Page 1


ADVISORY COMMITTEE President

Jerry Falwell, Jr.

Executive Vice President & COO

Randy Smith

Senior Vice President for Facilities Operations

Charles Spence

Vice President for Major Construction

Alan Askew

DESIGN TEAM VMDO Architects 200 E Market Street Charlottesville, VA 22902 434.296.5684

Kennon Williams Landscape Studio 101 East High Street Charlottesville, VA 22902 434.972.9003

CMA 1971 University Blvd., Lynchburg, VA 24515

Perkins and Orrison 17 W Nelson St Lexington, VA 24450 540.464.9001

Porter Khouw 1672 Village Green Crofton, MD 21114 410.451.3617

VHB ​8300 Boone Boulevard, Suite 700 Vienna, VA 22182

3


Liberty University provides a worldclass education with a solid Christian foundation, equipping men and women with the values, knowledge, and skills essential for success in every aspect of life.

SECTION TITLE

5


HOW TO USE THIS BOOK This master plan document is meant to be used as a guide for the continued planning, design, construction, and upkeep of Liberty University’s main campus in Lynchburg, Virginia. Its central purpose is to provide a flexible framework that supports the University in making decisions that will lead to a cohesive, coherent, and comprehensive brand, image, and campus environment for many years to come.

PLANNING TOOL

TRANSPORTATION PARKING UTILITY EVENT PLANNING

LANDSCAPE TOOL

OUTDOOR SPACE MATERIALITY OUTDOOR FURNITURE RECREATION

This master plan document should be used to: 1. Locate future academic buildings, student housing, recreational facilities, athletic fields, and sporting venues to support a larger overall vision for the campus as a complete institutional entity 2. Determine the appropriate size and orientation of future buildings 3. Select the appropriate language and materiality for future landscape and architectural projects 4. Shape the design of outdoor spaces 5. Specify appropriate plants and site furnishings (i.e. signage, lighting, bike racks, etc.)

ARCHITECTURE TOOL

BUILDING LOCATION BUILDING SIZE MATERIALITY INTERIOR FURNITURE

6. Plan vehicular circulation and parking improvements 7. Coordinate utilities and enhance/extend infrastructure 8. Guide design decisions to support durability and long-life (i.e. design for a sustainable future)

SUSTAINABILITY GUIDE

6

DURABILITY PRESERVATION ECO-FRIENDLY ENERGY EFFICIENCY

9. Choose and then help direct architects and landscape architects 10. Preserve areas of campus that are valued for their ecological assets


TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

07

LOCATION & HISTORY

13

MASTER PLAN GOALS & STRATEGIES

31

CAMPUS PLANNING

43

PRECINCT PLANS

81 115

PATTERNS CAMPUS PATTERNS LANDSCAPE PATTERNS ARCHITECTURE PATTERNS

CONCLUSION

159

APPENDIX

163

SECTION TITLE

7


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1

The 2016 Liberty University Master Plan is a culmination of 5 years of critical examination, engaged discussions, and collaborative design efforts. The master plan process has led to a flexible framework that will be used to guide the continued development of the Liberty campus as demands arise. The Executive Summary establishes a clear set of planning goals and strategies needed to achieve them. It compares the campus when work began in 2010 with how it might develop if these goals are actively pursued. The methods presented operate at a range of scales: from broad, campus-wide planning approaches to precinct-sized landscape studies and building-scale architectural patterns.

SECTION TITLE

9


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Typically, the formation and growth of a university evolves over long periods of time. Most of the great seats of higher education have developed into the institutions they are today incrementally, over the course of many decades. Some schools in the U.S. have been in operation for more than 200 years (William and Mary, Yale, Princeton), and others in Europe are approaching the millennium mark (Bologna, Oxford). Their enrollments slowly grow, their facilities and staff expand to meet new demand, and their properties gradually develop into campuses that, in many respects, emulate small cities. Because the scale of investment is so great and developments in academia relatively gradual, calculated growth is the manner in which most Universities have come to exist, survive, and ultimately thrive. Liberty University is one example of an institution of higher learning that sidestepped the evolutionary approach on its way to becoming a premier institution of higher education. In 1971, Pastor Jerry Falwell Sr. challenged his congregation at Thomas Road Baptist Church in Lynchburg, VA to establish a Christian college whose students would “go out in all walks of life to impact this world for God.” Soon after, Lynchburg Baptist College became a reality. At inception, it opened its doors to 154 students. By 1985, the school, now known as Liberty University, had become a fully accredited university, adding programs and garnering recognition from both mainstream culture and the world of academia. Liberty also pioneered a distance learning program that year, launching what is now known as Liberty University Online. LU Online cemented Liberty as one of the pioneers in early online education and created an attractive way for growing numbers of students to join the Liberty Way. In only four short decades, Liberty has grown to become the nation’s fifth largest university and largest private non-profit university as well as the world’s largest Christian university. A world-class liberal arts university with 16 schools and colleges, Liberty offers more than 520 programs from the certificate to the doctoral level, ranging from medicine, biology, chemistry, and engineering to design, LIBERTY UNIVERSITY’S CAMPUS AFTER A STORM ON JUNE 10, 2013

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

11


music, religion, law, and more. Liberty owns more than 7,000 acres and operates over 6.6 million square feet of building space in 350+ buildings and structures on its campus. Its current residential enrollment sits at 14,500 graduate and undergraduate students while its online enrollment continues to grow, cresting the 95,000 mark in 2015. More than 27,000 students are serving in the military, at home or abroad, while also being enrolled in one of Liberty’s nearly 250 online programs of study. As a result of Liberty’s unparalleled growth, the University embarked upon a large-scale master planning initiative to address the mounting pressures placed on its physical campus as well as the programmatic and technological developments needed to accommodate a new generation of tech-savvy students and instructors. The University realized that the modest improvements made to the campus in times of need could not address long term aspirations to become a truly first-class institution. In order to ensure continued growth, a legacy of academic improvement, and effective recruitment and retention, the University would need to reconsider the way it considered, planned for, and executed new built projects. Liberty University’s master plan seeks to create a campus-wide identity of excellence by re-envisioning the entirety of its physical environment in a comprehensive and strategic way that enhances the school’s image and bolsters its unique mission. The master plan does not propose systemic changes to existing infrastructure, opting instead to make the most of past master planning decisions regarding stormwater management and largescale landform shaping practices. The plan begins with a focus on renovating Liberty’s core campus – the construction of which is already under way. A new main academic library, buildings for the Schools of Music and Science, a 1,600 seat Concert Hall, a new Student Center, a 15-story Landmark Tower, and a home for the growing School of Divinity were all designed to contribute a distinctive architectural legacy to this academic centerpiece.

12

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


Nearly 600,000 square feet of new space has been built or is under construction as part of this first phase of campus development and includes: 32 new classrooms, 34 labs, 63 group study spaces, lecture space for 2,000+ students, 20,000 sf of banquet and multi-use event space, 500 offices, a 500,000 item collection of books, periodicals, journals and other resources, 3 indoor NCAA basketball practice courts, a new lake, central Virginia’s largest vegetated roof (at over 30,000sf), and nearly 25 acres of outdoor space carefully designed to promote walking, biking, and community living. Future phases of the master plan include new residential accommodations for 3,560 students, structured parking for an additional 4,200 automobiles, expanded NCAA athletic and recreational facilities, building sites for new and growing academic programs, and efforts to preserve and restore the natural landscape and native wildlife habitat. The master plan document that follows will serve as a comprehensive guide for executing the active and anticipated measures described above while also acting as a manual for the indefinite future growth that undoubtedly awaits Liberty as it continues to develop.

LIBERTY UNIVERSITY HOSTS MONTANA UNIVERSITY DURING CFAW AND FAMILY WEEKEND ON SEPTEMBER 19, 2015

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

13


LOCATION & HISTORY

2

Liberty University is located in the foothills of Virginia’s beautiful Blue Ridge Mountains. Within striking distance of lush forest, large and thriving metropolitan areas, and the Atlantic coast, Liberty’s campus is ideally situated to take advantage of all that the mid-Atlantic has to offer. The Piedmont – Lynchburg, Virginia’s physiographic province – is characterized by rolling hills and numerous ridges. Lying between the mountain and coastal plain regions, the piedmont region is a naturally diverse landscape that has long supported a legacy of learning, technological innovation, and cultural enrichment.

SECTION TITLE

15


LOCATION & HISTORY The Blue Ridge Mountains are part of the larger Appalachian Mountain range. The Blue Ridge include northern and southern physiographic regions, which divide near the Roanoke River gap. The entire mountain range is located in the eastern United States, running from Georgia in the south to Pennsylvania in the north. To the east of the Blue Ridge lies the Virginia Piedmont, terrain characterized by a low-relief, gently rolling surface with scattered higher peaks. The bedrock is deeply weathered and few bedrock exposures occur. The Blue Ridge Mountains are noted for having a bluish hue when seen from a distance. Winding nearly 470 miles along its ridge, the Blue Ridge Parkway is America’s longest linear park, protecting significant mountain landscapes far beyond the shoulders of the road itself. It is the product of a series of major public works projects which provided a boost to the travel and tourism industry and helped the Appalachian region climb out the depths of the Great Depression. The Parkway encompasses some of the oldest settlements of both pre-historic and early European settlement. The English who settled colonial Virginia in the early 17th century recorded There’s a well beaten path in the old mountainside Where I wandered when I was a lad And I wandered alone to the place I call home In those Blue Ridge hills far away… The Foggy Mountain Boys

that the native Powhatan name for the Blue Ridge was Quirank. At the foot of the Blue Ridge, various tribes including the Siouan Manahoacs, the Iroquois, and the Shawnee hunted and fished. A German physician-explorer, John Lederer, first reached the crest of the Blue Ridge in 1669 and again the following year; he also recorded the Virginia Siouan name for the Blue Ridge (Ahkonshuck).

BLUE RIDGE MOUNTAINS

During the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War, the Army of Northern Virginia, Robert E. Lee commanding, slipped across the Potomac to begin the second invasion of the North. They moved slowly across the Blue Ridge, using the mountains to screen their movements.

LOCATION & HISTORY

17


REGIONAL MAP

VICINITY MAP

LOCAL MAP

Officially a Commonwealth, the state of Virginia is located in the South

Lynchburg, Virginia is a city of nearly 80,000 residents located in the

Located roughly 5 miles southwest of downtown Lynchburg, Liberty

Atlantic region of the United States. Virginia is nicknamed the “Old

eastern foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains. It sits on the western shore

University’s main campus sits astride Rt. 460 and is bounded to the west

Dominion” due to its status as the first colonial possession established in

of the James River, whose watershed encompasses 10,000 square miles

by a major CSX rail corridor. Its nearly 7,000 acre campus is comprised

mainland British America, and “Mother of Presidents” because eight U.S.

and makes up nearly 25% of the state. It is equidistant from Charlottesville

of a broad cross-section of landscapes, from the densely-developed 300

presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and

to the northeast and Blacksburg to the southwest – both approximately

acre campus core to the stunningly wild portions of Candler Mountain –

climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains

70 miles away. The city of Lynchburg sits near the intersection of major

the adjacent 1200’ high ridge line that comprises the schools eastern

and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and

natural and man-made landmarks. It’s location on the James River makes

boundary and is home to nearly 75 miles of hiking and biking trails.

fauna. The capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond; Virginia Beach is

it a logical center for commerce and government, while the George

Thomas Jefferson’s Poplar Forest, the former President’s summer retreat,

the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political

Washington and Jefferson National Forests to the west provide ample

is located 5 miles to the west and provides a strong grounding in local

subdivision. The Commonwealth’s estimated population as of 2014 is over

resources for recreation and renewal. Lynchburg sits at the intersection of

vernacular architectural tradition. A number of local colleges (Randolph

8.3 million. Most of the state is within the Chesapeake Bay watershed –

two major interstate arteries – the north/south running Rt. 29 and east/west

College, Lynchburg College, and Central Virginia Community College)

the largest watershed on the Atlantic seaboard.

running Rt. 460 – establishing the city as a major destination on journeys

furnish the City with an intellectual platform complementary of the

throughout the state. The Lynchburg regional airport is only miles from the

established rural heritage.

University’s front door, making travel to and from the area convenient.

CHARLOTTESVILLE

WAYNESBORO

64

AMHERST COUNTY

29

AMTRAK STATION

221

81

LYNCHBURG COLLEGE

BEDFORD COUNTY

GREYHOUND STATION

460

29

FALWELL AVIATION JET CENTER

501

TO RICHMOND

CVCC

POPLAR FOREST

LIBERTY UNIVERSITY 81

TO PETERSBUERG

LYNCHBURG REGIONAL AIRPORT

501

460

ROANOKE 460

18

LOCATION & HISTORY

29

CAMPBELL COUNTY


HISTORY Liberty University’s founding can be traced back to a meeting in 1966 between the school’s first President, Jerry Falwell, Sr., and Dr. A. Pierre Guillermin. The doctor was visiting Lynchburg to speak at a local church and was persuaded by Jerry Falwell to help him start Lynchburg Christian Academy. Within four years, the K-12 Academy added higher education to its offerings and expanded to formally become Lynchburg Baptist College in 1971. According to Falwell: “It was hard to build a college up from nothing, and a college without a history is hard to run. They had to stay one event ahead of the students all the time, because, without a history, there was no built-in loyalty. There were also no upperclassmen to teach the younger students.” President Falwell envisioned a campus that would rival Notre Dame and Brigam Young Universities, and aimed to grow the school into a university of 50,000 students. To do so, he would need to acquire land in an already densely populated area. He found and purchased a 2,100 acre parcel (what is now Candler Mountain and areas to the west) from the U.S. Gypsum Company and began the task of building a campus. By 1979, more than 20 buildings were completed or under construction and the ascension of the world’s largest Christian university was underway.

LIBERTY UNIVERSITY IN 1970’s

LOCATION & HISTORY

19


Between 1980 and 1995, the Liberty campus was in a constant state of construction as enrollment continued to increase. New dorms and classroom buildings were built, new faculty were hired, and new technologies were embraced. Demoss Hall, Liberty’s main academic building, was completed in the mid-80s, expanding the University’s academic space by nearly 480,000 square feet. In 1990, the Vines Center was constructed – a large, 8,500 seat multi-purpose arena that housed the growing student body under one roof for weekly school-wide convocations. It became a major stop for politicians on the campaign trail, hosting political figures such as Ronald Regan, George H.W. Bush, Ted Kennedy, the Reverend Billy Graham, Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas and, more recently, Mitt Romney, John McCain, and Bernie Sanders. The 15 years between 1995 and 2010 saw continued, steady enrollment growth. Liberty expanded its student housing offerings with a group of low-rise apartment buildings on its east campus and invested in new and renovated student life facilities including recreation fields and a state-of-theart multi-season ski slope. In 2010, Liberty expanded its football stadium to seat nearly 20,000 spectators and now offers 20 NCAA Division 1 athletic teams, 35 club sport teams, and 20 intramural sports.

LIBERTY’S DIVERSE CULTURAL OFFERINGS

20

LOCATION & HISTORY


RECORDED CAMPUS ENROLLMENT PROJECTED CAMPUS ENROLLMENT UNIVERSITY NAME CHANGES BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

CHRONOLOGY & ENROLLMENT 16,158

CAMPUS ENROLLMENT

14,340

15,000

11,300 10,000

9,178

5,930 5,000

3,528

154 ‘70

536

‘71

‘72

1,428

‘73

‘74

1,871

‘75

‘76

‘77

1970

‘78

‘79

‘80

‘81

‘82

83

‘84

‘85

‘86

‘87

‘88

1980

‘89

‘90

‘91

‘92

‘93

‘94

‘95

‘96

‘97

1990

‘98

‘99

‘00

‘01

‘02

‘03

‘04

‘05

‘06

‘07

‘08

2000

‘09

‘10

‘11

‘12

‘13

‘14

‘15

‘16

‘17

‘18

‘19

2010

1971

LYNCHBURG BAPTIST COLLEGE FOUNDED

1981

PRAYER CHAPEL

1990

VINES CENTER

2003

6 DORMS

2014

JERRY FALWELL LIBRARY

1975

LIBERTY BAPTIST COLLEGE

1982

SCHOOL OF RELIGION

1998

HANGAR FOOD COURT RESIDENCE HALL

2004

LAHAYE STUDENT CENTER 13 RESIDENCE HALL

2015

SCIENCE HALL

1985

LIBERTY UNIVERSITY

2006

A.L. WILLIAMS FOOTBALL OPERATIONS CENTER

2016

SCHOOL OF MUSIC & CONCERT HALL STUDENT CENTER

2007

LU MONOGRAM 6 DORMS

2008

DOC’S DINER BOOKSTORE

DEMOSS HALL COURTYARD OF FLAGS LANGUAGE LAB HANCOCK ATHLETIC CENTER

1986

4 DORMS

1989

12,000 SEAT STADIUM

LOCATION & HISTORY

21


2010 CAMPUS PLAN As work began on the Liberty master plan in 2010, the campus was preparing for the celebration of its 40th anniversary. The occasion was marked by a series of university-wide events commemorating the many achievements of the young school. The milestone also served as a turningCapoint, pivoting Liberty towards the future with the launch of a planning effort that nd

ler

s

Mo uncampus landscape and help pave a way forward for the next 40 years. would reshape the tai nR

d

Rou

te 46

Rou

0

te 4 6

0

GREEN HALL

DEMOSS HALL

VINES CENTER

Route 29

SECTION TITLE

23


RECOGNIZING THE CHALLENGES Like so many universities, Liberty has had to embrace some of the shortcomings of its campus while continuing to grow and improve as an institution. In the process of expanding its academic offerings, opening its doors to growing numbers of residential students, and building facilities to meet increasing demands, Liberty has had to find creative ways to accommodate growth while employing efficient and cost effective solutions. The following campus-wide design challenges are seen as opportunities to improve Liberty’s already strong commitment to students and the campus they call home. 1. DISTINGUISH THE CAMPUS FROM ITS SURROUNDINGS This photograph illustrates the degree to which Liberty is surrounded by lackluster retail and hospitality architecture. Liberty should strive to create an identifiable image for itself amongst rather bland surrounding buildings. 2. IMPROVE HOUSING OPTIONS Liberty’s housing options have been sufficient to meet growing demands,

1

2

3

4

but continued enrollment growth may lead to an overburdened campus if future housing does not densify. Dispersed, low-rise housing challenges the limits of what the current campus can comfortably support. 3. CREATE USEFUL, INSPIRING LANDSCAPES FOR LEARNING Liberty is blessed by an incredible natural setting and a diverse range of native plants. The creation of densely planted public spaces has been achieved at the cost of carefully planned outdoor space. The DeMoss courtyard is one example of a beautiful, if underutilized, campus landscape that would benefit from alterations that make the space more people-friendly. 4. USE ARCHITECTURE TO SHAPE SPACE AND CREATE IDENTITY With growing enrollment comes increased reliance on parking facilities. Liberty has long been committed to providing ample, accessible parking for all of its students, faculty, and guests. The trade-off has been allowing surface parking to dominate planning discussions. This photo of Liberty’s east campus illustrates the way automobiles have limited available outdoor space for student use.

24

LOCATION & HISTORY


LIBERTY’S NEIGHBORHOOD The zoning map to the left illustrates the very real limitations on physical growth at Liberty University. Surrounded along its western and northern sides by commercial and industrial areas and to the south by the Lynchburg Regional Airport, the campus does not have contiguous land to annex. Expansion westward is further complicated by the presence of Rt. 29, a major business artery lined with strip malls and big box development, and the Norfolk Southern rail corridor. Candler Station, immediately to the north and across Candler Station Drive, is owned in large part by Liberty and may be a key release valve for future growth if necessary. The University’s main campus is wedged between these highly developed areas and the four-lane Rt. 460 divided highway, a major east-west artery that runs from Norfolk, Virginia to the West Virginia line. The central campus area is essentially an inward-focused island that sits on a 300+ acre spit of land amidst the busy infrastructure that hems it in. Connecting it to the rest of the enormous mountainside campus to the east is a single vehicular bridge owned by Liberty and another to the north owned by the City. Candler Mountain rises quickly to an elevation of over 1,300 feet, leaving little developable land beyond the zone already occupied by student housing and surface parking lots.

LIBERTY UNIVERSITY SURROUNDING LAND USE

LOCATION & HISTORY

25


2010 PROGRAM DISTRIBUTION In the fall of 2010, Liberty University was a campus with two distinct cores. The academic core was centered in DeMoss Hall, the 480,000 square foot classroom building that met nearly all of Liberty’s classroom needs. Dining and housing facilities were located in scattered buildings around DeMoss at the southern end of campus. The center of the north campus was Green Hall, a vast multi-purpose building that housed administrative offices, campus police, student recreation facilities, an indoor track, and the university’s main theater space. The athletic precinct occupied the landscape between the two cores and was comprised of fields and large surface parking lots. Across Rt. 460, low-rise student apartments and a small diner were surrounded by large surface parking lots.

DEMOSS CORE

GREEN CORE

ACADEMIC STUDENT LIFE DINING ATHLETICS HOUSING OTHER

26

LOCATION & HISTORY


2010 CAMPUS CIRCULATION Automobile circulation on campus was defined primarily by an overtaxed University Boulevard running north-south along the eastern edge of the main campus. This corridor was the primary means of circulation between north and south campuses and connected the various precincts to one another where topography allowed. In 2010, work began on Regents Parkway, a western loop that helped assuage the pressures on University Boulevard but did not reach far enough to the south to connect to housing and parking. Pedestrian circulation was similarly focused along University Boulevard, following the gentle landscape gradients of the corridor and avoiding the more topographically varied western side of campus. Because of this, automobile and pedestrian traffic patterns were often at odds.

PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION VEHICULAR CIRCULATION OPEN QUADS

LOCATION & HISTORY

27


TOPOGRAPHY STUDY The existing topography of the Liberty University core campus is a combination of larger natural landform gestures and human-generated landscape interventions. The original landform, before settlement, was a series of ridges and drainage ways emanating from the peaks of the Liberty-Candler Mountain system. The ridges, with associated drainage ways in between, run westward from the mountain uplands to the east. The rhythm of alternating ridges and vales gives the core campus an accordion-like topography, with low areas at the most southerly end, toward the center, near the Vines Center and toward the north by Green Hall. Higher and dryer ridges and bluff are found between. Running approximately north-south are the major landform interventions of the 20th Century, associated with The Jerry Falwell Parkway (Highway 460), the railroad line and Wards Road that both cut and filled the land. The resulting changes disrupted the continuity of the natural drainage ways and ridges, and to some degree, isolates the core campus topographically from its surroundings.

28

LOCATION & HISTORY


SOLAR ASPECT STUDY The undulating topography of the campus with ridges running east-west affords a diversity of microclimates with cooler north-facing slopes, open upland plateaus and sunnier south-facing areas. This arrangement of areas with differing solar aspects inspired the general alignment of the new buildings and major campus spaces, to take advantage of the best access to light and climate.

LOCATION & HISTORY

29


HYDROLOGY STUDY As described in the Topography Diagram, the Liberty Core Campus is characterized by a rhythm of east-west oriented ridges with drainage ways in between. To some degree, this historic pattern of uplands draining into lower vales with streams and runoff heading west still exists, but it has been modified and somewhat disrupted by the large earthworks associated with the north-south running transportation corridors bordering the campus core to the east and west . There are three primary lowlands where runoff collects and leaves the campus, and joins Blackwater Creek watershed. One is at the south end of campus, another is the stream way near the Vines Center at mid-campus and another is to the north near Green Hall.

30

LOCATION & HISTORY


CAMPUS SPACES STUDY The Liberty campus prior to the Master Plan effort was a fully functioning university campus, but did not have the attributes or facilities which would lead to the administration’s highest aspirations for the school or foster the best in collegiate life. There were only a few main buildings, with the majority of academic courses being offered in only two of these. It lacked the range of building facilities that would allow for the expansion of dedicated departments and differentiation of the curriculum into schools of professional disciplines. Additionally, the academic buildings, dorms and athletic facilities were arrayed widely across the fairly large campus and were, to some degree, segregated from each other by extended distances, parking lots and discontinuous outdoor spaces, often blocked by roads or inaccessible landscapes. The campus was in need of additional facilities arranged to integrate the life of the campus and provide the diversity of spaces and buildings needed for the University’s future growth and advancement.

PRIMARY SPACE

LOCATION & HISTORY

31


PLACE MAKING A location’s unique history, geography, and cultural characteristics combine to create a sense of “place.” “Place” has its roots in the ancient Latin word platea, meaning courtyard or neighborhood. From the same Latin etymology derives the Italian word piazza and the German word platz – both of which strongly convey images of public life, community, and common identity. Acknowledging that its physical setting in many ways contributed to its appeal as a university, Liberty emphasized the importance of place during the development of the 2010 master plan. Indeed, the idea of creating a comprehensive master plan developed in part out of a desire to create a recognizable place for scholars to gather that paid tribute to the special qualities of Liberty’s physical presence and unique institutional mission. Placemaking inspires people to collectively reimagine public space as the heart of a community. Strengthening the connection between people and the places they share, placemaking refers to a collaborative process by which the public realm develops in order to maximize shared value. More than just promoting better campus design, placemaking facilitates creative patterns of use and pays particular attention to the physical, cultural, and social identities that define a place and support its ongoing evolution. Placemaking, in this context, also serves to guide decisions about how to create an environment supportive of academic and cultural excellence by reinforcing the central role public space plays in the open exchange of ideas in a free society.

2015 SUMMER CAMPUS ORIENTATION

32

LOCATION & HISTORY


MASTER PLAN

GOALS & STRATEGIES

3

The goals described in the following pages are a crystallization of the aspirations Liberty University has outlined for its growing campus. Liberty views the campus, the landscape, and the many buildings it operates as extensions of its mission to provide a world-class education with a solid Christian foundation. To that end, Liberty has embarked upon a vigorous reassessment of its development priorities in order to innovatively improve the 7,000+ acre main campus.


