is made up of taut cables from one bank of the Seine to the other, accentuating the structural lightness of this new addition to the Parisian pedestrian map. Unlike traditional columns that work using compression, ties supported by the bottom of the river modify the geometry of this footbridge over the Seine and invites the user to get closer to the water. The deck is made up of multiple UHPFRC «beads», playing the role of compression struts between the various cables.

Services Concours Résumé Avec pour thème le « Paris des petites ruelles », la passerelle piétonne conçue par VS-A en tant que bureau d’étude Structure, en plein coeur de la capitale Française, prend à contre-pied le « Paris des grands boulevard ». Jouxtant l’imposant Pont Neuf, la passerelle Water At-traction prend à revers structurel le pont traditionnel fonctionnant en voûte : elle est constituée de câbles en tension d’une rive à l’autre de la Seine, accentuant la légèreté structurelle de ce nouvel élément du parcours piéton Parisien. En contre-pieds des piles traditionnelles travaillant en compression, des tirants prenant appui au fond du Fleuve modifient la géométrie de la passerelle au-dessus de la Seine, et invitent l’usager à serapprocher de l’eau. Le tablier est constitué de multiples « perles» en BFUP, jouant le rôle d’entretoise en compression entre les différents câbles.


Quai Ouest / Architect : BRENAC & GONZALEZ / Photographie : Julien Gonin


Siège de la Caisse d’Epargne

Architect : Architecture Studio Client : Caisse d’Epargne VS-A PM : Clément DUFOUR LEFORT

Bordeaux, France 2013-019

Services Complete, trials at CSTB, new building. Expertises glass specification, solar protection, thermal simulation, building maintenance Summary Search for high thermal performance and a good solar factor with interior Venetian blinds to obtain triple certification. The combination of the façades was realised in VEP façade frames, which allows one to obtain an architectural continuity between the enclosed and covered work, and the work on the dome of the building. Tests were carried out at CSTB to validate the solar performance factor of a building: double windows + interior blind = Sgs 0.13 during the conception phase.

Verrière Parly II

Client : Espace Expansion VS-A PM : Thomas DUMEIGE

Le Chesnay, France 2013-821

Mission Diagnostic of one of the skylight Summary The renovation of the Parly 2 mall is accompanied by a heavy modification to the glass, which covers the entirety of the Place St Michel. The new project which oversees the replacement of a partially opaque glass with another fully glazed glass window is accompanied by a full study, allowing the ambience of the mall not to be degraded, but to be rather improved. The creation of an opaque frame on the upper extremity of the glass construction allows specifically the avoidance of direct sunlight which could be damaging to the glass. The placement of the glass composition assures an equivalent solar protection despite the significant increase in the surface area of the glass.

Enovos

Services system & architectural optimization, on-site test Summary As part of a technical and experimental appraisal application for a Five-S façade system on a timber structure, we undertook our development work in close collaboration with the contractor: -a weight cushioning system to hold the bonded exterior panels -a security package for structural glazing We also studied the thermal impact of the façade elements and we recommended some improvements for opaque and openable parts.

Drancy, France 2013-834

Services Interface technique & architecture, test sur site Résumé Dans le cadre d’une demande d’ ATEx pour un systéme de façade Five-S appliqué sur une ossature bois, nous avons développé étroitement avec l’entreprise: - un systéme de reprise de poids des panneaux VEC par calage - un dispositif de sécurité des vitrages collés Nous avons également étudié l’impact thermique des éléments de façade et préconisé des solutions d’amélioration du système pour les parties opaques et parties ouvrantes.

Architect : HÉLÈNE FRICOUT CASSIGNOL Architectes Client : Ministère de l’Intérieur VS-A PM : Lin LU Mission Technical interface and architecture Summary This is a renovation of the façade for a group of dwellings (over 400 dwellings) in a police barracks in a Parisian suburb. This renovation plans for the intervention of an occupied site, thus requiring a complete prefabrication and disturbancefree implementation. The pre-made frame unit meets the constraints of occultation, maintenance exclusively from the interior, aeration for the living area, and fire regulations C+D, and constitutes a harmonious combination of different elements.

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Mission Diagnostic Résumé La rénovation du mail du centre commercial Parly 2 s’accompagne d’une modification lourde de la verrière couvrant l’intégralité de la Place St Michel. Le nouveau projet, qui prévoyait le remplacement d’une verrière partiellement opaque par une autre intégralement vitrée, s’est accompagnée d’une étude complète permettant de justifier que celui-ci ne dégrade pas l’ambiance du mail, voire l’améliore. La création d’une frange de châssis opaque en extrémité haute de la verrière a permis notamment d’éviter un ensoleillement direct néfaste sur les vitrines. La mise au point des compositions de vitrages assure une protection solaire équivalente malgré l’augmentation significative de la surface vitrée.

Architect : Jim CLEMES Client : ENOVOS VS-A PM : Emilie JOET

Luxembourg, Luxembourg 2013-827

Gendarmerie Pichard

Mission Complète. Résumé Recherche de hautes performances thermiques et d’un très bon facteur solaire avec des stores intérieurs vénitiens afin d’obtenir une triple certification : Labels Haute Qualité Environnementale (HQE), Bâtiment Energie POSitive (BEPOS), Green Office. L’ensemble des façades est réalisé en façades cadres VEP, permettant d’obtenir une continuité architecturale entre les ouvrages participant au clos et couvert et les ouvrages réalisant l’enveloppe du bâtiment. Des essais ont été exécutées au CSTB pour valider la performance du facteur solaire d’un complexe : double vitrage + store intérieur = Sgs 0,13 durant la phase de conception.

Services Interface technique & architecture Résumé Il s’agit d’une réhabilitation de la façade d’un ensemble de logements d’habitation (plus de 400 logements) d’une caserne de gendarmes dans la banlieue parisienne. Cette réhabilitation va être réalisée en site occupé. Cela exige donc une préfabrication complète et la mise en œuvre sans nuisance. Le bloc de châssis préfabriqué répond aux contraintes de l’occultation, de l’entretien exclusif depuis l’intérieur, de l’aération pour la pièce de vie, et au règlement feu C+D, il constitue une combinaison harmonieuse des différents éléments.


ESSAIS CSTB : Détails du Prototype

* *

* *

Echelle non conforme

Caisse d’Epargne Prototype / Architect : Architecture Studio / Photographie & Détails : VS-A


Sempio Fermentation Institute Osong Korea 2013-901

Architect : VS-A.KR Client : Sempio Foods VS-A PM : Naree KIM, Jaeman PARK, Sunhoo KIM

Mission Concept Summary Installation of external solar protection over the existing research center building, to create a new facade image for the brand, as well as solar protection function & reduced cooling load.

Mapo Library Renovation Seoul, Korea 2013-903

Mission Exhibition Summary Renovation project of library of Mapo-gu government office. Newly constructed Mapo government office building had serious overheat problems due to inclined fully glazed south oriented facades. We designed «double skin» bookshelves which acts as solar shading for the interior users. By adding these double skin booksheves, overheat problem has been reduced without complicated glass replacement.

Sciale facade

Architect : Ko Kiwoong architects Client : Mapo-gu government office VS-A PM : Robert-Jan van SANTEN, Naree KIM 단계 SD 업무 내용 마포구청 도서관 리노베이션 프로젝트. 준공한지 얼마안되는 마포구청의 도서관은 남동/ 남서향에 위치하여, 일사에 취약하게 경사진 전면 유리 파사드로 둘러싸여 있어, 과열 문제가 심각하였다. 도서관의 책장을 파사드에 맡게 디자인 하여, 책장과 책이 내부 사용자에게 차양 역할을 하여, 유리 교체 없이 최소한의 공사로 과열 현상을 줄일 수 있도록 하였다.

Architect : VS-A.HK Client : SCIALE VS-A PM : Robert-Jan van SANTEN

Beirut, Lebanon 2013-1310

Mission Concept Design Summary Due to a lack of harmony between a few buildings in a project development in Beirut, VS-A.HK was asked to design an envelope that could effectively bring the buildings together. A new appeal was brought to these buildings through various proposals using stretch metal as the primary material. The options explored very organic waves capable of such material, as well as more geometric grid designs with staggered panels.

Taikang HQ Beijing CBD Beijing, China 2013-1330

Mission Competition Design Summary A competition in the Beijing CBD brings BIG and VS-A.HK together to design a monumental tower. Very different proposals were explored at length in order to find the most iconic design for such an ubiquitous site. The client finally chose to proceed with an arrangement of geodesic domes with large atriums within for natural light and leisure space. The result is an amazing Bibendum-looking double skin façade, with gradation on the glasses according to the orientation.

206

단계 기획설계 업무 내용 기존 연구소에 외부차양을 설치해, 미적으로 연구소 이미지를 반영한 외관을 설계하고, 기능적으로 적절한 차양효과와 함께 냉방에너지 부하를 줄이고자 하였다.

Mission Création de concept Résumé Le manque d’harmonie entre plusieurs bâtiments d’un même projet à Beyrouth a justifié le travail de conception qui a été demandé à VS-A.HK. Objectif : concevoir une enveloppe pouvant unir efficacement les bâtiments les uns aux autres. Diverses propositions où le métal déployé était utilisé comme matière première ont été avancées pour unir ces bâtiments. Les différentes options ont envisagé aussi bien des vagues très organiques réalisables dans ce matériau que des conceptions de grille plus géométriques avec des panneaux décalés.

Architect : BIG Client : TAIKANG LIFE VS-A PM : Kevin CHENG 任务 竞赛 项目概述 BIG和VS-A.HK合作的竞赛项目:在北京的中央商务 区设计一个有纪念意义的塔楼。各种差别很大的方案都进行了对 比研究以针对这一独特的场地选出一个最为有标志性的设计。客 户最终选择了以球形穹顶般的外形并带有一个大型中庭来提供自 然采光和室内的休闲空间。最后的设计结果是像米其林轮胎人似 的造型的双层幕墙,玻璃因其朝向而呈现不同层次。


UN - Ensemble Rheinbalkon

Rhein

026795

1 Geschoss

Gräser

Shangai Bund Pavillon

Architect : URBANUS Client : Private VS-A PM : Robert-Jan van SANTEN

schoss

1 Ge

max. schosse 3 Ge

29 Geschosse

Shanghai, China 2013-1333 Rasen modeliert

Städtebau

In Weiterführung eines geschichtlich-städtebaulichen Dialogs bindet sich ein klarer geometrischer Baukörper räumlich sensibel ein. Die städtebauliche Dominante des Langen Eugen – scheinbar unnahbar - erhält mit spielerischer Leichtigkeit ein Pendant, ein kleines Brüderchen. Es steht im nah und konkurriert doch nicht mit ihm. Die Offenheit der Anlage zur Rheinaue bleibt ebenso erhalten wie alle wichtigen funktionalen und visuellen Beziehungen.

Fußweg

Stauden und Bodendecker

17 Geschosse Rasen modeliert

Entree

Mission Design Development Summary URBANUS invited us to re-think the possibilities of the design of a traditional Chinese court and garden. This concept then made manifest through our structural studies and cladding solutions to create a module that can be stacked and arranged in any configuration. Our proposal was a cubic threedimensional structural module with polycarbonate cover plates that could be attached on each of its six sides. The sculpture is intended to be displayed as a temporary installation near the Shanghai Bund Landschaft

8 Geschosse

Der Campus Park der UN bekommt durch die präzise Platzierung des Neubaus ein neues Gewicht. Die Entscheidung das neue Haus kompakt und zentral zu bauen, verleiht den Außenraum größtmöglicher Zusammenhang und Großzügigkeit: Und damit ein ausgesprochenen Parkcharakter. Die alte und neue Gebäude – jeweils Zeitzeuge unterschiedlicher baulicher und politischer Epochen- begegnen sich als Bausteine verstreut in einem grünen, offenen Park. Der Außenraum nimmt sich zurück und bildet auf informelle und natürlich anmutende Weise der notwendige Erholungs- und Rückzugsraum für Werknehmer und Besucher. Die momentane Parkanlage mit ihren modellierten Rasenflächen und Baumgruppen mit Unterpflanzungen wird respektiert und weitestgehend erhalten bzw. ergänzt und betont. Inmitten der Diversität der Gebäude wird im Park bewusst auf formale, repräsentierende Gesten verzichtet.

Arbeitsatmosphäre

任务 扩初设计 项目概述 都市实践邀请我们一同重新思考中国传统院落和庭院 设计的新的可能性。我们着重通过结构分析和包层方案发展出了 使用可互相连接的单元来实现各种造型的设计概念。我们的方案 是以聚碳酸酯为外壳的立方体结构单元在其六个面上均可以互相 连接来实现。最后作品的设计主要为了在上海外滩作为临时装置 来展出。

Architektur

Der zylindrische Turm als geometrischer Körper welche die Anlage der Bestandsbauten am architektonisch klarsten, das Raumprogramm am funktionalsten und gesamtökonomisch am nachhaltigsten ergänzt – ist geprägt durch Flexibilität und Atmosphäre für die Nutzer. Jedes Geschoss hat eine ideale Größe für die Kombination aller Anforderungen an Einzel- und Gruppenarbeitsplätzen bei optimaler Anordnung von Besprechungszonen und Erschliessungen zwischen den Ebenen. Das Gefühl der Arbeit an der gemeinsamen Sache ist architektonisch rundum schlüssig und mit innenarchitektonisch konseqeuent auf die Bedürfnisse der Mitarbeiter und deren erfolgreicher Arbeit zugeschnitten. Der Tagesrhythmus prägt das Tagesgeschehen, die Ausblicke geben Orientierung und Bezug zum Ziel des eigenen Schaffens. Im 12. Stock ist eine Gemeinschaftsebene angeordnet in der Mittagspausen, Afterwork und andere Begegnungen ungezwungen stattfinden können und die allen Mitarbeitern offen steht. Konstruktiv und energetisch ist das Gebäude durch eine Doppelfassade und mehreren Schichten geprägt. Die Kontrolle von Licht- und Luftzufuhr kann individuell geregelt werden. Die angestrebte BNB Gold Zertifikzierung soll durch ein ganzheitlich miniamlenergetisches, ressourcenschonendes und nachhaltig gesamtwirtschaftliches Bau-, Unterhalts- und Klimatisierungskonzept möglichst „Low-Tech“ realisiert werden.

Galleria Department Store Schnitt AA 1:500

Blickbeziehungen

Busan, Korea 2013-1336

Schnitt BB 1:500

+66,5 m

+66,5 m

+57,5 m

+57,5 m

Einzelbüros Doppelbüros Referatsleiter Abteilungsleiter Staatssekretär Besprechung Teeküche Lager

+54,0 m +50,5 m +47,0 m +43,5 m +40,0 m

Konzentration +47,0 m +43,5 m +40,0 m

Terrasse

Terrasse Gruppenbüros Besprechung Teeküche Lager

+35,0 m +30,0 m +26,5 m

Architect : DA group + Henning Larsen architects Client : Hanhwa VS-A PM : NAREE KIM

+35,0 m +30,0 m +26,5 m

Austausch

+23,0 m

Gruppenbüros Besprechung Teeküche Lager Videokonferenzraum

+19,5 m

+12,5 m

+7,5 m

Empfang

+0,0 m

+0,0 m

Konferenze

Dokumenten Magazin 600 m² Zentralarchiv 215 m²

*

Gruppenbüros

Besprchung

Mission Competition Summary Competition for a new shopping center in Busan. Galleria is a famous shopping center chain in Korea which gathers all luxurious brands. In order to keep the architectural identity of Galleria, we and the architects designed two buildings: a modern one and a more classical one. The facades are made out of ceramic, a local and hand-crafted material. Small and subtle reflexion differences define each building.

Konferenz

Konferenzraum Foyer

+7,5 m

+16,0 m

Kommunikation

Grundisse 1:500

Empfang

Konferenz

Einzelbüros

Erdgeschoss

Konzentration

Austausch

3-6 Geschoss

Konferenzraum Foyer

10-16 Geschoss

7-8 Geschoss

Gruppenbüros Besprechung Teeküche Lager Videokonferenzraum

Einzelbüros Doppelbüros Büros Referatsleiter Abteilungsleiter Staatssekretär Besprechung Besprechung Teeküche Lager

Gruppenbüros Besprechung Teeküche Lager

Notausgang

Aufzug

Toiletten

Kommunikation

2 Geschoss

Sicherheit UN, Büroraum Pförtnerraum Erste-Hilfe-Raum Mutter/Vater/Kind-Zimmer Postverteilerraum

Gaulle Straße

* Passivhaus Konzept

Serviceraum

Charles de

1

17

2

Entspannung

Terrasse

660 m²

3

Rhein

P fer

nnu

esema

Str

aße

Str

Sonnenschutz Bewegliche Lamellen schützen vor direkter Sonneneinstrahlung und steuern den Lichteinfall

4

1 Geschoss

10...16

Konzentration 3000 m²

5

s

chos

1 Ges

8:00

16:00 . max chosse 3 Ges

6

Erdwärmelage

9

12:00

Entspannung

Wärmeschutz Maximaler Wärmeschutz an der Schattenseite

29 Geschosse

Einzelbüros 16m² (x78) Doppelbüros 20 m² (x39) Büros Referatsleiter 22 m² (x16) Abteilungsleiter 30 m² Staatssekretär 35 m² Besprechung 50 m² (x3) Besprechung 25 (x2) Teeküche 10 m² (x5) Lager 5 m² (x5)

단계 공모전 업무 내용 부산 갤러리아 백화점 공모전 2등작. 명품의 성격에 따라 동/서관을 구분하여 차별성을 갖는 갤러리아 본점의 전통에 따라, 형태와 외피의 재료는 갖지만 그 재질과 시각적 효과가 다른 두 빌딩 파사드를 디자인하였다. 파사드는 지역성을 갖으면서도 친환경적이고 오염에도 강한 자기 (세라믹)를 사용하여, 수공예적인 느낌이 명품 백화점이라는 갤러리아의 이미지와 부합하도록 하였다.

Terrasse 660 m²

660 m²

1

7,8

Solaranlage auf dem Dach

17 Geschosse 17 Geschosse

Austausch 1056 m²

P 16:00 2

Gruppenbüros 856m² Besprechung 25 (x2) Teeküche 10 m² (x2) Lager 5 m² (x2)

8:00 12:00

Betonkernaktivierung Kühlung Geschlossene Doppelfassade verhindert das Aufheizen der Büros und sorgt für natürliche Ventilation an der Schattenseite

3

3,4,5,6

Kommunikation 2750 m²

8 Geschosse

Lüftungswärmerme rückgewinnung

Gruppenbüros 2260m² Besprechung 25m² (x4) Teeküche 10 m² (x4) Lager 5 m² (x4) Videokonferenzraum 30m² (x2)

4

Doppelfassade

UN Tower

8:00

16:00 12:00

0,1,2

Ankunft

5

1110 m²

Kurt-Schumacher-Straße

Platz der Vereinten Nationen

0

Fußgängerweg

Grünfläche

Verbindung mit AAH

5 10

20

Grenze UN Campus

50

Zugang

Wärmebrückenfreiheit

100

-1

Untergeschoss 1600 m²

Bestehende Bäume

Bonn, Germany 2013-1340

Konferenzraum 120 m² Foyer 40m² Sicherheit UN, Büroraum 15m² (x2) Pförtnerraum 17m Erste-Hilfe-Raum 15m² M/V/Kind-Zimmer 15m² (x2) Postverteilerraum 29m² Dokumenten Magazin 1: 600 m² Zentralarchive 215 m² Dokumenten Magazin 2: 150 m Serveraum 85 m² Lager 25 m²(x2) Büromüll 20 m² (x2)

Mission Competition Design Summary Matthias BAUER, a former architect of OMA, invited us to join this open competition for the UN Tower in Bonn, Germany. The strength of the design came from its internal organization which has a tight geometric relationship with the surroundings and the city. The facades were necessary to convey this link with the site by having different conditions for light transmission and solar protection. The proposal finished at 7th place among all the public submissions.

Serres de Roland Garros Paris, France 2013-1341

Mission Construction drawing, tender package, contractor’s drawing review, site control Summary The new tennis court from Roland Garros is well placed between four greenhouses that make sure the project is properly integrated in the Jardin des Serres d’Auteuil. The main concern of this project was to define and develop the complex geometry of the dome’s glass structure. The glass was placed like scales in two directions thanks to a system of woodworking that allows for such stacking. This woodwork was originally conceived with folded steel sheet metal but evolved through working in collaboration with the firm to become a series of carefully measured aluminium extrusions. An exterior motorised

Architect : Matthias BAUER VS-A PM : Robert-Jan van SANTEN

Mission Conception pour le concours Résumé Matthias BAUER, ancien architecte d’OMA, nous a invités à rejoindre ce concours ouvert pour une tour des Nations Unies à Bonn, en Allemagne. La puissance de la conception est venue de son organisation interne qui entretient une relation géométrique étroite avec les environs et la ville elle-même. Pour véhiculer ce lien avec le site, les façades ont été indispensables, notamment leurs différentes conditions de transmission lumineuse et de protection solaire. Le projet est arrivé à la 7e place.

Architect : Marc MIMRAM Client : Fédération Française de Tennis VS-A PM : Emilie JOET, Karen DARAND Mission PRO / DCE / VISA / DET Résumé Le nouveau court de tennis de Roland Garros s’inscrit entre quatres serres horticoles qui assurent l’intégration du projet dans le jardin des serres d’Auteuil. L’enjeu de ce projet a été la mise au point et le développement de la géométrie complexe de l’enveloppe des serres. Les vitrages sont disposés en écailles dans deux directions grâce à un système de menuiseries permettant ce décallage. Ces menuiseries, conçues à l’origine en tôles acier pliées ont évolué au cours des échanges avec l’entreprises vers une filière d’extrusion aluminium sur mesure. Un système de protection solaire extérieur motorisé a été mis au point selon la même géométrie afin de respecter l’esthétique particulière du

207


52 Champs Elysées

Architect : PCA Client : Fonds Souverain Qatari VS-A PM : Larissa BLASER

Paris, France 2013-1346

Services Technical interface & architecture, optimization of costs Mission Summary Since its construction, the housing complex at 52 Champs Elysées has been the object of diverse modifications obscuring the understanding of the original building. During renovation work on the building, common problems associated with a building of heritage value were addressed. How can we better understand period works without destroying them? How can we improve works of the 20th century to meet the performance standards of the 21st? Application to restore the Maison des Sciences de l’Homme (human sciences building), designed by architects LODS, DEPONDT, and BEAUCLAIR.

Institut de France

Architect : Marc BARANI Client : Institut de France VS-A PM : Marion BERGERIE

Paris, France 2013-1352

Mission design development to practical completion Services system & architectural optimisation Summary Project for the restoration and creation of an auditorium at the Institut de France. VS-A was called upon specifically for the façade design. To stay as close as possible to the architect’s intentions, we have developed three parallel pre-project proposals. The complexity resides in the creation of a façade which must be as inconspicuous as possible, as transparent as possible, with the highest possible specifications.

Learning Center Services System & architectural optimization, price optimization Summary The project’s main concern was to make the glass as transparent as possible with a parallelepipedic weft. Geometric concept: While the work may be faceted, the panes themselves are flat (no curved glass for this project). The dome is constructed in a symmetrical fashion according to the horizontal and vertical axes that pass through the centre. The arc’s angle of division is constant. This optimisation is done in such a way in order to have the minimum amount of triangular glass as well as the largest number of identical glass.

Calais, France 2013-1378

Résumé L’enjeu du projet était de créer la verriere la plus transparante possible avec un tramage parallèlipédique. Concept géométrique : L’ouvrage est donc facetté mais toutes les facettes sont planes (pas de vitrage cintré sur le projet ). Ce dôme est construit de façon symétrique selon les axes horizontaux et verticaux passant en son centre. L’angle de division des arcs est constant. Cette optimisation est menée de manière à avoir un minimum de vitrage triangulaire ainsi que le plus grand nombre de vitrages identiques.

Architect : Face B Client : Ville de Calais VS-A PM : Lucas BERGERIE, Arnaud MALRAS, Aurore MAYEUR Mission Primary sketch to practical completion Summary Sports facilities with a hexagonal design comprising a primary concrete structure with a smooth façade, much of which is glazed. This single skin façade combines transparent and opaque sections. The challenge is this: to design fine details with a variety of products in order to optimize both production and implementation costs; to preserve optimal performance in accordance with the requirements fixed by regulation; and as a whole, to create a relatively economical casing combining architectural and technical qualities.

208

Services Interface technique & architecture Résumé Projet de réhabilitation et de création d’un auditorium à l’institut de France.VS-A a été contacté spécifiquement pour la conception de la façade sur cours. Afin de travailler au plus proche des intensions de l’architecte, nous avons développé 3 propositions en parallèles. Toute la complexité réside en la création d’une façade qui doit à la fois se faire oublier, être la plus transparente possible mais aussi la plus performantes possible.

Architect : AUER WEBER Client : Région Nord Pas de Calais VS-A PM : Léa RICHERT, Thomas DUMEIGE

Villeneuve d’Ascq, France 2013-1374

Quai de la Moselle

Services Interface technique & architecture, optimisation des coûts Mission Phase ESQ à AOR Résumé Depuis sa construction l’ensemble immobilier du 52 Champs Elysées a fait l’objet de diverses modifications obscurcissant la compréhension du bâtiment d’origine. Dans le travail de restructuration d’ensemble du bâtiment, les problématiques courantes liées à un bâtiment de valeur patrimoniale ont été abordées. Comment mieux connaître des ouvrages d’époque sans les détruire ? Comment améliorer des ouvrages du XXième siècle pour atteindre les performances du XXIième ?

Mission ESQ à AOR Résumé Equipement sportif à plan hexagonal composé d’une structure primaire béton habillée d’une façade lisse en grande partie vitrée. Cette façade simple peau associe des parties transparentes et des parties opaques. L’enjeu est de concevoir des détails subtils avec des produits de gamme afin d’optimiser à la fois les coûts de production et de mise en œuvre; de conserver des performances optimales répondant aux exigences fixées par la réglementation; l’ensemble dans l’optique de réaliser une enveloppe relativement économique associant qualités architecturales et techniques.


Learning Center / Architect : AUER & WEBER / Photographie : LILLIAD


Xinjiang Cultural Center

Architect : Zhubo Design Group Co Client : Xinjiang Cultural Center VS-A PM : Hyejun AN

Xinjiang, China 2013-1391

Mission SD Summary During the extension of Xinjiang Cultural Center, VS-A designed a 30m high and 150m long glass atrium box between the existing building and a new building. The main design achievement is to create highly bright and comfortable indoor environment. To give high level of transparency, all opaque façade elements were minimized in size. Horizontal gaskets inbetween slightly staggered glass panels and trapezoidal profile mullions create reduced horizontal and vertical lines and shadows on the façade. For short edge façade, cable structure façade was proposed to maximize transparency.

Désiré Colombe

Nantes, France MBE - PÔLE ASSOCIATIF - NANTES (44) - 2013-EN COURS

VS-A

2013-1403

任务 方案设计 项目概述 新疆文化中心扩展项目需要通过中庭空间将现有的建筑 和新建筑相连接。 VS-A.HK设计了一个30米高,长150m的, 几乎看不出幕墙接缝的玻璃中庭。通过应用交错玻璃面板,边截 面梁,小型垫片,以及一个简单的索桁架,最大地优化了光照条 件。这个项目的挑战来自于需要适应乌鲁木齐激烈气候,防止温 室效应和冷凝,使斜屋顶可以很容易地排出雨水或融雪,并提供 一些遮阳以防止过热。还在天窗下安装了一层悬挂式遮阳,以进 一步漫射自然光营造温馨泛着舒适的环境。

Architect : LEIBAR & SEIGNEURIN Client : Nantes Métropole Aménagement VS-A PM : Léa RICHERT

ingénierie de l’enveloppe

MAITRISE D’OUVRAGE

Nantes Métropole Mission Schematic designAménagement to tender package Summary Association centre: A profile system made of EQUIPE DE MAITRISE D’OEUVRE Leibar & Seigneurin aluminium was developed in a way to support the VEC glass, but MISSION also so that itComplète could adapt to the work of the project. It is in fact APS à AOR the geometryPhase of the sub-frame support, upon which this profile SURFACE is fixed, thatFaçade creates the different types of this project’s façades. 800 m² This in turnMONTANT creates DES an TRAVAUX illusion of naked glass (rather deep subFaçadeboxes 1.05 M€(the (HT) sub-frame becomes great structures frame), or even CONCEPTS & SPECIFICITES of waterproof steel, the VEC glass enclosing them), just like the Réhabilitation d’un bâtiment classé au cœur de Nantes. Jeux de desthe vitrages. Vitrages VEC dormer roofsnusof entrance. Housing: Aluminium frame in sur profil aluminium extrudé rationnalisé sur l’ensemble du projet. which the sizes and the positioning varies in the bay window CHEF DE PROJET VS-A (naked inside, Léa naked RICHERT outside...). These frames of all heights also have to integrate the double French windows.

Mission APS à DCE Résumé Pôle associatif: Un système de profil un aluminium a été développé de façon à supporter le vitrage VEC, mais également à pouvoir s’adapter à l’ensemble des ouvrages du projet. C’est en effet la géométrie du pré-cadre support sur lequel est fixé ce profil qui crée les différents types de façades rencontrés sur le projet, créant alors un jeu de nus des vitrages (pré-cadre plus ou moins profonds), ou encore de boites (le pré-cadre devient alors des grandes structure en acier étanche, tel des coques de bateau, le vitrage VEC venant en fermeture de ces éléments), tel les chiens-assis en toiture ou les SAS d’entrée. Logements: Châssis en aluminium dont les largeurs ou le positionnement dans la baie varient (nu intérieur, nu extérieur...). Ces châssis toute hauteur, doivent à la fois intégrer des ouvrants à la française.

© Leibar & Seigneurin

Macau Octagon Tunnel

Architect : Fred & Fred Client : Fred & Fred VS-A PM : Robert-Jan van SANTEN

Macau, China 2013-1404

Mission R&D Summary This R&D project was carried out for Fred&Fred to extend the range of application of their glass modules with an integrated LED. The result is an amazing 360° illuminated tunnel wall that is able to project computer animated images with a transparent immaterial floating glass floor. An integrated A/C system allows for this octagonal tunnel to be installed in any climate. The outer skin is also illuminated in a similar manner to create an attractive enclosure.

© Leibar & Seigneurin

Huizhou Towers

© Leibar & Seigneurin

Huizhou, China 2013-1416

Mission Competition Summary VS-A.HK has been invited to join the China International team for this large scale project with a typical mixeduse program. The initial challenge was to create an identity for all the different buildings, so we started with the iconic 300m high office building and its podium to find the design intent. Special attention was given to all the crowns for both the residential and office towers. For the office tower, a bespoke horizontal louver was developed in the shape of a curved, reflective glass panel that © Leibar & Seigneurin is both aesthetically pleasing and provides solar shading.

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任务 研究与開發 项目概述 该研发项目是为了扩展Fred&Fred的集成LED玻璃单 元的应用范围。其成果是实现了惊人的隧道内壁360°照明,并 能在透明的玻璃地板上投射电脑动画图像。一个集成的空调系统 可以保证这个八角形隧道在在任何气候条件下的安装。外表皮也 被以类似方式照亮来创建一个有吸引力的外壳。

Architect : China Intl. Client : Huizhou Rongchan Group VS-A PM : Robert-Jan van SANTEN 任务 竞赛 项目概述 VS-A.HK被邀请加入中国国际团队参与这个典型的综 合功能的大体量项目。最初的挑战是要为建筑设计一个与众不同 的身份,所以我们以标志性的300m高的办公楼及其裙房为起点 来探索设计方向。在设计中对住宅和办公楼的各方面我们都特别 注意。我们为办公楼开发了一个以曲面反光玻璃面板定制的水平 百叶窗,兼顾美观与遮阳。


Breguet

ENSEMBLE IMMOBILIER RUE BREGUET - PARIS (75)

Paris, France 2013-1454

VS-A

Architect : BEAL & BLANCKAERT Client : Paris Habitat VS-A PM : Nicolas DELPLANQUE

ingénierie de l’enveloppe

Plan Climat de Paris

MAITRISE D’OUVRAGE PARIS HABITAT DE MAITRISE D’OEUVRE Mission Design EQUIPE development to practical completion BEAL & BLANCKAERT Architectes Service Technical interface & architecture, optimization of costs MISSION Summary Multi-purpose Phase APD à AOR building including a sports gym, accommodationsMONTANT and a nursery. DES TRAVAUXConcept of an aluminium façade 12.8 M€ (HT) with identical geometry for the curtain wall and railing. Very SPECIFICITES high positioned CONCEPTS wood &joinery. Façade with high-performance Programme mixte comprenant une salle de sport, des logements et une crèche. Concept de façade aluminium de géométrie idensun protection and interior occultation. tique pour les bardages mur-rideau et garde-corps. Menuiserie bois de grande hauteur. Façade à protection solaire performante avec occultation intérieure.

Mission APD à AOR Services Interface technique & architecture, optimisation des coûts Résumé Programme mixte comprenant une salle de sport, des logements et une crèche. Concept de façade aluminium de géométrie identique pour les bardages mur-rideau et garde-corps. Menuiserie bois de grande hauteur. Façade à protection solaire performante avec occultation intérieure.

CHEF DE PROJET VS-A Nicolas DELPLANQUE

© BEAL & BLANCKAERT

Qasr Al Hosn

Architect : CHARTIER CORBASSON VS-A PM : Lin LU

Abou Dabi , Emirats Arabes-Unis 2014 Mission Competition Summary The concept consists of creating an architectural cover composed of terra cotta panels, in which its form and colour reminds one of the landscape of the place. The pattern of these panels are in accordance to the accessible and nonaccessible zones, the design with iterative functions allows for the generation of this cover, the opacity of the transparency: greenhouse panels on the ground of a pedestrian zone transform gradually into brise-soleil roofing. The spacing and inclination of these panels were studied in order to guarantee the architectural aspect and the efficiency of the required solar protection which is quite high in this geographical zone.

Mission Concours Résumé Le concept consiste à créer une enveloppe architecturale composée de panneaux en terre cuite, dont la forme et la couleur rappelle le paysage du lieu. Le rythme de ces panneaux est défini suivant les zones accessibles et non accessibles, le script avec fonctions itératives permet la génération de cette couverture, de l’opacité à la transparence : des panneaux serrés au sol en zone piétonne, se transforment graduellement en panneaux de brisesoleil en toiture. L’espacement et l’inclinaison de ces panneaux sont étudiés pour assurer l’aspect architectural et l’efficacité de protection solaire dont l’exigence est forte dans cette zone géographique.

© VS-A

London Organic Skyscraper London, England 2014

Passerelle sur l’Erdre Nantes, France 2014

Architect : CHARTIER CORBASSON VS-A PM : Robert-Jan van SANTEN Repérages © VS-A

Mission Competition Summary The agency CHARTIER CORBASSON excels in the competition of ideas and we are overjoyed by the fact that they have called on us to develop this with them. Our role consisted of finding construction materials that could be the result of recycling ordinary scraps from a high-rise office building. With one thing leading to another, the first floors of the tower will allow the supplying of the construction site above. The aesthetic of the tower comes from the structural concept of using a © BEAL & BLANCKAERT panneaux © VS-A multitude of thin components, which areLiaison standardised and capable of being transported by hand rather than concrete megastructures. The idea of a possible clean deconstruction is also a crucial part of the project. The project received 2nd prize but this is in part thanks to having won the favour of the public and the media who discussed the project at length.

Mission Concours Résumé L’agence CHARTIER CORBASSON excelle dans les concours d’idées et nous avons été ravis qu’ils nous appellent pour développer celui-ci avec eux. A la base, il s’agissait de trouver les matériaux de construction pouvant être issus du recyclage des déchets ordinaires d’une tour de bureau. De fil en aiguille, les premiers étages de la tour permettraient d’alimenter le chantier situé au dessus d’eux. L’esthétique de la tour provient du concept structurel d’utiliser une multitude de composants minces, voire standardisés et manuportables, plutôt que des mega-structures en béton. L’idée d’une possible déconstruction propre est ainsi d’emblée contenue dans le projet. Le projet a reçu le 2ème prix mais à bénéficié des faveurs du public et des médias qui ont longtemps communiqué dessus..

Architect : Face B Client : Association foncière urbaine libre La Chantrerie VS-A PM : Arnaud MALRAS Mission Competition Summary With a span of 300m, VS-A, as a structural design office, has designed a «shell» footbridge, made up of a metallic net, which holds the deck of the footbridge as though it is levitating, symbolising a light, discreet and simple journey while respecting a largely natural environment. The shell, which is mainly horizontal over two thirds of its length where it is supported by a line of regular vertical posts, ensures that the piece is straight horizontally. The shell becomes vertical for a third of its length in the centre with no posts so that pleasure boats can pass through.

Mission Concours Résumé Avec une portée de 300m, VS-A a conçu en tant que bureau d’étude Structure, une passerelle « coque » reconstituée par une résille métallique, tenant le tablier comme une ligne en lévitation, symbolisant un trajet léger discret et simple en respect d’un environnement largement naturel. La coque, largement horizontale sur deux tiers de sa longueur où elle est portée par une ligne de poteaux verticaux réguliers assure la raideur horizontale de l’ouvrage. La coque, devient verticale sur un tiers de sa longueur en son centre, pour porter sur 50 m sans poteaux et laisser le passage libre aux bateaux de plaisance.

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Montréal Space For Life Architecture Montreal, Canada 2014-101

Architect : Balmond Studio + VS-A Client : Montréal UNESCO CITY OF DESIGN VS-A PM : Naree KIM, Jaeman PARK, Sunhoo KIM

Mission Competition Summary The hull is the part of the structure that will give the exceptional character by its volume, its division, the emphasis of some lines which reveal the whole mathematical beauty, and transparency where the views are needed. It results from the intersection of environmental, functional and architectural needs. It helps to give occupants a comfortable and warm environment, mostly through the use of natural energy available which are collected and accumulated by the building itself.

Crystal Structure

Client : Private contractor VS-A PM : Jaeman PARK

Shenzhen, China 2014-102

Mission Concept Summary This project is aimed to construct irregular geometries from metal structural elements covered with glass panels. The glass structure, which look like crystals, has specific characteristics as follow: - Convex and concave geometry - Open polysurface - Triangular or PQ(planar-quadrangle) glass panels - More than three planes meet at one node.

Renovation Fortress Salvador, Brasil 2014-103

Seoul, Korea 2014-106

브라질에 있는 Forte Sao Marcelo 요새에 새로운 유리파사드와 지붕을 설치하는 리노베이션 프로젝트. 새로운 지붕은 자연채광이 가능해야 했기 때문에 유리지붕을 생각했지만 유리지붕은 과열측면에서 가장 취약한 부분이기에 과열을 줄이기 위해서 지붕에 불투명 부분을 만들었다.

Architect : B & A Client : Daishin Securities VS-A PM : Naree KIM, Jaeman PARK, Sunhoo KIM Mission Schematic design to construction drawing review Summary Construction of a 25 storey office building in Myeongdong, at the heart of Seoul. The Tower façade made of repetitive protruded square windows represents the strong and timeless company image of Daishin securities. Exhaustive thermal studies has been carried out to achieve high energy performance in order to aim for the acquirement of LEED gold label.

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단계 기본설계 업무 내용 본 크리스탈 기하 구조물은 다음과 같은 특성이 있다: - 볼록/오목한 면으로 구성, - 닫혀있지 않은 입체면 - 삼각 혹은 사각평면 유리 패널 - 한 점에서 셋 이상의 평면이 만남 이런 기하 특성을 가진 유리 비정형 금속 구조물의 시공 디테일을 푸는 작업을 하였다.

Architect : SPACEGROUP VS-A PM : Robert-Jan van SANTEN, Naree KIM, Sunhoo KIM

Mission Concept Summary This project involves the installation of additional facade(glass facade & roof ) in a Brazilian heritage site (fortress). Since the new roof should provide daylighting, we designed a glazed roof. However, the glazed part of the roof is the weakest part in matters relating to excessive heat. To reduce over-heating, we made some parts opaque. The design problem was to allow the central part of the roof to be opaque, while preseving the existing trees.

Daishin Finance Center

단계 공모전 업무 내용 몬트리올 식물원의 유리 파빌리온 국제 공모전 프로젝트. 외피는 구조의 일부로 기하학적인 아름다움을 주면서도 투명하며, 파빌리온의 볼륨을 결정한다. 파빌리온의 기하는 건축적, 환경적, 기능적인 요구를 만족시키는 교집합에서 생겨났다. 자연 에너지를 최대한 사용하면서도 건물에서 발생하는 에너지 또한 저장. 재활용할 수 있도록 설계하였다.

단계 계획/기본/실시설계, 시공도면 검토 및 목업 테스트 업무 내용 서울 명동에 위치한 25층 사옥 파사드 설계 및 엔지니어링 프로젝트. 빌딩 파사드는 돌출 사각창이 반복되어 대신증권의 이미지를 표현했다. 빌딩의 에너지 효율을 극대화하기 위한 철저한 열성능 스터디가 수행되었고, 친환경 라벨 LEED Gold 취득 예정이다.


Daishin Finance Center / Architect : B&A (BAE, Daeyong)


Rehabilitating Mapo oil depot

Architect : Kiwoong Ko Architect Client : Seoul Metropolitan Government VS-A PM : Naree KIM, Jaeman PARK, Sunhoo KIM

Seoul, Korea 2014-109

Mission Competition Summary The oil tank depot, formed on Maebong mountain in 1976, was established to address the national crisis of the industrial era. The deliberately deformed terrain to accomodate empty tanks now contains much potential to be a platform for people to re-engage with their new history and cultural developments. The tanks are part of the topography and can become a flexible space to produce memories of the future. According to this concept, different ways of introducing water and light into tanks are set and this projective revelation of water and light in the tanks provides a paradoxical suggestion of former oil storage facilities. 1

PANEL 2

Daegu Gymnasium Daegu, Korea 2014-110 PLAN LEVEL +9.8m THIS LEVEL IS THE ROOF. EACH PROGRAM IS DESIGNED AS A BOX THAT ARE PLACED WITHIN THE STRUCTURE. ALL BOXES ARE CONNECTED BY BRIDGES, AND THE OUTER EDGE IS RUNNING TRACK FOR DAILY USE.

SCALE 1:300

PLAN LEVEL +4.9m THIS LEVEL IS BETWEEN THE ROOF AND THE MAIN GYMNASIUM LEVEL. IT CONSISTS OF SEATS FOR VIEWING SPORTING EVENTS, AND THE OUTER EDGE IS CIRCULATION THAT ALSO CONNECTS TO THE EXTERIOR.

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D 0

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V

Architect : Daniel Valle Architects Client : Daegu Metropolitan VS-A PM : Robert-Jan van SANTEN, Naree KIM, Jaeman PARK, Sunhoo KIM PLAN LEVEL +0m THIS IS THE MAIN GYMNASIUM FLOOR. IT CAN MAINTAIN 10 BADMINTON COURTS AND IS ALSO FLEXIBLE FOR BASKETBALL OR OTHER SPORTING AND NON-SPORTING EVENTS.

SCALE 1:300

SCALE 1:300

Mission Competition Summary For the public gymnasium, an infrastructural roof was proposed. This large roof contains the entire infrastructure to perform sports; performance spaces, extra seating, sports equipment, natural and artificial light, treated air and necessary thermal protection for the optimal performance of sports.

INTERIOR FROM MULTIPURPOSE GYMNASIUM

단계 공모전 업무 내용 1976년 매봉산에 형성된 석유 비축기지는 산업 시대의 국가 위기를 해결하기 위해 지어졌다. 특수 기능을 위해 변형된 지형과 비어있는 탱크는 이제 새로운 역사와 문화 발전에 재참여를 위한 플랫폼으로의 많은 가능성을 갖고 있다. 탱크는 지형의 일부이며 미래의 기억을 만드는 유연한 공간이 된다. 이 개념에 따라, 물과 빛이 다양한 방식으로 탱크에 들어오고, 이 방식은 이전 석유 저장 시설과는 역설하는 제안을 제공한다.

단계 공모전 업무 내용 공공 체육관으로 대형 지붕을 제안한다. 대지에 떠 있는 이 대형 지붕은 각종 스포츠 시설뿐 아니라, 관람석 및 경기를 위한 최적의 환경을 구현할 모든 설비 시설 (조명, 환기, 공조, 차양 및 단열)이 설치되어 있다.

INTERIOR FROM DAILY SPORTS ROOM

Bugang Building Façade Renovation Seoul, Korea 2014-114

Architect : PLAN_C VS-A PM : Naree KIM, Jaeman PARK, Sunhoo KIM

Mission Competition Summary The existing building needs a new image. But attaching a new facade might cause problems on the building structures. Thus, the new facade should be lightweight so that it is possible to install inexpensive facade structures with ease. The facade should also wrap around all building to give it a totally new image.

Qingdao Mineral Museum FACADE ANALYSIS

QINGDAO MINERAL MUSEUM. 18-11-14

.HK

Tianjin, China 2014-1405

Mission Competition Summary The Qingdao mineral museum is intended to become one of the biggest private museums in China. The huge diversity of minerals in China, and the different ways to carve them is amazing and definitively worth a fantastic museum. We were asked to explore ways to create a fully glazed façade for exhibition rooms that require no daylight. Both a technical and a programmatic challenge.

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2.0

단계 공모전 업무 내용 상업 건물 파사드의 리노베이션 기획설계 제안. 기존 건물에 새로운 파사드를 덧대는 것은 건물구조에 부담을 줄 수 있고, 새로운 파사드는 그 무게가 적을 수록 이를 지지하는 구조물의 형태가 간단해지고 그 만큼 경제적으로 유리해 질 수 있다. 또한 기존의 건물의 이미지를 개구부를 포함한 총체적인 구성을 만들어 새로운 이미지를 부여해야 한다. 따라서 새로운 파사드는 될 수 있으면 가벼운 재료이며 그 형태가 기존의 건물 이미지 전체를 개선하는 형상이면서 개구부를 포함한 건물 전체를 에워싸는 형태가 효과적이다.

Architect : Y Design Client : Private VS-A PM : Kevin CHENG 任务 竞赛 项目概述 青岛矿物博物馆旨在成为中国最大的私人博物馆之一。 中国矿物的巨大多样性和种类繁多的雕刻方法十分了不起,值得 存放在一个绝妙的博物馆中。我们被要求为展示间研究设计不需 要自然采光的全玻璃幕墙。这既是技术的挑战,也是对设计的挑 战。


Tianjin Eco-City

Architect : Steven Holl Client : Public Administration VS-A PM : Larissa BLASER

Tianjin, China 2014-1408

Mission Full scope Summary We like projects with such high architectural and sculptural expression. In the end, all the solutions that we developed were designed to reinforce those expressions. The result is a wide variety of technical solutions that required a strong interface with the structural engineers. Last but not least, we were asked to develop the maintenance strategies in a very early stage so that in later stages no major changes would be required which might eventually damage the concepts.

Hongtu Plaza Shenzhen, China 2014-1409

任务 全程 项目概述 我们热爱那些像这个项目一样有强烈建筑和雕塑表达的 项目。一切我们为此项目设计的解决方案都旨在加强这些表达。 与结构工程师的深度合作而产生的各种技术解决方案是我们的成 果。最后同样重要的是,我们在设计早期就考虑了此项目的维护 策略,所以在随后的设计深化过程中避免了大型变更对设计概念 的伤害。

Architect : CCDI + PTW Client : SHENZHEN CAPITAL GROUP CO.,LTD VS-A PM : Kevin CHENG Mission Competition, schematic design to design development Summary This 268m high tower has a complex facade, with 3D foldings. We developed a unitized system, that could match this geometry with a limited number of different panels. The lobby façade with its horizontal hybrid beams (glass + steel), and the canopy with its double glass layer followed similar geometric rules. After different unsuccessful competitions, this first collaboration on a real project with CCDI, one of the major Chinese architectural companies, was very instructive for what they called «the Chinese way of doing». We were asked to develop the design of the façade while a local façade consultant will produce the tender documents later on. Andrew FROST was the PM for PTW.

Zuo-An Crystal

任务 竞赛,方案设计,扩初设计 项目概述 这268米高的塔有一个带3D折板效果的复杂立面。我 们开发了一个单元化的系统,可以尽量少用不同规格的玻璃板来 实现方案的几何要求。大厅幕墙的以钢和玻璃组成的混合型梁, 和雨棚的双层玻璃,遵循着相似的几何规则。在几个未获奖的竞 赛合作之后,此项目是首次与悉地国际进行一个实际项目的合 作,过程中他们所谓“中国的做事方式”让我们收获很多。我们 在项目中负责外观设计,而本土的外墙顾问之后负责制作招标文 件。悉地国际在竞赛阶段的主创建筑师是张震,朱奕友负责设计 深化阶段。 Andrew Frost是PTW的项目经理。

Architect : ZHUBO VS-A PM : Robert Jan VAN SANTEN

Shenzhen, China 2014-1410

Mission Design consultant Summary Façade consultant and contractor are very close in China and without surprise we have also been contacted by contractors. We had only a few days to entirely develop the structure and the details of this body tinted glass envelope, so we involved our parametric specialists and tools (Grasshopper) in collaboration with our Korean team. Although we obviously managed to get it built, it quickly appeared that small changes of the geometry would have been very profitable for the detailing and the construction. All is ready for the next project

任务 设计质询 项目概述 在中国,幕墙顾问和承建商的关系是非常近的,毫无意 外我们此次参与也是受承建商的联系。我们只有几天的时间去重 新设计着色玻璃外表皮的全部结构和细节。所以我们派上了参数 化设计专家,并联同我们的韩国团队。虽然我们使得项目最终建 成,但是我们还是发现微小的几何优化可以更加方便细部的设计 和施工阶段。这些经验只好留待下一个项目中了。

Architect : CCDI Client : CITIC Group VS-A PM : Kevin CHENG

CITIC Headquarters Shenzhen, China 2014-1412

Mission Competition Summary The concept behind the design is to achieve a volume that allows for ease and circulation both within the towers and at the pedestrian level. The facades are adapted into each of the volumes depending on their solar exposure and proportion. Some important topics incorporated into the facade include privacy from one volume to the other, anti-bird collision and the optimization of deep shadows cast by these overlapping structures.

任务 竞赛 项目概述 此项目的设计理念是在建筑体量内实现以步行即可达到 各处的通达性。 幕墙设计嵌合了所对应的各个空间的日照水平和体积比重。幕墙 设计考虑了诸多方面的重要性,包括体量互相之间的隐私性,防 鸟撞击,以及结构投影对采光影响的优化。

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Si Hui Stadium

Architect : ARCHI PHENOMENON Client : Public Administration VS-A PM : Kevin CHENG

Shenzhen, China 2014 -1413

Mission Design consultant Summary The architect involved us on the design study of the enclosure of this stadium project, due to the complex geometry even though it was ruled in Rhino (without GH). No traditional or existing construction system fitted, so we had to find a way to combine different existing systems… The solution has been totally described through a hundred of handmade sketches, before it was detailed in a more conventional way by TFC, the previously appointed local façade consultant. We will work with them on several other projects later on.

Shenzhen Prince Bay

Architect : URBANUS Client : Private VS-A PM : Kevin CHENG

Shenzhen, China 2014-1414

Mission Competition Summary Urbanus proposed an urban lay out with relatively low-rise buildings, alike the famous OCT area in Shenzhen that they designed 20 years earlier. Our involvement was to establish a number of different typologies that could be suitable for such a low-density project, an almost European island, amid the highrise buildings.

Qianhai Hengchang Tower Shenzhen, China 2014-1415

Mission Competition Winner, Schematic design Summary Proposed as the tallest tower, at 350m, in the Qianhai Hengchang development, this tower will contain office spaces, and at the top will be a luxury hotel with a sky lobby. The façade of this tower was designed to appear consistent and uniform at a glance but at a closer look, each orientation has a louver that has been customized to its solar gain and to guarantee an adequate amount of daylight to penetrate into the hotel rooms while protecting the office space from glare.

ICBC Headquarter

任务 竞赛 项目概述 都市实践设计了以低矮房屋构成的城市设计,一如20 年前设计的著名深圳华侨城区域。我们负责的是以类型学方法建 立若干建筑体块,以适应整个项目,就像在高层建筑森林中的一 个欧洲式的岛屿。

Architect : URBANUS Client : Private VS-A PM : Kevin CHENG 任务 竞赛(优胜者),方案设计 项目概述 在恒昌前海开发项目中提案以一350米塔楼作为最高 塔囊括办公空间,并将上部作为一个带顶层观光厅的豪华酒店。 此塔的幕墙远观有着一致的纹理,但是,仔细近看,每个方向都 有百叶依照日光照射而做了调整,以保证有合适的光线照入酒店 室内,同时又不会在办公空间内发生眩光。

Architect : CCDI Client : Industrial and Commercial Bank of China VS-A PM : Kevin CHENG

Shenzhen, China 2014-1416

Mission Competition (Won) Summary The ICBC headquarters in Shenzhen are located on a spot requiring the highest part, the tower, to be on the main road’s side to be visible, while the main entrance in on the opposite side. The Architectural requirement for the tower is to have all façades identical: we propose to develop a concept with expressive and deep vertical fins, so that from most viewpoints the fins will be the only visible part of the façade, hiding the glasses. Optical qualities although vary according to the orientation.

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任务 设计质询 项目概述 建筑师指定由我们来协助完成这个体育场项目的外壳设 计研究。最主要的原因是其相当复杂的几何形状。没有传统的或 现有的建造体系可以胜任,所以我们必须通过结合已有的建造体 系来找到一种新的方法......该解决方案由上百张手稿草图描绘, 之后交由TFC做以更加通用的表述方法详述。TFC是之前合作过 的本土幕墙顾问,我们会在稍后的几个项目中与他们继续合作。

任务 竞赛(胜出) 项目概述 中国工商银行在深圳的总部在设计上要求在其塔楼的 顶部可以被主干道看到,而主入口却在相反一侧。建筑设计对塔 楼要求所有幕墙相同:我们提议深化带有有表现力的纵向鱼鳍般 设计的概念,让大多数观察情况下鳍片将是正面的唯一可见的部 分,隐藏玻璃。光学性质根据方向而变化。


ICBC Headquarter

Architect : AUBE Client : Industrial and Commercial Bank of China VS-A PM : Robert-Jan van SANTEN

Shenzhen, China 2014-1417

Mission Competition (1st prize) Summary The real strength of this tower’s design is the strong dual identity of the opaque sides versus the glazed front facades. The opaque facades shall house the cores and stairwells and conveniently avoid all the east/west harsh solar gain. While the transparent facades face north/south to allow for grand views. The north/south facade has a double skin layer to provide depth in which the diagrid structure is placed, to allow for a column-free interior. The east/west facades shall use a glassonyx laminate which will appear completely opaque during the day but become translucent at night.

Zhuhai CRCC

任务 竞赛(第一名) 项目概述 这个项目的特点在于两侧的不透明部分与正面玻璃幕墙 的双重形象。不透明部分隐藏核心和楼梯部分,同时有效的遮挡 东晒和西晒。透明幕墙侧提供南北面景观。 南北面的双层幕墙提供深度,菱形结构侧使得建筑室内没有立 柱。东西面的材料使用缟玛瑙夹层玻璃,白天时完全不透明,夜 晚时透光。

Architect : ARCHI PHENOMENON Client : CRCC VS-A PM : Kevin CHENG

Shenzhen, China 2014-1419

Mission Competition Summary No doubt : the design is generated by Rhino and the Architect convinced us that it made sense to design based on fluid shapes because of the client’s compnay activities, which are related to high speed Chinese railways. The Façade and the roof are visually linked even though the technical proposals are quite different. Such global approach is very appropriate when the spot is surrounded by multiple high rise buildings, like here.

Songjiang Fashion Centre Shanghai, China 2014-1420

Mission Full scope Summary The Songjiang Fashion Centre, which will be a fashion Centre to train designers with the craft and techniques of garments was designed to ressemble a conical thread spool. To follow the theme of fashion, the façade features a dual layer of louvers which wrap around the conical facades. The louvers are designed to be light-weight yet solar protective. The fixing method for these louvers and the mullions between the glass panels are designed to have minimal dimensions.

