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Symphony of Northwest Arkansas

Masterworks II: Carmina Burana February 1, 2020 Walton Arts Center Paul Haas, conductor

finesse, using the orchestra’s different instrumental groups—strings, woodwinds, brass, and percussion—in broad brush strokes that propel the musical narrative. The Thunder Bay Symphony premiered Angelique last winter under Maestro Haas’ direction. This is the second performance. Haas’ score takes advantage of the larger orchestral forces available this evening; tonight’s performance is the premiere of his revised version.

Carmina Burana Carl Orff b 10 July 1895, Munich, Germany d 29 March 1982, Munich, Germany


Carl Orff once said: “Music has little or no raison d’être apart from the words to which it is fashioned.” What a tribute to his gift as a composer

Paul Haas

that Carmina Burana, his 1937 choral masterpiece, has such visceral

b 18 January 1971, San Francisco, California

impact and immediate appeal apart from its hedonistic texts! But words are crucial to a maximum appreciation of this remarkable work, which

A biography of Paul Haas appears on page 4 of tonight’s program.

Orff thought of as a theatrical cantata. While Carmina Burana is usually presented in concert today, the original texts are highly dramatic, a

The impetus for Angelique is a book by James Stevens published in

quality that is essential to an understanding of Orff’s unique settings—

2010. It is the story of Angelique Mott, a 17-year-old woman from the

and that lends itself very well to the dance.

Métis (a Canadian of mixed indigenous and French ancestry) who was abandoned on a Lake Superior island from summer 1845 until spring

An ancient manuscript: the sacred and the profane

1846. Thunder Bay filmmaker Michelle Desrosier—an indigenous woman

The manuscript from which Orff took his texts for Carmina Burana

herself—subsequently made Stevens’ book into an award-winning

was discovered at the Benediktbeuern monastery in the Bavarian Alps

screenplay; her film, Angelique’s Isle, was released in 2018.

by Johann Andreas Schmeller, who published it in 1847. Dating from the 11th through 13th centuries, the poetic texts are a wide-ranging

James Stevens’ book made a powerful impression on Paul Haas. His

compendium of languages and subjects. Topics range from love poetry,

composer’s note explains.

satirical verse and drinking songs to liturgical dramas, moral lessons, and praise of Alexander the Great. A few are in medieval German, others

In early 2018 I read a fascinating book called Angelique, which

in Latin, still more in old French. They deal with religion and moral issues,

tells the true and riveting tale of a Métis woman stranded with

the worldly and the metaphysical. Simple language in some of the poems

her husband on Isle Royale over the long and brutal winter. (The

ranges in content from naïve to vulgar. Other, more sophisticated texts

men who hired them to find and guard a huge boulder of copper

include both cynical and philosophical points of view. Authors of wide

promise to return shortly, but they never return.) She survives, but

educational and cultural backgrounds contributed to the compilation.

her husband does not. Stevens’ story inspired me to pay musical homage to this incredible woman. I wanted to portray glimpses of

Orff was a late bloomer as a composer. Born in Munich in 1895, he

time and emotion—this was not to be a retelling of the plot. The

studied at that city’s Akademie für Tonkunst. For many years he earned

first movement is a backdrop of how greed and grasping shape our

his living as a theatrical rehearsal pianist, an experience that gave him

history. The second and third movements are musical miniatures,

a keen understanding of the mechanics of drama. In the 1920s he

showing us Angelique’s wise and magical mother and then the

adapted several works by Monteverdi for the stage. He later directed the

whimsical Angelique herself. The fourth is the fateful lake voyage,

Munich Bach Society for several years. These experiences developed his

with all of its ominous forebodings, and the fifth is the moment

strong interest in early music.

when all water has turned to ice. The sixth and final movement is the heart of the piece. It represents for me the most extreme

Reconciling old and new

moment for Angelique, when she finds her dead husband and

Orff became acquainted with the Benediktbeuern manuscript in the

somehow transforms that pain into an unimaginable resilience.

early 1930s. He was fascinated by the sounds of its medieval languages.

The cover of the beautifully illuminated manuscript, depicting a wheel of

Haas’ music is richly evocative of the heroine’s shifting states of mind

fortune, also made a big impression on him. Its musical manifestation

over the course of her journey. He manages tension and anxiety with

was the massive hymn Fortune that frames Carmina Burana.