MASTER PLAN GOALS & STRATEGIES At the outset, the master plan team drafted a set of 5 key goals that would serve as the backbone of the master planning effort. A number of campus precedents, widely recognized as successful examples of campus planning and design, were consulted and analyzed for their strengths in addressing the following key goals. A summary of these goals and the ways the plan sets out to achieve them are outlined below and on the following pages: MASTER PLAN GOALS: •

Support the growth of Liberty’s unique cultural pillars of hospitality, service, faith, and community

Improve the quality of life on campus for students, faculty, administration, and guests

Create innovative educational facilities that support Liberty’s mission

Provide a wide range of spaces/places for recreation and community gathering

Protect and enhance natural systems on campus

LIBERTY UNIVERSITY IN BLUE RIDGE MOUNTAIN CONTEXT MASTER PLANS GOALS & STRATEGIES

35


THE 7 PRINCIPLES To achieve the goals established for the master plan, 7 design principles were created to guide the implementation of the planning effort. The design

ESTRIAN FRIENDL PED Y

priorities outlined below help ensure the planning process and all measures proposed and implemented during planning are aligned with the master

HU

E

TU

U

FU

INDIV

IDENTITY

N O

HIC AP R G

ATHLET ICS

MASTER PLANS GOALS & STRATEGIES

Y ILIT AB IN

& R EC R E AT I 36

A ST SU

7. Support graphic continuity in venues across campus using a clear environmental graphics approach

CU LT UR E

6. Provide athletic and recreational facilities for all students that are state-of-theart, accessible, and fun

NATURAL ENVI RO N M EN T

5. Design a flexible plan that permits Liberty to continue to grow in a sustainable manner for many years to come

E AC

3. Create a vital human-scaled campus environment 4. Honor the splendor of the campus’ natural environment

L

ID

2. Create an active pedestrian-friendly campus environment

A

PL

1. Create an identifiable University image that unites Liberty’s physical campus with the spirit of Liberty’s mission

E AL SC

RE

G A

N A M

IM

plan’s key goals.


DESIGN PRINCIPLE 1 Create an identifiable University image that unites Liberty’s physical campus with the spirit of Liberty’s mission by:

STANFORD UNIVERSITY

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA

Drafting unifying architectural design principles that reflect the University’s ideals and values (i.e. logical, restrained, accessible, flexible, balance of modern and traditional, durable and low-maintenance, legacy-making, resource-sensitive)

Delineating campus spaces that promote community-building through group gatherings/worship/celebration

Planning for easily-identifiable, free-standing, purpose-built academic buildings that allow the University to move away from sharing a single, massive general education building (DeMoss Hall)

Diminishing reliance on large facilities that were “donated” and have outlived their usefulness (Green Hall), or that were not purpose-built for academic uses

Building cutting-edge learning spaces (i.e. flexible, informal, interactive, technology-rich, etc.) to provide a one-of-a-kind educational experience that prepares students for a career in the marketplace of the future

Extending learning environments beyond the classroom into communal spaces and outdoor learning spaces (i.e. lobbies, lounges, unprogrammed in-between spaces, amphitheaters, courtyards, pocket parks, gardens, memorials, etc.)

Designing spaces for the arts that make music and the fine and performing arts part of the University’s everyday experience

Allocating space for landmarks as well as ceremonial and memorial events (i.e. miscellaneous art, fire pit, fountains, Moorman Memorial, Liberty Bell, Memorial Garden, Marquee Tower, Landmark Tower Bells and overlook, Carter Glass Mansion and original chapel, etc.)

JAMES MADISON UNIVERSITY

UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON - SEATTLE

MASTER PLANS GOALS & STRATEGIES

37


DESIGN PRINCIPLE 2 Create an active, pedestrian-friendly campus environment by: •

Designing a network of paths that promotes walking instead of auto-use with 1.5 mile long Campus Walk as centerpiece (i.e. gentle gradients, beautiful/ tactically pleasing details, shady and tree-lined, well lit, direct connections balanced by meandering garden walks, etc.)

Implementing dedicated bikeways and places to store bicycles near building entries; promoting safe bicycling measures in the built environment

Applying universal design principles to all buildings and major landscapes to ensure accessible routes for all students and visitors

Providing periodic places to rest along paths (i.e. benches, shelters, pergolas, canopies, seat walls, benches, and terraces

Minimizing conflicts between cars and people (i.e. relegate car parking and long-term storage to campus perimeter, manage pedestrian crossings with bridges/tunnels and other traffic-calming measures)

Directing where cars are stored and how parking permits are distributed in order to carefully balance daily convenience and long term health and safety

Improving bus service performance by streamlining routes and expanding hours of service and areas served; providing a network of safe, comfortable places to wait for buses

38

MASTER PLANS GOALS & STRATEGIES

UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA- QUAD

TEXAS STATE UNIVERSITY- QUAD

JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY- QUAD

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA- LOCUST WALK


DESIGN PRINCIPLE 3 Create a vital human-scaled campus environment by:

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA- THE LAWN

UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH- DENTAL CENTER

TULANE UNIVERSITY- LAVIN BERNICK CENTER

RICE UNVIERSITY- BROCHSTEIN PAVILION

Carefully calibrating the size, height, and exterior articulation of new buildings to better suit the inherent physical and psychological needs of students, faculty, and visitors

Outlining basic rules-of-thumb that can be applied to help shape buildings’ architectural components (i.e. windows, porches, eaves, roof slopes, etc.)

Proposing a list of building materials that resonate with the local building traditions and provide tactile/visual/scalar connections to the human body

Defining upper and lower bounds of appropriately scaled outdoor spaces for a variety of uses, from semi-private to public

Providing guidelines for tailoring site and building embellishments (i.e. lighting, furniture, etc.) to the specific human needs of the user

MASTER PLANS GOALS & STRATEGIES

39


DESIGN PRINCIPLE 4 Honor the splendor of the campus’ natural environment by: •

Developing a dense academic core that preserves as much landscape as possible

Enhancing the natural systems on campus with native planting, responsible stormwater management, etc.

Magnifying the natural aspects of the site by strengthening existing landscape patterns (i.e. tree canopy, fields/meadows, Lake Liberty, buffer zones along roads and tracks, etc.)

Establishing strong relationships between buildings through carefully orchestrated covered walks, common outdoor rooms, and generous central quads

Connecting buildings with their natural surroundings through the use of terraces, plazas, covered porches, picture windows, breezeways, and rooftop observation areas, etc.

Protecting distant views of the Blue Ridge Mountains by maintaining viewsheds through and across campus

40

MASTER PLANS GOALS & STRATEGIES

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA- DELL

SALT LAKE CITY MAIN PUBLIC LIBRARY

UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO- BOULDER- QUAD

UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON


DESIGN PRINCIPLE 5 Design a flexible plan that permits Liberty to continue to grow in a sustainable manner for many years to come by:

THE DEICHMANN SQUARE

UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE

Highlighting future building sites that help to reinforce general organizing principles of the current campus plan

Predicting future campus growth and planning for unforeseen needs (i.e. change in athletic division, spike in residential enrollment, addition of academic departments, etc.)

Determining the number of additional beds and parking spaces needed for current projected growth and locating those amenities in the master plan; phasing the plan to anticipate growth

Considering potential sites (owned and unowned) that could permit growth beyond the 2022 enrollment cap

Implementing utility and road infrastructure updates to ensure the plan’s longevity

Pursuing construction strategies that maximize the return on investment (i.e. cost-benefit analysis on project-by-project basis with client and CM)

Implementing best-practice stormwater management initiatives that help capture and treat rainfall at/near the source

Looking for innovative and creative ways to reduce energy expenditures

SOLAR PARKING LOT IN DELL HEADQUATERS

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA- DELL POND

MASTER PLANS GOALS & STRATEGIES

41


DESIGN PRINCIPLE 6 Provide athletic and recreational facilities for all students that are state-of-the-art, accessible, and fun by: •

Developing an athletic precinct worthy of a Division 1 institution

Organizing athletic facilities for easy patron access

Clarifying game day circulation, path of travel, and ticketing

Cultivating a recognizable architectural language for all new athletic venues while imbuing existing facilities with similar spirit through strategic additions and renovations

Providing ample field space for athletic and recreational needs in ways that promote universal access

Continuing the tradition of offering world-class recreation facilities on campus (i.e. Snowflex, LaHaye Student Union fitness center, paintball, climbing gym, courts, and fields, etc.)

42

MASTER PLANS GOALS & STRATEGIES

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA- THE LAWN

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA- BASEBALL STADIUM

PUBLIC PARK, ATLANTA, GEORGIA

COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY- FOOTBALL STADIUM


DESIGN PRINCIPLE 7 Support graphic continuity in venues across campus with a clear environmental graphics approach by: •

Developing a cohesive aesthetic language for both interior and exterior spaces through design guidelines for code, wayfinding, and environmental graphic signage

Strengthening the University’s branding and campus architectural language through the use of signage, wayfinding, and environmental graphics

Providing campus visitors with an established sense of direction, identification, guidance, and safety as they navigate their surroundings through the use of signage, wayfinding and environmental graphics

Locating campus map kiosks at major arrival locations

PARK SIGNAGE AND WAYFINDING MAP

NATIONAL MALL WAYFINDING, WASHINGTON, D.C.

MULTI-MEDIA EXHIBIT + INTERACTIVE DISPLAY, FORD ALUMNI CENTER; UNIVERSITY OF OREGON

MASTER PLANS GOALS & STRATEGIES

43


PUTTING PRINCIPLES TO WORK Design principles, goals, and strategies do not make a master plan. The principles listed in this chapter provide a convenient series of checks against which one can measure the success of future master planning efforts. As such, the 7 principles represent an idealized approach to achieving sought-after master planning goals. Only by engaging with the reality of on-site observations, analysis of existing conditions, and honest appraisals of the campus as it appeared in 2010 could the design team and Liberty advisory committee begin the messy work of stitching together a new campus master plan. A thorough working knowledge of Liberty’s history along with a familiarity with the particular conditions of its location and campus provides a deep understanding of how Liberty grew to become the school it is. By developing and then applying design principles to the reality of the campus environment, the master plan can move away from the purely analytical and towards the provocative – using lessons learned from careful study of the past to formulate new ideas about the future.

STUDENTS CAMPING ON CAMPUS, 2015

44

MASTER PLANS GOALS & STRATEGIES


CAMPUS PLANNING

4

In order to responsibly manage growth and expansion, a university the size of Liberty must carefully plan campus development over time. When executed with forethought and attention to detail, a campus plan can address shortand long-term design challenges that embrace tradition and take advantage of existing strengths while introducing innovative solutions to difficult problems. The following design proposals offer a rich mix of large and small scale campus improvements that, taken together, create a comprehensive and cohesive campus environment that will accommodate expansion for many decades to come.


CAMPUS PLANNING There is a long tradition of campus planning based on a relatively simple set of classical principles regarding how to shape the landscape to support communal living and learning. The foundation of that tradition is rooted in the quadrangle – or quad. Many quads resemble the cloistered gardens of medieval monasteries – spaces enclosed by a series of walls and arcaded walks that separate and protect the academic world from the surrounding territory. Cloisters often surrounded contemplative gardens and lawns – spaces where scholars and their teachers could stroll leisurely while debating the topics of the day. The adjacent covered walks formed a physically continuous, spatially diverse collection of indoor and outdoor spaces that offered a backdrop to the rigors of academic life. The campus became a natural outgrowth of the social and academic underpinnings of the institution and acted as a concrete reminder of the mission of higher education – to elevate the body, mind, and spirit in an environment free of the messy complexities of life. No longer necessary as a means of protection against the unruly outside world, the modern quad continues to serve as a meaningful device to help organize and form spaces at a wide range of scales. Institutions of all sizes continue to update age-old planning customs to generate spaces and organize buildings in support of their own modern-day social and academic aspirations. In addition to quads, arcades, lawns, gardens, and collegiate architecture all continue to echo the fundamental goals of higher education. At its best, campus planning adapts these various tools to the specific conditions of a place and, in doing so, continues to extend the lineage of these planning principles in timeless ways. While the tools of campus planning have largely remained relevant and useful, the scale of university-making has changed drastically. Long a small collection of similarly-sized and styled buildings set in a carefully cultivated landscape, campuses today have in many cases become heterogeneous collections of structures and spaces of wildly differing scales and purposes.

ACADEMIC QUAD FEATURING NEW SCHOOL AND STUDENT LIFE BUILDINGS

CAMPUS PLANNING

47


Many universities rival cities in their breadth of services, workforces, residents, physical plants, and infrastructure. Like cities, campuses can suffer from disorganization, a lack of human scale, and challenging geographic conditions. Large, modern campuses have to provide the same sense of personalized service as their smaller counterparts while facing the difficulties of more expansive landholdings, greater demands on resources, and slower reaction times, as a result of larger institutional staffs, to unplanned or unexpected changes. Recognizing its need to grow while respecting the strengths of classical campus planning principles, Liberty has surveyed both large, sprawling campuses as well as smaller, historical campuses. What follows is a collection of instructive case studies that have helped point the way towards a master plan ethic that respects the breadth of services indicative of a large and growing university while also honoring the seminal planning concepts embedded in historical campus precedents.

AERIAL VIEW TO THE STUDENT COMMONS AND SOUTH CAMPUS

48

CAMPUS PLANNING


CAMPUS PRECEDENTS Through in-depth conversations with Liberty representatives, a list of peer institutions was developed to help inform the trajectory of the campus planning work. To gauge influences that appealed to Liberty, the master plan team collected a cohort of schools that Liberty identified with for their academic similarities, educational missions, geographic locations, architectural sensibilities, and long-term legacies. Looking at the decisions other schools made once they grew past the 16,000 student mark would help inform next steps for Liberty’s growth and offer helpful commentary about different campus planning priorities employed at various schools. The list of nearly 20 schools was narrowed to three – Brigham Young University, the University of Notre Dame, and the University of Virginia – for the purposes of more careful analysis and interpretation.

CAMPUS PLANNING

49


BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY

UNIVERSITY OF NOTRE DAME

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA

BYU is a private research university located in Provo, Utah. It is owned and

Notre Dame is a Catholic research university located near South Bend,

UVA is a research university founded by U.S. President Thomas Jefferson

operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church),

Indiana. In French, Notre Dame du Lac means “Our Lady of the Lake”

and located in Charlottesville, Virginia. UVA is known for its historic

and, excluding online students, is the largest of any religious university

and refers to the university’s patron saint, the Virgin Mary. The main

foundations, student-run honor code, and secret societies. UVA is labeled

and the 3rd largest private university in the United States, with 29,672

campus covers 1,250 acres in a suburban setting and contains a number

one of the original “Public Ivies,” defined as a publicly funded university

on-campus students. Approximately 99 percent of the university’s 30,000

of recognizable landmarks, such as the Golden Dome, the “Word of Life”

providing a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League.

students are members of the LDS Church, and one-third of its American

mural (commonly known as Touchdown Jesus), and the Basilica.

students come from within the state of Utah.

50

CAMPUS PLANNING


BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY

UNIVERSITY OF NOTRE DAME

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA

Founded:1875

Founded: 1842

Founded: 1819

Enrollment: 29,700

Enrollment: 12,125

Enrollemnet: 21,238

Size: 560 acres

Size: 1,250 acres

Size: 1,682 acres

Athletics: Division 1 with 21 NCAA teams

Athletics: Division 1 with 26 NCAA teams

Athletics: NCAA Division 1 with 25 NCAA teams

125 0

125 250

500

0

125 250

500

0

250

500

CAMPUS PLANNING

51


THE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA CASE STUDY Thomas Jefferson’s University is widely admired for its strong connection to the Virginia landscape, its roots in traditional American architecture, and its long history of academic distinction. The master planning team’s studies of the UVA grounds revealed a number of enduring lessons about shaping university spaces to create an inspirational environment to live and learn in. The following abbreviated list of design parameters demonstrate how the application of basic guidelines can shape broad decisions about campus improvements: •

Quad dimensions reflect the importance of human-scaled outdoor spaces

Significant academic buildings anchor major quads

Campus walkways surrounding major quads have elevated finishes and enclosure/cover

A range of outdoor space types are implemented to provide variety

A robust approach to native landscaping that creates a strong connection to local geography

Contemplative gardens provide neutral spaces to rest, renew, and reflect

A distinct academic core creates a clear sense of identity for the institution

Vehicular access is restricted to areas away from academic core

Clear relationships between academic and student life precincts help stitch the community together

Athletic and recreation facilities exist adjacent to parking facilities and away from the academic core

Adjacent commercial and retail dining precincts help to connect the campus to its surroundings

125 0

52

CAMPUS PLANNING

250

500


COMPARATIVE QUAD STUDY Liberty University’s proximity to Charlottesville gave the design team unprecedented access to real-time analysis of spaces and buildings at UVA. Jefferson’s grounds sparked a number of design initiatives and continually provided a touchstone for important planning decisions – both large and small – being made at Liberty. Comparisons between the two schools steered the planning philosophy by focusing on successfully balancing buildings with landscape.

125 0

125 250

500

0

250

500

CAMPUS PLANNING

53


THE PLANNING PROCESS The master plan design process was launched in late 2010 with a thorough analysis of existing conditions on campus. An in-depth survey commenced to gather all relevant information about the current physical conditions at Liberty and included: •

Cataloging all buildings and structures (i.e. their sizes, uses, and physical status)

Locating and assessing all utilities (i.e. power, phone, water, storm, gas, fiber optic, steam, etc.)

Assessing existing road networks and parking distribution (i.e. for peak travel rates, utilization, etc.)

Studying service accommodations (i.e. routes for deliveries, refuse collection, and maintenance)

Evaluating natural systems on site (i.e. stormwater, soil and rock profiles, slopes, solar exposure, and wind direction)

Reviewing zoning ordinances, property lines, setbacks, and right-of-ways

Understanding enrollment demographics and the residential and commuter mix

Appraising less tangible design aspects like distant views, architectural language, and local/regional design history

AERIAL VIEW OF ONGOING CONSTRUCTION, JUNE 2013

54

CAMPUS PLANNING


DISCOVERING THE POSSIBILITIES Using the above data and observations, the design team identified a number of challenges facing Liberty, particularly in its efforts to improve the way the campus functions. These problems/conflicts can be found on many modern campuses, but the fact that Liberty has grown so quickly has made them particularly critical items to address. The following is a list of issues that became the backbone of the planning effort: •

Campus tightly constrained by surrounding roadways, rail lines, and commercial development

Lack of adequate public space for range of uses (i.e. individual, small group, graduation, etc.)

Poor vehicular and pedestrian circulation (i.e. one main roadway, pedestrian/ automobile conflicts, travel times between certain buildings require auto use, limited ways to cross Rt. 460 and rail, etc.)

Very large multi-purpose buildings located at far ends of large campus (i.e. lack of departmental identity, super-concentration of students, constant renovation/reconfiguration necessary)

Little emphasis placed on landscape (i.e. natural assets not taken advantage of, lack of landscape cohesion, etc.)

Lack of identifiable campus edges/entry and confusing wayfinding

CAMPUS CONFLICT MAP

CAMPUS PLANNING

55


AN IMPROVED LIBERTY CAMPUS After a thorough analysis of the existing conditions and the careful cataloging of the challenges and opportunities on campus, the design team drafted a summary of the vital issues that required careful consideration as planning moved forward. The following action items depict the emerging motivations for the design as it moved from the diagnostic phases of the work to more tangible campus proposals. •

Make every effort to more fully connect the Liberty campus to its surroundings. This includes both new and imprwntry points and roads through campus.

Expand what little public space the campus offers by rooting all future work in the principle that every new building project should provide associated outdoor space that is linked to a complete network of landscape improvements across the campus.

Improve conditions on campus for pedestrians by alleviating the congestion along University Boulevard and by diversifying the ways in which foot and bicycle traffic can more easily move about campus. Redundant routes and clear, safe walkways will improve connectivity and decrease the reliance on vehicles.

Develop a strong approach to parking for visitors, residents, and staff that prioritizes the larger-scale operations of the campus on a daily basis and reverses the trend of surplus surface parking. This should include the reconsideration of parking policies as well as changes to physical parking procedures.

Receive commitment from stakeholders to move away from building massive buildings that tend to alienate users by virtue of their size and navigation difficulties in favor of a more sensitive, place-based approach that develops buildings and landscapes at more manageable scales. CAMPUS SOLUTION MAP

Update existing natural amenities on site while adding to the breadth of the landscapes on campus. Liberty’s campus should be a showcase of the region’s diverse botanic offerings, and it should establish a cohesive image for the entirety of it’s many properties.

Reinforce a sense of arrival and the specific identity of the school by establishing a strong way to create edges for the campus. The boundaries should clearly mark a distinction between the many poorly designed properties that surround Liberty and a campus of high design ideals.

56

CAMPUS PLANNING


EARLY ACADEMIC COMMONS STUDIES Using the proposed campus library and academic commons as a seed for a first phase of master planning, the design team conceived a tightly knit series of new buildings that would replace the sprawling wings of DeMoss Hall. This sequence depicts the early stages of development, beginning with conditions as they existed at left.

Phase 1 shows the early preference for a new lake as the centerpiece of campus growth. Behind it can be seen the indoor basketball practice facility – equal parts building and landscape – connecting the academic commons with a future housing precinct to the south via a broad vegetated roof. Interlocking quads form the heart of the growing campus.

Phase 2 depicts the southward expansion of the campus to include a completely re-envisioned student housing precinct. 2-story housing accommodations are razed and replaced by 4-story buildings oriented to create an extension of the central landscape spine. The plan is anchored at the south end by a proposed student services building and symbolic carillon.

CAMPUS PLANNING

57


2010 CAMPUS PLAN This Illustrative plan of Liberty University represents the campus as it appeared in the fall of 2010. At the time, work was underway on a new visitor’s center, and ground had been broken on the first phase of the Regent’s Parkway project. Recurring problems with parking availability, poor campus Ca wayfinding, and a lack of clear and safe pedestrian circulation routes plagued nd

ler

s

ou the campus, and Mplanned growth threatened to limit Liberty’s ability to house the numbers of nta i nR

students it needed to.

Rou

d

te 46

Rou

0

te 4 6

0

GREEN HALL

DEMOSS HALL

VINES CENTER

Route 29

SECTION TITLE

59


2020 MASTER PLAN HIGHLIGHTS INDOOR TRACK & FIELD

NEW CAMPUS ENTRY IMPROVED EAST ENTRY

VINES PARKING GARAGE & STUDENT SERVICE BUILDING

LAHAYE COURTYARD & ICE CENTER

RT 460 BRIDGE ACADEMIC COMMONS BUSINESS GOVERNMENT SCHOOL MEMORIAL HILL ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE CENTER STUDENT COMMONS

WEST TUNNEL

LAKE & PEDESTRIAN TUNNEL

CAMPUS PLANNING


2020 CAMPUS PLAN The major goal of the 2020 plan is to create an accessible pedestrian route through the heart of campus that connects the various quads and forms a continuous ribbon of landscape. By removing/relocating roads and parking to the perimeter, the center of campus can be kept carfree, allowing Ca new buildings to frame generous outdoor courtyards. Improved campus entries nd

ler

s

un and an expandedMointernal road network add flexibility to the plan. New academic and student tai nR

d

housing buildings, along with expanded athletic facility offerings, equip Liberty with much needed space.

Rou

te 46

Rou

0

te 4 6

0

GREEN HALL

DEMOSS HALL

Route 29

VINES CENTER


2030 MASTER PLAN HIGHLIGHTS

ARENA & GARAGE

NATATORIUM

FOOTBALL EXPANSION

HONOR’S COLLEGE SOUTH QUAD

CAMPUS PLANNING


2030 CAMPUS PLAN The last phase of campus growth completes an ambitious charge to renovate or replace the majority of student housing on campus. A second residential quad and an associated wetland park cap the campus walkway to the south, while expanded athletic and recreational facilities round out the Ca north and east quads. A new multi-purpose arena and parking garage on the nd

ler

s

Mo un site of the former Doc’s Diner site expands Liberty’s ability to host major sporting events while tai nR

d

freeing the Vines Center to host non-athletic proceedings.

Rou

te 46

Rou

0

te 4 6

0

GREEN HALL

DEMOSS HALL

Route 29

VINES CENTER


68 CAMPUS PLANNING

2030 Campus Master Plan

2020 Campus Master Plan

2010 Campus Master Plan


CAMPUS INFRASTRUCTURE To improve campus-wide automobile circulation and enhance the efficiency of cross-campus bus routes, a new campus loop road helps strengthen the connection between all corners of campus. A new Rt. 460 bridge crossing at the southern end of campus brings a much needed link between parts of campus that have been geographically close yet inaccessible to one another. A new tunnel below the rail corridor from Rt. 29 and an enhanced access point at Rt. 460 expand vehicular circulation options, easing congestion at constricted entries and improving routes through campus. Structured parking accommodates the need for high volume use and reduces inefficient surface parking options. All of the improvements to the road network help minimize conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles. With the new loop road and parking garages along the perimeter, room has been made in the core of campus for a continuous 1.5 mile long accessible walkway that stitches the various buildings, quads. and athletic facilities together.

PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION VEHICULAR CIRCULATION OPEN QUADS

2010 CIRCULATION

CAMPUS PLANNING

69


PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION The focus on improving the pedestrian experience at Liberty has triggered a substantial redesign of the campus walk network. The main north-south campus walk serves as the major circulation spine. At 16’ wide, it can accommodate the heavy foot traffic generated by the new work associated with the master plan. Secondary walks that frame the quads and paths that connect across the width of the campus are planned to occur at key intervals of frequent use. Most major walks within the core of campus are brick, with lesser paths constructed in concrete.

PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION

VEHICULAR CIRCULATION The vehicular landscape at Liberty has changed drastically since the road network expanded to include a new loop road. No longer served by a single, overloaded 2-way street, the campus benefits from the expansion of the loop road to the east side of grounds. This new loop removes components of the old system from the center of campus, liberating the landscape from a tangle of roads and providing room for quads and pedestrian circulation. The loop also allows for strategic location of housing and parking along more efficient bus routes.

STRUCTURE PARKING VEHICULAR CIRCULATION

70

CAMPUS PLANNING


BUS AND BIKE CIRCULATION Bus routing was established after thorough study of the master plan’s proposed distribution of academic programs, student housing, recreational field locations, and commuter and event parking facilities. Once those factors were understood, a careful analysis of user volumes and trip frequencies was executed to establish the necessary service model. The new road network and campus loop provide for efficient bus scheduling and create a clear structure for strong bus program performance. A wellmarked and coordinated system of bike paths, along with ample bike storage facilities, further strengthen Liberty’s ability to provide a range of transportation options. 2-MINS WALK RADIUS BIKE RACK/ SHELTER BUS STOP BIKE ROUTES BUS ROUTES

CAMPUS ENTRIES Three major entries have been introduced to the campus to help improve connectivity while also enhancing the visibility of the University to the public. A generous vehicular tunnel at Rt. 29 brings much needed access to the core of the campus. Its four lanes accommodate ample volume while introducing a long-absent way to move into the University from the west. As part of the work on the new library, a smaller pedestrian tunnel connects the academic commons to the many commercial establishments that students frequent along Rt. 29. Visitors coming from Rt. 460 also gain another access point into the east campus, opening the door to further development of that area of campus.