Shenzhen Dacheng HQ

任务 竞赛 项目概述 此设计的形态毫无疑问是通过犀牛来完成的。因为客 户的工作是和中国高铁相关,建筑师让我们确信这样一个有着流 线形态的设计是有意义的。幕墙和屋顶虽然在技术实现上非常不 同,但是在视觉上却紧密联系。在这样一个由高层环绕的场地 内,总体设计的出发点就显得非常合适且由必要。

Architect : ETE & Lee Associes Client : CTIC VS-A PM : Kevin CHENG 任务 全程 项目概述 松江时尚中心有个锥形线轴的造型,寓意时尚中心将成 为设计师学习服装设计技法的训练营。 为了追随时尚的主题,幕墙设计拥有两层百叶包裹锥形建筑外 形。百叶被设计得重量轻但遮阳好。这些百叶和玻璃面板之间的 竖框的固定方法被设计到最小尺寸。

Architect : AUBE Client : Dacheng Funds VS-A PM : Naree KIM

Shenzhen, China 2014-1421

Mission Complete, Schematic design to practical completion Summary Dacheng Headquarter is 140m tall office tower. In a glance look, the building looks simple in its geometry, but tower facade is made up of over 200 different façade unit types and extra complexity is driven by structure and programs. Motivated by emerald, facade design of the tower aims to achieve visually deep and layered façade. Because double skin façade is generally more expensive and the climate of Southern China has very short and warm winter season, we suggested single skin façade looks like double skin façade. The tower façade design also considered structure and

任务 方案设计到项目完成 项目概述 大成总部项目是一个140高的办公楼。一瞥之下建筑看 起来外形简洁,但实际上塔楼立面使用了超过200种不同的立面 单元类型,结构和功能布置又为幕墙提供了更多挑战。由翡翠启 发,塔立面设计旨在达到视觉上的温润通透感。由于双层幕墙一 般比较昂贵,中国南方的气候的冬季温暖而短暂,所以我们提议 以单层幕墙营造双层幕墙视觉感受的方法设计幕墙。

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Polygone Riviera / Architect : L35 JOS GALAN / Photographie : Cardinal Daishin Finance Center / Architect : B&A (BAE, Daeyong)

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Kunming Lake Garden

Architect : AUBE Client : Kunchi Group VS-A PM : Evan CHAN

Kunming, China 2014-1422

Mission Full scope Summary This relatively small project in Kunming has a story related to Aube, the French Chinese Architects, based in Paris and Shenzhen. It started with a simple discussion and some sketches, before we both found out it would just be great to have something a little more special for the project that hosts the client.

La Sorbonne

Architect : Atelier Christian de PORTZAMPARC Client : EPAURIF VS-A PM : Marion BERGERIE

Paris, France 2014-1461

Mission Primary sketch to practical completion Summary The façades were designed in accordance with the ripped sail principle, supporting high-performance exterior thermal insulation with a ventilated air gap and opaque cladding. The cladding is treated with the intent for architectural continuity, along with the joinery of the glazed sections. They are distinguished by the addition of walkways and exterior sun protection. A device with vertical aluminium blades is attached at the edge of the walkway.

Médiathèque de Colombes Mission Complete, Preliminary design to acceptance Summary The Colombes Multimedia Library is a monolithic project consisting of two materials: glass and aluminium. Its shape is inspired by an aluminium prism that emphasises the glazed parts in comparison with the opaque parts. On this project, VS-A is in charge of the whole building envelope. This envelope covers all facets of the project. Our research had focused on the creation of a solution with a unique aesthetic for the entire project. It is made up of aluminium and glass: aluminium on the roof, façades and soffits, and glass for the parts that look out onto the town. Our expertise had contributed to the design and production of a façade system where its ornamental features had been defined by the architect.

Redding, USA 2014-1482

Mission Phase ESQ à AOR, Résumé Les façades sont conçues suivant le principe du voile percé, support d’une isolation thermique extérieure très performante, d’une lame d’air ventilée et d’un parement opaque. Le parement est traité en continuité architecturale avec les menuiseries des parties vitrées. Elles s’en distinguent par l’adjonction de passerelles et de protections solaires extérieures. Un dispositif de lames verticales aluminium est fixé en rive de passerelle.

Architect : BRENAC & GONZALEZ Client : Ville de Colombes VS-A PM : Emilie JOET, Nicolas DELPLANQUE

Colombes, France 2014-1474

Villa

任务 全程 项目概述 这个相对小型的昆明的项目有一个关于欧博的故事。欧 博是设立在法国巴黎和中国深圳的建筑事务所。这个项目由一个 小小的谈话和简单的草图开始,直到我们都发现通过加入小小的 元素可以让这个项目变得很棒。

Mission Complète, Phase APS à AOR Résumé La médiathèque de Colombes est un projet monolithique constitué de deux matériaux : le verre et l’aluminium. Sa forme est inspirée d’un prisme en aluminium qui fait ressortir les parties vitrées par rapport aux parties opaques. Sur ce projet, VS-A est en charge de toute l’enveloppe du bâtiment. Cette enveloppe parcourt toutes les facettes du projet. Notre recherche a porté sur la création d’une solution avec une esthétique unique sur l’ensemble de l’ouvrage car il est constitué d’aluminium et de verre, de l’aluminium sur la toiture, les façades et la sous-face et du verre pour les parties ouvertes sur la ville. Notre expertise a portée sur la conception et l’industrialisation d’un système de façade dont la modénature a été définit par l’architecte.

Architect : MCH Arnaud MONTIGNY + Guillaume ROUSSEL Client : Private VS-A PM : Joseph BENEDETTI , Nicolas DELPLANQUE Mission Design development to tender analysis Summary Arnaud Montigny and Guillaume Roussel from the agency MCH requested us to implement some generic façade details for a wooden villa project in the USA. We and the architect defined the construction elements of the project framework design.

Mission APS à ACT Résumé Arnaud MONTIGNY et Guillaume ROUSSEL de l’agence MCH nous ont sollicités pour mettre en place des détails génériques de façade pour un projet de villa en bois aux Etats-Unis. Nous avons défini avec l’architecte des éléments constructifs du design de la trame du projet.

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Polygone Riviera

Architect : L35 JOS GALAN Client : UNIBAIL SOCRI VS-A PM : François GRAVELINE

Cagnes sur Mer, France 2014-1497

Services Economic research for the project Summary Our mission consists of proposing alternative techniques for the double-skinned façade proposed by the company. These propositions aim to create savings, all the while preserving or improving the initial project aesthetic. A sculpture by the artist Sosno serves as the basis for this architectural project.

Breteuil

Architect : PUZZLER Client : COVEA VS-A PM : Aurore MAYEUR

Paris, France 2014-1466

Mission Design development to tender analysis Summary Situated on the old Michelin site, a new office building takes its place in a garden. Each of the façades are composed of what they display: double glazed in a light structure in order to open up the view of the garden, and frames open towards balcony that gives off a rhythm marked by «flags» which are made of glass. The complexity of this work is in the mastery of the details that guarantee a finesse of structural elements which highlights the glass elements.

Sas de la Tour Pacific Mission Construction drawing to practical completion Summary Conception of the 2 dormer roofs of the Pacific tower entrance completely renovated in 2015. The main concern of the project was to be able to outline the dormer roofs in the most transparent way possible despite the constraints of the existing one, which required a very high up structure which is imposing. The other constraint was related to the construction of the slab. In effect, an expansion joint was placed between the dormer roof, the building and the slab, separating the Pacific tower from the front of the slab. Therefore, it was necessary to be able to create free-standing dormer roofs, which in no way apply weight to the tower. Thus, we measured and made a custom made stainless steel profile design, in which the geometric form corresponds perfectly to the necessary inertia not only for the glass support, but equally for the generally stability of the dormer roof.

Mission PRO à AOR Résumé Conception des 2 SAS d’entrée de la tour Pacific, entièrement réhabilitée en 2015. L’enjeu du projet était de pouvoir dessiner des sas les plus transparents possible malgré la contrainte de l’existant, obligeant à de très grandes hauteurs et donc a priori une structure imposante. L’autre contrainte était liée à la construction sur la dalle de la défense. En effet, un joint de dilatation passait entre le sas et le bâtiment et la dalle, dissociant la tour Pacific et le parvis de la défense. Il était donc indispensable de pouvoir créer des sas autoportants, ne prenant en aucun cas appuis sur la tour. Nous avons donc dessiné des profils inox sur mesure dont la forme géométrique correspond parfaitement à l’inertie nécessaire non seulement au support du vitrage, mais également à la stabilité générale du SAS.

Architect : DGAC – SNIA + VS-A Client : DGAC – SNA-RP VS-A PM : Thomas DUMEIGE

Orly, France 2014-1508

Mission Technical assistance to the MOE in the study of a temporary relocation of the Orly control tower watchman to the IFR room, located on the floor below. Creation of a prototype for 2 façade modules in the occupied site. Summary Reflection was needed in order to carry out the façade modification solely from the interior, all the while guaranteeing maximum visibility for the controllers. The glass elements are cut in half to allow for an easy transportation, only seperated by a thin silicone joint. Interventions must be carried out between 12:00 and 4:30 A.M as the front control tower must once again be operational when the airport opens.

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Mission APD à ACT Résumé Sur l’ancien site Michelin, un bâtiment neuf de bureau vient prendre sa place dans un jardin. Chacune des façades se compose sur ce qu’elle donne à voir : une double peau vitrée en structure légère pour ouvrir la vue vers le jardin, des châssis ouverts sur un balcon donnant au rythme marqué par des « drapeaux » en verre. La complexité de cet ouvrage se joue dans la maitrise des détails pour garantir une finesse des éléments de structure au profit d’une mise en valeur des éléments verriers.

Architect : KPF + SRA Client : TISHMAN & SPEYER VS-A PM : Léa RICHERT Contractor : ACML

Paris , France 2014-1501

Tour de contrôle d’Orly

Services Recherche d’économie de projet Résumé Notre mission consiste a proposer des alternatives techniques à la façade double peau proposée par l’entreprise. L’objectif de ces propositions visent à réaliser des économies, tout en conservant ou en améliorant l’esthétique initiale du projet. Une sculpture de l’artiste Sosno est à l’origine de ce projet architectural.

Mission Assistance technique à la MOE pour l’étude du déménagement provisoire de la vigie de la tour de contrôle d’Orly dans la salle IFR située à l’étage en-dessous. Réalisation d’un prototype sur 2 trames de façade en site occupé. Résumé La réflexion est menée pour réaliser la modification de la façade en intervenant uniquement de l’intérieur, tout en garantissant un maximum de visibilité pour les contrôleurs. Les éléments verriers sont ainsi découpés en deux pour être facilement transportables, mais seul un fin joint silicone les sépare. Les interventions doivent être réalisées entre 0h00 et 4h30, la Tour de Contrôle devant être à nouveau opérationnelle pour l’ouverture de l’aéroport.


Lorum Ipsum / Architect : Lorum Ipsum


Tour CFC

Architect : MORPHOSIS Client : CFC VS-A PM : Nicolas DELPLANQUE

Casablanca, Marocco 2014-1527 Mission Complete, Schematic design to practical completion Summary The façade benefits from a double-skin woven in a 3D pattern. It serves as both a ventilation interface due to its interior glazing with opening blades and a controlled, adjustable canopy. With technology using inertia from the thermal mass of the floor, heat and cold can be accumulated and then used as needed. The building aims to meet the requirements for a «silver building» certification from the world green building council.

G5

Architect : Laurent SEVESTRE Client : SYNDICAT DES COPROPRIETAIRES VS-A PM : Nicolas DELPLANQUE

Bagnolet, France 2014-1538 Mission Renovation of the building envelope on an occupied site Summary The restoration of the façades on the G5 building in Parc de la Noue is part of the continuing restoration work led by VS-A and the architect Laurent Sevestre, which began in 2007. The renovation of the first tower led to the creation of a prefabricated façade system, which enables us to install large opening bay windows in the accommodation with 70cm breast, which increases the interior volume of the rooms while creating panoramic views over Paris. The surfaces developed have led to the creation of a façade kit that can be adapted to this building.

Gerty Archimede

Services Rénovation de l’enveloppe en site occupé Résumé La réhabilitation des façades du bâtiment G5 du parc de la Noue est un projet qui s’inscrit dans la continuité des travaux de réhabilitation menés par VS-A et l’architecte Laurent SEVESTRE depuis 2007 dans le parc de la Noue. La rénovation de la première tour à conduit à la création d’un système de façade préfabriqué qui permet de mettre en place des grandes baies ouvrantes dans les logements disposées à 70 cm de l’allège, ce qui augmente le volume intérieur des pièces tout en créant des vues panoramiques sur Paris. Les surfaces développées ont permis la création d’un kit de façade qui va s’adapter sur ce bâtiment.

Architect : BRENAC & GONZALEZ Client : OGIC VS-A PM : Thomas DUMEIGE, Léa RICHERT

Paris , France 2014-1547

Mission Tender package to practical completion Summary Multi-purpose building including 14,500 m² of offices and a sports gym. The façade concept was to have differenciations according to its orientation in order to adapt to performance requirements. Creation and optimization of extruding pleated aluminium cladding in the north façade. Integration of reduced framing without a visible exterior frame (smooth entirety) Development of silk-screened glass cladding, which creates an evanescent casing in the southern façade and forms the first layer of sun protection. Objectives RT 2012 -30% (consumption) Certifications BREEAM level «Very Good» and HQE «level Excellent»

1

COUVERTURE PIÉTONNE

Couverture Piétonne Aulnoye-Aymeries

Aulnoye Aymeries, France 2014-1563

Mission Complète, Phase APS à AOR Résumé La façade bénéficie d’une double peau tissée dans un motif tridimensionnel. Elle est à la fois une interface de ventilation grâce à son vitrage intérieur à lamelles ouvrantes et un brise soleil régulé, orientable. Avec une technologie qui utilise l’inertie de la masse thermiques des planchers, la chaleur et le froid peut être accumulé et ensuite restitué selon les besoins. Le bâtiment a pour objectif de répondre aux exigences d’une certification «bâtiment silver» du world green building council.

Parking

Centre Commercial

Mission DCE à AOR Résumé Programme mixte comprenant 14.500 m² de bureaux une salle de sport. Principe de façade différenciée en fonction des orientations afin de s’adapter aux exigences performantielles. Création et optimisation d’un bardage en aluminium extrudé plissé en façade Nord. Intégration de châssis sur allège sans traverse extérieur visible (ensemble lisse) Mise au point d’une vêture en verre sérigraphié créant une enveloppe évanescente en façade Sud et formant une première protection solaire. Objectifs RT 2012 -30% (consommations) Certifications BREEAM niveau « Very Good » et HQE « niveau Excellent »

Architect : Face B Client : Ville d’Aulnoye Aymeries VS-A PM : Arnaud MALRAS, Arthur CREPIN

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Mission Competition Summary The covering for Rue Paul Vaillant Couturier meets several objectives: energising a pedestrian commercial street with the addition of a cover, offering the opportunity to go for a stroll when the weather is unreliable, offering comfort to pedestrian users of the station and parking lot, completing the renewal of this strategic district by creating a new entrance into the city and a welcoming image at the exit of a station that is set to double its traffic in the coming years, etc. Plac

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1/500 ème

Mission Concours Résumé La couverture de la rue Paul‐Vaillant‐Couturier répond à plusieurs objectifs : dynamiser une rue commerciale piétonne par l’insertion d’une couverture, offrant une invitation à la flânerie hors des gros aléas climatiques ; offrir un confort aux piétons usagers de la gare et du parking‐relais ; compléter le renouveau de ce quartier stratégique par la création d’une nouvelle entrée de ville et d’une image accueillante à la sortie d’une gare appelée à doubler son trafic dans les prochaines années..


Lame "Marché" Caractéristiques section : - Aire : 1823 mm² - Longueur développée : 896 mm

Lame "VARIANTE 1" Caractéristiques section : - Aire : 1569 mm² - Longueur développée : 765 mm

Prototype for Gerty Archimede / Architect : BRENAC & GONZALEZ


Cité Internationale

Architect : BRUTHER Client : RIVP VS-A PM : Arnaud MALRAS

Paris, France 2014-1598

Mission Economic research for the project Summary The accommodations have fully glazed simple skin exterior façades. • Mechanical characteristics: the façades have Italian-style openings with non-standard dimensions • Acoustic characteristics: the façades have very high acoustic performance irrespective of proximity of the building to the surrounding area. This performance is attained due to the development of a custom-made façade frame with acoustically reinforced profiles • Fire safety characteristics: the C+D is met due to a glazed screen suspended in the underlying slab surface for the façade’s high transparency

Siège de Fayat

Architect : BRENAC & GONZALEZ Client : SOMIFA (FAYAT) VS-A PM : Camille BENOIT

Bordeaux, France 2014-1603

Mission Schematic design, design development, construction drawing Summary The new seat of the group FAYAT in Bordeaux faces la Garonne. The roadside Northern façades are treated with pines that form frames around the weft. The framing of the window ledge takes into consideration the geometry of the exterior solar protection, which gives a continuity at all heights of the frame. In the garden, a zig-zag pattern makes the façade dynamic with the addition of window pots and hoppers while also taking into consideration the winter gardens of the front of the building. A powder coated aluminium banner, which runs along each floor throughout the building, unifies the dome of the façade.

Hôtel des Postes

Mission APS, APD, PRO Résumé Le nouveau siège du groupe FAYAT à Bordeaux fait face à la Garonne. Les façades Nord sur rue sont traitées avec des épines qui forment des cadres toutes les trames. Le bardage des allèges reprend la géométrie des protections solaires extérieures ce qui donne une continuité sur toute la hauteur du cadre. Sur jardin, un jeu de coursive dynamise la façade avec l’ajout de jardinières et de trémis ainsi qu’avec l’intégration en proue de bâtiment de jardins d’hiver. Un bandeau en aluminum thermolaqué file à chaque niveau sur tout le bâtiment ce qui unifie l’ensemble de la façade.

Architect : Client : La Poste Immo VS-A PM : Larissa BLASER

Lyon, France 2014-1607

Mission Schematic design to design development Summary How do we improve the thermal performance of the woodwork from an era that needs to be conserved ? This was the issue presented by the Hôtel des Postes in Lyon, which is equipped with steel sash-windows. Along with the solution of doubling the interior, proposed by the architects commissioned for the project, we proposed improvements of the work itself. Being a job that needs to be specific because of time constraints, it was followed throughout by an expert in improvement work on existing buildings: limits of improvement with conservation, limits and constraints of step-by-step improvements of a building, constraints of the interaction with the ventilation, the customers...

Seoul Tower Competition Seoul, Korea 2015-0000

Mission Concept Summary It’s officially a secret project, but can such huge project of over 500,000 m² GFA located in Seoul really be a secret? Whatever, we collaborated intensely with OMA competition team, based in Rotterdam, and modestly contributed to give some reality to an extremely innovative approach that managed to put it all in 1 tower! Unfortunately it will probably never be revealed. OMA didn’t win the competition, but unfortunately it was the same for the 11 other competitors.

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Services Recherche d’économie de projet Résumé Les logements présentent des façades extérieures intégralement vitrées, en simple peau. • Spécificités mécaniques : les façades présentent des ouvrants à l’italienne de dimensions hors norme • Spécificités acoustiques : les façades présentent des performances acoustiques très élevées de par la proximité du bâtiment avec le périphérique, ces performances sont atteintes par le développement d’une façade cadre, sur mesure, avec profilés renforcés acoustiquement • Spécificités de sécurité incendie : le C+D est réalisé par un écran vitré suspendu en sous-face de dalle pour une grande transparence de la façade.

Mission Phase APS à APD, études thermiques Résumé Comment améliorer la performance thermique de menuiseries d’époque qui doivent être conservées ? Voici la problématique posée sur l’Hôtel des Postes de Lyon dotées de fenêtres à guillotines en acier. En parallèle d’une solution de doublage intérieur proposée par les architectes missionnés sur le projet, nous avons proposées des propositions d’améliorations de l’ouvrage lui-même. Mission ponctuelle et limitée dans le temps elle a été suivie par la rédaction d’un guide sur les enjeux d’amélioration de bâtiment existants : limites de l’amélioration avec conservation, limites et contraintes d’une amélioration par étapes d’un bâtiment, contraintes d’interaction avec la ventilation, les utilisateurs...

Architect : OMA Client : N/A VS-A PM : Kevin CHENG 任务 竞赛 项目概述 官方角度讲这本该是一个保密项目,但是一个50万平 方米如此巨大的项目在韩国首尔怎么可能完全是一个秘密呢? 我们与鹿特丹OMA的竞赛团队紧密合作,以给这样一个极具新 意的设计-用一个塔楼来容纳所有功能-提供实现的可能性。遗 憾的是OMA最总没有赢得竞赛,我们共同的努力也无法展示出 来,但是抱有同样遗憾的还有另外11个同样没有获胜的团队。


Point d'ancrage mobile pour sécurisation du personnel de maintenance Plancher verre (vitrage triple feuilleté) pour chemin de maintenance Attache ponctuelle acier Couvertine en acier Plat acier doublé en périphérie des hexagones Parclose acier Vitrage feuilleté de sécurité

Intégration de l'éclairage

DETAIL A LA JONCTION DE DEUX HEXAGONES - CHEMIN DE MAINTENANCE

Couverture Piétonne / Architect : Face B


The New Henry House

Architect : THF Client : THF VS-A PM : Kevin CHENG

Hong Kong, China 2015-0000

Mission Concept Summary VS-A.HK generally is not involved in architectural studies on its own, but this was an exception, as we were recommended to the client by our own landlord. The façades of the lower levels had to be renovated, although the shops and offices remained occupied, while the upper ones, still with single glass and air-leaking frames, had to remain unchanged. Our proposal was entirely generated by the analysis of the very inspiring built environment. FAÇADE

任务 概念设计 项目概述 VS-A.HK一般是不参与到对于建筑学本身的研究中, 但是这个项目是一个特例。我们被我们的业主推荐给甲方去参与 一个建筑改造的项目:在保持下层商铺与办公室正常营业的同时 更新幕墙系统,而上层仍然保留单层玻璃与非气密窗的旧模样。 我们的设计提案完全建立在对于建造环境的分析。

CONCEPS

NEW HENRY HOUSE VS-A.HK

Tensegrity Model VS-A.HK - Unit 708, Prosperity Center, 77-81 Container Port Road, Kwai Chung, N.T., HK - (852) 3590 8237 - mail@vs-a.hk - www.vs-a.net

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万山丹香港 香港新界葵涌货柜码头路 77-81 号大鸿辉中心 708 室

Seoul, Korea 2015

Architect : Robert-Jan van SANTEN Client : Korean Insitute of Architects VS-A PM : Robert-Jan van SANTEN, Naree KIM, Sunhoo KIM

Mission Exhibition Summary This model is for ‘International Invitational Exhibition 100 Architects of the year 2015’. This is a tensegrity system. And each color in the model represents real material of façade. Also we has added the QR code to present the projects by VS-A.

Su Motel Facade Renovation

Architect : VS-A KR Client : Private VS-A PM : Jaeman PARK, Sunhoo KIM

Seoul, Korea 2015-101

Mission Concept Design Summary Summary Feasibility study for the renovation of an existing motel. Proposal of new programs for the podium of the building has been made to revitalize the building and its neighbourhood as well as code review & architectural concept design.

Jeju Dream Tower Casino Jeju, Korea 2015-105

단계 기획설계 업무 내용 기존 모텔을 저층부에 복합문화공간을 포함하여 개축하는 프로젝트. 개축 및 증축을 위한 법규 검토 뿐 아니라 대지가 속한 동네의 지역성과 거주민의 성격을 파악해 건물뿐 아니라 인접한 거리에도 활력을 불어넣을 수 있는 프로그램과 건축적 장치를 연구하여 기획설계를 작업하였다.

Architect : Siaplan architects / HBA Client : Lotte tour VS-A PM : Naree KIM, Jaeman PARK, Sunhoo KIM

Mission Concept design ~ Tender review Summary Facade design & engineering of podium of Jeju Dream towers, considering locality of Jeju island and program of casino. Monolithic mass from a distance allows various visual aspects according to different viewing points.

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단계 작품 전시 업무 내용 한국건축가협회가 주최하는2015년 올해의 건축가 100인 국제전 출품작. 텐세그리티 구조물 모형으로 요소별 다양한 색은 건축 파사드의 여러 재료들을 대표한다. 또한 QR 코드를 이용하여 VS-A가 참여한 여러 프로젝트를 소개하였다.

단계 기획설계 ~ 입찰도서 검토 업무 내용 제주 드림타워 카지노 파사드의 설계 및 엔지니어링. 파사드는 화산섬 제주도의 고유한 주상절리를 연상케 하는 육각패턴을 기본이다. 이 패턴은 수직면으로 오목볼록 접힌 형태이며 여기에 원형창이 뚫여 있어, 위 혹은 아래로 내려다 보면 카지노와 어울리는 하트 모양이 생겨난다. 파사드에 요철이 생김으로 보는 각도/ 거리에 따라 다채로운 파사드 입면 모양이 생겨 넓은 파사드면이 단조롭지 않게 한다.


ADE

SK T Tower

Architect : RAD VS-A PM : Sunhoo KIM

Seoul, Korea 2015-108 EXT.

INT.

Mission R&D Summary Existing SK T tower has weak thermal performance due to exposed exterior metal louvers without any thermal break. It is about a R&D project to study how to improve thermal performance of this building with minimal intervention: solution to add insulation & gasket on top of the existing profiles has been studied to lower U value and risk of condensation.

Korean Rural Architecture Competition EXISTING SK T- TOWER TRAMSOM RESULT IN ‘THERM’ Goesan, Korea 2015-111

Ueq : 4.7512 W/m2K

French Embassy Seoul, Korea 2015-113

Architect : skimA Client : Korean Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries VS-A PM : Naree KIM, Jaeman PARK, Sunhoo KIM

Mission Competition 2nd prize Summary What shall be the new philosophy of extension for rural buildings in Korea? We intend to create many in-between spaces in this project which can be semi-exterior or semi-interior. These spaces, often multi-functional can be occupied by the senior or the junior. Through these flexible spaces, we do wish to promote INTERCOMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN OLD & NEW in generations, as well as in building elements.

Namhae, Korea 2015-115

단계 공모전 2등 수상작 업무 내용 한국의 농촌 건물들을 증축하고자 필요한 새로운 철학은 무엇인가? 우리는 이 프로젝트에서 반외부 혹은 반내부가 될 수 있는 사잇공간들을 만들고자 한다. 개축 부위를 최소화하여 최소한의 비용과 노력으로 효율적으로 사용될 수 있는 공간을 창출하고자 한다. 이 공간들은 유아나 노년층이 다양한 목적으로 사용할 수 있다. 이러한 융통성 있는 공간들을 통해, 헌 건물과 새 건물의 재료뿐 아니라 신-구세대 간의 소통을 증진시키고자 한다.

Architect : CHARTIER CORBASSION architects & ODDAA Client : French ministry of foreign affairs VS-A PM : Naree KIM Mission Competition Summary Renovation and extension of French Embassy building in Seoul, Korea which was originally designed by Korean architect Joongup KIM.

Southcape Spa & Suite

단계 연구개발 업무 내용 기존의 SK T빌딩은 단열바가 없는 메탈 수직 루버가 노출되어 있어 열성능에 취약하다. 이를 개선하기 위한 연구 개발 프로젝트. 기존 파사드의 프레임을 그대로 이용하면서 단열재와 가스켓을 추가하여 리노베이션 할 수 있다.

Mission Concours Résumé 1961년 한국 건축가 김중업에 의해 설계된

주한 프랑스 대사관 건물의 리노베이션 및 증축 프로젝트. 프랑스 외교부의 주관으로 열린 1차 공모전에서 선정된 다섯 팀 중 한팀으로 참여 2 위에 입선하였다.

Architect : Mass Studies Client : Southcape Spa & Suite VS-A PM : Robert-Jan van SANTEN, Naree KIM, Jaeman PARK, Sunhoo KIM Mission SD to TD Summary The geometry of the façade on convention center was the scaled sliding system. For minimum frame area and maximum glass area, we had designed the façade with steel. For the hotel, we also had designed with big glass and small frames. It was essential to manage the glazed corner facade due to the absorption of the building movements.

단계 계획설계 ~ 실시설계 업무 내용 남해 사우스케이프 리조트의 컨벤션 센터와 호텔 신축 설계 프로젝트. 목재와 유리 두가지 재료로 기능/성능 면에서 효과적이면서도 미니멀한 외관 디자인을 추구하였다. 이를 위해 비늘 형태의 미세하게 기울어진 대형 슬라이딩 유리 파사드를 맞춤 설계하였다.

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Songdo Triple Street

Architect : Mass Studies + Heerim Client : Triple Street VS-A PM : Naree KIM, Jaeman PARK

Songdo, Korea 2015-116

Mission DD Summary These operable walls on two floors with 37m width and 4.5m height will be a new attraction of Songdo. This is an insulated wall when closed, and the huge ceiling with thermoformed polycarbonate interior panels when open. There is a counterweight on the top of wall to reduce the motor effort of automatic door, which is verified with structural calculation.

H-Tower

Architect : Mass Studies Client : Private VS-A PM : Robert-Jan van SANTEN, Naree KIM

Seoul, Korea 2015-118

Mission Competition Summary Competition of a high office tower. Energy saving glazed façade system, using fabrication techniques derived from the industry in which the client’s company belongs to.

Shenzhen CNPEC

단계 공모전 업무 내용 초고층 타워 설계 공모전 프로젝트. 건축주 회사의 주업종 산업기술을 적용하여 에너지절약형 파사드 시스템을 제안하였다.

Architect : OMA Client : CNPEC VS-A PM : Kevin CHENG

Shenzhen, China 2015-1423

Mission Competition Summary This 200.000 m² GFA project is a regular scale for Chinese projects but OMA produced a project based entirely and exclusively on efficient green concepts. The result is surprising but obviously in accordance with what the Chinese Authorities are looking for. An office tower without a 100% glass façade is hard to sell, despite all the reasonable arguments.

Gionee Tower

任务 竞赛 项目概述 这个20万平米的项目对于中国来说是一个很平常的尺 度。这一次OMA提出了一个完全基于高效绿色建筑观念的方 案。设计的成果是令人眼前一亮的,并且也是中国政府所需要 的。但是不论多么有理有据,一个不是100%玻璃幕墙的办公楼 在市场上并不讨巧。

Architect : Zhubo Design Group Client : Gionee Communication Equipment VS-A PM : Hyejun An

Shenzhen, China 2015-1424

Mission Full scope Summary The geometry of 100m high Gionee tower is very complex. The rectangular base plan is filleted at corners, and each facade unit creates a zig-zaged edge on the plan, so globally the building looks covered with glass fins. Vertical alignment of the facade module is inclined, so at the corner, which is filleted, the module surfaces are twisted. At the lower part, the inclined zigzag facade curves outwards like a skirt, creating a canopy space near vertical lobby facade. For the regular facade, we developed a unitized system with a window integrated mullion. Optimizing the complex facade was also a main task. We optimized the twisted facade into a facetted facade, and the double curved facade was optimized into conical and cylindrical facades.

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단계 기획설계 ~ 실시설계 업무 내용 송도 트리플 스트리트에 위치한 대형 개폐문(너비 36미터, 높이 4미터) 설계 및 엔지니어링 프로젝트. 이 거대한 한 짝의 벽은 문으로 열릴 수 있어 기후가 좋을 때 열어 두어 내/외부 구분 없는 공간이 생긴다. 기후에 따라 본 대형문이 열릴 수 있는 개폐일수 분석, 풍압에 따른 구조 성능, 개폐를 위한 모터 시스템의 설계와 계산에 따른 실시설계 도서 및 계산서를 작업하였다.

任务 全程 项目概述 100米高的金立总部塔楼有一个复杂的几何外形。塔楼 底面为长方形,而在四个角上都平滑过度。梯形的幕墙单元创造 出了锯齿形边缘的幕墙轮廓。竖直方向幕墙单元的对齐方式是倾 斜的,这样导致了在平滑过度的转角处,幕墙的单元是扭曲的。 在塔楼下部,倾斜的锯齿幕墙沿曲线展开如裙摆,在主入口上方 自然形成一个雨棚。对于一般形式的幕墙,我们开发出了一套单 元式系统讲窗户集成在了幕墙龙骨立柱上。优化复杂的幕墙也是 我们的主要任务之一。我们用平面单元代替实现扭转曲面,并将 双曲面单元优化为如锥形或圆柱形的单曲面


Shenzhen CNPEC

Architect : AUBE VS-A PM : Kevin CHENG

Shenzhen, China 2015-1425

Mission Competition Summary We joined Aube for the second round of the competition, with the target to develop some details that would reveal the qualities of the global lay-out. We increased the depth of the reveal, and consequently set geometric parameters that allowed the creation of subtle variations to each window in order to deal with the different orientations in a very sustainable way. Sustainability for facades is a 3D topic !

ZHUHAI TOWER

任务 竞赛 项目概述 我们是在欧博进入竞赛的第二轮时加入的。我们的任 务是用细部来展现整体布局的质量。我们更深一步通过设置几何 参数以使得每扇窗户都有微妙的变化,在应对不同朝向的时候, 有良好的节能表现。幕墙的可持续设计问题是一个三维的问题。

Architect : Archi Phenomenon Client : Private VS-A PM : Hyejun AN

Kunming, China 2015-1426

Mission Competition Summary The idea behind the towers is to create unity. Architecture has the power to bring people together and it should be represented in the design. The design of the facade is meant to provide a texture to the towers as well as optimize the performance of the building. The tower’s facade is dynamic and controlled, efficient and performative. The proposed design reveals a natural landscape on the facade through a kinetic effect. A series of horizontal fins are cladded in a regular rhythm through the skin. A certain portion of these horizontal fins protrude further out to create these islands on the facade. Horizontal bands are ideal for solar protection while still allowing for views towards the outside from the interior space.

QIANHAI URBAN UNIT

任务 竞赛 项目概述 塔楼背后的设计理念是单元化。建筑具有聚集人群的能 力,并且应该反映到设计中来。幕墙设计的目的是为塔楼呈现一 个纹理,并且优化建筑的能耗表现。塔楼的幕墙既动态又受控, 具有功能性且高效。设计的提案是通过一个动态的效果表达一种 自然的景观。一系列水平的鳍板带着有韵律的包层环绕外表皮, 部分鳍板延伸而成为岛屿。带状的水平遮阳具有理想的效果,同 时还能保证室内良好的视野。

Architect : OMA VS-A PM : Hyejun AN

Shenzhen, China 2015-1428

Mission Competition Summary This project is a compeition for an office complex in Qianhai New district in Shenzhen. The architectural concept of the project is to make visual links between towers of three plots. So, it is technically three vertical towers, but visually three horizontal towers. The office buildings’ main orientation is East and West, thus solar protection is required as a key function of the facade. Among many design ideas of multi-functioning solar buffer, thin horizontal louvers with various depth are designed suitable for each orientation and level, yet the facade looks homogeneous around each horizontal tower.

Dubai Sandghost

任务 竞赛 项目概述 这个项目是一个以办公为主的综合体设计的竞赛,场地 位于深圳浅海新区。建筑设计的想法是为这个通过错层而呈现三 个体块堆叠的塔楼建立视觉上的联系。所以虽然这实际上是三幢 竖直挺立的塔楼,但是外观上确是三个横向的巨大体量。办公楼 的主要朝向为东西方向,因此遮阳成为了幕墙设计中极为重要的 功能。在众多的多功能日光过渡区的概念里,我们最终设计了不 同深度的薄型水平百叶以适应不同层高和朝向。这样,幕墙看起 来在水平方向上就变得极为和谐。

Architect : CHARTIER CORBASSON VS-A PM : Robert-Jan van SANTEN

Abu Dhabi, UAE 2015-1429

Mission Competition Summary The idea merged during a joint walk in Abu Dhabi shortly after a sand storm. By a selective cleaning, removing the sand from a selection of glasses, we could easily reveal a pixelated image that could last a couple of weeks. In this city, the idea of showing the face of Sheikh ZAYED appeared obvious. The appearance can obviously not be planned in advance: it is totally related to the sand storms that usually occur in summer.

Mission Concours Résumé C’est lors d’une promenade à Abou Dabi, peu de temps après une tempête de sable que cette idée nous est venue. Après un nettoyage sélectif consistant à éliminer le sable d’une sélection de vitres, il était possible relativement facilement d’afficher une image pixelisée qui pouvait durer deux semaines. Dans cette ville, l’idée de montrer le visage du cheikh ZAYED est apparue comme évidente. L’apparence peut évidemment ne pas être planifiée : elle sera complètement liée aux tempêtes de sable qui se produisent généralement en été.

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Shenzhen Qianhai Urban Unit Shenzhen, China 2015-1431

Mission Competition Summary We joined Aube during the second stage of this competition, to provide concepts and confirm performances of the building envelope. We developed several strategies that kept the aesthetic options rather similar, but proposed small design changes, especially on the choice of the glasses and their coatings.

Hongshuwan

任务 竞赛 项目概述 我们在竞赛的第二个阶段加入欧博,以提供设计概念 并确定建筑外表皮的功能表现。我们在保证建筑美学一致的情况 下,提出了几个不同的策略,主要集中在对于玻璃和镀膜的选择 上。

Architect : AREP + AUBE Client : Vanke VS-A PM : Kevin CHENG

Shenzhen, China 2015-1432

Mission SD + DD + TD + SITE Summary Hongshuwan will be a large mixed-use complex located at the heart of Shenzhen bay and will feature an iconic tower of over 350m with a luxury hotel at the top. This luxury hotel at the crown will feature a façade which will perpetually glow as a white box. With a combination of artificial lighting and a white shadow box coupled with white interior shading. The office space underneath will appear slightly darker by contrast. The office facade shall be adapted according to orientation by featuring louvers of different depths.

Jierong Tower

任务 方案设计,扩初设计,招标图,和工地视察 项目概述 红树湾是在深圳湾心脏地带的一个大型综合体项目,以 超过350米的高度定位为一个新的地标建筑,并且在顶层设有豪 华的酒店。这个位于塔冠的豪华酒店需要幕墙永久发光像一个白 色的盒子一样。这个设计是通过用人工照明的方式,结合了白色 的橱窗和白色的室内遮阳材料。紧挨其下的办公部分为了对比会 呈现出一个较深的颜色。办公部分的百叶因朝向不同也有设计有 不同深度。

Architect : 5th Architects Client : Vanke VS-A PM : Kevin CHENG

Shenzhen, China 2015-1433

Mission SD + DD + TD + SITE Summary We were proposed by VANKE to collaborate with 5th Architect to develop the façades for this important building for the client as it will host their own offices. The zigzag geometry in plan provided an opportunity to develop a bespoke design, with a reduced glass surface, a similar surface made of stone, and over 2000 hidden operable windows that cover 10% of the global surface which satisfies the latest Chinese regulations for natural ventilation. Total height is 162m.

Beijing AIIB

任务 方案设计,扩初设计,招标图,和工地视察 项目概述 万科邀请我们和第伍建筑合作为他们极为重视的新总部 项目设计幕墙。锯齿形的平面是设计定制化幕墙的契机。我们设 计以减小幕墙玻璃的面积,与石材面积大小相当,并且隐藏了超 过2000扇开启扇,应新的国家标准对自然通风的要求,以实现 10%建筑外墙面积的开启。塔楼总高度为162米。

Architect : AREP Client : State of China VS-A PM : Kevin CHENG

Beijing, China 2015-1436

Mission Competition Summary From time to time we participate at secret and highly confidential competitions. This is one of them, on a main axis in Beijing, quite close to the Forbidden City. We were asked to actively participate and interact with the competition team of AREP. An interesting topic was to design very large scale metallic components, in perfect relation with the whole project.

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Architect : AUBE VS-A PM : Kevin CHENG

任务 竞赛 项目概述 我们一次次地参与了许多高度保密的竞赛项目,而这个 项目也是其中之一。我们积极地配合AREP在离故宫非常进的背 景的主轴线上设计一个项目。其中一个非常有趣的部分是设计一 个与项目整体有直接关系的大尺度的金属构件。


Batignolles N4

Architect : Corinne VEZZONI Client : ICADE VS-A PM : Léa RICHERT

Paris, France 2015-1629

Mission Schematic design to practical completion Summary Façade frame forms a unique and identical casing for the entire project. This façade forms the covered area, guarantees high thermal performance and airtightness, and serves as support for projecting elements that forms the peak of each façade. On the northern façade, there is a double-skinned glass cladding. In the south, there are vertical wall vents and flower pots. Building HQE.

Cloud Club

Architect : Balmond Studio Client : Private VS-A PM : Robert-Jan van SANTEN

London, UK 2015-1630

Mission Competition Summary The final building form will be a result of the ongoing holistic design process combining aesthetic, functional and energy concerns to drive a creative process. The building form and envelope are parametrically developed to optimize energy performance, by maximizing both active and passive solar energy production and minimizing energy demand using form, orientation and skin properties.

project no.

stage : concept

P14010 CLOUD CLUB, Peninsula Hotel, London

CONCEPT CURRENT

任务 竞赛 项目概述 最终的建筑形式是通过考虑到美学,功能,和能源效益 的设计过程的成果。建筑形式和表皮经过参数化手法优化被动和 主动太阳能生产,从而提高能源性能。同时,建筑形式,朝向和 表皮特性意图减少能源虚耗。

JANUARY 2015

BALMON D/STU DIO

Consulat de Pologne

Architect : OP-EN Client : Groupe Marc LELIEUR VS-A PM : Arnaud MALRAS, Clément DUFOUR LEFORT, Emmanuel FLAMENT, François GRAVELINE

Lille, France 2015-1636

Mission Complete Services Technical interface & architecture, optimization of costs Summary This reconversion project of the former Polish Consulate into a 4**** hotel with 49 rooms is located in the heart of downtown Lille between old Lille and the Euralille business district. Thus, the existing emblematic profile is preserved and a new treated gable of printed glass will be redesigned and will support the sign. The principal façade on Carnot Boulevard is composed of vertical anodized aluminium and glossy stainless steel blades. This intervention resembles contemporary projects in the business district as it integrates the use of horizontality and verticality of the surrounding architecture. DU NORD - LILLE (59) - FRANCE - 2015 - EN COURS

Mission Phase APS à AOR Résumé Façade cadre formant une enveloppe unique et identique sur l’ensemble du projet. Cette façade formant le clos & couvert et assurant de hautes performances thermiques et d’étanchéité à l’air, devient le support des éléments en saillie créant le point culminant de chaque façade. En façade nord, une vêture en verre double peau et au sud des ventelles verticales en mur et des bacs à fleurs. Bâtiment HQE.

VS-A

Eaux du Nord

ingénierie de l’enveloppe

MAITRISE D’OUVRAGE SOFIM

Lille, France 2015-1637

EQUIPE DE MAITRISE D’OEUVRE Mandataire : OP-EN, VS-A Ingénierie enveloppe MISSION Concours

Mission Competition MONTANT DES TRAVAUX Summary Complete renovation of an office building in Lille N.C belonging to Eaux du Nord. Created based on the volume of CONCEPTS & SPECIFICITES Réhabilitation complètethe d’un project bâtiment de bureaux Lille the existing building, plays onà scale and perspective appartenant aux Eaux du Nord. Le projet s’articule entre deux thanks typologies to a system of staggered bands. These bands uses the urbaines marquées : le boulevard de la Liberté et la rue d’Hazebrouck. measurements houses on thele projet roads’insHazebrouck as they Conçu à partirof du town volume du bâtiment existant, dans un jeu grâce à un système décainteractcrit with thed’échelle verticality of thede bandes tower. Two typologies of lées. Ces bandes reprennent la mesure des maisons de ville de la rue d’Hazebrouck tout en dialoguant avec la verticalité façades result, one at the boulevard scale and the other at the de la tour. Deux typologies de façades se répondent, l’une à town house Thel’autre system of staggered offers a rhythm l’échelle scale. du boulevard, à l’échelle des maisons debands ville. Le système de bandes décalées offre un rythme dans la lecin reading façade and allows for extérieurs, the opening of exterior ture de the la façade et permet l’ouverture d’espaces offrant des vues et des apports de lumière. spaces, offering views and bringing in light. © VS-A CHEFS DE PROJET VS-A Clément DUFOUR LEFORT, Karen DARAND

232 © OP-EN

Mission Complète, bureau d’études structure et façade Services Interface technique & architecture, optimisation des coûts Résumé Ce projet de reconversion de l’ancien Consulat de Pologne en hôtel 4**** de 48 chambres se situe dans l’hyper centre de la ville de Lille en articulation du Lille ancien et du centre d’affaire Euralille. Ainsi, le profil existant emblématique est conservé et vient redessiner un nouveau pignon traité en verre imprimé, support d’enseigne. La façade principale sur le boulevard Carnot est composée de lames verticales en aluminium anodisé et inox recuit brillant. Cette intervention fait écho aux projets contemporains du centre d’affaire tout en intégrant le jeu d’horizontalité et de verticalité de l’architecture environnante.

Architect : OP-EN Client : SOFIM VS-A PM : Clément DUFOUR LEFORT Mission Concours Résumé Réhabilitation complète d’un bâtiment de bureaux à Lille appartenant aux Eaux du Nord. Conçu à partir du volume du bâtiment existant, le projet s’inscrit dans un jeu d’échelle grâce à un système de bandes décalées. Ces bandes reprennent la mesure des maisons de ville de la rue d’Hazebrouck tout en dialoguant avec la verticalité de la tour. Deux typologies de façades se répondent, l’une à l’échelle du boulevard, l’autre à l’échelle des maisons de ville. Le système de bandes décalées offre un rythme dans la lecture de la façade et permet l’ouverture d’espaces extérieurs, offrant des vues et des apports de lumière.


Consulat de Pologne / Architect : OP-EN


ille

Caserne Pépinière

Architect : PCA - STREAM, Philippe CHIAMBARETTA Architecte Client : EUROSIC VS-A PM : Thomas DUMEIGE

Paris, France 2015-1648

Project Schematic design to practical completion Summary The project involves the restoration and expansion of a building complex composed of former Polish barracks dating from the end of the 18th century and its extension dating from the 1950's. The wooden sashes of the building on the road side will be replaced with identical structures, taking into account thermal performance improvement. The facades of the building on the courtyard side will be replaced by wooden sashes with external galleries. The slab nosings between the wooden sashes are equipped with SSG glazed glass panes. At the centre of the courtyard, 400mm deep vertical strips form a moulding feature which emphasises the arched form of the building.

Siège de la DRPJ Paris, France 2015-1654

AMO : ARC 72 r. du Fbrg St-Honoré 75008 PARIS 01 42 66 98 19

56/58 rue vielle du temple 75003 Paris

tél. +33 (0)1 44 93 90 00 pca@pca-architecture.com www.pca-architecture.com

CASERNE DE LA PEPINIERE, Paris APS - ind 02

Architect : BRUNET SAUNIER Architecture Client : Préfecture de Police VS-A PM : Marion BERGERIE

05/06/2015

VUE DEPUIS ST AUGUSTIN

.38

Mission Management support Summary Mission management support for the façade to monitor the execution studies in the framework of a CREM contract. - Audit with regards to the prescription of considered work. - Examination of the prototype and audit with regards to the prescription - Examination of maintenance documents - Follow-up on implementation at the job site

Kiosque La Défense Mission Competition, construction drawing to practical completion Summary The large panes are protected by large frames filled with inclined slats of wood. These frames assure sun protection from the top of the panes and serve as guards for the roof terrace. They also add to the strong identity of the façade and to its urban presence.

Aix-en-Provence, France 2015-1693

Mission Concours, PRO à AOR Résumé Les grands vitrages sont protégés par de grands cadres remplis par des lattes de bois inclinées. Ces cadres servent à assurer une protection solaire du haut des vitrages et également un gardecorps pour le toit terrasse. Ils participent également à l’identité forte de la façade et à sa présence urbaine.

Architect : AUER WEBER & Atelier GULIZZI Client : Société Publique Locale d’Aménagement «Pays d’Aix Territoires» VS-A PM : Léa RICHERT Mission Final draft to approval of construction design and working drawings + wind study Summary Thick aluminium sheet cladding. Seven rings measuring 1.3m high and 1m wide go around the building, cross and fuse, creating a compact façade, and separate, forming a cantilever at the entrance to the building. The design of this cladding first focused on the rationalisation of the curves that generate the rings according to objective (maximum dimensions of aluminium sheets, costs, etc.) and subjective criteria (from what radius can a curve be faceted without it affecting the overall perception of the building, etc.). To do this, we created a Grasshooper script that integrates these different variables and generates optimised geometry.

234

Mission Assistance à la Maitrise d’Ouvrage Résumé Mission d’Assistance à la Maitrise d’Ouvrage spécifique à la façade pour le suivi des études d’exécution dans le cadre d’un contrat CREM. - Audit vis-à-vis de la prescription des ouvrages concernés. - Examen du prototype et audit vis-à-vis de la prescription - Examen des documents sur la maintenance - Suivi de mise en oeuvre sur le chantier

Architect : TOLILA +GILLILAND Client : GENERALLI REAL ESTATE VS-A PM : Goktug GUNEY

Paris, France 2015-1663

Aréna

Mission APS à AOR Résumé Le projet prévoit la réhabilitation et l’extension d’un ensemble de bâtiment composé d’une ancienne Caserne de Pologne datant de la fin du XVIIIe siècle et de son extension datant des années 1950. Les châssis en bois du bâtiment sur rue seront remplacées à l’identique avec en prenant en compte l’amélioration des performances thermiques. Les façades du bâtiment sur cour seront remplacées par des châssis en bande avec intégration des coursives extérieures. Les nez de dalle entre châssis sont habillés de panneaux en verre émaillé VEC. Au centre de la cour, des lames verticales de 400 mm de profondeur formant une modénature qui vient souligner la forme d’ogive du bâtiment.

Mission APD à VISA + études vent Résumé Bardage en tôle aluminium de forte épaisseur. Sept anneaux de 1m30 de haut sur 1m de large tournent autour du bâtiment, se croisent et fusionnent, créeant alors une façade compact, ou s’écartent pour former un porte-à-faux à l’entrée du bâtiment. L’étude de ce bardage s’est d’abord concentrée sur la rationalisation des courbes génératrices des anneaux selon des critères objectifs (dimensions maximales des tôles d’aluminium, couts...) et subjectifs (à partir de quel rayon de courbure une courbe peut-elle être facetée sans que cela n’affecte la perception globalement du bâtiment...). Pour ce faire, nous avons créé un script Grasshooper intégrant ces différentes variables et générant une géométrie optimisée.


Réinventer Paris - Stream Building

Architect : PCA Client : EUROSIC HINES VS-A PM : Thomas DUMEIGE

Paris, France 2015-1706

Mission Competition - Winner Summary The design of a Stream Building is the result of analysis by the PCA agency of new lifestyles and new forms of collaborative work. The stream building is based on a totally modular and evolving structure, where the framework adapts to various projects. The façades of this innovative building are part of this evolving category. They must adapt to both changes in the purpose of the premises and to the variation between the seasons and in the climate. The main façade, designed as a dynamic double skin, is able to adapt to climatic conditions in order to adapt its efficiency to the season. It is made up of insulating interior wooden frames and an exterior glass skin. A blind in the cavity ensures excellent summer efficiency (SF<0.1). The addition of vertical glass ventilation valves into the

Gare Henri Martin

Paris, France GARE HENRI MARTIN (75) - FRANCE (2015-en cours) 2015-1728

VS-A

Mission Concours - Lauréat Résumé La conception d’un Stream Building est le fruit de l’analyse de l’agence PCA des nouveaux mode de vie et les nouvelles formes de travail collaboratif. Le stream building se base sur une structure totalement modulaire et évolutive, dont la trame unique s’adapte au divers programmes. Les façades de ce bâtiment innovant s’incrivent dans ce dispositif évolutif. Elle doivent s’adapter aussi bien à un changement de destination des locaux aussi bien qu’à la variation des saisons et du climat. La façade principale, conçue telle une double peau dynamique, capable de s’adapter aux conditions climatiques pour obtenir une performance variable, adapté à la saison. Elle se compose de châssis intérieurs isolants en bois et d’une peau extérieure en verre.

Architect : AREP Client : SNCF VS-A PM : Thomas DUMEIGE

ingénierie de l’enveloppe

MAITRISE D’OUVRAGE

Services Technical SNCF interface & architecture, optimization of costs EQUIPE DE MAITRISE D’OEUVRE AREP Mission Schematic design to practical completion MISSION Summary The renovation project for stations on the line RER C Phase APS à AOR Henri Martin and Pereire Levallois, plans for the transformation BUDGET of the transition100 K€ between the building and the platforms. Composed of 2 glazed and a skylight, this new space will CONCEPTSgables & SPECIFICITES projet de rénovation des gares de la ligne RER C Henri Marbe the main hallLe between the 2 stations. Therefore, our project tin et Pereire Levallois, prévoit la transformation de la transition entrethese le bâtiment principal et les upon quais. Composé de 2 pignons from plans to emphasize gables. Based the generators vitrés et d’une verrière, ce nouvel espace deviendra le hall principal des 2the gares.new Ainsi notre projet prévoit la mise en valeurof de panes the existing buildings, façades are comprised ces pignons. S’appuyant sur des génératrices issues des bâtiments of glass arrangedexistants, like scales in afaçades waysethat minimizes thedis-visible les nouvelles compose de pans de verre posés en écailles, de manière à minimiser les menuiseries visible joinery and maximizes light. The device then be able to turn et augmenter au maximum le clair dewill vitrage. Le dispositif pourra ensuite se retourner en verrière pour composer un ouvrage hoback into a skylight to create a homogeneous piece uniting this mogène englobant ce nouvel espace de déambulation. new walking space. CHEF DE PROJET VS-A

Services Interface technique & architecture, optimisation des coûts Mission Phase APS à AOR Résumé Le projet de rénovation des gares de la ligne RER C Henri Martin et Pereire Levallois, prévoit la transformation de la transition entre le bâtiment principal et les quais. Composé de 2 pignons vitrés et d’une verrière, ce nouvel espace deviendra le hall principal des 2 gares. Ainsi notre projet prévoit la mise en valeur de ces pignons. S’appuyant sur des génératrices issues des bâtiments existants, les nouvelles façades se compose de pans de verre disposés en écailles, de manière à minimiser les menuiseries visible et augmenter au maximum le clair de vitrage. Le dispositif pourra ensuite se retourner en verrière pour composer un ouvrage homogène englobant ce nouvel espace de déambulation.

Thomas DUMEIGE

Pelleport

Architect : BRUTHER Client :SIEMP VS-A PM : Lin LU

© VS-A

Paris, France 2015-1730

Mission Review of construction drawing Summary It’s a one-off project in EXE phase, to bring a technical solution in accordance with the architectural appearance: a prismatic loggia facade consisting of glazed shutters without joinery. We designed a system of attached glass, with a button in the centre of the glass for the O/C manoeuvre, the ironmongery is made discreet with the mullion-transom to enhance the sense of architectural purity. This non-DTU and non-CSTB glazed edifice was the subject of a detailed study and FE calculation.

Hôtel Zoologie Bordeaux, France 2015-1736

© VS-A

Etat actuel

© GOOGLE STREET

Mission Complete, construction drawing to tender analysis Summary Renovation of the Zoology Institute of Bordeaux in a four-star hotel at the heart of the Bordeaux-Euratlantique project, in the parameters of a site listed as UNESCO World Heritage. The old and the new coexist: the existing institute is carefully restored and refurbished and an extension is added. Because of its compact form, the building plays with viewing angles to offer a multitude of facets: second skin made of wood and glass vents, curtain wall, façade clad with stamped metal and framing in bands.

© VS-A

© VS-A

Mission EXE Résumé C’est une mission ponctuelle en phase EXE, pour apporter une solution technique conformément à l’aspect architectural: façade loggia prismatique composée de volets vitrés sans menuiserie. Nous avons imaginé le système du verre attaché, avec un bouton en plein centre du verre pour la manœuvre O/F, la quincaillerie est rendue discrète avec le montant-traverse pour souligner la pureté architecturale. Cet ouvrage vitré hors DTU et cahier CSTB a fait l’objet d’une étude détaillée en calcul EF.