Carmina Burana was Orff’s first major composition, and the first one that

Part II, In Taberna [In the Tavern] belongs to the men: the tortured

satisfied him; he repudiated his earlier works. He selected his texts with

hypocrite with craven heart (baritone solo); the swan roasting on the spit,

discrimination, seeking to set them in a manner that would be consistent

lamenting his former domain as he contemplates being devoured by the

not only with the medieval poems but also with the vocabulary of 20th

hungry men who fill the tavern (tenor solo and men’s chorus); the corrupt

century music. He bypassed the old French texts in favor of those in old

abbot who drinks, among other vices (baritone and men’s chorus), and

German and Latin. In his music, he sought to echo the simple and naïve

finally In taberna, one of the greatest drinking songs ever composed.

style of the poems; thus Carmina Burana contains primarily strophic songs with little or no variation in verses. Orff’s melodies are diatonic and

Part III is called The Court of Love. Orff manipulates the texts and his

frequently scalar; a couple of them are strongly flavored by

musical resources in a mini-drama of contemplated love, indecision (In

Gregorian chant.

trutina, soprano solo), seduction, and the joy of ultimate surrender to passion (Dulcissime, soprano solo). Following the exultant Blanziflor et

His rhythm, by contrast, is enormously complex. Vibrant, driven and

Helena hymn, his repetition of the Fortune chorus reminds us that all

atavistic, the primitive pulsation of Carmina Burana unites medieval

human happiness is transitory.

peasantry with sophisticated effects available from a bevy of modern instruments. In particular, an expanded percussion section provides much

Throughout Carmina Burana, Orff’s vocal tessitura is abnormally high.

of the vivid color so essential to Carmina’s impact. The score also calls

We notice this characteristic more in the melismatic solo numbers,

for two pianos, which supersede the more conventional role that might

particularly those for soprano and tenor. But the soloists never obscure

be taken by harp in another composer’s work. Their combined role flavors

the prominent role of the chorus, which is central to the work’s narrative,

some choruses (Ecce gratum) and dominates the musical fabric in others

sensual and musical power.

(Veni, veni, venias). The score calls for a large orchestra: triple woodwind, four horns, three The big picture: a journey from springtime, to the tavern, to

trumpets, three trombones, tuba, timpani, a huge percussion battery

consummated love

requiring five players (xylophone, castanets, ratchet, sleigh bells, triangle,

The work divides into three principal segments. They are preceded by

crotales, cymbals, tam tam, chimes, tambourine, bass drum, three

Fortune, Empress of the World, which serves as an introduction and

glockenspiels, two suspended cymbals, two side drums, and a second set

returns to conclude the work. The first section, Spring, is a celebration of

of timpani), two pianos, celesta and strings.

youth and the promise of the season. It introduces the theme of love and

the eternal games played by young people of both sexes seeking to attract

Program Notes by Laurie Shulman © 2020

one another.

First North American Serial Rights Only







1.O FORTUNE Fortune plango vulnera

I bemoan the wounds of Fortune

O Fortuna,

O Fortune,

stillantibus ocellis,

with weeping eyes,

velut Luna

Like the moon

quod sua michi munera

for the gifts she made me

statu variabilis,

You are changeable,

subtrahit rebellis.

she perversely takes away.

semper crescis

ever waxing

Verum est, quod legitur

It is written in truth,

aut decrescis;

and waning.

fronte capillata,

that she has a fine head of hair,

vita detestabilis

Hateful life,

sed plerumque sequitur

but, when it comes to seizing an

nunc obdurat

first oppresses,

et tunc curat

and then soothes

ludo mentis aciem,

as fancy takes it;

egestatem, potestatem dissolvit ut glaciem.

opportunity, Occasio calvata.

she is bald.


In Fortune solio

On Fortune’s throne

and power

sederam elatus,

I used to sit raised up,

it melts them like ice.

prosperitatis vario

crowned with

flore coronatus;

the many-colored flowers of

Sors immanis

Fate - monstrous

et inanis,

and empty,

quicquid enim florui

though I may have flourished

rota tu volubilis,

you whirling wheel,

felix et beatus,

happy and blessed,

status malus,

you are malevolent,

nunc a summo corrui

now I fall from the peak

vana salus

well-being is in vain

gloria privatus.

deprived of glory.

semper dissolubilis,

and always fades to nothing,



Fortune rota volvitur:

The wheel of Fortune turns:

et velata

and veiled

descendo minoratus;

I go down, demeaned;

michi quoque niteris;

you plague me too;

alter in altum tollitur;

another is raised up;

nunc per ludum

now through the game

nimis exaltatus

far too high up

dorsum nudum

I bring my bare back

rex sedet in vertice

sits the king at the summit –

fero tui sceleris.

To your villainy.

caveat ruinam!

let him fear ruin!

nam sub axe legimus

for under the axis is written

Hecubam reginam.

Queen Hecuba.


Sors salutis

Fate is against me

et virtutis

in health

michi nunc contraria

and virtue,



est affectus

driven on



et defectus

and weighted down,

semper in angaria.

always enslaved.

Veris leta facies

The merry face of spring

Hac in hora

So at this hour

mundo propinatur,

turns to the world,

sine mora

without delay

hiemalis acies

sharp winter

corde pulsum tangite;

pluck the vibrating strings;

victa iam fugatur,

now flees, vanquished;

quod per sortem

since Fate

in vestitu vario

bedecked in various colors

sternit fortem,

strikes down the strong man,

Flora principatur,

Flora reigns,

mecum omnes plangite!

everyone weep with me!

nemorum dulcisono

the harmony of the woods

que cantu celebratur.

praises her in song. Ah!