CAMPUS ENTRANCE

CAMPUS PLANNING

71


QUADS At the heart of the master plan proposal is the establishment of a succession of interconnected quads that support the expansion of traditional campus structure to all precincts of the university grounds that sustain academic and student life programming. The dimensions and detailing of quads are rigorously prescribed to ensure the correct spatial effects – many of which stem from the precedent studies described earlier. Taken together, the quads become a lush green chain of outdoor spaces that unite the many disparate parts of the large campus.

WATER OPEN QUADS

QUADS AND ACADEMIC PROGRAMS The intent behind creating a series of interconnected quads is illustrated by this diagram depicting the linkages between all academic buildings and athletic sites on campus. The landscape spaces that comprise the green spine running through campus vary in size and detail but share a common motivation: provide a beautiful natural setting – comprised of native plants and built with local materials – for the academic, athletic, and cultural events that take place at Liberty. This green space not only connects buildings and sites but also connects people to place by serving as a constant reminder of the natural world.

WATER QUADS ACADEMIC BUILDING

72

CAMPUS PLANNING


ALTERNATIVE TRANSIT Exhaustive studies were conducted to understand the broad transportation options that exist for the modern university campus. Automated transit systems, with driverless guidance, pre-programmed trip scheduling, and minimal maintenance requirements, became an attractive option for moving people from remote parking lots into the center of campus. Large groups of event-day visitors and growing numbers of daily commuters could conveniently and safely shuttle-in to their destinations. This proposed transportation option, along the Rt. 460 corridor, could become a major infrastructure upgrade if future funding is made available.

STATION BRIDGE TUNNEL SURFACE ROUTE UNDERGROUND ROUTE

FUTURE NORTH EXPANSION Future growth is all but certain at a university like Liberty. Since 1971, the school has continued to appeal to students seeking a high quality education grounded in strong Christian principles. Because of this, the master plan suggests securing the far north side of the campus currently occupied by a shopping center for future expansion. The site would easily accept academic and athletic projects that extend Liberty’s campus in advantageous ways. By reserving a slot of space along the east side of Green Hall, the landscape spine could be expanded across Candler Mountain Drive to connect to this valuable asset.

PROPOSED QUADS PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION PROPOSED BUILDING

CAMPUS PLANNING

73


PROPOSED PROGRAM DISTRIBUTION The 2030 master plan effectively explodes the centralized program block represented by DeMoss Hall into a series of individual, interconnected academic buildings that are purpose-built for specific programmatic uses. The smaller buildings create an enhanced sense of scale and provide meaningful identities to the specific academic departments housed within. The new buildings establish a more expressive backdrop for reinvigorated outdoor spaces and carefully delineated quads. Student housing is transferred from a collection of aging buildings, hastily erected without consideration for placemaking, to larger, denser buildings. The new housing benefits from a centralization of services and helps organize an end of campus that has long suffered from poor space utilization. Food service has been expanded to include a wide range of residential and retail dining options, and has migrated into the new residential precincts where demand has grown.

ACADEMIC STUDENT LIFE DINING ATHLETICS HOUSING OTHER

2010 PROGRAM

74

CAMPUS PLANNING


Academic

Athletic

Dining

Housing

Student Life

Other

CAMPUS PLANNING

75


GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE The master plan proposes a number of sustainable landscape facilities, or “green infrastructure”, supporting the University’s aspirations for a healthy campus that celebrates its unique natural heritage and preserves it as a responsible member of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. The green roof upon The Vines Practice Facility is undoubtedly the largest in central Virginia. It, along with several other green roofs, biofilters, infiltration systems, vegetated swales and ponds with wetland edges will help manage stormwater sustainably. A native plant garden and plots of restored woodlands will provide educational opportunities, while supporting wildlife habitat, pollinators and songbirds.

5

2

1

4 3

1. Memorial Tower Green Roof 2. Vines Practice Facility Green Roof 3. Liberty Lake 4. South Campus Pond 5. Athletic Performace Center Green

76

CAMPUS PLANNING

VEGETATED SWALE STORMWATER RETENTION POND BIOFILTER STORMWATER DETENTION POND NATIVE PLANTING/ HABITAT ZONES GREEN ROOF


ENTRIES AND EDGES Great collegiate campuses are distinct from their surrounding context. There is a clear demarcation from the outside world, identifying the campus as a unique learning environment and establishing the physical zone of its identity. Certain parts of the current Liberty campus are not differentiated well from the surrounding suburban and rural areas, and the boundaries between the core campus and other surrounding land uses and parcels are blurred. In addition to building a strong architectural and landscape aesthetic, strategies to physically demark the campus edges will help establish the Liberty identity and reinforce the limits of its grounds. This diagram illustrates strategies to establish clear campus boundaries, by using landscape and architectural structures to set up clear gateways and thresholds at current and future entry points into the campus. These structures, whether landscaped elements, signature Liberty bridges, tunnels, gates or sign walls, will announce the transition from outside to inside the campus. Additionally, some areas, such as the north side of the campus, are currently closely enmeshed with the nearby city fabric. These areas will benefit from distinct landscaped edges, such as hedges or fences, which will provide a clear line between campus and town environments. Wooded buffers and planted screens will help to reinforce this separation in other areas, which have a little more space between the campus buildings and the outside world.

FOREST BUFFER EDGES ENTRIES THRESHOLDS TUNNELS RAILROADS

CAMPUS PLANNING

77


CAMPUS SPACES This diagram illustrates how the master plan sets up a distinct and cohesive corridor of well-connected campus spaces and a hierarchy of related secondary spaces. Classical collegiate quads are linked by strong visual axes and direct walkways. Arrangements of buildings, landscape structures and groups of canopy trees frame outdoor spaces and frame views to prominent focal points, such as the Landmark Tower, Falwell Library and The Liberty Lake. Comparison of the proposed master plan with the existing conditions of the campus in 2010 shows that: 1. The main campus greens that were disconnected and less defined are largely cohesive and shaped to form identifiable “quads�. 2. Parking lots that were pervasive and intertwined throughout the core campus have been pushed to the perimeter and consolidated into parking garages, even while parking counts have increased substantially. 3. Distinct precincts are established so that different uses, such as academics and athletics, are consolidated into related but unique areas.

PRIMARY SPACE SECONDARY SPACE TERRANCE DRAINAGE BUS STOP CIRCUIT PATH PEDESTRIAN PATH

78

CAMPUS PLANNING


CAMPUS TREE SPECIES This diagram shows the layout plan for major large tree planting gestures. These groups, lines and allees of trees will accentuate and reinforce visual axes, frame views and help establish street and path hierarchies. The change in tree species and size type from one street or pathway to another will help differentiate campus spaces and corridors. Long runs of single species will help bind together the campus and provide a unifying element. The various tree types were chosen for their form, capacity to provide shade and seasonal color. As general principles: •

All streets and roads should have the same type of tree on both sides of the street.

Large rectangular or square lawns (quads) should have the same type of tree on both sides, mirrored.

Long rows of the same tree will provide consistency at the street or in campus spaces.

RED OAK WILLOW OAK AMERICAN ELM

SERVICE BERRY SUGAR MAPLE

CHERRY

MAGNOLIA

RED MAPLE

LONDON PLANE

GINKGO

DOGWOOD

HORNBEAM

GROVE MIX

CAMPUS PLANNING

79


CAMPUS SECTION A This section through Lake Liberty, the adjacent Basketball Practice Facility, and the renovated Vines Center illustrates how buildings and landscape merge into a composition of overlapping spaces that serve both pragmatic and poetic ends. The Practice Facility’s vegetated roof acts as an efficient building envelope while providing a seamless extension of the pedestrian routes through the campus. The Lake and surrounding Library terraces create a new focal point for student activity while collecting and treating local stormwater. Vehicular circulation occurs on the margins, leaving the center of campus free of traffic.

80

SECTION TITLE


CAMPUS SECTION B The section below is cut through the heart of the Academic Commons and Great Lawn. It captures the cross-axial quad space that extends from the broad terraced entry of the Student Center to the wood-lined chamber of the 1,600 seat Concert Hall at the School of Music. This grand outdoor room can host large university events such as graduation, but can just as easily be programmed for smaller gatherings that can take advantage of the many secondary courtyards and building terraces that surround it. Allees of maple and oak trees line the quads and provide shade and a sense of gravity to the core campus.

A-A’ NORTH CAMPUS SECTION

SECTION TITLE

81


DIGGING DEEPER While establishing large-scale systems and bringing order to the campus as a whole, the master plan process must eventually move into more detailed territory to ensure an appropriate level of consideration has been given to the design of spaces and buildings. Decisions about large-scale road construction, campus wide infrastructure, and future growth of academic programming lead to important questions about how macro-scale solutions affect the successful design of quads, landscapes, and individual buildings. Only when the impact of broad planning efforts are applied to the fabric of more finite spaces can a master plan propose practical, workable solutions. Campus circulation, utility infrastructure, and program distribution all point in clear ways towards an appealing linear organization of quads tied together by a major campus walkway. As illustrated, the walkway skewers a series of spaces that operate well in isolation but also benefit from connections to adjacent spaces and support mechanisms. Each of these individual campus zones – or precincts – were developed to provide Liberty with clear guidelines for planning and eventual realization. The seven individual precincts are highlighted in the following chapter, with emphasis placed on general building organization and a clear approach to landscapes that tie them together into a cohesive whole.

LOOKING WEST FROM CANDLER MOUNTAIN, SEPTEMBER, 2015

82

CAMPUS PLANNING


PRECINCT PLANS

5

Breaking down the scale of a campus into campus precincts helps to streamline the design process. Precincts, by virtue of their smaller size, enable a finer grain of analysis and a more specific series of proposals at the quad and individual building scale. Often, precincts display qualities that reflect the larger image of the university while also embodying more nuanced characteristics specific to particular types of programs. In this way, each of the 7 precincts that follow consist of particular traits that help define their cultural intent while also maintaining very clear references to the Liberty community as a whole.


PRECINCT PLANS As the design for the campus developed, distinct patterns of use began to emerge that helped shape the overall organization of the plan. The blueprint for the master plan subdivides the campus into zones of related uses. These areas benefit from shared resources, compatible functions, and the ability to group similar programs by scale and density. Academic spaces, student housing, and athletic facilities each occupy distinct zones and are linked by a continuous campus circulation spine making

PAGE 112

connectivity between zones easy and graceful. Pedestrian links to the north and east campus precincts are improved by enhanced bridge and tunnel connections, making effortless what once involved tedious navigation.The map at left highlights the various university precincts and key buildings and landscapes found in each.

PAGE 109

PAGE 105

PAGE 98

PAGE 84

PAGE 95

PAGE 101

LIBERTY UNIVERSITY CAMPUS PRECINCTS

PRECINCT PLANS

85


ACADEMIC COMMONS At the center of Liberty University’s campus lies the Academic Commons. New buildings for the sciences and music join a 1,600 seat concert hall, a new academic commons and library, and new student center to create the academic and social heart of the school. Strategic demolition of inefficient academic spaces and a dated basketball practice facility (Schilling Hall) permitted a wholesale re-envisioning of what has become the dynamic

8

heart of the plan. The centerpiece of the new precinct is the great lawn – a classically-scaled quad whose carefully composed size, orientation, and edge articulation provide Liberty with much needed outdoor space that can be used for recreation, University events, and gathering space for informal

1

student activities of all sizes.

7

5

6 10

2

4 9

11 1. Student Center

7. Vines Center

2. Jerry Falwell Library

8. Demoss Learning Center

3. School of Music

9. Liberty Lake

4. Science Hall

10. The Great Lawn

5. Liberty Tower and School of Divinity

11. Health Professions and School of Nursing

6. Indoor Basketball Practice

86

PRECINCT PLANS

3


ACADEMIC COMMONS The Academic Commons will be the academic core of Liberty’s Campus, and will be centered upon a T-shaped ”Great Lawn” framed by an array of academic and resource buildings. The Great Lawn is designed as a classic, collegial campus space, structured with large canopy trees and the clean geometries of brick paths and flat lawn panels. It will serve as the central outdoor gathering space for a broad range of events, from informal gatherings to full graduation ceremonies. The Library and Science buildings will flank the north and south sides, while the articulated facades of the Music School and Auditorium will face the Students Center across the main axis of the lawn. Broad steps and amphitheater seating at the Student Center will afford a grand vista of the lawn and a perfect place for commencement addresses. Small courtyards and sheltered garden spaces associated with different buildings will provide more intimate places to gather and study. Water will spill over a wall bounding the Great Lawn to a terrace below, and create a wonderful focal point from the Library’s fourstory atrium. The 16’ wide “Campus Walk” will span almost the entire core campus, uniting the different campus precincts. It will run though the Academic Commons, paved in bluestone, across the Great Lawn and directly on axis with the iconic Landmark Tower, which will look over the Commons. Two major paths, the Library Walk and Reber Thomas Way, will run paved in brick as cross-axes to the Campus Walk, and bring students to the Commons from east and west. The Great Lawn will opens to the south and extends a vast green axis into the adjacent precincts. A stone and lawn amphitheater will hug the library’s east façade at this threshold, and a terraced lawn will overlook Liberty Lake, surrounded by cascading falls and a native wetland garden.

PEDESTRIAN AXIS CIRCUIT PATH PRIMARY CAMPUS SPACE SECONDARY CAMPUS SPACE

GREEN ROOF TERRACE BUS STOP DRAINAGE

PRECINCT PLANS

87


ACADEMIC COMMONS LIBRARY The new library at Liberty University was the first major academic building to be built in the extensive multi-year overhaul of the Academic Commons. The library is carefully positioned at the social and academic heart of this new campus master plan, heralding Liberty’s commitment to supporting student success with cutting-edge academic spaces and high-quality learning and teaching resources. The library is situated at the intersection of major campus connections and overlooks an improved riparian corridor and new campus lake. These outdoor spaces, interwoven with the library’s pathways and new 1.5 mile campus walk, provide students with direct contact with the natural world. The library embraces this restored landscape with a broad set of lawn terraces and outdoor patios that teem with student activity in the warmer months and serve as outdoor counterparts to the generous social spaces within the building.

LIBRARY ATRIUM

Compared to prototypical libraries of the past, Liberty’s new flagship library reverses the notion of book storage as the central motive of a library’s design in favor of a user-centric layout that places student activity in the foreground. The building provides a wide range of flexible spaces that encourage students to meet, work, and socialize in increasingly informal groupings. The building is strategically organized to provide a full range of opportunities for study, from completely quiet individual study zones, to small and medium sized group study rooms and lounges, to the large Learning Commons and public gathering areas.

Cost: $50m Size: 170,000 SF Completion: 2014 SECTION THROUGH LIBRARY

88

PRECINCT PLANS

LIBRARY 1ST FLOOR


ACADEMIC COMMONS BASKETBALL PRACTICE FACILITY AND LAKE LIBERTY The new Basketball Practice Facility sits to the west of the Vines Center and forms a physical connection across a wooded ravine that had long bisected the campus and complicated circulation. Its broad, vegetated roof becomes an extension of the campus landscape and permits free movement of students and visitors along the major north-south walkway. Below the large green roof sits three full basketball courts and associated fitness and administrative spaces. When not in use as an athletic venue, the building doubles as staging space for events in the Vines Center and can also host a wide range of University gatherings. Sitework for the Basketball Practice Facility and adjacent Library included the grading and construction of a new lake to serve as the focal point of the Academic Commons. Lake Liberty is a year-rond body of water that 1st FLOOR PLAN

DEVELOPMENT SKETCH

attracts students to its shores. Lawn terraces along the north side of the lake and meandering paths to the south teem with activity. The broad paved plaza and source fountain to the east invite a wide range of uses. On sunny afternoons, the lake can be found hosting small gatherings and groups of individuals engaged in an array of activities. In addition to the useful programmatic roles these landscapes play, the lake also acts as an important regional stormwater impoundment location, managing outflow from the watershed that surrounds it.

Cost: $12m Size: 80,000 SF Completion: 2014 LAKE LIBERTY ILLUSTRATIVE SITE PLAN

PRECINCT PLANS

89


ACADEMIC COMMONS SCHOOL OF MUSIC AND CONCERT HALL Liberty’s new School of Music and Concert Hall is situated at the ceremonial head of the growing campus’ new arts quad. For the first time in the University’s history, the departments of music and performing arts and worship are co-located in the same building, consolidating various academic programs into what is now the 7th largest music program in the country. The significant central location on campus gives the program a new sense of allure and helps to promote and publicize the arts within the University community. The design encourages students and visitors alike to explore and participate in the various musical activities housed throughout the building by opening performance spaces up to public view. A generous multi-level promenade stitches together the main building’s public spaces and academic programs, while indoor/outdoor connections integrate the vibrant life of the building into the landscape and campus beyond. The new 1,600 seat, state-of-the-art concert hall serves as the centerpiece

S.O.M. DEVELOPMENT SKETCH

of the campus’ burgeoning music program. Supporting a program that encompasses a dynamic spectrum of musical pedagogy, the Concert Hall needed to be well-suited for both orchestra performances and amplified worship arts. Conceived as a finely-tuned, wood-lined chamber for natural acoustic musical performances, the Hall can also be configured to support a wide range of amplified events through sound dampening measures that can be deployed throughout the chamber.

Cost: $54m Size: 130,000 SF Completion: 2016 SECTION THROUGH COCERT HALL

90

PRECINCT PLANS

RENDERING OF ENTRY


ACADEMIC COMMONS SCIENCE BUILDING The H-shaped Science Building opens to Science courtyards, elevated porches, and the campus beyond. The building’s two bars of lab space are connected by a transparent central nucleus of multistory public spaces, flexible classrooms, and a lecture auditorium. Glassy atria at the north and south of the nucleus open the sciences up to the University landscape and provide indoor/outdoor spaces for interaction. This public center welcomes students to the Science Building and communicates the spirit of collaboration among faculty, students, and researchers across disciplines, as well as between the sciences and the greater University community. Sited on Liberty’s Academic Lawn opposite the Library and Student Center, the new Science Building serves as a vibrant academic center on campus. With its prominent location, the new Science Building brings the sciences into view. ILLUSTRATIVE SITE PLAN

DEVELOPMENT SKETCHES

Cost: $35m Size: 135,000 SF Completion: 2015 RENDERING OF ATRIUM

VIEW OF LECTURE PAVILLION

PRECINCT PLANS

91


ACADEMIC COMMONS STUDENT CENTER The keystone of the Academic Lawn, the Student Center forges a significant and welcoming presence on campus that grows out of Liberty’s distinctive character. The entrance is marked by a graceful canopy and monumental steps that reach out to the campus and engage the landscape. Students enjoy the shelter and seating of the porch, and the raised stone platform can be used as a performance space for events such as graduation. The exterior’s sense of solidity is balanced by various materials adding texture and color to the interior. The building’s massing forms a multi-story atrium, a central gathering space where filtered natural light penetrates deep into the building to animate the space. The Atrium encourages a spirit of collaboration and fosters connectivity and chance encounters, while still maintaining a vital sense of intimacy. At night, the Atrium glows like a lantern, offering the possibilities of camaraderie within.

RENDERING OF TERRACES AT DUSK

Cost: $46.6m Size: 148,000 SF Completion: 2016 ILLUSTRATIVE SITE PLAN

92

PRECINCT PLANS

RENDERING OF ATRIUM


ACADEMIC COMMONS TOWER AND SCHOOL OF DIVINITY Located at the physical and cultural center of campus, the Landmark Tower will serve as a focal point for Liberty University’s growing campus and will become Lynchburg’s tallest building. The 16-story, 275’ tall tower will house the relocated School of Divinity, 9 classrooms, and an observation deck overlooking the University grounds and surrounding city of Lynchburg. The Landmark Tower was built concurrently with the Student Center and Main Quad landscape to the south. It will connect via footbridge to the Student Center’s 3rd floor and will share some of the Center’s loading dock capacity for service. These projects are separately funded and constructed, but are considered together for campus planning purposes. Similarly, the Campus Walk, Memorial Hillside, and Pedestrian Bridge linking the Tower to the Athletic Precinct and Visitors Center to the north are all separate but related projects and will require careful coordination to tie together. This northward expansion of the Main Quad and Campus Walk will help achieve

DEVELOPMENT SKETCH

the master plan’s goal of creating a unified, pedestrian friendly circulation spine that connects all aspects of University life.

Cost: $40.5m Size: 71,500 SF Completion: 2016 RENDERING OF TOWER BASE

SECTION THROUGH OBSERVATION LEVELS

PRECINCT PLANS

93


ACADEMIC COMMONS DEMOSS ENTRIES In an effort to humanize DeMoss Hall’s massive and imposing 4-story brick exterior, new entry pavilions are planned to help reduce the overall size of the building and create a sense of place at its short north and south ends. 2-story glass-wrapped porches identify new entries into the Schools of Education and Health Sciences, giving each a presence on campus currently missing. The additions not only create new public faces for these two important programs but also provide new, flexible spaces for the type of informal student use so in demand.

DEMOSS HALL RENDERING OF NORTH ENTRY

RENDERING OF NORTH ENTRY

SCHOOL OF EDUCATION ENTRANCE RED MAPLE GROVE

WINDING WALK WINDING WALL OUTDOOR CLASSROOM

ENTRY PLAZA

WINDING WALK

PLAY EQUIPMENT

Cost: TBD

REBER THOMAS DRIVE

Size: TBD Completion: TBD ILLUSTRATIVE SITE PLAN

94

PRECINCT PLANS

WILLOW OAKS


ACADEMIC COMMONS VINES CANOPIES The Vines Center occupies a pivotal site at the center of campus. It continues to serve as the home of Liberty University’s basketball program while also hosting regular school-wide convocation meetings. As such, it is the most widely-used building on campus, hosting the entire student body on a weekly basis. The large, domed structure has been embraced by many as an interesting artifact of the early years of the University but lacks a clear architectural expression that helps tie it to the developing language of the campus. Built in the early 90s, the arena is clad in concrete masonry units and painted an off-white to match the color of the geodesic dome. It lacks well-marked entrances befitting a major campus landmark and public amenity. New entry vestibules and canopies are meant to provide a measure of cover and environmental separation between inside and out. AERIAL VIEW OF VINES AND CANOPIES

PHASING DIAGRAMS

Architecturally, brick piers and cantilevered steel canopies bridge the gap between new and old, connecting the language of the developing campus to the new entries. The cantilevered structures echo the canopies on other major public buildings, while creating more finely-scaled spatial sequences as one moves from the quad into the vast space of the arena.

Cost: TBD Size: TBD Completion: TBD PERSPECTIVE OF ACADEMIC COMMONS WITH CANOPY AT RIGHT

PRECINCT PLANS

95


ACADEMIC COMMONS MOORMAN MEMORIAL The Moorman family grave site is located on a small parcel of land to the east of the School of Music. Long sequestered to a dark corner on the back side of Schilling Hall, the preserved Moorman Memorial is positioned at the head of the new quad and framed by a landscape that honors the memory of those buried there. The School of Music building was sited to allow the footprint of the monument to define the southern edge of the school’s terrace. There, it is framed by new stone site walls and is planted with dogwood trees – a Moorman family favorite. The historical stone monument has been restored and replaced in its original location, a testament to the importance this site has to the university.

SITE STUDY 1

SITE STUDY 2

SITE STUDY 3

SITE STUDY 4

Cost: TBD Size: TBD Completion: 2016

96

PRECINCT PLANS


STUDENT COMMONS As Liberty has grown over the last 30 years, the University has kept apace of student housing needs by building a series of expeditious low-rise residential accommodations. As the main campus reached a saturation point, new apartments went up on the east campus but soon those were being overtaxed. The master plan’s housing strategy methodically replaces some of the aging facilities on the main campus with new, more densely designed buildings that concentrate a large number of undergraduate students near key academic and student life facilities. When complete, the

7

Student Commons precinct will be home to 3760 new beds and will sit a short distance from the Academic Commons to the north. A new Lakeside Dining facility will be able to seat 2000 students and will serve the growing campus as the central residential dining facility for decades to come.

1

2

8

3

5

4

6

1. Student Commons 1

5. Lakeside Dining

2. Student Commons 2

6. The Ellipse

3. Student Commons 3

7. Stormwater Garden

4. Student Commons 4

8. Student Commons Lawn

PRECINCT PLANS

97


STUDENT COMMONS The Student Commons is the only precinct that will be entirely dedicated to residential student life. Its large dorms will face a broad central lawn that will extend toward and unite them with the Academic Commons. The open axis of the lawn will allow views to the Landmark Tower to the north, and the academic spaces to the south. Lines of canopy trees, brick walks and stone terraces along the lawn will reinforce its geometry, and cross-axial brick walks will lead to inner garden courts associated with each dorm. One of the dorms is to house a large dining hall that faces Liberty Lake, and will make a visual connection to the Library. Across the lake, on the Library’s south side, a café terrace will overlook a broad set of lawn terraces and the lake itself. The Lake was one of Liberty’s first undertakings in its most recent round of improvements, because in addition to adding a place of beauty to the campus, the Lake adds a vital component of green infrastructure to the campus landscape by managing stormwater. Surrounded by flowering trees and shrubs, and teeming with birds and wildlife, the lake brings nature and students together at the center of campus.

PEDESTRIAN AXIS CIRCUIT PATH PRIMARY CAMPUS SPACE SECONDARY CAMPUS SPACE GREEN ROOF TERRACE BUS STOP DRAINAGE

98

PRECINCT PLANS


STUDENT COMMONS CAMPUS PLAN

The development of the Student Commons precinct was jumpstarted in

SOUTH QUAD

part by the University’s request for a fully accessible main campus walk – a challenging prospect given the campus’ topographically varied landscape.

Liberty Lake Oval Lawn

The Student Commons landscape plan focuses on a crisp plane of lawn

Dining Hall Library

towers. To the north, the Lakeside Dining facility overlooks the wooded

Rill Fount

Lawn

that runs down the center of the quad and is framed by the four housing hillside and Lake Liberty below.

Fountain Plaza

The 5-story bars of student housing run east-west to take advantage of solar orientation while permitting views out to the mountains on either side

Parking

UNIVERSITY TOWER RAMP STUDY

East Garden

Vines Center

SYMBOLIC CENTER OF CAMPUS

of campus. Brick cladding, hipped roofs, and sensitive massing help tie the buildings to the larger campus aesthetic.