Architect : CANAL Architecture Client : SNC La Zoologie VS-A PM : Myriem GUEDOUAR Mission Complète, Phase PRO à ACT Résume Réhabilitation de l’institut de Zoologie de Bordeaux en hôtel quatre étoiles au coeur du projet Bordeaux-Euratlantique, dans le périmètre d’un site classé au patrimoine de l’UNESCO. L’ancien et le neuf cohabitent : l’institut existant est soigneusement restauré et ravalé, et une extension lui est ajoutée. Par sa forme peu compacte, le bâtiment joue sur les angles de vue pour offrir au regard une multiplicité de facettes : seconde peau faite de vantelles bois et verre, mur rideaux, façade bardées de métal embouti et châssis en bandes.

235


GED Condorcet

Architect : Elizabeth de PORTZAMPARC Client : Région île de France VS-A PM : Myriem GUEDOUAR

Aubervilliers, France 2015-1765

Mission Schematic design to practical completion Services Technical interface & architecture Summary The principal façade is composed of a curtain wall VEC with alternating glazed and opaque sections. The glazed sections are composed of blinds integrated in the air gap. Our mission consists of optimizing comfort as well as energy performance all the while preserving the low-tech image of the project. Creation of a maintenance system on rails are concealed under the building's awnings.

Réinventer Paris - M5A2

Architect : MARIN + TROTTIN / PERIPHERIQUES Client : AD HOC VS-A PM : Myriem GUEDOUAR

Paris, France 2015-1780

Mission Competition Summary Assistance in the 3D design of the envelope’s façades and volumetry. The layout of the bricks enables us to pixelise the generated volumes and to create ornamental details from the chosen models. The relief work in the brick allows us to make our façades more dynamic and show the technicity of its implementation. The building envelope was imagined as a way of responding to current requirements regarding heat and acoustics, while prioritising the comfort of the occupants. : as it is highly insulating, the façade also leads to greater thermal control.

Cluster Zuid

Mission Concours Résumé Aide à la conception 3D des façades et des volumétries de l’enveloppe. Le calepinage de la brique permet de pixelliser les volumes générés, de créer des modénatures et ornementations à partir des modèles choisis. Le travail en relief de la brique permet de dynamiser les façades et de montrer la technicité de mise en oeuvre. L’enveloppe du bâtiment a été imaginée de manière à répondre aux exigences actuelles en matière de thermique et d’acoustique, en privilégiant le confort des occupants. : très isolée la façade permet également un déphasage thermique.

Architect : BURO II & Archi + I Client : City of Ghent VS-A PM : Harshad SHITOLE

Ghent, Belgium 2015-1804

Mission Competition Summary It was a competition to refurbish 3 public buildings. One of the three buildings, the library building, has historical importance. So the brief was to maintain the visual aspects but improving the thermal performance of the facade. VS-A provided solutions to insulate the facade without disturbing the existing visual aspect.

Maison des Cultures et des Mémoires Cayenne, Guyane 2015-1807

Mission Schematic design to design development, creation of a prototype Summary This project is located at a former hospital. It is comprised of three parts: the renovation of the former hospital and two extensions inspired by the local architectural context. The concept is based on a glazed façade following a very slender frame that we can create, thanks to a cantilever roof composed of a double-layered canopy made of local wood. Creation and optimization of maintenance and thermal performance.

236

Mission Phase APS à AOR Services Interface technique & architecture Résumé La façade principale est composée de mur rideau VEC avec alternance de parties vitrées et opaques. Les parties vitrées sont composées de stores intégrés dans la lame d’air. Notre mission consiste à optimiser le confort ainsi que les performances énergétiques tout en conservant l’image low-tech du projet. Conception d’un système de maintenance sur rail dissimulé sous les auvents du bâtiment.

Mission Concours Résumé Le concours portait sur la rénovation de 3 bâtiments publics. L’un d’eux, la Bibliothèque, est un bâtiment important du point de vue historique. C’est pourquoi la consigne était de préserver l’aspect visuel mais d’améliorer la performance thermique de la façade. VS-A a fourni des solutions pour isoler la façade sans modifier l’aspect visuel existant.

Architect : MOREAU KUSUNOKI ArchitectesClient : Conseil Général de Guyane VS-A PM : Larissa BLASER Mission Phase APS à APD, conception d’un prototype Résumé Ce projet est situé sur un ancien hôpital. Il comporte trois parties : la réhabilitation de l’ancien hôpital et deux extensions qui s’inspirent du contexte architectural local. Le concept réside dans une façade vitrée suivant une trame très élancée que nous pouvons réaliser grâce à une toiture en porte-à faux composée d’une double couches de brise soleil en bois local. Conception et optimisation de la maintenance et des performances thermiques.


Bibliothèque Varna

Architect : YTAU VS-A PM : Nathalie SIMONNEAU

Varna, Bulgaria 2015-1857

Mission Competition Summary Having been contacted by the architecture youth agency YTAU, we have taken it upon ourselves to accompany them on an open international competition. This exercise of accompaniment allows these young architects to develop architectural work and master techniques at the competition and to allow them to develop energetic and ambitious goals right from the start of the concept. This type of mission allow them to take advantage of our experience and allows us to share our knowledge of the drawing centre, but also to demonstrate that it is possible to design in a technical nature while guaranteeing one’s architectural ambitions.

3 Fontaines

Cergy, France 2015-1878

Mission Concours Services interface technique & architecture, Résumé Contacté par une jeune agence d’architecture YTAU, nous nous sommes engagés à l’accompagner sur un concours international ouvert. Cet exercice d’accompagnement permet aux jeunes architectes de développer au stade du concours des enjeux architecturaux et techniques maitrisés, et permettent de développer dès la naissance du concept des objectifs énergétiques ambitieux. Ce type de mission nous permet de les faire bénéficier de notre expérience, et de partager notre savoir-faire de Bureau d’études mais aussi de pouvoir démontrer qu’il est possible de concevoir avec technicité tout en répondant aux ambitions architecturales.

Architect : BDP Architects / ORY Client : HAMMERSON VS-A PM : Karen DARAND, Nathalie SIMONNEAU Mission General business assistance for the remittance of financial and technical offers of frame and wood exterior batches Summary Contacted by general contractor RABOT DUTILLEUL we carried out a mission of assistance and consultation for the assessment of the operation as part of the tender. This was a response to a rehabilitation project of a mall dating back to the 80s in the Paris region. In addition to the concern of energy efficient building renovations and the renewal of the commercial image, this project consists of a major challenge in the realisation of the rehabilitation of a highly frequented site. The renovation of the dome adds 2 more architectural and technical challenges that make this project particular, which are long decorative glass strips, protruding from the façade either in a wood pattern or dichroic glass.

Station Rosny

Mission Assistance entreprise générale pour remise d’offres financière et technique des lots bardage et menuiseries extérieurs Résumé Contacté par l’entreprise générale rabot dutilleul, nous avons rempli une mission d’assistance et de conseil pour le chiffrage de l’opération dans le cadre de l’appel d’offres. Celuici constituait une réponse pour un projet de réhabilitation d’un centre commercial des années 80 en région parisienne. En complément des enjeux de rénovation énergétique et de renouvellement de l’image commercial, le projet constitue de par la réalisation d’une réhabilitation en site occupée un véritable défi de gestion des travaux. A la rénovation de l’enveloppe s’ajoute 2 défis architecturaux et techniques qui font la particularité de ce

Architect : ARC d’ING Client : RATP VS-A PM : François AUGRAIN, Goktug GUNEY

Paris, France 2015-1882

Mission Construction drawing to practical completion Summary The operation is part of the project to extend line 11, which will be the terminus of the «Rosny-Bois-Perrier» station. This station spans over a 2-level superstructure: The ground floor is very open and includes mostly glazed façades using a a curtain wall system with clear panes. The first floor has glazed frames, with some providing access to the terrace above the awning. The opaque sections are treated with metal cladding. The awning overhanging the southern façade marks the station entrance. Two light shafts are covered by a skylight.

Wind Tower

Mission PRO à AOR Résumé L’opération s’inscrit dans le projet de prolongement de la ligne 11, dont la station « Rosny-Bois-Perrier » en sera le terminus. Cette station se déploie en superstructure sur 2 niveaux : Le rez-de-chaussée est très ouvert, comportant des façades largement vitrées privilégiant un système de mur rideau, avec des remplissages à vitrages clairs. Le R+1 est constitué de châssis vitrés, donnant pour certains accès à la terrasse au-dessus de l’auvent. Les parties opaques sont traitées par un bardage métallique. L’auvent surplombant la façade sud, marque l’entrée dans la gare. Deux puits de lumière sont couverts par une verrière.

Architect : Chartier Corbasson Client : Private VS-A PM : Roobert-Jan van SANTEN

Arab United Emirates 2016

Mission Competition Summary Working with CHARTIER-CORBASSON is like doing R&D ! Not necessarily with high-tech solutions, but much more with very efficient and striking concepts that everyone can understand and appreciate. This project started from the understanding of natural ventilation in heritage constructions nearby Dubai, and resulted as a highly-sustainable project, with decentralized A/C integrated in the façades, that require the air inlets to be protected by oversized protruded filters. Form follows function, or vice versa.

Mission Concours Résumé Travailler avec l’agence d’architecture CHARTIERCORBASSON revient à faire de la R&D ! Pas nécessairement avec des solutions high-tech, mais plutôt avec des concepts brillants et efficaces que chacun peut comprendre et apprécier. À la base de ce projet, il y a la compréhension du rôle joué par la ventilation naturelle dans certains bâtiments patrimoniaux près de Dubaï. Il en a résulté un projet extrêmement durable caractérisé par une intégration décentralisée de l’air conditionné dans les façades moyennant une protection des arrivées d’air par des filtres saillants surdimensionnés. La forme épouse la fonction et vice-versa.

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Dosoon hotel & Osulloc museum Jeju, Korea 2016-105

Architect : Mass Studies Client : AMOREPACIFIC Corporation VS-A PM : Naree KIM, Jaeman PARK, Sunhoo KIM

Mission SD to Site control Summary These two projects in Jeju island are façade design & engineering for the new boutique hotel and extension of an existing tea museum of the client company.

Shinyoung building

Architect : Kiohun Client : Shinyoung Securities VS-A PM : Naree KIM, Jaeman PARK, Sunhoo KIM

Seoul, Korea 2016-106

Mission Concept design Summary Façade renovation proposal for an existing office building. Existing façade needs to be renewed its image with new owner company. Energy performance of the façades shall be also upgraded. Vertical louvers allow energy savings preventing from overheat. Verticality gives light yet neat image to the building.

Ulsan Convention Center Mission Competition (1st prize) Summary Ulsan convention center competition project (1st prize). Envelope design visualizing historical elements of Ulsan. Roof and two different façade types gives the whole mass a monolithic image, while offering different visualities according to textures and functions.

Mission SD Summary We studied for economical solution to realize architect’s exterior screen design. We presented two solutions; horizontal structure-solution to follow original design of perforated and torn façade, and vertical structure solution to reinterpret architect’s concept of design.

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단계 공모전 (당선작) 업무 내용 울산시 컨벤션 센터 파사드 설계 및 엔지니어링. 울산의 지역성을 담은 지층을 형상화한 매스에 유리 파사드, 채광창, 태양광 패널, 금속패널 등의 외장재가 조금씩 다르지만 일관된 리듬으로 구성되어 있다. 향에 따라 파사드 구조가 일정 부분 차양 기능을 할 수 있도록 설계하였다.

Architect : Boundless Client : Private VS-A PM : Naree KIM, Jaeman PARK, Sunhoo KIM

Seoul, Korea 2016-113

SOUTH STREET VIEW

단계 기획설계 업무 내용 기존 오피스 건물 파사드 리노베이션 제안 프로젝트. 기존 건물은 열효율이 떨어지고 수평성이 강조된다. 새로운 파사드는 수직 루버로 수직성을 강조해 가볍고 현대적인 느낌을 주는 동시에 과열을 방지하여 에너지 효율을 높일 수 있다.

Architect : S & I architects Client : City of Ulasn VS-A PM : Naree KIM, Robert-Jan van SANTEN

Ulsan, Korea 2016-107

Hakdong Office

단계 계획설계~현장감독 업무 내용 건축주가 새로 짓는 부티크 호텔과 기존의 오설록 박물관의 개축 및 증축 프로젝트이다. 제주도와 대지의 기후, 환경과 자연스럽게 동화되는 입면을 구현하고자 하였다.

NORTH STREET VIEW

Mission Concours Résumé 건축가의 외부 스크린 디자인을 경제적으로

구현하는 해결책을 모색한다. 기존 타공 및 찢어진 파사드를 최대한 따르는 수평 구조안과, 원 디자인을 새롭게 해석한 수직 구조안을 제안한다.


EAN Tech building

Architect : EAN Architects Client : EAN Technology VS-A PM : Naree KIM, Jaeman PARK, Sunhoo KIM

Seoul, Korea 2016-116

Mission Concept Summary We re-design the façade of exisiting building which will be new HQ of EAN. North façade is changed to full glass curtain wall for effective natural daylighting. The glazing of punched windows will be pushed inside for sunshade effect.

Hana bank renovation

Architect : The system lab Client : Hana bank VS-A PM : Naree KIM, Prashanth RAGHUNATH

Seoul, Korea 2016-117

Mission Construction documentation Summary Façade renovation of Hana bank in Gangnam district. Perforated UHPC cladding panels of complex geometry are to be installed in the existing building. Our missions were to firstly define the design wind pressures, based on both Korean & European code analysis, secondly to study behaviors of UHPC panels due to wind/thermal/dead loads, and lastly to propose appropriate fixation systems.

Renovation of Nakwon Complex Seoul, Korea 2016-118

Seoul, Korea 2016-119

단계 Concours 업무 내용 하나은행의 강남 별관 빌딩의 파사드 리노베이션 프로젝트. 복합 기하 타공 UHPC 패널이 파사드 클래딩으로 기존 건물에 부착된다. 이에, 국내외 법규 분석을 통해 설계풍압을 산정하고, 풍하중, 열하중, 자중에 의해 UHPC 패널의 거동을 분석하고, 적합한 접합 시스템을 설계 제안한다.

Architect : Skim. A Client : Seoul City VS-A PM : Naree KIM, Jaeman PARK, Sunhoo KIM

Mission Competition Summary This is a idea competition of remodeling of ‘Nakwon Building’ which is a old commercial and residence building in Seoul. To improve performance & appearance of tower façade which is residence buiding we designed additional unitized façade. Also the podium facade has been designed to improve daylighting and sound absorption performance of podium part.

Magok R&D center

단계 기획설계 업무 내용 EAN의 신사옥이 될 기존 건물을 친환경적으로 리노베이션한다. 북측 파사드는 전면 유리커튼월로 자연채광을 적극 도입하고, 남측은 기존 펀치드 창의 유리면을 셋백하여 차양 효과를 극대화한다.

단계 공모전 업무 내용 낙원상가의 리모델링 아이디어 공모전. 현재 지하도 같이 느껴지는 1층 차도와 지하상가의 위치를 맞바꾸어 지상층에 주변 사람들이 자연스럽게 모일 수 있게 하고 싶었고, 간단하지만 효과적인 건물외피 리모델링 아이디어를 고안했다. 프로그램을 고려한 유닛 패널 시스템을 적용 에너지 성능과 미관뿐 아니라 사용이 편리한 파사드를 고안하였다. 포디엄은 자연채광을 늘리고 소음을 줄이면서 시장이 열릴 때 사용할 수 있는 접이식 매대 가구 디자인을 적용하였다.

Architect : Daniel Valle Architects Client : City of Seoul VS-A PM : Naree KIM, Jaeman PARK, Sunhoo KIM Mission Competition Summary This was a competition project of R&D office building in Magok-dong in Seoul(3rd prize). The South-facing façade has protruded frame for solar shading in summer. Also we designed two strategies to improve daylighting performance of atrium space. First, some part of facade has been tilted to deliver direct sunlight to deep part of atrium. Second, we selected high reflective(high SRI) color for the opaque part of atrium facade. With this high reflectance & indirect sunlight, we improved atrium daylighting performance.

단계 공모전 (3등 수상작) 업무 내용 마곡지역의 R&D건물 신축에 관한 공모전. 남향에 면한 파사드는 돌출된 프레임을 차양으로 이용할 수 있다. 중정에 자연채광 효과를 높이기 위해 직달일사에 노출되는 파사드를 기울여서 자연광을 깊게 들이는 한편, 불투명 부분의 패널의 색의 반사율을 높여 산란광을 최대한 이용하여 중정을 밝게 하였다.

239


French Embassy 2

Architect : Sathy & Mass Studies Client : French ministry of foreign affairs VS-A PM : Sunhoo KIM, Naree KIM, Jaeman PARK

Seoul, Korea 2016-120

Mission SD to Site Control Summary Extension & renovation project of French Embassy in Seoul. Timber cladded new buildings are in harmony with the existing concrete buildings by Kim, Joongup. They are different yet complementary.

Tour Montparnasse

Architect : MAD Client : City of Paris VS-A PM : Bertille PIOT, Naree KIM

Paris, France 2016-122

Mission Competition Summary Renovation project of the highest tower in Paris. Double skin glass façade is proposed for energy saving. Outer glass panels are curved to break rigid image of the existing building silhouette. Using reflectivity of glass, inverted Eiffel tower can be reflected on the new façades.

Pyeongchang-dong Museum Seoul, Korea 2016-124

Gwanggyo, Korea 2016-126

단계 공모전 업무 내용 평창동 미술문화복합공간 설계 공모전. 북한산과 북악산 사이 계곡 경사지에 위치한 대지에 자연과 어울리는 분절된 매스는 녹지를 연결하면서 경사를 이용한 배치와 동선 계획으로 주변 환경에 녹아 드는 문화공간이 되게 한다. 외피 패턴 또한 동양의 구름 모양을 대지와 매스의 기하와 유사한 다각 패턴을 반복 배치하여 자연, 매스, 외피 패턴으로 이어지는 스케일 변화에도 일관성을 갖게 한다.

Architect : OMA+Gansam Client : Hanwha VS-A PM : Jaeman PARK, Naree KIM, Sunhoo KIM Mission SD - TD Summary Complex geometry glass façade design & engineering work of a new Galleria Department Store in Gwanggyo. Works consists of optimization of complex geometry to improve constructability, development of analysis tool, façade detailing and engineering including calculations of façade structure, glass, thermal performance.

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단계 공모전 업무 내용 프랑스 파리의 최고층 빌딩인 몽파르나스 빌딩의 리노베이션 공모전 프로젝트. 에너지 효율을 높이기 위해 더블스킨 유리 파사드가 적용되었으며 그 중공층은 까다로운 프랑스 방화기준에 만족하도록 설계되었다. 외측 유리는 기존 빌딩이 주는 딱딱한 이미지를 중화시키는 곡면 반사유리를 사용해, 눈부심이 발생하지 않으면서, 멀리서 파리의 상징인 에펠타워를 포함 도시이미지 상이 거꾸로 비출 수 있도록 하였다.

Architect : BYUN Hyojin architects Client : City of Seoul VS-A PM : Sunhoo KIM, Naree KIM, Jaeman PARK

Mission Competition Summary Design of multi-cultural art space in Pyeongchangdong. Several building masses are proposed to match with surrounding mountains. Façade pattern is composed of Asian traditional cloud pattern infill and irregular polygon pattern outline which is similar to the site geometry. In this manner, a building has a coherent image from macro scale ‘nature’ to micro scale ‘façade pattern’.

Galleria Gwanggyo

단계 계획설계 ~ 현장감독 업무 내용 서울 프랑스 대사관의 증축 및 개축 프로젝트. 목재 마감된 현대적인 신축 건물은 건축가 김중업이 설계한 한국 전통 건축의 곡선을 차용한 콘크리트 마감된 기존 건물과 대비되면서 상호 보완을 이룬다.

단계 계획설계 ~ 실시설계 업무 내용 광교 갤러리아 백화점 유리 파사드의 설계 및 엔지니어링 프로젝트. 복합 기하 유리 파사드의 시공성을 향상시키는 최적화 작업 및 분석 프로그램 개발. 디테일 설계 및 구조, 열, 유리 계산 및 엔지니어링 작업.


International Conference Center

Architect : JACQUES FERRIER ARCHITECTURES Client : SHENZHEN CAPITAL GROUP CO.,LTD VS-A PM : Ruby WANG

Shanghai, China 2016-1438

Mission SD Summary The Chinese office of French architect Jacques FERRIER likes to develop projects with external solar shading. In cities like Shanghai, this contributes efficiently in reducing energy consumption and increases comfort. After Yidian, we developed here a horizontally folded and perforated aluminium screen, with a unique and cost efficient solution. The design of some other curtain-walls was also included in our scope.

Paradise City Casino

任务 方案设计 项目概述 法国建筑师雅克•费尔叶在中国的分公司想要开发一个 外遮阳系统的项目。在像上海这样的城市中,这可以极大地提高 能耗效率并且提升舒适度。Yidian项目之后,我们开发了一个可 水平折叠的穿孔铝屏,来实现这样一个别致又价廉的解决方案。 其他一些幕墙的设计工作也纳入了我们的工作范围。

Architect : MVRDV Client : Paradise Hotel VS-A PM : Naree KIM

Incheon, Korea 2016-1441

Mission Competition Summary MVRDV’s Rotterdam office called us to share ideas about the feasibility of one of their Korean projects, which hosts a Casino nearby Incheon Airport. Complex geometry had to be associated with building technologies available locally … but the project presents quite unusual architectural and technical challenges. A true pleasure for a façade consultant !

Hangzhou Eiffel Tower

단계 계획설계 업무 내용 MVRDV 로테르담 사무소가 설계를 진행하는 인천 공항 옆에 위치한 파라다이스 시티 카지노 프로젝트의 파사드 컨셉 아이디어의 실현성 검토 및 엔지니어링 컨설팅 작업.

Architect : IFADUR Client : Private Client VS-A PM : Robert-Jan van SANTEN

Shenzhen, China 2016-1445

Mission Concept design Summary VS-A.HK has been invited to participate at several HANGZHOU EIFFEL TOWER workshops to imagine a possible future for this iconic building and location in Hangzhou. The proposal is to develop a project 1. BIGGEST TOWER IN THE WORLD around and in the tower that will make the place and the visit Enlarge the tower in a scale of 3 becoming even more unique. so,onthis Eiffel tower is in a Only the top part Doing is constucted the surface Allow visitormore to imagine the bottom partchinese of the market. way becoming more local, linked to the .HK

任务 概念设计 项目概述 VS-A.HK 被邀请参与好几个关于杭州标志性建筑的工 作坊。方案是在铁塔里面和周围发展项目,使得该。地区更有独 特性。这个方案会让铁塔更本土化和融入中国市场。

tower

Reference

Jade One

Hong Kong, China 2016-1446

VS-A.HK - Unit 708, Prosperity Center, 77-81 Container Port Road, Kwai Chung, N.T., HK - (852) 3590 8237 - mail@vs-a.hk - www.vs-a.net 万山丹香港 香港新界葵涌货柜码头路 77-81 号大鸿辉中心 708 室

Figure 1.1 http://www.higherperspectives.com/easterisland-1406180153.html Figure 1.2 http://cdn.trendhunterstatic.com/thumbs/ wood-taxidermy.jpeg

Mission Design and build Summary Doing interior architecture isn’t that usual for our office, but when the client contacted us, we understood that they were interested in our focus on details ! The space has been divided in different functional areas, following a strict 3-dimension grid Page 2 and connected with generally transparent walls.

Architect : VS-A. HK Client : Private client VS-A PM : Kevin CHENG 任务 设计和建造 项目概述 室内设计项目对我们事务所来说不太常见。当甲方跟我 们联系时,得知他们对我们对细节的专注和要求有兴趣。这个空 间根据用途分割成不同区域,并以一个三维的网格规划和使用高 透明度的墙做链接。

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Optics Valley Central City Guangzhou, China 2016-1448

Mission Competition Summary This project consist of 3 towers(max. 400m tall) and low rise podium. To incorporate the theme of the Optics Valley as a center for optical high-tech production and research, the overall sharp edged expression of the crystalline tower facades refers to optical elements like a prism. To achieve this impression, vertical bands for office facade and horizontal band for residential and hotel facade is introduced as an facade articulation solution. Vertical bands work well for office facades because it encourages verticality and it provides a discreet pocket for hiding the operable windows. Horizontal bands are best suited for hospitality conditions to maximize panoramic views.

Wind Tower

Architect : GMP Client : Private client VS-A PM : Flora HU 任务 竞赛 项目概述 这个项目包括三栋塔楼(最高400米)和低层裙楼。 为了表达本项目为光学高科技的中心,塔楼幕墙引用了光学元素 比如菱镜。为了达到这种视觉效果,办公部分幕墙凸显了竖向线 条,而住宅和酒店部分幕墙却使用了凸显横向线条的设计手法。 竖向线条能够隐藏开启扇和加强垂直感。横向线条能够把往外景 观扩大,适合住宅部分。

Architect : CHARTIER-CORBASSON Client : Private VS-A PM : Robert-Jan van SANTEN

Middle East 2016-1450

Mission R&D Summary We developed a specific typology of office buildings that are closely related to warm and dry climates of the Middle East and at the same time matches with traditional constructions. We developed a façade with decentralized HVAC units, and protruded air-filters that are over-sized to be compatible with sand storms and require reduced maintenance.

Kaisa Global Center

任务 研究与开发 项目概述 我们研发了适合暖和干燥中东气候的具体办公类型建 筑,并同时配合传统建造方式。我们研发了低维护需要的非中央 暖通系统和凸出和符合沙尘暴情况下的空气过滤器。

Architect : GMP Client : Kaisa group VS-A PM : Hyejun AN

Shenzhen, China 2016-1451

Mission Competition Summary Kaisa tower 260 meter tall tower and podium. The main tower is actially a single building, but it looks like a bundle of several small towers. The Architect’s intention of the design is to express strong and reliable character of the company like a bundle of chopsticks which becomes very strong when unified. Also, each small tower roof level is staggered to give slender tower impression. Operable windows are located above ceiling level, so view out from interior space is maximized and facade look clean. All spandrel glass(including operable window) are set back from the major facade outline, so it creates strong visual distiction between each floor.

任务 竞赛 项目概述 佳兆塔楼项目以一座260米高塔楼和裙房组成。主塔 楼的外观像似以几座小的塔楼合并起来组成。建筑师意图表达公 司的强烈和可靠的形象,像似一束筷子般强而有力。每栋小塔楼 的顶部都有交错效果,让整栋楼显得消瘦。开启窗安装在天花以 上,使得室内可以有最大的空间,同时有最多的往外景观,和保 持幕墙清澈的外观。所有拱肩玻璃(包括开启窗)从主要幕墙轮 廓线往里移,使得楼层间有明确的视觉分界。

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Shenzhen University USTC Shenzhen, China 2016-1452

Mission Competition (Won) Summary This competition for the Shenzhen University just started when I visited the RMJM office. In a couple of hours, a concept was found for most of the façades of the 3 very different buildings. No spectacular or innovative design, but just enough to give each of them a unique character, although being part of a same lot of projects. It was proposed to print a short explanation on signage boards close to each type of façade, and explain why it was designed this way. Competition was won.

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Architect : RMJM Client : Private VS-A PM : Kevin CHENG 任务 竞赛 (胜出) 项目概述 当我拜访RMJM的办公室的时候,这个深圳大学的竞 赛才刚刚开始。几个小时后,我们就讨论出了一个适合于大部分 幕墙的设计概念。建筑设计中共有三个各异的体量,我们的设计 并不是什么外观新颖的想法,但是缺恰如其分地给每一个体量带 来一个独特的特征而又不与地段上其他的设计冲突。这个设计被 建议为每个幕墙的标志制作一个简短的说明,并介绍为什么是这 样设计的。我们赢得了竞赛。


Hengqing Yifangda Tower

Architect : AUBE Client : GUANGDONG XINSANLIAN.LTD VS-A PM : FANG Shu, Ruby Wang

Zhuhai, China 2016-1453

Mission Full scope Summary Hengqing Yifangda project is a 265 meter tall office and residential tower and a commercial podium. The tower accomodates 4.9m tall loft office on most of the floors and 3.5m tall residential on upper part of the tower. As a value engineering, unit division of office facade unit is proposed at 1.2m above floor level. By doing this, same facade frame can be applied both to office facade and tower facade. Tower facade design and podium facade design are conceptually connected with expressive vertical fin with light recieving glass panel.

Kangmei HQ

Architect : GMP Client : Kangmei Pharmaceutical VS-A PM : Hyejun AN

Guangzhou, China 2016-1457

Mission Full scope Summary Kangmei Headquarter is a 170 meter tall tower surrounded with deep vertical and horizontal lamella. This expressive lamella is more than a decoration. 1.35m deep horizontal lamella on each floor functions as not only solar protection but also as cleaning balcony. 1.5m deep vertical lamella is at every 7m span, providing effective solar shading at east and west facade. Its offset position from the glass facade provides a key visual character to this project, and at the same time, it provides a path for cleaning along the horizontal lamella. The level of the horizontal lamealla is aligned to each ceiling level instead of floor level, to provide maximum view out from interior space, and clean pedestrian view.

Ilôt B - Résidence Hôtelière ASNIERES-LES-COURTILLES 2016-1903

任务 全程 项目概述 易方达项目是一座265米高的住宅塔楼和低层商业裙 房。塔楼大多数楼层容纳了4.9米层高的办公室,塔楼较高的 部分容纳3.5米层高的住宅。作为价值工程,幕墙单元分割位置 位于楼板以上1.2米高的位置。这可以让所有幕墙使用同样的框 架。塔楼和裙房幕墙以竖向竖挺和透明玻璃作为视觉概念链接。

任务 全程 项目概述 康美总部是一个170米高的塔楼。塔楼周围设置了有深 度的横向和竖向遮阳板。遮阳板不只是遮阳,同时作为清洁用的 阳台。竖向遮阳板有1.5米深,7米高,使得东和西面幕墙能有有 效的遮阳性能。遮阳板与玻璃幕墙偏移产生主要的视觉效果。同 时,横向遮阳板提供清洁的途径。横向遮阳板与天花对齐,使得 室内能够得到最大的外向景观。

Architect : BRENAC & GONZALEZ Client : SCCV ASNIERES LOT B (VINCI IMMOBILIER) VS-A PM : Larissa BLASER

Mission Tender documents Summary Following a change in developer, we were called for the construction drawing-tender document phase to build a hotel on the block next to the metro station Asnières-les-Courtilles. The façades can be defined by a set of cladding rings with horizontal grooves, which are similar to the façades of the offices adjacent to the project. Black cladding with vertical framework dresses the rest of the façades, pierced at random intervals by the frames of the rooms. This vertical cladding continues up to the ceiling with wave-shaped cutouts. On the ground floor, a curtain wall links the housing and the adjacent offices, all designed by Brenac + Gonzalez.

Pershing - 1000 Arbres

Mission DCE Résumé Suite à un changement de maîtrise d’ouvrage, nous avons été appelé pour une phase PRO-DCE pour la réalisation de la résidence hôtelière sur l’ilot bordant la station de métro d’Asnières-les-Courtilles. Les façades se définissent par un jeu d’anneaux de bardage à rainures horizontales, qui rappellent les façades des bureaux adjacents au projet. Un bardage noir à trame verticale vient habiller le reste des façades, percés de manière aléatoire par les châssis des chambres. Ce bardage vertical se poursuit jusqu’à la toiture avec des découpes en vague. Au RdC un mur rideau fait la laison entre les logements et les bureaux adjacents, tous dessinés par Brenac + Gonzalez.

Architect : Sou FUJIMOTO + OXO Client : Compagnie de Phalsbourg VS-A PM : Thomas Dumeige et Joohwan LEE

Paris, France 2016-1939

Mission Preliminary design to construction drawings Summary Pershing is our first collaboration with the company of Phalsbourg. The winning project, straddling the parisian ring road, is one of the most spectacular of the competition «réinventé Paris». Designed by Sou Fujimoto and OXO, the complex geometry of its envelope is the subject of specific parametric studies to adjust its outline with a maximum of 2D elements. The thermal performance of the envelope is optimized taking advantage of favorable inclinations of the facades.

Mission APS à PRO Résumé Pershing est notre première opération avec la Compagnie de Phalsbourg. Le projet lauréat est l’un des plus spectaculaires de l’appel à projets « réinventé Paris ». Conçue par Sou Fujimoto et OXO, la géométrie complexe de son enveloppe chevauchant le périphérique Parisien fait l’objet d’études paramétriques spécifiques pour régler son épure en maximisant les éléments plans. Les performances thermiques de l’enveloppe font l’objet d’optimisation en profitant de l’exposition favorable de son inclinaison en dévers.

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Vigie de l’Aéroport de Toulouse Toulouse, France 2016-1950

Mission Preliminary design to construction drawings Summary Our mission here extends to the study of all the glazing on the tower control room and the areas underneath the air traffic control tower at Toulouse-Blagnac airport. First, we studied several scenarios for the tower control room: preserving the existing joinery and bringing the glazing up to standard by replacing it; changing the framework by going from three to two windows with fixings that are supported by the existing frame, without a secondary structure in order to limit the obstruction of view by the structure. Our studies focused on the verification of the structure, the visibility of potential profiles, and investigating the most appropriate types of glazing for the SNIA (National Service of Airport Engineering).

Passerelle Puteaux

Architect : VS-A Client : SNIA VS-A PM : Larissa BLASER Mission APS à PRO Résumé Notre mission s’étend sur l’étude de l’ensemble des vitrages de la vigie et de la sous-vigie de la tour de contrôle de l’aéroport de Toulouse-Blagnac. Dans un premier temps, nous avons étudié plusieurs scénarios pour la vigie: conserver les menuiseries existantes et mettre aux normes les vitrages en les remplaçants ; changer la trame en passant de 3 à deux vitrages avec des fixations qui viennent prendre appui sur la charpente existante, sans structure secondaire afin de limiter au maximum les masses vues. Nos études ont porté sur la vérification de la structure, les masses vues des profilés éventuelles, et les typologies de vitrage la plus adaptée à la réglementation de la SNIA (Service Nationale d’Ingénierie Aéroportuaire).

Architect : Face B Client : Ville de Puteaux VS-A PM : Arnaud MALRAS

Puteaux, France 2016-1967

Mission Competition Summary In collaboration with FaceB and Tractebel, VS-A and OP-EN are developing a footbridge over the Seine, joining the heart of Puteaux with the Île de Puteaux. Crossing 100 metres over the river with no supports in the middle and bringing together two very different universes (urban and a preserved green area), this dissymmetrical work hopes to emphasise this difference and send a strong urban signal. Between FaceB and Tractebel, VS-A and OP-EN have linked architectural and technical elements in order to achieve a work with a strong architectural concept behind it, assisted by sensible technical choices.

Palais de Justice

Mission Concours Résumé En collaboration avec FaceB et Tractebel, VS-A et OP-EN mettent au point une passerelle piétonne sur la Seine reliant le cœur de Puteaux et l’île de Puteaux. Franchissant 100 mètres sur le fleuve sans appuis intermédiaire pour mettre en relation deux univers très différents (univers urbain fort, et une enclave préservée de verdure), l’ouvrage dissymétrique veut souligner cette différence et afficher un signal urbain fort. Entre FaceB et Tractebel, VS-A et OP-EN ont agi comme lien entre l’architecture et la technique afin d’aboutir à un ouvrage au concept architectural fort servi par des choix techniques judicieux.

Architect : O.M.A Client : Ministère de la Justice VS-A PM : Arnaud MALRAS

Lille, France 2016-2006

Mission Competition to tender package Summary The coloured facades developed by OMA in the competition for the future Law court raised several issues on the complex subject of the light transmission through a coloured glazing, in particular the impact of the colour on natural light. It is with our “magic lantern” (Model scale 1) that we presented to the jury of the competition our innovation : through an outside coloured glazing, we obtained a white light in the future offices of the magistrates.

Mission Concours à DCE Résumé Les façades colorées développées par OMA dans le concours du futur Palais de Justice ont soulevé de nombreuses questions sur le sujet pointu de la transmission lumineuse d’un vitrage coloré, notamment l’impact de la couleur sur la lumière naturelle transmise. C’est avec notre « lanterne magique » (maquette échelle 1) que nous avons présenté au jury du concours notre innovation : avec un vitrage coloré extérieur, nous réussissons à transmettre une lumière blanche dans les futurs bureaux des magistrats.

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Ile Seguin

Architect : RCR Client : EMERIGE VS-A PM : Léa RICHERT, Francesca BIASCO

Paris, France 2016-2079

Mission SD to TP Summary Emerige asked us to develop in collaboration with the Spanish Priztker Prize (2017) the facades of their new project, located on the headland of the island Seguin. The project offers a variety of typologies of facades : widely glazed saw-shaped facades, or the coloured cladding in stainless steel which designs the outline of the complex geometry of the foundation of modern art. All these facades are bound by the will of a unity within materials and technical simplicity.

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Mission APS à AOR Résumé Emerige nous a demandé de developper aux côtés des Priztker Prize Espagnols les façades de son nouveau projet, situé sur la pointe en amont de l’île Seguin. Différentes typologies de façades se développent sur tout le projet : des façades largement vitrées à redent, ou encore un bardage en inox coloré formant la peau à géométrie complexe de la fondation d’art contemporain. L’ensemble de ces façades sont liées par la volonté d’une unité de matérialité mais également de simplicité technique.


Shake

Architect : PCA Client : Caisse d’Epargne VS-A PM : Quentin DESPLECHIN

Lille, France 2016-2110 Mission Competition Summary The overall concept emphasizes the vertical lines with a repeated pattern of opaque and transparent parts on all facades. The shadow box at the top of the glazing allows the continuity of appearance on the entire height of the façade. Extruded aluminium spines form vertical sun shading in front of the glass façade, which increases it slenderness.

Occitanie Tower

Architect : Studio Libeskind Client : Compagnie de Phalsbourg VS-A PM : Laurraine SCHAEFFER

Toulouse, France 2016-2141

Mission Tender documents ... Summary The first Tower of Toulouse! It is designed by the studio Lisbeskind for the company of Phalsbourg. VS-A was involved in competition to accompany the team for the development of the complex geometry envelop, whose outer skin forms a ribbon which gravitates up to 150 m high. Architectural drawing of the outer frame in diamond orientates us to glazing of exceptional dimensions.

Ublo

Mission Concours à DCE Résumé La première tour de Toulouse ! elle est conçue par le studio Lisbeskind pour la Compagnie de Phalsbourg. VS-A est intervenu dans la phase concours pour accompagner l’équipe dans le développement de l’enveloppe à géométrie complexe, dont la peau extérieure forme un ruban qui gravite jusqu’à 150m de haut. Le dessin architectural de la trame extérieure en losange nous oriente vers des vitrages avec des développés de dimensions exceptionnelles.

Architect : VS-A.KR + VS-A.HK VS-A PM : Naree KIM, Sunhoo KIM, Jaeman PARK, Robert-Jan van SANTEN, Christophe SZULALA, Canossa CHAN, Shunquan ZHONG

2017-103

Mission Product Design & Testing Summary Ublo is a circular 3d printed ventilation window, created and developed by VS-A.KR & VS-A.HK (www.ublowindow.com). Ublo is cost effective window of high energy performance. 3d printed interior cover can be personalized so that users can choose handle, colours and additional functions. Currently patent is pending. Product launching is scheduled in 2018.

Start-up Centre and 50 Plus Campus Seoul, Korea 2017-106

Mission Concours à AOR Résumé Le concept global insiste sur les lignes verticales. La partie opaque et la partie transparente sont répétées sur toutes les façades. Les shadow box en partie haute des vitrages permettent une continuité d’aspect sur toute la hauteur de la façade. Des épines verticales en aluminium extrudé forment des brises soleils verticaux en avant de la façade vitrée, ce qui participe également à l’élancement vertical de la façade.

단계 제품 개발 (설계 및 시험) 업무 내용 유블로는 3d 프린트 기술을 이용한 원형 환기창 (www.ublo-window.com)이다. 유블로는 저렴하면서 효율이 높은 창으로 내부 커버를 3d 프린트 기술로 제작하여 사용자의 기호에 맞게 손잡이, 색상, 추가 기능을 선택할 수 있다. 현재 디자인 등록 및 특허 출원 중이며 2018년 제품 출시를 목표로 개발 중이다.

Architect : Daniel Valle architects Client : City of Seoul VS-A PM : Sunhoo KIM, Jaeman PARK, Naree KIM

Mission Competition Summary Shorted listed project for design competition for a Start-up Center and 50 Plus Campus in Changdong and Sanggye, Seoul. Several buildings are proposed for humanscaled space. Each building façade has a theme (solar energy, air purification, biodiversity and recycle) to actively contribute to the environment.

단계 기획 설계 ~ 실시 설계 업무 내용 서울 창천공원 내 신촌 도시재생 청년문화전진기지 조성공사의 일환으로 짓는 파빌리온 건물의 파사드 설계 및 엔지니어링. 건축가의 의도에 맞는 파사드 설계 제안 및 그에 맞는 디테일 설계, 구조 계산을 포함한 엔지니어링 및 입찰 도서 작업.

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Shilla Hotel Office Seoul, Korea 2017-107

Architect : Office 53427 Client : Hotel Shilla VS-A PM : Sunhoo KIM, Naree KIM, Jaeman PARK Mission SD Summary Envelope engineering of a new office building of Hotel Shilla. The building skin is lightweight & cost-effective using architectural modules. Detail proposal and façade engineering for high energy performance.

Yongsan Canopy Seoul, Korea 2017-114

Architect : VS-A.KR Client : Private VS-A PM : Jaeman PARK, Naree KIM, Sunhoo KIM Mission Concept Design Summary Canopy design of an exit of Yongsan Station. A canopy of high transparency offers thermal comfort to the pedestrian.

Innisfree Pavilion Jeju, Korea 2017-115

Jeju, Korea 2017-117

단계 모든 단계 업무 내용 제주도에 위치한 기존 이니스프리 파빌리언 개축 및 신관 파빌리온의 설계 및 엔지니어링. 투명성을 강조한 유리 파사드와 일사와 방수 및 배수를 고려한 유리 천창의 디테일 제안 및 엔지니어링.

Architect : SoA Client : City of Seoul VS-A PM : Naree KIM, Sunhoo KIM, Jaeman PARK Mission Concept Design ~ Tender Documentation Summary Metal cladding façade design & engineering of pavilion of Shinchon Youth Culture Basecamp in Changcheon park in Seoul. Façade design is developed based on the Architect’s design intention. Detail proposal, engineering including structural calculation and tender documentation work.

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단계 기획 설계 업무 내용 용산역 지하철 연결 통로 출입구 캐노피 디자인. 투명성을 확보하면서도 쾌적한 캐노피 설계 제안안.

Architect : Mass Studies Client : Amore Pacific VS-A PM : Naree KIM, Sunhoo KIM, Jaeman PARK Mission Full Scope Summary Renovation of the existing Innisfree Pavilion and extension of a new pavilion. Detail proposal & engineering for full height glass façade of high transparency & skylight of optimized solar protection & good water tightness-drainage.

Changcheon Pavilion

단계 계획 설계 업무 내용 신라호텔 신축 사무빌딩의 파사드 엔지니어링. 건축 모듈을 사용하여 가볍고 경제적이면서도 건축가의 아이디어를 바탕으로 디테일을 제안하고 에너지 효율적인 외피가 되도록 엔지니어링 하였다.

단계 기획 설계 ~ 실시 설계 업무 내용 서울 창천공원 내 신촌 도시재생 청년문화전진기지 조성공사의 일환으로 짓는 파빌리온 건물의 파사드 설계 및 엔지니어링. 건축가의 의도에 맞는 파사드 설계 제안 및 그에 맞는 디테일 설계, 구조 계산을 포함한 엔지니어링 및 입찰 도서 작업.


Ufo

Architect : VS-A.KR + VS-A.HK VS-A PM : Jaeman PARK, Sunhoo KIM , Naree KIM

2017-121 Mission Product Design & Testing Summary UFO is a frameless glazed façade system designed & developed by VS-A.KR & VS-A.HK. For high energy performance, frame gets thicker and more expensive. At the same time, external insulation system becomes more and more common. Based on the external insulation façade, UFO system is to fix glass without frame directly to building structure. Currently patent is pending. Product launching is scheduled in 2018.

FACADE CONCEPTS Zhangjiakou 6 Stations

단계 제품 개발 (설계 및 시험) 업무 내용 유에프오는 창틀이 없는 고정 창호 시스템이다. 에너지 성능이 점점 중요시 되면서 창틀은 점점 두껍고 가격이 높아지고 있다. 한편 불투명 외장 파사드는 에너지 효율을 높이고자 외단열 시스템이 보편화되고 있다. 유에프오는 외단열 시스템 파사드에서 값비싼 창틀을 없애고 유리 가장자리를 단열재 안으로 넣어, 저렴하면서도 열효율이 높은 시스템을 만들 수 있다. 현재 특허 출원 중이며 2018년 제품 출시를 목표로 개발 중이다.

Architect : AREP Client : Public client VS-A PM : Robert-Jan van SANTEN

Hebei, China 2017-1459

Mission Design stages Summary Each of the 6 stations has a different architecture, referring to the cultural environment. The developement of the façades had to integrate last minute changes and cope with the always very expressive structural concepts.

Jinan Railway Station

任务 设计阶段 项目概述 六个车站都有不同独有当地文化环境特色的建筑。幕 墙的设计发展需要植入后期改动,和非常有表现性的结构概念。

Architect : AREP Client : Public client VS-A PM : Robert-Jan van SANTEN

Jinan, China 2017-1460

Mission Design stages Summary We were asked by AREP to help establishing the main concepts and technical directions of the main glass façades and the huge curved roof. The façade has a zig-zag plan to create a more efficient structure that will increase it’s overall transparency. SUP is the local consultant in charge of the project.

Wuhan CBD Tower

任务 设计阶段 项目概述 我们受AREP邀请合作建立主要幕墙和巨大屋顶的概 念和技术方向。幕墙有曲折的使得结构更有效率和增加整体透明 度。SUP是项目的本地幕墙顾问。

Architect : MVRDV Client : Private client VS-A PM : Hyejun AN

Wuhan, China 2017-1462

Mission Competition Summary Wuhan CBD tower project consists of 300 meter and 144 meter tall slender 2 towers. The common facade concept that envelops both towers is that white, clean and organized tower envelope is excavated with a form of sophisticated pixellization so it discloses its inner skin which is in various golden colors, with bumpy surface, and un-aligned facade elements. The Architect intends to present abstraction as the ultimate form of sophistication. In this project, VS-A proposed a special facade grid that can applied both for regular peripherial facade and complicated excavated facade. By doing this, the visual impression can be realized as architect’s intention while

任务 竞赛 项目概述 武汉市中心塔楼方案由两栋塔楼组成,分别300米和 144米高。常规幕墙由白色,有组织的立面组成,然后以像素化 挖掘出土的形式手法显示常规幕墙底下的内层幕墙。内层幕墙呈 现金色,粗糙的表面处理,和不规则的排列方式。建筑师意图表 现抽象美学。在本项目中,VS-A提出了一个特殊的幕墙网格, 使得外部和内部幕墙能够处于同一系统里。这样能够保证幕墙能 够按照建筑师意图,同时使用简单的幕墙系统。幕墙材料混合使 用琥珀色涂层玻璃面板,琥珀色夹层玻璃,和琥珀色蜂窝面板。

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BaoAn Art Center

Architect : CAAU (COLDEFI) + ECADI Client : Shenzhen Bao’An district city Sports and Tourism Bureau VS-A PM : Shunquan ZHONG, Hyejun AN

Shenzhen, China 2017-1463

Mission Full scope Summary Bao’An Art Center is a 100m tall tower with a complicate form of stacked boxes. Because of its form, the façade contains many types of corners(horizontal & vertical, concave & convex) in different locations. Although the building form looks irregular, the facade is designed in a very controlled way. Regular facade modules are created in a regular structural grid. And a identical geometric logic is applied to each corner types. For exhibition space, double skin facade with flushing interior surface is proposed, to provide flexiblility of exhibition layout. Material impression that the Architect wants to achieve is scaledup white marble. So enlarged marble pattern printed glass panel is used for main facade material.

任务 全程 项目概述 宝安艺术文化中心是一座以盒子几何堆砌成的100米 高大楼。奇特的形式使得幕墙在不同地方有不同类型的转角(横 向,竖向,凹入和凸出)。虽然建筑拥有不规则的形式,幕墙设 计却是使用非常有控制的手法设计的。常规幕墙根据常规结构柱 网,角落部分幕墙使用相同的几何逻辑。展览空间使用双层幕墙 并与内墙对齐,使得展览空间安排变得可以有灵活性。建筑师意 图将建筑外观模拟成大理石的质感,因此幕墙玻璃面板透过打印 处理手法把大理石纹呈现在幕墙上。

SCHEMATIC DESIGN FOR BAO'AN PUBLIC CULTURE AND ART CENTER | 宝安公共文化艺术中心方案设计

Yuehai Culture and Sport Center Shenzhen, China 2017-1469

Mission Design stages Summary All Culture, social and Sport activities are mixed and superposed in one single building. Each program has a specific façade design to cope with the different requirements and deal with the different orientations. As the budget is very low, all solutions must be simple and cost effective. For this public building, the maintenance of the façades must everywhere be easy.

Beijing Factory

任务 设计阶段 项目概述 所有用途包括文化,社区,和运动都混合在同一大厦 里。每个用途都会有具体的幕墙设计迎合用途要求和朝向。由于 项目有非常低的预算,所有方案必须简单和低成本。作为公共建 筑,幕墙所有部分的维修必须方便简单。

Architect : CLFX (Alain Fouraux) Client : Private client VS-A PM : Robert-Jan van SANTEN

Beijing, China 2017-1471

Mission Design stages Summary This low-rise project (4 floors) will be the first application of our R&D project called «the cheapest glass façade in China». It will replaced a seriously damaged brick-wall with separate windows. This type of program is quite common in China. That’s the reason why our proposal was not a project proposal but a product proposal.

Shenzhen North Station

任务 设计阶段 项目概述 这个低层项目(四层楼高)会是我们科研项目《中国最 便宜的玻璃幕墙》的首次项目应用案例。它会替代原有已损坏的 砖幕墙。这种情况是常见的。因此,本提案并不是方案提案,而 是一个产品的提案。

Architect : Mecanoo Client : Government of Longhua District VS-A PM : Robert-Jan van SANTEN

Shenzhen, China 2017-1474

Mission Competition (Won) Summary Winning proposal ! The project includes an inovative landscape treatment and a volumetric concept for the 11 towers located on the plot. The 2 detailed towers had façades with bowwindows that were parametrically optimized, considering both the orientation of the window, the level in the building and the orientation of the glass part. The parametric tool that was developed for the project includes a predictive detailed analysis of both direct and diffuse light.

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Architect : URBANUS Client : Public client VS-A PM : Bobby CHAN

任务 竞赛(胜出) 项目概述 优胜方案!项目包括了使用创新的景观形式和容量处 理手段设计的11栋塔楼。两栋主要塔楼的幕墙设计包括经过参数 化优化的弓窗口。参数化工具考虑到朝向,高度,和角度对幕墙 太阳辐射的影响。这个工具同时提供仔细的直接和慢反射日光分 析。


Xinghuo Station

Architect : AREP Client : Private client VS-A PM : Robert-Jan van SANTEN

Beijing, China 2017-1476

Mission SD + DD Summary In this railway station starts the journey from Beijing to the mountains. Because of that, both main façades are very different. The South oriented façade facing the city is mainly opaque, with walls that collect the solar energy in winter and reflect it in summer. The North facade is fully glazed. Our scope of work included the daylight analysis of the main hall, with proposals to improve the quality by changing parameters regarding the façades, the ceilings and the skylights.

36 rue des Jeuneurs Paris, France 2017-2231

任务 方案设计+扩初设计 项目概述 这个铁路站是从北京通往山里旅程的起点。因此,两 个主要立面都不一样。朝向南面城市的立面主要以不透明幕墙构 成,在冬天吸收阳光,在夏天反射阳光。北面朝向立面用全玻璃 构造。我们的工作范畴包括日照分析,提案改良天花,天窗,和 幕墙参数优化室内空间质量。

Architect : Alex SCHONERT Client : Raiffeisen Immobilien Capital Management VS-A PM : Camille BENOIT Mission Tender package to ... Summary It is for the heavy rehabilitation of the symbolic building in rue des Jeuneurs in Paris that Alex Schoenert’s agency requested us for the envelope’s design. The frame in prefabricated concrete, characteristic of the building, is replaced by a net in BUHP. Its slender geometry adapts gradually the solar gains in summer according to the altimetry of the offices and the new facade’s performance.

31 Rue de Béthune

Mission APD à DCE Résumé C’est pour la réhabilitation lourde du bâtiment emblématique de la rue des Jeuneurs à Paris que l’agence d’Alex Schoenert nous sollicite dans la conception de l’enveloppe. La trame en éléments préfabriqués béton, caractéristique du bâtiment, est remplacée par une résille en BUHP. Sa géométrie élancée adapte progressivement les apports estivaux en fonction de l’altimétrie du plateau de bureaux et de la performance de la nouvelle façade.

Architect : SAISON MENU VS-A PM : Francesca BIASCO

Lille, France 2017-2242

Mission Competition to ... Summary Menu/season agency requested us to develop the main commercial facade on the 31 rue de Béthunes at the stage of competition. We have worked on the design of a wrinkled screen which reorientates the shop window towards the passers-by. Taking advantage of the fold we successfully integrate the structure profiles thanks to a custom-made stainless steel extrusion.

Biotope

Mission Esq à Visa Résumé C’est au stade du concours que l’agence Menu/ Saison nous a sollicité pour développer la façade commerciale principale du 31 rue de Béthunes. Nous avons travaillé sur la conception d’un écran plissé qui compose une vitrine réorientée vers les passants. C’est en profitant du pli que nous parvenons à intégrer les profilés porteurs en inox extrudés sur mesure.

Architect : HENNING LARSEN Client : Linkcity VS-A PM : Larissa BLASER

Lille, France 2017-2281

Mission Competition to .... Summary Henning Larsen, prize-winner of the Lille’s EAM competition in team with Linkcity, requests us to develop the 30.000 m² facades of offices for an unreasonable deadline. The ambitious calendar of this operation drives us towards the development of a unitized facade for the double skin in scales. The repetitiveness of scales and their angular variations according to their orientation create the identity of the building Biotope while bringing performance and economic advantages.

Mission Concours à AOR Résumé Henning Larsen, lauréat du concours AEM en équipe avec Linkcity, nous sollicitent pour développer les façades des 30.000m² de bureaux dans des délais irraisonnables. Le calendrier ambitieux de cette opération nous engage dans le développement d’un concept de façade cadre pour la double peau en écailles. La répétitivité des écailles et leurs variations angulaires selon leurs orientations créent l’identité du bâtiment Biotope tout en apportant des avantages performanciels et économiques.