Flore fusus gremio

Lying in Flora’s lap

Phoebus novo more

Phoebus once more

risum dat, hoc vario

smiles, now covered

iam stipate flore

in many-colored flowers,

Ecce gratum

Behold the pleasant

Zephyrus nectareo

Zephyr breathes nectarscented

et optatum

and longed-for

spirans in odore;


Ver reducit gaudia,

spring brings back joyfulness,

certatim pro bravio

Let us rush to compete


violet flowers

curramus in amore.

for love’s prize. Ah!

floret pratum,

fill the meadows,

Sol serenat omnia,

the sun brightens everything,


Cytharizat cantico

In harp-like tones sings

iamiam cedant tristia!

sadness is now at an end!

dulcis Philomena,

the sweet nightingale,

Estas redit,

Summer returns,

flore rident vario

with many flowers

nunc recedit

now withdraw

prata iam serena,

the joyous meadows are laughing,

Hyemis sevitia.

the rigors of winter. Ah!

salit cetus avium

a flock of birds rises up

silve per amena,

through the pleasant forests,

Iam liquescit

Now melts

chorus promit virginum

the chorus of maidens

et decrescit

and disappears

iam gaudia millena.

already promises a thousand

grando, nix et cetera,

ice, snow, and the rest,

joys. Ah.

bruma fugit,

winter flees,

et iam sugit,

and now


Ver Estatis ubera;

spring sucks at summer’s breast:


illi mens est misera,

A wretched soul is he

qui nec vivit,

who does not live


Omnia Sol temperat

The sun warms everything,

nec lascivit

or lust

purus et subtilis,

pure and gentle,

sub Estatis dextera.

under summer’s rule. Ah!

novo mundo reserat

once again it reveals to the world

facies Aprilis,

April’s face,


They glory

ad Amorem properat

the soul of man

et letantur

and rejoice

animus herilis,

is urged towards love

in melle dulcedinis

in honeyed sweetness

et iocundis imperat

and joys are governed

qui conantur,

who strive

deus puerilis.

by the boy-god.

ut utantur

to make use of

premio Cupidinis;

Cupid’s prize;

Rerum tanta novitas

All this rebirth

simus jussu Cypridis

At Venus’ command

in solemni vere

in spring’s festivity


let us glory

et veris auctoritas

and spring’s power

et letantes

and rejoice

iubet nos gaudere;

bids us to rejoice;

pares esse Paridis.

in being Paris’ equals. Ah!

vias prebet solitas,

it shows us paths we know well,

et in tuo vere

and in your springtime



fides est et probitas

it is true and right



tuum retinere.

to keep what is yours. 7. FLORET SILVA


Ama me fideliter!

Love me faithfully!

fidem meam nota:

See how I am faithful:

de corde totaliter

With all my heart

Floret silva nobilis

The noble woods are burgeoning

et ex mente tota

and with all my soul,

floribus et foliis.

with flowers and leaves,

sum presentialiter

I am with you

Ubi est antiquus

Where is the lover

absens in remota.

Even when I am far away.

meus amicus? Ah!

I knew? Ah!

quisquis amat taliter,

Whoever loves this much

volvitur in rota.

turns on the wheel.




hinc equitavit,

He has ridden off!

eia, quis me amabit?

Oh! Who will love me? Ah!

Floret silva undique,

The woods are burgeoning all over,

Were diu werlt alle min

If all the world were mine

nah mime gesellen ist mir wê.

I am pining for my lover,

von dem mere unze an den Rin,

from the sea to the Rhine,

Gruonet der walt allenthalben,

The woods are turning green all

des wolt ih mih darben,

I would do without it


daz diu chünegin von Engellant

if the Queen of England

wâ ist min geselle alse lange?

why is my lover away so long? Ah!

lege an minen armen. Hei!

would lie in my arms. Hey!

der ist geriten hinnen,

He has ridden off,

owî, wer soll mich minnen?

Oh woe, who will love me? Ah!





Estuans interius

Burning inside

ira vehementi

with violent anger,






Chramer, gip die varwe mir,

Shopkeeper, give me color

in amaritudine


die min wengel roete,

to make my cheeks red,

loquor mee menti:

I speak my heart:

damit ich die jungen man

so that I can make the young men

factus de materia,

Created from matter,

an ir dank der minnenliebe noete.

love me, against their will

cinis elementi

of the ashes of the elements,

similis sum folio,

I am like a leaf

de quo ludunt venti.

played with by the winds.

Cum sit enim proprium

If it is the way

viro sapienti

of the wise man

Seht mich an,

Look at me,

jungen man!

young men!

lat mich iu gevallen!

Let me please you!