ILLUSTRATIVE SITE PLAN

AERIAL VIEW OF STUDENT COMMONS 4 AND LAKESIDE DINNING

PRECINCT PLANS

99


MEMORIAL HILLSIDE Situated between the Academic Commons and the Athletic Precinct is Memorial Hillside and the 275’ tall Landmark Tower that, when complete, will be the tallest building in Lynchburg. Since the school’s founding in the

8

70s, the Carter Glass mansion and Prayer Chapel have anchored Liberty’s academic programs in the University’s main spiritual mission. The Hillside precinct is the arrival point for first-time visitors and dignitaries and is home to the new, dome-capped Visitor Center. From here, visitors disembark on guided tours or self-directed excursions into the campus, where they can travel through the restored memorial gardens, the founder’s historic home,

9

and the Tower’s planted lower terraces. Once inside the Tower lobby, one can catch glimpses of the new campus taking shape to the south or take an elevator up to the glass-capped observation level 16 stories above to experience a different perspective of the growing campus. 1

2 4 3

12 10

13

5 6

1. Hancock Welcome Center

8. Barnes & Nobel Bookstore

2. University Prayer Chapel

9. Future Academic Building

3. Carter-Glass Mansion

10. Fawell Memorial

4. The Hill- Honors College Housing

11. The North Lawn

5. Honors College

12. AP&C Bridge

6. Liberty Tower and School of Divinity

13. Tower Bridge

7. Liberty Softball Stadium

100

PRECINCT PLANS

11 7


MEMORIAL HILLSIDE The Memorial Hillside lies at the heart of campus, where the Visitors Center is located near the historic Glass Mansion and the Falwell Memorial Garden. Conceived as a quieter part of campus, the hillside will be planted as a woodland respite from busy academic life. Select open lawns on the hillside and terraces at the Visitors Center will provide magnificent views to the Blue Ridge Mountains to the west. The Landmark Tower will be situated on the south side of the hill, and its associated terraces and gardens will overlook the Academic Commons beyond. The Divinity School (in the Tower) and dormitories nearby will benefit from their association with the peaceful woodland. Lawns at the west edge will connect with the Academic Commons. At the base of the tower the Campus Walk will bifurcate providing an additional, accessible route across the terrain as the walk approaches Williams Stadium Road and the Athletic Precinct. A proposed pedestrian bridge across Williams Stadium Road will stitch the Memorial Hillside to the Athletic Precinct, alighting on the roof terrace of the Academic and Performance Building. A bridge from the Tower’s third level terrace will take students to the northernmost of two roof gardens on the Student Center. The roof gardens will be outdoor rooms with seating and plants, and will function as study and reception areas, with views of the neighboring tower to the north, and Vines roof and Liberty Lake to the south.

PEDESTRIAN AXIS CIRCUIT PATH PRIMARY CAMPUS SPACE SECONDARY CAMPUS SPACE GREEN ROOF TERRACE BUS STOP DRAINAGE

PRECINCT PLANS

101


MEMORIAL HILLSIDE The Memorial Hillside resides at the geographic and cultural center of campus. Improvements to the gardens that surround the original estate and new walks that weave through the precinct create a park-like experience for students and visitors. A variety of path types provide a range of opportunities to explore the memorial gardens. Gently sloping walks connect the Visitor Center with the Landmark Tower, while more sinuous paths wind through intimate garden rooms planned around exposed rock outcrops. A new pedestrian bridge connects Memorial Hillside and nearby quads to the south with the Athletic Performance Center (APC) and sporting venues to the north. The subtly arcing bridge allows for shifting views of the surrounding landscapes.

EARLY SITE PLAN STUDY

RENDERING OF PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE AT THE AP & C

102

PRECINCT PLANS

ILLUSTRATIVE SITE PLAN


SOUTH QUAD Located prominently at the tip of the main campus, the South Quad is the first visual indication of Liberty’s presence along the Rt. 460 corridor. Once a large surface parking lot and collection of unrelated student residences,

12

Liberty’s South Quad precinct is the future home of the Schools of Engineering, Business, and Government and a number of new residence halls. It is also the southern terminus of the 1.5 mile long Campus Walk that ends at the front steps of a future stone chapel. The landscape of the South Quad takes advantage of the existing topography of the gently pitched

1

2

site by positioning a modest stormwater garden along the shoulder of the earthen banks of the adjacent highway and rail line. A new lake, ringed with trees and a floating pavilion, soften the abrupt transition to the surrounding

10

built environment.

7

8

9

11

6 5

3 4

1. School of Business and Government

7. South Campus Housing- SE

2. School of Engineering and Computational Science 8. Future University Chapel 3. South Campus Housing- NW1

9. The South Quad

4. South Campus Housing- NW2

10. Engineering Courtyard

5. South Tower

11. South Waterworks

6.South Campus Housing- SW

12. Route 460 Bridge

PRECINCT PLANS

103


SOUTH QUAD The Campus Walk will terminate in the South Quad, on the steps of a future chapel. The central lawn will be a continuation of the long outdoor room that will run along the center of the campus core. Here the lawn axis will reach its highest point, affording a dramatic view down the lawn corridor, across terraces and amphitheaters into the Academic Commons, and to the Landmark Tower beyond. Smaller lawn courtyards will welcome students into new academic buildings, and a grove will separate new dorms from the more public central lawn. A pond at the southern end of the quad, with planted wetland edges, will gather and treat stormwater and provide a place to study nature or relax.

PEDESTRIAN AXIS CIRCUIT PATH PRIMARY CAMPUS SPACE SECONDARY CAMPUS SPACE GREEN ROOF TERRACE BUS STOP DRAINAGE

104

PRECINCT PLANS


SOUTH QUAD The 1.5 mile long Campus Walk passes through the South Quad on its way to the new stormwater park at the southernmost edge of campus. Nestled against the shoulder of the Rt. 460 off ramp, the lake and surrounding landscape create a natural buffer between the campus and surrounding infrastructure The new Rt. 460 bridge allows easy access between the South Quad’s academic and student housing buildings and the parking facilities on East Campus. The bridge’s detailing announces Liberty’s presence to cars passing below. Positioned along the Campus Walk and looking directly back at the Landmark Tower, a new chapel anchors the South Quad with weighty stone walls and a tall spire.

RT 460 BRIDGE STUDIES

SOUTH QUAD DEVELOPMENT SKETCH

ILLUSTRATIVE SITE PLAN

PRECINCT PLANS

105


SOUTH QUAD SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE In support of sustained academic growth, Liberty University plans to build new facilities to house the growing School of Engineering and Computational Sciences, the School of Business, and the School of Government. Instead of building three separate buildings, Liberty and VMDO Architects proposed a singular innovative facility that capitalizes on the academic synergy between the three schools and provides a series of spaces and unique offerings that encourage collaboration, innovation, and entrepreneurship. Distinct areas of the building provide for future expansion of each individual program, while combined services, infrastructure, and classroom scheduling support building efficiencies. A loft-like, transparent Innovation Concourse features an atrium forum and cafĂŠ where all three schools can gather. The Innovation Concourse also houses a 300 seat auditorium, dynamic learning classrooms, group study rooms, and an Innovation Studio for brainstorming and prototyping.

DEVELOPMENT SKETCH

AERIAL RENDERING OF BUILDING FROM SOUTH

Echoing the central Innovation Concourse, the building opens onto a generous exterior courtyard, events plaza, and outdoor collaboration classroom. These exterior spaces are linked to the South Academic Lawn with a series of landscaped terraces. The building, Innovation Concourse,

MASSING DEVELOPMENT

and Academic Courtyard create a strong sense of place for the three

ACADEMIC QUAD:

schools on this prominent site, and frame views across the campus. Anchoring the South Campus, this building and campus landscape serve as a focal point for campus activity. At night, the building will act as a glowing lantern highlighting the innovation housed within. This project is the first suggested improvement to the South Campus precinct as part of the master plan framework and also includes improved vehicular circulation, pedestrian emphasis, and Academic Lawn landscape extension. Cost: $5.5M Size: 160,000 SF Completion: 2018 RENDERING OF COURTYARD AND ENTRY

106

PRECINCT PLANS

SECS AND SOB&G


ATHLETIC PRECINCT Like many universities, Liberty understands the importance of supporting a strong NCAA program. To that end, Liberty has made major investments in its athletic facilities. The 2010 expansion of their football stadium more than doubled its capacity and, curently, future additions to further expand it are under way. New baseball, softball, tennis, soccer, indoor

13

track and field, indoor basketball practice, and indoor football practice

14

facilities are completed or underway. Sites have also been selected for a

7

new natatorium and gymnastic center as well as a new basketball arena

4

to replace the aging Vines Center. As athletic programs have expanded,

10

so has the need to support the many student athletes that comprise 6

the ranks of the 20 NCAA men’s and women’s teams. The new Athletic

5

and Performance Center at the gateway of the athletic precinct provides

8

academic spaces caterering to athletes and helping bolster Liberty’s ability to offer one-on-one tutoring and small group study sessions.

3 9 1

2 12

11

1. Academic& Performance Center

8. Luurtsema Center

2. Liberty Baseball Stadium

9. AP&C Bridge

3. Osborne Soccer& Track Stadium

10. Route 460 Campus Entry Plaza

4. Williams Stadium

11. Route 29 Campus Tunnel

5. Football Operations Center

12. Liberty Softball Stadium

6. Football Indoor Practice

13. LaHaye Ice Center

7. Football South Gate

14. Natatorium and Gymnasium

PRECINCT PLANS

107


ATHLETIC PRECINCT A new campus entry plaza from the Falwell Parkway/Route 460 will bring visitors directly to the Athletic Precinct, providing a moment of arrival, and dramatic views westward to the football and baseball stadiums and the Blue Ridge Mountains beyond. The Campus Walk will continue around the stadium to the new proposed plaza, which will provide a designated dropoff and reception area for the stadium. The stadium plaza, planted with a geometric grove of trees, will be the terminus of College Boulevard, anchoring an important visual axis for the both pedestrian and vehicular traffic. The Campus Walk will travel from the plaza, around the north end of the Osborne Soccer and Track Stadium, and onto the roof of the new Athletics and Performance Center. The walk will winds from there south, to the Memorial Hillside area, crossing Williams Stadium Road via a pedestrian bridge. A limited access service drive that will run between the APC and Baseball Stadium will become a pedestrian way, connecting the Marie Green Drive axis to Green Hall Terrace. A bus pavilion and well-planted parking areas and lawns in front of Green Hall will provide premium space for tailgating and general gathering. The land drops away to the west, where woodland planting and trails will provide a zone of transition to tennis and soccer facilities below.

PEDESTRIAN AXIS CIRCUIT PATH PRIMARY CAMPUS SPACE SECONDARY CAMPUS SPACE GREEN ROOF TERRACE BUS STOP DRAINAGE

108

PRECINCT PLANS

PRECINCT PLANS


ATHLETIC PRECINCT Paths meander through the Athletic Precinct grounds, connect venues in a park-like setting, and provide leisurely routes for biking, jogging, and walking. Large sports venues are individually identifiable throughout the precinct but also work together to establish a cohesive architectural presence. Event day parking and tailgating lots are positioned in proximity to the major venues to provide much needed capacity during events. Satellite lots and garages expand available parking volumes and support a system of shuttles that serve the precinct when most needed.

DEVELOPMENT SKETCH OF PRECINCT

PARKING AND ROAD STUDY

KEY ATHLETIC SITES MAP

PRECINCT PLANS

109


ATHLETIC PRECINCT ATHLETIC & PERFORMANCE CENTER The Academic & Performance Center (APC) shelters three vital components for the intercollegiate athlete’s full development: academic advising, strength and conditioning, and sports medicine and training. These program components create dynamic atmospheres and synergies throughout a building that celebrates wellbeing for the body, mind, and spirit. The APC is built along a node of the future main campus pedestrian walkway. This unique situation results in the integration of an elevated pedestrian walkway over William Stadium Road. The pedestrian bridge embraces the same materials and articulation qualities as the building. The gentle slope is maintained along the pedestrian bridge as it lands on top of a green roof and crosses in front of the building’s main façade on level 3. The APC is located on a steep slope between an existing parking lot to the west and an existing track and field to the east, and is perpendicular to Williams Stadium Road to the south. The first two levels of the building

RENDERING OF WEST ELEVATION

are buried in the steep terrain, while level 3 maintains uninterrupted views all around. The unique site conditions demanded an organizational and sectional response implemented by an atrium that allows abundant daylight to penetrate deep into the space. This atrium serves as the spinal element connecting all the program pieces together, positively affecting them with daylight while allowing for spectacular views to the mountains beyond.

Cost: $25M Size: 70,000 SF Completion: 2017 SECTION STUDY

110

PRECINCT PLANS

PROGRAMMING SKETCH


NORTH CAMPUS Liberty’s North Campus possesses both the most challenging limits to the master plan while also providing perhaps the most liberating opportunities for major campus expansion in the future. The major landmark in the 4

North Campus precinct is Green Hall, a 880,000 sf building that contains a disparate collection of University programs, including the 600 seat Tower

5

Theater, the School of Communications and Theater Arts, Liberty Law School, food services, and student recreation spaces. It is also home to University administrative offices and campus security. Its overwhelming size places restrictions on the landscape that surrounds it and has triggered rather intense demands on parking provisions. A new 750 car garage helps address the current parking pinch while also providing enough additional space to accommodate a future Natatorium and Gymnastics building. As the University continues to grow, expansion to the north into the

6

Candler Mountain Station Shopping Center – owned in large part by Liberty 1

– may provide a logical release valve for the pressures of future growth.

2

LIBERTY CHRISTIAN ACADEMY

7 3

THOMAS ROAD BAPTIST CHURCH

1. LaHaye Student Union & Tilley Student Center 2. Tower Theatre 3. Marie F. Green Hall 4. LaHaye Ice Center 5. Natatorium and Gymnasium 6. Parking Deck 7. South Entry Pavilions

PRECINCT PLANS

111


NORTH CAMPUS An improved campus entrance plaza, large-scale pergola and roundabout will greet visitors arriving from the Falwell Parkway/Route 460 off-ramp. There they will see the open lawns and terraces outside of the proposed ice rink, gym and indoor practice facility. A strong visual axis running westward and pointing to the mountain views beyond will be established by a broad walkway and lines of trees. The Campus Walk will end on the south side of Green Hall, in a large plaza with canopy trees and outdoor seating that could hold receptions for the schools and athletic departments housed nearby. A well-planted parking lot will provide ample space for events, or premium tailgating for games. An improved perimeter landscape of hedges and canopy trees to the north and east will help designate the edge of campus and differentiate it from the adjacent commercial development.

PEDESTRIAN AXIS CIRCUIT PATH PRIMARY CAMPUS SPACE SECONDARY CAMPUS SPACE GREEN ROOF TERRACE BUS STOP DRAINAGE

112

PRECINCT PLANS


NORTH CAMPUS A new traffic roundabout and sculptural centerpiece greet visitors entering UNIV

D

VAR

OULE

YB ERSIT

campus from Rt. 460. The improvements to traffic flow and resulting wayfinding enhancements create a powerful new identity for the University at its main east entry. The LaHaye Ice Center addition and new LaHaye Student Center frame an intimately scaled courtyard that anchors the northern extent of the Campus Walk and associated landscape. Reorganized surface parking and realigned roads help clarify circulation through this important area of campus. WILLIAMS STADIUM

Distant views through campus to the west are maintained by controlling the locations and sizes of buildings at the entry to campus. Fountains, pergolas, and lawns introduce the new campus landscape idiom to first

PARKING STUDY

TRACK

WILLIAMS STADIUM ROA

D

time visitors.

GREEN HALL

BASEBALL STADIUM

K

C

RENDERING OF ENTRY LANDSCAPE

1013 St. Clair Avenue Charlottesville, VA 22901 434.989.4456 kennon7@embarqmail.com

AL

TW

UI

C

IR

July 22, 2015 Scale: 1"=100'

ILLUSTRATIVE SITE PLAN North Campus Area Sketches

0

50'

100'

200'

PRECINCT PLANS

113


EAST CAMPUS Long separated from the main campus by the four lane Rt. 460, the East Campus has historically provided land for low-density expansion and has accommodated surface parking, sprawling low-rise housing, and athletic fields. With the addition of a new vehicular bridge and improvements to existing bridges, the pedestrian and vehicular connectivity on campus has been strengthened. A new Rt. 460 off ramp connected with the East Campus creates an important entry into the University and allows for improved distribution of vehicular traffic. In addition, a new 1,400 car garage, located near the major pedestrian tunnel linking East Campus to Main Campus, will provide much needed parking for events at the Vines Center – a major venue for both University and public events. East Campus’ improved accessibility and visibility from Rt. 460 highly recommend it as the future home of the Basketball Arena 1

and associated structured parking. With the expanded Football Stadium to

6

the west, the new Arena helps form a striking new identity for Liberty.

2 5 3 4

1. Basket Arena and Parking Deck 2. Student Life Building and Parking Deck 3. Pedestrian Bridge 4. Pedestrian Tunnel Improvements 5. East Campus Entry Circle 6. East Campus Apartments

114

PRECINCT PLANS


EAST CAMPUS East Campus, at the base of Chandler Mountain, has the potential to become a wonderful transition from the campus fabric to the trails and other recreation opportunities enjoyed by students on the mountain ridges. A proposed entry from 460 will provide an important campus entrance, and the 460 bridge connecting the South Quad to East Campus will be a prominent visual gateway to the university for travelers. Students currently travel to the Student Commons area by way of a tunnel beneath 460 that connects them to the campus core. A pedestrian bridge will take students from the proposed basketball arena across 460 as well.

PEDESTRIAN AXIS CIRCUIT PATH PRIMARY CAMPUS SPACE SECONDARY CAMPUS SPACE GREEN ROOF TERRACE BUS STOP DRAINAGE

PRECINCT PLANS

115


EAST CAMPUS The future home of Liberty University’s multi-purpose arena, East Campus serves as a pivotal site for future development requiring large areas of land with good access to existing road networks. The highly visible site, elevated slightly above surrounding land, serves as an ideal spot for locating a signature building like the arena. New and improved Rt. 460 crossings strengthen the campus’ ability to take advantage of its properties to the east. A new pedestrian bridge directly connects the center of campus to the front steps of the arena, and improvements to the existing pedestrian tunnel make for a more enjoyable walk from East Campus apartments to the Academic Commons. The new Medical Scool, slightly removed from campus proper, establishes a foothold for future professional schools interested in joining it in a graduate commons overlooking the main campus.

AERIAL VIEW OF ARENA SITE

AERIAL VIEW OF PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE TO MAIN CAMPUS

116

PRECINCT PLANS

RENDERING OF PROPOSED ARENA


PATTERNS

6 Without clearly defining preferred attributes for buildings and landscapes and without delineating how they might relate to one another, a campus master plan would merely be a hollow recommendation to “do the right thing.� By highlighting those aspects of architecture and landscape that collectively support a desired campus image, the Liberty master plan serves as a reference guide for future design and construction decisions. By following the suggestions outlined in this pattern book, Liberty can be assured a unified campus image long into the future.


PATTERNS The Liberty University Pattern Book is the implementation guide for the campus master plan and describes key elements and their incorporation into the plans of the various precincts. The components of the master plan have evolved through extensive design research, careful review with stakeholders at the University, and a 5-year long process of developing a core of built examples that align with the guidelines of the master plan pattern book. Like all institutions of higher education, Liberty’s campus will evolve over many years and in phases of growth and construction. In order to guide the overall character of the place and maintain the core principals of the plan, all buildings, infrastructure, landscape, and associated amenities ought to conform to the University’s Pattern Book standards where possible. The patterns are presented in three principal groups: Campus Patterns, Architectural Patterns, and Landscape Patterns.

ARCHITECTURAL PATTERNS PAGE 138

LANDSCAPE PATTERNS PAGE 125

CAMPUS PATTERNS PAGE 119

PATTERNS

119


CAMPUS PATTERNS

LANDSCAPE PATTERNS

ARCHITECTURAL PATTERNS

Future work at Liberty should begin with a careful study of campus

Landscape design requires a careful understanding of the ways in which

The proposed guidelines for new architecture at Liberty include the

patterns. Understanding and employing large scale planning measures will

site furnishings, paving, and plantings all work together to create a

preferred material palette, a broad selection of favored building assemblies

help guarantee that the spirit of the masterplan is maintained by honoring

consistent background for campus placemaking. The landscape patterns

and a list of suggested building components that can help create a

the design principles most responsible for an underlying sense of order

included here have helped establish a strong foundation for future growth.

common language amongst new and existing buildings. The patterns

and cohesion. The standards at the campus scale address large-scale

By following the landscape patterns that follow, designers can be confident

included are meant only to be a starting point; further exploration into both

planning for road types, the types and ideal sizes of quads, the positioning

that the materials and methods specified have met with previous approval

contemporary and traditional collegiate architecture may uncover additional

and massing of new buildings, and the preservation and addition of natural

and will reinforce established design intent.

possibilities. It is strongly encouraged that all future design work seek-out

areas on campus.

appropriate architectural expression born from the particular programmatic circumstance of a given project.

120

PATTERNS


CAMPUS PATTERNS MASSING It is important to establish basic dimensional targets for massing in plan and elevation to ensure a harmonious composition of campus buildings that reinforce planned hierarchies and promote architecture scaled to the individual. Carefully crafted massing guidelines help create a sense of interconnectedness between buildings that may be very different stylistically. They also help guarantee that, for various building types, basic health, safety, and welfare requirements are more easily met. By regulating overall building dimensions, a campus master plan can help ensure adequate amounts of natural daylight are reaching all parts of a building’s interior while also prohibiting any structure from getting so large that it begins to negatively impact the natural daylighting conditions of surrounding buildings and landscapes. Modest plan dimensions also ensure that the structural capacities of standard steel frames are not stretched. In special cases where basic building footprints outgrow the proposed limits outlined below, glazed connectors can be employed to join traditional building blocks and form larger, more complex building forms. Height limits are mandated by various state and local building codes and are driven largely by construction type, egress requirements, and firesafety issues. Often overlooked are the detrimental psychological effects of making architecture that requires a human to inhabit a space beyond an acceptable distance from the ground or from an outdoor location that can be readily reached on foot. The following rules of thumb provide the basic parameters for the sizing of buildings during schematic planning efforts.

Plan dimensions • Academic: VARIES. 60’ to 80’ deep • Residential: VARIES. 40’ max • Athletic and Special Use: VARIES Heights • Academic – 4 to 5 stories; 16’ main floor-to-floor, 14’/12’ secondary • Residential – 5 stories; 10’ to 12’ floor-to-floor

PATTERNS

121


CAMPUS PATTERNS ROAD NETWORK Well-planned vehicular circulation is often a key ingredient in the planning of a modern university campus. Trends do point to a decreasing dependence on automobiles in the United States but, for now, the fact remains that college campuses depend on thoughtful management of traffic and parking resources to ensure students, staff and visitors have reasonable access to buildings and grounds throughout the year. To that end, planning at Liberty started with a careful study of existing road conditions, problem areas, and possible alternatives that would improve driving and parking conditions on campus. New internal roads have been designed to permit full buildout and efficient use of existing land while enhancing traffic flow and parking efficiency. The road network has also been expanded to include a new transit loop that helps simplify bus routes and provides superior accessibility across campus. Below is a list of road types, followed by a summary of their design parameters. For more information please see the traffic and parking reports in the appendix. •

Main campus arteries – Asphalt; Regents Parkway; Williams Stadium Road (35 mph, 2-way roads)

Secondary campus roads – Asphalt (10 mph, 1 and 2-way roads)

Limited access ways – University Boulevard; Reber Thomas Drive, Lake Road (gated bollarded and unit-paved)

Parking garages - concrete

Surface lots [core] - asphalt

Surface lots [satellite] – asphalt or pervious paving

122

PATTERNS


CAMPUS PATTERNS DESIGNATED PROGRAMMING ZONES Separation of programmatic uses on campus can help streamline the way a university manages its facilities, schedules it programs and orchestrates the way it plans for expansion and long-term maintenance. By creating distinct areas within the larger campus landscape for specific types of buildings, a university can establish design patterns that help reinforce the intrinsic qualities of its many academic, athletic and recreational offerings. Generally, these zones can be broken down to six basic program types and their associated spaces: academic, student housing, dining, athletics/ recreation, administrative and natural landscapes. In the simplest terms, each of the five categories has its own set of spatial demands, its own unique scheduling challenges, a distinct traffic pattern and a variety of service and maintenance constraints. •

Academic. Academic Commons: Heart of University, home to 90% of academic space and majority of Liberty’s programs. A strong academic core: promotes cross-pollination of ideas amongst various programs, eases transition between classes on tight schedule, places learning resources in proximity for ease of servicing/support. •

peak hours: 8am-5pm m-f

characteristics: regular tech and a/v maintenance loads, loud at class transitions, high auto/bike/bus/ped trip volumes

Student Housing. Student Commons and South Quad Housing: Dense residential core. Helps separate living quarters from louder, more active campus areas that might disrupt daily living. Large-scale dining in Commons promotes on-campus meal plan use. Proximity to satellite parking and recreation fields. •

peak hours: varies; concentrated from 10pm to 6 am

characteristics: quiet environment, proximate to dining/fitness

PATTERNS

123


CAMPUS PATTERNS •

Dining. Locations scattered across campus, but center of gravity at Lakeside dining and Student Center. •

peak hours: meals

characteristics: high traffic, regular truck deliveries, major equipment loads

Athletics/Performance/Recreation. Athletic Precinct: NCAA Football, Baseball, Track and Soccer located in proximity to maximize/multiply gameday effect •

peak hours: weekends/evenings

characteristics: night lighting, audio impacts, heavy influx of visitors (teams, spectators), increased traffic and parking loads

Administrative. Green Hall: home to majority of administrative offices, campus security, buildings and grounds. •

peak hours: 9am to 5pm m-f

characteristics: proximate parking, traffic and parking pressures at 9, noon, 5

Natural Landscapes. Candler Mountain trail network, Snow Flex, Equestrian Center •

peak hours: varies, heaviest on weekends.

characteristics: undeveloped, susceptible to natural and manmade impacts, requires regular management

124

PATTERNS

PATTERNS


CAMPUS PATTERNS QUAD IDENTITY The masterplan has taken a strong position on the number, size and design of the formal quads on campus. The 4 major formal quad spaces in the plan represent a wide range of spatial conditions; each having its own unique dimensional parameters, edge conditions and landscape articulation. The character-defining traits of each are outlined below. The patterns described should serve as the first indication of a future project’s suitability for inclusion in each. Academic Commons and Great Lawn. The academic Commons lies at the very heart of LU’s growing campus. It is comprised of two overlapping quad spaces: the Great Lawn that is crossed by the campus walk and the Arts Quad, the space that lies between the Library and Science Building. These two spaces are lined with stately canopy trees, bounded by brick walks, and sized to accommodate large crowds. At either end of the ACADEMIC COMMONS AND GREAT LAWN

east-west axis, generous terraces at the School of Music and the Student Center serve as focal points for University gatherings. All buildings in the Commons core are academic or student life oriented. Student Housing Commons. The new student housing buildings in this precinct frame a pristine lawn panel that subtly slopes at 5% along its course from north to south. Considerably longer than it is wide, the Student Commons Quad is unique in that it presents an impression of urbanity; the four housing towers establish a building density far greater than elsewhere on campus. Small pocket parks provide a range of smaller spaces for residents living in the adjacent buildings. All buildings in the Housing commons are residential in nature, with associated dining facilities.