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Essays Essais

随笔 에세이

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Portraits of the essayists / Portraits des essayistes

Hyejun AN

Engineer Architect / Ingénieur Architecte VS-A

Thomas CORBASSON

Olivier CORNEFERT

Partner Architect / Architecte Associé CHARTIER CORBASSON

Junie KWON

Architect / Architecte Jacques FERRIER Architecture

Margotte LAMOUROUX

Administration / Administration VS-A

Chief Editor / Rédactrice en Chef Séquence Bois

Harshad SHITOLE

Puttakhun VONGSINGHA

Engineer Architect / Ingénieur Architecte VS-A

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Camille BENOIT

Engineer Architect / Ingénieur Architecte VS-A

Architect / Architecte Façade-Lab GmbH

Bobby CHAN

Architectural Designer / Concepteur en architecture VS-A

Quentin DESPLECHIN

Partner Architect / Architecte Associé VS-A

Nathalie SIMONNEAU

Partner Architect / Architecte Associée VS-A

Canossa CHAN

Architectural Designer / Concepteur en architecture VS-A

Myriem GUEDOUAR

Wood engineer / Ingénieur Bois VS-A

Jaeman PARK

Architect / Architecte VS-A


Hyejun AN Function Architect & Engineer Summary Through her studies and working experience in the architecture field, Hyejun has developped an interest towards detail design tailored for the building’s quality, performance and sustainability. With a good understanding of complex geometries and building construction, she has beeninvolved in many design development projects of challenging designs. 职能 建筑师 & 工程师 简历 通过在建筑领域的研究和工作经验,安惠晙培养了在建筑质 量、性能和可持续性等细节设计方面的兴趣。凭借在复杂外形和 建筑结构方面的独到见解,她参与了多个项目中的挑战性设计。

Bobby CHAN Function Architectural Designer Summary Bobby Chan’s expertise flourishes in the conceptualization of architectural design, as well as its formal manifestation in relation to cultural, political, and humanitarian contexts. He believes that space is not merely enclosure, but a dimension where infinite events and stories unfold. Therefore, the facade which separates inside and outside plays a key role as a mediator between the architectural interior and the city. 职能 建筑设计师 简历 陈希的专长在于建筑概念设计与空间形式构造的衔接,和透 过设计去探索建筑与建筑身处环境的关系。陈希认为空间不仅仅 是容量,而是一个可以让无限事件和故事发生的纬度。因此,建

Versailles since 2016. He is also an elected member of the Maison de l’Architecture committee and leads a series of architecture shows called “My Architect” for the Silencio club in Paris. Fonction Architecte Associé Résumé Thomas Corbasson est un architecte associé de l’agence chartier-corbasson architectes. Après avoir travaillé chez Jean Nouvel, notamment à Seoul, Corée du Sud, il s’associe en 2000 à Karine Chartier pour fonder l’agence qui sera lauréate des albums de la jeune architecture en 2002. Leur premier projet public, la maison de l’architecture en Ile-de-France, sera lauréat du prix européen bauwelt de la première oeuvre. Depuis chacun de leur projet réalisé a fait l’objet de nombreuses publications. Thomas Corbasson enseigne depuis 2016 à l’école d’architecture de Versailles. Il est également membre élu du bureau de la maison de l’architecture et anime un cycle de représentation de l’architecture, « my architect » pour le club silencio, à Paris. Olivier CORNEFERT Function Architect, Projects director Summary Olivier Cornefert, a graduate from EPFL, the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale in Lausanne, is an architectproject manager at the JFA Jacques Ferrier Architecture agency, with which he has collaborated since 2003. He is responsible for the agency’s projects in China, as well as several urban planning and architectural projects in France. Since 2013, he has also been teaching at ENSA, the Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Architecture de Versailles, where he teaches classes in the urban planning and architecture masters programmes.

筑表皮不单是分隔里面和外面空间的工具,而是城市与建筑个体 之间发生的各种故事的叙述者。

Canossa CHAN Function Architectural Designer Summary She is interested in detail design and believes that details should always echo with the overall schematic design to achieve human comfort and sustainability in different aspects. She is interested in facade as representation and protective skin of architecture, a space that demands meticulous care in transition. 职能 建筑设计师 简历 陈悅心重视细节设计并认为透过对每个细节的设计,以及对 结构的了解,

能令建筑在使用者的需要及可持续性的各方面融

合,构筑自然流畅的空间。

她对建筑表皮的兴趣在于它给予建

筑的外观身份及提拱保护的功能,是一个需要仔细设计的过渡空 间。

Camille BENOIT Function Engineer Architect Summary Camille Benoit, who joined the VS-A team in 2015, is an Engineer-Architect and is currently undergoing HMONP training. She qualified at the Ecole Spéciale des Travaux Publics et du Bâtiment and the Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Paris-La Villette. She has also studied abroad, at Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg, Sweden. Over the course of her training, she participated in an architecture competition in Vietnam and worked on a research project on biomimetics. Fonction Ingénieur Architecte Résumé Intégrée à l’équipe VS-A depuis 2015, Camille BENOIT est Ingénieur Architecte et suit actuellement la formation HMONP. Elle est diplômée de l’Ecole Spéciale des Travaux Publics et du Bâtiments et de l’Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Paris La Villette. Elle a également étudié à l’étranger, à l’Université Polytechnique Chalmers à Göteborg en Suède. Elle a participé au cours de sa formation à un concours d’architecture au Vietnam et a travaillé un mémoire de recherche sur le biomimétisme. Thomas CORBASSON Function Partner Architect Summary Thomas Corbasson is a partner architect at the Chartier-Corbasson Architectes agency. After working at Jean Nouvel in Seoul, South Korea, he joined together with Karine Chartier in 2000 to establish this agency, which was awarded the Albums de la Jeune Architecture prize in 2002. Their first public project, the Maison de l’Architecture in Ile-de-France, was awarded the European Bauwelt Prize for first works. Since then, all of their projects have been the subject of various publications. Thomas Corbasson has taught at the School of Architecture in

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Fonction Architecte, Directeur de Projets Résumé Diplômé de l’EPFL Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Olivier Cornefert est architecte-directeur de projets à l’agence JFA Jacques Ferrier Architecture, où il collabore depuis 2003. Il est en charge des projets de l’agence réalisés en Chine, ainsi que de plusieurs projets d’urbanisme et d’architecture en France. Depuis 2013 il est également enseignant à l’ENSA-V Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Architecture de Versailles, où il participe à des Masters d’urbanisme et d’architecture Quentin DESPLECHIN Function Partner Architect Summary Quentin Desplechin is an architect who graduated from ENSAPL, LILLE (FR). Interested in the technical aspects of architectural details, he joined the VSA team in January of 2009 Fonction Architecte Associé Résumé Quentin Desplechin est architecte diplômé de l’ENSAPL, LILLE(FR). Intéressé par la technique et le travail du détail, il rejoint l’équipe VS-A en janvier 2009. Myriem GUEDOUAR Function Wood Engineer Summary After graduating from ENSTIB EPINAL (FR), an engineering school specialized in wood, Myriem joins VS-A as an intern to become project manager at the end of it. Myriem is also involved in R&D concerning thermal aspects of building envelope and in wood topics as a specialist.

Margotte LAMOUROUX Function Chief Editor Summary Margotte Lamouroux, an architect by training, has been part of the editorial staff at the journal D’architectures and has collaborated with several other titles (AMC, le Moniteur, Traits Urbains) before becoming chief editor at Séquences Bois. At the same time, she also gives talks at engineering and architecture schools and is regularly invited to participate in juries, both professional and in the world of education. Fonction Rédactrice en Chef Résumé Architecte de formation, Margotte Lamouroux a fait partie de la rédaction de la revue D’architectures et a collaboré avec plusieurs titres (AMC, le Moniteur, Traits Urbains) avant de devenir rédactrice en chef de Séquences Bois. Parallèlement, elle assure des interventions dans des écoles d’architecture et d’ingénierie et elle est régulièrement invitée à participer à des jurys, tant professionnels que dans le monde de l’enseignement. Nathalie SIMONNEAU Function Architect Partner Summary Graduated in 2004 from the architecture school of Nantes (France), Nathalie SIMONNEAU joined VS-A in 2006. As a project manager, she’s incorporated expertise in fire safety issues relating to facades. Moreover, as she has been working for over 10 years on every stage of site supervision, she has gained much experience in this field. Fonction Architecte Associée Résumé Diplômée depuis 2004 de l’école d’architecture de Nantes, Nathalie a rejoint le BET VS-A en 2006. Chef de projet, elle s’est constituée une expertise dans la sécurité incendie liée aux problématiques de façades. Par ailleurs elle possède une sérieuse expérience dans le suivi de chantier, qu’elle exerce depuis plus de 10 ans. Jaeman PARK Function architect Summary He joined in VS-A.KR in March 2014 as a Project Manager. He completed a master of architecture degree in 2009 and has been working on various architectural projects in an architectural firm since then. He is strongly interested in parametric design. Fonction Architecte Résumé Il rejoint VS-A KR en mars 2014 en tant que chef de projet. Il a complété un master en architecture en 2009 et a travaillé sur plusieurs projets architecturaux dans une agence d’architecture. Depuis il est fortement intéressé par la conception paramétrique. Harshad SHITOLE Function Engineer Architect Summary After completing post graduate studies in Building technology from TU Delft, Netherlands, Harshad joined VSA, Lille in July 2013 as an Architect/ Engineer. Ever since he has been involved in multiple projects in Europe and Asia. He has actively participated in developing in-house parametric and analysis tools.

Fonction Ingénieur Bois Résumé Diplômée de l’ENSTIB, école d’ingénieurs spécialisée dans le bois, Myriem intègre VS-A pour son stage de fin d’études à la suite duquel elle obtient le statut de chef de projet. Myriem s’implique également dans les travaux concernant et les aspects thermiques de l’enveloppe du bâtiment et le bois en qualité de spécialiste.

Fonction Ingénieur Architecte Résumé A la suite de l’obtention de son diplôme de troisième cycle spécialisé dans les technologies de l’enveloppe à l’Université de TU Delf, Harshad rejoint VS-A en juillet 2013 en tant qu’ingénieur architecte. Depuis il a été impliqué dans plusieurs projets en Europe et en Asie. Il a participé activement à l’élaboration d’outils paramétriques et d’analyse développés en interne.

Junie KWON Function Administration Summary She completed bachelor degree of hospitality management in Australia. She joined in VS-A KR in December 2014 as an administrative assistant. With her understanding of management filed from accounting to marketing, she support KR office for the smooth running of various projects.

Puttakhun VONGSINGHA Function Architect, Façade research and development Summary Born in 1985, 2004-2008 Bachelor of Architecture of King Monkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL), Bangkok. 2009-2017 work at Westudio Healthcare design specialist, Bangkok. 2013-2015 Master degree at TU Delft, the Netherlands. Currently work at Facade-Lab GmbH, Berlin.

Fonction Administration Résumé A la suite de l’obtention de sa licence en management hôtelier, Junie a rejoint l’agence de Séoul en décembre 2014 en tant qu’assistante administratrice. Avec sa compréhension du management et du marketing , elle est impliquée dans le bon fonctionnement de nombreux projets.

Fonction Architecte, spécialiste en recherche et développement de l’enveloppe Résumé Né en 1985 à Bangkok, diplômé d’un Master d’architecture en 2008 au KMITL (King Monkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang), Puttakhun VONGSINGHA travaille pour Westudio Healthcare en tant qu’architecte spécialiste du design à Bangkok de 2009 à 2012. Ensuite, il a obtenu un Master à l’université technique de Delft en 2015, depuis il est spécialiste en recherche et développement pour le Façade-Lab GmbH de Berlin.


I.Some reflections on the access walkway Robert-Jan van SANTEN / Founder & Co-Owner / VS-A

1. Walkway to Mont Saint-Michel, Architect : D.FEICHTINGER / Passerelle du Mont Saint-Michel, Architecte : D.FEICHTINGER

2. View of the walkway / Vue de la Passerelle

... At the 2015 Monitor prize giving ceremony, I had

absent. Instead of a structure showing off its architectural features, there is a simple horizontal walkway lying above water or sand, depending on the phase of the tide. It creates a meeting place, bringing together man, wind, and sea. One crosses this bridge running, or strolling across in stages, perhaps enjoying the view of the banks with their integrated night lighting.

was no exception to the rule. The deck’s support posts are extremely thin (Ø250, thickness of up to 60mm) to offer the least resistance to water flow. The techniques are not showy, serving only the architecture and the landscape. This project shows that you can have an “architecture of bridges”… without being confined to only considering the structural aspects. Exactly the same goes for the architecture of facades.

In Hong Kong, at least 5km apart from each other, 3 cable-stayed bridges have been erected, holding several world records. Two of them have a span of more than a kilometre. They are spectacular technical feats and undoubtedly obey sophisticated rules regarding strength of materials and economy. These parameters determine their structure, components, assembly, dimensions and image. This “engineer’s architecture” creates complex, imposing works… yet they are deprived of any subtlety.

The bridge is curved. This is not a deceptive appearance: a curved line that could be taken for a viaduct in the Alps but imposed in the sea. The curve creates magic: the progressive approach to the mount gently varies the viewpoint allowing it to be viewed in 3 dimensions. It also has another virtue: it gives a lateral view of the bridge, allowing the curious stroller to take in its structural plan (sketch 1). It’s a little like looking out from behind a concave facade: you’re on the inside, but you can still see the outside (sketch 2).

Over the last twenty years, “architectural” walkways have been very popular in Europe because they help to improve the quality of space. We also contributed to this trend in 2004 by realising the Soubise mobile walkway, which crosses the Deûle canal, connecting Lambersart and Lille. Subsequently in 2012, Arnaud MALRAS together with architects from Face B participated in the Paris Bridge + Crossing project and won the international Archtriumph competition.

The access walkway to Mont Saint-Michel has a completely different approach, with a clearly more successful result. To those crossing the bridge, the impression of technical achievement is completely

Similar to SANAA projects, the technicality is hidden from view. It isn’t intended to be on display; only the architecture counts. To achieve such results, very sophisticated techniques are required, and this project

the pleasure of presenting the Works of Art category award to architect Dietmar FEICHTINGER. It was not the moment to discuss the relationship between architects and engineers at length, but to rapidly present to the public the main features of this seductive project where the relationship had taken such a unique turn. In doing so, I drew a parallel between the project and our own practises at the VS-A.

3. Sketch /Croquis

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4. Sketch /Croquis


Réflexions sur la passerelle du Mont-Saint-Michel Robert-Jan van SANTEN / Fondateur & Co-gérant / VS-A

5. Walkway in Paris, Architect : Face B / Passerelle de Paris, Architecte : FaceB

... A l’occasion de la cérémonie de remise des prix de

l’Equerre d’Argent 2015, j’ai eu le plaisir de remettre celui de la catégorie «ouvrages d’art» à l’architecte Dietmar FEICHTINGER. Le moment n’était pas approprié pour disserter longuement sur la relation architecte-ingénieur, il fallait juste présenter rapidement au public les évidentes qualités de ce séduisant projet où cette relation avait pris une tournure si singulière. Le faisant, j’ai fait un parallèle entre ce projet et notre propre pratique du projet au sein des bureaux VS-A.

résultat nettement plus heureux. En marchant sur ce pont, la prouesse technique est totalement absente. En lieu et place d’une structure mise en valeur par un traitement architectural, il y a une promenade horizontale au fil de l’eau ou du sable, selon la phase de la marée, un espace de rencontre entre l’homme, le vent et la mer. On parcourt ce pont en courant, en flânant voire en faisant la traversée par étapes, profitant des bancs où est intégré l’éclairage nocturne.

A Hong Kong, à moins de 5km les uns des autres, ont été construits 3 ponts haubanés, détenteurs de plusieurs records du monde, dont 2 ont une portée libre supérieure au km. Ce sont des prouesses techniques spectaculaires et ce sont assurément les règles sophistiquées de résistance des matériaux et d’économie qui ont défini le parti structurel, les composants, les assemblages, les proportions, l’image du projet. Cette architecture d’ingénieurs crée des ouvrages imposants, complexes … mais dénués de toute subtilité.

Le pont est en courbe. C’est un signe qui ne trompe pas : une ligne courbe se comprend pour un viaduc dans les Alpes, mais en mer ? Cette courbe est pourtant magique : l’approche progressive du mont fait doucement varier le point de vue ce qui permet d’appréhender le Mont en 3 dimensions. Et elle a une autre vertu : elle donne un point de vue latéral sur le pont, ce qui permet au promeneur curieux de comprendre le schéma structurel (croquis 1). C’est un peu comme regarder dehors derrière une façade concave : on est à l’intérieur mais on voit l’extérieur de la façade. (croquis 2)

Le projet de la passerelle d’accès au Mont Saint Michel relève d’une démarche totalement inverse, avec un

A la manière des projets d’une agence comme SANAA, la technique est effacée du regard, car là n’est pas le

6. Walkway in Lambersart, architect : OP-EN / Passerelle de Lambersart, architecte : OP-EN

propos. Seule l’architecture compte. Sans exception, pour obtenir de tels résultats, des techniques très sophistiquées sont nécessaires, et ce projet ne fait pas exception à la règle. Les potelets de support du tablier, extrêmement fins (Ø250, épaisseur jusqu’à 60mm) pour offrir la moindre résistance au passage de l’eau en témoignent. Mais la technique n’est en rien démonstrative, elle est juste au service de l’architecture, du paysage. Et ce projet démontre qu’il peut y avoir une architecture de pont… Sans qu’elle se limite à la valorisation d’un parti structurel. Il en va exactement de même pour l’architecture en façade. Depuis une vingtaine d’années, les passerelles « architecturales » sont à l’honneur en Europe, car elles participent à fortement qualifier l’espace : nous nous sommes aussi livrés à cet exercice en 2004, en réalisant la passerelle mobile Soubise, franchissant le canal de la Deûle, reliant ainsi Lambersart à Lille. Et en 2012 Arnaud MALRAS a participé avec les architectes de Face B au projet gagnant du concours d’idées international «Archtriumph», «Paris Bridged + Crossing».

7. Walkway Lambersart / Passerelle Lambersart

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II.大澳 - TAI O

Robert-Jan van SANTEN / Founder & Co-Owner / VS-A

1.Tai O

-74Tai O ({Chinois 大澳) is a small fishing town located in the western part of Lantau Island in the New Territories of Hong Kong (Wikipedia). The picturesque village of PokFuLam is barely any bigger, but located on the island of Hong Kong, it has (legitimately) made it onto the World Monuments Fund’s list of villages to protect. Tai O on the other hand, in contrast to any touristic location, is a little lakeside town known only to a handful of people. It could nonetheless make it into the VM Zinc’s worldclass calendar. Here, the large majority of buildings are fishermen’s houses, backed by a hard seawall, and built on the water, resting on a myriad of stilts. The frame, the floor, the walls, and the roof… everything is made of wood, which is in reality hardly an appropriate material for such a marine exhibition. To preserve these constructions from bad weather, they are protected by sheets of zinc with a thickness of 4/10ths of a millimetre, laid to form a light tiled covering and nailed down. 75% of buildings are built this way, giving the village a unique character.

ding seams and the gaps between wood and metal are only very weakly ventilated… but they nevertheless resist “typhoons”, cyclones or winds of close to 200km/h, which blast heavy rain against them. Without a doubt, their water tightness is not comparable to that of our houses, though perhaps their building system takes into account what that is necessary here, given the elevation and dominant winds. These “traditional” construction methods are associated with ancestral ways: overhanging sloped or arched roofs, protecting vertical façades. Techniques used are reassuring because they are tried and tested. No need to go far to find more sophisticated techniques, even if several days of each year must be dedicated to maintenance. Certain buildings are covered instead with fine steel tiles, sometimes galvanized, painted, and repainted… but rust still quickly appears on the surface! The steel solution, more cost effective in terms of construction costs, is less durable but contributes equally to the picturesqueness of the village where each house must be rebuilt every 30 years (roughly).

When examining the building standards, one remarks that these constructions are not joined with stan-

It came to my mind that the construction standard in Europe and elsewhere disregards local geographic

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and climatic data. The aspects of construction set out in the standard must be perfect in every situation. That is of course very reassuring, he who can do more can do less, but it does not mean that now we have precise and well-analysed configurations, others are not equally valid. Furthermore, one must have the space, the time, the technical knowledge, and finally the right to execute. Just because man invented the automobile does not mean the bicycle is obsolete or walking is unfashionable. VS-A.KR participated with the skimA architecture agency in the “2015 10th International Korean Rural Architecture Competition” organised by the “Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs”. One of the main ideas was to bring together old and new with a single architectural and constructive logic. We won 2nd prize. Not bad! This path doesn’t appear to be a dead end, so let’s explore it!


-74Tai O ({Chinois 大澳) est une petite ville de pêcheurs située sur la partie occidentale de l’île de Lantau dans les Nouveaux Territoires de Hong Kong. (Wikipédia). Alors que le village pittoresque de PokFuLam, guère plus grand mais situé sur l’île de Hong Kong, figure légitimement sur la liste des villages à protéger par la World Monuments Fund, Tai O, à l’écart de tout chemin touristique, est une petite cité lacustre connue par seulement une poignée de curieux. Elle pourrait cependant faire la une d’un calendrier de VM Zinc. Ici, la très grande majorité de constructions sont des maisons de pêcheurs, adossés à une digue en dur, et construites sur l’eau, prenant appui sur une myriade de pilotis. L’ossature, le plancher, les murs et le toit … tout est en bois, mais d’une essence en réalité peu appropriée à une telle exposition marine. Pour préserver ces constructions des intempéries, celles-ci sont donc protégées par des feuilles de zinc de 4/10ème de mm d’épaisseur, posées avec un léger recouvrement (tuilage) et clouées. 75% des constructions sont ainsi bardées, conférant à ce village un caractère unique. Question normes de construction, on remarquera que ces constructions ne sont pas à joint debout, que

l’interstice entre bois et métal n’est que très faiblement ventilée … mais qu’elles résistent quand même aux « typhoons », cyclones où des vents de près de 200km/h projettent une abondante pluie contre les constructions. Sans doute les attentes en matière d’étanchéité ne sont pas comparables aux notre, peut-être aussi que le système constructif correspond juste à ce qui est nécessaire à cet endroit, compte tenu du relief et des vents dominants. Ces méthodes de construction « traditionnelles » sont associées à des formes tout aussi ancestrales : toit en pente ou cintré débordant, protégeant les façades verticales. En cet endroit, ces techniques ont ceci de rassurant qu’elles sont éprouvées. Nul besoin d’aller chercher des techniques plus sophistiquées, même s’il faut passer quelques jours, chaque année, pour en assurer l’entretien. On remarquera certaines constructions ayant opté pour une variante en fines feuilles en acier, parfois galvanisé puis peintes et repeintes … mais la rouille prend vite le dessus ! La solution acier, plus économique en coût de construction se révèle moins durable mais participe également au pittoresque du village où chaque maison est reconstruite tous les 30

ans (estimation). Il me vient alors à l’esprit que les normes de construction d’Europe et d’ailleurs font quasi abstraction des données géographiques et climatiques locales. Le détail de construction défini par la norme doit être parfait en toute circonstance. C’est bien sûr très rassurant, qui peut le plus peut le moins, mais cela ne veut pas dire que, dans des configurations précises et bien analysées, d’autres ne soient pas valides pour autant. Encore faut-il avoir le recul, le temps, le savoir technique et enfin le droit, de faire autrement. Ce n’est pas parce l’homme a inventé l’automobile que la bicyclette est devenue obsolète ou marcher à pied ringard. VS-A.KR a participé avec l’agence d’architecture skimA à un concours d’architecture « 2015 10th Korean Rural Architecture International Competition » organisé par le « Ministery of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs ». Un des principaux concepts était de faire interagir l’ancien et le neuf avec une même logique architecturale et constructive. Nous avons eu le 2ème prix. Pas mal ! Ce chemin ne semble pas être une impasse : explorons le !

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III.Drawing from natural science Camille BENOIT / Engineer Architect / VS-A

1. Open pavillon realized by Achim Mengès with the wooden module (4) FAZ Pavillion ouvert. Conçu par l’équipe d’Achim Mengès en utilisant les modules de bois (4)

... The organisation of the COP 21 in Paris provides the opportunity to readdress questions relating to sustainable development. This notion has been tirelessly used and repeated, so we should recall it’s original definition dating back to the Brundtland conference: “The development that meets the needs of current generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. More than just a trending phenomenon, sustainable development is progressively awakening our consciences to the need to question the western way of life, and the destruction it causes to an overexploited planet. Building is now occupying an ever-increasing area due to population increases and urbanisation. It is becoming a major issue in ecological transition, notably in problems relating to urban dispersion and consumption of materials and energy. In the necessary task of saving energy, it is vital not to rely on new technologies alone. Germany, a major investor in renewable energies such as photovoltaic energy, provides an excellent example. Renewable energies are intermittent and in the absence of grand-scale electricity storage solutions, the perks of electricity production do not respond to all phases of demand. As a result, Germany also uses thermal power stations, and fossil fuels to meet demands. While we must pursue technological research, it also seems important to me that we take passive, lowtech approaches to building and create intelligent, independent and durable solutions. This is why building envelopes, involving problems relating to aesthetics, structure, energy, thermal, and material, are essential subjects of study. To fuel this reflection on passive design and to find innovative solutions, a field of study little developed in France is particularly interesting: Biomimicry, or taking inspiration from studying the natural world. Systems developed in nature have been tested by 3.4 billion years of evolution, and have acquired remarkable complexity, richness and adaption in all

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2. Closed realized by Achim Mengès with the wooden module (4) FAZ Pavillion fermé. Conçu par l’équipe d’Achim Mengès en utilisant les modules de bois

environments. The intelligence of nature becomes clear when examining the details. The photos below show the hydrodynamic operation of a pinecone in action. Its scales have a double membrane. When humidity increases, the cells of the exterior membrane elongate, while the interior membrane does not react (due to a different cellular constitution). All of the scales deform and the whole pinecone closes independently as hygrometry increases. Achim Mengès’ team drew on this idea to design a pavilion made of double-membraned wooden cells. The photos below show the resulting pavilion which truly reflects the hydrodynamic operation of a pinecone, able to open and close without energy as a function of the weather.

would therefore like to collaborate with biologists on architectural problems in order to explore new avenues of innovation with them. Certain tools already exist and are in the process of development, such as the website AskNature which gathers together knowledge about the living world and offers a system of research by function, thereby allowing users to find relevant analogies. There are an infinite number of examples illustrating the potential of biomimicry, and taking into account that science draws on natural science. Collaboration between architects, engineers and biologists seems to me the best way to grasp this inexhaustible source of intelligent solutions that can be applied to the design of building envelopes.

This case of the study of pinecones demonstrates how examining the details can inspire very rich innovations in the creation of building envelopes. It is essential to distinguish between biomimicry on one hand, and bioinspiration and bioassistance on the other. Bioinspiration draws formal or superficial inspiration from nature because it is based on observation alone. Bioassistance involves using natural resources to respond to problems (e.g. certain plants can be put in a pond to filter polluted water). Biomimicry on the other hand analyses processes, functions and forms for use in a human problematic with the goal of providing durability. I subscribe to the second approach because it is the only one that performs research with the aim of establishing relevant analogies. Beyond my interest in nature and understanding of natural phenomena, I believe the necessary collaboration between engineers, architects and biologists in this kind of research will be particularly enriching and indispensable for innovation. As an engineer and architect, I am very aware of the diversity of participants in the design process, as well as the sharing of knowledge that takes place. I

3. Open & close Pine cone Pomme de pin ouverte et fermée en coupe


Biomimétisme, aborder la science de la nature Camille BENOIT / Ingénieur Architecte / VS-A

4. Wooden module with pine cone principe Module en bois reprenant le principe de la pomme de pin

... L’organisation

de la COP 21 à Paris est l’occasion d’aborder une nouvelle fois les questions liées au développement durable, notion aujourd’hui inlassablement utilisée et répétée qui mérite que sa définition originelle datant de la conférence de Brundtland soit ici rappelée : “The development that meets the needs of current generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. Plus qu’un phénomène tendance, c’est aujourd’hui un éveil progressif des consciences pour la remise en question d’un mode de vie occidental destructeur d’une planète surexploitée. Le bâtiment est amené à occuper une superficie de plus en plus grande avec l’accroissement de la population et l’urbanisation. Il devient donc un enjeu majeur dans la transition écologique, notamment sur les problématiques d’étalement urbain et de consommation en matériaux et énergie. Dans une démarche nécessaire d’économie d’énergie, il me paraît primordial de ne pas se reposer exclusivement sur les nouvelles technologies. Le cas de l’Allemagne, grand investisseur dans les énergies renouvelables telles que le photovoltaïque, en est un exemple éloquent. Les énergies renouvelables sont intermittentes et en l’absence de solution de stockage de l’électricité à grande échelle, les pics de production d’électricité ne répondent pas au phasage de la demande. En conséquence de quoi l’Allemagne a remis en marche des centrales thermiques, consommatrices d’énergie fossile à outrance. Tout en poursuivant la recherche technologique, il me paraît donc important de s’engager dans une démarche passive et low-tech du bâtiment, garante d’une conception intelligente, autonome et pérenne. C’est pourquoi l’enveloppe du bâtiment qui cristallise les problématiques liées à l’esthétique, la structure, l’énergétique, la thermique ainsi qu’aux matériaux, me semble un sujet d’étude primordial. Pour alimenter cette réflexion sur la conception passive et trouver des pistes d’innovation, un champ d’étude encore peu développé en France

est particulièrement intéressant ; le biomimétisme, ou l’inspiration que l’homme peut tirer de l’étude du monde vivant. Les systèmes développés dans la nature ont été éprouvés par 3.4 milliards d’années d’évolution et ont aujourd’hui acquis une complexité, une richesse et une adaptation remarquables à tous les milieux. C’est en se penchant sur les détails que l’intelligence de la conception naturelle se mesure. Les photos ci-dessous illustrent l’utilisation du fonctionnement hydrodynamique de la pomme de pin, ses écailles sont formées d’une double membrane. Lorsque l’humidité augmente, les cellules de la membrane extérieure s’allongent alors que la membrane intérieure n’est, elle, pas réactive (de par sa constitution cellulaire). L’ensemble de l’écaille se déforme donc et c’est toute la pomme de pin qui se referme de façon autonome lorsque l’hygrométrie augmente. L’équipe d’Achim Mengès à Stuggart a utilisé l’intelligence de ce principe pour concevoir un pavillon fait de cellules de bois à double membrane. Les photos suivantes illustrent ce pavillon capable de s’ouvrir et de se fermer sans énergie en fonction de la météo, véritable reflet du fonctionnement hydrodynamique de la pomme de pin. Ce cas d’étude sur les pommes de pin montre également tout l’enjeu de la réflexion sur le détail, qui peut être à l’origine d’innovations très riches pour la conception de l’enveloppe des bâtiments.

souhaite m’inscrire car c’est la seule qui participe d’un travail de recherche en vue d’établir des analogies pertinentes. Au-delà de mon intérêt particulier pour la nature et la compréhension de ses phénomènes, la nécessaire collaboration entre ingénieurs, architectes et biologistes dans le cadre de cette recherche me paraît particulièrement enrichissante et indispensable aujourd’hui pour l’innovation. En tant qu’Ingénieur et Architecte, je suis très sensible à la mixité des acteurs dans l’espace de la conception ainsi qu’à la mise en commun des savoirs. Je souhaiterai donc pouvoir collaborer avec des biologistes dans le cadre de problématiques architecturales afin d’explorer avec eux de nouvelles pistes d’innovation. Certains outils existent déjà et sont en cours de développement comme par exemple le site AskNature qui rassemble un certain nombre de connaissances sur le monde du vivant et offre un système de recherche par fonction, permettant ainsi de trouver des analogies pertinentes. Il existe une infinité d’exemples pour illustrer tout le potentiel du biomimétisme et prendre ainsi conscience que la science passe aussi par la science de la nature. La collaboration entre Architectes, Ingénieurs et Biologistes me semble aujourd’hui le meilleur moyen d’appréhender cette source inépuisable de solutions intelligentes à appliquer pour la conception de l’enveloppe des bâtiments.

Il est cependant primordial de distinguer le biomimétisme de la bio inspiration et de la bio assistance. La bio inspiration est une inspiration plutôt formelle et superficielle de la nature car basée uniquement sur l’observation. La bio assistance consiste à utiliser des ressources de la nature pour répondre à des fonctions (ex: certaines plantes dans un étang peuvent être utilisées pour filtrer les eaux polluées). Le biomimétisme est une démarche d’analyse de processus, de fonctions, de formes pour servir une problématique humaine dans un objectif durable. C’est dans cette dernière démarche que je

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IV.Building envelopes : the epidermis of towns !

Olivier CORNEFERT / Architect / Jacques FERRIER Architecture

1. Façade typologie : Paris / Typologies de façade : Paris

2. Façade typologie : Chicago / Typologies de façade :

3. Façade typologie : Hong-Kong / Typologies de façade :

... Skin : From the Latin pellis: organ whose function

buildings must express the town’s distinctiveness by breaking with generic standardisation. Materials, modes of implementation, colours, and proportions must be chosen to express a culture, a context, and ultimately an ambition for the town.

parts of a town is a factor in the town’s perpetuation. Building envelopes constitute the city’s largest surface, much more so than streets or public spaces, and represent one of its most significant quantities of material. Therefore architects and engineers must reintroduce a certain ethic into their creative process, to “take care of ” buildings’ skins, because skin is a precious organ in the urban environmental balance. Here again, the design choices are decisive and engaging: materials, construction methods, systems, energy production, reduction of needs, anticipation of deconstruction and recycling.

is to envelope the whole body in order to protect it.

In my opinion, engineers and architects should design building envelopes to be “skins” in the aesthetic, anatomic and ethical senses of the term. These envelopes can be considered to form the epidermises of towns, and in this respect, play a major role in determining their future. Just like a living body, a city can be in good or bad health. We could therefore think of a town as an organism and its facade as one of its vital organs: its skin. The skin expresses the state of a body to the outside world; envelopes are the architectural, economic, societal and environmental reflection of a town. Aestheticism: envelopes and urban identities. It is by the skin of a living being that others behold it. Several elements make up a town: geographic position (latitude, climate, topography), urban morphology, and socioeconomic characteristics. Considered together, these constitute the town’s identity. Building facades are one of the major determinants, because they are directly perceptible and is a result from a historical, technical, economic and cultural logic. For example: it’s stone and Haussmannian style makes Paris clearly identifiable, repetitive glass and steel curtain walls are the very image of Chicago, bow-windows and the regular openings of large coloured buildings characterise the Mid-Levels in HongKong, brick and large square windows are one of the symbols of Amsterdam. Now more than ever, the architectural envelopes of

5. Roof of the Santa Caterina market in Barcelona – Miralles/ Tagliabue-EMBT: a Spanish ceramic lizard skin in the city. Toiture du marché Santa Caterina à Barcelone – Miralles/ Tagliabue-EMBT : une peau de lézard en céramiques espagnoles dans la ville.

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Anatomy: envelopes and interiority/exteriority interactions The skin of a living being allows the regulation and mediation of its body with the environment. Architecture and engineering are now ripe to pass from the “logic of clothing” to the “logic of an epidermis”. Facades can no longer be considered mere boundaries between private and public spaces, or shells to protect against climatic events. Instead, they must be mediators between the interior and the exterior, enriching both and stimulating the senses. Materiality, transfiguration of light, heat exchange, reasoned bioclimatism, relationship to the landscape, staging of the city, expression of functional uses, and perception and transformation of urban and interior atmospheres are all equally the architectonic goals that the envelope has the power and the duty to amplify and enhance, so that life in the town transforms from existence into experience.

Finally, in a globalised society where a French architect and a Dutch envelope designer can collaborate to design the facade of a multi-functional building in China for an American investor, conceptual creativity and technical inventiveness have a duty to find new sources of inspiration. One option could be “hybridisation”, a concept usually applied to the living beings, which creates new colours, new identities, new envelopes, new epidermises.

Ethics: envelopes and durability-creativity The skin of a living being is crucial to its survival and life expectancy. It also reveals its origin and specific properties. The ability of the skin to mutate and hybridise allows it to continuously renew itself. It must therefore be preserved and respected. The optimisation of the grey energy of constituent 4. Façade typologie : Amsterdam /

6. Façade de la CREA siège de la Métropole Rouen Normandie Jacques Ferrier Architecture : un voile de verre dichroïque ou une peinture impressionniste en bord de Seine (hommage à Claude Monet) / Façade of the CREA, the head office of the Métropole Rouen Normandie, by Jacques Ferrier Architecture: a dichroic glass veil or impressionist painting on the banks of the Seine (homage to Claude

7. Chloroplastes d’une feuille vus au microscope : interaction de l’épiderme de la plante avec la lumière générant la photosynthèse / Chloroplasts of a leaf seen under the microscope: interaction of the plant epidermis with light, generating photosynthesis.


L’enveloppe des bâtiments : l’épiderme des villes ! Olivier CORNEFERT / Architecte / Jacques FERRIER Architecture

7. Spatial sequence Tour Bois le Prêtre, Paris – Lacaton & Vassal: progressive gradation from interiority to exteriority Séquence spatiale tour Bois le Prêtre à Paris – Lacaton & Vassal : gradation progressive de l’intériorité vers

8. La Casa da Música à Porto – OMA / Design façade VS-A : verre ondulé de grande amplitude pour franchissement de grande portée sans menuiserie (ouverture vers le paysage) et pour difracter le son (transformation de l’ambiance

9. Micro-algae façade – X-TU: intensified flat-plate photobioreactor, thermal production and regulation Façade micro-algues – X-TU : photobioréacteur plan

... Peau : Du latin pellis : organe qui a pour fonction

Par exemple : la pierre et l’ordonnancement haussmannien permettent d’identifier Paris, le mur rideau de verre et d’acier répétitif est l’image même de Chicago, les bow-windows et les percements réguliers des grands immeubles colorés de béton caractérisent Mid-Levels à Hong-Kong, la brique et les fenêtres à grands carreaux sont un des symboles d’Amsterdam.

et la transformation des ambiances urbaines et intérieures, sont autant d’objectifs architectoniques que l’enveloppe a le pouvoir et le devoir d’amplifier et de valoriser, afin que la vie en ville passe de l’existence à l’expérience.

d’envelopper l’ensemble du corps afin de le protéger.

Selon moi l’enveloppe des bâtiments doit être conçue par les architectes et les ingénieurs comme une peau aux sens esthétique, anatomique et éthique du terme. On peut considérer que ces enveloppes sont l’épiderme des villes, et donc qu’à ce titre elles jouent un rôle majeur dans leur devenir. Tout comme un corps vivant, une cité peut-être en bonne santé ou malade, nous pouvons ainsi réfléchir la ville comme un organisme et ses façades comme l’un de ses organes vitaux à savoir : sa peau. La peau exprime de manière externe l’état d’un corps, les enveloppes sont le reflet architectural, économique, sociétal et environnemental d’une ville. Esthétisme : enveloppes et identités urbaines La peau d’un être vivant permet sa reconnaissance par les autres. Plusieurs éléments déterminent une ville : sa position géographique (latitude, climat, topographie), sa morphologie urbaine, ses spécificités socio-économiques, qui par addition lui donnent son identité. Les façades des bâtiments sont un de ces déterminant majeurs, car directement appréhendables et issues de logiques historiques, techniques, économiques et culturelles.

L’enveloppe architecturale des bâtiments doit plus que jamais exprimer la contextualité des villes en rompant avec toute uniformisation générique. Les choix de matériaux, de modes de mise en œuvre, de couleurs, de proportions, doivent être l’expression d’une culture, d’un contexte, et au final d’une certaine ambition pour la ville. Anatomie : enveloppes et interactions intériorité/extériorité La peau d’un être vivant permet la régulation et la médiation de son organisme avec son environnement. L’architecture et l’ingénierie sont désormais mûres pour passer de la « logique du vêtement » à la « logique de l’épiderme ». Les façades ne peuvent plus être considérées comme de simples limites entre l’espace privé et l’espace public, ou juste des coques protectrices contre les évènements climatiques. Elles doivent être le médiateur entre intérieur et extérieur, favoriser les interactions sensibles, afin qu’intériorité et extériorité s’enrichissent mutuellement. La matérialité, la transfiguration de la lumière, les échanges thermiques, le bioclimatisme raisonné, le rapport au paysage, la mise en scène de la ville, l’expression des usages programmatiques, la perception

10. Projet RESSOURCES façade double-peau photovoltaïque – Jacques Ferrier Architecture : façade plissée composée de cellules photovoltaïques polycristallines colorées, production d’énergie et régulation thermique selon les saisons / Project RESSOURCES photovoltaic double-skin façade – Jacques Ferrier Architecture: folded façade made up of coloured polycrystalline photovoltaic cells. Energy production and thermal regulation, depending on the season.

Ethique : enveloppes et durabilité-créativité La peau d’un être vivant est fondamentale pour sa survie et son espérance de vie. Elle exprime également son origine et sa spécificité. Sa faculté de mutation et d’hybridation, lui permet sans cesse de se renouveler. Il faut donc la préserver et la respecter. L’optimisation de l’énergie grise des éléments constitutifs d’une ville est un facteur pour sa pérennisation. L’enveloppe constitue la plus grande surface d’échange d’une cité, bien plus que sa voirie et ses espaces publics, et représente l’une de ses plus importantes quantités de matières. Ainsi architectes et ingénieurs doivent réintroduire une certaine déontologie dans leur processus créatif, pour « prendre soin » de la peau des bâtiments, car c’est un organe précieux dans l’équilibre environnemental urbain. Là encore les choix des concepteurs sont décisifs et engageants: matériaux, modes constructifs, systèmes, production d’énergie, réduction des besoins, anticipation de la déconstruction et du recyclage. Enfin, dans une société globalisée où : un architecte français en collaboration avec un designer d’enveloppe hollandais peut concevoir en Chine la façade d’un bâtiment multi-programmatique pour un investisseur américain, la créativité conceptuelle et l’inventivité technique ont l’obligation de trouver de nouvelles sources d’inspirations. Une option pourrait être celle du « métissage », concept propre à la peau des êtres vivants, créant ainsi de nouvelles couleurs,

11. Clip video « Black or White » - Michael Jackson : morphing / métissage

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V.Manifesto / Manifeste

Nathalie SIMONNEAU / Partner Architect / VS-A Few are those who opt to work in construction. Few are those who choose technical or supervisory occupations. Few are those who, hard-hat on head and boots on feet, venture onto a building site. Few are those who, head held high, take pride in their experience and their technical skill. Rare is the term that describes those who fight prejudice daily and believe in fulfillment through the hard work that is completing projects. Too rare are the agencies who, like ours, promote women. Precious are the collaborators, architects and engineers who learn to live their passion for architecture thanks to this agency. Enthusiastic are the men who share our daily life, always ready to share our successes as well as our frustrations. Equal are the members of this team who share their experience in the common desire for Innovation in Architecture.

Rares à s’engager dans les métiers de la construction. Rares à choisir l’exercice d’un métier technique et d’encadrement. Rares à s’aventurer casque vissé sur la tête et bottes aux pieds sur le chantier. Rares qui, tête haute, s’affirment par leur expérience et leur exigence technique. Rares est le qualificatif le plus adapté à celles qui combattent au quotidien les préjugés et peuvent croire en l’épanouissement dans ce dur labeur qu’est la réalisation d’un projet. Trop rares sont ces agences qui, comme la nôtre, font la part belle aux femmes. Précieuses sont ces collaboratrices, architectes ou ingénieures, qui apprennent à vivre leur passion de l’architecture grâce à ce bureau. Enthousiastes sont les hommes qui partagent notre quotidien, toujours prêts à partager nos succès comme nos frustrations. Egaux sont les membres de cette équipe qui partagent leur expérience dans un désir commun du goût de l’Innovation et de l’Architecture.

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VI.Virtue of Empathy / 역지사지의 미덕 Naree KIM / Architect & Co-owner / VS-A

1. Living before /Salon avant travaux

2. Living construction / Salon pendant les travaux

3. Living after / Salon après les travaux

... Dejavu!

Sometimes it happens when you talk with someone, that you suddenly realize that you once had the same situation, yet in the other person’s place. After all, you understand the other whom you didn’t have any clue back then.

... 누군가와 얘기하다 가끔 그런 일이 생긴다. Dejavu! 다른 점이 있다면, 지금 내가 이야기하고 있는 그 사람이 나였고, 나는 그 때 내가 얘기했던 그 사람이었다. 먼 시간이 흘러 결국 나는 그 사람을 이해하게 된다.

... Déjà-vu! Parfois, en discutant avec quelqu’un, on

Before working at the engineering office, I used to work in architectural firms. I remember complaining about the engineers (who seemed to not know design at all) at that time. Now, being on the other side broadens my sight. And I realized that the bad designer is not the one who has bad tastes, but the one who does not know what s/he is seeking for.

건축사무소에서 설계 일을 하다 엔지니어링 사무소에 가서 내가 일했던 건축가들을 위해 일하게 되면서, 예전에 내가 습관처럼 말하던 “참 (디자인에 몰이해한) 엔지니어 컨설턴트 들이란!” 말을 곱씹게 되었다. 내가 건축가를 위해 하는 일은 설계자의 디자인 의도를 살리는 것이므로, 예전보다 좀 더 객관적인 시선으로 디자인을 대할 수 있게 되었다. 나쁜 디자이너는 나쁜 취향을 가진 디자이너가 아니라, 자기가 무엇을 추구하는 지 모르는 디자이너라는 것도 알았다.

And last year for the first time, I became a client. Finally I could enjoy the agonies of being a client among unlimited desire, limited time & budget. Being the architect as well as the client had been a strange case like that of Dr.Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, but it is also very addictive.

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그리고 올해 다시 나는 비로소 처음으로 스스로 건축주이자 건축가가 되었다. 무한한 욕망과 유한한 시간과 재화 사이에서 한껏 늙어버린 느낌도 들지만, 서울 산자락 오래된 연립주택을 수리하면서 “내부”라는 내가 잘 모르는 미지의 영역을 경험할 수 있어 좋았다.

réalise soudain que l’on s’est déjà retrouvé dans la même situation, que l’on a déjà été à sa place. Cela permet de comprendre l’autre, dont on ne savait rien auparavant. Avant d’intégrer le bureau d’études, je travaillais pour des entreprises d’architecture. Je me souviens qu’à l’époque, je me plaignais des ingénieurs (qui semblaient ne rien connaître au design). Le fait de me retrouver de l’autre côté m’a permis d’élargir mon point de vue. J’ai réalisé qu’être un mauvais designer n’est pas avoir de mauvais goûts, mais plutôt ne pas savoir ce que l’on recherche. L’année dernière, pour la première fois, je suis devenu un client. J’ai enfin pu expérimenter l’une des principales souffrances du client : avoir des besoins illimités mais des délais et un budget limités. Être à la fois architecte et client a été un cas étrange, comme celui du docteur Jekyll et de M. Hyde, mais aussi très addictif.


4. Façade before & after / Façade avant & après

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VII. Indictment against adhesives and metallic connectors Myriem GUEDOUAR / Wood Engineer / VS-A ... The reflection presented in the following paragraph accompanies a graphic document containing an inventory of wooden joints. The graphic document illustrates and derives from the process of reflection detailed here. My aim is to understand the evolution of wooden structural joints over the last century. Wooden structures have radically evolved over the last century: splice (dovetail) and other joints have been replaced with mounting brackets and joist hangers. Wooden beams have been succeeded by GST (Glued Solid Timber), with glued laminated timber being by far the most popular sort. In my opinion, this standardisation and simplification of fixings by the use of fasteners such as adhesives creates two problems. With time, traditional joints are gradually falling out of use. They are no longer used for the renovation of historical monuments, and current dimensioning software is not able to evaluate their structural behaviour accurately. The conclusion is irrevocable; wood alone is no longer sufficient. The calculation of metallic fasteners is easier and quicker, so the world of construction no longer takes the risk and replaces wooden joints with various types of metallic fasteners.

Plan of the various chaps of wood assembly.

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Along with wood, steel is also being forgotten. Yet in many projects, huge amounts of steel are still being used for the realisation of wooden constructions! Like steel, glue is becoming indispensable to wood. Used for gluing decorative veneer inlay, it complements traditional fixings used in the production of furniture, thereby establishing its position in the field of wooden construction. Initially made from plant or animal ingredients, adhesives are now almost entirely made from synthetic products for durability and standardisation reasons. (Allows wood to take a modern turn, opening up phenomenal prospects) (Certainly the use of adhesives has opened up prodigious prospects for wood) The use of adhesives has definitely marked a huge turning point for wood: from decorative panels (particles and laminated), to structural uses (CLT), and beams (glulam and LVL). But, at a time when the environmental performance of materials is scrutinised, classic adhesives are being brought into question. Unlike “green” glues, traditional adhesives cannot be burned because they release toxic and polluting fumes and do not naturally degrade. The second life of Glued Solid Timber is therefore

limited: it cannot be used as fuel in a biomass boiler and is difficult to transform for use in a second life. So what future does wooden material have? Unless a regression occurs, an evolutionary path more coherent with its characteristics and with related environmental issues is necessary. Recent research on “green” glue and the wood welding process would bring new possibilities to wood. New numerically controlled industrial machines (CNC), such as the four- and five-axis machines, are becoming more popular. Their precision and their rapidity allow complex machining which enables us to create more elaborate and sophisticated joints. The possibility is opening for wood as a construction material. It is up to us as the determiners and project managers to initiate the change.


Réquisitoire contre les adhésifs et les connecteurs métalliques / Myriem GUEDOUAR / Ingénieur Bois / VS-A ... A la réflexion présentée dans les paragraphes suivants, succède un graphique faisant l’inventaire des assemblages bois. Ce document graphique illustre et découle du processus de réflexion présenté ici. L’objet de ma pensée est de comprendre l’évolution des assemblages structuraux bois durant le siècle passé. L’univers de la structure bois a radicalement évolué au cours de ce dernier siècle : la beauté des traits de Jupiter, (queues d’aronde) et autres embrèvements ont laissé place aux étriers et aux sabots. Aux poutres en bois massif succèdent les BMR (Bois Massifs Reconstitués) le lamellé collé étant, de loin, le plus célèbre de tous. Aussi, cette standardisation et cette simplification des fixations, au travers de l’ajout d’éléments de fixation comme de l’emploi d’adhésifs, soulèvent à mon sens deux problèmes. Le temps faisant son œuvre, les assemblages dits traditionnels tombent peu à peu dans l’oubli : on ne les utilise guère plus que pour la rénovation de monuments historiques, et les logiciels de dimensionnement actuels ne sont pas en mesure d’évaluer fidèlement leurs comportements

structuraux. Le constat est irrévocable, le bois ne se suffit plus à lui-même. Le calcul de fixations métalliques étant plus facile et plus rapide, le monde de la construction ne prend plus de risque et remplace les assemblages bois par des connecteurs métalliques divers et variés. Noyé dans le bois, l’acier se fait oublier. Et pourtant ! Dans bien des projets quelle masse d’acier est engagée dans la réalisation des charpentes « bois » ! A l’instar de l’acier, la colle devient indispensable au bois. D’abord, utilisée pour le collage des placages décoratifs en marqueterie, elle vient par la suite compléter les fixations traditionnelles dans le domaine de l’ameublement pour enfin s’imposer dans la construction bois. Initialement élaborés à partir de composants végétaux ou animaux, les adhésifs sont désormais composés, dans leur quasitotalité, de produits synthétiques pour des raisons de durabilité et de standardisation. Certes l’usage des adhésifs a marqué un tournant colossal pour le bois : au travers des panneaux décoratifs (particules et contrecollé), structuraux (CLT) et des poutres (lamellé collé et LVL). Mais, à l’heure où la performance environnementale des matériaux est scrutée à la loupe, les adhésifs

classiques, posent question. A l’inverse des colles « vertes », les adhésifs classiques ne peuvent être brûlés car ils dégagent des fumées toxiques et polluantes et ne se dégradent pas naturellement. La seconde vie des Bois Massifs Reconstitués est donc limitée : ils ne peuvent pas servir à alimenter les chaufferies biomasses et sont difficilement transformables en vue d’une seconde vie. Alors quel avenir pour le matériau bois ? Si une régression n’est pas envisageable, une évolution plus cohérente avec ses caractéristiques et les enjeux environnementaux est indispensable (s’impose). Les récents travaux de recherche portant sur les colles « vertes » et le procédé de soudage du bois amènent de nouvelles perspectives au bois. Les nouvelles machines industrielles à commandes numériques (CNC) comme les machines quatre et cinq axes se démocratisent. Leur précision et leur rapidité d’exécution autorisent des usinages complexes permettant un retour à des assemblages plus travaillés et plus élaborés. Le chant des possibles s’ouvre donc pour le matériau bois. Il est, par conséquent de notre rôle à nous, prescripteurs et maitrise d’œuvre d’amorcer le changement.

Schéma des différents types d’assemblage pour le bois.

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VIII.Detail : a pending emptiness...

Quentin DESPLECHIN / Partner Architect / VS-A GOD IS IN THE DETAILS

... We have all heard the phrase “the devil is in the details” at least once. However, the opposite exists as well: “God is in the details”. Detail is clearly an important issue because it motivates us to use concepts as strong as God and the devil. In other words, no detail may be neglected because success or failure will be determined here: in the details. These phrases have always echoed the way I feel, even long before my arrival at VS-A in January 2009. Since then, they haven’t ceased to resonate and influence my way of thinking about architecture. I believe that everything is determined by the “little things”: the position of a joint or a screw, the design of a piece of woodwork or even the pattern of a metal sheet. FROM THE DREAM TO THE INFINITELY SMALL Through the sketches, technical drawings, calculation notes, and written documents that VS-A realise, and in the image of the architectural project in its entirety, each process from conception to completion is nothing more than development, the back and forth between the infinitely small and infinitely large, between the 1/10,000th and the 1/2. The consistency of a project is assessed in terms of its different levels. The details frequently reveal a state of mind, a bias, or even a philosophy. Success or failure of a project depends on the quality and involvement of the participants (client, project manager, business, and user) and whether they succeeded to put in place a synergy allowing “bonding” between men and ideas, sometimes even dreams…

us; it is a facilitator of the everyday. This detail almost responds to the Buddhist concept of “Tathātā”, things are as they are. The technician would like to grasp the technical. Dissect the facade to understand the articulation of detail, and to discover the secret of the magic tower that he sees before his eyes. The user on the other hand doesn’t even notice, at most he says “it’s good”, “it works”. In my view, this simple recognition on the part of users is already a victory, a source of satisfaction for the architect. “LESS IS MORE” The architects we work with have the same unwavering requirement: “obsession should not show”, “the profile must be as thin as possible”, “that must disappear”, etc… Not to “suffer” the technical, to break free from norms, hide complexity and thereby leave an illusion of simplicity. This is the desire that drives architects, myself included. We are all influenced by the words of Mies van der Rohe, as powerful as an advertising slogan: “LESS IS MORE”. I am often asked how in our organisations where we are driven by a desire for truth and transparency, sometimes even blinded by a compulsive desire to understand everything, the architect aims to make buildings where nothing is seen. It seems to me that this approach has the goal of one day

THE POETRY OF DETAIL This idea that detail is the cornerstone of a project is not unique to architecture. In the field of construction more generally, error is unforgiving. In the best case, an “erroneous” detail would be unsightly; in the worst, it could ruin the lives of users. And inversely, certain technical designs achieve a synergy between the technical and poetry. The quest for such a detail is what animates all of my colleagues. THE FLUENCY OF THE TECHNICAL In 2013, the architect Rudy Ricciotti published a manifesto with the evocative title: “Architecture is a Combat Sport”. This parallel between architecture and high-level sport speaks to me. High-level sports continuously create the experience of limits and flirts with them: limits of bodies, of space and time; and all that with a disconcerting ease. Their movements are free, the effort almost invisible. Hours of work, a huge amount of experience and total self-awareness are required to have a hope of reaching this state of grace. The “good” detail doesn’t seek to pretend but simply gives the impression of ease: in reality, the appearance is “deceptively easy”. And then, there is the detail that carries us, questions us and makes us look into ourselves. It is rare and very personal. The achievement of a technical design is sometimes a lifetime’s work. THE “TATHĀTĀ” OF DETAIL Lets start with “good detail”: we meet it regularly in certain buildings or projects. For me, it doesn’t make itself known. It passes over 1. LEGO ad campaign, «Imagine».

Campagne de pub LEGO, « Imagine »

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realising the perfect detail. Just like in certain other disciplines, sometimes very technical (cinema, comics, painting, dance, music…), architecture could be considered as an art where the technical is in service of the creative, serving to creating emotions in the observer. In these conditions, only concealment is universally accepted as art. WHAT WOULD WE BECOME WITHOUT THE RECOURSE TO THAT WHICH DOESN’T EXIST? To me, the detail is pending emptiness where everyone, each observer, each user puts in a little bit of himself. This quest for simplicity, this desire for absence and efficiency has one single goal: to light a fire in the other. In that which doesn’t exist resides the potential imagination of each of us. Is it not said that poetry belongs to those who recites it? However in this search for simplicity the dangers are huge, and constantly lie in wait of architects and technicians. Finding the balance between minimalism and personal expression must be the goal. The quest for the “perfect” detail must not be a self-denial, denial of that which drives us and constitutes us. We should be wary of the same detail everywhere, of the pre-made solution that is the detriment of specificity. Let us recall that it’s from difference that wealth is born: “Distinguished Architects, tell me who you are and I will draw you a detail.”


Le Détail : un vide en attente...