Minnet, tugentliche man,

Good men, love

supra petram ponere

to build

minnecliche frouwen!

women worthy of love!

sedem fundamenti,

foundations on stone,

minne tuot iu hoch gemuot

Love ennobles your spirit

stultus ego comparor

then I am a fool, like

unde lat iuch in hohen eren

and gives you honor.

fluvio labenti,

a flowing stream,

sub eodem tramite

which in its course

nunquam permanenti.

never changes.

schouwen. Seht mich an…

Look at me, etc. Feror ego veluti

I am carried along

Wol dir werlt, das du bist

Hail, world,

sine nauta navis,

like a ship without a steersman,

also freudenriche!

so rich in joys!

ut per vias aeris

and in the paths of the air

ich will dir sin undertan

I will be obedient to you

vaga fertur avis;

like a light, hovering bird;

durch din liebe immer sicherliche.

because of the pleasures you

non me tenent vincula,

chains cannot hold me,


non me tenet clavis,

keys cannot imprison me,

quero mihi similes

I look for people like me

Seht mich an…

Look at me, etc.

et adiungor pravis.

and join the wretches.



Mihi cordis gravitas

The heaviness of my heart

res videtur gravis;

seems a burden to me;

Swaz hie gat umbe,

Those who go round and round

iocus est amabilis

it is pleasant to joke

daz sint allez megede,

are all maidens,

dulciorque favis;

and sweeter than honeycomb;

die wellent an man

they want to do without a man

quicquid Venus imperat,

whatever Venus commands

alle disen sumer gan.

all summer long. Ah! Sla!

labor est suavis,

is a sweet duty,

Chume, chum, geselle min,

Come, come, my love,

ih enbite harte din.

I long for you.

Suzer rosenvarwer munt,

Sweet rose-red lips,

chum unde mache mich gesunt.

come and make me better.

Swaz hie gat umbe,

Those who go round, etc.

que nunquam in cordibus

she never dwells

Wafna, wafna!

Woe! Woe!

habitat ignavis.

in a lazy heart.

quid fecisti sors turpissima?

what have you done, vilest Fate?

Nostre vite gaudia

The joys of my life

Via lata gradior

I travel the broad path

abstulisti omnia!

you have taken all away!

more iuventutis,

as is the way of youth,



inplicor et vitiis

I give myself to vice,

immemor virtutis,

unmindful of virtue,



voluptatis avidus

I am eager for the pleasures of



the flesh magis quam salutis,

more than for salvation,

In taberna quando sumus,

When we are in the tavern,

mortuus in anima

my soul is dead,

non curamus quid sit humus,

we do not think how we will go

curam gero cutis.

so I shall look after the flesh.

12. OLIM LACUS COLUERAM Cignus ustus cantat:

12. ONCE I LIVED ON LAKES The roasted swan sings:

Olim lacus colueram,

Once I lived on lakes,

olim pulcher extiteram,

once I looked beautiful

dum cignus ego fueram.

when I was a swan.

to dust, sed ad ludum properamus,

but we hurry to gamble,

cui semper insudamus.

which always makes us sweat,

Quid agatur in taberna,

What happens in the tavern,

ubi nummus est pincerna,

where money is host,

hoc est opus ut queratur,

you may well ask,

sic quid loquar, audiatur.

and hear what I say.

Quidam ludunt, quidam bibunt,

Some gamble, some drink,

quidam indiscrete vivunt.

some behave loosely.

Miser, miser!

Misery me!

Sed in ludo qui morantur,

But of those who gamble,

modo niger

Now black

ex his quidam denudantur,

some are stripped bare,

et ustus fortiter!

and roasting fiercely!

quidam ibi vestiuntur,

some win their clothes here,

quidam saccis induuntur.

some are dressed in sacks.

The servant is turning me on

Ibi nullus timet mortem,

Here no-one fears death,

the spit;

sed pro Baccho mittunt sortem:

but they throw the dice in the

Girat, regirat garcifer;

name of Bacchus.

me rogus urit fortiter:

I am burning fiercely on the pyre;

propinat me nunc dapifer,

the steward now serves me up.

Miser, miser! etc.

Misery me! etc.

Primo pro nummata vini

Nunc in scutella iaceo,

Now I lie on a plate,

ex hac bibunt libertini:

that the libertines drink,

et volitare nequeo,

and cannot fly anymore,

semel bibunt pro captivis,

one for the prisoners,

dentes frendentes video:

I see bared teeth:

post hec bibunt ter pro vivis,

three for the living,

quater pro Christianis cunctis,

four for all Christians,

quinquies pro fidelibus defunctis

five for the faithful dead.

sexies pro sororibus vanis,

six for the loose sisters,

First of all it is to the wine-merchant

Miser, miser! etc.

Misery me! etc.



septies pro militibus silvanis.

seven for the footpads in the wood.