STUDENT HOUSING COMMONS

PATTERNS

125


CAMPUS PATTERNS Landmark Tower Quad. In the shadow of the 275’ tall landmark, and a short walk downslope from the Memorial Gardens lies the Tower Quad. It is the northern terminus of the regularly ordered and classically organized quad spaces of the main campus. As such, this quad both respects the formality of the landscapes to the south with its path alignments and tree plantings but also acts as the transition zone for campus development occurring in the athletic precinct and Green Hall areas to the north. It’s location on the edge of the core allows it to mix academic, athletic and parking uses to good advantage. South Quad. Anchoring the southern end of LU’s campus, the south quad presents a slightly looser composition of buildings and courtyards. The rigid formality of the rectangular quads to the north progressively gives way to a broadening footprint in the south quad – a tactic meant to introduce spatial variety while also playing on the expanding views as one moves along the campus walk. The generous courtyard at the center of the Engineering building punctuates masterplan as the last academic enclave to the south. The remainder of the south quad is reserved for necessary

LANDMARK TOWER QUAD

student housing. The buildings adjust and orient themselves to create a quad whose long axis runs perpendicular to the thrust of the rest of the quads and campus walk. This rotation redirects the focus of the campus to the east, where the new 460 bridge is planned to improve connections across the highway.

SOUTH QUAD

126

PATTERNS


LANDSCAPE PATTERNS PLANT PALETTE The plant palette is an essential part of a great collegiate landscape and will help establish and strengthen Liberty’s unique identity. The thoughtful selection and placement of plants will enhance the natural beauty of the site and be a key component in creating a cohesive campus setting. The iconic open lawns with high canopy trees that create a quintessential college landscape will anchor the campus core, and be reinforced and balanced with smaller scale places for students to gather. Structured plantings of trees and shrubs will help orient visitors, reinforce architectural lines and important axes, and delineate clear paths and spatial hierarchy. The palette of planting types and forms has been crafted to acknowledge the natural beauty of Liberty’s unique campus setting, with its wooded, magnificent mountain backdrop and open westward views of the surrounding landscape. The planting selections will also address the physical and spatial requirements of students, faculty and facilities so that these coexist with elegance. The campus planting should provide a strong sense of Liberty’s character as a classic landscape of simple and enduring beauty, while celebrating its site and architectural features. The following planting pages describe plant palettes for typical campus spaces. Planting Objectives:

CAMPUS CORE BIOFILTER AND WETLAND SLOPE WOODLAND

Create meaningful experience for the pedestrian user

Establish and maintain strong visual connections

Distinguish areas of campus from its iconic core

Emphasize and strengthen architecture and site features

Differentiate monumental spaces from more intimate

Provide sturdy materials and tough plants for durability and ease of maintenance over time

Line streets and pathways with trees to increase spatial definition and provide shade

Provide a variety of spatial experiences

PATTERNS

127


LANDSCAPE PATTERNS CAMPUS CORE PLANTING PALETTE The campus core planting will define the campus center, from the Tower to South Campus, as a grand and continuous outdoor room. Planting in the core should establish the classic, iconic feel of quintessential collegiate

TREES (Cont’d) Quercus rubrum Taxodium distichum Thuja occidentalis Ulmus americana ‘Valley Forge’ Ulmus parvifolia

grounds, characterized by open lawns and canopy trees. Open lawns will

SHRUBS

provide public space for students to relax casually or to gather for formal

Abelia x grandiflora Amelanchier canadensis Aronia arbutifolia 'Brilliantissima' Buxus sempervirens Cornus sericea Forsythia x intermedia 'Golden Nugget' Fothergilla gardenii Hydrangea quercifolia Hypericum calycinum Hypericum 'Hidcote' Ilex glabra Ilex verticillata Itea virginica Jasminum nudiflorum Juniperus virginiana 'Grey Owl' Leucothoe fontanesiana Myrica cerifera Physocarpus opulifolius Prunus laurocerasus 'Otto Luyken' Prunus laurocerasus ‘Schipkaensis’ Rhododendron atlanticum Rhododendron austrinum Rhododendron canescens Rhododendron catawbiens Rhododendron periclymenoides Rhododendron viscosum Rhus aromatica 'Grow Low' Sarcococca hookeriana Taxus baccata 'Repandens' Taxus x densiformis Vaccinium angustifolium 'Northsky' Viburnum rhytidophyllum Viburnum carlesii Viburnum dentatum Viburnum nudum Viburnum obovatun 'Reifler's Dwarf' VIburnum 'Pragense' Viburnum trilobum 'Spring Green Compact' Viburnum utile 'Conoy'

events like graduation. Large trees with high canopies, such as oaks, elms and sugar maples will provide enclosure, shade and beauty while maintaining visual access at the pedestrian scale. These areas will be like large, open cathedrals with ceilings of sky and columns of trees. Structured masses of shrubs and perennials are to be used sparingly and deliberately to reinforce the campus paths and built structure, and to provide seasonal interest. Garden areas of more intense planting, within the campus core, will provide enclosure and a finer scale of ornamental interest. These grove areas will be more contemplative spaces, enfolding gardens for smaller groups to gather for studying or quiet conversations. The plant palette here and elsewhere on campus should build upon the beauty of the rich native plant community of Virginia. The emphasis upon indigenous planting will not only strengthen the ecology of the campus environs, but also serve to enhance the timeless quality of the campus. TREES Acer rubrum Acer saccharum Amelanchier arborea Cercis canadensis Cladrastis kentuckea Cornus florida Ginkgo biloba ‘Princeton Sentry’ Gleditsia triacanthos Hamamelis virginiana Ilex opaca Juniperus virginiana Lagerstroemia indica Liquidambar styraciflua ‘Rotundiloba’ Platanus acerifolia Quercus phellos

128

PATTERNS

Red Maple Sugar Maple Serviceberry Redbud Yellowwood Dogwood Princeton Sentry Ginkgo Honey Locust Witch Hazel American Holly Eastern Redcedar Crepe Myrtle Sweetgum London Plane Tree Willow Oak

Red Oak Bald Cypress Arborvitae Valley Forge American Elm Chinese Elm

Glossy Abelia Shadblow Serviceberry Brilliantissima Choke Cherry Boxwood Red Twig Dogwood Golden Nugget Forsythia Fothergilla Oak Leaf Hydrangea Aaron’s Beard St. John’s Wort Inkberry Winterberry Holly Virginia Sweetspire Winter Jasmine Grey Owl Juniper Drooping Leucothoe Wax Myrtle Ninebark Otto Luyken Cherry Laurel Skip Laurel Coastal Azalea Florida Azalea Piedmont Azalea Catawba Rhododendron Pinxterbloom Azalea Swamp Azalea Fragrant Sumac Himalayan Sweet Box Yew Densiformis Yew Lowbush Blueberry Leatherleaf Viburnum Koreanspice Viburnum Arrowwood Viburnum Possumhaw Viburnum Riefler’s Dwarf Viburnum Prague Viburnum Spring Green Compact Viburnum Conoy Viburnum


CAMPUS CORE PLANTING PALETTE

PERENNIALS AND GRASSES Allium sphaerocephalon ‘Drumstick’ Amsonia hubrichtii Amsonia tabernaemontana Carex laxiculmus ‘Bunny Blue’ Carex pensylavanica Dryopteris erythrosora ‘Brilliance’ Dryopteris goldiana Echinacea purpurea Geranium macrorrhizum Helleborus orientalis Heuchera villosa macrorhiza ‘Autumn Bride’ Liriope muscari Liriope muscari ‘Royal Purple’ Muhlenbergia capillaris Nasella tenuissima Ophiopogon japonicus Pachysandra terminalis Paeonia lactiflora ‘Red Charm’ Panicum virgatum ‘Cheyenne Sky’ Panicum virgatum ‘Shenandoah’ Parthenocissus quinquefolia

BULBS Drumstick Allium Threadleaf Blue Star Blue Star Bunny Blue Sedge Pennsylvania Sedge Autumn Fern Goldie’s Wood Fern Purple Coneflower Bigroot Geranium Lenten Rose Autumn Bride Alumroot Lilyturf Royal Purple Lily Turf Pink Muhly Grass Mexican Feather Grass Monkey Grass Japanese Spurge Red Charm Peony Cheyenne Sky Switch Grass Shenandoah Switchgrass Virginia Creeper

Peltandra virginica Polystichum achrostichiodes Rudbeckia fulgida Sedum ‘Autumn Joy’ Sporobolus heterolepis Waldstenia fragaroides

Arrow Arum Christmas Fern Black-eyed Susan Autumn Joy Sedum Prairie Dropseed Barren Strawberry

Narcissus spp. Tulipa spp.

Tulip, various species Daffodil, various species

PATTERNS

129


LANDSCAPE PATTERNS WOODLAND PLANTING PALETTE Woodland areas will bring some of Candler Mountain’s natural beauty into the heart of Liberty’s campus by permeating its core, and help to integrate the University into its natural surroundings. Their purpose will be to provide easily accessible wooded groves for walking, communing with nature, environmental education and shade. They will also provide necessary forested buffers between the campus and beyond, and from one campus area to another. These areas will comprise transition zones, such as at the Memorial Grove Hillside, where woodland will wrap the Falwell Memorial site and separate it from the busier and more public core campus below. The plantings in these areas will be comprised of typical native flora of the Virginia Piedmont, with intentionally planted masses of shrubs for a naturalized look and reduced maintenance. TREES

SHRUBS

Acer rubrum/Red Maple Acer saccharum /Sugar Maple Aesculua glabra /Buckeye Amelanchier arborea /Serviceberry Carya ovata /Hickory Cercis canadensis / Redbud Cornus florida / Dogwood Fagus grandiflora / American Beech Hamamelis virginiana / Witch Hazel Ilex opaca / American Holly Juniperus virginiana / Eastern Redcedar Liquidambar styraciflua/Sweet Gum Liriodendron tulipifera / Tulip Poplar Nyssa sylvatica/Black Gum Oxydendron arborea/Sourwood Pinus strobus/White Pine Quercus alba / White Oak Quercus coccinea / Scarlet Oak Quercus falcata / Southern Red Oak Quercus phellos/Willow Oak Quercus rubra / Red Oak

Itea virginica/Sweetspire Fothergilla gardenii/Dwarf Fothergilla Leucothoe fontanesiana /Leucothoe Lindera benzion /Spicebush Rhododendron canescens /Mountain Azalea Rhododendron periclymenoides /Pink Azalea Vaccinium angustifolium /Blueberry Viburnum acerfolium / Maple Leaf Viburnum Viburnum dentatum/Arrowwood Viburnum Viburnum nudum/Possumhaw Viburnum Xanthorrhiza simplicissima / Yellowroot

130

PATTERNS

PERENNIALS Amsonia tabernaemontana Aster divericatus/Woodland Aster Carex pensylavanica /Pennsylvania Sedge Dryopteris erythrosora / Autumn Fern Dryopteris goldiana / Wood Fern Matteucia struthiopteris / Ostrich Fern Mertensia virginica / Virginia Bluebells Osmunda cinnamomea / Cinnamon Fern Polystichum achrostichiodes


LANDSCAPE PATTERNS SLOPE PLANTING PALETTE Situated at the base of Candler Mountain, Liberty’s core campus is set into a series of foothills with dramatic slopes. These slopes present a unique challenge within a dense collegiate core—they need to appear tended and kempt while being managed for high performance erosion control. A palette of woody shrubs, groundcovers and grasses will serve this purpose both for ornament and for soil and slope retention. These plants have been carefully chosen for their hardy and enduring natures, balanced with ornamental characteristics that suit their placement in the heart of campus. A swath of lawn along the road below the slopes will establish a cultivated edge, beyond which a layered palette of low groundcovers will transition to larger shrubs along the steepest banks. Hypericum, liriope, switchgrass, aromatic sumac and junipers will make up the lower group, with tough and native ninebark, junipers and winter jasmine, studded with organic groupings of trees, providing large scale coverage and erosion control. These large areas of shrubs will reduce overall maintenance and provide seasonal interest.

TREES

SHRUBS

Cercis canadensis / Redbud Juniperus virginiana / Eastern Redcedar Prunus spp. / Cherry, various

Abelia x grandiflora / Glossy Abelia Aronia arbutifolia / Choke Cherry Fothergilla x ‘Mount Airy’/ Mount Airy Fothergilla Hypericum calycinum / Aaron’s Beard Hypericum ‘Hidcote’ / Hidcote St. John’s Wort Itea virginica / Sweetspire Jasminum nudiflorum / Winter Jasmine Juniperus conferta / Shore Juniper Juniperus horizontalis / Creeping Juniper Juniperus virginiana ‘Grey Owl’ / Grey Owl Juniper Myrica cerifera / Wax Myrtle Physocarpus opulifolius / Ninebark Rhus aromatica / Fragrant Sumac Viburnum dentatum / Arrowwood Viburnum

PERENNIALS AND GRASSES Amsonia hubrichtii / Threadleaf Bluestar Liriope muscari / Lily Turf Muhlenbergia capillaris / Muhly Grass Nasella tenuissima / Mexican Feather Grass Panicum virgatum / Switchgrass Solidago rugosa / Goldenrod

PATTERNS

131


LANDSCAPE PATTERNS BIOFILTER & WETLAND PLANTING LIST Liberty’s core campus is comprised of hills and valleys—hills from which water runs and valleys into which this water flows. The strategy of bioretention and mitigation landscape planting was chosen to accept the challenge of accommodating this drainage, for the opportunities it will provide for varying landform and plant palette. Plants will minmize erosion by purifing runoff and reducing its velocity, which is necessary and very beneficial for streams and rivers within the watershed. These plants must tolerate tough site conditions, from being inundated with water to drying out completely, being planted in porous soils that will allow water to filter away after storms. These areas at Liberty vary in size from that of the small swale wrapping Vines Plaza to that of the vast area surrounding Liberty Lake. The paths surrounding Liberty Lake will be planted with hydric (waterloving) species chosen for their strong ornamental qualities and educational potential. The Vines Center terraces will be surrounded by switchgrass, inkberry, amsonia and other perennials that will animate with the wind and color with the seasons. These working landscapes will be opportunities for gathering the beauty and energy of water to create spaces for enjoyment, education and benefit. TREES

PERENNIALS

Acer rubrum / Red Maple Amelanchier arborea / Serviceberry Betula nigra / River Birch Liquidambar styraciflua / Sweet Gum Magnolia virginiana / Sweetbay Magnolia Nyssa sylvatica / Black Gum Platanus occidentalis / American Sycamore Taxodium distichum / Bald Cypress

Aster novae angliae / New England Aster Camassia lechtlinii / Large Camas Lily Iris ser. Hexogonae / Louisiana Iris, various Iris versicolor / Blue Flag Iris Juncus effusus / Soft Rush Liatris spicata / Dense Blazing Star Liriope muscari / Lily Turf Lobelia cardinalis / Cardinal Flower Muhlenbergia capillaris / Muhly Grass Panicum virgatum / Switchgrass Rudbeckia fulgida / Black-eyed Susan Solidago rugosa ‘Fireworks’ / Fireworks Goldenrod

SHRUBS Cephalanthus occidentalis / Button Bush Ilex glabra / Inkberry Ilex verticillata / Winterberry Itea virginica / Virginia Sweetspire Myrica cerifera / Wax Myrtle Rhododendron viscosum / Swamp Azalea Viburnum dentatum / Arrowwood Viburnum

132

PATTERNS


LANDSCAPE PATTERNS POND PLANTING PALETTE Liberty’s water bodies provide aesthetic benefits and are important site features that store and filter stormwater runoff. These working landscapes require a unique group of plants, ones that will enhance both beauty and sustainability across the campus. These wet areas will slow floodwaters and protect local waterways from erosion and property damage, while providing places for recreation, ecological habitat, and study. The plants that will be used around the edges of these areas and are essential to this system, will tie the campus to Virginia’s natural landscape. Among other species, bald cypress and river birch will form a canopy at the water’s edge, and royal fern, pickerel weed ,and marsh marigold will color the shallows, providing food and cover for numerous migratory birds, fish, amphibians and reptiles, in addition to providing unique and inspiring natural beauty.

TREES

PERENNIALS AND GRASSES

Acer rubrum / Red Maple Amelanchier canadensis / Serviceberry Betula nigra / River Birch Carpinus caroliniana / Hornbeam Liquidmber styraciflua / Sweet Gum Magnolia virginiana / Sweetbay Magnolia Platanus occidentalis /American Sycamore Taxodium distichum / Bald Cypress

Caltha palustris / Marsh Marigold Carex stricta / Tussock Sedge Carex vulpinoides / Fox Sedge Iris versicolor / Blue Flag Iris Juncus effusus / Soft Rush Iris ser. Hexogonae / Louisiana Iris, various Nymphaea odorata / Water Lily Osmunda cinnamomea / Cinnamon Fern Osmunda regalis / Royal Fern Panicum virgatum /Switchgrass Peltandra virginica / Arrow Arum Pontederia cordata / Pickerel Weed Sagittaria latifolia / Broadleaf Arrowhead

SHRUBS Alnus incana / Speckled Alder Amelanchier canadensis / Serviceberry Cephalanthus occidentalis / Button Bush Cornus sericea / Red Twig Dogwood Ilex glabra / Inkberry Ilex verticillata / Winterberry Holly Itea virginica / Virginia Sweetspire Myrica cerifera / Wax Myrtle Rhododendron viscosum / Swamp Azalea Viburnum dentatum /Arrowwood Viburnum Viburnum nudum / Witherod Viburnum

Saururus cernuus / Lizard’s Tail Plant

PATTERNS

133


LANDSCAPE PATTERNS OUTDOOR FURNITURE PALETTE Each element of Liberty’s site furniture has been chosen to enhance and help consolidate the school’s identity—timeless, classic, and enduring. All new site furnishings in the future should adhere to these precedents, in order to maintain aesthetic unity in the campus. Benches of stainless steel and ipe will yield a contemporary look with classic lines, adding seating that is lightweight and easy to maintain. Bicycle racks will be an important element of circulation on campus. Racks should be placed conveniently and be ample in size and number, to accommodate the many cycles that currently mound and clutter the campus throughways. Trash receptacles should be placed conveniently to entrances and campus spaces, in order to prevent littering.

1

2

3

Landscape Furniture Images: 1.

Landscape Forms Neoromantico Bench: 22” x 31” x 69”

2.

Landscape Forms Mulitplicity Backless Bench: Straight Backless 23” x 95” x 18”, Jarrah Finish, Aluminum

3.

Custom Wooden Bench by KWLS on Vines Roof Terrace

4.

Landscape Forms Neoromantico Bench detail

5.

Victor Stanley S-45 Customizable Litter Receptacle is a suggested choice for replacing concrete bins

6.

Fair Weather Bike Rack model BR-3, Black PC Finish

134

PATTERNS

4

5

6


LANDSCAPE PATTERNS SITE WALL AND STAIR PALETTE The site walls at Liberty will provide structure for its landscape rooms, which will, be places to sit and study, amphitheaters for sunbathing on the first warm day of spring or spaces to gather for a formally organized event. Walls within the core campus will respond to their immediate surroundings and be either monolithic granite or faced with fieldstone to establish a classic, unified identity. In some situations close to buildings, the materials of the site walls should coordinate with the buildings and be of pre-cast concrete and brick or other materials as appropriate. Site walls will generally be 20-24 inches in thickness and vary in height. Seat walls will be 16-20 inches in height. Site wall caps may vary from fieldstone to be bluestone in response to special site conditions. The rustic character of the warm-toned fieldstone will bring a rustic, earthy feel to 1

2

3 3

4 3

complement the smaller-scale brick and pre-cast concrete of the campus core. Capped in places with bluestone, the strong lines of these walls will become most prominent in winter when plantings recede. Classic, cleft-faced granite monolithic seat walls will comprise grand terraces and amphitheaters, whose cool faces will contrast with the warm reds of brick and lush greens of planting. Granite lasts for ages and will bring a sense of timelessness to the campus. Stairs will be clad in bluestone in the core campus with fieldstone cheek walls. In other areas stairs can be of gray concrete with 8” wide concrete cheek walls. Wall and Stair Images:

5

6

1.

Monolithic Granite Wall at Library East Amphiteater in Liberty’s Core Campus Area with ‘Mount Airy’ granite

2.

Fieldstone Wall with Fieldstone Cap at Liberty Lake: Schofield Stone from Tennessee 80/20 ‘Shawnee Split Face’ and ‘Blue Gray Strip Rubble’

3.

Brick Wall with Precast Cap

4.

Fieldstone Wall with Bluestone Cap

5.

Bluestone Stair with Fieldstone Cheek Wall

6.

Concrete Stair with Concrete Cheek Wall

PATTERNS

135


LANDSCAPE PATTERNS RAILING AND FENCE PALETTE The campus guardrails and handrails are all of similar look and dimension in order to help unify the campus aesthetically. However, the railings will be made of varying materials depending upon their location. Handrails inside the campus core and other high-use or special-use areas will be made of stainless steel. Handrails in less heavily-used or more peripheral areas will be made of the more utilitarian aluminum or galvanized steel, and powdercoated in silver-steel color. Lit handrails will often be used for stairs or ramps to add personal-scale lighting. Likewise, the campus guardrail materials will be determined by area, though their design and dimension are to be similar. The top rail of the guardrails will be made of stainless steel in high-use areas. The top rail in less heavily used areas will be aluminum or galvanized steel, and powdercoated in silver-steel color. All guardrail pickets and structure below the top

1

2

4

5

3

rail will be made of galvanized metal with a black semi-gloss painted finish. Fences and most metalwork should be of black painted steel or aluminum. Typical traditional picket style fencing is preferred. Brick piers interspersed with the fencing where possible is recommended.

Handrail and Guardrail Images:

1.

Handrail at Multi-flight Concrete Stairs at Library

2.

Guardrail on Fieldstone Wall, Handrail at Fieldstone Wall

3.

Handrail Elevation in Stair Section

4.

Typical Handrail on Stair

5.

Ameristar Montage Plus Fence with Brick Posts

6.

Guardrail Elevation

136

PATTERNS

6


LANDSCAPE PATTERNS PAVING PALETTE Liberty’s paving will reflect its values in the same way that its buildings do, with enduring materials and classic applications all pointing to an identity of high standards and quality. Consistent use of materials will frame a cohesive aesthetic and character for the campus. A 16 foot wide swath of bluestone, The Campus Walk, will mark a main path through the central core of campus. Bluestone was chosen to be this strong spine, due to its ability to withstand high traffic and its identification as a quality regional material. Brick walks and plazas will weave through the campus core, with some bluestone and granite being used for special plazas and stairs. Stairs will be bluestone-clad in the campus core and concrete where appropriate. Brick and granite cobble crosswalks with brick and 1

2

3

cobblestone edges will punctuate the streets, giving them a similar look and feel across the center of campus. Granite street curbs will be used in the core campus and at special places. Colored concrete paving will be used in all utilitarian areas, and for paving outside of the campus core.

SINGLE BRICK COURSE EDGING MORTARED IN PLACE HERRINGBONE PATTERN LAID AT 45° TO RUN OF WALK

SEE DETAIL 1/L5.00 AND 2/L5.00 FOR VEHICULAR AND PEDESTRIAN SECTIONS

Paving Images: 14

5'-4"

BRICK WALKWAY - HERRINGBONE PATTERN SCALE: 1" = 1'-0"

4'-8"

L5.00

CENTRAL BRICK PATTERN AS SHOWN W/ 8 X 8 BRICKS IN CENTER

SINGLE BRICK COURSE EDGING MORTARED IN PLACE

2

L5.00

14

L5.00

BRICK HERRINGBONE PATTERN

BRICKS LAID IN RUNNING BOND PATTERN

3

L5.02

BRICK DETAIL PATTERN TYPE 1 SCALE: 1/2" = 1'-0"

15

L5.00

BRICK WALKWAY - RUNNING BOND SCALE: 1" = 1'-0"

4

5

6

7

1.

Typical Bluestone pattern on Campus Walk (changes slightly to coordinate with benches on the Vines Roof). Campus walk Bluestone will be a mixture of ‘Regular Blue’ and variegated, in cleft face finish

2.

Herringbone Brick Paving and Concrete Stair. Brick to be from Redland Cushwa Co., an 80/20 mix of ‘115 Shenandoah’/’237 Cambridge’. Roadway brick will be the Belden ‘Rembrandt’, 2 3/4” thick.

3.

Brick Paving with Bluestone Campus Walk crossing.

4.

Brick Patterns typically used: Herringbone, Running Bond, Special Intersections. All should have a running bond edge.

5.

Engraved Virginia Mist Granite at the Science Building Human Elements Plaza (North Entry)

6.

Gray Granite Cobblestone-lined Crosswalk with Belden Brick ‘Rembrandt’ 4” x 8” x 2 3/4” thickness rated for heavy vehicles

7.

Pine Hall Pavers (Cocoa and Georgia Gray tones) and Granite Curb at the Liberty Lake Service Drive: use this combination (more rustic) at special places outside of the core campus.

PATTERNS

137


LANDSCAPE PATTERNS LIGHTING PALETTE Lighting at Liberty will be used to create a safe and welcoming pedestrian environment and contribute to a high aesthetic quality in the nighttime campus landscape. To this effect, a palette of lights has been chosen for different applications. Classic crown-topped steel post lights will illuminate major pedestrian and vehicular ways, while lit bollards and handrails will provide a finer scale of lighting at building entrances, stairs and roof terraces. Lighting on trees and buildings may highlight special moments within the campus core. Certain benches will glow from below, rendering a contemporary accent within the campus. All light fixtures will be painted in a black semi-gloss finish except for lit handrails.

2

1

3

Lighting Images: LED strip light beneath bench at the Vines Roof Terrace

2.

Post Light: Light Pole Standard, 80’ O.C., 2’ from edge of paving to center of light, typical. LIght Model No.: Holophane AUL-150-4K-AS-B-L5-S, Pole Model No.: SM-A-14-F5J-13-P07-ABG-BK

3.