Quentin DESPLECHIN / Architecte Associé / VS-A DIEU EST DANS LE DETAIL Tout le monde a entendu au moins une fois cette formule « Le diable est dans les détails », la version opposée existe aussi « Dieu est dans les détails ». Le détail est un enjeu, un enjeu apparemment considérable puisqu’il mobilise des concepts aussi forts que Dieu et le diable. Autrement dit, rien ne doit être négligé car la réussite ou l’échec se joue ici : dans le détail. Ces formules ont toujours fait écho en moi et cela bien avant mon arrivée dans les bureaux de VS-A en janvier 2009, depuis elles ne cessent de résonner et d’influencer ma façon de concevoir l’architecture. J’ai la conviction que tout se cristallise dans les « petites choses » : la position d’un joint ou d’une vis, le dessin d’une menuiserie ou encore le profil d’une tôle ; que la limite entre le commun et le divin se place ici : dans le détail. DU REVE A L’INFINIMENT PETIT Au travers des croquis, des dessins techniques, des notes de calculs et des pièces écrites que VS-A réalise, et à l’image du projet architectural dans son ensemble, tout le processus de conception jusqu’à la réalisation n’est constitué que de mises au point, d’aller-retour entre l’infiniment petit et l’infiniment grand, entre le 1/10 000 ème et le 1/2 ème. La cohérence d’un projet s’apprécie au regard de ses différentes échelles. Le détail est bien souvent le révélateur d’un état d’esprit, d’un parti pris ou même d’une philosophie. La réussite ou l’échec dépend essentiellement de la qualité et de l’implication des acteurs d’un projet (maître d’ouvrage, maîtrise d’œuvre, entreprise et usager) ayant réussi ensemble à mettre en place une synergie permettant « l’adhérence » entre des hommes et des idées, parfois des rêves…

ment sur certains bâtiments et dans certains projets. A mon sens, il ne se remarque pas. Il glisse sur nous, il est un « facilitateur » du quotidien. Ce détail répondrait presque au concept bouddhiste de l’« ainsité », les choses sont telles qu’elles sont. Le technicien, lui, voudra saisir la technique. Disséquer la façade pour comprendre l’articulation du détail, et en définitif, découvrir le secret du tour de magie qui se produit devant ses yeux. Alors que l’utilisateur ne le remarquera même pas, il dira au mieux « c’est bien », « ça fonctionne ». A mon sens, cette simple constatation de la part des usagers est déjà une victoire en soi, une source de satisfaction pour l’architecte. « LESS IS MORE » Les architectes avec qui nous travaillons ont inlassablement les mêmes exigences : « la fixation ne doit pas se voir », « le profil doit être le plus fin possible », « il faut que ça disparaisse », etc… Ne pas « subir » la technique, s’affranchir des normes, dissimuler la complexité et ainsi ne laisser que l’illusion d’une simplicité est une volonté qui anime bien des architectes. Moi le premier. Tous influencés par cette phrase de Mies van der Rohe, aussi puissante qu’un slogan publicitaire : « LESS IS MORE ». Je me suis souvent demandé comment se fait-il que dans nos sociétés où nous sommes tous animés par un désir de vérité et de transparence, parfois même aveuglés par notre envie compulsive de vouloir tout comprendre, l’architecte a pour ambition de réaliser

des bâtiments où rien ne se voit. Il me semble que cette démarche a pour but de réaliser un jour le Détail « parfait ». A l’image de certaines disciplines, parfois très techniques (Cinéma, Bande Dessinée, Peinture, Danse, Musique,…), l’architecture peut être considérée comme un art où la technique est au service de la création, permettant ainsi de créer des émotions chez l’observateur. Dans ces conditions seulement la dissimulation est acceptée de tous et reconnue comme un art. QUE SERIONS-NOUS SANS LE RECOURS DE CE QUI N’EXISTE PAS ? A mon sens le Détail est un vide en attente où chacun, chaque observateur, chaque usager y met un peu de luimême. Cette quête de simplicité, ce désir d’absence et d’effacement n’a qu’un seul but : allumer un feu chez l’autre. Dans ce qui n’existe pas réside le potentiel de l’imagination de tout à chacun. Ne dit-on pas que la poésie appartient à celui qui la récite ? Néanmoins dans cette recherche de simplicité les dangers sont grands, ils guettent tous les architectes et techniciens que nous sommes. Trouver l’équilibre entre minimalisme et expression personnelle doit être un objectif. La quête du détail « parfait » ne doit pas être un renoncement de soi, de ce qui nous anime et nous constitue. Méfions-nous du même détail partout, de la solution toute faite au détriment de la spécificité. Rappelons-nous que c’est de la différence que naît la richesse : « Mesdames et Messieurs les Architectes, dites-moi qui vous êtes et je vous dessinerai un détail. »

LA POESIE DU DETAIL Cette idée que le détail est la clé de voûte d’un projet n’est pas propre à l’architecture mais dans le domaine de la construction l’erreur ne pardonne pas. Dans le meilleur des cas, un « mauvais » détail sera inesthétique ; dans le pire, il gâchera la vie des usagers. A l’inverse, certains dessins techniques réussissent l’alchimie entre technique et poésie. La quête d’un tel détail est ce qui anime l’ensemble de mes collègues. L’AISANCE DE LA TECHNIQUE En 2013 l’architecte Rudy Ricciotti publiait un livre-manifeste au titre évocateur : « L’architecture est un sport de combat ». Ce parallèle entre architecture et sport de haut niveau me parle. Les sportifs de haut niveau font sans cesse l’expérience des limites et fleurettent avec elles : limites du corps, de l’espace et du temps ; le tout avec une impression de facilité déconcertante. Leurs gestes sont fluides et déliés, l’effort est quasi invisible. Il faut des heures de travail, énormément d’expérience et une totale connaissance de soi pour espérer atteindre cet état de grâce. Le « bon » détail ne cherche pas à faire semblant mais donne simplement une impression de facilité ; en réalité, une apparence de « faussement facile ». Et puis, il y a le Détail celui qui nous emporte, qui nous questionne et nous renvoie à nous-même. Celui-là est rare et très personnel. L’aboutissement de ce dessin technique est parfois le travail d’une vie. L’ « AINSITE » DU DETAIL Commençons par le « bon » détail : on le croise régulière-

2. Rorschach Test. Series of images given for free interpretation. Test de Rorschach. Série de planches proposées à la libre interprétation.

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VI.Parametric approach for performance driven design of building envelopes / Approche paramétrique pour la conception fondée sur la performance des enveloppes de bâtiments Harshad SHITOLE / Engineer Architect / VS-A ... Parametric

approach for form finding and panelization of free form envelopes is well known but in the present age of energy efficient and cost effective buildings, façade optimization tools for reduced energy and sufficient natural light have become very important. An integrated design approach between Architects, computational designers and consultants has become very important for finding optimized façade and in turn building solutions. This integrated performance based design approach in the early design stage can change the dynamic of Architectural and façade design practice. The parametric performance studies on daylighting and energy in the initial stage of design can tackle the issue of optimized geometry for cost effectiveness and human comfort. The methods of design optimizations are of particular interest as with conventional static shading systems, which may act beneficial in one season but detrimentally in another if not properly sized. Other possible applications for optimization include generating new building forms based on performance criteria or gaining maximum energy savings for the least amount of initial investment. Given that one can anticipate that a site’s climate is going to substantially change over the coming 100 years, any claims regarding the climate responsiveness should be considered with care. In fact we can assume that the optimal façade solution for the same building in the given season will vary as ambient conditions are going to change over time. So the façade adaptability and responsiveness to the changing climatic conditions is an important design guideline and parametric applications like Rhino+grasshopper with supported analysis plugins can be handy tools to analyze the different possibilities and find adaptable optimized solutions. Parametrizing the design with respect to the performance requirements can help find adaptable solutions in the era of climate change. Achieved through a parametric design approach, where early analysis of climatic impact and in turn the cost impact is shared to the design team, which allows a higher level of integration and optimization than ever before. Parametric Tools like DIVA can help analize the daylighting metrics, radiation maps, glare analysis LEED compliance and along with Archsim multi zone thermal, energy, PV and load calculations. Ladybug + Honeybee

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provides a variety of 3D interactive graphics to support the decision-making process and begin the first optimization conversations. Tools like SHADERADE can assess the desirability of solar transmittance over any potential shading volume or surface. Shaderead tracks back individual rays from different parts of a window along different solar angles and determines the fraction of transmitted solar beam energy is desirable at any hour of the year. The result is a fully optimized shading device across the entire year or as a design preference defines.As the design industry is fastly moving towards the building information modeling and digital fabrication techniques, these parametric performance tools are ever more significant. The Al Bahar twin towers in Abu Dhabi are a great example of performance based envelope design where dynamic shading screen also known as Mashrabiya was designed using the parametric tools to optimize the energy use and maximize the natural light.

...L’approche paramétrique dans le domaine de la

recherche de forme et de la construction d’enveloppes de forme libre est bien connue. Toutefois, dans le contexte actuel des bâtiments rentables et écoénergétiques, les outils d’optimisation de façade orientés vers les économies d’énergie et l’apport adéquat de lumière naturelle sont devenus primordiaux. Coupler l’optimisation de la façade et les solutions de construction est désormais au cœur de l’approche de conception intégrée des architectes, concepteurs informatiques et consultants. Car la mise en œuvre de cette approche de conception fondée sur la performance intégrée, cela dès la première phase du projet, peut modifier la dynamique des pratiques en matière de conception architecturale et de façade. Dès la phase initiale de la conception, les études de performance paramétrique se penchent sur l’analyse des besoins en énergie et lumière, ce qui permet de traiter la question de la géométrie optimisée dans le but d’améliorer le bien-être des personnes et le rapport coût-efficacité. Les méthodes d’optimisation de la conception s’avèrent particulièrement intéressantes de même que les classiques brise-soleil statiques qui peuvent être bénéfiques au cours d’une saison et néfastes au cours d’une autre s’ils ne sont pas correctement dimensionnés. L’optimisation peut également passer par la création de nouvelles formes de construction fondées sur des critères de performance ou des gains d’économies d’énergie maximaux au regard du

montant de l’investissement initial. Vu que nous pouvons anticiper dans une grande mesure les changements climatiques qui interviendront sur un site au cours des 100 prochaines années, toute allégation en rapport avec la sensibilité au climat devrait être examinée avec soin. D’ailleurs, nous pouvons également partir du principe que la solution de façade optimale d’un bâtiment donné, au cours d’une saison donnée, variera parallèlement aux changements des conditions environnementales au fil du temps. C’est pourquoi la capacité d’adaptation de la façade et sa sensibilité au changement climatique constituent une directive de conception importante. De ce fait, des applications paramétriques telles que Rhino+grasshopper avec ses plugins étayant les analyses s’avèrent des outils pratiques à l’heure d’analyser les différentes possibilités et de trouver des solutions optimisées adaptées. La mise en œuvre d’une approche de conception paramétrique, via le partage avec l’équipe de conception d’une première analyse de l’impact climatique et de l’incidence en termes de coût, permet de bénéficier d’un niveau d’intégration et d’optimisation encore jamais atteint. Des outils paramétriques tels que DIVA peuvent faciliter l’analyse des apports de lumière naturelle, la cartographie du rayonnement, la conformité avec les critères LEED relatifs à l’analyse de l’éblouissement, tandis qu’Archsim permettra d’effectuer des calculs multizones, thermiques, énergétiques, photovoltaïques et de charge. Ladybug + Honeybee fournissent une variété de graphiques interactifs 3D pour soutenir le processus décisionnel et permettre d’entamer les premières discussions sur l’optimisation. Avec des outils tels que SHADERADE, il est possible d’évaluer le bien-fondé de la transmission solaire sur tout potentiel volume ou surface ombragé(e). En effet, Shaderade met en relation les rayons individuels tombant sur différentes parties d’une fenêtre avec différents angles solaires et détermine si la fraction d’énergie de faisceau solaire transmise est utile à toute heure de l’année. Le résultat est un brise-soleil complètement optimisé pour toute l’année ou en accord avec les préférences de conception. Compte tenu que le secteur de la conception se tourne de plus en plus vers la modélisation des informations de construction et les techniques de fabrication numériques, la pertinence de ces outils paramétriques de performance s’en trouve renforcée. Les tours jumelles d’Al Bahar à Abou Dabi offrent un bon exemple de conception d’enveloppe fondée sur la performance où un brise-soleil dynamique également connu sous le nom de moucharabieh a été conçu à partir d’outils paramétriques dans le but d’optimiser l’utilisation de l’énergie et d’accroître la lumière naturelle.


Adhiraj Residentil Study

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IX.TAXI STORY

Jaeman PARK / Architect / VS-A ... At 2am, one day when I was on my way home by taxi, a taxi driver fifty something years old showed me 3D movies that he made. He learned computer for about ten years and mastered softwares from Photoshop to AfterEffect. Then he gladly donated his work to where it is required and his ‘pleasant overwork’ provided him heart diseases as a ‘gift’. The taxi driver told me this story proudly and we ended our conversation. After I got off the taxi, I got following lessons. Even you work pleasantly, you do not earn money. If you want to earn money, you do not need to work pleasantly. Pleasant work gives you happiness which is irrelevant to your health. The tool cannot explain to you what to do. You have to learn how to use it.

View inside the taxi

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... 새벽 2시, 회사 앞에서 택시를 타고 귀가하던 어느 날, 쉰이 넘어 보이는 택시 기사는 스마트폰을 만지더니 본인이 만든 3d 영상을 나에게 보여주었다. 불혹을 넘어 컴퓨터를 배우기 시작한 아저씨는 포토샵부터 에프터이펙트까지 독학으로 마스터한 뒤, 원하는 곳에 작업물을 기꺼이 기부했으며, 즐거운 과로로 인해 원치 않게 심장병을 선물받았다. 이러한 얘기를 훈장처럼 자랑스러워 하는 그와 작별하며 나는 다음과 같은 교훈을 얻었다. 즐겁게 일한다고 돈을 벌진 않는다. 돈을 벌고 싶으면 즐겁게 일하지 않아도 좋다. 즐겁게 일하면 행복하다. 그렇게 얻는 행복은 건강과 무관하다. 도구는 당신이 하는 일을 설명할 수 없다. 당신이 도구를 잡았을 뿐이다.

... Un soir, à 2 h du matin, alors que je rentrais chez moi en taxi, le chauffeur, qui devait avoir la cinquantaine, m’a montré les films en 3D qu’il avait réalisés. Celui-ci a étudié l’informatique pendant près de dix ans et s’est spécialisé dans des logiciels tels que PhotoShop et After Effects. Il a ensuite généreusement offert son travail à quiconque en avait besoin, et son « agréable surmenage » lui a valu une maladie cardiaque. Le chauffeur de taxi m’a raconté cette histoire avec fierté, puis notre conversation s’est terminée. Une fois sorti du taxi, j’avais appris les leçons suivantes. Prendre plaisir à travailler, ça ne veut pas dire gagner de l’argent. Pour gagner de l’argent, pas besoin de prendre plaisir à travailler. Un travail agréable contribue au bonheur, pas à la santé. Un outil n’explique pas ce qu’il faut faire. Il faut apprendre à s’en servir.


X.CAMPING

Junie KWON / Administration / VS-A ... Few weeks ago, I heard that one of my acquaintance

went round-the-world trip for a year with her 17-yearold daughter. In korea, 17-year-old students have to think about their career path already, so some people may think it is crazy idea that her mother brought her daughter to go on a round-the-world journey for a year. But I think this is very cool and shows great courage. When I was young, my parents loved to do camping and travelling (they still do) and those were the reason why I have never received or been given the ‘perfect attendance award’ for my entire student life. When I was 15, I went to USA for 3 months (my parents asked my school and teacher for a favor as the usual vacations are not 3 months long), and this period is the most important part of my whole life so far. I had endless time to build my self, my identity, and my ego all by myself ! A journey, is a time to experience something new, but also a time for to communicate with myself, and with the people on the journey with me. I went on a camping tour all over the country for honeymoon, because i wanted to have time with myself, reflection on my self, and to have endless talks with someone who just became my family ! Recently, there are tons of network services, messengers, tools to communicate with strangers. But I think that the ‘real network’ is with myself and the person right next to me, which is truly important to our lives.

... 두산그룹의 회장은 매년 신입사원으로 뽑힌 직원들의 자기소개서를 하나하나 읽어보는 것으로 유명한데, 신입사원들의 패기 넘치는 자기소개서 중 마음에 드는 문구들이 많아 그것을 응용해 두산그룹의 광고 문구로 쓰는 것이 어떻겠냐는 제안을 했다. 그 결과 회장이 뽑은 신입사원들의 패기 넘치는 문구들은 벌써 수 년째 두산그룹의 광고를 담당하고 있는데, 그 중 벌써 오랜 시간이 지났지만 내가 가장 좋아하여 책상 앞에 붙여놓은 문구가 있다. <한 발짝이라도 조금 높은 곳으로 올라가기 위해 옆 사람과 기꺼이 손을 잡을 줄 아는 사람. 그렇게 한 팀이 되어 1등을 향해가는 과정 속에 영광도 있다고 믿는 사람. 최고의 팀은 1등이 모여 만든 팀이 아니라 1 등이 되고 싶은 사람들의 팀입니다.> 함께 한다는 것.

우리가 ‘한 팀’ 안에서 ‘함께’ 이루며 ‘함께’ 즐기는

... Il y a quelques semaines, j’ai appris que l’une de mes connaissances était partie faire le tour du monde avec sa fille de 17 ans. En Corée, à 17 ans, certains étudiants doivent déjà commencer à penser à leur carrière. L’idée qu’une mère ait emmené sa fille faire le tour du monde en un an peut donc parfois paraître un peu dingue. Mais je trouve ça plutôt cool, et très courageux. Quand j’étais jeune, mes parents adoraient faire du camping et voyager (et c’est toujours le cas) ; c’est certainement pour cette raison que je n’ai jamais été félicité pour mon assiduité au cours de ma vie étudiante. À 15 ans, je suis parti vivre trois mois aux États-Unis (mes parents ont demandé une autorisation à mon école et à mes professeurs car les vacances ne durent pas aussi longtemps). Il s’agit à ce jour de la période la plus importante de ma vie. J’ai eu le temps de me construire, de construire moi-même mon identité et mon ego. Les voyages permettent de faire de nouvelles expériences, mais aussi de communiquer avec soimême et avec autrui. J’ai fait du camping partout dans le pays pour ma lune de miel parce que je voulais avoir du temps pour moi, pour me poser des questions, et pour tenir des discussions sans fin avec quelqu’un qui venait de devenir un membre de ma famille. Aujourd’hui, il existe de nombreux réseaux, de messageries, d’outils permettant de communiquer avec des personnes que l’on ne connaît pas. Toutefois, je pense que c’est ce réseau authentique avec soimême, et avec quelqu’un qui se trouve juste a côté de soi, qui importe le plus dans la vie.

Photo by Junie KWON / Photo de Junie KWON

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XI.Financial crisis / Les crises financières

Robert-Jan van SANTEN / Foundator & Co-Owner / VS-A ... News about the economy and social are not always positive. Several reputable engineering firms lay off massively or are sold. Sometimes they simply cease to exist… Our business is closely linked to the general economic situation, and to the confidence of future investors. It should fluctuate with great amplitude in recent years, but fortunately the reality is a little different. First of all, we are versatile and flexible, which allowed us to switch between public and private contracts, from tertiary projects to housing, expanding our field of activity to mission assistance and project management (AMO), legal expertise, and design studies for suppliers, contractors, or even general contractors. This flexibility is not only theoretical. We have always recruited people who know how to adapt easily through their training, character and culture, and are curious and interested in changing their angle of approach from time to time, for example teamwork. They do not mind doing intense drawing when necessary, or calculations, or design, or site monitoring. We are versatile! The size of our offices and their location in 3 economically distinctive areas are favorable factors. Having developed a common working methodology across all offices, it is easy for us to assign people from one office to work on projects in another. In times of crisis, owners sometimes tend to doubt the usefulness of technical project management, by transferring this responsibility to contractors. This strategy is rarely profitable for several reasons: - Contractors do not have a global vision, and do not know how to intervene beyond their specialty - Late solutions are less accomplished and optimized than those developed upstream - Contractors are commercial entities which their primary interest is to make profit. In times of crisis, competition is tough and prices are tight. Once their contract is signed, one can doubt their motivation to find economic solutions, and will use every means imaginable to justify requests for the increase of price. However, nobody doubts their motivation to reduce their expenses to the maximum to increase their margins (sometimes, it is just necessary for them to survive), but the lack of quality and the defects of the finished result are to be seen by everyone. Let’s talk about quality: We see an increasing number of projects having serious delay due to failures of the contractor and consulting firms. There are also excesses that must be combated. Paying the right price is always in the interest of the project. To guarantee quality, there are a growing number of standards that regulate all aspects of building. Some complain about it being too restrictive, but at a closer inspection, these standards do nothing more than describing the minimum quality allowed. Referring to a standard is not a luxury; it is unfortunate that any constructive provision that goes beyond what is required by the standards is considered superfluous, which is apparent in several high-end operations. It is a little different for products, as they are mainly written by the suppliers themselves. They are rarely very restrictive: for example, no standard defines the optical and colorimetric qualities of extra-clear glass! On high quality projects, it is advisable to prescribe quality in a more efficient way. Financial crises impact projects more than we imagine.

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Thus, like birds we go through crises using air currents, avoiding wasting energy and always knowing how to dive from time to time to get our ration of food. The wider our field of vision, the better we will be able to position ourselves, and the better we will be able to guide our clients

... Les

actualités économiques et sociales ne sont pas toujours joyeuses. Plusieurs bureaux réputés d’ingénierie licencient massivement, ou sont vendus. Parfois elles cessent purement et simplement d’exister... Notre activité est étroitement liée à la conjoncture générale, et à la confiance en l’avenir proche des investisseurs. Autant dire qu’elle devrait fluctuer avec une grande amplitude ces dernières années. La réalité est heureusement un peu différente. Il y a d’abord notre polyvalence et notre flexibilité, qui nous ont permis de basculer sans trop efforts entre marchés publics et privés, de projets tertiaires à des équipements ou du logement, voire d’étendre ponctuellement notre champ d’activité à des missions d’assistance à maîtrise d’ouvrage (AMO), d’expertise juridique, d’études de design pour des fournisseurs ou des entreprises, voire de maîtrise d’œuvre tout court. Cette flexibilité n’est pas que théorique. Nous recrutons depuis toujours des personnes qui, de par leur formation, leur caractère et leur culture, savent facilement s’adapter, sont curieux et intéressés de changer de temps en temps leur angle d’approche d’un sujet, aiment le travail en équipe, ne rechignent pas à faire intensément du dessin lorsqu’il le faut, ou des calculs, ou de la conception, ou du suivi de chantier. Nous sommes des polyvalents ! La taille de nos bureaux et leurs implantations dans 3 zones économiquement distinctes, est un autre facteur favorable. Ayant développé des méthodes de travail communes à l’ensemble des agences, il nous est facile, théoriquement d’affecter des personnes d’une agence sur des projets d’une autre. En temps de crise, les maîtres d’ouvrage ont parfois tendance à doutes de l’utilité d’une maîtrise d’œuvre technique, en transférant cette responsabilité aux entreprises. Cette stratégie est rarement rentable, pour plusieurs raisons: - les entreprises n’ont pas une vision globale, et ne savent pas intervenir au-delà de leur spécialité, de leur spécialité, - les solutions tardives sont moins abouties et optimisées que celles développées en amont, - l’entreprise est une société commerciale, dont l’intérêt premier est, tout à fait légitimement, de faire des bénéfices. En temps de crise, la concurrence est rude, et les prix sont serrés. Une fois leur marché signé, on peut douter de leur motivation à trouver des solutions économiques qui diminueront leur marché. Bien au contraire, ils utiliseront tous les moyens imaginables pour justifier des demandes d’augmentation de leur prix. Personne par contre ne doute de leur motivation à réduire leurs dépenses au maximum pour accroître leurs marges (même si, parfois, cela leur est juste nécessaire pour survivre). Mais le manque de qualité et les défauts de finition risquent alors fort de sauter aux yeux de tous.

Parlons qualité : nous voyons aussi un nombre croissant de projets prendre un sérieux retard suite à des défaillances d’entreprises ou de bureaux d’études. Il y a là aussi des excès qu’il faut combattre. Payer le prix juste est toujours dans l’intérêt du projet. Pour garantir la qualité, il y a un nombre grandissant de normes qui règlementent tous les aspects de l’acte de construire. Certains s’en plaignent et les trouvent trop contraignantes, mais à y regarder de plus près, ces normes ne font rien d’autre que de décrire la qualité minimale autorisée. Se référer aux normes n’a rien d’un luxe. Il est juste dommage que, par conséquence, toute disposition constructive qui va au-delà de ce qu’exige les normes soit considéré comme superflue, nous le constatons même sur plusieurs opérations très haut de gamme. Il en va un peu autrement des normes visant des produits : comme elles sont principalement écrites par les fournisseurs eux-mêmes, elles sont rarement très contraignantes : aucune norme par exemple ne définit les qualités optiques et colorimétriques du verre extraclair ! Sur les projets les plus qualitatifs, il est judicieux de prescrire la qualité de manière plus performancielle. Les crises financières impactent les projets plus qu’on ne l’imagine. Ainsi, tel des oiseaux, nous traversons les crises en utilisant les courants d’air ascendants, en évitant de gaspiller de l’énergie et en sachant toujours plonger de temps en temps pour aller chercher notre ration de nourriture. Plus notre champ de vision est large, mieux nous saurons nous positionner, et mieux nous saurons guider nos clients.


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XII.Architectural expression

Robert-Jan van SANTEN / Founder & Co-Owner / VS-A ... Taking into account the financial sums involved, considering the consequences for the city and the planet, and remembering that what we design will remain for at least 30 years... it command that we should take our job seriously. And we do! Ultra-efficient façades Some may find it surprising to hear us talk about concepts, quote architects and architectural works to develop or even defend the aesthetic aspect of the projects. Once upon a time, in Europe, this field was a slave to an era that in order to convince, the project needed to marry exemplary performance forecasts and extremely tight construction costs. Construction did not manage to escape the trend of oneupmanship in terms of performance expectations, but this has gone unnoticed. This is far from the interest aroused by the Volkswagen scandal. Quality was the first criterion to be sacrificed, often heavily, then projects became less ambitious so that quality could improve again. This is, of course, particularly visible in façades. Façades over time Many projects are well thought-out compromises between performance requirements and obligatory compliance with regulations. These compromises are often negotiated within a construction cost whose main, if not only, constraint is its short and long term cost-effectiveness. This criterion is of course important, but also relative. There are often short-term goals regarding construction time and (re)sale of the building. What remains afterwards, in the following 30, 50 or even 100 years? The financial impact of premature renovation of a façade is certainly not insignificant either. We are therefore well versed in long-term profitability calculations. Reconciling practicality and aesthetics A building not only defines interior spaces, but also contributes towards defining the quality of outdoor spaces and is involved in the urban dynamic. Light colours can brighten the street; acoustically absorbent materials can reduce ambient noise; active materials can alleviate pollution; covered passages can shelter from storms; integrated facilities can provide service for passer-by or even produce energy... but, beyond the functional criteria, a building can liven up or even characterise a street, a crossroads, a square or a neighbourhood. At VS-A, we love concepts that make architecture expressive and noble, incribe in its specific era, and allow it to be able to evolve and express aesthetic and artistic qualities. Façades are pure design, which hides surprises but unveil itself as one draws closer. It plays with the environment, times and seasons, and tells an interesting story, even if this story sometimes remain confined to those involved in the project. Façades that tell stories This is certainly the case for many historic monuments, but also even for some more run-ofthe-mill buildings. The cannonballs from the Austrian

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army lodged in certain walls of the district of VieuxLille are fake, but tells a true story; some caryatids are a sign of an old brothel; some inscriptions inform the curious passer-by of the name of the architect, sculptor or businessperson; materials used tell stories of industry, tradition and economics; windows tell us of past climate conditions; ground floors suggest the professions which were once practised in that building, etc. These stories interest us even more when we visit unknown cities. Guided tours of these cities remind us how much façades tell us about the history of places and people. Whether we like it or not, our little or more significant anecdotes about façades contribute towards writing history...

and convince. They can imagine, anticipate all possible issues and leave no question unanswered. Some architects have given up developing such strong, expressive, timeconsuming projects... They therefore leave the company to think up the details for them.

And nowadays, who does what?

And the difference is clear.

Our consultancy will always strive to achieve a more global vision of the project, and our technical solutions will never turn their back on architectural concepts. The right direction needs to be found, studied, explained and optimised so that the architectural idea is appropriately accentuated. Above all, we must not cross the spending line too far and lose the project’s productive aspect. Even more emphasis can be added to the architectural concept by adding a little something no one had ever thought of, which fits in with the economical situation developed previously. A link must be made, a story must be created that, beyond the scale involved, makes the whole project consistent. Renzo Piano once said that he preferred beautiful details with poor materials than the other way around. Many could have said the same in the past, but he is undoubtedly the best at putting this into practice. This is undoubtedly one of the great recipes for a successful façade, but requires perfect knowledge of production and installation methods. On certain projects, Rem Koolhaas will look for products with character, rather than concentrating on perfecting the details. Although this process contradicts the previous one, it is another good recipe for a successful façade. It is more difficult to emulate, however, even though it tends to gain more followers among the young generation of architects. SANAA has found a 3rd way. The agency is working towards removing all sense of materiality from the project and all traces of its construction methods. This is a search for maximum abstraction, where everything seems light, magical and scaleless. A bit like a Louis Vuitton boutique! Architectural expression is heavily linked to geometry and proportions. Cutting-edge constructive engineering masks the difficulties behind clean lines, apparently weightless materials and joins without gaps or connectors. The common thread that makes these similar to any other project is that the performance, regulatory and budgetary requirements are the same. Obviously! The common thread that makes them different to other projects is their strong architectural expression, which is an integral part of the project. This involves a lot of research to find THE solution that will also fulfil the aforementioned requirements. These architects does not only design, but can also communicate, explain

In general, the company’s role is to build, not to design. It may not be the best-placed party to advise on defining the character of the construction details, assisting the architect in their fight (always peaceful – we stick to dialogue) to convince a developer or reaching a certain level of quality. This is probably a calculated risk and one that some will take... but not all. Among these are our growing list of clients, who trust us to assist them.


XIII.Deliver tailored

Robert-Jan van SANTEN / Founder & Co-Owner / VS-A ... VS-A

has a reputation for developing specific building envelope solutions for each project. This was not a deliberate step, just the result of our first forays with inspired architects on highly publicised projects that could not warrant any other approach. We were looking to find the most appropriate answers to the problems posed to us, and did not want to resort to existing products on the market straightaway, which we see as multipurpose, characterless, sometimes inappropriate and not efficient enough. There was therefore no other solution than to get to work designing the ideal product, often assisted by curious and dynamic manufacturers. Once we had gained this reputation, the projects assigned to us began to include more and more explicit requests for made-to-measure features, which only reinforced this reputation. These requests came almost exclusively from architects, and in 80% of cases, were for purely aesthetic reasons. The aesthetic is always a main element, of course, but under the pressure of new, tighter regulations and legitimate concerns about cost control, we had to justify this in another way. In thirty years, all building envelope efficiency results have been identified, qualified and normalised. Some, like those relating to acoustics, heat, maintenance and sustainable development have evolved considerably over time and continue to do so. This has logically been followed by requests from users for increasingly efficient building envelopes. Developers have had no other alternative than to reflect this in their projects. Building envelope efficiency depends as much on its components as it does on how they are joined and assembled. Again, manufacturers that develop increasingly perfected, complex and expensive products can only respond partially to these efficiency demands. There was therefore still a need for a kind of engineering that design links between components, or that could offer alternatives. And these alternatives are not only technical. The first alternative must be searched for within the project. From the first drafts of the project onwards, by speaking to the architect and discussing possible problems and solutions, many difficulties can be avoided and many issues can be solved through a well thought-out shift in the project. The first step is therefore to avoid difficulties in the early stages, rather than having to overcome them later on. The same applies for the project’s finances, both for the developer and the architect, who saves design time. Then, technical engineering intervenes. Most physical phenomena can be modelled using computers, with specialist software or programs developed within the firm. We never deny the relevance of building regulations, but it must be noted that they are sometimes not appropriate for finding the best solution to a problem. This is often because these problems were unimaginable when the building regulations were written, or maybe because there are precious few architects on the drafting committees. The answer lies, then, in using the same good building sense present in the regulations to develop the most appropriate solution. We therefore need to navigate through a grey area, an interesting gap between the traditional and the experimental, a different facet of which we explore during each project. This has

become our preferred field. We prefer to talk about innovation. The term ‘experimental’ is rather close to ‘risky’. We are aware of this and are well placed to, if not avoid risks completely, then at least reduce them and impose reasonable limits on them that are acceptable for all. It goes without saying that made-to-measure makes each project a prototype, a first edition... which is then rarely mass produced as the solution is madeto-measure for that project. The vast majority of the innovative solutions that we develop are inspired by a previous project, a reference made at a conference or discussed among colleagues (rarely in magazines or on the internet), or knowledge of the laws of physics and climatology, of materials, of shaping matter, of assembly and of installation. And we can develop our solutions almost in isolation, independently of any suppliers or businesspeople, even when making some prototypes for confirmation purposes or even moving on to validation testing. We are almost always in tune with the client regarding such approach, as they see it as a way of ensuring that the project is on the right track. For the construction phase, it is helpful to take the time to present the project thoroughly to the company who will construct it: they must understand our ideas and make them their own in order to carry out the project compromise-free and risk-free. Sometimes, very rarely, we head down a more experimental road. And although we are often the researchers who launch the concept, we must admit that we are just one entity within a much wider group of players, including the developer, the architect, the building inspector (who represents the insurer), the suppliers, the business(es) involved, the testing lab and sometimes the university. It is therefore a collective, out-of-the-ordinary project that requires specific resource and time conditions. We love it, but we do not do it every day ! We are always innovative, but only sometimes experimental.

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XII.Expression Architecturale

Robert-Jan van SANTEN / Fondateur & Co-gérant / VS-A ... Compte tenu des sommes financières en jeu, compte tenu des enjeux pour la ville, pour la planète, compte tenu du fait que ce qu’on dessine restera là pour au moins 30 ans … il y a intérêt à prendre notre métier au sérieux. Et sérieux nous sommes ! Les façades ultra performantes Certains trouveront surprenant de nous entendre parler de concepts, de citer des architectes ou des œuvres architecturales, de développer où de défendre l’esthétique du projet. Il fut un temps, en Europe, ce domaine a été un peu sacrifié au moment où le projet nécessitait, pour convaincre, de pouvoir aligner des performances prévisionnelles exemplaires pour un coût de construction des plus serré. Le bâtiment n’a d’ailleurs pas échappé à une certaine surenchère en termes de performances annoncées, mais sans que cela n’alerte quiconque. On est loin de l’intérêt suscité par l’affaire Volkswagen. La qualité fut le premier critère sacrifié, parfois lourdement, puis les projets sont devenus moins ambitieux pour que la qualité puisse remonter. Et cela est bien sûr particulièrement visible au niveau des façades. Les façades dans la durée Beaucoup de projets sont un savant compromis d’impératifs en matière de performances, de nécessaires conformités réglementaires, le tout avec un coût de construction qui lui a pour principale, si ce n’est unique contrainte la rentabilité, à plus ou moins long terme, de l’opération. Ce critère est certes important, mais aussi relatif. Il s’agit quand même souvent d’objectifs à court terme, couvrant le temps de la construction et de la (re)vente du bien. Que reste-t-il après, durant les 30, 50 ou 100 ans qui suivront ? L’impact financier de la réhabilitation prématurée d’une façade n’est certainement pas anodin non plus. Nous sommes logiquement adeptes des calculs de rentabilité sur le long terme. Joindre l’utile à l’agréable Un bâtiment définit non seulement des espaces intérieurs, il participe aussi à définir la qualité de l’espace public, et participe à la dynamique urbaine. Avec des couleurs claires, il éclaircit la rue, avec des matériaux acoustiquement absorbants, il atténue le bruit ambiant, avec des matériaux actifs, il atténue la pollution atmosphérique, avec des passages couverts il abrite des intempéries, avec des équipements intégrés il permet de rendre des services aux passants, voire de produire de l’énergie, … mais au-delà de critères fonctionnels, il agrémente voire caractérise une rue, un croisement, une place, un quartier. Nous aimons chez VS-A les concepts qui rendent l’architecture expressive et généreuse, qui s’inscrit dans son époque, capable d’évoluer, d’exprimer une qualité esthétique et artistique. La façade c’est du design, qui se dévoile au fur et à mesure que l’on s’approche, qui réserve des surprises, qui joue avec son environnement, avec les heures et les saisons, qui raconte une histoire intéressante, même si elle reste parfois confidentielle confinée au cercle restreint des acteurs du projet. Les façades qui racontent des histoires

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C’est assurément le cas de nombreux monuments historiques, parfois aussi de bâtiments plus courants. Les boulets de l’armée Autrichienne sur certains murs du Vieux-Lille sont faux, mais ils témoignent d’une histoire vraie, certaines cariatides signalent une ancienne maison close, certaines inscriptions rappellent au passant curieux le nom de l’architecte, du sculpteur et de l’entrepreneur, les matériaux utilisés racontent des histoires de filières, de traditions et d’économie, les fenêtres parlent du climat, les rez-de-chaussée des métiers qui y furent un jour exercés. Des histoires auxquelles on s’intéresse plus facilement lorsque l’on visite une ville inconnue. Les visites guidées dans ces villes nous rappellent alors à quel point les façades parlent de l’Histoire et des gens. Qu’on le veuille ou pas, nos petites ou grandes anecdotes de façades participent à écrire l’Histoire… Aujourd’hui, qui fait quoi ? Notre bureau d’étude cherchera toujours à avoir une vision plus globale du projet, et les solutions techniques ne tourneront jamais le dos aux concepts architecturaux. Il faut trouver la juste direction, l’étudier, l’expliquer, l’optimiser… Pour que l’idée architecturale soit justement valorisée. Surtout ne jamais franchir la ligne de l’économie de trop, perdre le concept générateur du projet. On pourra même donner plus d’emphase au concept architectural, en ajoutant ce petit quelque chose auquel personne n’avait pensé, qui va justement bien avec la solution économique développée précédemment. On va établir un lien, créer une histoire qui au-delà des différentes échelles, donne une cohérence à l’ensemble du projet. Renzo PIANO disait qu’il préférait de jolis détails avec des matériaux pauvres plutôt que l’inverse. Nombreux sont ceux qui auraient pu le dire par le passé, mais c’est indubitablement lui qui a le mieux réussi à la mettre en pratique. C’est assurément une des très bonnes recettes pour une façade réussie mais qui nécessite une parfaite connaissance des procédés de fabrication et d’installation. Sur certains projets, Rem KOOLHAAS recherchera des produits de caractère d’avantage que de peaufiner les détails. Ça marche aussi et bien que cette démarche soit à l’opposé de la précédente, c’est une autre très bonne recette pour faire une façade réussie. Plus difficilement transposable toutefois même si elle fait plus facilement des émules parmi la jeune génération d’architectes. SANAA a tracé une 3ème voie. L’agence va œuvrer pour retirer toute matérialité au projet, et toute trace révélant la méthode de construction. C’est la recherche de l’abstraction maximale, où tout parait léger, magique et sans échelle. Un peu comme un magasin LV ! L’expression architecturale est très liée à la géométrie et aux proportions. Une ingénierie constructive de pointe permet de masquer la difficulté derrière des lignes épurées, des matériaux sans épaisseur apparente, des jonctions sans jeu ni pièces de raccord. Le point commun qui les rapproche du projet lambda : les impératifs performantiels, normatifs et budgétaires sont les mêmes. Evidemment !

Le point commun qui les oppose au projet lambda : il y a une expression architecturale très forte, qui fait partie intégrante du projet. Celle-ci implique une multitude de recherches pour trouver LA solution juste qui répondra, aussi, aux impératifs précités. Ces architectes savent non seulement concevoir, mais aussi communiquer, expliquer et convaincre comme peu. Imaginer, anticiper toutes les questions possibles, et ne laisser aucune question sans réponse. Certains architectes ont renoncé à développer des projets aussi forts, aussi expressifs, aux études tellement chronophages… Ils laissent alors le soin aux entreprises de faire la conception des détails à leur place. En général, le rôle de l’entreprise est de construire, et non de concevoir. Pas sûr qu’elle soit le meilleur conseil pour définir le caractère des détails constructifs, ou assister l’Architecte dans son combat (pacifique, on reste dans le dialogue) pour convaincre un maître d’ouvrage, pour atteindre un certain niveau qualitatif. Un risque sans doute calculé et assumé par certains … mais pas par tous. Parmi ceux-là, il y a nos clients, de plus en plus nombreux, qui nous font confiance pour les accompagner. Et je crois qu’au final, la différence se voit bien, non ?


XIII.Faire du sur-mesure

Robert-Jan van SANTEN / Fondateur & Co-gérant / VS-A ... VS-A a la réputation de développer des solutions d’enveloppe spécifiques pour chaque projet. Ce n’était pas une démarche délibérée, juste la conséquence de nos premières missions avec des architectes bien inspirés, et sur des projets très médiatisés où il ne pouvait de toute façon pas en être autrement. Nous cherchions à trouver ce qui convenait le mieux aux problèmes qui nous étaient posés, et ne voulions pas nous orienter d’emblée vers les produits existants sur le marché, jugés trop polyvalents, sans caractère, parfois inappropriés ou pas assez performants. Il n’y alors pas d’autres solutions que de se mettre à concevoir le produit idéal, souvent aidés par des industriels curieux et entreprenants. Une fois cette réputation acquise, les projets qui nous furent soumis comportaient de plus en plus explicitement des demandes pour faire du surmesure, ce qui ne fit que la renforcer. Ces demandes provenaient quasi exclusivement des architectes, et avaient dans 80% des cas une motivation purement esthétique. L’esthétique reste bien entendu toujours un facteur prédominant mais sous la pression de nouvelles réglementations plus contraignantes et d’un souci somme toute légitime de maîtrise accrue des coûts, il nous fallait la justifier autrement. En une trentaine d’années, toutes les performances de l’enveloppe ont été identifiées, qualifiées et normalisées. Certaines, comme celles ayant attrait à l’acoustique, à la thermique, à la maintenance ou au développement durable ont considérablement évoluées au cours du temps, et continuent à le faire. Il s’en est logiquement suivi, de la part des usagers, des demandes pour des enveloppes de plus en plus performantes. Les maîtres d’ouvrages n’avaient d’autre alternative que de les répercuter sur leurs projets. Les performances des enveloppes dépendent autant des composants que de la manière dont ils sont joints, assemblés entre eux. Là encore, les fournisseurs qui développent des produits de plus en plus perfectionnés, de plus en plus complexes et onéreux, ne peuvent que répondre partiellement à ces performances. Il y avait donc toujours besoin d’une ingénierie qui conçoive les liaisons entre les composants … ou qui puisse proposer des alternatives. Et ces alternatives ne sont pas que techniques. Les premières alternatives doivent être cherchées dans le projet. Dès l’avant-projet, en discutant avec l’Architecte, en évoquant les problèmes et les solutions possibles, bien des difficultés peuvent être évitées, bien des questions peuvent être résolues par un infléchissement raisonné du projet. La démarche première est donc d’éviter les difficultés en amont, plutôt que de devoir les surmonter ultérieurement. Il en va de l’économie du projet, tant pour le maître d’ouvrage que pour l’architecte qui gagne du temps d’études.

appropriés pour traiter au mieux un problème donné. Souvent parce qu’il n’était pas imaginable à l’époque de la rédaction de ces textes, peut-être aussi parce qu’il manque toujours cruellement des Architectes dans leurs comités de rédaction. Il s’agit alors, avec le même bon sens constructif que celui présent dans les normes, de mettre au point la solution la mieux appropriée. Nous naviguons alors dans une zone grise, un intéressant interstice entre traditionnel et expérimental dont nous explorons à chaque projet une facette spécifique. C’en est devenu notre aire de prédilection. Nous préférons parler d’innovation. Le terme expérimental paraitra à beaucoup porteur de risque. Nous en avons conscience et sommes plutôt bien placés pour, si ce n’est l’éviter totalement, au moins pouvoir la diminuer et la ramener à des limites raisonnables et acceptables pour tous. Il va sans dire que le sur-mesure fait de chaque projet un prototype, un premier de série … qui rarement devient une série justement parce que la solution est sur-mesure. La très grande majorité des solutions innovantes que nous développons trouve son inspiration dans un projet précédent, une référence vue, présentée à une conférence ou discutée entre confrères (rarement dans les magazines ou sur internet), ou découlant de la bonne connaissance des règles physiques et climatologiques, des matériaux, des méthodes de mise en forme de la matière, des assemblages, de leur installation. Et nous savons les développer en quasi autonomie, indépendamment de tout fournisseur ou entrepreneur, quitte à faire réaliser quelques prototypes de confirmation, voire procéder à des essais de validation. Nous sommes toujours en phase sur une telle approche avec le client, qui y voit comme nous un moyen de s’assurer que le projet est sur de bons rails. Pour la réalisation, il est bon d’avoir le temps de bien présenter le projet à l’entreprise qui va réaliser le projet : elle doit bien comprendre nos idées qu’elle doit faire siennes pour qu’elle les réalise sans compromis et sans risque. Parfois, très rarement, nous nous lançons sur le chemin de l’expérimental. Et bien que nous sommes souvent les investigateurs qui lançons le concept, nous devons très humblement dire que nous ne sommes qu’une entité au sein d’un groupe d’acteurs bien plus étendu, qui comprend maître d’ouvrage, architecte, bureau de contrôle (représentant l’assureur), les fournisseurs, la ou les entreprises, le laboratoire d’essai, parfois l’université, … Il s’agit alors d’un projet collectif, hors normes pour tous, nécessitant des conditions de ressources et de temps bien spécifiques. Nous adorons … mais ce n’est pas tous les jours ! Nous sommes toujours innovants, mais seulement parfois expérimentaux.

Ensuite intervient l’ingénierie technique. La plupart des phénomènes physiques peuvent être modélisés en informatique, avec des logiciels spécialisés ou développés au sein du bureau. Nous ne contestons jamais la pertinence d’un DTU ou d’une norme, mais force est de constater qu’ils ne sont parfois pas

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XIV.High-rise building

Robert-Jan van SANTEN / Founder & Co-Owner / VS-A ... «High-rise» is a relative concept... In France,

this term applies when the floor of the upper level of a building intended for public space or offices is more than 28m from ground level (50m for housing), which then requires a series of measures to strengthen safety, including the obligation to have 2 firemen on site at all times. This can obviously be financially discouraging. In Asia, in the big cities, high-rise buildings are the rule, rather than the exception. An art has been developed by architects and businesses to construct them in the best conditions and at the best price. Two areas of this concern us directly: curtain walls and the equipment required to maintain them. Remember that the following is simply an analysis through our own experience, mainly in China and South Korea. We cannot, therefore, reach a general conclusion, especially as recent projects with which we have been involved seem to have taken a slightly different direction. In China, curtain walls are made 100% from extruded aluminium profiles, and most use unitised curtain wall technology. The well-known advantages of higher production rates and quicker implementation have a favourable effect on finances. Carrying out the main assembly tasks in the workshop makes the work more reliable, and installation on site does not require highly skilled labourers. The only two compromises are that this technique constrains the architect slightly in the expression of their façade and that the uprights are split, which increases the weight of the aluminium per m² of façade. In South Korea, the delegation of work is mainly carried out through the country’s few (VERY) large, general companies. This results in a hyper fragmentation of sub-contracted deals. Design and engineering, procurement, assembly and installation may be delegated to totally different companies. In this context, analysing just the ‘procurement’ stage will show that unitised curtain walls are more costly than a ‘stick’ type curtain wall. In Korea, there is therefore a greater number of construction sites, including high-rise buildings, where vertical mullions, horizontal transoms and glazing are installed with a significant amount of silicon. The warranty provided by the company is often only 2 years, which is short, but can be explained by the above. Let’s look at the technical aspect: a lot of subtlety is involved in the placement of the joins, especially at the perpendicular to the crossing between units. This is the point where the most horizontal and vertical movement is felt in the structure and there is most dimensional change and tolerance due to the temperature. This area is rarely an architectural success. It is therefore an area that needs to change! On the pretext that there are pleasant views in all directions, most owners and architects agree that the façade of an office block should be mainly glazed, whichever its orientation. There are even projects with a folded glass envelope, which increases the building’s surface area even further. Today, this is not sensible for several reasons: • A tower is often an isolated building, which straightaway already has a large façade surface

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area in comparison with the floor area. The ratio is sometimes 2:1. • The space next to the window is often too bright to be able to work there easily: the blinds are therefore almost always down and the artificial lighting is on. • Many are reluctant to get too close to a façade that seems fragile. This feeling is sometimes reinforced by the flexibility of the components or the presence of openable windows (for many years now, in China 10% of glass surfaces have had to be openable), even though this is not very appropriate for high-rise buildings. • The sunlight coming into the building requires glazing that protects from solar rays, with expensive metallic layers that also change the quality of the natural light that enters the premises: this light is cold and should be offset with lamps that give off warm light (which is rarely actually done). • Energy performance. This is obviously greatly influenced by the climate of the location, but a large amount of sunlight, whether direct or indirect, is not good for air conditioning and running costs in particular. • For public spaces and neighbouring buildings, a glass tower is quickly criticised for the disturbance caused by reflected light: north-facing façades suddenly suffer from indirect light for which they were obviously not prepared. It can also be criticised for the shade that it casts. Generally, it is important to evaluate the impact of a building on natural light in public spaces, but without being dramatic about it: the sun does move in the sky!

are compact, light, durable and economical, both in their construction and in their maintenance. This is an excellent starting point in order to have more margin during design to be able to add a little extra that will make the façade unique.

Towers are exposed to the wind, more than any other common kind of building. This can have repercussions on their construction (reinforced frames and window corners) but also in terms of the conception of the façade: it is not recommended to install exterior blinds or even brise-soleils. To respond to this constraint in the most economical way, placing the blind on the inside would seem appropriate. In 2007-8, VS-A therefore led a study on how to boost the efficiency of interior blinds. By taking appropriate action on the 3 following elements: • The efficiency of the solar protection layer, placed in the second sheet of the insulating glazing, • The efficiency of the interior glass, • The energetic characteristics of the interior blind,... ...the results were very positive and surprised many of the heat engineers from the Thermal Engineering Office (BET) with whom we collaborated on various projects. The real efficiency of a glazing + blind combination can be boiled down to the LT/SF ratio, or the light transmission when the blind is open divided by the solar factor when the blind is closed. Some glass suppliers call this selectivity. This figure can easily reach 4, and even 5 for the most efficient setups. During a design-build project with Eiffage and Architecture Studio, efficiency was tested at the CSTB (Scientific and Technical Centre for Building) in Grenoble. Our calculations, made with ‘home-made’ software then checked with 2 established programs, were just slightly below the true results, which is better than the other way around! On our tower projects in Asia, where glazed surfaces remain unnecessarily big in comparison to real natural light needs, we often offer these kinds of services, which enable us to produce façades that

And we will still not be beaten in Europe: • Cœur-Défense (project management support with Unibail and Bouygues Immobilier) • The national archives in Pierrefite (Massimiliano Fuksas) • The CMA-CGM Tower in Marseille (Zaha Hadid), • The Tour Signal competition (member of technical committee) • Restoration of the La Noue residential tower in Bagnolet (Laurent Sevestre) • other interesting competitions... (Chaix & Morel, Tania Concko, Claude Vasconi, Roland Castro) And in nearby countries: • Restoration of the CCK Tower in Luxembourg, with its double-skin glass façade • The Téotista residential tower in Monaco (JeanMichel Wilmotte) • The Odéon residential tower in Monaco (Alexandre Giraldi) • The mixed-use tower in Tirana (51N4E)

Our accomplishments up until now (end of 2015) in Asia are the following: • XiZhiMen towers (3 x 100m), in Beijing, AREP architects, delivered in 2008 • Hyundai (85m), in Busan, One-o-One architects, under construction • Dacheng (140m) in Shenzhen, Urbanus architects, under tender • Hongtu Plaza (268m) in Shenzhen, CCDI architects, under tender • HongShuWan (350m) in Shenzhen, AREP + AUBE architects, being designed • Daishin (120m) in Seoul, B&A architects, under construction • Gionee HQ (80m) in Shenzhen, Zhubo architects, under tender • 2 Towers project (160 and 140m) in Shenzhen, Zhubo architects, under construction As well as participation in many competitions: • Haikin Tower (400m) in Shenzhen, with Urbanus, 1st prize, undergoing feasibility study • ICBC HQ (200m) in Shenzhen, Aube architects, 1st prize but project not taken on • … Tower (500m) in Shenzhen, with Henning Larssen architects • … in Shenzhen, with Archiphenomenon architects

The most commonly used technique is the unitised curtain wall, but few companies have developed it, mainly because the market is not very buoyant. The era of the Jean Prouvé’s stamped façade panels is over, as is that of the beautiful façade (especially on the outside) of the Grande Arche (1989), developed by Johan Otto von Spreckelsen and François Deslaugiers. However, VS-A has noticed a recent upturn in interest in this technique, through companies like Rinaldi and Permasteelisa mainly, both real pioneers of this method, but also Kyotec, Metal Sigma, Ouest Alu and active process development engineers such as Wicona. On two recent projects, this technique was even used in the wooden frame. In some ways, this is a return to our roots, as we know how many curtain walls in the ‘60s had a wooden structure, with aluminium just for the exterior protection!


Alcide de Gasperi Tower / Luxembourg / Tour Alcide de Gasperi

CMA CGM Tower / Marseille - France / Tour CMA CGM

CFC TOWER / Casablanca - Marocco / Tour CFC

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XIV.Immeuble de grande hauteur

Robert-Jan van SANTEN / Fondateur & Co-gérant / VS-A ... La grande hauteur est une donnée très relative.