Ego sum abbas Cucaniensis

I am the abbot of Cockaigne

Octies pro fratribus perversis,

Eight for the errant brethren,

et consilium meum est cum

and my assembly is one of

nonies pro monachis dispersis,

nine for the dispersed monks,



decies pro navigantibus,

ten for the seamen,

et in secta Decii voluntas mea est,

and I wish to be in the order of

undecies pro discordantibus,

eleven for the squabblers,


duodecies pro penitentibus,

twelve for the penitent,

tredecies pro iter angentibus.

thirteen for the wayfarers. To the Pope as to the king they all drink without restraint.

et qui mane me quesierit in

and whoever searches me out at

Tam pro papa quam pro rege


the tavern in the morning,

bibunt omnes sine lege.

post vesperam nudus egredietur,

after Vespers he will leave naked,

et sic denudatus veste clamabit:

and thus stripped of his clothes he will call out:


Decius: the invented Saint of dice-throwers

Bibit hera, bibit herus, bibit miles, bibit clerus,

The mistress drinks, the master

cordis in custodia:

in the depth of her heart;


fit res amarissima.

it is a most bitter fate.



the soldier drinks, the priest drinks,


bibit ille, bibit illa,

the man drinks, the woman drinks,

bibit servus cum ancilla,

the servant drinks with the maid,

bibit velox, bibit piger,

the swift man drinks, the lazy man

Dies, nox et omnia

Day, night, and everything


michi sunt contraria,

is against me,

the white man drinks, the black

virginum colloquia

the chattering of maidens

man drinks,

me fay planszer,

makes me weep,

the settled man drinks, the

oy suvenz suspirer,

and often sigh,

wanderer drinks,

plu me fay temer.

and, most of all, scares me.

man drinks,

O sodales, ludite,

O friends, you are making fun

The poor man drinks, the sick man

vos qui scitis dicite,

bibit albus, bibit niger, bibit constans, bibit vagus, bibit rudis, bibit magus.

the stupid man drinks, the wise of me,

Bibit pauper et egrotus,

you do not know what you are saying,

drinks, bibit exul et ignotus,

the exile drinks, and the stranger,

michi mesto parcite,

spare me, sorrowful as I am,

bibit puer, bibit canus,

the boy drinks, the old man drinks,

grand ey dolur,

great is my grief,

bibit presul et decanus,

the bishop drinks, and the deacon,

attamen consulite

advise me at least,

bibit soror, bibit frater,

the sister drinks, the brother

per voster honur.

by your honor.

the old lady drinks, the mother

Tua pulchra facies,

Your beautiful face,


me fey planszer milies,

makes me weep a thousand times,

bibit iste, bibit ille,

this man drinks, that man drinks,

pectus habens glacies,

your heart is of ice.

bibunt centum, bibunt mille.

a hundred drink, a thousand drink.

a remender

As a cure,

statim vivus fierem

I would be revived

per un baser.

by a kiss.



drinks, bibit anus, bibit mater,

Parum sexcente nummate

Six hundred pennies would hardly

durant cum immoderate

suffice, if everyone

bibunt omnes sine meta,

drinks immoderately and immeasurably.

quamvis bibant men te leta,

However much the cheerfully drink

Stetit puella

A girl stood

sic nos rodunt omnes gentes

we are the ones whom everyone

rufa tunica;

in a red tunic;


si quis eam tetigit,

if anyone touched it,

et sic erimus egentes.

and thus we are destitute.

tunica crepuit.

the tunic restled.

Qui nos rodunt confundantur

May those who slander us be



and may their names not be

Stetit puella,

A girl stood

written in the book of the

tamquam rosula;

like a little rose:


facie splenduit,

her face was radiant

os eius floruit.

and her mouth in bloom.

cursed et cum iustis non scribantur.

Io, io, io! ‌

Io, io, io!








15. CUPID FLIES EVERYWHERE Circa mea pectora

In my heart

Amor volat undique,

Cupid flies everywhere

multa sunt suspiria

there are many sighs

captus est libidine.

seized by desire.

de tua pulchritudine,

for your beauty,

Iuvenes, iuvencule

Young men and women

que me ledunt misere. Ah!

which wound me sorely. Ah!

coniunguntur merito.

are rightly coupled.

Siqua sine socio,

The girl without a lover

caret omni gaudio,

misses out on all pleasures,

tenet noctis infima

she keeps the dark night

sub intimo


Manda liet,


manda liet,


min geselle

my lover

chumet niet.

does not come.



In trutina mentis dubia

In the wavering balance of my feelings

fluctuant contraria

set against each other

Tui lucent oculi

Your eyes shine

lascivus amor et pudicitia.

lascivious love and modesty.

sicut solis radii,

like the rays of the sun,

Sed eligo quod video,

But I choose what I see,

sicut splendor fulguris

like the flashing of lightening

collum iugo prebeo;

and submit my neck to the yoke;

lucem donat tenebris. Ah!

which brightens the darkness. Ah!

ad iugum tamen suave transeo.

I yield to the sweet yoke.

Mandaliet, etc.

Mandaliet, etc.



Vellet deus, vellent dii,

May God grant, may the gods grant

Tempus est iocundum,

This is the joyful time,

quod mente proposui:

what I have in my mind

o virgines,

O maidens,

ut eius virginea

that I may loose

modo congaudete

rejoice with them,

reserassem vincula. Ah!

the chains of her virginity, Ah!

vos iuvenes.

young men!

Oh, oh, oh!