Round Lit Bollard: Hydrel 3102 LED Round Louver Bollard Flat, place 28’ O.C., typical

4.

Illuminated Handrail - Light: Wagner Architectural Systems Klik Ledpod, 2’ O.C. in railing, typical

5.

Square Lit Bollard (for special use): Bega 8679 Square Illuminated Bollard

6.

Post Light: Holophane Light Pole

7.

Not shown: uplight (for highlighting trees or building features): BK Night Star Uplight

138

PATTERNS

4

5 C:\Users\wendy\Documents\1154_Libert Tower_CENTRAL_wendy.rvt

1.

6


LANDSCAPE PATTERNS BOLLARD AND FENCE PALETTE Three types of bollards will be used at Liberty. Fixed bollards will provide protection in areas where heavy vehicles may otherwise come in contact with walls or site furnishings. Removable bollards will be used in areas that require limited vehicular access, and illuminated bollards will provide site lighting at a pedestrian scale. All bollards will be made of steel and have a black semi-gloss finish. Semi-gloss black-painted metal fencing will be used in much of Liberty’s athletic precinct. New fencing will match that which is already in place. Less formal privacy fencing will be cedar or pressure-treated wood with a dark brown semi-opaque or opaque stain.

1

2

Bollard and Fence Images:

3

4

1.

Painted wood fencing at Student Commons One

2.

Hydrel Round Bollard Light

3.

Removable Steel Bollard

4.

Fixed-in-Place Steel Bollard

PATTERNS

139


PRECAST CONCRETE

to steer the selection of exterior materials for new architectural projects at

METAL ROOF

buildings with newer architecture – a set of guidelines has been established

BRICK

To develop a cohesive architectural language – one that unites existing

CAST STONE

TERRA COTTA

MATERIALITY

CURTAIN WALL

ARCHITECTURAL PATTERNS Liberty. The purpose of this material plan is not to limit the choices of the 2.2

University when it comes to outward building appearance but rather to

2 2.2

2

establish a baseline condition that can expand to include more idiosyncratic 6

materials when the right conditions arise. The goal of the proposedA212 A212

PARTIAL EXT ELEVATION - WING A - EAST 2 1/8" = 1'-0"

6

PARTIAL EXT ELEVATION - WING A - EAST 2

A212 A212 1/8" = 1'-0"

material palette is to support the modernized traditional idiom that has

9

8.1 8

7 9

been championed by Liberty in a way that grounds forward-looking design

6.2

8.1 8

6

5 7

6.2

6

4

ORCHESTRA PIT 1.1 1 829'-0" ORCHESTRA PIT 1.1 1 829'-0" LVL 00 824'-0" 00 9 LVLPARTIAL EXT ELEVATION 824'-0" A212 A212 1/8" = 1'-0" 9 PARTIAL A212 A212 1/8" = 1'-0"

3

5

4

3

CUPOLA 911'

in the roots of local building practices and ensures a common thread of architectural expression through all buildings on campus.

7.7

7.2

5.6 7.7

7.2

4.2 5.6

2.9 4.2

2.7 2.9

2.7

C:\Revit_Local\1087_SOM_Central 2013 new_wendy.rvt

C:\Revit_Local\1087_SOM_Central 2013 new_wendy.rvt

6

PARTIAL EXT ELEVATION - WING A - EAST 2

A212 A212 1/8" = 1'-0"

16

16

PARTIAL EXT ELEVATION - WING A - NORTH 2

A212 A212 1/8" = 1'-0"

C:\Revit_Local\108

PATTERNS

12/13/2013 6:33:45 PM

12/13/2013 6:33:45 PM

140

PARTIAL EXT ELEVATION - WING A - NORTH 2

A212 A212 1/8" = 1'-0"


ARCHITECTURAL PATTERNS MATERIALITY BRICK There is a long tradition of brick building in Virginia, reaching back to the earliest days of the Commonwealth. Brick wall construction may be said to have reached its pinnacle in Virginia as evidenced by the many fine examples of Jeffersonian architecture that dot the state. It is a widely available material, owing to its indigenous extraction, and has become the most popular construction material in the mid-Atlantic for good reason. Like many institutions of higher education in the region, Liberty has used local brick since its founding as the primary material for making architecture on campus. The preferred brick size is “engineering modular” from The Old Virginia Brick 2

1

3

Company. It’s nominal dimensions are 7 5/8” x 3 5/8” x 2 ¾”.

1.

Liberty Library

2.

University of Virginia Fayerwether Hall

3.

University of Virginia Alderman Library

PATTERNS

141


ARCHITECTURAL PATTERNS MATERIALITY PRECAST CONCRETE Where openings in brick are made, sills and lintels (where visible) are a buff precast. Similarly, precast coping on exterior brick walls are the same buff precast. Exterior columns along the central campus lawn are also wrapped in precast panels, with carefully located joints and reveals.

2

1.

St. Paul’s Science Building

2.

G.W. Bush Presidential Library

3.

University of Virginia School of Law

142

PATTERNS

1

3


ARCHITECTURAL PATTERNS MATERIALITY CAST STONE Arriscraft modular cast stone units in varying sizes are used throughout campus to make large expanses of both flat and curving exterior wall. It is deployed as a ground floor cladding only and reserved for that purpose to establish a pattern of larger-scale masonry assemblies at building bases.

1

2

3

1.

Melton Stone, Cast Stone Coping

2.

Lebow Hall, Drexel University

3.

Ashlar Cast Stone Units

PATTERNS

143


ARCHITECTURAL PATTERNS MATERIALITY CURTAINWALL New buildings on campus use a generous amount of glazing (Solarban 70) to promote views to the academic activities going on within. Large expanses of glass also strengthen visual connections to the surrounding campus. Where multi-story curtainwall assemblies are employed, a “bone white� painted metal cap is used. The cap profile varies, but its width is typically minimized to promote an overall impression of lightness and transparency.

1

1.

Kawneer 1600 Wall System, Structural Silicon Glazing (SSG)

2.

Annenberg Public Policy Center, University of Pennsylvania

3.

Meditech Building, Kawneer Curtain Wall. Fall River, Massachusetts

144

PATTERNS

2

3


ARCHITECTURAL PATTERNS MATERIALITY METAL PANEL At exterior conditions where a third wall cladding material is necessary, IMP (insulated metal panel) is recommended. Upper stories, where brick needs to visually transition to a lighter material, are typically finished in metal panel of varying sizes. As with curtainwall, the standard exterior metal color is “bone white�. Where a second metal finish is desired a dark bronze in the family of the standing seam metal roofs may be suitable.

1

2

3

1.

Postma Center, Cutlerville, Michigan. Pre-patinated/ Flat Lock Copper

2.

Undulating Metal Wall Panels

3.

Liberty University School of Music. Alucobond Composite/ Metal Wall Panel in Bone White

PATTERNS

145


ARCHITECTURAL PATTERNS MATERIALITY TERRA COTTA Extruded terra cotta panels – a non-load bearing cousin of brick – are a useful cladding device that can help highlight unique architectural conditions on campus. Standard modules run from 2’ to 4’ in length and can be fabricated in a wide range of extruded profiles. Their hanging system allows them to be installed quickly and efficiently.

1

1.

Liberty University School of Music

2.

Amherst College Earth Science Building. Terra Cotta Rainscreen

3.

NBK Ceramic Terrat- Large, Dark Red

146

PATTERNS

3

2


ARCHITECTURAL PATTERNS MATERIALITY METAL ROOF Extruded terra cotta panels – a non-load bearing cousin of brick – are a useful cladding device that can help highlight unique architectural conditions on campus. Standard modules run from 2’ to 4’ in length and can be fabricated in a wide range of extruded profiles. Their hanging system allows them to be installed quickly and efficiently.

1

3

2

4

1.

Snap-Clad Metal Roof System

2.

Standing Seam Metal Roof and Wall System, Wieckowice, Poland

3.

Standing Seam Galvalume 1301 Roofing with Solar Array

4.

Rheinzink Double Standing Seam Metal Roof System

PATTERNS

147


ARCHITECTURAL PATTERNS COMPONENTS In many ways an extension of the material guidelines above, the following component list includes architectural devices that serve to stitch the many buildings on campus together. The components listed represent an established architectural language built upon well-known historical

A

B 10'-4"

C.2 20'-0"

D 20'-0"

D.8 20'-0"

F 20'-0"

F.5 9'-0"

G 12'-0"

precedents. They may be combined, re-calibrated, and re-interpreted to suit many conditions but, at their most basic, these devices act like DNA,

BASE

ARCADES

ENTRANCE

OUTDOOR SPACES

ROOF

forming the underlying design conventions for all buildings on campus.

148

PATTERNS

2 ______________________________________________________________ _______________________________

A101 A201

G.5 12'-0"

H 12'-0"

H.5 12'-0"

J 12'-0"

J.5 9'-0"


ARCHITECTURAL PATTERNS COMPONENTS ROOFS Roof form is one of the principal means of establishing a recognizable architectural pattern on a campus. By instituting parameters for roof shape and slope, a campus can achieve a consistent profile for buildings that will promote a unified architectural image for the University. A familiar roof form like the hipped roof helps ground the cast of campus buildings in an intentional way and imparts a legitimate sense of regional consequence. Dark bronze standing seam metal roofs cap all new academic and student housing buildings which also employ the same range of eave and soffit details. Where warranted by program and massing, the hipped form may give way to simpler shed and pyramidal roof profiles or other more figural shapes. Long span roofs, as found on larger athletic buildings, may take on different forms as a result of their specific structural needs. 1

2 Vegetated roofs are an appropriate means of surfacing flat or low-sloped roof conditions and have been used throughout the Academic Commons quad to reduce stormwater runoff, improve water quality coming off of roofs, and create attractive, low-maintenance natural landscapes that minimize impermeable surfaces on campus. Where adjacent to interior space, vegetated roofs provide building users a much more favorable view than their less inspiring counterparts. Shed dormers, skylights, and roof monitors are utilized extensively throughout campus to improve daylighting within buildings. They also serve as a means to further reduce the perceived scale of a building by decreasing the overall impression of a roof’s surface area. Strategically located dormers and monitors may also contribute to an improvised, organic appearance to new campus architecture that helps connect it with more historic neighbors.

3

4

1.

Purdue University

2.

Stanford University

3.

Stanford University

4.

University of Texas, Austin

PATTERNS

149


ARCHITECTURAL PATTERNS COMPONENTS BUILDING ENTRIES Most major buildings on campus utilize some form of portico or canopy to signify the location of public entries. These glorified porches perform a number of functions – they shelter visitors entering and leaving buildings, they help to modulate the scale of very large buildings by creating more intimate spaces that bridge the divide between inside and out, and they become significant public spaces themselves, often doubling as locations for planned and impromptu events. Entry configurations range from the very modest to the grand, depending on a given building’s relationship to the surrounding quad. Main public buildings that directly front a central quad lawn employ multi-story porches that address the largest scales of campus planning. Two and three story colonnades are not a-typical, with precast columns supporting monumental

1

2

3

4

roofs or cantilevered canopies (Student Center). Some buildings use more skeletal canopy frames to announce their entries and to avoid obscuring the glassy, modern atria beyond (Library). Secondary building entries receive more reduced canopy treatments. Often, a single story canopy will be used to provide a small amount of cover at a well-used side door. Occasionally, small canopies are combined with larger scale canopies to help reinforce the centrality of that façade in the overall building and quad composition (School of Music).

1.

University of Virginia Pavilion 3

2.

Longwood University Student Union

3.

Liberty University School of Music

4.

University of Virginia Band Practice Building

150

PATTERNS


ARCHITECTURAL PATTERNS COMPONENTS OUTDOOR SPACES An important ingredient in the making of good campus architecture is the inclusion of covered walks, patios, porches, and rooftop terraces. These spaces promote outdoor activity in and around buildings during warmer months while providing sheltered passages and protected spaces during inclement weather. Outdoor balconies and porches are highly valued spaces for social events and informal academic uses and also provide important break out space for those students and faculty that spend many hours working indoors. Often elevated above the quad, these outdoor rooms offer outstanding views of the surrounding landscape and provide a direct connection to the larger natural systems present on site. 1

3

2

4

1.

Liberty University Library- East Balcony

2.

Liberty University Library- Lakeside Terrance

3.

University of Virginia Jefferson Scholars Foundation

4.

University of Virginia Jefferson Scholars Foundation

PATTERNS

151


ARCHITECTURAL PATTERNS COMPONENTS ARCADES Arcades – a linear assembly of open arches – are used in key quad-level conditions to establish a permeable building edge that dissolves the hard line between building and landscape. The arcades along the edges of the academic lawn admit the paths that encircle the quad and form semiprotected walks similar to those of ancient cloisters.

2

1.

Sweet Briar College

2.

The College of William and Mary

3.

Stanford University

152

PATTERNS

1

3


ARCHITECTURAL PATTERNS EXTERIOR WALL DETAILING BASE CONDITIONS To reinforce the symbolic importance of specific campus buildings that contribute to the public life of the University, an elevated base, or plinth, has been utilized to raise the ground floor of the building up above the quad. Typically, a 2’-0” plinth is used to achieve the desired effect while avoiding triggering guardrail requirements associated with steps above 30”. Plinth materials are recommended to be from the same family as the surrounding campus path material and/or the material of the building lobby which it serves (typically bluestone). Building plinth guidelines:

1

3

24” to 30” elevated bluestone pad with 5% ramps where required

2

4

1.

Mount Farm Extension, Wiltshire, United Kingdom

2.

University of Chicago Logan Center for the Arts

3.

Lesley University Lunder Art Center

4.

University of Chicago Logan Center for the Arts

PATTERNS

153


WINDOWS

RUSTICATION

associations across campus and help tie buildings of different eras and

EAVES

EAVES

A core level of common wall details can promote similar design

WALL CAPS AND LINTELS

EXTERIOR WALL DETAILING

WALL OPENINGS

ARCHITECTURAL PATTERNS

different architects together. The techniques that follow are meant to provide a starting-point for discussions about exterior commonalities between buildings. They are not meant to limit exploration of other devices that might achieve similar ends.

KEY VALUE

34

5'-0"

33.9

33

19'-8"

6'-0"

32

24'-0"

31

12'-0"

29.3

30

24'-0"

29

28

27

12'-0"

4'-0"

12'-0"

26

12'-0"

25

24

12'-0"

12'-0"

23

12'-0"

2

1

4

A113 A305

A113 A305

A143 A310

22

21

12'-0"

31'-4"

03 4500A 04 2000A 05 7313A 05 7500A 07 4116A 07 4217A 07 5423A 07 6200A 07 7623A 08 4113A 08 4413A

20

16'-0"

07 4217A

05 7500A

03 4500A

RIDGE +917.85

2

HIGH ROOF +901.85

5'-0"

A113 A306

14'-8"

LOW ROOF +896.85

14'-8"

LEVEL 3 +882.18

14'-8"

LEVEL 2 +867.51

07 4217A

08 4113A

08 4113A

05 7313A

08 4113A

04 2000A

03 4500A

03 4500A 08 4113A

07 4217A

08 4113A

04 2000A

03 4500A

PATTERNS

04 2000A

154

08 4413A

LEVEL 1 +852.85


ARCHITECTURAL PATTERNS EXTERIOR WALL DETAILING GROUND FLOOR MASONRY RUSTICATION All buildings on the main academic lawn employ horizontal banding in their ground floor envelopes (in both precast and brick wall surfaces) to establish the appearance of a heavier building base. The reveals used to achieve the rustication vary dimensionally depending on the module of the wall cladding but generally run in 2’ to 3’ horizontal sections. Where rusticated reveals meet arches/arcades, they converge radially at the center of the arch geometry. (Library, School of Music, Science Building, and Student Center)

1

2

3

1.

Rome, Italy

2.

Rome, Italy

3.

Liberty University Library

PATTERNS

155


ARCHITECTURAL PATTERNS EXTERIOR WALL DETAILING WALL OPENINGS The size of openings should be carefully calibrated to deliver both the maximum amount of natural daylight and views while also providing glimpses of the interior life of a building to the campus beyond. Where brick and modular stone are used, adherence to commonly accepted parameters of traditional masonry openings – generally no wider than 4’-6” – is strongly advised. The opening sizes should also operate within the overall proportion system established for a given building’s facades. Expanses of glass wider than 5’ benefit from the grouping of traditional windows or the use of storefront glazing systems or curtainwall. Large wall opening naturally improve lighting and visibility into public spaces such as lobbies, large group gathering spaces, and public atria. 2

1.

Flat Arch, Barnett School, London, United Kingdom

2.

Roman Arch, Greenwhich, London, United Kingdom

3.

Roman Arch, University of Virginia

156

PATTERNS

1

3


ARCHITECTURAL PATTERNS EXTERIOR WALL DETAILING WINDOWS Punched window patterns are generally repetitive and very simple, with equal space between openings. Window compositions are often symmetrical and arranged in an odd number of bays to allow for centering within walls. Accent windows and grouped standard windows can be used to emphasize special conditions. Window sizes may vary widely across campus depending on different architectural situations but should always use modular masonry dimensions to avoid unwanted cutting of brick, block, and precast units. Inset stacked bond brick jambs and soldier courses at the window head help accentuate vertical grouping of windows in tall walls. Zones of white metal panel between windows further enhance the impression of tall vertical incisions in exterior walls. 1

3

2

4

1.

University of Virginia Fayerwether Hall

2.

Liberty University School of Music

3.

University of Virginia Bavaro Hall

4.

Liberty University Library- North Wing

PATTERNS

157


ARCHITECTURAL PATTERNS EXTERIOR WALL DETAILING WALL CAPS, SILLS, AND LINTELS The termination of discreet sections of exterior masonry walls is achieved with the use of precast concrete wall caps. Theses coping bands provide a crisp visual edge to the wall top and are a necessary foil to water reaching the inside of the wall assembly. Similarly, where the architectural language of a building permits, precast window sills and lintels are used to articulate openings in larger masonry wall surfaces. These precast trim elements help connect the language of new architecture with more traditional campus buildings while improving the technical performance of the building envelope.

1

1.

Precast Wall Cap

2.

Washington and Lee University Elrod Commons

3.

Liberty University School of Music

158

PATTERNS

3

2


ARCHITECTURAL PATTERNS EXTERIOR WALL DETAILING ROOF EAVES To help reduce the overall height of the buildings on campus and to gracefully transition from a brick wall assembly to the roof, inset collars at the eaves of the roof are recommended. These notches create a strong visual difference between the wall and roof, casting a clear shadowline at the base of the roof and allowing it to appear almost as if it were floating above the wall. Bone white metal wall panel, in a variety of panel configurations, creates a neutral zone between the warmth of the brick and the weight of the dark bronze roof.

1

3

2

4

1.

Liberty University Library

2.

Liberty University Library

3.

Washington and Lee University Elrod Commons

4.

Liberty University Science Building

PATTERNS

159


CONCLUSION

7 Today, Liberty’s collection of buildings continues to unify and expand into a campus fabric replete with consistent patterns, clear design guidelines, and inspired results. By 2030, it is the shared hope and intention amongst the plan’s collaborators for the campus to fully embody the legacy of service, faith, and academic inspiration that Liberty’s founders set out to create in 1971.


CONCLUSION Since its founding, Liberty University has worked towards achieving a student-focused and value-based identity of excellence. As a newlyestablished university in 1971, Liberty was tasked with building a rich institutional legacy while quickly assembling a network of buildings to accommodate skyrocketing enrollment. By all accounts, Liberty sidestepped a nascent period of development in its ascension as the world’s largest Christian university. The result, until 2010, was a disparate collection of buildings scattered across hundreds of acres of Virginia Piedmont — attempting to, yet falling short of, embodying Liberty’s mission to provide a world-class education with a solid Christian foundation. When master planning commenced in 2010, the long-awaited need to apply classical planning principles, develop architectural guidelines, and unify old and new buildings took hold in a compelling way. Seven master planning principles and seven key campus precincts have been identified and prioritized to guide the campus’ redevelopment. The design principles center around the creation of a pedestrian-friendly campus that is humanscaled to support the student experience while also offering state-of-the art facilities and landscape design that celebrates the splendor of the natural surroundings. Beyond these design principles, the master plan takes a critical look at how to enhance Liberty’s image and bolster its unique mission while planning for future design and development to support growth. Achieving that difficult balance of mission and campus – of having one reflect and reinforce the other – has more than ever been accomplished through this ongoing effort to create a clear and memorable identity of excellence for future generations of Liberty students. LOOKING WEST TO THE BLUE RIDGE

SECTION CONCLUSION TITLE

163


APPENDIX

8 Over the five year span of the master planning process, a number of key documents were created. Many of those documents are of lasting value and, taken along with the master plan, will continue to help guide decisions made about the future of Liberty’s campus. What follows is a selection of key sections of those documents, organized for ease of access and provided as a means to substantiate the recommendations made by the master plan.


APPENDIX Appendix

Section

Page

1

Parking and Transportation Plan

167

2

Traffic Study

178

3

Phasing Spreadsheet

188

4

VMDO Phasing Plans

189

5

Utility Master Plans

196

6

Regional Airport Map

199

7

Timeline and Important Dates

200

8

Liberty-Specific Native Plant List

212

APPENDIX

167


INTRODUCTION The recent rapid growth at Liberty University has transformed its campus. As the campus grows – in population and physical size – high quality access and mobility are essential to its vision. At the same time, there are a number of barriers which limit the University’s options to expand or adapt its internal circulation and connections to the broader transportation network.

PARKING & TRANSPORTATION PLAN

This study provides a roadmap for transportation at the University in the coming five years. The plan ensures that Liberty’s transportation system will keep pace with the University’s physical infrastructure changes, anticipating needs rather than simply responding to them. This plan was performed in conjunction with a physical planning effort for the campus. That plan shows substantial growth and rejuvenation of the existing campus as Liberty remakes itself in place. The Parking and Transportation Plan offers a vision of a comprehensive campus transportation system which accommodates vehicles, transit, pedestrians and bicycles. It recognizes that while vehicular access will be important for students, employees and visitors alike, circulation within the campus will be, in most cases, best achieved on foot or by bus. The study contained four phases which are reflected in the structure of this report. An initial assessment of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) framed the issues and questions, and provided direction for this study and the physical planning effort. This was followed by an existing conditions analysis which provided detailed quantitative analysis to evaluate the current state of the parking, transit and roadway systems. Using projections developed as part of the physical planning effort, as well as other institutional planning efforts, baseline future conditions were developed to understand how demands on the transportation system will change between today and 2020. Finally, in conjunction with the physical planning efforts, a final recommended plan was developed for the transportation system at Liberty.

LIBERTY UNIVERSITY DECEMBER 2014 Liberty University Parking & Transportation Plan

1 APPENDIX

169


TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM SWOT ANALYSIS In order to develop an initial understanding of the transportation system at Liberty University, the team undertook a comprehensive analysis of its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT). A SWOT analysis provides a high level overview of how the system is functioning, where foreseeable opportunities and challenges exist, and how the system might be affected by outside actors or factors beyond its control. Note that the analysis was performed in the spring of 2014; the SWOT analysis below is reflective of conditions at that time though generally still representative of transportation at Liberty today.

Continued enrollment growth will continue to tax the existing parking supply. While enrollment can be predicted, growth in recent years has often exceeded expectations and thus may result in unexpected demand for parking. Hosting community events taxes the parking system, especially if events overlap with University academic or athletic demands. If events, and the associated parking demands, are not managed, these conflicts will be exacerbated without additional supply.

Roadway System Strengths

Parking System Strengths   

The parking permit system has flexibility. In particular it relies on market-based pricing to control demand A new garage is under construction (since completed) adding substantially to the available supply and management options. The university has a large supply of undeveloped land, with the ability to develop additional supply as conditions warrant.

  

Weaknesses 

Weaknesses 

There is a lack of active parking management. Specifically, there are few staff devoted to parking management, and management of parking permits and permit sales is done on an ad hoc basis.

There is an opportunity to improve parking management and sophistication. This could yield additional revenues and/or efficiencies of the existing supply. Hosting community events provides an opportunity to increase outside exposure to Liberty as well as provide the potential for additional revenue. The large parking supply – and thus ability to host large events – can also be leveraged in support of the “next big thing” at the University.

Threats  

170

Loss of parking supply from construction projects could substantially hamper existing operations and the ability to respond to event demands. The resident population is projected to continue to increase and has been growing faster than projected. If programs aren’t introduced to temper resident parking demand, there will be a sizeable increase in total parking demand and it may occur with little warning.

APPENDIX

2

The Odd Fellows Road interchange will provide improved access to the campus and allow for expansion of the campus – and improved overall access – not previously possible. There may also be additional partnership opportunities with VDOT and the City. As with parking, hosting community events increases community outreach and exposure, creating partnership opportunities and potentially justifying large-scale investment in the campus or regional road infrastructure.

Threats 

Liberty University Parking & Transportation Plan

There is limited campus access. The main campus is bounded by limited access roads on two sides – US 460 to the east and US 501 to the north – and the railroad to the west. East campus is bounded by US 460 to the west and the mountain ridge to the east.

Opportunities

Opportunities 

There is substantial unused access capacity, including US 460, Wards Road and US 501. The recently opened tunnel to Wards Road enhances west-side access. Drivers on campus generally respond to the campus conditions, driving slowly in congested areas, yielding to pedestrians, and otherwise avoiding the unsafe behavior generally associated with college-age drivers.

Growth in external traffic and ensuing congestion could hamper access to the University, especially given there are relatively few access points. Congestion along Wards Road already can impact access to and egress from the campus. Continued enrollment growth, and the associated commuters, has the potential to increase traffic volumes on internal campus roads and increase congestion at the campus entry and exit points. Additionally, increased volume often leads to increased vehicle-pedestrian conflicts and delays to the transit system.

Liberty University Parking & Transportation Plan

3


Threats

As with parking, hosting community events can place additional burden on the roadway system, particularly in areas or at times where there is already congestion or the system is close to failure.

Pedestrian and Bicycle Systems Strengths 

Transit System

Vehicles respond to the campus environment and generally yield to pedestrians and bicyclists. Similarly, there were relatively few observed occurrences of speeding in pedestrian-heavy areas. Liberty has previously invested in tunnels to enhance pedestrian connections within the campus, addressing some of the biggest potential barriers to pedestrian circulation.