En France, ce qualificatif s’applique dès que le plancher du dernier niveau destiné à un espace public ou des bureaux est à plus de 28m du sol (50m s’il s’agit de logements), et il implique alors toute une série de mesures renforçant la sécurité, y compris l’obligation d’avoir en permanence deux pompiers sur place. C’est financièrement assez dissuasif ! En Asie, dans les grandes métropoles, l’immeuble de grande hauteur est une règle plus qu’une exception. Et tout un savoir-faire y a été développé par les architectes et les entreprises pour les réaliser dans les meilleures conditions, au meilleur prix. Deux domaines nous concernent très directement : les murs rideaux et les équipements pour en assurer la maintenance. A noter que ce qui suit n’est qu’une analyse au travers de notre propre expérience, en Chine et en Corée du Sud principalement. N’en tirons donc aucune conclusion générale d’autant que les récents projets sur lesquels nous intervenons semblent prendre une direction un peu différente. En Chine, les murs rideaux sont à 100% réalisés à base de profilés aluminium extrudés, et utilisent dans leur très grande majorité la technologie de façades cadres (unitized curtain-wall). Les avantages bien connus de cadences de production plus importantes et de mise en œuvre plus rapide, ont un impact économique favorable. La réalisation des principales tâches d’assemblage en atelier rend l’ouvrage plus fiable, et la mise en œuvre sur place ne requiert pas une main d’œuvre très qualifiée. Les 2 seules contreparties sont que cette technique contraint un peu l’architecte dans l’expression de sa façade, et des montants dédoublés qui augmentent le poids d’aluminium par m² de façade. En Corée du Sud, la dévolution des marchés travaux se fait principalement au travers des quelques (TRES) grandes entreprises générales que compte le pays. S’en suit une hyper fragmentation des marchés soustraités. Etudes, approvisionnement, assemblage et installation peuvent être confiés à des sociétés totalement différentes. Dans ce contexte, l’analyse du seul poste « approvisionnement » va montrer que la façade cadre est plus onéreuse qu’une façade de type « grille ». On voit donc en Corée un bien plus grand nombre de chantiers, y compris d’immeubles de grande hauteur, où sont posés successivement les montants, les traverses, les vitrages … et une bonne quantité de silicone. La garantie donnée par l’entreprise y est souvent de seulement 2 ans, c’est court mais ça peut ainsi s’expliquer. Parlons maintenant technique : il y a beaucoup de subtilité dans la disposition des joints, notamment au droit de leur croisement entre cadres : là est le point où se ressentent le plus les mouvements horizontaux et verticaux de la structure, les tolérances et variations dimensionnelles sous l’action de la température. Ce point est rarement une réussite architecturale. Il y a là besoin de changement ! Sous prétexte que la vue est belle dans toutes les directions, la plupart des propriétaires ainsi que la majorité des architectes s’accordent pour dire qu’une façade de tour de bureaux doit être largement vitrée, quelle que soit son orientation. Nous voyons même des projets avec une enveloppe vitrée plissée, ce qui en augmente encore la surface. De nos jours, ceci n’est plus très raisonnable, et ce pour une multitude de raisons : •Une tour est très souvent un bâtiment isolé, qui a 282

déjà d’emblée beaucoup de surface de façade par rapport à la surface de plancher. Le rapport est parfois de 1/2. •L’espace à côté de la fenêtre est trop illuminé pour pouvoir y travailler sereinement: les stores sont quasiment toujours en position fermés, et l’éclairage artificiel est alors allumé en permanence. •Beaucoup de personnes appréhendent la proximité avec une façade qui parait fragile. Cette sensation est parfois renforcée par la souplesse des composants, ou par la présence de châssis ouvrants (10% de la surface vitrée doit être ouvrante en Chine depuis quelques années), bien que peu appropriée aux IGH. •Les apports solaires obligent à avoir recours à des vitrages qui protègent du soleil, avec des couches métalliques onéreuses qui de surcroît modifient la qualité de la lumière naturelle transmise dans les locaux: cette lumière est froide et devrait être compensée par des lampes émettant une lumière chaude (c’est rarement fait). •Le bilan énergétique, enfin. Il est bien sur très fortement influencé par le climat du lieu considéré, mais un apport massif d’énergie solaire, directe ou indirecte, n’augure rien de bon pour les frais d’exploitation et de climatisation en particulier. •Pour l’espace public et pour les bâtiments avoisinants, une tour vitrée est rapidement critiquée par les perturbations générées par la lumière réfléchie : des façades orientées au nord subissent soudain un ensoleillement (indirect) auquel elles n’étaient évidemment pas préparées. Elle le sera aussi pour son ombre portée. D’une manière générale il est important d’évaluer l’impact d’un tel bâtiment sur la lumière naturelle dans l’espace public, probablement sans le dramatiser : le soleil tourne ! Une tour est exposée aux vents, plus que tout autre édifice courant. Cela a quelques répercussions constructives (renforts des menuiseries et des vitrages aux angles) mais aussi en termes de conception de façade : il est peu recommandé d’y installer des stores extérieurs, ou même des brise-soleil. Pour répondre de la manière la plus économique possible à cette contrainte, placer le store à l’intérieur est ce qui apparait le plus approprié. VS-A a donc mené en 2007-8 une étude sur la manière de booster les performances des stores intérieurs. En agissant de manière appropriée sur les 3 facteurs suivants : •Performance de la couche de protection solaire, placée en face 2 du vitrage isolant, •Performance du verre intérieur, •Caractéristiques énergétiques du store intérieur, … … les résultats furent très positifs et ont surpris bon nombre des BET thermiciens avec qui nous collaborions sur différents projets. La vraie performance d’un ensemble vitrage + store se résume au rapport LT/FS, transmission lumineuse, store ouvert divisé par le facteur solaire, store fermé. Certains fournisseurs de verre appellent cela la sélectivité. Ce rapport atteint facilement 4, et même 5 pour les configurations les plus performantes. A l’occasion d’un projet en Conception-Réalisation avec Eiffage et Architecture Studio, les performances ont été testées au CSTB à Grenoble. Nos calculs, faits sur un logiciel « fait maison » mais depuis confirmés par 2 logiciels de référence, se sont même révélés juste un petit peu en dessous de la vérité (le contraire ne nous aurait pas plu) ! Sur nos projets de tours en Asie, où les surfaces vitrées restent largement surdimensionnées par rapport aux réels besoins en lumière naturelle, nous proposons souvent d’appliquer de telles

dispositions, qui permettent de réaliser des façades compactes, légères, pérennes et économiques, tant en construction qu’en entretien. Bref, c’est un excellent point de départ permettant d’avoir un peu de marge durant les études pour ajouter ce petit plus qui donnera à la façade son caractère unique. Nos références à ce jour en Asie sont les suivantes : •XiZhiMen towers (3 x 100m), à Beijing, AREP architects, livré en 2008. •Hyundai (85m), à Busan, One-o-One architects, en cours de construction, •Dacheng (140m) à Szenzhen, Urbanus architectes, en cours d’appel d’offres, •Hongtu Plaza (268m) à Shenzhen, CCDI architectes, en cours d’appel d’offres, •HongShuWan (350m) à Shenzhen, AREP + AUBE architectes, Design en cours, •Daishin (120m) à Séoul, B&A architectes, en cours de construction, •Gionee HQ (80m) à Shenzhen, Zhubo architectes, en cours d’appel d’offres, •2 Towers project (160 et 140m) à Shenzhen, Zhubo architectes, en cours de construction, Ainsi que la participation à un grand nombre de concours •Haikin Tower (400m) à Shenzhen, avec Urbanus, 1er prix, en cours d’étude de faisabilité, •ICBC HQ (200m) à Shenzhen, Aube architectes, 1er prix mais projet non retenu, •… Tower (500m) à Shenzhen, avec Henning Larssen architects, Nous ne sommes pas en reste en Europe : •Cœur-Défense (mission AMO avec Unibail et Bouygues Immobilier), •Les archives nationales à Pierrefitte (Massimiliano FUKSAS), •La tour CMA-CGM à Marseille (Zaha HADID), •Le concours de la Tour Signal (membre de la commission technique), •La réhabilitation de la tour résidentielle de la Noue, à Bagnolet (Laurent SEVESTRE), •Quelques intéressants concours … (CHAIX & MOREL, TaniaCONCKO,ClaudeVASCONI,RolandCASTRO,…). Et dans les pays limitrophes : •La réhabilitation de la tour CCK à Luxembourg, avec sa façade double peau vitrée, •La tour résidentielle Téotista à Monaco (Jean-Michel WILMOTTE), •La tour résidentielle Odéon à Monaco (Alexandre GIRALDI), •La tour mixte à Tirana (51N4E). La technique la plus couramment utilisée est celle de la façade cadre, mais peu d’entreprises l’ont développée, principalement parce que le marché n’est pas très porteur. L’époque d’un Jean PROUVE qui fabrique ses panneaux de façade emboutis est loin, de même que la très belle façade (notamment extérieure) de la Grande Arche (1989), développée par Johan Otto von SPRECKELSEN et François DESLAUGIERS. Cependant VS-A note récemment un regain d’intérêt pour cette technique, au travers d’entreprises comme Rinaldi et Permasteelisa en premier lieu, véritables pionniers de cette technique, mais aussi comme Kyotec, Metal Sigma, Ouest Alu, … et de gammistes très actifs comme Wicona … Sur 2 projets récents cette technique fut même transposée à de la menuiserie bois. Un retour aux sources en quelque sorte lorsqu’on sait que nombre de murs rideaux des années 60 étaient à ossature bois, avec juste une petite protection extérieure en aluminium !


Daishin tower / Seoul - Korea / Tour Daishin

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XV. In praise of doubt ? / Eloge du doute ?

Thomas CORBASSON / Partner Architect / CHARTIER CORBASSON ...«Every act of creation is also an act of destruction» Claude Parent told me recently. I love this quote because it takes the opposite stance to the current «right way of thinking» in architecture, which the goal of architecture, through an «intelligent» way of building, is to produce kilowatts, recycle materials, respect ecosystems, etc. This discourse is a façade. The reality is that, as Claude said so poetically, the beauty of creative action lies in destruction itself. A stone is a stone; however beautiful it may be, it is not a creation. As soon as we destroy it (to make an arrowhead, for example), then emotion and the creative act are born. We, as creators of emotion, are therefore basically destroyers of nature and as such are politically incorrect. The question is how to manage this act of creation/destruction, and that is at the heart of our job. This act of destruction is not an ordinary violent act, but a struggle, and at the same time, a deep understanding which includes a grasp of the issues at stake regarding the materials and the site. Designing architecture is never about imposing your point of view, but letting it be imposed by the force of circumstance, of all the elements present: the schedule, the site. There are references from Buddhism which I did not wanted to talk about for a long time, as I do not wish to be reproached for having any kind of liking for anything religious. A few months in India and reading Schopenhauer have taught me this: «It is in the absence of desire that happiness – or at least wellbeing – can be born.» Although I have always found it difficult to apply this principle to myself, it is still a principle that I find particularly relevant in our job: Not having any preconceived ideas or desires, but instead identifying the issues relating to a place, a schedule or a project brief, and always placing yourself at the next step, solving problems from the smallest to the biggest. So what about façades? The façade, whether it is added on as a screen or cut out within the project’s overall schedule, follows the same logic. It is the expression of the project as much as the plan; it is a response. Style does not exist; it is in the eye of the beholder, a rationale that others may take for desire. In other words, designing architecture is about managing doubts; it is placing yourself in a repetitive process that places doubt at the centre of reason. Architecture is not a contact sport; it is obviously a process of intellectual reasoning, reasoning that eventually leads you to fight against yourself and your own fantasies. However, the real fight is elsewhere: in communication in architecture in the wider sense. Every day, you need to struggle with (as well as yourself ) the company, regulations, councillors, with everyone who wants to impose their own desires, their own wishes, to the detriment of logic (I prefer pink, it would be better with an extra floor, etc.). So as not to engage in this ferocious fighting, we have

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always worked with VS-A. They are real technicians of the invisible or mediators at the architect’s side – and that should not be taken as malicious; it’s totally positive. VS-A has the expertise that enables us to, instead of shouting our heads off, benefit from arbitration that will always put the emphasis on logic. To me, creating desire seems an infinitely more beautiful act than expressing one’s own... « Tout acte de création est un acte de destruction » me répétait encore récemment Claude Parent. J’adore cette phrase parce qu’elle prend vraiment le contrepied du « bien penser » architectural actuel, le politiquement correct qui veut nous faire croire que, oui, le but de l’architecture, c’est grâce a une forme « intelligente » du bâtiment, de produire du kilowatt, recycler des matériaux, respecter les eco systèmes, etc… ce discours masque. La réalité qui est, comme le disait si poétiquement Claude que la beauté du geste créatif réside dans la destruction même». Un caillou, c’est un caillou et même très beau ça n’est pas une création. C’est à partir du moment où on le détruit (pour faire une pointe de flèche, par exemple) que nait l’émotion, l’acte créateur. Nous, créateurs d’émotion, sommes donc à la base des destructeurs de nature et donc nécessairement politiquement incorrects. La question se pose de savoir comment gérer cet acte de création /destruction et c’est là tout le sens de notre métier.

doute au centre du raisonnement. L’architecture n’est pas un sport de combat, c’est évidemment un raisonnement intellectuel, un raisonnement qui amène éventuellement, à se battre contre soi-même et ses propres fantasmes. Le vrai combat existe mais il est ailleurs : dans la communication, au sens large de l’architecture : tous les jours, il faut se battre avec (en plus de soi-même) l’entreprise, avec les règlements, les élus, avec les clients, avec tous ceux qui veulent imposer leurs désirs, leur volonté propre, au détriment de la logique( je préfère le rose, ça serait mieux avec un étage en plus, etc..) A défaut d’engager un combattant féroce, nous avons toujours travaillé avec VS-A, réels techniciens de l’invisible ou arbitre à la solde de l’architecte; n’y voyez pas malice, c’est éminemment positif.

Cet acte de destruction n’est pas un acte violent ordinaire, il s’agit d’un combat et en même temps d’une entente profonde, qui inclue une compréhension des enjeux de la matière, du site. Autrement dit, et selon les mots de Jodorowsky, pour que le mariage soit réussi, il faut violer la mariée. Concevoir l’architecture, c’est ne jamais imposer son point de vue mais se le laisser imposer par la force des choses, de tous les éléments en présence : programme, site. Il existe un rapport au bouddhisme dont j’ai très longtemps eu du mal à parler, n’ayant aucune envie de me voir reprocher une quelconque appétence pour quoi que ce soit de religieux). Une expérience indienne de plusieurs mois ainsi que la lecture tardive de Schopenhauer m’ont appris ceci : «c’est de l’absence de désir que peut naître le bonheur- ou du moins le bien-être » S’il m’a toujours été très difficile d’appliquer ce principe à moi-même, c’est néanmoins un principe qu’il m’a paru particulièrement pertinent d’adapter à notre travail : Ne pas avoir d’idées préconçues, de désirs donc, mais au contraire, identifier les problématiques d’un lieu, d’un programme, bref d’un projet et toujours se placer dans une suite logique, régler les problèmes du plus petit au plus grand. Et la façade alors ? La façade qu’elle soit rajoutée comme une résille ou taillée dans la masse du programme, du projet, suit la même logique. Elle est l’expression du projet tout autant que le plan, c‘est une réponse; Le style n’existe pas : ça n’est que le regard des autres, la logique que les autres prennent pour du désir. Pour le dire autrement concevoir l’architecture c’est gérer ses doutes c’est se placer dans un processus itératif qui place le

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1. Wind Tower - Emirats Arabe Unis 2. Qasr Al Hosn - Abou Dabi 3. CRCI - Amiens 4. Organic Skyscraper - Londres 5. Louvre 6. 11 Logements Sociaux- Paris

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XVI.On Wooden facade

Margotte LAMOUROUX Chief Editor - Séquence Bois ... Often identified as a thin wall, the wooden façade is often confused with its outer covering. Indeed, many designers of housing, public buildings and tertiary sector projects are content to dress industrial masonry with cladding in order to present their product as a «wooden building». Making the most of the ambiguity between cladding and the principle of construction, this trend exploits wood’s metaphoric role in order to portray a building as being environmentally friendly. Here, the material is used more for its symbolic nature than for its technical or aesthetic properties. Without going back to the issues around the link between form and function advocated by the Modernist movement or the relationship between container and content dealt with by Robert Venturi’s decorated shed, it seems important to reject this design trend that does not make the most of wood in all its characteristics, denies its complementarity with other materials and reduces the expression of the building envelope to its bare minimum. Furthermore, this ancestral material, which has only recently gained legitimacy within the world of construction, requires expert knowledge in its use, assembly and implementation and may be damaged by signs of poorly managed ageing. On a larger scale, this ambivalence probably comes from imprecision around the definition of the idea of the building envelope. It is, of course, helpful to differentiate between the status of cladding and that of an active envelope, which enables us to control, in many senses, the atmosphere inside a building. Focusing on a multiplicity of architectural ambitions, the envelope involves infinitely more complex ideas: the interface between interior and exterior, the articulation of threads and knots, thermal and acoustic comfort, etc. In its need for dependence and interdependence, the concept of the envelope comes under the umbrellas of architecture and public space and belongs to the building as much as it to the town or city. Whether it reveals or hides the structural and programmatic interpretation of architectural work, the envelope inevitably displays the characteristics – whether technical, aesthetic or rhetoric – of its material. Thus, some architectural research aims to decode old materials from a new standpoint in order to reset the perception of them and explore the extent of their meaning. Through the development of three projects to which VS-A has contributed and that have made their mark on the journal Séquences Bois, this piece aims to demonstrate, if there was still room for doubt, that the use of wood as a building envelope offers much more than just a surface makeover. Rain screen envelope The Auvergne County Hall in Clermont-Ferrand reveals a tension between the old and new meaning of wood as a material in a didactic relationship with the town. Bruno Mader has created an expressive and powerful structure that expresses the juxtaposition of an element that is both supporting and supported: a triangular concrete base that extends through the levels with wooden poles and rafters. The aesthetic and constructive identity of the project results from the need for bracing in this area of high seismic activity and the desire to promote local wood. By reinterpreting the timbering of the old housing in medieval Clermont-Ferrand, the arborescent structure

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reveals the force of the landscapes and situates the contemporary work in its historical site. Made up of a ventilated double skin of glass, the rain screen protects the building and establishes transparency and depth between interior spaces and the urban space. In a decision to offer up all the components and their relationships for interpretation, the envelope, draped over the wood, seems to mean that the project’s formal inspiration results from the two materials’ technical properties.

of both functional and symbolic meanings. The designers of the projects presented here have reacted differently to the issue of wood combined with that of the building envelope, which, following different uses and contexts, adapt to all of this diversity.

Structural envelope Often considered as separate from the load-bearing elements of a building, the envelope takes on a double role in the Andrée Chédid Media Library in Tourcoing, as both protective and structural. Vincent d’Houndt and Bertrand Bajard, who explore the plasticity of cladding, like a strange brick snakeskin or concrete grotto, have imagined a façade that correlates with its construction method. The assembly of hexagonal wooden chambers unifies the multiple functions expressed at each level of the project. The continuity of urban planning with the interior tiers governs the relationship with the town, much like the bays – whose carpentry is negotiated with a single joint – which project cast shadows or on the ground in order to create atmospheric details. The thickness of the wall contributes to its thermal and acoustic insulation and to its use for games for young visitors, while the honeycomb pattern, a metaphor for this «hive of knowledge», is a hint towards the use of this building. Instead of a three-dimensional tectonic unit, this second project offers this pattern as a logo, which is present in the perforations in the soundproofing panels, in the cushions in the auditorium and in the signage. Modular building envelope In the imposing building created by Antoine Béal and Ludovic Blanckaert in Paris, which includes university accommodation, a school and a residence for young workers, the wood is not exposed to the city outside or to the interior space, even though it makes up the majority of the envelope. The highly technical curtain wall is made up of a wooden frame and many other different elements – the exploded view of this will delight many – assembled into modules to be fixed to the concrete structure. The system of panels, which are prefabricated in a factory, and the interior partition wall cladded with perforated aluminium balance the programmatic and architectural design with its production. If no other information is given on the materials involved in the envelope, the layout shows us the domestic level of the project: an entity is the same as a room. Although the composition of the building is more important to obey technical restraints (need for a minimum weight and excellent acoustics), the grid pattern of the cells still lets us interpret an independent envelope that is highly marked by the process of prefabrication. The materials used, which are revealed in their technical and sensorial properties, set the constraints and possibilities involved in architecture. Their constantly renewed use communicates new expressivities that disrupt established codes and generate a plurality

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1. Hôtel de Région - Clermont Ferrand 2. Médiathèque Andrée Chedid - Tourcoing 3. LOT M10 C/D - Paris 4. Hôtel de Région - Clermont Ferrand 5. Médiathèque Andrée Chedid - Tourcoing 6. LOT M10 C/D - Paris


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XVI.Autour des façades bois

Margotte LAMOUROUX - Rédactrice en Chef - Séquence Bois ... Couramment identifiée comme une paroi mince, la façade bois est souvent confondue avec son revêtement. En effet, nombre de concepteurs d’opérations de logements, d’édifices publics ou encore de réalisations issues du secteur tertiaire se contentent d’habiller d’un simple bardage des éléments de gros-œuvre maçonnés pour les présenter comme des « bâtiments en bois ». Entretenant une ambiguïté entre la vêture et le principe constructif, cet effet de mode utilise le bois dans son rôle métaphorique pour incarner l’image d’une construction respectueuse de son environnement. Ici, le matériau n’est pas tant employé pour ses propriétés techniques ou esthétiques que pour son caractère symbolique. Sans revenir sur les questions autour du lien entre forme et fonction prôné par le Mouvement Moderne ou sur la relation entre contenant et contenu interrogée par le decorated shed de Robert Venturi, il semble important de dénoncer ce mode de conception qui n’exploite pas le bois dans toutes ses capacités, nie sa complémentarité avec les autres matériaux et réduit l’expression de l’enveloppe à son strict minimum. De plus, le matériau ancestral, qui n’a retrouvé que récemment une légitimité au sein du monde de la construction, demande un réel savoir-faire dans son emploi, ses assemblages et sa mise en œuvre et peut se retrouver desservi par les signes d’un vieillissement mal maîtrisé. À une échelle plus large, cette ambivalence provient sans doute d’une imprécision autour de la définition même de l’idée de l’enveloppe. Il convient bien sûr de faire la différence entre le statut de vêture et celui d’enveloppe active, qui permet de contrôler, dans toutes ses acceptions, les ambiances dispensées dans un bâtiment. En cristallisant une multiplicité d’ambitions architecturales, l’enveloppe intègre des notions infiniment plus complexes : l’interface entre l’intérieur et l’extérieur, l’articulation des trames et des nœuds, le confort thermique et acoustique… Dans son désir de dépendance et d’interdépendance, elle relève à la fois de l’architecture et de l’espace public et appartient autant à l’édifice qu’à la ville. Qu’elle révèle ou qu’elle dissimule la lecture programmatique et structurelle des ouvrages, l’enveloppe affiche inévitablement les caractéristiques – techniques, esthétiques ou rhétoriques – de sa matière. Ainsi certaines recherches architecturales visent à décoder les anciens matériaux autour d’un œil neuf afin de réinitialiser leur perception et d’explorer l’étendue de leur signification. À travers trois réalisations que VS-A a contribué à développer et qui ont marqué la revue Séquences Bois, cet essai vise à démontrer, si toutefois il était encore permis d’en douter, que l’utilisation du bois en enveloppe a bien plus à offrir qu’un simple traitement épidermique. Enveloppe écran L’hôtel de la région Auvergne à Clermont-Ferrand dévoile une tension entre ancienne et nouvelle signification du matériau bois dans un rapport didactique à la ville. Bruno Mader a élaboré une structure puissante et expressive qui exprime la juxtaposition d’un élément porteur et d’un élément porté : un socle de béton à la géométrie triangulée qui se prolonge dans les étages par des poteaux et des arbalétrier en bois. L’identité esthétique et constructive du projet découle de la nécessité d’un contreventement principal sur ce territoire en zone sismique, ainsi que de la demande de valorisation du bois local. En réinter-

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prétant les colombages des vieux immeubles du Clermont-Ferrand médiéval, la structure arborescente révèle la force du paysage et inscrit l’œuvre contemporaine dans son site historique. Composée d’une double peau de verre ventilée, un écran protège le bâtiment tout en établissant des transparences et des profondeurs entre les espaces intérieurs et l’espace urbain. Dans une volonté de donner à lire l’intégralité des composants et leur relation, l’enveloppe, drapée autour du bois, semble signifier que l’inspiration formelle du projet découle des propriétés techniques des deux matériaux. Enveloppe structurelle Habituellement considérée comme indépendante des éléments porteurs d’un édifice, l’enveloppe endosse un double rôle dans l’extension de la médiathèque Andrée Chédid à Tourcoing, à la fois protecteur et structurel. Vincent d’Houndt et Bertrand Bajard, qui explorent la plasticité des vêtures, à la manière d’une étrange peau de serpent en brique ou d’une grotte-rocher de béton, ont imaginé ici une façade en corrélation avec son mode constructif. L’assemblage de caissons hexagonaux en bois unifie en réalité de multiples fonctions qui s’expriment à chaque échelle du projet. La continuité des aménagements urbains avec les gradins intérieurs régit le rapport à la ville, tout comme les ouvertures - dont les menuiseries sont traitées par un simple joint - qui projettent des ombres portées et au sol afin de générer des détails d’ambiance. L’épaisseur de la paroi participe tant de l’isolation thermique et acoustique que de l’usage, en se prêtant aux jeux informels du jeune public, tandis que le motif alvéolaire, métaphore de la « ruche du savoir », laisse deviner le programme. À défaut d’une unité tectoniques en trois dimensions (le tracé cellulaire aurait pu également organiser le plan), le second œuvre décline le dessin comme un logo, qui affirme son omniprésence des perforations des panneaux acoustiques aux formes des coussins de l’auditorium en passant par la signalétique. Enveloppe modulaire Dans l’imposant bâtiment réalisé par Antoine Béal et Ludovic Blanckaert à Paris, comprenant une résidence étudiante, une école et un foyer de jeunes travailleurs, le bois ne s’expose ni à la ville ni dans les espaces intérieurs, bien qu’il constitue la majeure partie de l’enveloppe. D’une haute technicité, la façade-rideau est constituée d’une ossature bois ainsi que d’une multiplicité d’éléments hétérogènes – l’éclaté de paroi en ravira plus d’un – rassemblés en modules venus se fixer à la structure en béton. Le système de panneaux, préfabriqués en usine de la cloison intérieure au bardage en aluminium perforé, présente une réelle adéquation entre la conception programmatique et architecturale et la mise en œuvre. Si aucune autre information n’est donnée sur les matériaux intégrés à l’enveloppe, le calepinage permet de comprendre l’échelle domestique de la réalisation : une entité est égale à une chambre. Bien que la manière de composer serve davantage à répondre aux contraintes techniques (nécessité d’un poids minimum et d’une excellente acoustique), le quadrillage des cellules donne toutefois à lire une peau autonome fortement marquée par un processus de préfabrication.

Révélés dans leur propriété technique et sensuelle, les matériaux dictent à l’architecture leurs contraintes et leurs possibilités. Leur utilisation constamment renouvelée formule de nouvelles expressivités qui bouleversent les codes et génèrent une pluralité de significations, tant fonctionnelles que symboliques. Les concepteurs des réalisations présentées ont réagi différemment à la problématique du bois combinée à celle de l’enveloppe, qui, suivant les usages et les contextes, s’adaptent incontestablement à toute cette diversité.


LOT M10 C/D - Paris / Architect : BEAL & BLANCKAERT

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XVII.Adaptive façade for windload reduction

Puttakun VONGSINGHA / Architect / Facade-Lab GmbH, Berlin ... One of the reason of dominant material use for

building structure is to handle wind force at high altitude. If there is a highrise structure which carries only gravity load, it requires only less than 30% of structural volume compare to typical high rise. The first idea of this project started with a search for an innovative structural-facade integration for high rise building that can be used to handle wind load as a horizontal load. However, in order to solve the problem, I have changed my perspective of wind force as a static load to a dynamic flow element. It led to an idea to find an alternative option where a super tall highrise building can withstand flow of wind, not with a strongest structure, but with an ability to control the flow. My research shows that there are mainly two methods that can be used to reduce the force due wind flow, which are shape and surface roughness design. One of my inspiring projects is EVOLO tower developed by Braun Associates Architekten and Teuffel Engineering Consultant. The tower is covered with adaptive envelope that can be morphed freely to create a close to airfoil shape depending on wind direction. Instead of seeing it from the shape wise perspective, I have chose surface roughness design as the main approach of this project. The surface roughness design seems to be an interesting challenge and it has some potential for windload reduction. As we can seen in some existing objects, for example, golf ball surface, shark’s skin (dermal denticles), “Fastskin” -swimming suit and “Fastskinz” -a thin film designed to be place on cars roof to reduce friction to the flow.

might as well speeds up the flow and reduces the air density and front pressure. Reducing form drag, in theory, can be done by reducing turbulence wake or separation area at the back of the building Six types of surfaces were design based on the basic information at that moment. All were tested with CFD analysis and compared by their aerodynamic properties. The result shows that cylinder object, with horizontal ribs at the front and vertical ribs at the back, has lowest drag force and drag coefficient. The front horizontal fins channeling the flow and reduce drag force while the back vertical fins create small eddies between the fins which draw back the lamina flow and delaying the separation flow and result in smaller turbulence wake. The design of the final product was mainly based on this test result. Further investigation also shows that the ratio between the length of horizontal ribs and vertical ribs depends on wind speed as the separation flow moves forward with faster wind speed. The main challenge of façade design was that the loads mentioned earlier can occur at any different location on building surface due to varies wind direction. The ribs have to be designed as continous strip, though it is divided into several elements in order to make it adaptable. Based on origami folded element, the ribs are able to change their shapes from horizontal into vertical. The design of the ribs mainly uses lightweight material but with rough structure calculation to confirm its stability in the flow.

Main research goal was to increase the aerodynamic property of a highrise building. The first step was to design an example building. It was 400m height with cylindrical shape. The wind can approach the building from any direction with maximum wind speed at 54 m/s (typhoon wind speed at 400m). The building site located in an urban area (Z0=3). The results from literature study and CFD analysis show that on each side of the building, different types of load are occurred. At front surface where it is approached by the wind, positive (push) load is created. Highest pressure occurred at the middle part of the surface and the wind speed is zero. The pressure reduces and wind speed increases on the side surface. There, friction drag is occurred on the upper front. Then high negative (pull) loads are created by separation flow on both side of the building. In cylindrical shape the location of the negative pressure is mostly at the widest point of the cylinder, but it also depends on wind speed and duration after the wind approach the building. At the moment the wind approach the building, the separation flows occurred at the back. Then it moves to the frontal part of the building and stops at one point. That point can be closer to the front part of the building in a higher wind speed. At this point, the main input data for the adaptive façade are defined) , which are wind direction, wind speed and duration after impact. And the 3 main types of force are form drag (front/back), friction drag (front/side) and vortex shedding (side). In this project, I omitted vortex shedding from the research due to its complexity. With different types of forces on each side, the solution should be also different. I tended to channel the flow, which prevents the cross flow turbulence and reduces friction drag. For cylindrical shape, lower the friction

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Flow manipulating for friction and for drags reduction

The driving mechanism is based on a pneumatic tube system due to the maintenance reason, less complexity, low operation energy and it is reliable. The detail of the façade was roughly design, also with the construction and maintenance plan. As the conclusion of the report, the final design was simplified and tested again with CFD. The result shows that with the correct ratio between horizontal and vertical ribs, drag reduction can reach up to 47%. However, another test with non-adaptable horizontal ribs only, can also reduce the drag up to 40% as well. The result was finalized in the building structure calculation where the normal building and building with adaptive façade were compared. The adaptive façade reduces requirement size of the core structure and provides more usable area to 137%. Estimation of increased rental price as office building evaluating with façade construction cost shows that, without concerning the maintenance cost, the payback time period of the façade cost can be achieved in approximately 6 months. After all, the aim of the project is to introduce one other approach possibility to integrate facade-strucure design. However, the system involves, not just the look of the building, but also the safety the user and people on street level. In order to confirm that the idea is fully practical, more researches and tests need to be conducted.


Sequence of adaptation starts from the back of the building because at the back of the building is the starting location of the separation flow. In less than two minutes, the separation flow moves to the side of the building as well as the adapted facade units.

Adapting position

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XVII.Adaptive faรงade for windload reduction

Puttakun VONGSINGHA / Architect / Facade-Lab GmbH, Berlin

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XVIII.ORIGAMI LIGHT FILTER

Hyejun AN / Engineer-Architect / VS-A ... Project in collaboration with Yasemin Cennet

Sumbul and Mariane Klettenhofer.

Origami facade innovation is related especially with its movement. Based on a rigid origami model, the facade is capable of folding like a sheet of paper. This folding movement acts in 3 axis direction making it possible to achieve different effect of light reflection from the inside of the building making the facade to act like a filter. It is an active facade. Unlike traditional static facades, this system makes an attempt to implement the technological developments that can change the idea of the facade as a passive building element and make it move in accordance to the requirement of indoor spaces, autonomised or controlled by the user. It is an responsive facade, that responds to the conditions outside not acting as an obstructive element, but creating an interface. It can be made of different materials, depending on the needs and desires. It presents a principle rather than a standardized facade element which allow variations such as material or proportions that can make every building constructed with this system unique. The aim of the preliminary concept of the origami facade is creating a diffuse light effect. The method of achieving the aim was inspired by the Spectrum Exhibition of Tokujin Yoshioka who used prism for creating a facade getting reflections in diverse angles. The origami facade basically works as a filter smoothening the outer conditions and creating a pleasant environment inside. A single layer which would be the only facade of the building was the preliminary idea but considering the limited time it was developed as second layer of a transparent facade. Assumptions and Realisation We started with an assumption that if we could make one unit move then we could mirror and/or rotate that unit and have a complete shape but within the process we figured out that actually each element was unique moving with a different angle which was defined by its position within the whole system. The final model is constructed in a way that each petalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s movement is dependent to the movement of the neighbouring petals/the whole movement. Each panel has only folding (rotating) movement according to the movement of adjacent panels. For this movement, panels are connected by hinges between each edge of panels. Practicing on scale models the first impression we had about the movement was that it was happening between two planes but through the process with Grasshopper we figured out that the movement was creating a curvature which was dependent to the number of units and their proportions. Ultimate Limit State The peak stresses should never exceed the values

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of the materials used. In practice these values are multiplied by a safety factor (allowable stress) since the loads and stresses can never be calculated with absolute certainty. For this analyses all three materials were examined because although the glass had the lowest values, the line elements which have higher values were subjected to higher stresses. The result shows that no value is exceeding the ultimate stress limit. Serviceability Limit State With the displacement against the combined loads (wind & gravity) the maximum displacement of the facade is 2.91 mm. According to general acceptance the deformation in a beam should not exceed the length of beam/250 (mm). This standard is usually applied to static slab beam. If we apply this standard to the resulting values we see that the deformation is exceeding the value but since our facade is not used as a structural beam the deformation is in acceptable limits.


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XVX.Construire un chantier perpétuel Gontran DUFOUR / Architect Co-Owner / VS-A ... L’architecte se construit autour de sa passion, celle de bâtir son œuvre. Chez VS-A elle se construit autour de la façade et plus largement l’enveloppe du bâtiment. Pour être tout à fait honnête, c’est une passion que j’ai découvert au fil du temps au travers de nos recherches, de nos échanges, et surtout de multiples expériences architecturales ambitieuses. A commencer par l’ilot 270 (Brénac & Gonzalez & Associés), puis l’hôtel Wagram (Christian de Portzamparc), la tour CMA CGM (Zaha Hadid), le Musée des Confluences (Coop Himmelb[l]au). Totalement différentes les unes des autres, ces expériences sont une remise en question perpétuelle de l’équilibre architecture/technique/performances. En réalité, elle est là, la passion de VS-A, toujours rechercher à construire autrement. En d’autres termes, vouloir écrire une nouvelle histoire pour chaque concept architectural. Etre dans un chantier perpétuel, c’est une volonté en soi. Elle se manifeste par l’innovation, les nouveaux défis liés aux projets ambitieux jusqu’au projet plus personnel. Ces défis qui nous animent au quotidien, s’organisent individuellement pour en trouver le bon équilibre et transformer notre travail en une passion commune. Ces dernières années furent riches en projets tant professionnels que personnels. La liste est longue à en voir l’épaisseur de ce second VS-A Index. Certains se réalisent pendant que d’autres attendent... Et même ceux qui ne se feront jamais, ils nous font grandir dans notre réflexion. Parce qu’au final, c’est bien ça le plus important, se voir chacun avancer. Chaque personne évolue avec ses projets, se spécialise dans un domaine dont elle ressent un intérêt particulier pour en devenir un réfèrent. Faire des choix, prendre des décisions sont inévitablement nécessaires dans ce développement pour cheminer vers la configuration qui nous semble la bonne. Certaines décisions sont faciles à prendre, elles nous apparaissent évidentes dans le contexte dans lequel elles se trouvent. D’autres demandent plus de réflexions, plus de temps pour nous convaincre de la bonne direction à prendre. Et il y a celles où l’on a envie de dire essayons ce chemin... l’aventure est bien souvent plus excitante. L’architecture commence par une aventure, dont nous co-écrivons son histoire de concepts, de croquis, d’images de synthèses. Lorsque l’histoire que l’on défend, devient la réponse attendue, les études consistent à être de moins en moins aventurier en apprenant à maitriser les rêves d’architecte. La façade, c’est la face visible du projet : c’est l’ouvrage que tout le monde peut apprécier pour ses qualités esthétiques et dont seuls les usagers peuvent savourer le confort qu’elle procure. Pour l’architecte réussir son enveloppe s’est gagner des étoiles, et chacune d’entre-elles doit s’articuler, être parfaitement ajustées, pour trouver sa brillance exacte dans le projet. Et si un nouvel intervenant arrive, un élément du contexte change, une donnée programmatique évolue, alors il faut être prêt à tout recommencer pour être en symbiose avec ce que l’on croit être la vérité pour le projet. Notre vérité ! D’autant que je reste convaincu qu’il existe une multitude de réponses pour un même sujet posé.

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The architect is built around his passion for building his work. At VS-A, it is built around the façade and more broadly the building envelope. To be quite honest, it is a passion that I have discovered over time through our research, our exchanges, and especially the many ambitious architectural experiences. Starting with Ilot 270 (Brénac & Gonzalez & Associés), then Hotel Wagram (Christian de Portzamparc), the CMA CGM tower (Zaha Hadid), the Museum of Confluences (Coop Himmelb[l]au). Totally different from each other, these experiments are perpetual challenges to the architecture / technique / performance balance. In reality, it is there, the passion of VS-A, always seek to build otherwise. In other words, wanting to write a new story for each architectural concept. To be in a perpetual building site is a will in itself. It manifests itself through innovation, new challenges linked to ambitious projects and more personal projects. These day-to-day challenges are organized individually to find the right balance and transform our work into a common passion. In recent years, they were rich in both professional and personal projects. The list is long based on the thickness of this second VS-A Index. Some are realized while others wait ... And even those who will never be realized, they make us grow in our reflection. Because in the end, that’s the most important thing, see each other advance. Each person evolves with his projects, specializes in a field of which he is particularly interested to become a reference person. Making choices and decisions are inevitably necessary in the development to move towards the best configuration. Some decisions are easy to make, they appear obvious to us in the context in which they are found. Others ask for more reflection, more time to convince us of the right direction to take. And there are those where you want to say let’s try this way ... the adventure is often more exciting. Architecture begins with an adventure, of which we co-write its history with concepts, sketches, and images of synthesis. When the story that we defend becomes the expected answer, studies will be considered being less and less adventurous. The facade is the visible face of the project: it is the work that everyone can appreciate for its aesthetic qualities and whose users can enjoy the comfort it provides. For the architect to succeed, his envelope has to be spectacular, and each of them must be articulated and perfectly adjusted to find its exact brilliance in the project. And if a new stakeholder arrives, an element of the context changes, a programmatic datum evolves, then we must be ready to start all over again to be in symbiosis with what is believed to be the truth for the project, Our truth! Especially since I remain convinced that there is a multitude of answers for the same subject.

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XX.The agency’s graphic charter La charte graphique de l’agence

Robert-Jan van SANTEN / Founder & Co-Owner / VS-A The Schuco and Gartner calendars

... In the ‘90s, the launch of these two calendars was

always an eagerly awaited event. Getting hold of them was not easy for us as a young design and engineering firm, and it is not an exaggeration to say that when we managed to get them (for some years our requests were in vain), they were dissected meticulously. Although both showed mainly glazed façades, the information provided on them was very different: the first showed large plans of their sections, all represented with minute detail, while the second was limited to the outline of the sections, with no other technical information. We had a third source of information, which came from our projects. We have learnt a lot from other companies in this way, through their construction plans. Inspired by industrial drawing, they were often difficult to understand and only rarely displayed the details of the connectors, which we had to recreate in 3D mentally. The agency’s graphic charter In the early years, our drawings were inspired by construction plans for companies. They displayed constructive details that, although simplified, were more than sufficient for tenders. Since then, our graphic charter has been formalised, perfected and standardised year on year, with the help of some employees in particular. Gisèle Geoffroy, who comes from the world of business, took on the creation of the tender documents for Strasbourg Hospital with Claude Vasconi. These included nearly 300 drawings. For this project, we developed several joinery systems, one of which being based on T-shaped mullions with interior glazing beads. The firm worked with the manufacturer Kawneer, who will be including these systems in their catalogue. On a project with MVRDV in 1999, Adélaïde Routier created the agency’s first detailed drawings in colour. Émilie Joët will complete and structure this charter, which is still in force in France, later on. Introducing colour into technical drawings offers the advantage of making them immediately comprehensible. Firstly it enables us to detect thermal bridges straight away and measure them with BISCO software, which is configured to identify materials and their thermal efficiency directly from the colour code. This facilitates dialogue with the developer and the architect, who can then assess efficiency, quality and architectural design issues. The company also appreciates these documents, which aim to display all aspects of the project, so that costing is easier and more reliable. In Asia, even from the draft phase, design offices generally only produce construction plans. The first advantage of this is that, through the transfer of computer files, companies can use these plans directly for their own construction plans. Our analysis of these documents has taught us that they are also ideal to budget for the materials necessary to construct a façade. They are, however, rarely explicit regarding architectural intentions, only show adjacent works very briefly, and do not pay attention to the tolerance of the structural system. A lot of adjustments will

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have to be made on the construction site! Our method of representation in the design phase was supported, but raised some fears among developers. For tender documents, they had to be similar to local standards. This was achieved over a period of time, from project to project. First, we had to be more specific about the construction aspects of our propositions, so that they contained the information that companies expected. One particular requirement concerned the various kinds of fixing methods, especially in structural systems. When we started, at the request of a client, we even published an entire dossier in black and white (with some grey shades). Today, all our documents are in colour and contain, as well as the usual drawings, sheets that describe architectural concepts, geometry and our approach to the project and that illustrate nonauthorised practices. However, we do not call these execution drawings in order to leave some necessary room for manoeuvre for the company so that they can integrate their own chosen construction arrangements. Today, the nature and quality of our work is recognised by our clients in Asia, and several finished projects show their usefulness for companies, both in the consultation phase and on the construction site. Le calendrier Schuco et le calendrier Gartner

Dans les années 90, la sortie de ces 2 calendriers était à chaque fois un grand événement. Les obtenir n’était pas chose aisée pour le jeune bureau d’études que nous étions, et il est peu dire que quand nous arrivions à les avoir (il y a des années où nos demandes furent vaines), ils étaient minutieusement disséqués. Si les 2 montraient des façades largement vitrées, les renseignements fournis étaient très différents, le premier montrant des gros plans sur leurs profilés, représentés avec tous leurs menus détails, et le second se limitant de donner le contour des profilés, avec aucune information technique. Nous disposions d’une troisième source d’information, provenant de nos projets. Nous avons ainsi beaucoup appris des entreprises au travers de leurs plans de construction. Inspirés du dessin industriel, ils n’étaient souvent pas simples à comprendre et ne montraient que rarement les détails des raccords qu’il nous fallait mentalement reconstituer en 3D. La charte graphique de l’agence Durant les premières années, nos dessins se sont inspirés des plans de construction d’entreprises. Ils montraient des détails constructifs qui, bien que simplifiés, étaient amplement suffisants pour les consultations d’entreprise. Depuis, notre charte graphique s’est formalisée, perfectionnée et standardisée d’années en années, et ce avec l’aide de quelques employés en particulier. Gisèle GEOFFROY issue du monde de l’entreprise, se chargea de faire le dossier de consultations d’entreprises de l’hôpital de Strasbourg avec Claude VASCONI. Près de 300 dessins. Nous y avions développé plusieurs systèmes de menuiseries, dont un, à base de montants

en T avec parcloses intérieures. L’entreprise travailla avec le gammiste Kawneer qui l’intégrera ensuite dans son catalogue. C’est sur un projet avec MVRDV que Adélaïde ROUTIER réalisera en 1999 le premier carnet de détails de l’agence, totalement en couleurs. Émilie JOËT complétera et structurera cette charte un peu plus tard, charte qui est toujours en vigueur en France. Introduire de la couleur dans les dessins techniques offre l’avantage de les rendre tout de suite beaucoup plus compréhensibles. D’abord pour instantanément détecter les ponts thermiques, les quantifier avec le logiciel BISCO, paramétré pour identifier directement les matériaux et leurs performances thermiques à partir du code couleur. Cela facilité aussi le dialogue avec le Maitre d’Ouvrage et l’Architecte, qui y percevront plus facilement les enjeux en termes de performances, de qualité et de design architectural. L’entreprise aussi apprécie ces dossiers qui cherchent à mettre en évidence tous les aspects du projet, afin que le chiffrage soit plus facile et plus fiable. En Asie, les bureaux d’études ne produisent généralement que des plans dits de construction, et ce dès la phase d’avant projet. Le premier avantage est que, moyennant le transfert des fichiers informatiques, les entreprises peuvent directement utiliser ces plans pour leurs propres plans de construction. Notre analyse de ces documents nous a appris qu’ils sont aussi parfaitement adaptés pour chiffrer les matériaux nécessaires à l’édification des façades. Ils sont toutefois rarement explicites quant aux intentions architecturales, ne montrent que très sommairement les ouvrages attenants, et sont ignorant des tolérances du gros oeuvre. Il y aura un important travail d’ajustage sur les chantiers ! Notre mode de représentation en phase de conception était plébiscité, mais évoquait des craintes chez les maîtres d’ouvrages. Et pour les dossiers de consultation d’entreprises, ils devaient se rapprocher des standards courants locaux. Cela c’est fait en plusieurs temps, projets après projets. Nous avons d’abord dû préciser d’avantage les aspects constructifs de nos propositions, afin qu’elles contiennent les informations qu’attendaient les entreprises. Une attente particulière concernait les divers systèmes de fixations, notamment au gros-oeuvre. A nos débuts, à la demande d’un client nous avons même édité tout un dossier en noir et blanc (avec quelques nuances de gris). Aujourd’hui nos dossiers sont en couleurs, contiennent en plus des dessins usuels des feuilles décrivant les concepts architecturaux, la géométrie, l’idée que nous nous faisons des règles de l’art et illustrant les pratiques non autorisées. Nous n’appelons cependant pas ces dessins des plans d’exécution, laissant une petite mais légitime marge de manoeuvre à l’entreprise pour y intégrer les dispositions constructives de son choix. La nature et la qualité de notre production sont aujourd’hui bien admis par nos clients en Asie, et plusieurs réalisations ont montré leur utilité pratique pour les entreprises, tant en phase de consultation que pour le chantier.


Poteau - ElĂŠment ďŹ xe + FenĂŞtre ouvrant pompier Mullion - Fixed light + Side-hung window vent ďŹ reman 



Section details, type B Coupes, type B (VEC)

















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Reproduction interdite



Echelle 1:2 Scale 1:2

Schuco Diary / Calendrier Schuco

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XXI. A Dérive In Taito: The Aesthetics of Banality Bobby CHAN / Architectural Designer / VS-A

... Red brick cladding...Zig-zagged façade…shopfront covered with unintentional botanical growth…steel cladded façade with protruded bay windows…bright red external fire escape staircases… Then I got lost, intentionally. It was an exceptionally early Friday morning in Taito, Tokyo. It certainly would not be fair to wake up my fellow traveling partners, whom are less of an early riser than I am to start the day together. I thought to my adventurous self that what would be a better way to start my exploration of Tokyo, than to go for a drift around the neighborhood in solitude and absorb the aura this town has to offer. There are two major city typologies in Japan, yamanote (the high city) and shitamachi (the low city), and Taito belongs to the latter. The cities were defined by their geographical traits of being on high grounds and low grounds. This spatial demarcation segregated social classes throughout history prior to the modernization of Japan. The elites dwelled in cities located on the high grounds, characterized by wide streets, major temples and shrines, and tall walls which divided the noble classes from the commoners. These high ground cities housed the iconic, grand, and easily identifiable landmarks such as samurai residences. These mansions had lavish gardens, security check points, and more often than not fire watch towers. These highly distinctive buildings with clearly demarcated boundaries serve as icons, where its walls not only creates physical separation, but also as semiotics, orientation devices, and simply to invite and reject. On the other hand, the shitamachi was characterized by narrow and intertwined streets, highly dense built environment, and often boasted vernacular and local building traditions. Although Taito lacks iconicity, it is far from being a placeless city compared to newly planned cities such as those in China. Placemaking: The Iconic vs The banal Out of the many iconic buildings in Omotesando, the Prada Aoyama Epicenter by Herzog and Demeuron is a prime example of a building that demands immediate attention from the city to the object: the discrete piece of architecture. Concaved and convex glass panels supported by a diagrid frame create a fluctuating surface articulation, while the concealed details create a sense of seamlessness from the inside, allowing the building to present itself as a mystical crystalline object. The façade acts as envelope, structure, an object of contemplation, space for customers to gaze into with its integrated mirrors from the interior, and more profoundly a skin that seduces and allures. These highly spectacular and differentiated façade in Omotesando acts like individual virtuosos, but there is no orchestra. Each facade demands its own attention from the city dweller, often lost in the gaze towards the built object. Encapsulated and seduced by the pristine surfaces, the overflow of visual information imposes

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a sense of schizophrenia onto the subject. These iconic facades consume the viewer’s gaze while demanding consciousness, not allowing a second for relaxation. There is no longer a place, but constant spikes of attention deficit hyperactivity stimulation. Future of Chinese architecture Architecture has always been a majorly western discourse. In a more general perspective, Americans has been clearly pushing the formal discourse, while Europeans are more preoccupied with the urgency for sustainability, privileging subtlety and performance over the extravagant. With the increasingly large appetite for the built environment in Asian cities especially in China, it is crucial to reflect upon the approach that local architects take to design and engineer the built environment to create a sense of place. There is no doubt that there is a stigma attached to anything that is done in a ‘Chinese’ style in the modern era. There is therefore a critical need to search for a contemporary style that can redefine Chinese design, and perhaps restore the perception of Chinese aesthetics back to the state of it being one of the world’s most admired art forms. Contemporary Chinese architecture shall not be a mere regurgitation of vernacular nostalgia, but it is often easier to say what it isn’t than what it is. Therefore, as oppose to creating oppositions at such a premature stage, the most appropriate question for this era would be what contemporary Chinese architecture can be, the opportunity of sculpting the future of contemporary Chinese design is in our hands… As I gather my stream of consciousness and scattered thoughts, I noticed a set of bright red external fire escape staircases…steel cladded façade with protruded bay windows… shopfront covered with unintentional botanical growth...Zig-zagged façade…Red brick cladding…banal but poetic, not flamboyant but picturesque... Then I realized I was back to where I started.


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XXII. On Painting Canossa CHAN / Architectural Designer / VS-A ... Last year, there was a film called ‘’ If Cats Disappeared from the World’’ In the film, it describes what the world would look like if the tiny or even ‘’redundant’’ objects disappeared from this world and people forgotten their existence. The story started with mobile phones, movies, clocks to cat… revealing the importance of these tiny objects. Phrases that have been said echoed in my mind: ‘’ From today, painting is dead.’’ (photography will kill painting) Paul Delaroche ‘’ This will kill that ‘’ (printed will kill architecture) Victor Hugo. So… What if Painting disappeared from the world? Artists would have to travel around to get the perfect shot, that can be as ideal as a painting; Every art pieces have an extremely realistic background because they are made real in some way. People will start to forget how things look like, how things can be created in another way since they always start with an image as base instead of from nothing. Would they? Art of imitation Painting is to deconstruct and reconstruct what you see. In other words, it is the process of understanding the world. Some claim that painting is to invent instead of to imitate. I think the two are equal: imitation shows the degree of respect, while invention is the desire for perfection (Or perfection of imperfection). On the contrary, if a painting is drawn completely without references, viewers would always try to find the origin or inspiration. Imitation in painting is different from photography, even though the result may be similar sometimes. In Chinese painting, the two are recognized as Naturalism (realism) and Naturalness (similar to impressionism). We can get a glimpse of the difference between Xu Xi and Shitao painting on the same subject matter - bamboo. Naturalism talks about the skill of imitation and realism. Naturalness is more like discovering through the painting process, advocating that the spirit of subject matter should be captured instead of the form of it. Both goes through the 2 processes- imitate and invent. Naturalism is not purely natural, while Naturalness based heavily on nature. The non-naturalness of naturalism includes the framing of painting, or relative position of objects, or perspective in painting which is rarely correct. (Chinese painting is known for multi-points perspective). Invention and imitation are always mixed.

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The so called ‘’Natural’’ is redefined throughout history by society perception, standardization or foreign-culture’s localization. Pure naturalness, or the primitive origin, may not even exist in this field. How about painters like Jackson Pollock, Duchamp, Picasso, etc. who describe a changing object as subject matter? Imitation still plays a major role in the process despite the result is not formally recognizable. For example, capturing shadow, movement etc. which eventually extracts emotion from recognition. The process of imitation is how we search for answer. To further challenge the perception of people, painters like Moholy-Nagy, Mondrian etc. categorize and reduce subjects in search for similarities or even the ‘’sublime’’ form or symbol of something. By chasing shadows, clutching on tiny details or fundamental similarities, these ‘’styles’’ are, I think, an attempt to give an identity despite a diverse background in a global scale. The proportion of invention does not necessarily increase. Sometimes they are just the tiny unrecognizable details imitated and enlarged. The process of searching answers is how we search for identity. With these in mind, imitation is positive and unique instead of homogeneous. With modernism still lingering around in the backdrop; With the rise of metabolism and incremental housing that complicates the definition of façade (because there are no literally unchanging or continuous surfaces that allow a collective identity to be formed.); With the rise of ‘’weak architecture’’/’’logia architecture’’ which try to frame instead of contains, position itself as backdrop instead of being a solid subject matter (e.g. Sou Fujimoto, SANAA etc.) (in these architectures the boundary of in and out is treated deliberately and meticulously to be invisible) etc.… What if… The didactic or semiological narrative of façade disappeared from the world? Isn’t it the same as painting?