Oh, oh, oh!

totus floreo,

I am bursting out all over!

iam amore virginali totus ardeo!

I am burning all over with first love!

novus, novus novus amor est,

New, new love is what I am

quo pereo!

dying of!

Mandaliet, etc. 19. SIE PUER CUM PUELLULA

Mandaliet, etc. 19. IF A BOY WITH A GIRL

Sie puer cum puellula

If a boy with a girl

moraretur in cellula,

tarries in a little room,

Mea me confortat

I am heartened

felix coniunctio.

happy is their coupling.


by my promise,

Amore sucrescente,

Love rises up,

mea me deportant

I am downcast

pariter e medio

and between them


by my refusal.

propulso procul tedio,

prudery is driven away,

Oh, oh, oh! etc.

Oh! oh! oh! etc.

fit ludus ineffabilis

an ineffable game begins

membris, lacertis, labiis.

in their limbs, arms and lips.

Tempore brumali

In the winter

vir patiens,

man is patient,

animo vernali

the breath of spring


makes him lust.

Oh, oh, oh! etc.

Oh! oh! oh! etc.



Veni, veni, venias,

Come, come, O come,

ne me mori facias,

do not let me die,

hyrca, hyrca, nazaza,

hyrca, hyrce, nazaza,

Mea mecum ludit

My virginity




makes me frisky,

mea me detrudit

my simplicity

Pulchra tibi facies,

Beautiful is your face,


holds me back.

oculorum acies,

the gleam of your eye,

Oh, oh, oh! etc.

Oh! oh! oh! etc.

capillorum series,

your braided hair,

o quam clara species!

what a glorious creature!

Veni domicella,

Come, my mistress,

cum gaudio,

with joy,

Rosa rubicundior,

Redder than the rose,

veni, veni, pulchra,

come, come, my pretty,

lilio candidior,

whiter than the lily,

iam pereo.

I am dying!

omnibus formosior,

lovelier than all others,

Oh, oh, oh! etc.

Oh! oh! oh! etc.

semper in te glorior!

I shall always glory in you!



Dulcissime, Ah!

Sweetest one! Ah!

totam tibi subdo me!

I give myself to you totally!





Ave formosissima,

Hail, most beautiful one,

gemma pretiosa,

precious jewel,

ave decus virginum,

Hail, Pride among virgins,

virgo gloriosa,

glorious virgin,

ave mundi luminar

Hail, light of the world,

ave mundi rosa,

Hail, rose of the world,

Blanziflor et Helena,

Blanchefleur and Helen,

Venus generosa!

noble Venus!







No. 1 repeated

No. 1 repeated


Heroine of a popular medieval saga

Heather Buck, soprano

Prestini’s Gilgamesh with Beth Morrison Projects and Persephone in Wachner’s Rev. 23 at the PROTOTYPE Festival. Other recent engagements

Praised by Opera News as “the kind of

include Philip Glass’ Symphony No. 5, with both the Washington Chorus

performer who makes it all look easy,” Heather

at the Kennedy Center and Trinity Church Wall Street; Crumb’s Ancient

Buck is best described by opera critic David

Voices of Children and the American premiere of Lachenmann’s The

Shengold as “a lithe and impactful actress

Little Match Girl at Spoleto Festival USA; and a reprise of the Maid in

with an uncommonly beautiful soprano for

Adès’ Powder Her Face with Teatro Arriaga Antzokia, Bilbao, a role she

the high-lying and testing repertory she

originally sang in the work’s U.S. premiere and filmed for the BBC.

serves.” In the 2019-20 season, she sings Leïla in Les pêcheurs de perles with Opera in

Opera highlights include the world premiere of Haroun and the Sea of

Williamsburg, Herodiade in Stradella’s San

Stories with New York City Opera; Isabella Linton in the world premiere

Giovanni Battista with Opera Omaha, Louis

recording of Carlisle Floyd’s Wuthering Heights and Lulu Baines in the

Karchin’s Four Songs on Poems by Seamus Heaney at the Bowling Green

Grammy Award-winning Elmer Gantry with Florentine Opera; the U.S.

New Music Festival, and Carmina Burana with the Symphony of Northwest

premiere of Wolfgang Rihm’s monodrama Proserpina with Spoleto Festival

Arkansas (SoNA) and West Virginia Symphony.

USA; La Princesse in Glass’ Orphée with Pittsburgh Opera and Virginia Opera; Stella in A Streetcar Named Desire with Washington National

In the 2018-19 season, Buck sang Susanna in Laura Elise

Opera; Medea in Dusapin’s Medeamaterial with Teatr Wielki; and the

Schwendinger’s Artemisia at the Time’s Arrow Festival of Trinity Church

Angel in the U.S. premiere of Dusapin’s Faustus: The Last Night at Spoleto

Wall Street, a reprise of the title role of Charles Wuorinen’s Haroun

Festival USA and Amsterdam’s Concertgebouw. She has sung the Queen

and the Sea of Stories with Boston Modern Orchestra Project, and Four

of the Night in Die Zauberflöte with companies such as English National

Songs on Poems by Seamus Heaney with Orchestra of the League of

Opera, Santa Fe Opera, and Opera Theatre of Saint Louis.