Strengths  

Weaknesses 

There are poor pedestrian and bicycle linkages along many of the major desire lines, including gaps from DeMoss to Green, South Campus to DeMoss, East Campus to Green, and between South Campus and the Wards Road tunnel. Terrain on the campus is a major challenge as there are steep grades throughout the campus and many locations where providing a direct connection would require bridging or substantial cut and fill. Wayfinding on campus is focused on vehicles and there is relatively limited pedestrian wayfinding. The lack of intuitive paths between some of the key activity centers further complicates pedestrian wayfinding. Just as there are limited vehicle connections to the campus, there are limited pedestrian and bicycle connections between the campus and the surrounding community. This makes it difficult to encourage and support commuting via nonmotorized modes. While there is plentiful bicycle parking at most on-campus residences, there is relatively limited bicycle parking at academic facilities. This makes it difficult for students to travel around the campus by bike if they wanted to. The primary parking at DeMoss is continually full as students store their bikes there because it is the only readily available covered bicycle parking on campus.

Opportunities 

The ongoing construction program is improving pedestrian walkability and wayfinding. There are substantial opportunities, further developed by the physical plan, to dramatically enhance the pedestrian environment, wayfinding, and placemaking.

Liberty University Parking & Transportation Plan

As the number of vehicles on campus increases – with increasing campus population – there will be increases in pedestrian-vehicle and bicycle-vehicle conflicts and increased potential for collisions and related safety concerns. Similarly, as traffic increases off-campus and at the campus gateways, connections to the campus by foot and bike become more dangerous and potentially more difficult as there is greater potential for conflict with vehicles.

4

The current transit system is robust, providing good coverage of the campus at a high frequency. There is noticeable organizational agility for Liberty-operated routes. The service regularly responds to specific capacity issues by inserting trippers. Similarly, it can easily and quickly modify its routes should conditions or demand dictate.

Weaknesses  

There is a general inability of the system, as it currently operates, to accommodate peak loads, in particular at class change. There is a need (or at least perceived need) to operate transit at high-frequency to satellite locations. This is costly and resource intensive, reducing potential service for core routes. The system generally does not provide connections to off-campus locations, and the service operated by GLTC does not provide convenient or efficient connections to campus. This means that most off-campus commuters are forced to drive. For GLTC-operated routes, there is a general inability to respond to changes, both to larger demand and service changes, and operational issues in the field.

Opportunities 

Continued enrollment growth will likely require changes to the service, allowing for reevaluation of existing patterns and service areas. It can also bring the potential for additional funding to support transit service and connectivity initiatives. Hosting community events brings awareness and exposure of Liberty and GLTC operated transit to the broader public. Along with this exposure comes the potential for additional revenue. Moreover, the additional demand may warrant additional levels of investment and related improvements beyond that of day-to-day needs which, in turn, have cumulative benefits for non-event traffic.

Liberty University Parking & Transportation Plan

5 APPENDIX

171


Threats 

EXISTING CONDITIONS The relationship with GLTC while at times collegial can be acrimonious and sometimes staff are simply indifferent. This makes service planning and operations difficult and hinders long-term planning and investment. As resident housing demand increases, it will likely outstrip the available proximate housing supply. This means that the University will likely have to introduce a shuttle to provide access to parking, which introduces new costs, potentially damages the student experience, and can result in security concerns. Continued enrollment growth will presumably lead to increased demand for transit. With the current system, this will only further tax a system already struggling with peak demands. Continued outward expansion of the physical campus and related program will necessitate new or additional shuttle service as distances become too far to walk in class change time. This in turn brings additional operations challenges and cost.

The basis for any transportation planning effort is a good understanding of the existing conditions. The Liberty University parking and transportation planning effort requires an understanding of parking usage, general travel patterns and volumes, pedestrian and bicycle flows, as well as general ridership volumes and patterns for the Liberty Transit system. The existing conditions analysis will provide the foundation for how future growth and building program changes will impact the transportation system, and what improvements are necessary to accommodate these changes. The existing conditions analysis started with a collection of available data sources from Liberty University. This included data related to the following:         

Transit ridership Transit costs Transit operating statistics Parking usage (General and Special Event) Parking permit data Attendance figures for various events and activities Figures related to off campus travel Pedestrian tunnel usage for the Wards Road tunnel Bike rack inventory and usage

Once these sources were reviewed, a determination was made about additional sources of data that would be required to complete the existing conditions analysis. This included more detailed transit ridership information, observations of pedestrian flows and patterns, traffic counts, and parking lot utilization by time of day. Two multi-day site visits were made to collect the additional data needs as well as observe the transportation during special events such as Convocation and a Liberty University baseball game.

Parking System Liberty University provided a variety of sources of data related specifically to parking on campus. This included detailed information on the current (2013-14 academic year) permitting system, including sales, lot assignment and pricing. Liberty also provided tables that listed the capacities associated with each parking lot, the permits assignments associated with each lot, and the ADA parking spaces for each lot. Also included were spot counts associated with lot usage for special events. This information provided the base for the parking analysis by listing the existing inventory of parking, how it is being assigned, and the number of vehicles assigned to each area.

Liberty University Parking & Transportation Plan 172

APPENDIX

6

Liberty University Parking & Transportation Plan

7


To supplement this information, the study team conducted parking lot utilization counts during site visits throughout the course of the day. Counts were collected on April 9-10 and on April 24-25. These counts provide insights into how full each lot is in the morning, afternoon, and evening. Based on the counts collected the following parking observations were made:    

As with most campuses, more permits are issued than observed demand. Overall, approximately 0.43 occupied spaces were observed per campus resident during peak resident occupancy. This represents approximately 90 percent of the resident permits issued (which were issued at a rate of roughly 0.47 per resident). Not surprisingly, there is a difference in demand for parking between main campus and east campus residents. Main campus residents purchase permits at roughly 0.45 permits per resident and were observed to park at a rate of roughly 0.40 permits per resident. East campus residents purchase permits at rate of 0.50 per resident and were observed to occupy roughly 0.46 spaces per resident during the peak resident demand. While the peak demand was taken from early morning counts, rather than overnight counts, the tallies were compared with overnight counts conducted by Liberty last fall and found to yield similar totals. It is not immediately clear where the individuals with permits but not observed in resident lots are parking.

The peak parking demand occurs during the midday time period. The figure below shows the observed utilization of parking lots in various zones for the campus. The early evening demand for non-resident campus parking is around 60 percent. There are some lots on campus that are near capacity, but many have some capacity. There is some usage of the Carpool spaces on campus, but there some that go unutilized.

Figure 1: Liberty University Peak Parking Utilization

A similar analysis was conducted for commuter demand. Overall, a demand of roughly 0.54 spaces per person was observed for commuting students and employees in the peak. Students commuting to the main campus purchase approximately 0.72 permits per person. Employees on the main campuses purchase 0.75 permits per person.

Roadway System While traffic operations are subject to a separate study being conducted by EPR, during the course of our field observations, we had ample time to observe general vehicle operations on the campus. Overall, we did not witness any major problems with traffic on the campus. Brief periods of congestion occur during class change, but often these resolve within ten to fifteen minutes. The congestion occurs along University Boulevard between DeMoss Hall and Liberty University Drive. This is the result of vehicle traffic increasing during class change and being slowed by the increase in pedestrian activity. Other areas of congestion were noted at the intersections of Liberty University Drive and University Boulevard and Liberty Mountain Drive during the late afternoon/evening time period. This appeared to be the result of traffic trying to turn from Liberty University Drive onto University Boulevard and backing up across the bridge.

To estimate peak occupancy, the maximum observed occupancy was noted for each lot. Campus-wide, the observed peak was 80 percent for all spaces, broken out as 81 percent occupancy for commuter spaces and 77 percent occupancy for resident spaces. Figure 1 indicates occupancy by campus zone. Liberty University Parking & Transportation Plan

Traffic at Liberty University Dr and Liberty Mountain Dr in the PM

8

Liberty University Parking & Transportation Plan

9 APPENDIX

173


Traffic collisions and pedestrian/vehicle conflicts are present on the Liberty University campus, as they are on all campuses and in all communities. As mentioned above, drivers on campus are very accommodating of the pedestrian activity on campus. During class change periods drivers allow pedestrians to cross and in some cases anticipate the crossing of pedestrians at crossings that are unmarked but recognized as locations where people cross (e.g., Liberty Bell). Driver behavior in the parking lots was less cautious. During multiple parking utilization counts the study team encountered vehicles driving at higher rates of speed and a general confusion about which drive aisle has the right-of-way. The lack of signage and pavement markings within the Traffic along University Blvd during class change parking lots may be a likely contributor to these behaviors. This generally corroborates the anecdotal information from Liberty University Police Department that parking lots have at least as high accident rates as roadways.

Liberty Mountain Drive and the tunnel. Other major secondary paths occur along Liberty University Drive, within the courtyard between DeMoss and the Jerry Falwell Library, and along Marie Green Drive and behind Williams Stadium. Figure 2 shows the path, directionality, and general magnitude of the pedestrians flows on the campus. One key observation is that there appears to be a general disregard for approaching vehicles by pedestrians. This was much more blatant during class change periods. Drivers on campus appear to be used to this activity and anticipate that pedestrians may cross at any moment. Pedestrians also tend to cross wherever their most desired path is, ignoring marked crosswalks. While specific crash data was not provided, anecdotal reports from LUPD and others confirm that in spite of this cavalier behavior by pedestrians, pedestrian-vehicle collisions on campus are rare. This behavior will be important to monitor, however, as the campus population grows and as it increasingly attracts non-Liberty visitors to the campus who may not share the same expectations as current motorists on campus.

Figure 2: Liberty University Pedestrian flows

Pedestrian and Bicycle Systems Information about pedestrian and cycling activity was also provided by Liberty University. The university provided information about usage of the tunnel that connects the campus with Wards Road. This information is collected through the system that records the university card swipes that occur throughout the course of a day. In addition, Liberty provided information about bike rack location and utilization. This information was supplemented through observations of pedestrian flows and bicycle usage on campus during sites visits. General observations of pedestrian and bicycle activity were conducted during site visits to the Liberty campus. These included identification of predominant pedestrian flows and activity during class change periods as well in between class changes. Observations relating to pedestrians facilities, and the use of bicycle infrastructure such as racks were also noted. Counts were collected at major pedestrian crossing locations as part of the traffic counts. The largest amount of pedestrian activity occurs along University Boulevard between the tunnel connecting East Campus and midway up the Hill during class change. This segment contains a convergence of people parking in the Speakman Lot, coming from the dorms on the Hill, coming from Green Hall via Williams Stadium, or coming from East Campus via Liberty University Parking & Transportation Plan 174

APPENDIX

10

Liberty University Parking & Transportation Plan

11


Speakman. The tunnels, while functional and reasonably well-lighted are otherwise utilitarian; these could make excellent locations for art installations, expression of school spirit, notices, or possibly advertising.

Pedestrian flows across University Boulevard at Reber-Thomas Drive during mid-morning class change

Pedestrian flows toward the East Campus Tunnel during afternoon class change

Wards Road Tunnel

Pedestrian flows across Liberty Mountain Drive at Liberty University Boulevard during morning class change

Pedestrian flows along University Boulevard at The Hill during mid-morning class change

The university has made noticeable investments in pedestrian infrastructure and is adding more. The East Campus and Wards Road tunnels provide direct pedestrian connections between the campus core and desired destinations on- and off-campus. To augment this circulation, the university is working to enhance the pedestrian experience, starting with the academic core. The construction of the Jerry Falwell Library, extension of the Vines Center, constructions of new residence hall, and deconstruction of the rear of DeMoss Hall have created what will eventually become a major quad for the campus. This quad will include attractive pedestrian walkways.

Plaza behind Vines Center

Walkway between DeMoss Hall and Falwell Library

Additionally, some of the pedestrian paths are unclear or confusing. In particular, there is currently no strong pedestrian linkage between Green and DeMoss halls. There is a large amount of movement that occurs between these two locations, primarily by transit. The distance utilizing existing sidewalks is about a half a mile, but is not obvious or direct. It requires people to walk through the athletics complex and behind Williams Stadium. While the path may be clear, there is no pedestrian wayfinding and it does not feel as though the path is a place where pedestrians belong. The photos below illustrate the walking environment.

At the same time, there are many ways in which the pedestrian experience can be improved on campus. In some locations, the sidewalks appear to be of insufficient width to readily handle peak flows. This is particularly noticeable along University between DeMoss and Liberty University Parking & Transportation Plan

East Campus Tunnel

12

Liberty University Parking & Transportation Plan

13 APPENDIX

175


The South Campus residence area has pedestrian facilities connecting many of the residence halls, but lack sidewalks along South Campus Drive between Halls 26 and 27 connecting to Champion Circle. Pedestrians were observed walking in the road here. The crosswalk design at the intersection of South Campus Drive and Champion Circle is confusing as well. The crosswalk does not connect to the existing staircase coming from residence Hall 27, but instead goes to the corner with no sidewalk. The crosswalk coming from residence Hall 26 splits and one of the crosswalks does not have a curb ramp.

Crosswalk splits and does not terminate with a curb ramp

Students stream across the DeMoss parking lot into the main DeMoss Hall entrance, mixing with arriving and leaving vehicles

Other areas on the campus where noted pedestrian challenges occur were along Liberty University Drive (the bridge over US 460). The pedestrian walkway along the bridge appears narrow for the volume of pedestrians that cross here. The capacity is further reduced when bicyclists use the bridge as many use the pedestrian space rather than cross with motor vehicle traffic. Looking northwest from Williams Stadium toward the Liberty Baseball Stadium

Pedestrian walking behind Williams Stadium

Crosswalk across Champion Circle to South Campus Drive does not connect two pedestrian facilities

Liberty University Parking & Transportation Plan 176

While sidewalks are generally available in the campus core, there are some areas on campus, particularly further from the core, where sidewalks are not present. Portions of Liberty Mountain Drive and Regents Drive are missing sidewalks. During site visits some sidewalks were under construction along Regents Drive as part of continued construction. These breaks in facilities leave pedestrians stranded or sometimes cause them to walk longer distances or choose unsafe routes. The transit stop at DeMoss Hall (between DeMoss Hall and the Vines Center) presents a higher risk due to the mixing of large volumes of bus, vehicular, and pedestrian traffic in a small area. This area abuts the multiple south exits from DeMoss Hall, where many people exit to travel to South or East Campus. The area consists of a large paved area for vehicle parking, bus rider drop-/pick-up, bus layover, and service vehicle access. Existing pavement markings provide no clear delineation of where pedestrians should be walking. This results in pedestrians crossing anywhere in an area that is busy with bus traffic, general vehicular traffic, and service/maintenance vehicles for the university.

Looking south from Green Hall down Marie Green Drive

APPENDIX

14

Liberty University Parking & Transportation Plan

15


Pedestrians headed west along Liberty University Drive

Pedestrian, service vehicles, and transit vehicles mixing in the area between DeMoss Hall and the Vines

Full bicycle rack on south side of DeMoss Hall

Underutilized bicycle rack behind Vines Center

Bicycle parking on LaHaye Court at entrance to LaHaye Student Center

Well-utilized covered bicycle parking under DeMoss Hall steps

Along with pedestrian activity, bicycling was also observed. While cycling does not appear to be a major mode of travel for people on Liberty’s campus, there does appear to be a significant number of people who bring and store bikes. Bike rack usage was noted during the site visit. Figure 3 shows the number of bikes stored at each location during that observation. Locations that provided cover for bicycles or were located next to major origins and destinations contained the largest number of bicycles not surprisingly. These were observed at Green Hall, DeMoss Hall (underneath the front stairs), at the base of the stairs in the Doc’s Diner/Overflow parking and residence Halls 52 and 53, residence Hall 27, and residence Hall 22. Other locations were underutilized. These locations tended to be located in areas with no direct access to the buildings they were near, or in locations that were remote. There were also locations where people had secured their bike where there was no rack. These tended to be near entrances to buildings that lacked a bicycle rack. Bicyclists on campus typically ride on the sidewalk. This activity was observed during class changes with high volumes of pedestrians and cyclists weaving between them.

Liberty University Parking & Transportation Plan

16

Liberty University Parking & Transportation Plan

17 APPENDIX

177


Figure 3: Liberty University Bicycle Count

Cornerstone community. This is a newer development, only partially completed, that is designed as a traditional neighborhood development (TND). The 86 connects campus to four different apartment communities in the area (Old Mill, Forest Brook, Walden Pond, and Park Place). The 4F is a GLTC route, not operated for Liberty University, but connecting the City of Lynchburg with the university. The route travels from GLTC’s downtown transfer center through the River Ridge Mall to Liberty University at Green Hall. This is the university’s only connection to the larger transit network operated by GLTC. It is important to note that a challenge to using city transit to travel to and from Liberty University is GLTC’s current route structure. GLTC’s routes are based on a hub-and-spoke model with downtown Lynchburg as the hub. Therefore, riders need to travel into downtown to access other GLTC routes traveling to other parts of Lynchburg. This adds extra travel time and can make transit a less appealing alternative. Figure 4 shows the bus routes associated with the Liberty University campus.

Transit System Liberty University currently provides transit services within the campus and connecting the campus to other key generators through a combination of service provided by Greater Lynchburg Transit Company (GLTC) and the university. Combined, GLTC and Liberty Transit currently provide seven routes. The 71 is the primary route serving the campus core. The route connects Green Hall, DeMoss Hall, and the South Campus with frequent service. The 72 connects East Campus to the main campus at Green Hall. These two routes are combined to provide late night service to the campus at a lower frequency. The 73 provides a frequent connection between the main campus and the Residential Annex off U.S. 29 Business on Odd Fellows Road. The 74 provides a second connection between the main campus and the east campus, also serving activity and entertainment locations like the Snowflex Centre and the Candlers Station shopping center. The 76 provides the Liberty University Aeronautics students with a connection to the Lynchburg Regional Airport. The route is operated to meet their scheduling and transportation needs. The 85 and 86 provide an alternative to driving for students who live off campus. The 85 provides a connection between the campus and the Liberty University Parking & Transportation Plan 178

APPENDIX

18

Liberty University provided some baseline transit data as part of the study. Route statistics and ridership data collected as part of GLTC’s 2010 comprehensive operations analysis were provided. The routes operated in 2010 have changed somewhat, so the data was used as a means to understand growth in ridership and the magnitude of ridership associated with the GLTC provided service. Liberty University provided operating statistics (hours, miles, cost) for the 2013-14 academic year for both Liberty Transit and GLTC services. Liberty University also provided ridership data associated with the routes provided by Liberty Transit. This information covered total monthly ridership for each route operated by Liberty from August to February. In addition, more recent daily counts of passengers riding the Liberty Transit routes were provided by time of day. This data was supplemented through passenger ON/OFF counts collected by the study team during site visits. The focus of this effort was concentrated on route 71 and 72, with some ridership also collected on the 73 and 74. The knowledge of stop-level passenger counts for routes 76, 85, and 86 wasn’t viewed as important for planning purposes because the riders are traveling between an off-campus location and the main campus. Very little intra-campus travel occurs on these routes.

Liberty University Parking & Transportation Plan

19


Figure 4: Liberty University Transit Routes

lack of direct and accessible walking paths. It is noted that students will get off transit and walk when a good walking connection is available (e.g., East Campus Pedestrian Tunnel). A popular movement observed was students taking the bus from the East Campus Satellite Parking to David’s Place and using the tunnel to access the area around DeMoss as opposed to using transit for the full trip. Some locations have low utilization during the traditional academic day, but become heavily utilized during special events. The East Campus Tunnel stop for the 71 is not a heavily used stopped throughout the course of the day however, it does see a lot of alighting activity during the lead up to Convocation at the Vines Center on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. Similarly, the stops located near the East Campus athletic fields likely have higher ridership during times when athletic events are occurring. The stops at the Snowflex Centre and Candlers Mountain shopping center are probably more utilized during evenings and weekends.

The following graphics show the stop-level ridership observed during the site visits. Statistics for passengers per hour, peak boarding/alighting, peak vehicle load, and peak trip observed during the site visit are also reported. More detailed tables associated with the ridership observed for each trip is included as an appendix to this memo. Based on observations from the stop-level ridership collection, the following locations, associated with Liberty University, are major activity centers from a transit perspective:       

There were some stops where very little or no activity was observed. The Liberty Godparent stop had no ridership activity during the periods observed. This is not surprising, considering the location is not a major activity center for the campus. It was explained that the stop becomes more utilized during periods of inclement weather because the 74 does not travel up Candlers Mountain Road to the Wingate. Other stops with low or no observed ridership were the Wingate and LaHaye Ice Center stop. The Wingate stop apparently has more activity when the campus is holding activities with people who stay at the hotel, such as intensives. The LaHaye Ice Center stop is a poorly located stop. The stop does have a sidewalk and place to wait, but there is no direct connection to the LaHaye Ice Center due to the steep hill. There was some discussion about people who will walk from areas nearby to access the transit system from this stop. Based on observations this is likely to be a very small number; anecdotal information indicates that it is a remnant of previous 4F routing. There are also some stops along the Cornerstone route that currently generate no or little ridership. These stops are located in areas of the development where construction is still occurring. The combination of this fact and the long layover that occurs at the very first stop in the development result in the low usage.

Green Hall, DeMoss Hall, South Campus, East Campus Satellite Parking, David’s Place Residential Annex, and East Campus Drive.

These locations are either major academic, residential, or parking locations associated with Liberty. Their locations are such that walking between them is challenging due to distance or Liberty University Parking & Transportation Plan

20

Liberty University Parking & Transportation Plan

21 APPENDIX

179


2014 2015

Liberty University On-campus Development Program Traffic Study

Liberty University On-campus Development Program Traffic Study

Executive Summary

Executive Summary The purpose of this traffic study effort was to examine traffic impacts and identify transportation system improvements relative to the projected building program and commensurate student enrollment increase through year 2020. The study effort responded to the building programming plan as assembled by the firm VMDO in the spring and summer of 2014. The plan included an extensive number of new buildings, pedestrian connections, transit strategies, and new parking deck locations across campus.

2016

The traffic study was performed using traffic data from the spring of 2014, and then adjusted for current and ongoing changes in the campus transportation network. Recommendations were developed based on the programming timeframes for the various parking changes and changes to the roadway network. The following provides a summary of the resulting findings and recommendations.

Findings Based on the analysis conducted as described in the preceding sections of this document, the following major findings include:

2017 2018 2019 2020 2020

Overall, the road network as currently envisioned will provide the necessary capacity to meet traffic demands for the day to day travel conditions.

The volumes on Regents Parkway, to the south of the new tunnel will experience significant traffic growth. An improved road section south of the tunnel entrance may be needed in the future. This should include left turn lanes at the parking garage.

The new ramp from Route 460 is critically important for relieving the existing US 460 eastbound off-ramp, and should be constructed as soon as possible.

The new vehicular bridge across US 460 – South shown in 2019 Scenario 2 provides for a significant relief in traffic to Regents Parkway after the connection between University Boulevard and Regents Parkway through Reber-Thomas Drive and University Boulevard at DeMoss Drive were closed.

The existing Candlers Mountain Road bridge should be widened to include a second lane heading west to accommodate the high right turn traffic volumes from the US 460 off-ramp.

There are key intersections that will need to be improved. These include: Candlers Mountain Road and Liberty Mountain Drive; University Boulevard and Evans Boulevard; Liberty University Drive and Liberty Mountain Drive; University Boulevard and Liberty University Drive; University Boulevard and Williams Stadium Road; Regents Parkway and Williams Stadium Road; Liberty Mountain Drive and US 460 Ramp.

The following Table ES.1 provides a summary of recommended improvements, along with a projected year when needed, and a planning level cost estimate.

EPR, P.C. 180

2020

C A M P U S P L A N N I N G P R O G R E S S – 0 8 . 2 7. 1

Submitted by: EPR, P.C. for: Liberty University October 2014 (Draft)

APPENDIX

2


Liberty University On-campus Development Program Traffic Study

Liberty University On-campus Development Program Traffic Study

Executive Summary

2014

Table ES.1 Recommendation Summary Note: Where roundabouts are recommended it should be noted that these function to provide far superior traffic operations in terms of delay and queuing than the 2nd choice alternative described. Additional detail is provided in the report. Year

Candlers Mountain Road/ Liberty Mountain Drive

Scenario 1/Scenario 2: Add one receiving lane for southbound right turn traffic coming off the ramp; Widen the bridge as needed for a continuous lane to the University Blvd. intersection. Include a pedestrian walkway.

2014

$2,000,000

Scenario 1/Scenario 2: Roundabout;

2018

$900,000

2019

Rbt - $900,000 Signal - $250,000

Liberty Mountain Drive/ Liberty University Drive University Boulevard/ Liberty University Drive

Regents Parkway/ Williams Stadium Road

2019

Rbt - $900,000 Signal - $250,000

2019 2019 2019

2019 2019

$900,000

Scenario 1/Scenario 2 Add one receiving lane for southbound right turn traffic coming off the ramp; Widen the bridge as needed for a continuous lane to the University Blvd. intersection. Include a pedestrian walkway. Year - 2014 Scenario 1/Scenario 2 1st Choice – Roundabout; 2nd Choice – Traffic Signal (with existing geometry); Year - 2019

$900,000

Scenario 1/Scenario 2 Potential Need for Future Left Turn Lane

Rbt - $900,000 Signal - $250,000

$900,000

$400,000

The following Figure ES.1 provides an illustration of recommended projects.

Year - 2019 Scenario 1/Scenario 2 1st Choice – Roundabout; 2nd Choice – Three-way Stop Signs (with existing geometry); Year - 2019 Scenario 2 Future Bridge across Route 460 Year - 2019

2020 2020

3

Scenario 1/Scenario 2 1st Choice – Roundabout; 2nd Choice – Traffic Signal (with existing geometry);

Year - 2019

2019

Additional planning efforts should be conducted that include identifying specific geometry and more refined cost estimates for the various improvements. Also, additional consideration for how the overall pedestrian network fits in with the recommended link and intersection improvements should be studied.

EPR, P.C.