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XXIII. Introducing Our Facade Design

Hyejun AN / Architect-Engineer / Project Manager / VS-A

‘Bach to the future’

... One day, my friend sent me this picture of a poster on the street and asked me to join. It was for a performance of Hong Kong Philharmonic orchestra. The main theme was a musical journey from Johann Sebastian Bach of Baroque period to contemporary György Ligeti. Unlike other genre of music performance, orchestra makes me always nervous. Partially it is because I get overwhelmed by a strict formality such as; the silence that is required during the play, the audience who are well-dressed with gorgeous banquet clothes, or the clapping moments that I can never dare to begin alone. But mostly, it is because I feel ‘classical music is too difficult to appreciate’. Nevertheless, I decided to watch this show simply because of the poster. Sebastian Bach’s face was brilliantly collaged on a famous (at least to many architects) scene of <2001: A Space Odyssey>. This funny poster made me expect. ‘Maybe this show can be easy to appreciate!’ In fact, the performance was very kind and friendly. When we entered in the auditorium nearly on time, performers were already sitting on the stage, but they were still wearing t-shirts and jeans. Soon after, I found out they were their performing clothes. The conductor, who was the only one in a formal suit in the orchestra, started to talk on the microphone before he begins his conducting. Before each song, he gave us an introduction about the song, and how to appreciate. For example, he said, ‘This song is good for meditation, so you can close your eyes. It is also fine to fall asleep during the song.’ Among his introductions of 6 songs, Ligeti’s violin concerto was especially interesting. As known from the movie <2001: A Space Odyssey>, Ligeti’s song is mostly composed of unstable sounds that somewhat sounds like a cacophony. Likewise, this song was also played with so many different instruments, and each single player of the same instrument played different things in a different ways. Sometimes, it does not look like a right way of playing. So the global impression of the song was very bizarre and confusing. It was so complicated that it was hard to believe that there exist musical notes and a role of the conductor for this song. For the introduction of this song, the conductor explained the characters of sound of each instrument. And then he called players of violin, oboe and ocarina one by one, and let them play shortly what type of sounds that they will make in the song. By listening to each element of the complex symphony, one by one, I could understand and appreciate the entire song instead of get overwhelmed. While enjoying such kind introduction added orchestra, suddenly, my daily work, façade design, was overlapped in my head. How resemble we are! Façade detail drawing is like musical notes of an orchestra. It contains a lot of complicate architectural

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information such as design reflecting architect’s intention, material, finish, structural calculation result, construction tolerance, manufacturing and installation, thermal performance, waterproofing, airtightness, cleaning and repairing. Every small detail has its own purpose, and planned in a certain way and a location. Because façade detail drawing contains so much information in one page, people can read the drawing as much as each can understand within their own professional knowledge and capacity. For those who have no experience of reading drawings, detail drawings can be too difficult to read. For those who can read drawings, but cannot fully understand why, a detail drawing with over-flowing information can dominate the readers, and blind them to see the essential information. As façade consultant, we have a few types of readers who have different professionals and different interest. For clients, who are often not from an architectural field, reading drawing is not as easy as reading photographic rendering, texts or numbers. They are mostly interested in schedule or costs. For architects, planning building’s program and visual appearance of interior and exterior is their profession. However, when it comes to technical aspect of façade design, they need a help from a façade consultant. Meanwhile, façade contractors are very fluent to plan everything about façade construction, but they sometimes propose to change façade details into a conventional or economic ways before they understand architects’ design intention. To provide right information to each of our different readers, VS-A is continuously improving our own way of ‘kind’ presentation, instead of sticking to conventional or traditional ways. For example, we make color drawings instead of conventional black and white drawings. We use specific color instead of specific pattern to represent material section. For example, glass is in cyan, steel is in red, aluminium is in grey, and insulation is in yellow. In this way, our drawings are very easy to read even for clients who are often not familiar with detail drawings. Moreover, we use exactly the same color pens when we sketch, so we provide coherent drawing information when we meet design teams or submit our façade design document. Also, we draw clear outlines of façade elements for visible parts, while we use vague dash lines to present invisible parts. For architects, our way of drawing helps them to review our drawings focusing on their design intention by reducing unnecessary information for designing. For façade contractors, our way of drawing let them know which part can be flexibly developed by themselves with their own construction solutions. Introduction is what VS-A never forget because it is highly important before reading façade design document. In introduction part, we explain above mentioned VS-A style presentation. Also we describe the relation between design concept and façade detail of the project step by step. Many designers put a lot of effort to create a good

design concept in the beginning of their design. However, as the design stages goes on, the concept is often forgotten or ignored while solving some other issues. When designers themselves forget their own design concept, contractors can never be able to know designer’s original intention and they can anyway go ahead their construction, and then design concept is gradually disappearing from completion. That is why introducing design concept is very important to every one as much as the conductor’s introduction of Ligeti’s song; It makes performers, auditors and the conductor himself to be on the same tune. ‘바흐 투 더 퓨쳐’ 어느 날, 친구가 같이 공연을 보러 가자며 길에서 찍은 포스터 사진을 보내왔다. 18세기 바흐로부터 20세기 리제티에 이르는 음악적 여행을 주제로 한 홍콩 필하모닉 오케스트라의 공연이었다. 오케스트라나 발레 공연은 다른 장르의 공연과 달리 나를 약간 긴장시킨다. 어쩌면 정숙한 무대 관람 분위기나 화려한 연회복으로 차려입은 관객들, 여전히 잘 모르겠는 박수를 쳐야 하는 타이밍과 같이 공연 관람 형식이 주는 압도감에도 그 이유가 있겠지만, 그 보다 더 큰 이유는 ‘클래식 음악은 즐기기 너무 어렵다’고 느끼기 때문이다. 그럼에도 불구하고 이 공연을 보게 된 이유는 포스터에 있었다. 영화 <2001 스페이스 오디세이 >에 나오는 유명한(건축가라면 누구나 한 번 본 적이 있는) 한 장면에 바흐의 얼굴을 콜라주한 이 유쾌한 포스터가 ‘어쩌면 이 공연은 감상하기 쉬울지도 모르겠다’는 기대를 갖게 하였기 때문이다. 실제 공연은 예상보다도 더 친절하고 친근했다. 우리는 공연시간에 겨우 맞추어 관람석에 들어섰는데, 이미 무대에 앉아있는 연주자들이 아직 티셔츠에 청바지 차림이어서 처음엔 내가 공연시간을 잘못 알았는 줄 알았다. 이 공연에서 유일하게 연회복 차림을 한 지휘자는 각각의 곡을 시작하기에 앞서 마이크를 입에 대고 청중에게 곡 소개를 해 주었는데, 그는 쉬운 용어로 청중들에게 앞으로 연주될 곡을 어떻게 감상해야 하는지 알려주었다. (어떤 곡에 앞서서는 명상에 도움이 되는 곡이니 눈을 감고 듣다가 잠에 들어도 괜찮다고 하였다. ) 그 중 연주시간이 30여분 정도 되는 리제티의 바이올린 콘체르토 연주에 대한 지휘자의 소개는 특히 인상적이었다. <2001 스페이스 오디세이> 의 배경음악을 들어보면 알 수 있듯이 리제티의 곡은 우리가 통상적으로 ‘하모니’라고 느끼는 소리보다는 불협화음이 아닌가 싶은 불안한 소리들의 모음이 주를 이룬다. 이번에 연주된 곡도 마찬가지였다. 한 곡에 사용되는 악기의 종류가 다양하기도 하지만, 같은 악기를 들고 있다 하더라도 연주자 하나하나가 거의 제각각의 방식으로 (심지어 올바른 연주방식 같지도 않은 새로운 방식으로) 각기 다른 소리를 내어 전체의


곡은 굉장히 기괴하고 혼란스럽다. 이 곡에 악보가 있고 지휘자의 역할이 있다는 것이 신기할 정도로 리제티의 곡은 가히 복잡하다. 지휘자는 바이올린, 오보에, 오카리나 등 각 악기의 연주자들을 차례로 일으켜 세워 앞으로 연주 될 곡에서 들을 수 있는 특유의 소리들에 어떤 특징이 있는지 설명해 주고 몇 마디씩 시연하도록 하였다. 나중에 한꺼번에 연주될 복합적인 합주의 구성요소를 단순하게 분해하여 미리 한 가지씩 들려줌으로써 청자로 하여금 오케스트라에 압도되지 않고, 그것을 이해할 수 있도록 도와주었다. 이러한 친절한 음악적 서론이 함께하는 어려운 공연을 듣고 있자니, 문득, 내가 VS-A에서 매일 하는 ‘파사드 디자인’이 머릿속에 겹쳐져 떠올랐다. 이 둘이 어딘가 닮았다. 파사드 상세도는 마치 오케스트라의 악보와도 같이 각종 건축 정보들(예를 들어 건축적 의도를 담은 디자인, 재료, 마감, 구조 계산의 결과, 시공 오차, 조립 및 설치의 순서, 열효율, 방수 및 기밀 성능의 보장, 청소 및 유지관리 등)이 저마다의 목적을 가지고 건물 표피의 각 부분 안에 어떻게 계획되는지를 보여준다. 한 도면 안에 이처럼 많은 정보를 담고 있기 때문에 처음 상세도를 마주하는 사람들은 저마다의 전문적 수용 범위 한도 내에서 도면을 읽게 된다. 도면을 읽어본 경험이 없는 사람에게는 너무나도 어려운 것이라 읽기를 포기하게 하기도하고, 도면을 어느 정도 읽을 줄은 알지만 이해할 줄 모르는 사람에게는 너무 많은 정보로 인해 정작 중요한 정보가 전달 되지 못하게 되기도 한다.

식으로 말이다. 이러한 도면 표현 방법은 흑백 도면에 비해 도면읽기에 익숙하지 않은 건축주도 직관적으로 아주 쉽게 도면을 읽을 수 있게 도와 준다. 우리는 스케치를 할 때 역시 같은 컬러의 펜을 사용하여 디자인 미팅을 할 때나, 도면집을 제출 할 때 일관성 있는 드로잉 정보를 제공한다. 또한, VS-A의 도면은 겉으로 드러나는 건축 부재들의 아웃라인 분명히 그리되, 겉으로 드러나지 않는 부분은 점선으로 간략하게 표현한다. 이는 건축가에게는 디자인에 있어 불필요한 정보를 줄임으로써, 디자인 의도에 초점을 맞추어 파사드 디테일을 리뷰할 수 있도록 도와주며, 시공자에게는 시공 도면을 그릴 때, 유연하게 그들 고유의 방식의 디테일을 적용할 수 있는 부분을 알려준다. VS-A 디자인 문서에 있어 빠지지 않고 중요한 게 다루는 것은, 서론 부분이다. 서론 부분에서는 앞서 언급한VS-A 식의 표현 방식을 설명하고, 해당 프로젝트의 파사드 디자인 컨셉과 파사드 디테일 디자인의 관계를 시각적으로 설명한다. 디자인 컨셉은 많은 디자이너들이 디자인 초기에는 중점을 두다가, 설계 중후반부로 가면서 서서히 잊거나 다른 문제를 해결하다가 간과하고는 하는데, 디자이너 스스로가 컨셉을 망각하게 되면, 시공자는 더더욱 건축가의 의도를 알지 못한 채 시공을 할 수 밖에 없고, 디자인은 서서히 본연의 모습을 잃게 된다. 그렇기 때문에 설계 의도 소개는 모두를 위해 아주 중요하다. 리제티 공연의 지휘자가 들려준 곡 소개처럼 말이다. 지휘자 본인도, 연주자도, 관객도 모두 같은 선상에 있을 수 있도록.

우리, 파사드 컨설턴트의 작업을 마주 할 상대는 저마다 각기 다른 관심과 전문적 지식을 가지고 있다. 건축주는 대체로 건축 비전공자들일 때가 많고, 도면을 읽기보다는 실사 같은 렌더링이나 글자과 숫자를 더 잘 이해하며, 일정이나 공사비에 주로 관심이 있다. 건축가는 건축물의 내/외관과 건축요소들의 구성 등 프로젝트의 전체적인 방향을 설정하는 데에 전문가이지만, 파사드 디자인을 할 때, 어떤 기술적 요소를 고려해야 하는지, 어떻게 구축하는지에 대해서는 파사드 컨설턴트의 도움을 필요로 한다. 한 편, 파사드 시공자는 파사드 시공에 관련된 모든 부분을 계획하는 것에는 익숙하지만, 건축가가 왜 이런 디자인을 하였는지, 건축적 의도에 대한 이해를 종종 간과한 채 보편적인 방법으로 디테일을 변형하려 들기도 한다. VS-A는 이렇게 각기 다른 독자를 대상으로 각각이 필요로 하는 정보를 보다 효율적으로 제공하기 위해 보편적이고 전통적인 도면 표현방식을 고집하기 보다는 VS-A 식의 친절한 파사드 디자인 문서를 만들기 위해 끊임없이 개선해 나가고 있다. 예를 들어, VS-A에서는 흑백도면을 그리는 설계 사무소와 다르게 컬러 도면을 그린다. 단면을 특정 패턴으로 표현하는 것이 아니라 색상으로 표현하는 것이다. 유리는 cyan, red, 알루미늄은 grey, 충전재는 yellow와

여느 재료 특정 철은 같은

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XXIV. The Door / La Porte

Robert-Jan van SANTEN / Fondateur & Co-gérant / VS-A ... Saying that doors are an essential component of the building is an understatement. Still contemporary doors are seldom designed accordingly. The main reasons are that such design must match ergonomic and functional requirements that are hard to match. For those reasons, on most of our projects we recommend standard doors... But from time to time we get the opportunity to do something different. Here are some examples, for different types of doors. C’est peu dire que c’est un élément essentiel pour le bâtiment, et pourtant il n’est que rarement mis en valeur d’un point de vue architectural. Souvent à juste titre car concevoir une porte d’entrée est un exercice périlleux tant les valeurs d’usage et de robustesse sont importantes et incontournables. Sur la plupart de nos projets nous préconisons des portes courantes à base de produits standardisés mis au point par des gammistes… mais parfois nous voyons des opportunités pour faire quelque chose un peu différemment. Voici quelques exemples : à vous de juger la pertinence du résultat !

2009-029 / Palais des Congrès de Nancy - Marc

The entrance door of this luxury shop had to be as transparent as possible, and not have any mullion or frame in the center. As a 1 sash door was opening too slowly, we designed an automatic door with 2 sashes, each of them being 4.5m high with a stiff C shaped frame. The contractor is SAM+ (FR) and the motors are The Internal Street: from Tormax, the only firm that accepted to do the job. A Physical and Historic Link La Rue Intérieure: Porte automatique: BMW Champs Elysées, Liaison Physique et Historique

Is it possible to make inclined swing doors in an inclined facade? By moving the upper pivot’s position and kinking the upper transom! The doors were installed by Eurofacades (FR).

Il s’agissait de faire une porte automatique de type grand The gap between the two buildings parfaitement merited special trafic qui s’inscrivait dans la conception attention. As we wanted transparency from inside d’ensemble définie par Celle-ci se résumait the building out to the town, and evenl’architecte. the sky, we to place the structure longitudinally rather than àpreferred ‘transparence maximale’ et, dans le cas de la porte transversely and minimise all intermediate cross-braces. To obtain neutral of space, we usedau microcentralea very ‘pas deusemenuiserie centre’. En grand trafic, glass panelling as cladding, set at the smallest angle la porte ne pouvait être à 1 vantail, et pour la faire à 2 required to comply with regulations. vantaux, chaque cadre de 4.5m de hauteur est en forme We opted for a half-portal structure in welded steel sections the core removedSAM+ to house the joineryréalisa l’ensemble, avec de C.with L’entreprise (FR) and run the water pipes. It was no easy feat to achieve des moteurs seuls à avoir accepté de relever thermal optimisation,Tormax, and this seriously influenced the detailed design of the system. le défi.

Porte de sortie de secours : CXPO Peut-on faire une porte battante ouvrant vers l’extérieur dans une paroi inclinée ? En déportant le pivot haut et en pliant la traverse supérieure c’est possible ! L’entreprise qui réalisa les portes est Eurofacades.

L’interstice entre les deux bâtiments méritait une attention particulière. Pour favoriser la transparence depuis l’intérieur vers la ville ou encore le ciel, nous avons placé la structure non transversalement mais longitudinalement, en minimisant toutes les traverses intermédiaires. Pour obtenir une volumétrie très neutre, nous avons réalisé la couverture en micro-sheds, inclinés juste comme il faut pour être réglementaires.

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Nous avons opté pour une structure en demi-portiques, composée de PRS (profilé reconstitués soudés) acier avec retrait d’une âme, pour y loger la menuiserie et le cheminement des conduits des eaux. L’optimisation thermique de cet ouvrage ne fut pas une mince affaire, et aura sérieusement influé la conception détaillée du système.

4.

3.

The door, despite its seemingly insignificant presence in architecture, is a rather complex and difficult component to master. Often disregarded and left to be completed at the end of the construction process, it is prone to technical problems especially after a huge amount of usage. Also, being a component that has to be accessed by users, it is potentially a safety risk if not done properly.

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1.interior street, canopy detail / rue intérieure, détail verrière 2.interior street, photo during site construction, interior view north / rue intérieure, photo en cours de chantier, vue intérieur verrière nord, ©Marion BERGERIE 3.photo during site construction, low angle shot, north canopy / photo en cours de chantier, contreplongée, verrière nord - ©Florent PREVOST

How to make a vertically operable door that is perfectly flush with the inclined façade? With 2 separate mechanisms and movements! The doors were installed by Eurofacades (FR). Porte de garage : CXPO Cet exemple montre comment faire une porte coulissante verticale à fleure en position fermée avec une façade inclinée. 2 mouvements et mécanismes sont combinées. L’entreprise qui réalisa les portes est Eurofacades (FR).

5.

6.

The entrance has 4 sliding curved glass doors, operated by motors located in the floor. The ceiling is a laminate glass. The special shape was found in order to make the entrance smaller. The contractor was Permasteelisa, and the supplier of the door Blasi (D). Sas d’entrée cacahuète : Nancy Le sas comporte 4 vantaux cintrées en verre, actionnées par un mécanisme encastré au sol. Le plafond est en verre. Sa forme provient des fortes contraintes d’encombrement tant côté intérieur qu’extérieur. C’est Permasteelisa, avec le sous-traitant Blasi, (D) qui le réalisa.

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It was intended to be only a wall, but the Architect wanted to open it as much as possible. We proposed external pivots and made the whole wall, 37m long and 6m high, pivot around the horizontal axis. Over a hundred transparent polycarbonate circular windows are inserted. Sésame ouvre toi ! Corée Cela devait n’être qu’un mur, mais l’architecte voulait tout ouvrir ! Il n’y a qu’à demander : des pivots déportés côté extérieur, et une cinématique pivotante on ne peut plus simple. Le résultat est une porte à 1 vantail de 36m de long par 6m de haut, avec une centaine de hublots en polycarbonate thermoformé en prime. At last, let’s have a glance towards Canada, and 2 very specific openings found there. This is a MTR entrance door. A 1 sash pivoting door. Simple and strong. It is also easy to understand for the users. I love it! The second example is a so called balanced swing door. It is a very compact opening … and a bespoke design developed by Ellison (CN).

Transforming an industrial Arbel door into a thermally insulated entrance door of a dwelling: that’s what was done for this loft in the suburb of Lille. Work was done by ourselves. Reconversion d’une ancienne porte : Pont à Vendin Transformer une porte de transformateur électrique de type Arbel en une porte d’entrée isolée thermiquement, c’est ce qui a été fait pour ce projet de loft en banlieue lilloise. Nous avons fait les travaux nous-mêmes (…).

It had to look massive, but in reality, it a very ordinary steel door, with an additional box welded on top of it. Too easy! Porte opaque : porte Pavarotti, Porto L’entrée des artistes se voulait spectaculaire. Elle l’est mais sa réalisation révèle une simple porte en menuiserie acier et un caisson soudé placé par devant. Trop facile !

How to make a frameless looking glass door in the simplest way? This was our target when we started designing our own office door … We built it ourselves a few weeks later. Glass is simply hold on 2 sides.

Un petit clin d’œil vers le Canada, avec 2 typologies de portes répandues là-bas mais rarement vues ailleurs. Porte pivotante à 1 vantail, utilise pour les accès au métro à Montréal. Un design simple, économe et robuste, et facile d’utilisation. J’adore ! Porte battante sur bras articulée : c’est facile à utiliser, ça prend moins de place à l’ouverture … une idée développée et exploitée par l’entreprise Ellison.

Porte intérieure : VS-A Lille Comment réaliser simplement (low-tech) une porte intérieure vitrée sans cadre apparent ? Nous avons répondu à cette question qui s’est posée pour nos propres bureaux à Lille … et réalisé la porte quelques semaines plus tard. Le vitrage est avec une simple prise en feuillure sur 2 côtés adjacents.

This balanced door is a prime example of how China does not only replicate what is existing successfully, but at a much larger scale than the original exceeding everyones expectations!

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XXV. Drawing Parallels

Bobby CHAN / Architectural Designer / VS-A

... In the realm of the arts, including the art of building, the act of critique has been an increasingly difficult topic to address, as drastic disruptions of preconceived and established notions of what defines a certain art form became prevalent under the post-modern condition. Especially with the dominance of the intellectual avant garde in the 20th century: aleatoricsm in music, the ready made in fine art, automatic writing in literature, and experimental choreography of Marie Chouinard just to name a few. The realm of the arts had arrived to a conclusion that there is no longer a definitive criteria for judgement, but a waning of meaning and critique becomes highly subjective and is based on a sense of fluctuating relativity. Limited by gravity, feasibility and budget, it seemed that architecture never got to a point of complete dismantlement, despite the numerous attempts made by deconstructivists. The arts in general can be seen as correlationist pursuits, where its aesthetics and its judgement is in correlation to cognitive perception, one can present a judgement by understanding what is perceived, but not the thing in itself. The other school of thought: speculative realism argues that objects are no more than the sum of its parts, and could be dissected and dismantled for close examination and thus critique. Whichever model we examine the arts with, it is deemed difficult to pinpoint and dissect without reducing to analysis based on the use of language, words, and representational tools which often have already embedded subconscious notions of the person performing the analysis. It is certain that the problem of judgement is present

WORDS

BUILDING

SOUND

VIDEO

OBJECT

CLOTHES

SURFACE

UTILITY

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LITERATURE

ARCHITECTURE

MUSIC

FILM

SCULPTURE

FASHION

FURNITURE

INDUSTRIAL DESIGN

across disciplines of art, which can be measured through an analysis of dichotomy, spectrum, and scale where objects can be positioned and debated as to where they stand in the system of analysis. This commonality, a mutual thread across disciplines can be seen as a comparative analysis tool. Although abstract, nuances may be extracted from one discipline and applied to another with the intention to aid judgement. Out of the many parallels, the most frequent comparison would be between film and architecture, mostly on their commonality which is to produce effects and affects through space-time, and ultimately unfolding a story (film) and becoming phenomena (architecture) with embedded intentions in its form that speaks of a narrative. In Safe (1995), protagonist Carol White contracted what was believed to be “environmental illnesses”, an “allergic reaction to the 21st century” that consists of asthma attacks, nausea, nosebleeds, and convulsions. She then seeks help from various medical professionals, whom diagnosed her as perfectly healthy. Carol was then referred to see a psychiatrist, who offered emotional consultation but no actual solution to the cause of her despair. As desperation and paranoia creeps up, Carol saw a TV advertisement for Wrenwood, a “New Age” healing retreat for people with similar conditions as Carol, which ultimately led to Carol’s mental and physical demise. The psychological horror of being overwhelmed by paranoia was prominent. The film portrayed Carol’s metal and physical deterioration though highly curated cinematography. In parallel, the architecture and film sets play a prominent role in establishing the sense of paranoia and mental deterioration, through various effects and affects. Throughout the first half of the film, claustrophobic camera work was deployed to build up a sense of desperation, which is relieved when Carol arrive at the psychiatrist (Scene A). The full height glazing, draped with semi-opaque curtains allow diffused daylight and views of the surrounding landscape to seep through into the interior. This setting provides a serene and almost calming set, which provides relief to the previously built up cinematic tension. The calming effect of nature and the quality of light creates an illusion which deceives the audience into believing that Carol has found hope and security in all this chaos and uncertainty. The setting also acted as a subtle hint towards the general perception of psychiatry, its ‘new age’ correlations to nature and almost pseudo-scientific qualities. This was also a pivotal point in the film, where Carol transitions from seeking help from conventional scientifically proven methods (traditional medicine) to an unconventional approach which is further explored in the second half of the film. As Carol arrives at Wrenwood, the setting immediate evokes a sense of uncanniness (Scene B). Isolated cabins with frosted glazing facades, revealing senses of isolation, at the same time surveillance and mystery through the casting of shadows of objects behind the glass. This marks the beginning of the

withdrawal from rationality, openness and hope, and dwelling into a downward spiral of escapism forged by a conscious sedating ‘New Age’ brainwashing regime. The increasing opacity of building facades symbolically represent the hermetic mental condition, as well as creating effects of an enclosed spatiality in contingence with the plot (Scene C). The Wrenwood centre (Brandeis-Bardin Institute) at first glance already presents itself as a monolithic vessel, and with its impenetrable facade it manifests itself as a hegemonic authoritarian object in space. The stone cladding emphasises the monumental volume made up of platonic solids, overwhelming the human body with its non-human scaled proportions. The setting and architecture runs in parallel to the parasitic dominance of Carol’s consciousness by Wrenwood, which ultimately led to Carol concealing herself in an safe house which is reminiscent of an igloo. The safe house marks the demise of Carol’s mental and physical health as her paranoia reaches its peak (Scene D). The safe house has an entrance just enough for an average person to pass through, cladded with white metallic panels, which hinting at the conventional use of white in medical institutions as a sterile colour. The only fenestration is a window just enough for surveillance. The film closes as Carol seals herself within the safe house from the outside world, leaving the viewer in mystery of what happens next. Both cinematography and the architecture of the film sets run in parallel. Its major similarity lies within the innate desire to create effects and affects through its medium. For cinematography, through framing composition and shot selection, and for architecture, through spatial qualities and formal composition. We can then argue that architecture can be defined through the effects and affects it generates as one of the million possible criteria, which separate merely building from architecture.


STORY-TELLING (FILMMAKING)

CINEMATOGRAPHY, ACTING, DIAOGUE

EDITING EFFECTS, AFFECTS

FORM, COMPOSITION, DETAIL

ASSEMBLY

(ARCHITECTURE)

SCENE A.

SCENE B.

SCENE C.

SCENE D.

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XXVI. 万山丹香港的起步 / The Starting of VS-A.HK Suzy HUANG / Founder & Co-owner / VS-A

...自打2011年1月27日注册完香港公司,我们 就把腾讯项目转移到香港来做,法国公司的自愿者 们也都轮流过来维持项目,我则在春节后过去里 尔开始长达半年的培训。下半年回来香港找办公 室,装修,应付学业考试,结婚,过完圣诞节,直 到2012年1月16日,万山丹香港公司这才正式开 张营业了。 开公司要生存,第一步当然是要找活儿,回到中国 市场一看,我瞬间明白,虽说作为本地人,但是读 书毕业后我一直从事海外工作,几乎没有跟国内市 场打过交道,人脉说话做事习惯几乎全部从零开 始。无论万山丹在法国甚至欧洲业内有多大名气, 但是来了亚洲,来了中国,我们完完全全是新人。 新人就要有新人的姿态。我们于是从行业峰会论 坛开始,中国那么大,我们想去看看。参加上海 的峰会,我们遇到了许李严事务所的中国负责人 DERRICK和LUCIA。几乎同一时段,一次聚会 我们又遇到了都市实践的创始人之一孟岩。一切都 是相见恨晚的节奏。很快,我们就收到许李严事务 所香港公司和都市实践深圳公司的项目邀约。前者 签约我们配合做一个法国奢侈品牌驻北京的旗舰 店;后者邀请我们一起做一个深圳项目的竞赛。我 们奇妙的中国之旅正式开始啦! 我想重点说说深圳这个项目的竞赛,这是我们意义 重大的一个竞赛项目,正是因为这个项目的一系列 联系,撕开了一道我们进入中国市场的口子。业 内称该项目为“双塔奇缘”,3年之后我们回头看 看,这项目果真神奇。话说当年,我们配合都市实 践的台湾籍建筑师苏爱迪一起做该项目竞赛,合作 相当愉快,最后也愉快得取得了竞赛第一。爱迪赛 后热情得给我们推荐了他的另外一个建筑朋友张 震,那时候张震负责中建国际设计部的其中一个工 作室,正在做阿里巴巴项目,需要外表皮方面的援 手。我们得以推荐后去拜访了张震,谈了谈阿里巴 巴项目的设计,给了些想法和建议,就回来等候消 息看看能不能被推荐给甲方来正式签约该项目。由 于项目预算的原因没能等到阿里巴巴的好消息,但 是我却在毫无征兆的情况下几个礼拜后接到了来自 筑博傅卓恒的电话。 老傅说:“请问是万山丹的黄书吗?我这有个项目 深化难度挺高的,我在市场上问了问,有哪家幕墙 设计单位能帮上手,朋友就给我说你们设计挺牛, 应该能帮上,能来帮我看看吗?”当时我必须说我 是惊讶的,我们才开张几个月,没谁知道我们,怎 么这么快市场上就有这么乐的评价了呢?我镇定了 一下,约好了时间,就跟项目经理Naree前去筑博 了。筑博方项目经理龚晓文很快讲解了项目设计, 在后来的几个月时间里,我们也不负期望的很好的 完成了该项目的设计深化工作。通过该项目,我们 也得到了筑博总建筑师冯果川的认可,设计深化工 作之后又签了我们做该项目的招标图审核工作,并 且又陆续跟我们合作了新疆艺术中心中庭的设计深 化以及深圳前海金立总部大厦的全程工作。后来熟 悉一些后,我回头问了问老傅,是谁给他推荐的我 们?老傅回答我说:“张震!”

310

万山丹香港的运气在2013年继续延续着,都市实 践开年就签我们做了大成基金总部大厦的方案研 究,主要课题是该项目到底是单层幕墙合适还是双 层幕墙合适。我们针对建筑师设计意图研究后作出 了单双层混合动力的幕墙形式,我们是定制型的建 筑外表皮设计师,我们的创意很快也得到了大成甲 方的赏识。都市在随后的深化设计时推荐我们给了 甲方,甲方项目主任宋志梅听完我们设计汇报后就 力挺我们,最终如愿以偿成全了我们和都市实践的 首度正式合作。 回顾至此,万山丹香港的起步真是运气十足,特别 感谢都市实践把我们拉上了中国这个大舞台,也特 别感谢筑博都市大成在我们如此青涩的时期愿意与 我们共舞,希望我们能一直就这么跳下去,一起 舞动奇迹!

... After register of VS-A.HK office on Jan.27th of 2011, we shifted Tencent project to HK office, and called for the volunteers from French office to come in turns to keep this project running, then myself went to Lille office to start my half-year training period. I came back in July, starting looking for the office, making decoration of the office, preparing my exams, getting marriage ceremony done, spending Christmas holidays. So finally until Jan.16th of 2012, VS-A.HK officially opened! We all understand that to run an office, the first step is to find work. Travelling around Chinese market for 1month, I suddenly realize that although I am local person, I am nearly starting from zero because my working experience is totally overseas after graduation. The way to talk and behavior are so different in the inner market. No matter how good fame VSA has in Europe, we come to Asia, China, we are totally fresh. To be a freshman, we went to the conferences as a beginning, we travelled to the main cities in China, getting a general impression. In the Shanghai conference, we met Derrick and Lucia, directors in charge of Rocco China. And in the same time, we also met Mengyan, founder of Urbanus. All the contacts gave us confidences that we should come to China, we made the right decision and good moment to come. Very quickly, we received the invitation from Rocco HK and Urbanus SZ to join their projects. Rocco HK signed us to be the consultant of a Luxury retail flagstore in Beijing, while Urbanus SZ invite us to join them in a new competition. Our amazing China Journey start! What I want to talk more is about this new competition, which is really a significant competition project for VS-A.HK. Just because of this project, we slashed an opening into the Chinese market. We called this project as “Two Towers”. When we looked back, 3years ago this project was really magic. We collaborated with a Taiwanese Architect Aidi Su to do this competition, very pleasant collaboration. Result is also pleasant, we got the First Prize. After competition, Aidi recommended us to his friend Zhangzhen, in charge of a studio in CCDI, was working on Alibaba HQ at that time. He said he needed some help on envelope so that we were introduced. We visited Zhangzhen, and discussed the

design of that project, exchanged some comments and ideas. Then we were back to wait to see if we can be recommended to the Client. Nothing came due to the budget reason, but in a few weeks, I got a phone call from Zhubo, he said he is Fu Zhuoheng. Fu asked: “Are you Suzy from VS-A? I have a project in DD phase, very challenge, I researched in the market to see which façade design office can help, one of my friends recommended you, would you come to have a look at the project?” I have to confess that at that time I was surprised, we are just coming in a few months, nobody knows us, how come we have so good luck to be recommended? I kept calm, and made an appointment, then went with our PM Naree to Zhubo. The PM in Zhubo is Gong Xiaowen, who made a quick introduction of the project. Then in the next few months, we finished the DD work with satisfaction. Through this project, we are also recognized by the chief Architect of Zhubo Feng Guochuan. We were appointed to sign another phase of contract for this project to review the TD drawings. And we were collaborated with Zhubo later on in the Atrium DD of Xinjiang Art Center and the whole project of Gionee HQ in Qianhai. When we became familiar with each other, one day I asked back Fu that who was recommended to you? Fu told me: “Zhangzhen!” Our Lucks continued in the year 2013, Urbanus SZ signed us to do the SD of the Dacheng Funds HQ in the beginning of the 2013. The main study is to see which façade is more suitable for this project? Single or Double? We studied the design intent of the Architect and found out the best should combine the both so that we created the Hybrid façade. We are the bespoke envelope designer, our creation also appreciated by the Client, so that in the DD stage, we are officially recommended to the Client. After our presentation, the Client Deputy Ms. Song Zhimei gave us the most supports, finally helped Urbanus and us to have the first project collaboration. Recalled so much, very obvious that VS-A.HK was really lucky when we were at the beginning. Really appreciated to Urbanus that you bring us to this big stage, also specially appreciated to Zhubo, Urbanus, Dacheng, you accepted to dance with us when we were so “young”. We wish we can keep dancing and dancing, until we see magic together!


大成基金 / 宋志梅

都市实践 / 孟岩

第伍建筑 / 张震

筑博 / 傅卓恒

311


XXVII. Is Korean energy code energy saving? / 건축 에너지 절약 설계 기준을 따르면 정말 에너지를 줄일 수 있을까? TWO

... Energy saving is a big topic. Terms such as green

architecture, zero energy building and building energy saving code are easily heard in our daily life. Now in Korea, energy saving in most of new and renovated buildings has become legal requirements more than voluntary practices.

The reason of such a huge interest to energy saving depends on recent policy of Korean government on reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions. Until recent years, Korea had been passive on energy policy though it has been one of the top 10 countries of CO2 emission (Figure 1). In 2016, Korea set the new target of 37% of reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions until 2030 (Figure 2). The emissions by the building sector take 20% of the overall national amount (Figure 3 & 4). To realize such a radical reduction, energy saving code for the building sector has being been rapidly reinforced every year. From July 2018, the maximum thermal transfer coefficient values (hereafter U values) of the overall building façades in Seoul are 0.17 W/m2K for the residential use and 0.24 W/m2K for the non-residential use. The maximum U values of the window sets under the same conditions are 1.0 W/m2K for the residential and 1.5 W/m2K for the non-residential (Figure 5). Despite of these severe regulations requiring deeper understandings of building energy related materials and techniques, there are not enough building energy specialists. Until now, most of the clients and architects rely on technical information provided by the material suppliers for marketing purpose. Suppliers recommend using triple insulating glazing unit instead of double IGU and triple/quadruple low-e coated glass instead of double coated one. Building components are becoming thicker and more expensive as well as more performing. Consequently building façade construction cost is more and more increasing. Then, is the Korean energy code* really energy saving? Based on our experiences of façade designs & constructions in Korea, the answer isn’t necessarily yes, due to the loopholes of the code & negligent controls on compliance of the code.

OWT

Naree KIM / Architect & Co-owner / VS-A Sunhoo KIM / Architect / VS-A ... 에너지

절약에 대한 관심이 뜨겁다. 녹색 건축, 제로 에너지 빌딩, 건축물의 에너지 절약 설계 기준은 지난 몇 년간 자주 듣는 단어들이다. 이제 한국의 대다수 신축 및 개축 건물의 에너지 절약은 환경을 위한 자발적인 실천이 아니라 필수적인 법적 규제 사항이 되고 있다.

Fig.1 CO2 emissions by country in 2014 2014년 기준 국가별 이산화탄소 배출량 Figure 2.3 CO2 emissions per country from fossil-fuel use and cement production Industrialised countries (Annex I)

China United States

1990

EU28

2000

India

2013

Russian Federation

건축물의 에너지 절약이 이토록 이슈가 되는 이유는 한국 정부의 온실 가스 감축 정책과 연관이 있다. 한국은 세계 10위 안에 드는 이산화탄소 배출국이나 구체적 감축 실적은 크지 않았다(표1). 국내외의 여러 의견에 따라 지난 몇 년간 실제적인 여러 노력을 시작했고, 2016년 한국 정부는 2030 년 온실가스 감축목표 37%를 설정하여 그에 따른 기술과 정책을 펼쳐 나가고 있다(표2). 이렇게 획기적인 감축을 위해서 국가 전체 온실 가스 배출의 약 20%을 차지하는 건물 에너지에 관한 여러 법규가 매해 가파르게 강화되고 있다(표3 & 4). 2018년 7월 시행 기준으로 서울의 주거 건물 외벽의 최대 평균 열관류율은 0.17 W/m2K, 비주거 건물의 경우 0.24 W/m2K 을 만족해야 한다. 동일한 조건에서 창호의 평균 열관류율의 기준은 주거건물은 1.0 W/m2K, 비주거건물은1.5 W/ m2K이하가 되어야 한다(표5). 빠르게 강화되는 엄격한 기준으로 건축 자재 및 기술의 이해가 절실하나 관련 인력은 아직 부족한 현실이다. 결과적으로 많은 건축사무소와 건축주는 에너지 법규 준수를 위해 판촉을 위해 만들어진 자재 회사의 기술 정보에 상당 부분 의존하고 있다. 자재 회사들은 이제 이중 유리는 삼중 유리로, 이중 로이 코팅 유리는 삼중 혹은 사중 로이 코팅 유리 사용을 권고한다. 유리, 창호와 단열재는 점점 두꺼워지고 고성능화 되며 또한 값비싸지고 있다. 결과적으로 에너지 절약을 위해 건축 외피 자재 비용은 빠르게 증가하고 있다.

Developing countries

Japan

1990

Germany

2000

South Korea

2013

Canada Brazil Indonesia United Kingdom Saudi Arabia Mexico Iran Italy Australia France South Africa Poland Ukraine Taiwan Thailand Spain Netherlands pbl.nl / jrc.eu.europa.eu

0

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

12000

million tonnes CO2 Source: EDGAR 4.2FT2010 (JRC/PBL 2012); BP 2014; NBS China 2014; USGS 2014; WSA 2014; NOAA 2012

CO2 emissions per country from fossil-fuel use and cement

The eastern European countries, exclu produce 3% of its domestic gas consumption and 0.3% of production in 2014 / 2014년 국가별 이산화탄소 배출 총량 Federation and the EU’s 13 new Memb its domestic oil consumption (EIA, 2014a). By 2013 Japan 비교 a decrease of only 0.9% in 2013, follow had a bilateral agreement with New Zealand that allowed 0.6% in 2012 and large increases in CO it to hold oil stocks on New Zealand’s behalf (IEA, 2013a). and 2011 of about 8.3% and 4.6%, resp of countries accounted for a share of 2 2.2.7 Other OECD and eastern European countries with the largest emitting countries bei In ‘other OECD-1990’ countries5, not included in the group (0.9%) and Kazakhstan (0.7%) with an of six largest emitting countries/regions, CO2 emissions Figure 2.4 of 2.6% and an increase of 2.3% in 201 after a decline of 1.3% in 2012 continued to decrease by CO2 emissions per capita from fossil-fuel use and cement production 0.6% in 2013. Their share in global CO2 emissions was 4% in 2013, with the largest contributions from Canada (1.6%), 2.2.8 Other developing countries AustraliaAustralia (1.1%) and Turkey (0.9%). Over the course of 2013 In 2013, Industrialised emissions from the category o countries 6 (Annex I) compared 2012, emissions dropped in Turkey by 1.1% developing countries’ represented 12% United to States 1990 and inSaudi Australia by 2.8%, and increased in Canada by 0.7%. global CO emissions, and the other de 2 Arabia 2000

Canada

2013

South Korea

Developing countries

Russian Federation

1990

Taiwan

2000

Japan

2013

Germany Netherlands Poland United Kingdom

그런데 정말 에너지 절약 법규*를 따르면 건물 에너지 절약이 될까? 지난 몇 년간 한국에서의 설계와 시공 과정을 경험하면서 이해한 바로는 꼭 그렇지 않다. 이는 법규 내용 상 허점과 부실한 관리 감독 시스템에 기인한다.

China EU28 Ukraine Italy South Africa France Spain Iran Mexico Thailand Brazil

* NOTE According to the Korean building energy saving design code, - Facades are composed of fixed parts & operable parts. - Fixed parts are opaque walls and glazed opaque walls (a.k.a. shadowbox) - Operable parts are windows & doors, whether opaque or glazed. - Psi values (the linear thermal transmittance of the thermal heat bridge) are ignored in thermal calculation.

312

* 비고 한국 건축물의 에너지절약 설계기준에 따르면, - 파사드는 외벽과 창 및 문으로 이루어진다. - 외벽은 불투명 벽과 유리로 마감된 불투명 벽(일명 쉐도우 박스)을 지칭한다. - 창 및 문은 재료(불투명/투명)에 상관없이 개폐가 가능한 부위를 말한다. - Psi 값 (열교의 선형 열관류율)은 무시된다. -

외벽에서 프레임의 열손실은 무시된다.

Indonesia India pbl.nl / jrc.eu.europa.eu

0

4

8

12

16

20

24

tonnes CO2 / capita Source: EDGAR 4.2FT2010 (JRC/PBL 2012); UNDP 2014; BP 2014; NBS China 2014; USGS 2014; WSA 2014; NOAA 2012

CO emissions per capita per country from2.3fossil-fuel use between 2 contribute with 15% to the total. These include South Comparison and production in 1.5%, 2014 / 2014년 국가별 1인당 Koreacement having a share of 1.8%, Brazil Indonesia and in the various countr Saudi Arabia 1.4% each and 비교 Mexico 1.3% in the global 이산화탄소 배출량 total. After the economic recovery in most of these countries following the recession of 2009, large increases in CO2 emissions were recorded for 2010. However, in the subsequent years, CO2 emissions increased much less. Total CO2 emissions in these ‘other developing countries’ changed by 2.6% in 2011, 3.1% in 2012 and 2.1% in 2013, down from the large jump of 5.3% in 2010, following the economic recovery in these countries after the global

Although emissions in China and othe emerging economies increased very r years (Table 2.2 and Figure 2.3), in bot absolute figures, the picture is differe per capita (see Table A1.2 and Figure 2 of GDP (Figure 2.5). Where, since 1990 Union CO2 emissions decreased from


Fig. 2 Target of the reduction of greenhouse gas emission in 2030 2030년 국가 온실가스 배출량 감축 목표

Source : Korean government. (2017). The second biennial report according to the UNFCCC. 32. 출처 : 대한민국 정부. (2017). 유엔기후변화협약(UNFCCC)에 따른 제 2 차 대한민국 격년갱신보고서. 32.

Fig. 3 Estimate of greenhouse gas emission in 2020 by sector (BAU) 2020년 부문별 온실가스 배출 전망치 (BAU)

Source : Korean government. (2014). Guidelines to achieve the reduction target of greenhouse gas emission. 8. 출처 : 대한민국 정부. (2014). 국가 온실가스 감축목표 달성을 위한 로드맵. 8.

Fig. 4 Evolution of requirements on maximum U value by use & zone

Fig. 5 [Appendix 1] The extract of maximum U values of the different areas of the building by region

용도와 지역에 따른 최대 열관류율 기준의 연도별 변화 추이

[별표 1] 지역별 건축물 부위의 열관류율표 [별표 1] 지역별 건축물 부위의 열관류율표에서 발췌 [Appendix 1]

The extract of

U values table of the different areas of the building by zone

(단위 UNIT : W/㎡ㆍ K) 중부 1 지역 1)

건축물의 부위 Area of the building 외기에

직접 공동주택

거실의 외벽

면하는 경우

Residential

Facades

Exposed to the

공동주택 외

exterior

Non residential

창 및 문 Windows & Doors

외기에

직접 공동주택

면하는 경우

Residential

Exposed to the 공동주택 외 exterior

중부 2 지역 2)

남부지역 3)

Central 1 Zone Central 2 Zone South Zone

Non residential

제 주 도

Jeju Island

≤ 0.150

≤ 0.170

≤ 0.220

≤ 0.290

≤ 0.170

≤ 0.240

≤ 0.320

≤ 0.410

≤ 0.900

≤ 1.000

≤ 1.200

≤ 1.600

≤ 1.200

≤ 1.500

≤ 1.800

≤ 2.200

비고 NOTE

1) 중부 1 지역 Central 1 Zone : 강원도(고성, 속초, 양양, 강릉, 동해 제외), 경기도(연천, 포천, 가평, 남양주, 의정부, 양주, 동두천, 파주, 강 화), 충청북도(제천), 경상북도(봉화, 청송) 2) 중부 2 지역 Central 2 Zone : 서울특별시, 대전광역시, 세종특별자치시, 인천광역시, 강원도(고성, 속초, 양양, 강릉, 동해), 경기도(연천, 포천, 가평, 남양주, 의정부, 양주, 동두천, 파주, 강화 제외), 충청북도(제천 제외), 충청남도, 경상북도(봉화, 청송, 울진, 영덕, 포항, 경주, 청도, 경산 제외), 전라북도, 경상남도(거창, 함양) 3) 남부지역 South Zone : 부산광역시, 대구광역시, 울산광역시, 광주광역시, 전라남도, 경상북도(울진, 영덕, 포항, 경주, 청도, 경산), 경상남 도(거창, 함양 제외)

Source : KICT. (2017). Guidelines for national regulations on the window set . 1.

Source : MOLIT. (2017). Revision bill of the building energy saving design regulation. 18.

출처 : 한국건설기술연구원. (2017). 국내 창세트 관련 제도/정책 및 기술 관련 로드맵. 1.

출처 : 국토교통부. (2017). 건축물의 에너지절약설계기준 개정안. 18.

313


Inaccuracies on U value calculation method by the energy code Korean building energy saving code has still some blind points. So façade thermal performance isn’t always as good as calculated estimate U value by code. U values of opaque walls by the code are obtained by mathematic calculations using tables of the code in which materials and thickness of the wall components are taken into account. And computer simulation calculations are not granted in Korea. Since this table calculation method ignores the existence of the wall frames, for the most of large buildings of curtain wall facades of metal frames, U values of opaque wall by code has huge difference with the value calculated by computer simulation method. The code value can be far more favorable than the actual value. The figure 6 illustrates the case of the opaque aluminium façade wall: code value is 3.8 times more favorable than the simulation value. Discrepancies in criteria between the papers & the realities U values of the windows for the code mostly use the values from the test certificates provided by the suppliers. Even though the actual conditions of the building windows are different from the criteria of the certificate, applications of correction values by simulations or re-testing seldom happen. And the authorities hardly make a thorough inspection on the conformity of the certificate. As a result, considerable deviations might occur due to the variable conditions of the windows. The figure 7 is the case of aluminium curtain wall fixed windows. According to the size of the windows and type of glass low-e coatings, U values can vary up to 32%, which are often ignored. On top of the size variations, frame composition, glass type, coating type & location are the other criteria which might differentiate the U values. However, if main configurations such as glass thickness or frame type meet the test criteria, it is usual to submit the “basic” certificate of which the details don’t respect the actual situations. Actualization of U value definition by the code The above cases might cause a large gap between U value by the code and that of the reality. It creates the potential risk that actual energy saving cannot be achieved despite of applications of high performing expensive building components. We hope that the gap between U value by the code and that of the reality will considerably be reduced, through legislative supplementation & reinforced supervision. Specific plans for the above can be revision of the U value calculation method considering deterioration of thermal performances of the curtain wall framed walls, authorization of the U value calculation method using computer simulation, provision of the committee to define the exceptional cases including correction calculations etc. All these solutions require smart architects and entrusted engineers more than talented suppliers who sell sophisticated products, although both are of course compatible at the end. If not, we’ll see more and more very performant products that just perform poorly because of an inappropriate design. By the way, we are proud to have been selected by KETEP (Korea Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning) to take part in the zero energy building engineering program with the Yonsei University. Attitude more than the regulation Materials of high performance cannot be the only factor for building energy savings. Environment can be saved not by any certification, grade nor regulation but by attitude and habit. Ultimately, we believe that sustainable design and user practice can save the energy in a more efficient and economical way!

314

법규에 따른 표계산 열관류율값의 부정확성 에너지 절약 기준은 아직 많은 허점이 있어, 법규가 정한 대로 계산한 열관류율 값이 좋다고 외피 열성능도 좋다고는 할 수 없다. 국내 법규에서 벽체의 열관류율은 그 구성 재료의 종류에 따라 두께에 비례하여 수식으로 계산하며, 컴퓨터 시뮬레이션 계산값을 인정하지 않는다. 그러나 이런 표계산은 불투명 벽체에 프레임이 있더라도 열성능적으로는 그 존재 자체를 무시한다. 그 결과 열성능이 떨어지는 금속재 프레임을 사용한 커튼월 공법으로 지어진 대부분의 대형 건물에서, 벽체의 열관류율값은 법규에서 인정하는 표계산값과 시뮬레이션 계산값 사이에 매우 큰 오차가 발생하며, 실제값에 비해 법규 인정값이 몇 배 더 좋아지는 상황이 발생한다. 알루미늄 커트월 파사드의 불투명 벽체를 비교한 표6의 경우 법규값은 시뮬레이션 계산값에 비해 3.8배 더 좋게 간주된다. 제출 문서와 현실과의 괴리 창호의 열관류율 성능은 대부분 자재회사에서 제공하는 시험성적서 결과값으로 인정받는다. 하지만 제출한 시험성적서와 실제 건물의 상황이 다른 경우에도, 시뮬레이션을 통해 보정값을 계산하거나 재시험하는 경우는 극히 드물다. 그리고 대다수의 경우 허가권자는 제출 받은 시험성적서가 해당 건물의 상황과 일치하는지 일일이 확인하지 않는다. 결과적으로 하나의 시험성적서로 허가 받을 수 있는 창호의 상황이 폭넓게 다양하므로 시험성적서에 의한 열성능값과 실제 상황은 매우 큰 오차를 만들 수 있다. 알루미늄 커튼월 고정창을 비교한 표 7의 경우 고정창의 크기와 유리 로이 코팅의 종류에 따라 32% 값이 차이가 날 수 있지만 통상적으로 이런 창 규격의 차이를 무시한 시험성적서를 제출한다. 창호의 규격뿐 아니라 프레임 구성, 유리 재질 및 코팅의 종류 및 위치에 따라서 열성능값도 변하지만, 유리 두께 및 프레임 종류와 같은 주요 사항만 유사하면, 세부사항이 일치하지 않아도 “ 기본” 시험성적서 제출이 일반적인 현실이다. 법규상 열성능 값의 현실화 위의 상황들로 인해 현재 법규상 열성능값은 현실과 매우 큰 오차를 낳을 수 있는 결함을 갖는다. 이는 고가의 고성능 자재들로도 실제적인 에너지 절약을 할 수 없는 위험을 일으킬 수 있는 잠재 요소이기도 하다. 우리는 법규 보완 및 검토 관리의 강화를 통해, 법규적 성능값과 실제 성능 사이의 오차가 현저히 줄어들기를 바란다. 이를 위한 구체적인 대책으로는 커튼월 건물에서 벽체 프레임의 열성능 저하를 반영한 열성능 값 계산법 마련, 시뮬레이션 열성능 계산값의 인정, 여러 상황에 따른 보정 계산에 대한 협의 제도 마련 등이 있다. 나아가 이러한 해결책 뒤에는 기술력 있는 자재 회사뿐 아니라 에너지 문제를 이해하는 우수한 건축가와 엔지니어들이 절대적으로 필요하다. 그렇지 않으면 적절하지 않은 설계로 고성능 자재로도 미미한 성능 밖에 내지 못하는 건물이 늘어날

수 있다. 덧붙여 (자랑하자면) 브이에스에이 코리아는 한국에너지기술평가원에서 주최하는 에너지인력양성사업 « 제로에너지 건축 엔지니어링 » 프로그램을 연세대학교와 함께 참여하고 있다. 제도가 아닌 태도 고성능 자재로만 에너지가 절약되지 않는다. 환경은 인증, 등급 또는 규제가 아니라 태도와 습관으로 지킬 수 있다. 우리는 궁극적으로는 친환경 건축 설계와 사용자의 생활 습관이 에너지를 보다 효과적이며 경제적으로 줄인다고 믿는다.


Fig. 6 Comparison of U values of opaque walls between code & simulation (effects by wall frames) 법규와 시뮬레이션 간의 불투명 벽체 열관류율값 비교 (벽체 프레임의 영향)

CALCULATION WITHOUT FRAME BY CODE

Left) Opaque part U value by table calculation method in Korean energy code -> Calculation without opaque frame part -> Linear heat loss (heat loss by frame part) is disregarded. -> Mathematical calculations with thermal conductivity and thickness of materials

CALCULATION WITH FRAME BY SIMULATION

좌) 에너지 절약 설계기준이 정한 계산 방법을 통한 불투명 부분의 열관류율 값 -> 불투명 벽체의 프레임부분을 제외하고 계산함 -> 선형 열손실(프레임에 의한 열손실)을 무시한 계산법 -> 벽체의 구성재료의 열전도율과 두께를 이용한 수식계산

This opaque frame is involved in calculation by simulator

This opaque frame is disregarded by code calculation 불투명 벽체의 프레 임부분을 제외하고 계산함

불투명 벽체의 프레 임부분을 함산 하여 계산함

Calculated part 열성능 계산 부위

Calculated part 열성능 계산 부위

c

EXT.

INT.

INT.

o

o

c

CALCULATED PART

Right) Opaque part U value by computer simulation -> Calculation with opaque frame part -> The area weighted average method after calculation of U-eq in frame and non-frame part. -> Linear heat loss (heat loss by frame part) is involved

THK 10 GLASS

The U value considering the wall frame which causes heat loss (right) is 3.8 times bigger than the value ignoring the wall frame (left). The actual thermal performance of opaque wall will be remarkably reduced than the calculation result by code.

THK 119 CAVITY 10

JAMB, RESULT

THK 3 ALUMINUM

119 3

115

EXT.

HEAD & SILL, RESULT

CALCULATED PART

3

THK 115 INSULATION

HEAD AXIS

THK 3 ALUMINUM

우) 시뮬레이션을 통한 불투명 부분의 열관류율 값 -> 불투명 벽체의 프레임부분을 합산하여 계산함 -> 수직,수평 프레임과 유리부분을 각각 시뮬레이션하여 면적가중 평균 계산 -> 선형 열손실(프레임에 의한 열손실)을 합산한 계산법

JAMB AXISAXIS MULLION A (w/mK)

B (m)

B / A (w/m K) 2

CENTER OF OPAQUE

Conductivity Thickness 1

OUTSIDE

n/a

n/a

0.043

2

THK 10 GLASS

0.123

0.01

0.0813

3

CAVITY

n/a

n/a

0.086

4

THK 3 ALUMINUM

200

5

THK 115 INSULATION 0.021

0.003

0.000015

0.115

5.4762

6

THK 3 ALUMINUM

200

0.003

0.000015

7

INSIDE

n/a

n/a

0.11

total

total

0.25

5.7965

U-wall in code

SILL AXIS

(w/m2K)

A (w/m2K)

COLOR

0.173

B (m2)

Ueq

area

2.695

4.163

11.219

HEAD & SILL 0.245

4.3

1.054

CENTER OF PAQUE

13.918

2.436

total

total

22.381

14.708

JAMB

0.175

열손실이 발생하는 프레임부분을 합산한 결과(우)가 프레임부분을 제외하여 계산한 결과(좌)보다 3.8배 높은 열관류율 값을 가진다. 즉, 실제 벽체의 열성능은 법규에 따른 계산 결과 보다 현저히 떨어진다.

A x B (W/K)

U-wall in simulator (w/m2K)

0.657

+ 380% Fig. 7 Comparison of U values of the windows upon various window divisions & glass low-e coatings 다양한 창분할 및 유리 로이코팅에 따른 창세트 열관류율값 비교 COMPARISON UPON VARIOUS DIVISIONS & GLASS COATINGS

The window certificate test shall be carried out with 2m x 2m size of specimen. The more divided the windows are, the worse the thermal performance becomes. The thermal performance of the window set of four divisions with the low-e coating of high performance is decreased by 32% than that of window of one division with the low-e coating of low performance.

CALCULATED FRAME

c

o

INT.

EXT.

INT.

HEAD & SILL, RESULT

NON- DIVISION

INT.

INT.

EXT.

EXT.

DIVIDED IN TWO

JAMB

B (m) area

B / A (w/m2K)

2.255

1.048

2.363

HEAD & SILL 2.200

1.048

2.305

CENTER OF GLASS

1.904

1.714

total

total

4.000

6.382

COLOR

U facade (w/m2K)

1.595

JAMB

2000 mm

2000 mm

2000 mm

A (w/mK) Ueq

0.900

창호의 열관류율 시험성적서는 가로 2m * 세로 2m 시험체를 기준으로 하며 창호의 분할이 많아 질수록 열관류율은 높아져 열성능은 저하된다. 고성능 로이 코팅 유리 사분할 창의 열성능은 일반 로이 코팅 유리의 분할이 없는 창호에 비하여 32%가 저하된다.

DIVIDED IN FOUR

2000 mm

2000 mm

2000 mm

COLOR

JAMB, RESULT

A (w/mK)

B (m)

Ueq

area

B / A (w/m2K)

2.255

1.893

4.268

HEAD & SILL 2.200

0.893

1.964

CENTER OF GLASS

1.214

1.468

total

total

4.000

7.700

1.209

COLOR

U facade (w/m2K)

1.925

JAMB

A (w/mK)

B (m)

Ueq

area

B / A (w/m2K)

2.255

1.613

3.637

HEAD & SILL 2.200

1.613

3.548

CENTER OF GLASS

0.774

1.239

total

total

4.000

8.424

1.600

U facade (w/m2K)

2.106

+ 132%

315


VS-A Products VS-A Produits VS-A 智造 VS-A 제품

317


VS-A

PRODUCTS PRODUITS 智造 제품

... Most of the time, the way we collaborate on projects is

by developing specific and bespoke solutions. Although the final results look attractive and might be copied, the story that leads to its design is unique. Copying without understanding the story is like copying a mathematic result without understanding the problem that it is solving. But our settlement in Asia made us slowly change our mind. John van de WATER, Dutch architect based in Beijing since 2004, wrote a book “You Can’t Change China, China Changes You, 2012 (010 Publishers). That’s definitively true (to some extent). In Asia, because of the short time dedicated to the studies, because of the low fees, because of a fantastic number of skilled and efficient workshops and factories, we felt just logic to (also) develop products that could be used on multiple projects. First of all, they must be more neutral and look like a component of a story instead of being a story by themselves. Secondly, they must obviously answer an existing question that concerns a large number of projects in Asia. Thirdly, they must be really innovative… but safe and cost-effective (≈ cheap). All the products we design are protected by copyrights and patents, they are all tested in laboratories and we intend to start applying them on a few iconic projects to see how they perform in reality. Once these are built, a business plan will be set up for each product. By the way, we invite all interested partner companies to join us.