Composers. Her 2017-18 season included returns to New York City Opera to reprise the title role in Argento’s monodrama Miss Havisham’s

Concert highlights include singing as soloist at the Beijing Summer

Wedding Night, and Alma Beers in Wuorinen’s Brokeback Mountain,

Olympics; the U.S. premiere of Saariaho’s Leino Songs with American

a role she first created with Teatro Real Madrid; to Odyssey Opera as

Composers Orchestra; Mahler’s Symphony No. 2 with American Symphony

Joan of Arc in Dello Joio’s The Trial at Rouen; and to Virginia Opera as

Orchestra; Tan Dun’s Water Passion at the White Nights Festival in

Tytania in A Midsummer’s Night Dream. She sang as Merteuil in Luca

Russia; Barber’s Knoxville: Summer of 1915 and Mozart’s Requiem

Francesconi’s Quartett with West Edge Opera in the summer of 2018.

with Westchester Philharmonic; Esa-Pekka Salonen’s Five Images after Sappho with Utah Symphony; Druckman’s Counterpoise with Los Angeles

She recently made her LoftOpera debut in a staged production

Philharmonic New Music Group; and Messiah with Handel and Haydn

of Pergolesi’s Stabat Mater, and created the roles of Ku in Paola

Society and Pacific Symphony.

Jonathan Blalock, tenor

An American Soldier with Washington National Opera; The Secret Agent with the Center for Contemporary Opera in NYC and the Armel Festival

American tenor Jonathan Blalock recently

in Hungary; Jorge Martin’s Before Night Falls with Fort Worth Opera;

triumphed as Prince Claus in the world

and Paul’s Case with Urban Arias, which Alex Ross in The New Yorker

premiere of Mark Adamo’s Becoming Santa

declared as one of the top ten musical events of 2014, saying, “The tenor

Claus at The Dallas Opera. His critically

Jonathan Blalock was transfixing in the title role; Spears’s score glistened

acclaimed performance was broadcast live to

beautifully and eerily around him.” In addition, Blalock sang the Electrician

Lincoln Center and has since been released

in Adès’ Powder Her Face with West Edge Opera, made his Virginia Opera

on DVD.

debut as Cégeste in Philip Glass’ Orphée, and has sung in the same

composer’s Hydrogen Jukebox with both West Edge Opera and Fort

Recent engagements include Don Ramiro

Worth Opera.

(La Cenerentola) with Syracuse Opera, Beppe (I Pagliacci) with Arizona MusicFest, Nanki-Poo (The Mikado) with

As a specialist in Rossini and Mozart, he has performed Pedrillo in

Performance Santa Fe, a debut with Michigan Opera Theatre as Harry in

Mozart’s Die Entführung aus dem Serail with Des Moines Metro Opera;

La Fanciulla del West, and Podesta in Mozart’s La finta giardiniera with

Don Ottavio (Don Giovanni) with Cedar Rapids Opera and Nevada Opera;

both OnSite Opera and Atlanta Opera.

Ferrando (Così fan tutte) with Capitol Opera Raleigh; Count Almaviva (Il Barbiere di Siviglia) with Tri-Cities Opera, LOFT Opera, and Opera Company

Highly acclaimed for his work in 20th- and 21st-century opera, Blalock

of Middlebury; Ramiro (La Cenerentola) with Opera Roanoke, Opera in

has appeared in a number of world premieres, including Huang Ruo’s

Williamsburg, and as a guest with Bob Jones University; and he covered

two Rossini roles at Santa Fe Opera: Rodrigo (La Donna del Lago) and

Worth Opera; and Fenton (Falstaff) with Mercury Opera Rochester. In

Condulmiero (Maometto II).

concert Blalock has performed Carmina Burana with the Southern New Jersey Philharmonic and Las Cruces Symphony; Handel’s Messiah with

Career highlights also include Pang (Turandot) with Nashville Opera and

Winston-Salem Symphony and Lexington Philharmonic; and as soloist

Pacific Symphony; the title role in Candide with Emerald City Opera; The

with the Portland Symphony, Opera America’s New Opera Showcase,

Burrowing Mole (The Fantastic Mr. Fox) with both Opera San Antonio and

the PROTOTYPE Festival, The Washington Chorus, the Rackham Choir

Odyssey Opera; Remendado (Carmen) with Pacific Symphony and Fort

(Detroit), and Opera Hong Kong.

Timothy LeFebvre, baritone

West Virginia Symphony Orchestra, Vermont Symphony, Minnesota Orchestra, Syracuse Symphony, American Symphony Orchestra,

Nationally acclaimed baritone Timothy

Pittsburgh Symphony, Spokane Symphony, Binghamton Philharmonic,

LeFebvre has wide-ranging experience

Rochester Bach Festival, Berkshire Choral Festival, New Dominion

from the operatic stage to the concert hall.

Chorale, Williamsport Symphony, Orchestra of the Southern Finger Lakes,

Recent performances include Vaughan-

Syracuse Chamber Music Society, the Skaneateles Festival, and the

Williams’ Five Mystical Songs and Dona

Marlboro Music Festival. He has also appeared in concert at New York’s

nobis pacem with Berkshire Choral Festival,

Carnegie Hall and Alice Tully Hall.

solo recitals at Carnegie Mellon University and the Townsend School of Music at

LeFebvre’s frequently performed opera roles include Rigoletto, Sharpless

Mercer University, Mahler’s Lieder eines

(Madama Butterfly), Germont (La Traviata), Count (Le nozze di Figaro),

fahrenden Gesellen with Pensacola Symphony

Falke (Die Fledermaus), Marcello and Shaunard (La Bohème), and Father

and Oberlin Conservatory, Britten’s War Requiem with Jacksonville

(Hansel and Gretel). His operatic experience includes performances

Symphony, Mendelssohn’s Elijah with Westminster Choir College,

with Central City Opera, Tri-Cities Opera, Sarasota Opera, Chattanooga

and Mozart’s Requiem with West Virginia Symphony Orchestra. He has

Symphony and Opera, Syracuse Opera, Indianapolis Opera, Opera

also recently given solo recitals at Oberlin Conservatory and the University

Delaware, and Opera Theater of Pittsburgh.

of Michigan (Ann Arbor), and performed Elijah with New Dominion Chorale, Brahms’ Requiem with Hamilton College, Beethoven’s Mass in

LeFebvre is Associate Professor of Voice at Oberlin, where he teaches

C with Wichita Symphony, Mozart’s Requiem with Susquehanna Valley

private voice and oratorio repertoire for singers and coordinates

Chorale, Brahms’ Requiem with the Orchestra of the Southern Finger

the Freshman Voice Seminar. Prior to Oberlin, he was Assistant

Lakes, and Messiah with the Handel Choir of Baltimore.

Professor of Voice at Binghamton University and also taught at Cornell University, Syracuse University, Hamilton College and Colgate University.

LeFebvre has appeared in concert with the Jacksonville Symphony, Cleveland Pops Orchestra, Wichita Symphony, Pensacola Symphony,

Bentonville High School Chamber Singers Terry Hicks, director Soprano Harley Crabb Jayna Glynn Elizabeth Grimm Maddy Hughes Grace Marsiglio Sam Morris Jenna Pluimer Tara Shaffer

Alto Gretchen Bush Maddie Graves Emma Grimm Kiara Gutierrez Grace Hesterberg Abby Larsen Emma Mosher Jayden Putman Olivia Sperry

Tenor Trenton Chandler Justice Du Four Jacob Ellgass Chance Goad Ben Jarvis Noah Kubal

Bass Christian Amezcua Noah Blake Tanner Brown JD Clements Zachary Curtis Zachary Hiatt Abbott Patterson Eldon Vincent

University of Arkansas Children’s Choir Rachel Cornett, director Lily Adler Attiya Ahmadzai Ceci Allen Oliver Anderson Simon Anderson Gianna Arens Stella Atkinson Wanda Baker Clay Battles Lily Bennett Emsley Blackman Sofia Bonilla Lilly Braunns Zoe Bryson Samuel Burrow Alli Butler Aydence Chaisson Addyson Chaisson Forrest Clampitt Audrie Cornett Kilian Cox Cece Craig Lilly Crawford Amelia Curry Kaitlin Deans

Tally Drennan Eleanor Eichmann Parker Forrester Samantha Gardner Julianna Gomory Zoe Gomory Nathan Gosman Elise Gosman Jack Gray Ella Grissom Ella Kate Groves Josiah Hagers Jenna Hall Zoe Hestekin Elle Hiryak Brooklyn Hoback Kaitlyn Hutchinson Patrick Jiang Sam Johnson Amy Johnston Ramey Jones Toby Kim Ella Knotts Madelyn Konkle JJ Kramer

Kale Lawrence Sally Kate Lind Jordan Long Audrey Longing Brianna Lopez Jon Thomas Loveless Kara Lowery Peyton Lyons Rebekah Martin McKenzie Maxwell Logan Maxwell Emmie McClyminds Kate McCord Lainey McCraine Mateo McKendry Madylin McLemore Abigail Metzner Andy Metzner Jeffrey Murdock Mary Neyland Parker Paschal Isaac Pennington Holly Pennington Caroline Pennington Isabella Pinto

Fariza Rahman Masheyat Rahman Audrey Redwine Uma Rekhi Isabelle Sanchez Annaliese Schader Julianne Senter Will Shepherd Nola Siegler Lyndsey Smith Maya Starnes Kenzie Stoner Grace Taylor Shae Threlfall Yasmin Toosi Sophie Uselton Edith VanLynn Cora Villar Harper Wagstaff Cassidy Waide Rebecca Walden Rae Warren Kayla Wicker Elaina Wright

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