... Généralement

nous développons des solutions sur mesure pour chaque projet. Et même si le résultat, souvent intéressant en soi, peut être ultérieurement dupliqué ou copié, l’histoire de sa genèse est unique. Copier l’image sans en comprendre le processus de conception est comme copier un résultat mathématique sans comprendre le problème qu’il résout. Mais notre installation en Asie a fait évoluer nos certitudes sur ce sujet. John van de WATER, un architecte néerlandais venu s’installer à Beijing en 2004, a écrit un livre intitulé “You Can’t Change China, China Changes You, 2012 (010 Publishers). C’est évidemment vrai (dans une certaine mesure). En Asie, à cause des temps d’études très courts, des honoraires réduits mais surtout grâce à un nombre incroyables d’ateliers et d’usines prêtes à nous suivre, nous avons considéré qu’il était aussi logique de développer des produits qui pourraient être mis en œuvre sur un nombre plus grand de projets. Pour ce faire, il fallait d’abord qu’ils soient ‘architecturalement neutres’, c’est-à-dire qu’il puissent s’inscrire dans un concept global sans trop attirer l’attention sur eux tout seuls. Ensuite il fallait qu’ils répondent à des besoin locaux, clairement identifiés et en grand nombre. En fin ils devaient être réellement innovants … mais

318

également sûrs (sécurité) et disponibles à un prix raisonnable. Tous les produits que nous avons conçus sont protégés par le droit d’auteur et des brevets, ils ont été testés en laboratoire et dans un premier temps notre intention est de les installer sur quelques projets emblématiques pour les confronter à la vraie vie. Une fois ces projets réalisés, nous pourrons établir une stratégie commerciale pour chaque produit. Pour ce faire, nous invitons toute entreprise partenaire intéressée à se joindre à nous.

... 部分时候,我们发展项目的模式是以达到具体和定制的方 案为目标。虽然最终的结果很吸引并有可能被抄袭,每个设计背 后都是有独特的故事的。对背景故事一无所知地抄袭,就像在不 了解数学问题的前提下抄袭数据结果是一样的。可是,我们定居 在亚洲之后令我们慢慢的改变想法。約翰·范德沃特,一位在 2004定居在北京的建筑师写了一本书叫《你不能改变中国,中 国改变你》。这句话某程度上是正确的。 在亚洲,因为短的方案研究时间,低设计费,和大量有技术条件 和效率的生产商,我们觉得研发可以应用在项目里的产品是非常 合逻辑的。首先,这些产品需要是中立的,同时看起来像一个故 事的一部分,而非故事的本身。第二,产品需要明确地回应大多 数亚洲项目的现有问题。第三,产品需要是非常创新的,同时安 全和拥有高的性价比(=便宜)。 我们所有设计的产品都受版权和专利保护,并通过实验室测试。 我们意图把这这些产品应用在标志性项目当中,试验产品在现实 当中的性能。当项目实行后,每个产品将会有自己的商业计划。 我们邀请所有有兴趣的合作伙伴公司加入参与。

... 대부분의 우리의 협업은 프로젝트별 고유의 맞 춤형 시스템을 개발하는 방식으로 이루어져 왔 다. 비록 최종 디자인이 이전 프로젝트 작업과 비 슷해 보일 수 있겠지만, 결과에 이르는 하나하나 의 이야기는 독특하다. 서사 없이 모방한 디자인 은 문제로 해결하고자 하는 바를 이해하지 않고 수학 공식을 복사해 쓰는 것과 같다. 하지만 아시 아에 정착하고서 우리는 차츰 생각을 바꾸게 되 었다. 2004년 이래 북경에서 활동하는 네덜란드 건축가John van de WATER가 쓴 책 “You Can’t Change China, China Changes You [당신은 중국 을 바꿀 수 없다, 중국이 당신을 변화시킨다]”는 ( 상당 부분) 분명한 사실이다. 아시아에는 저렴한 비용으로, 신속하게 움직이는, 많은 숙련되고 효율적인 공장들이 있다. 우리 또 한 여기 아시아에서는 여러 프로젝트에 쓰일 수 있는 상품 개발의 필요와 당위를 깨달았다. 제품 은 우선 맞춤형 디자인 보다 보편적이며 그 자체 가 스토리가 되는 것 보다는 이야기의 한 부분 같

아야 한다. 또한 아시아에서 많은 프로젝트가 당 면한 현실적인 문제에 대한 답변이 되어야 하며, 마지막으로 혁신적이나 안전하고 경제적(저렴)이 어야 한다. 우리가 디자인하고 개발한 제품들은 특허 출원 및 저작권 등록을 하고, 공인된 시험소에서 테스 트하며, 현재 몇몇 건축 빌딩 프로젝트에서 설치 준비 중이다. 설치 완료 되면 각 제품에 대한 비 즈니스 모델을 세울 계획이며, 제품 개발 프로젝 트 협력에 관심이 있는 파트너 사와의 교류를 희 망한다.


Glass Veil Ublo Ufo Geometric patterns Modular glass wall Cheapest glass curtain-wall in China Mediaskin 319

TGI Lille / Architect : Jean WILLERVAL / Photographie : VS-A


Glass Veil History of long-span facades

大跨度玻璃幕墙历史

장스팬 파사드의 역사

Transparent facades have always been striving to become larger, and more transparent for more than 50 years.

50多年来,工程师一直努力,试图将透明幕墙的尺寸变得更大 更高透明度。

Starting with the conception of commercially available float glass in the 1950s, the industry have developed into different ramifications. The different sectors of development have all reached spectacular results and they can be summarized as follow.

璃行业已经朝多元化方向发展。发展类型可以概括为以下几种:

투명 파사드는 지난 50년 이상의 기간 동안 언제 나 더 크고 더 투명하기 위해 분투하였다. 1950년 대 상업적으로 시판된 판유리에 이래 유리업계는 점점 세분화되어 발전되었다. 각 분야에서 이룬 눈부신 발전을 아래 이미지들로 정리하였다.

从20世纪50年代开始,随着浮法玻璃商业化概念的可行性,玻

1957 FLOAT GLASS

1960 FOLDED GLASS

1970s STRUCTURAL GLAZING

浮法玻璃

箝夹式折叠玻璃

结构隐框

Commercial Float Glass Sir Alastair Pilkington + Kenneth Bickerstaff St Helens, UK

Maison de la Radio P. Tournon, A. Devilliers + P. Verdier Strasbourg, France

1972 TENSILE STRUCTURE 4MM PLEXIGLASS 拉索结构 4毫米树脂玻璃

Munich Olympic Stadium Frei Otto + Gunther Behnisch Munich. Germany

9m tall. clamped glass

1975 GLASS FIN STRUCTURE

1980 3D SPACE STRUCTURE

1980’s GLASS FINS

1986 TRUSS STRUCTURE

玻璃肋结构

三维立体结构

玻璃肋

桁架结构

Willis Faber & Dumas Building Foster Architects Ipswich, England 12m tall. glass fin structure 320

Crystal Cathedral Philip Johnson + John Burgee California, United Sates

PPG Building USA

Les Serres. Parc de la Villette Adrien Fainsilber + Peter Rice Paris, France 32m tall. point-fixing on the glass


GLASS FAÇADE TYPOLOGIES HUGE GLASS INNOVATIVE STRUCTURES PLASTICS

1993 CABLE NET STRUCTURE 拉索网结构

Kempinski Hotel Murphy/Jahn Architects + Schlaich Bergermann Munich, Germany

幕墙类型 巨型玻璃 结构型玻璃幕墙 树脂玻璃

2000 ETFE INFLATED TENSIONED CUSHIONS 聚氟乙烯膨胀张拉穹顶

The Eden Project Grimshaw + Hunt & Associates Cornwall, UK

25m tall. cable-net façade

2007 CABLE-NET FAÇADE 拉索网结构

Poly Plaza SOM Beijing, China 90m tall. cable-net façade

2009 ETFE TENSIONED & DOUBLE CURVED SKIN

聚氯乙烯张拉膜 & 双层曲面表皮

Unilever House Behnisch Architekten Hamburg, Germany

2002 TENSIONED CABLE MULLIONS 拉杆索竖框结构

Bayer HQ Murphy/Jahn, Inc. Leverkusen, Germany

2004 MONOLITHIC PANEL 大单片玻璃

Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown Charles Correa Associates Lisbon, Portugal

15m tall. visible spring inside

9m x 5m panel

2014 JUMBO PLASTIC

2015 SUPER TALL GLASS

超大型树脂玻璃

超高型玻璃

Ocean Kingdom Nippura Acquariums Zhuhai, China 40m X 8.3m. 64,5cm thick plastic

Apple Store HK Foster + Partners Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong 14,5m tall. laminated glass 321


VS-A Glass façades With over 25 years of experience, VS-A started as a research & development agency looking to push the boundaries of facades. Glazed facades is perhaps the largest topic of interest because of its limitations yet unexplored possibilities. VS-A is always striving to find a new solution for glass facades as pictured in our trajectory.

VS-A 玻璃幕墙 长达25年的工程经验,VS-A 立足于研究与开发,旨在不断扩大 幕墙的应用范围。 玻璃幕墙是最大的研究课题,因为它的局限性,同时包括未开发 的可能性。如项目案例所示,VS-A 用最专业的知识,为不同建 筑结构寻找新的玻璃幕墙解决方案。

브이에스에이 유리 파사드 작업들 브이에스에이 사무소는25년 이상 파사드의 한계 를 넘어서기 위해 연구와 개발을 지속하고 있다. 유리 파사드는 그 한계와 발전 가능성을 생각해 볼 때 가장 관심이 가는 분야이다. 브이에스에이 는 아래 이전 작업 이미지에서 보여주는 바와 같 이 유리 파사드의 새로운 솔로션을 찾기 위해 노 력하고 있다.

1993

1998

2000

全箝夹式玻璃幕墙

横隐框玻璃幕墙

曲面玻璃

Grand Palais Rem Koolhaas. OMA + VS-A Lille, France

Palais de Justice VS-A Lille, France

Casa da Musica Rem Koolhaas. OMA + VS-A Porto, Portugal

100% GLASS CLAMPED FAÇADE

322

FAÇADE WITHOUT TRANSOMS

CURVED SELF-STANDING GLASS


2003

COLD-BENT GLASS

2011 SEMI-JUMBO GLASS. 7,2m x 4,5m

2011 3400 MM WIDE GLASS WITH SGP

冷弯玻璃

超大型玻璃. 7.2m x 4.5m

3400MM宽玻璃 SGP夹层

Serres de Coutevroult Georgel, Architecte + Smiemans Projecten + VS-A

BMW Store, Georges V Carbondale + VS-A Paris, France

BMW Store, London Carbondale + VS-A London, UK

© Image by AFP Relax News

© Image by AFP Relax News

323


2014 TENSIONED MULLION

2015 GLASS WITH DOUBLE CURVE PROVIDING INCREASED STIFFNESS

拉杆竖框

双曲玻璃增加剛度

Grand Nancy Congrès Atelier Barani + VS-A

Bibliothéque Municipale Rem Koolhaas. OMA + VS-A Caen, France

Introducing.. GLASS VEIL

© Image by Antoine CARDI

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Introduction

简介

소개

Huge glass walls with no visible supports is a dream every architect has.

每一个建筑师都有个梦想,就是能够创造出完全无遮挡, 无可见支撑的超大型玻璃幕墙。

Since 1947, glass can be produced in theoretically endless length, and many architects and engineers have found many fantastic solutions to create glass facades of such scale. Today we’re proud to say that there’s a new technical possibility.

自从 1947 年后,玻璃生产在理论上可以达到无限的长 度。许多建筑师和工程师通过多种巧妙的技术方法,创建 出大尺寸的玻璃幕墙。今天,我们很自豪地说,现在有一 个新的技术诞生了。

어떠한 눈에 띄는 구조 없이 서 있는 거대한 유리 는 모든 건축가의 꿈이다. 1947년 이래 유리는 이 론적으로 길이 제한이 없이 생산가능 해졌고, 많 은 건축가와 엔지니어는 거대한 유리 파사드 설 치가 가능한 수많은 기술 솔로션을 개발하였다. 오늘 우리에게는 자신 있게 소개할 또 하나의 초 대형 유리 파사드 신기술이 있다.

325


Components that induce tension to the system Components that fix the system

Components that allow rotation of the system

Components that adjust tension

Components that fix the glass

ETAILED REPRESENTATION E SYSTEM

Top connection exploded view

GLASV SIEL VS-A.HK - Workshop W2, 9/F, The Bedford. No. 93 Bedford Road Tai Kok Tsui, Kowloon, HK - (852) 3590 8237 - mail@vs-a.hk - www.vs-a.net 万山丹香港 香港九龙大角咀必发道93号 The Bedford 9楼W2工作室

Components that fix the glass

Components that adjust tension

Components that allow rotation of the system

Components that fix the system to the ground

Bottom connection exploded view

VS-A.HK - Workshop W2, 9/F, The Bedford. No. 93 Bedford Road Tai Kok Tsui, Kowloon, HK - (852) 3590 8237 - mail@vs-a.hk - www.vs-a.net

326

万山丹香港 香港九龙大角咀必发道93号 The Bedford 9楼W2工作室


327


Ublo Introduction

简介

소개

Regarding airborne sound insulation, regarding antiintrusion and safety aspects, regarding the air and water tightness etc, the frame is always a weak point. Comparing to the glass, the frame is 2 to 3 times less performing in the aspect of energy loss.

窗户框架一直以来都有许多弱点,其中包括隔音,防盗,气密性 和水密性。框架比玻璃的能源性能要弱两到三倍。

방음, 방범 과 안전, 내후를 고려할 때, 창호의 프 레임은 항상 취약한 부분이다. 유리와 비교하면, 프레임은 유리보다 2~3배 에너지 손실이 더 많 다.

Addition concerns are the corner connection of frame which is another weak point in assemblage. Also, the frame has its own thermal expansion, and the bi-lame effect is a difficult technical problem to solve.

因为性能的增加使得框架价格大大增加。

With the increase performance of frame design, prices also ascend dramatically. Today we’re proud to say that there’s a new technical possibility. We have developed 2 systems that can go beyond the restrictions of frames: UBLO & UFO. UBLO is circular ventilation window which works without operating the glass part. Like opening lid of a bottle, one can turn and remove UBLO window in need of ventilation. Also operable cover part can be manufactured by 3d printing so that material, finish, handle, additional function can be customized to meet the user’s requirements. Mosquito or air filter net can be installed on the fixed frame part to enhance the comfort of interior space.

其他的需要关注的弱点包括框架角落部分组装接合,热膨胀,和 难以解决的bi-lame效應。

今天,我们自豪的说现在有新的技术潜力。我们研发了两个新的 系统可以超越框架的限制。 UBLO & UFO.

프레임의 모서리 접합은 또 다른 프레임의 취약 점이다. 프레임은 그 재료 고유의 열팽창을 하여, 이종 재료 간 다른 열팽창으로 갈라지는 현상 또 한 기술적으로 풀기 어려운 부분이다. 지난 수 십 년간 프레임의 기술과 성능이 발전하 면서, 가격 또한 극적으로 증가되게 되었다. 오늘날 우리는 새로운 가능성이 있다고, 자신 있 게 말할 수 있다. 우리는 프레임의 한계를 넘어설 수 있는 2개의 시스템을 개발했다. 바로 환기창 UBLO와 프레임 없는 창UFO이다. UBLO는 유리창을 열지 않고 창문 환기가 가능한 원형 환기창이다. 병마개를 따듯 타공된 유리에 유블로 환기창이 설치되어, 환기가 필요할 때 마 개처럼 유블로 개폐부를 돌려 뽑을 수 있다. 또한 개폐부 커버는 3d 프린트 기술을 이용하여 사용 자의 요구에 따라 재질, 마감, 손잡이, 추가 용도 를 맞춤형으로 선택할 수 있다. 고정부에는 필요 에 따라 모기장이나 공기 정화용 필터를 달아 실 내 쾌적성을 높일 수 있다.

IGU WINDOW

MOSQUITO NET / POLLUTION FILTER

FIXED FRAME OPERABLE PART

COVER

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Exploded view of UBLO


329


VISUALITY/시각성

Vision is obstructed by the frame vs clear view 유블로를 사용하면 기존 창호의 불투명한 프레임에 비해 투명성이 향상된다.유블로를 사용하면 기존 창호의 불투명한 프레임에 비해 투명성이 향상된다.

ENERGY SAVING/에너지 절약

Length of operable frames of traditional window > Length of operable frames of ublo window 개폐 프레임의 길이가 기존 창호에 비해 줄어들어 냉난방 에너지가 절약된다.

AIR QUALITY/실내 공기 Integration of micro dust air-filters can improve indoor air quality 미세먼지 필터가 삽입되어 실내 공기질을 향상시킬 수 있다.

SAFETY/안전 UBLO deters thief from getting in and prevent objects falling out of window accidentally. It also provides safety for toddlers.

NATURAL VENTILATION/

유블로는 고층건물에서도 개폐구가 작아 추락위험이 없을 뿐만 아니라 외부에서 도둑의 침입도 어렵다.

Position and size of opening can be controlled for the good ventilation. 환기구의 위치와 양이 조절될 수 있어 환기 효과를 극대화 한다.

MECHANICAL RESISTANCE/

자연 환기

내풍압성

2.3 STRESS SUMMARY

19.50 N/mm2

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27.64 N/mm2

33.51 N/mm2

32.55 N/mm2

32.18 N/mm2

32.97 N/mm2

32.86 N/mm2

32.89 N/mm2

33.01 N/mm2

33.05 N/mm2

33.16 N/mm2

33.12 N/mm2

Allowable Stress: 45.8 N/mm2 NOTE: the colors doesn’t show the allowable stress, but the the lowest (blue)

32.28 N/mm2

32.83 N/mm2

NOTE: For the stress, only the tension layer will be shown, because the stress

According to the ratio Length/Width, the maximum stress is located in either the corners, or the central part. We logically intend to locate the windows in the areas where the stress is not critical, and checked the influence of the holes on the stress inside the glass. Step by step, we checked the glass with more and more holes and it seems that some rules can be established that the holes do not influence the deflection of a glass in significant way compared to a calculation without holes 패널의 길이비율에 따라 최대응력은 모서리 혹은 중앙부에 발생한다. 우리는 최대응력지점을 피해 유블로 위치를 정하고 타공에 따른 유리의 응력을 계산하였다. 그 결과 타공이 없는 막힌 유리에 비해, 타공이 있는 유리 패널이 타공 개수에 따른 처짐의 영향을 덜 받는다는 사실을 확인했다.


ALTAR

CLOCK

MIRROR + STORAGE

AQUARIUM

MONEY BOX

SPEAKER

THERMOMETER

AROMATIC GARDEN

LIGHT

PERSONALIZATION/ 맞춤형 디자인

There are many variations on the UBLO. Integrated with a clock, a painting or art piece, an instrument, a fish tank or an LED light etc. This is a product that welcome 유블로는 그 커버가 3d 프린트로 제작될 수 있어 사용자의 기호에 따라 여러 용도(조명등, 시계, 거울, 스피커, 화분 등 )를 추가할 수 있다. 그 밖에도 유블로는 사용자의 요청에 따라 맞춤 제작이 가능하다.

331


Ufo Introduction

简介

The frame always represented a logical and necessary element of windows. Then it has been improved to follow the evolving needs of internal comfort and the apparition of common global issues. This trend was successful since more complex frames resulted in greater performance improvement.

窗框对窗户来说一直以来都是一个合逻辑和必须的元素。窗框根 据室内舒适度的要求和其他因素不断的改进,使得窗框性能大大 提高,同时亦使得构件更复杂。

However we now reached a point where improvements have been guided by the same principles for too long: more cavities, more insulation layers, more complex shapes, new materials, etc. Every “innovation” is highly increasing the price of the product, for very few new benefits. We are so proposing Ufo, a window fixing system that follows a true innovative mind: new benefits from a very simple, efficient, and cost-effective design.

332

可是,现在窗框发展被同样的原则规范太久了:更多空隙,更多 层绝缘,更复杂的几何,新材料,等等。每种“创新”都使得成 本大大的提高,价格却跟性能效益不成正比。 因此,我们提出 Ufo, 一个创新的窗户固定系统:透过简单,有 效率,和性价比高的设计带来新的效益。

소개 프레임은 창호에서 언제나 당연히 있어야 하는 존재로 인식된다. 에너지 절약 문제가 대두되면서 프레임 성능 향상이 중요한 이슈가 되었고 그 결과 프레임은 점점 고성능이 되어 두껍고 복잡해졌다. 우리는 발전과 혁신이 더욱 더 고가의 복잡한 제품이 되는 패러다임을 바꾸고 싶었다. 그래서 탄생한 제품이 프레임이 없는 창호 시스템 UFO이다. UFO는 간편하고, 저렴하면서도 열성능 효과가 뛰어나다.


FRAME (OPERABLE + FIXED)

FRAME (FIXED)

FRAMELESS

th e r ma l pe r f o r mance (Unit : mm)

EXT

Psi c

热工研究U-值比较 跟高性能PVC框对比,UFO以更简单的细节和小的体积达到更 好的性能。

Psi d

183

Red box Psi b

Wall (0.244 W/m2K)

Compared to a PVC frame with high performance, UFO can achieve better performance with simplier details and smaller size.

87

Psi a

Thermal study U-Value comparison

INT

330

INT Glazing (1.302 W/m2K)

EXT

UFO

PVC

열전달 계수 U값 비교

U-red box : 0.7536 W/m2K

U-red box(Uf) : 1.437 W/m2K

고성능 PVC 창과 비교하여 UFO 창은 더 간단한 구조로 투명하면서도 열성능은 더 우수하다.

U-glazing+frame+wall : 1.0397 W/m2K Psi a : 0.0789 W/mK Psi b : 0.0069 W/mK

U-glazing+frame+wall : 1.1340 W/m2K Psi c : 0.0614 W/mK Psi d : 0.0325 W/mK

333


Trend of thermal protection External thermal insulation is in many climates the most appropriate solution to design low-energy consuming buildings. Most of those systems have an exterior rain screen, with a ventilated air-cavity which already provides a first barrier. Inspired by this trend, we focused our system for these conditions, taking the maximum advantage of this configuration.

温度保护趋势 在大多数气候,外置绝缘在是最适合应用在低能源消耗建筑上。 这些系统大多数会有外置雨幕和通風空腔提供第一层屏障。 受这种趋势影响,我们系统专注在这些条件上,把他们的好处发 挥得淋漓尽致。

단열 방식의 새로운 추세 열교를 최소화하는 외단열 시스템은 에너지 저소비형 건물 설계에 가장 적합한 시스템이다. 외단열 시스템은 외부에 중공층과 투습막이 있어 이미 1차 방수층 역할을 한다. UFO는 외단열 시스템의 장점을 최대한 활용하여 창 프레임 없이 유리 가장자리를 외단열 안으로 넣은 시스템이다.

Appearance UFO gives a minimal and clear architectural detail of the window. The interior wall is aligned with the external finish.

外观 UFO 提供清晰和简单的窗户节点设计。内墙和外置完成面对 齐。

외관 UFO은 창틀이 없어 깔끔하고 미니멀하다. 내부 벽은 외부 마감면과 맞닿아 딱 떨어진다.

334


TO C A IN F

RY

Easy Installation No complex studies, no difficult machining, The glass supplier can prepare the glass panels, buy the clamps and directly install the panels on site. Less intermediate entities.

安装 没有复杂的研究和繁复的机械程序。玻璃生产商可以准备玻璃 面板,购买固定,然后直接在现场安装。移除生产链中间多余 的个体。

간편한 설치 복잡한 연구 과정이나 어려운 기계 결합 없이, 유리 공급자는 고정쇠를 구매하여 유리 패널을 현장에서 설치할 수 있다. UFO 시스템은 중간 개입자가 줄어드는 저렴하고 간편한 시스템이다. 335


Patterns

Introduction: Tiling

Introduction: Pavage

简介: 盖瓦

The subject is very classical. It generally consists of forming a plane from one or two blocks which are assembled in a controlled manner to form a regular geometric pattern. We think first of all to make a quick turn around, with triangular or quadrangular shapes, then we think of ESCHER (architect), the Muslim geometric art, Alhambra ... and then we discover that it is a branch of the geometry to which some mathematicians were interested ... with sometimes surprising results. The paving becomes especially interesting when one gives oneself some additional constraints, such as for example the use of a single pavement, to find in the pattern of the directions present in the project, generally orthogonal (practical to connect), to create a pavé convex, increase the number of sides ... to finally create a texture whose repetitive side disappears as much as possible.

Le sujet est des plus classiques. Il consiste généralement à former un plan à partir d’un ou deux pavés qui sont assemblés de manière réglée pour former un motif géométrique régulier. On pense d’abord pouvoir en faire vite le tour, avec des formes triangulaires ou quadrangulaires, puis on pense à ESCHER (architecte), à l’art géométrique musulman, Alhambra, … et puis on découvre que c’est une branche de la géométrie à laquelle quelques mathématiciens se sont intéressés … avec des résultats parfois étonnants. Le pavage devient surtout intéressant lorsqu’on se donne quelques contraintes en plus, comme par exemple l’utilisation d’un seul pavé, retrouver dans le motif des directions présentes dans le projet, généralement orthogonales (pratiques pour se raccorder), créer un pavé convexe, augmenter le nombre de côtés … pour, au final, créer une texture dont le côté répétitif disparait le plus possible.

这个主题非常古典。一般由一或者两个块件组成常规的几何图 案。我们一开始想到为了达到最短的周转时间,需要使用三角形 或者四边形。然后我们想到了埃舍爾(建筑师),穆斯林几何艺 术,阿罕布拉。。。然后我们发现这个主题是一门让数学家感兴 趣的几何学的分支,并经常有出乎意料的结果。 当有约束的时 候, 盖瓦变得更有趣。比如使用单块盖瓦寻找适合项目的图案, 一般使用直角(最实际的链接方法),创造凸凹形的盖瓦,多边 形,最后设计能够影藏盖瓦边部的质地。

Geometry is part of our world of facades and we like to play with. It’s decorative ... and it can even be economical. When the cost of manufacturing the tool is expensive or when, with a numerical control machine, it is known to optimize material drops, for example. Then there is only the ideal application ... 3 examples: - Pentagon - The glass of the 52 Champs Elysées - Study of ceramics.

336

La géométrie fait partie de notre monde des façades et nous aimons bien jouer avec. C’est décoratif … et ça peut même être économique. Lorsque le coût de fabrication de l’outil est onéreux ou lorsqu’avec une machine à commande numérique on sait optimiser les chutes de matière par exemple. Ensuite il n’y plus qu’à trouver l’application idéale… 3 exemples : - Pentagone, - La verrière du 52 Champs Elysées, - Etude de céramique.

几何是幕墙世界的一部分,我们热爱玩弄几何。它是装饰,同时 也可以很经济化。一般有三种理想的应用范畴: -五角形 -52香榭丽舍大街的玻璃 -陶瓷研究

소개 : 패턴 작업 타일 작업은 파사드에서 가장 고전적인 주제 중 하나이다. 일반적으로 타일링은 한 두개의 도형으로 한 면을 규칙적으로 채우는 패턴 형성 작업이다. 처음에는 삼각 혹은 사각형을 돌려 패턴을 만드는 방식을 생각하지만, 점점 에셔의 미로, 이슬람 기하 예술을 떠올리며 수학적인 접근으로 형성된 패턴을 만들어가기도 한다. 이러한 과정 중에 때로는 놀라운 패턴을 발견한다. 패턴 작업은 특히 추가적인 제약이 생길 때 흥미로워진다. 기하는 파사드에서 중요한 한 부분이며 우리가 연구하기 즐거워하는 주제이다. 이는 장식적이나 때로는 경제성의 문제(디지털 제작으로 자투리 재료를 절약 등)가 되기도 한다.


120°

150°

0° 12

90°

60°

Façade pattern studies of Pyeongchang-dong Museum(BYUN Hyojin architects). Facade pattern is composed of Asian traditional cloud pattern infill and a recently discovered paving pattern based on convex pentagons. The 15th solution was discovered by the Washington University in 2015. This pattern also had coincidentally a graphic relation with the site.

平倉洞博物馆幕墙样式研究 (BYUN Hyojin architects)。幕墙样 式以传统亚洲云朵图案和凸五角形做基础。第十五个方案由华盛 顿大学在2015年研发。这个几何同时呼应基地形式。

평창동 미술문화복합공간 프로젝트 (건축가: 변효진)의 패턴 스터디. 오각형을 60도씩 회전 및 결합시켜 만든 수학적이고 대지 모양을 떠올리는 다각형 기하 패턴은 동양의 구름 형상 패턴과 결합되어 원형과 곡선을 형성한다.

337


Geometric Patterns (ceramic) Introduction: Tiling

简介: 砖瓦

The concept is to create a ceramic cladding to provide thermal comfort to the space within.

设计理念是创造出陶瓷包板,通过空间间缝,营造 出合理的室内热舒适度。

The usual ceramic tile can overheat quite easily and is not good for ventilation. These two topics of heat control and ventilation are solved in the VS-A innovative ceramic.

通常瓷砖砖瓦很容易过热,并且通风效果较差。 这两大难题在VS-A的创新陶瓷砖瓦系统中得到了 解决。

PERSP VIEW

338


Geometric concept

几何概念

Grid functions as as base in order to create geometrical patterns. Within this research we use perpendicular elements as base of the grids. Grid can also be diversed with regard to distance between each grid element. By varying the distance and the shift of each grid, we come to 4 basic grids.

这些几何图案及样式以一个网格为基础。在这项研究里,我们使 用了直立元素为网格基础。这个网格可以根据每个元素的距离而 变异。透过改变每个网格的距离,我们设计出四种基本网格。

Departing from a simple grid to double-shifted-grid, we try to fill in the spaces with lines. Some rules were being put out as limitations. These limitations are as well the trigger to search for new patterns. Four patterns came out as a result of our research.

从简单的网格延伸到双移动网格,我们尝试把空间以线填充。有 些规则被幻想成限制。这些限制使得我们能够寻找新的样式。最 后,我们的研究得到了四种样式。 这些样式的幕墙应用结果在最后展示。

Application of these patterns on the facades are shown as a result at the end.

339


Icosahedral glass ball Context

背景

VS-A.HK likes to develop complex shapes, and to find mathematic rules to make them easier and thus less expensive to fabricate. In this example, we were looking for the best way to make a glass sphere, based on a repetition of identical parts. The size of each part varies according to the requirement for the glass: it will be smaller if it needs to be tempered, while it is possible to design a sphere of almost 17m diameter, with 60 identical annealed glasses. Still, only a few manufactures in the world can make them.

VS-A.HK 热爱研发复杂几何,并寻找数学法则使得复杂几何的 生产更简单和便宜。本案例的目的是基于使用重复和相同构件, 寻找最优化的方法生产玻璃球体。构件的大小因玻璃规格而异: 如果需要使用钢化玻璃,构件尺寸会较小。玻璃球如使用退火玻 璃,可用60块玻璃面板做到直径17米的大小。可是,暂时世界 上只有几家生产商有足够能力制造。

ICOSAHEDRAL GLASS BALL 08-09-2016

ICOSAHEDRAL GLASS BALL 08-09-2016

.HK

.HK

这种方法和一般使用Rhinoceros 和 Evolute 设计的几何相反, 后者一般会使得生产成本极为昂贵。但是,有时候我们也会被要 求研发这种高成本几何。

This is a totally opposite approach to all the randomly double curved shapes that can so easily be designed with tools like Rhinoceros and Evolute, and that are often so unnecessarily expensive to manufacture. But we are sometimes asked to develop such shapes too! TYPE A:

TYPE A:

LAMINATED + HEAT STRENGTHENED/ TEMPERED (HST) GLASS MAX. PRODUCTION SIZE: 2100 X 3100

LAMINATED + HEAT STRENGTHENED/ TEMPERED (HST) GLASS MAX. PRODUCTION SIZE: 2100 X 3100

Ø = 9603MM

Ø = 7587MM

Ø = 9603MM

Ø = 4129MM

Ø = 7587MM

TYPE B:

TYPE B:

Ø = 4129MM 20 EQUAL SPHERICAL TRIANGLES

60 EQUAL SPHERICAL ‘KITES’

60 EQUAL SPHERICAL QUADRILATERALS’

20 EQUAL SPHERICAL TRIANGLES

60 EQUAL SPHERICAL ‘KITES’

60 EQUAL SPHERICAL QUADRILATERALS’

LAMINATED + ANNEALED GLASS MAX. PRODUCTION SIZE: 3200 X 6000

LAMINATED + ANNEALED GLASS MAX. PRODUCTION SIZE: 3200 X 6000

Ø = 11561MM

Ø = 6291MM

Ø = 16933MM

Ø = 16933MM

Ø = 11561MM

Ø = 6291MM

20 EQUAL SPHERICAL TRIANGLES

60 EQUAL SPHERICAL ‘KITES’

60 EQUAL SPHERICAL QUADRILATERALS’

VS-A.HK - Unit 708, Prosperity Center, 77-81 Container Port Road, Kwai Chung, N.T., HK - (852) 3590 8237 - mail@vs-a.hk - www.vs-a.net

340

Page 3

万山丹香港 香港新界葵涌货柜码头路 77-81 号大鸿辉中心 708 室

20 EQUAL

60 EQUAL

60 EQUAL


ICOSAHEDRAL GLASS BALL

.HK

08-09-2016

ICOSAHEDRON INSCRIBED IN SPHERE

ICOSAHEDRAL GLASS BALL This document is to determine the maximum possible diameter for a sphere which could be divided into Iden�cal Glass panels.For achieving this, our approach is to start from the biggest platonic solidthe Icosahedron, which is inscribed in a sphere, and further subdivided into iden�cal elements in different ways. Type A: The Glass panels are to be Laminated and are either heat-strenghened, or tempered with heat soak test (HST). The maximum produc�on size for this type of glass is 2100mm x 3100mm for double curved surfaces. Type B: The Glass panels are to be Laminated and are annealed. The maximum produc�on size for this type of glass is 3200mm x 6000mm for double curved surfaces. 3 op�ons for dividing the sphere into spherical panels are presented below.

OPTION 1: 20 EQUAL SPHERICAL TRIANGLES

TYPE A Laminated + Tempered (HST)

MAX. DIAMETER POSSIBLE. D mm

L1

L2

L3

L4

L5

L6

H

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

OPTION1 (20 PANELS) OPTION 2 (60 PANELS) OPTION 3 (60 PANELS)

4129 7587 9603

2290 2100 421 2100 1384 774 2100 3100 980

TYPE B Laminated + Annealed

MAX. DIAMETER POSSIBLE. D mm

L1

L2

L3

L4

L5

L6

H

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

OPTION1 (20 PANELS) OPTION 2 (60 PANELS) OPTION 3 (60 PANELS)

6291 11561 16933

3483 3200 642 3200 2109 1180 3200 6000 1728

OPTION 2: 60 EQUAL SPHERICAL ‘KITES’

VS-A.HK - Unit 708, Prosperity Center, 77-81 Container Port Road, Kwai Chung, N.T., HK - (852) 3590 8237 - mail@vs-a.hk - www.vs-a.net 万山丹香港 香港新界葵涌货柜码头路 77-81 号大鸿辉中心 708 室

OPTION 3: 60 EQUAL SPHERICAL QUADRILATERALS

Page 2

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2.17 2.17 2.18 2.18 2.19 2.19 2.2 2.2 2.21 2.21 2.22 2.22 2.23 2.23 2.24 2.24 2.25 2.25 2.26 2.26 2.27 2.27 2.28 2.28 2.29 2.29 2.3 2.3 2.31 2.31 2.31 2.32 2.32 2.33 2.33 2.34 2.34 2.35 2.35 2.36 2.36 2.37 2.37 2.38 2.38 2.39 2.39 2.4 2.4 2.41 2.41 2.42 2.42 2.43 2.43 2.44 2.44 2.45 2.45 2.46 2.46 2.47 2.47 2.48 2.48 2.49 2.49 2.5 2.5 2.51 2.51 2.52 2.52 2.52 2.53 2.53 2.54 2.54 2.55 342 2.55 2.56

55.66 55.66 55.64 55.64 55.62 55.62 55.6 55.6 55.58 55.58 55.56 55.56 55.54 55.54 55.52 55.52 55.5 55.5 55.48 55.48 55.46 55.46 55.44 55.44 55.42 55.42 55.4 55.4 55.38 55.38 55.38 55.36 55.36 55.34 55.34 55.32 55.32 55.3 55.3 55.28 55.28 55.26 55.26 55.24 55.24 55.22 55.22 55.2 55.2 55.18 55.18 55.16 55.16 55.14 55.14 55.12 55.12 55.1 55.1 55.08 55.08 55.06 55.06 55.04 55.04 55.02 55.02 55 55 54.98 54.98 54.96 54.96 54.96 54.94 54.94 54.92 54.92 54.9 54.9 54.88

220.66 221.66 222.64 223.64 224.62 225.62 226.6 227.6 228.58 229.58 230.56 231.56 232.54 233.54 234.52 235.52 236.5 237.5 238.48 239.48 240.46 241.46 242.44 243.44 244.42 245.42 246.4 247.4 248.38 249.38 250.38 251.36 252.36 253.34 254.34 255.32 256.32 257.3 258.3 259.28 260.28 261.26 262.26 263.24 264.24 265.22 266.22 267.2 268.2 269.18 270.18 271.16 272.16 273.14 274.14 275.12 276.12 277.1 278.1 279.08 280.08 281.06 282.06 283.04 284.04 285.02 286.02 287 288 288.98 289.98 290.96 291.96 292.96 293.94 294.94 295.92 296.92 297.9 298.9 299.88

232.863 233.829 234.796 235.763 236.73 237.697 238.665 239.633 240.601 241.57 242.539 243.508 244.477 245.447 246.416 247.386 248.357 249.327 250.298 251.269 252.24 253.211 254.183 255.155 256.127 257.099 258.072 259.044 260.017 260.99 261.964 262.937 263.911 264.885 265.859 266.833 267.808 268.782 269.757 270.732 271.708 272.683 273.659 274.634 275.61 276.586 277.563 278.539 279.516 280.492 281.469 282.446 283.424 284.401 285.379 286.356 287.334 288.312 289.291 290.269 291.247 292.226 293.205 294.184 295.163 296.142 297.121 298.101 299.08 300.06 301.04 302.02 303 303.98 304.961 305.941 306.922 307.903 308.883 309.864 310.846

1218.06 1222.4 1232.31 1236.67 1246.64 1251.02 1261.04 1265.44 1275.52 1279.94 1290.09 1294.53 1304.73 1309.19 1319.45 1323.93 1334.25 1338.75 1349.13 1353.65 1364.09 1368.63 1379.13 1383.69 1394.24 1398.82 1409.44 1414.04 1424.72 1429.34 1433.96 1444.71 1449.35 1460.16 1464.82 1475.7 1480.38 1491.31 1496.01 1507 1511.72 1522.77 1527.51 1538.62 1543.38 1554.55 1559.33 1570.56 1575.36 1586.65 1591.47 1602.81 1607.65 1619.06 1623.92 1635.39 1640.27 1651.79 1656.69 1668.27 1673.19 1684.84 1689.78 1701.48 1706.44 1718.2 1723.18 1735 1740 1751.88 1756.9 1768.84 1773.88 1778.92 1790.94 1796 1808.07 1813.15 1825.29 1830.39 1842.59

3.28877 3.30049 3.32724 3.33901 3.36592 3.37774 3.40481 3.41669 3.44391 3.45585 3.48323 3.49522 3.52277 3.53481 3.56251 3.57461 3.60248 3.61463 3.64265 3.65485 3.68304 3.6953 3.72364 3.73595 3.76446 3.77682 3.80549 3.81791 3.84673 3.85921 3.87168 3.90072 3.91325 3.94244 3.95503 3.98438 3.99702 4.02654 4.03923 4.0689 4.08165 4.11149 4.12428 4.15428 4.16713 4.19729 4.2102 4.24051 4.25347 4.28395 4.29696 4.3276 4.34067 4.37146 4.38459 4.41554 4.42872 4.45983 4.47306 4.50434 4.51762 4.54906 4.5624 4.59399 4.60738 4.63914 4.65258 4.6845 4.698 4.73007 4.74363 4.77586 4.78947 4.80308 4.83553 4.84919 4.8818 4.89551 4.92828 4.94205 4.97498

227.784658 228.836255 229.915037 230.966052 232.04453 233.094989 234.173188 235.223114 236.301058 237.350476 238.428187 239.477119 240.55462 241.603085 242.680397 Introduction 243.728418 244.805559 The idea for this research & development is related to a 245.853154 fast-track project in Beijing, concerning the refurbishment 246.930146 of the faรงades of a recently build although abandoned 247.977334 industrial building. 249.054193 250.100991 We quickly concluded that we had to explore what is the 251.177736 cheapest way to build a glass curtain-wall. This constraint 252.224162 will become the general concept: how does a glass curtain253.300809 wall look like when all its parts are value engineered to the 254.346879 most extreme limit without altering any of its functionalities. 255.423444 256.469175 The study, initially targeting to design a specific faรงade 257.545674 for one project, will in reality lead to a product that is 258.591079 designed without even considering any architectural design intention. Doing so, the product becomes kind 259.636264 of universal, with multiple applications. We can say, 260.712621 modestly, that it applies everywhere in the world. 261.757502 262.833829 263.87842 264.95473 265.999044 267.075351 268.1194 269.195715 270.239512 271.315848 272.359404 273.435772 274.479098 275.555509 276.598616 277.675082 278.717979 279.794509 280.837208 281.913812 282.956321 284.033009 285.075339 286.152119 287.194277 288.27116 289.313155 290.390148 291.431989 292.509101 293.550795 294.628034 295.669589 296.746963 297.788387 298.865902 299.907201 300.984866 302.026048 303.103869 304.14494 305.185896 306.263891 307.304745 308.382913 309.423672 310.502019 311.542689 312.621221

7118316.071 7200462.971 7315410.49 7399155.128 7516444.043 7601806.189 7721467.122 7808466.665 7930530.427 8019187.372 8143684.969 8234019.441 8360982.071 8453014.311 8582473.366 8676223.732 8808210.797 8903699.766 9038246.617 9135494.783 9272633.39 9371661.465 9511423.991 9612252.804 9754671.606 9857322.103 10002429.73 10106922.98 10254752.17 10361109.35 10468181.19 10619935.45 10728900.21 10883455.82 10994334.96 11151725.33 11264540.42 11424799.13 11539571.87 11702732.71 11819484.9 11985581.85 12104335.42 12273402.64 12394179.63 12566251.5 12689074.08 12864185.14 12989075.59 13167260.59 13294241.3 13475535.19 13604628.69 13789066.59 13920295.5 14107912.76 14241299.83 14432131.95 14567700.06 14761782.75 14899554.88 15096924.06 15236923.31 15437615.08 15579864.67 15783915.31 15928438.59 16135884.58 16282705 16493583.03 16642724.16 16857071.1 17008556.64 17160929.11 17380263.29 17535012.51 17757905.31 17915055.24 18141544.19 18301118.91 18531241.74

Cheapest glass curtain-wall in China

60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60

225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305

2.17 2.17 2.18 2.18 2.19 2.19 2.2 2.2 2.21 2.21 2.22 2.22 2.23 2.23 2.24 2.24 2.25 2.25 2.26 2.26 2.27 2.27 2.28 2.28 2.29 2.29 2.3 2.3 2.31 2.31 2.31 2.32 2.32 2.33 2.33 2.34 2.34 2.35 2.35 2.36 2.36 2.37 2.37 2.38 2.38 2.39 2.39 2.4 2.4 2.41 2.41 2.42 2.42 2.43 2.43 2.44 2.44 2.45 2.45 2.46 2.46 2.47 2.47 2.48 2.48 2.49 2.49 2.5 2.5 2.51 2.51 2.52 2.52 2.52 2.53 2.53 2.54 2.54 2.55 2.55 2.56


7 7 8 8 9 9 2 2 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 3 3 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 4 4 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 5 5 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6

2.17 2.17 2.18 2.18 2.19 2.19 2.2 2.2 2.21 2.21 2.22 2.22 2.23 2.23 2.24 2.24 2.25 2.25 2.26 2.26 2.27 2.27 2.28 2.28 2.29 2.29 2.3 2.3 2.31 2.31 2.31 2.32 2.32 2.33 2.33 2.34 2.34 2.35 2.35 2.36 2.36 2.37 2.37 2.38 2.38 2.39 2.39 2.4 2.4 2.41 2.41 2.42 2.42 2.43 2.43 2.44 2.44 2.45 2.45 2.46 2.46 2.47 2.47 2.48 2.48 2.49 2.49 2.5 2.5 2.51 2.51 2.52 2.52 2.52 2.53 2.53 2.54 2.54 2.55 2.55 2.56

55.66 55.66 55.64 55.64 55.62 55.62 55.6 55.6 55.58 55.58 55.56 55.56 55.54 55.54 55.52 55.52 55.5 55.5 55.48 55.48 55.46 55.46 55.44 55.44 55.42 55.42 55.4 55.4 55.38 55.38 55.38 55.36 55.36 55.34 55.34 55.32 55.32 55.3 55.3 55.28 55.28 55.26 55.26 55.24 55.24 55.22 55.22 55.2 55.2 55.18 55.18 55.16 55.16 55.14 55.14 55.12 55.12 55.1 55.1 55.08 55.08 55.06 55.06 55.04 55.04 55.02 55.02 55 55 54.98 54.98 54.96 54.96 54.96 54.94 54.94 54.92 54.92 54.9 54.9 54.88

220.66 221.66 222.64 223.64 224.62 225.62 226.6 227.6 228.58 229.58 230.56 231.56 232.54 233.54 234.52 235.52 236.5 237.5 238.48 239.48 240.46 241.46 242.44 243.44 244.42 245.42 246.4 247.4 248.38 249.38 250.38 251.36 252.36 253.34 254.34 255.32 256.32 257.3 258.3 259.28 260.28 261.26 262.26 263.24 264.24 265.22 266.22 267.2 268.2 269.18 270.18 271.16 272.16 273.14 274.14 275.12 276.12 277.1 278.1 279.08 280.08 281.06 282.06 283.04 284.04 285.02 286.02 287 288 288.98 289.98 290.96 291.96 292.96 293.94 294.94 295.92 296.92 297.9 298.9 299.88

232.863 233.829 234.796 235.763 236.73 237.697 238.665 239.633 240.601 241.57 242.539 243.508 244.477 245.447 246.416 247.386 248.357 249.327 250.298 251.269 252.24 253.211 254.183 255.155 256.127 257.099 258.072 259.044 260.017 260.99 261.964 262.937 263.911 264.885 265.859 266.833 267.808 268.782 269.757 270.732 271.708 272.683 273.659 274.634 275.61 276.586 277.563 278.539 279.516 280.492 281.469 282.446 283.424 284.401 285.379 286.356 287.334 288.312 289.291 290.269 291.247 292.226 293.205 294.184 295.163 296.142 297.121 298.101 299.08 300.06 301.04 302.02 303 303.98 304.961 305.941 306.922 307.903 308.883 309.864 310.846

1218.06 1222.4 1232.31 1236.67 1246.64 1251.02 1261.04 1265.44 1275.52 1279.94 1290.09 1294.53 1304.73 1309.19 1319.45 1323.93 1334.25 1338.75 1349.13 1353.65 1364.09 1368.63 1379.13 1383.69 1394.24 1398.82 1409.44 1414.04 1424.72 1429.34 1433.96 1444.71 1449.35 1460.16 1464.82 1475.7 1480.38 1491.31 1496.01 1507 1511.72 1522.77 1527.51 1538.62 1543.38 1554.55 1559.33 1570.56 1575.36 1586.65 1591.47 1602.81 1607.65 1619.06 1623.92 1635.39 1640.27 1651.79 1656.69 1668.27 1673.19 1684.84 1689.78 1701.48 1706.44 1718.2 1723.18 1735 1740 1751.88 1756.9 1768.84 1773.88 1778.92 1790.94 1796 1808.07 1813.15 1825.29 1830.39 1842.59

3.28877 230.66437 3.28877388 3.30049 231.69005 3.30049188 3.32724 232.74361 3.32723808 3.33901 233.7694 3.33901008 3.36592 234.82333 3.36591612 3.37774 235.84923 3.37774212 3.40481 236.90353 3.404808 3.41669 237.92956 3.416688 3.44391 238.98423 3.44391372 3.45585 240.01037 3.45584772 3.48323 241.06542 3.48323328 3.49522 242.09167 3.49522128 3.52277 243.1471 3.52276668 3.53481 244.17347 3.53480868 3.56251 245.22927 3.56251392 简介 3.57461 246.25576 3.57460992 3.60248 247.31194 3.602475 这个研究和开发项目和一个快速的北京项目有关。项目目的是翻新 3.61463 248.33854 3.614625 一栋荒废工业大夏的幕墙。 3.64265 249.3951 3.64264992 3.65485 250.42181 3.65485392 我们很快就有了想法:研发最便宜的玻璃幕墙系统。这个约束就变 3.68304 251.47875 3.68303868 成了项目的主要概念:当一个幕墙系统的所有构件都经过价值工程 3.6953 252.50558 3.69529668 优化到最极端的限制,同时不影响功能的时候会是什么样子。 3.72364 253.5629 3.72364128 3.73595 254.58985 3.73595328 这项研究本身是根据项目对成本约束而定制,并没有任何建筑上设 计上的意图。因此,此产品会成为能够万能地应用在其他不同的项 3.76446 255.64754 3.76445772 目上。我们可以谦虚的说,此产品能够应用在世界上任何地方。 3.77682 256.67461 3.77682372 3.80549 257.73268 3.805488 3.81791 258.75987 3.817908 3.84673 259.81832 3.84673212 3.85921 260.84563 3.85920612 3.87168012 3.87168 261.87293 3.90072 262.93188 3.90071808 3.91325 263.95931 3.91324608 3.94244 265.01864 3.94244388 3.95503 266.04618 3.95502588 3.98438 267.1059 3.98438352 3.99701952 3.99702 268.13355 4.02654 269.19365 4.026537 4.03923 270.22143 4.039227 4.0689 271.28191 4.06890432 4.08165 272.30981 4.08164832 4.11149 273.37067 4.11148548 4.12428 274.39869 4.12428348 4.15428 275.45994 4.15428048 4.16713 276.48807 4.16713248 4.19729 277.5497 4.19728932 4.2102 278.57796 4.21019532 4.24051 279.63997 4.240512 4.25347 280.66835 4.253472 4.28395 281.73075 4.28394852 4.29696 282.75924 4.29696252 4.3276 283.82203 4.32759888 4.34067 284.85064 4.34066688 4.37146 285.91381 4.37146308 4.38459 286.94255 4.38458508 4.41554 288.00611 4.41554112 4.42872 289.03496 4.42871712 4.45983 290.09891 4.459833 4.47306 291.12788 4.473063 4.50434 292.19221 4.50433872 4.51762 293.22131 4.51762272 4.54906 294.28603 4.54905828 4.5624 295.31525 4.56239628 4.59399 296.38036 4.59399168 4.60738 297.4097 4.60738368 4.63914 298.47519 4.63913892 4.65258 299.50465 4.65258492 4.6845 300.57053 4.6845 4.698 301.60012 4.698 4.73007 302.66639 4.73007492 4.74363 303.69609 4.74362892 4.77586368 4.77586 304.76275 4.78947 305.79258 4.78947168 4.80308 306.8224 4.80307968 4.83553 307.88958 4.83552828 4.84919 308.91953 4.84919028 4.8818 309.98709 4.88179872 4.89551 311.01716 4.89551472 4.92828 312.08512 4.928283 4.94205 313.11531 4.942053 4.97498 314.18365 4.97498112

6.57754776 6.60098376 6.65447616 6.67802016 6.73183224 6.75548424 6.809616 6.833376 6.88782744 6.91169544 6.96646656 6.99044256 7.04553336 7.06961736 7.12502784 7.14921984 7.20495 7.22925 7.28529984 7.30970784 7.36607736 7.39059336 7.44728256 7.47190656 7.52891544 7.55364744 7.610976 7.635816 7.69346424 7.71841224 7.74336024 7.80143616 7.82649216 7.88488776 7.91005176 7.96876704 7.99403904 8.053074 8.078454 8.13780864 8.16329664 8.22297096 8.24856696 8.30856096 8.33426496 8.39457864 8.42039064 8.481024 8.506944 8.56789704 8.59392504 8.65519776 8.68133376 8.74292616 8.76917016 8.83108224 8.85743424 8.919666 8.946126 9.00867744 9.03524544 9.09811656 9.12479256 9.18798336 9.21476736 9.27827784 9.30516984 9.369 9.396 9.46014984 9.48725784 9.55172736 9.57894336 9.60615936 9.67105656 9.69838056 9.76359744 9.79102944 9.856566 9.884106 9.94996224

9.86632164 9.90147564 9.98171424 10.0170302 10.0977484 10.1332264 10.214424 10.250064 10.3317412 10.3675432 10.4496998 10.4856638 10.5683 10.604426 10.6875418 10.7238298 10.807425 10.843875 10.9279498 10.9645618 11.049116 11.08589 11.1709238 11.2078598 11.2933732 11.3304712 11.416464 11.453724 11.5401964 11.5776184 11.6150404 11.7021542 11.7397382 11.8273316 11.8650776 11.9531506 11.9910586 12.079611 12.117681 12.206713 12.244945 12.3344564 12.3728504 12.4628414 12.5013974 12.591868 12.630586 12.721536 12.760416 12.8518456 12.8908876 12.9827966 13.0220006 13.1143892 13.1537552 13.2466234 13.2861514 13.379499 13.419189 13.5130162 13.5528682 13.6471748 13.6871888 13.781975 13.822151 13.9174168 13.9577548 14.0535 14.094 14.1902248 14.2308868 14.327591 14.368415 14.409239 14.5065848 14.5475708 14.6453962 14.6865442 14.784849 14.826159 14.9249434

21.70590761 21.78324641 21.95977133 22.03746653 22.21504639 22.29309799 22.4717328 22.5501408 22.72983055 22.80859495 22.98933965 23.06846045 23.25026009 23.32973729 23.51259187 23.59242547 23.776335 23.856525 24.04148947 24.12203587 24.30805529 24.38895809 24.57603245 24.65729165 24.84542095 24.92703655 25.1162208 25.1981928 25.38843199 25.47076039 25.55308879 25.74473933 25.82742413 26.02012961 26.10317081 26.29693123 26.38032883 26.5751442 26.6588982 26.85476851 26.93887891 27.13580417 27.22027097 27.41825117 27.50307437 27.70210951 27.78728911 27.9873792 28.0729152 28.27406023 28.35995263 28.56215261 28.64840141 28.85165633 28.93826153 29.14257139 29.22953299 29.4348978 29.5222158 29.72863555 29.81630995 30.02378465 30.11181545 30.32034509 30.40873229 30.61831687 30.70706047 30.9177 31.0068 31.21849447 31.30795087 31.52070029 31.61051309 31.70032589 31.91448665 32.00465585 32.21987155 32.31039715 32.5266678 343 32.6175498 32.83487539


Mediaskin with CLFX Introduction

简介

MEDIASKIN is a revolutionary LED display that is integrated in the buildings glass facade. It can display video when seen form the outside, but works like a normal window from the inside. Because it has minimal impact on view and daylight for the users inside, it allows building owners to turn entire buildings into video displays without compromising the buildings use and operation. This product is developed by CLFX, a Chinese firm with international partners. First full scale mock-ups have been built in 2017, while the first projects will start in 2018.

MEDIASKIN 是一个革命性的LED玻璃幕墙植入屏幕。从外面 看,幕墙是一个播放影片的屏幕,而从里面看则是一面常规的玻 璃窗户。此产品对景观和日照有很少的影响,使得业主能够把整 座建筑变成影片屏幕,同时不需要和建筑的日常使用和运作有任 何冲突。这个产品由CLFX研发,一家国际性的中国事务所。第 一个全尺寸的样板在2017完成,第一个使用本产品的项目会在 2018启动。

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VS-A Index II  
VS-A Index II  
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