Year - 2018

Year - 2019

2018

Regents Parkway Parking Garage

Rbt - $900,000 Signal - $250,000

Scenario 1/Scenario 2 Roundabout

Scenario 2: 1st Choice – Roundabout; 2nd Choice – Traffic Signal (with existing geometry);

CA M PU S PL A N N I N G PRO GRESS – 0 8 . 2

Liberty Mountain Drive/ US 460 Eastbound Offramp

2019

Scenario 1: Roundabout;

Year - 2019

2017

University Boulevard/ Williams Stadium Road

Scenario 1/Scenario 2: 1st Choice – Roundabout; 2nd Choice – Traffic Signal (with existing geometry); Scenario 1/Scenario 2: 1st Choice – Roundabout; 2nd Choice – Traffic Signal (with existing geometry); Scenario 1: 1st Choice – Roundabout; 2nd Choice – Traffic Signal (with existing geometry); Scenario 2: 1st Choice – Roundabout; 2nd Choice – Four-way Stop Signs (with existing geometry); Scenario 1: Roundabout; Scenario 2: 1st Choice – Roundabout; 2nd Choice – Traffic Signal (with existing geometry); Scenario 1/Scenario 2: 1st Choice – Roundabout; 2nd Choice – Three-way Stop Signs (with existing geometry); Scenario 1/Scenario 2: Potential Need for Future Left Turn Lane

Scenario 2: 1st Choice – Roundabout; 2nd Choice – Four-way Stop Signs (with existing geometry);

2016

Recommendation

Scenario 1 1st Choice – Roundabout; 2nd Choice – Traffic Signal (with existing geometry);

2015

Location

Cost (planning level)

University Boulevard/Evans Boulevard

Executive Summary

Figure ES.1 Illustration of Recommended Projects EPR, P.C.

Recommended Projects

4 APPENDIX

181


Liberty University On-campus Development Program Traffic Study

Purpose and Background

Liberty University On-campus Development Program Traffic Study

Purpose and Background

2014

1. Purpose and Background The purpose of this traffic study effort is to examine traffic impacts and identify transportation system improvements relative to the projected building program and commensurate student enrollment increase through year 2020.

2015

The changes to the building program and enrollment were identified through an extensive planning process led by VMDO as the project architect of the University. Furthermore, the firm VHB provided input into transit operations and parking needs, and through this process identified projected parking needs and strategies, including additional parking lots and garages, that should be phased in over the coming six years.

2016

Therefore, the traffic study effort responded to the proposed changes in the transportation network and changes in the parking locations. This report provides a summary of this traffic study effort, including examining existing conditions, forecasting future traffic volumes, analyzing future traffic operations, and recommending related transportation system improvements. Figure 1.1 illustrates the study area and proposed building program; Figure 1.2 highlights the study links; and, Figure 1.3 lists the study intersections.

2017 2018 2019 2020

APPENDIX

2020

182

6

CA M PU S PL A N N I N G PRO GRESS – 0 8 .

EPR, P.C.

Figure 1.1 Study Area and Proposed Build Program EPR, P.C.

Study Area

7


Liberty University On-campus Development Program Traffic Study

Liberty University On-campus Development Program Traffic Study

Purpose and Background

Purpose and Background

2014

2014

2015

2015

1

2016

2016

2

4

8

2017

2017

7

3

6 5

2018

2018

1

2020 2020

8

2019

2020

EPR, P.C.

CA M PU S PL A N N I N G PRO GRESS – 0 8 . 2

2019 2020

CA M PU S PL A N N I N G PRO GRESS – 0 8 . 2

Figure 1.2 Study Links

Study Links

9

Study Intersections

Figure 1.3 Study Intersections EPR, P.C.

9 APPENDIX

183


Liberty University On-campus Development Program Traffic Study

Existing Conditions

Liberty University On-campus Development Program Traffic Study

2. Existing Conditions

Wednesday at – the intersection of University Boulevard and Williams Stadium Road;

2.1 Existing Traffic Volumes

Counting pedestrian movements at 7:00am-9:30am and 2:30pm-6:00pm on April 24th, 2014, Thursday at – the intersection of Champion Circle and South Campus Drive; the pedestrian tunnel connecting main campus and east campus;

Collecting bi-directional hourly traffic counts from April 22nd, 2014, Tuesday to April 24th, 2014, Thursday on – Candlers Mountain Road (east of Applebees); Candlers Mountain Road (at bridge Over US 460); Liberty Mountain Drive (west of Candlers Mountain Road); Liberty Mountain Drive (west of South Satellite Parking); Liberty University Drive; Liberty University West Entrance (near Sonic); Regents Parkway (west of Sonic Entrance); US 460 On-ramp (to University Boulevard); US 460 Off-ramp (from University Boulevard); US 460 On-ramp (from south main campus); US 460 On-ramp (from east campus); US 501 On-ramp (from Candlers Mountain Road).

The existing conditions analysis was conducted based on traffic volumes observed in the spring of year 2014. At the time of the data collection, the new Wards Road Tunnel was not yet open. The data collection effort included the following:

184

Counting turning movements at 7:00am-9:30am and 2:30pm-6:00pm on April 17th, 2014, Thursday at – the intersection of Liberty University Drive and Liberty Mountain Drive;

Counting turning movements at 7:00am-9:30am and 2:30pm-6:00pm on April 22nd, 2014, Tuesday at – the intersection of US 501 and Candlers Mountain Road; the intersection of Candlers Mountain Road and Liberty University Entrance; the intersection of Champion Circle and South Campus Drive;

Counting turning movements at 7:00am-9:30am and 2:30pm-6:00pm on April 23rd, 2014, Wednesday at – the intersection of Candlers Mountain Road and Regents Parkway ; the intersection of University Boulevard and Williams Stadium Road;

Counting turning movements at 7:00am-9:30am and 2:30pm-6:00pm on April 24th, 2014, Thursday at – the intersection of Candlers Mountain Road and Mountain View Road; the intersection of Regents Parkway and Williams Stadium Road;

Obtaining year 2012 turning movements from VDOT and factoring up to year 2014 at – the intersection of Candlers Mountain Road and University Boulevard; the intersection of Candlers Mountain Road and Liberty Mountain Drive; the intersection of University Boulevard and Evans Boulevard;

Obtaining year 2014 turning movements from VDOT at – the intersection of University Boulevard and Liberty University Drive; the intersection of Liberty Mountain Drive and US 460 Ramp;

Counting pedestrian movements at 7:00am-9:30am and 2:30pm-6:00pm on April 17th, 2014, Thursday at – the intersection of Liberty University Drive and Liberty Mountain Drive;

Counting pedestrian movements at 7:00am-9:30am and 2:30pm-6:00pm on April 22nd, 2014, Tuesday at – the intersection of Candlers Mountain Road and Liberty University Entrance;

Counting pedestrian movements at 7:00am-9:30am and 2:30pm-6:00pm on April 23rd, 2014,

EPR, P.C.

11

APPENDIX

Existing Conditions

Figure 2.1 and Figure 2.2 illustrate the existing peak hour traffic volumes at key intersections in and adjacent to the campus. Figure 2.3 summarizes the existing peak hour traffic volumes at selected study intersections in the campus. Figure 2.4 shows the measured and derived average daily traffic volumes occurring on study links on campus. Figure 2.5 shows a method of illustrating volumes to show relative traffic volumes across the campus roadway network.

EPR, P.C.

12


Ramp

University

752/249 105/49 14/41

Candlers

20/98

114/242 70/59 21/56

57/253 30/86 Liberty Mountain

Canders Mountain

LU Entrance 33/133 0/1 13/101

0/12 0/3 0/7

University 297/53 390/280 231/290

33/63 331/471 10/7

Shopping Mall

53/32 70/218 458/309

79/1 104/160 471/801

173/41 1595/1478 369/150 144/130 1/11 5/16

254/153 10/23

Candlers

Ramp Mountain View 0/0 0/13 0/1

127/63 374/316 393/151

2/12

754/184 579/757 14/15

Canders Mountain

100/41 444/447 2/21

1/14 505/441 172/185

46/32 172/94 28/25

55/112 85/94 106/332

Canders Mountain

Regents 174/203 20/17 68/80

Existing Conditions Mall

US 501

Canders Mountain 92/129

Liberty University On-campus Development Program Traffic Study

Existing Conditions

172/95 463/550 1/17

993/711 543/1141 98/50

Liberty University On-campus Development Program Traffic Study

73/44 157/10 96/22

56/170 8/9

61/145 44/203 8/88

Ramp Evans 19/132 29/329 56/132

Regents Regents 520/541 97/71

Liberty Univ Liberty University 72/86 95/93 84/7

106/311 58/162

100/145 54/40 16/55

1/0 1/2 5/15

13/39 158/383 1/1

27/113 88/217

Williams Stadium

University University

5/23

68/50 524/523 169/60

University 112/87 72/87

32/123

29/50 2/2 27/83

Williams Stadium

Liberty Mountain

Figure 2.1 Existing Peak Hour Traffic Volumes (EPR Counted) 13

0/0 0/0

Figure 2.2 Existing Peak Hour Traffic Volumes (Obtained from VDOT)

0 7. 1

0 7. 1

EXISTING CONDITIO

EPR, P.C.

Ramp 14/43 62/266

University

Liberty Mountain 30/95 150/180

28/46 22/74

8/50 28/79

CAMPUS PLANNING PROGESS

S Campus

EXISTING CONDITIO

CAMPUS PLANNING PROGESS

11/33 65/81

42/194 32/63 5/10

2/20 18/71 0/29

Parking

EPR, P.C.

14 APPENDIX

185


Liberty University On-campus Development Program Traffic Study

33/63 331/471 10/7

174/203 20/17 68/80

2

Mall 53/32 70/218 458/309

9

Ramp 0/0 0/0

12000

University

20/98

2/12

Candlers Evans 19/132 29/329 56/132

73/44 157/10 96/22

12000

Ramp

4

1

3600

61/145 44/203 8/88

254/153 10/23

3 57/253 30/86

8240

University 297/53 390/280 231/290

752/249 105/49 14/41

Ramp

Existing Conditions

30/95 150/180

Candlers

14/43 62/266

1

Liberty University On-campus Development Program Traffic Study

Liberty Mountain 127/63 374/316 393/151

114/242 70/59 21/56

Regents

Mall

144/130 1/11 5/16

46/32 172/94 28/25

1/14 505/441 172/185

Candlers

Existing Conditions

10000

Liberty Mountain

2

4600 3600 7700

11200

9320

1900 5500

2420

5900

7

12650

3

4

8

5950

6

12950

13950

3200

5400 4300

3100

7400

5

12450 5250 Liberty Mountain

6

Parking

Regents

8

Parking

13/39 158/383 1/1

7

5/23 0/0 32/123

0/0 0/0 0/0

Williams

0/0 112/87 72/87

5/15 1/2 1/0

0/0 56/170 8/9

68/50 524/523 169/60

University

Williams 27/83 2/2 29/50

Liberty Univ

106/311 58/162

42/194 32/63 5/10

16/55 54/40 100/145

520/541 97/71

72/86 95/93 84/7

5

3200

27/113 88/217

Figure 2.3 Existing Peak Hour Traffic Volumes at Study Intersections

3500

1120

2700

1550

1550

Figure 2.4 Existing Average Daily Traffic Volumes EXISTING CONDITI

APPENDIX

15

0 7. 1

0 7. 1

186

EPR, P.C.

CAMPUS PLANNING PROGESS

Liberty Univ

EXISTING CONDITIO

CAMPUS PLANNING PROGESS

9

0/29 18/71 2/20

University

EPR, P.C.

16


Liberty University On-campus Development Program Traffic Study

Existing Conditions

Liberty University On-campus Development Program Traffic Study

Existing Conditions

2.2 Existing Traffic Operations Existing traffic operations at selected study intersections were modeled in Synchro (ver7) and simulated in SimTraffic (ver7). Figure 2.6 summarizes and illustrates the calculated levels of service by movement at the study intersections in the peak hours of the day.

12000 8240

The analysis results indicated that:

12000

In existing conditions, there are individual movements that function at level of service (LOS) E or worse. These occur at the following locations:

3600 10000

5950

• • • •

4600 3600 7700

12650

11200

9320

Southbound through/right and eastbound left/through at the intersection of Candlers Mountain Road and Regents Parkway; Southbound right and northbound left/right at the intersection of Candlers Mountain Road and Liberty Mountain Drive; Eastbound left at the intersection of University Boulevard and Evans Boulevard; Westbound left at the intersection of University Boulevard and Liberty University Drive; and, Eastbound left/through/right at the intersection of University Boulevard and Williams Stadium Road.

1900 5500

2420

5900

12950

13950

3200

5400 4300

3100

7400 12450 5250

3200

2700

1550

0 - 2500 2500 - 5000 5000 - 10000 1550

10000+

Figure 2.5 Existing Average Daily Traffic Volumes Illustration

0 7. 1

EXISTING CONDITIO

CAMPUS PLANNING PROGESS

3500

1120

EPR, P.C.

17

EPR, P.C.

18 APPENDIX

187


Liberty University On-campus Development Program Traffic Study Mall

2

Mall

AM PM AM PM

AM PM AM PM

AM PM AM PM AM PM

AM PM

Candlers

3.1 Future Traffic Volumes Forecast Future condition volumes were projected for the roadway network for years 2014 through 2020. The following describes the methodology utilized to project the traffic:

University

Candlers Evans AM PM

STOP

AM PM AM PM AM PM

AM PM AM PM AM PM

Ramp

4

Background traffic volumes for Candlers Mountain Road, University Boulevard, and Liberty Mountain Drive were increased at a rate of 2% per year to represent ambient traffic growth across the region. These roads are expected to serve traffic other than just Liberty University traffic. Note that this growth assumption is consistent with that used by VDOT in a recent study of the Candlers Mountain Road / US 460 ramp.

In 2014, traffic volumes from the existing at-grade railroad crossing are relocated over to the new tunnel.

In 2017, 50% of the traffic volumes from Candlers Mountain Road right turn in to Mountain View Road and Regents Parkway and from Mountain View Road and Regents Parkway left turn out to Candlers Mountain Road are relocated over to the new connection (Regents Parkway Extension) between the intersection of US 501 and Candlers Mountain Road and Regents Parkway.

In 2018, the connection between University Boulevard and Regents Parkway through Evans Boulevard was closed. Through traffic on Evans Boulevard was relocated over to through Candlers Mountain Road and through Williams Stadium Road; and traffic to/from parking lots on Evans Boulevard remained on Evans Boulevard.

In 2019, two scenarios were assumed:

1

AM PM AM PM AM PM

AM PM

3 AM PM

University AM PM AM PM AM PM

AM PM AM PM

Ramp

Liberty Mountain

2

3

4

8

7

6 5

5

6

Parking

Regents

7

Parking

AM PM

AM PM

8

Williams

AM PM

STOP AM PM

AM PM AM PM

AM PM

STOP AM PM

In each year, the parking locations and supplies changed per the VMDO building program. A base assumption was developed for the parking deck utilization that each deck would fill to 100% capacity twice per day, with the exception that the Satellite Parking – North in 2018 would fill to

EPR, P.C.

21

Figure 2.6 Existing Peak Hour Level of Service Illustration

0 7. 1

188

EPR, P.C. APPENDIX

In Scenario 2, the connection between University Boulevard and Regents Parkway through Reber-Thomas Drive, and University Boulevard at DeMoss Drive were closed, and the vehicular bridge across US 460 – South was constructed. In this scenario, the through traffic on University Boulevard south of Williams Stadium Road was relocated to Williams Stadium Road and Regents Parkway and through Liberty University Drive and then Liberty Mountain Drive; and traffic to/from parking lots on University Boulevard remained on University Boulevard.

STOP

University

Williams

-

Liberty Univ

AM PM AM PM

STOP

AM PM

In Scenario 1, the connection between University Boulevard and Regents Parkway through Reber-Thomas Drive, and University Boulevard at DeMoss Drive were closed, and the vehicular bridge across US 460 – South was not constructed. In this scenario, the through traffic on University Boulevard south of Williams Stadium Road was relocated over to Williams Stadium Road to Regents Parkway; and traffic to/from parking lots on University Boulevard remained on University Boulevard.

AM PM AM PM

AM PM AM PM

Liberty Univ

EXISTING CONDITIO

CAMPUS PLANNING PROGESS

9

AM PM AM PM

University AM PM AM PM

AM PM AM PM

Liberty Mountain

LOS A - LOS C LOS D LOS E LOS F

Future Conditions

3. Future Conditions

9

Ramp

AM PM

1

Regents

Liberty University On-campus Development Program Traffic Study

Liberty Mountain AM PM AM PM AM PM

AM PM AM PM AM PM

AM PM AM PM

AM PM AM PM AM PM

AM PM AM PM

Candlers

Existing Conditions

19


Liberty University On-campus Development Program Traffic Study

Future Conditions

20% capacity twice per day. This could be a conservatively high estimate for traffic entering/ leaving the decks. The following Table 3.1 describes the parking changes and the new trip changes, which are also illustrated on Figure 3.1. Table 3.1 Parking and New Trip Changes

EPR, P.C.

Year - ID

Year

Project

Parking

New Trip

Considered?

14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 15.1 15.2 15.3 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.5 16.6 16.7 16.8 16.9 16.10 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 18.1 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 19.7 20.1 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5

2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2015 2015 2015 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2017 2017 2017 2017 2017 2017 2017 2018 2018 2018 2018 2018 2018 2018 2018 2019 2019 2019 2019 2019 2019 2019 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020

Commons Housing - 1 Reber-Thomas Renovation Parking Deck - Reber Softball Field LaHaye Expansion - Fitness Center Regents Parkway Realignment Liberty Mtn Dr. Ext - North / South Academic - Science Building Academic - School of Music (B Wing) Commons Housing - 2 Academic - School of Music (A Wing) Student Center / Retail Dining LaHaye Ice Center Expansion Parking Deck - Gym Vines Canopies Vines Center Expansion Campus Landmark Tower (Phase 1) Athletics - Weights / Training Pedestrian Bridge over Connector Visitor / CGM / Memorial Hill Landscape Soccer Field Commons Housing - 3 Natatorium / Gymnastics Green Hall Courtyard Williams Stadium Expansion Parking Deck - Green West David's Place Hub / Tunnel (East Campus) Parking Deck - East Campus Commons Housing - 4 Commons Housing - 5 Lakeside Dining Hall Academic - Communications 1 and 2 Parking Deck - Communications Campus Entry Landscape Indoor Track Center Satellite Parking - North Indoor Practice Facility Vehicular Bridge across 460 - South Academic - Culinary Arts Parking Deck - 1 Annex South Housing Quad 1-5 Off-Ramp at 460 University Blvd Conversion Arena Parking Deck - Arena Pedestrian Bridge over 460 (Arena) Campus Landmark Tower (Phase 2) Academic - School of Religion South Housing Quad 6

45 0 1465 0 0 181 0 0 0 -93 545 -12 -49 250 0 0 -247 -96 0 -54 0 0 -388 -56 -166 200 -91 886 -139 40 -80 -758 300 -19 0 1200 20 -207 0 400 -588 0 0 -669 800 -58 -39 -171 0

90 0 2930 0 0 362 0 0 0 -186 1090 -24 -98 500 0 0 -494 -192 0 -108 0 0 -776 -112 -332 400 -182 1772 -278 80 -160 -1516 600 -38 0 240 40 -414 0 800 -1176 0 0 -1338 1600 -116 -78 -342 0

N N Y N N Y N N N N Y N N Y N N Y Y N Y N N Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N Y Y N N Y N Y N Y Y N N Y Y N N Y N

Liberty University On-campus Development Program Traffic Study

Future Conditions

New trip distributions – for each of the new parking decks, an attempt was made to project the direction of approach and departure. Appendix A includes graphics to illustrate the assumptions for distributions.

In each year, the estimated average daily traffic volume relocations and the estimated new trip changes were applied to the background average daily traffic volumes to project the average daily traffic volumes for years 2014 through 2020. Figures 3.2 through 3.6 illustrate the average daily traffic volumes for years 2014 through 2018. Figures 3.7 and 3.8 illustrate the years 2019 and 2020 in Scenario 1 without the vehicular bridge across US 460 – South. Figures 3.9 and 3.10 illustrate the years 2019 and 2020 in Scenario 2 with the vehicular bridge across US 460 – South. Figures 3.11 through 3.15 show a method of illustrating volumes to show relative traffic volumes across the campus roadway network for years 2014 through 2018. Figures 3.16 and 3.17 illustrate the years 2019 and 2020 in Scenario 1 without the vehicular bridge across US 460 – South. Figures 3.18 and 3.19 illustrate the years 2019 and 2020 in Scenario 2 with the vehicular bridge across US 460 – South. Examining the average daily traffic volumes for years 2014 through 2020, the results as summarized in Table 3.2 showed that year 2019 has largest traffic volumes at selected study intersections on campus. In 2019, the estimated peak hour traffic volume re-assignments and the estimated peak hour new trip changes were applied to the background peak hour traffic volumes to project the peak hour traffic volumes for the year 2019. Table 3.2 Total Average Daily Traffic Volumes at Selected Study Intersections for Years 2014 through 2020 Year

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

Total ADT

117,786

118,490

120,402

123,389

119,917

129,566

129,536

Figure 3.20 illustrates the peak hour traffic volumes at selected study intersections in the campus for year 2019 in Scenario 1 without the vehicular bridge across US 460 – South. Figure 3.21 illustrates the peak hour traffic volumes at selected study intersections in the campus for year 2019 in Scenario 2 with the vehicular bridge across US 460 – South.

22

EPR, P.C.

24 APPENDIX

189


Bed

Campus Planning - Phasing - SPEAKMAN GARAGE OPTION

Parking

Total Existing 2014 7,780 (Note: Specific Enrollment and Bed Demand Numbers Provided by Liberty University)

-220 -270 -65 -81

55%

70 7,850 7,850 0

63%

-34 -620 8,995 8,967 28

Student Enrollment

170 40 -100 1,200 82 -50

-182

54%

0 7,850 7,714 136

70%

Subtotal Running Total Demand (% of Enrollment) Difference

14,762

54%

FALL 2018 336 New Building Projects SECS & SOBG Student Commons Housing 3 Speakman Pkg Garage Book Store Addition and Landscape University Blvd. Landscape Improvements DeMoss Hall East Site Improvements Main Campus Entry and Roundabout (Net Pkg Lost) Green Hall South Landscape South Campus Lawn Under Construction Vines Center Pkg Garage - East Campus (See Demo) Student Commons Housing 4 and Lakeside Dining Demolition Campus Housing - M07 Speakman Surface Pkg Demo South Campus Housing - M27 South Campus Housing - M28 Subtotal Running Total Demand (% of Enrollment) Difference

15,098

Student Enrollment

0 7,850 7,913 -63

FALL 2019 684 New Building Projects Student Commons Housing 4 and Lakeside Dining Under Construction 160 Green Hall Parking Garage -42 Health Profession and School of Nursing 172Demolition Reber Thomas Dining Hall Subtotal Running Total -40 Demand (% of Enrollment) Difference

71%

Student Enrollment

250 10,252 FALL 2020 10,465 New Building Projects -213 Green Hall Parking Garage Health Profession and School of Nursing Under Construction

376

15,782

Student Enrollment 600 -70

54%

16,158

600 8,684 8,562 122

72%

Student Enrollment 500

Demolition 770

40 1,500 -50 -15 -130 -155

-128

53%

-204 -204 234 8,084 8,067 17

Subtotal Running Total Demand (% of Enrollment) Difference

53%

0 8,684 8,626 58

72%

-30 -400

71%

760 11,012 10,779 233

-40 -113 1,007 10,002 10,056 -54

SPEAKMAN GARAGE OPTION 1/6/2016

SPEAKMAN GARAGE OPTION 1/6/2016

190

APPENDIX

-70 10,942 11,299 -357

SPEAKMAN GARAGE OPTION 1/6/2016

500 11,442 11,658 -216

Fall 2020

-338 -626

382

Fall 2019

50

FALL 2017 New Building Projects School of Divinty | Tower | Campus Walk DeMoss Hall Entry South & Landscape Academic & Performance Center Champion Circle RT 460 Bridge + Associated Roads East Campus Entry and Roundabout (RT 460) Under Construction SECS & SOBG Student Commons Housing 3 Demolition

Fall 2018

14,380

40 368 626

(14,386)

Fall 2017

FALL 2016 40 New Building Projects School of Music Concert Hall & Arts Lawn Student Center & Academic Lawn Communications in Green Hall LaHaye Ice Center Soccer Field Indoor Practice Facility East Satellite Parking and Indoor Track East Satellite Parking Phase 2 (full utilitization) Under Construction School of Divinty | Tower | Campus Walk School of Engineering and Computational Science DeMoss Hall Entry South & Landscape South Campus Housing - NW1 (See Stevens Demo) Academic & Performance Center RT 460 Bridge + Associated Roads Demolition Vines/DeMoss Parking South Campus Practice Field Subtotal Running Total Demand (% of Enrollment) Difference

Student Enrollment

Fall 2016

14,340

Fall 2015

FALL 2015 New Building Projects School of Music Wing B Science Hall Campus Housing - M07 Expansion Student Commons Housing 2(B) Fall 2015 Student Commons Housing 2(A) Spring 2015 Under Construction School of Music Concert Hall Student Center and Academic Lawn Academic & Performance Center LaHaye Ice Center Liberty Mt. Road Reber Thomas Road Indoor Track & North Satellite Parking Demolition Annex 2 Annex 1 DeMoss Hall Department Entrances & Landscape Subtotal Running Total Demand (% of Enrollment) Difference

9,615


APPENDIX

191


192

APPENDIX


APPENDIX

193


194

APPENDIX


APPENDIX

195


196

APPENDIX


APPENDIX

197


GREEN HALL CHILLER PLANT

LU BOX 041

LU BOX 001 LU BOX 002 GREEN HALL SERVER ROOM

LU BOX 022

LU BOX 029

6"

10"

"

10

" 10

LU MH 062

LU MH 128 LU MH 129

LU MH 063

LU MH 036

LU MH 110

LU BOX 113

LU BOX 118

1

0"

"

12

APC LOOP PUMP STATION

"

10

FUTURE NORTH CHILLER PLANT 1400 TONS

LU MH 108

CENTRAL CHILLER PLANT 2400 TONS

12"

JERRY FALWELL LIBRARY SERVER ROOM

LU MH 072 LU PED 076

LU BOX 066 LU BOX 068

LU BOX 139

LU BOX 051 LU BOX 052

LU BOX 053

LU BOX 148

LU BOX 046 LU PED 135

DEMOSS CHILLER PLANT 400 TONS

FUTURE TRACK CHILLER PLANT (STAND ALONE)

"

12

"

12

"

12

"

12

"

12

UTILITY P L A N N I N G P R O G E S S

FUTURE SOUTH CHILLER PLANT 2000 TONS

8"

8"

UTILITY P L A N N I N G P R O G E S S

LU MH 069

LU MH 073 LU PED 074

LU MH 077

LU BOX 079

LU MH 058

LU BOX 077

LU BOX 080

LU BOX 081 LU BOX 082

LU MH 059

DEMOSS HALL SERVER ROOM

12"

LU BOX 103

LU BOX 101

LU BOX 104

12"

LU BOX 151 LU BOX 152

6"

LU BOX 153

12"

LU BOX 150

"

LU BOX 003

12

LU BOX 004

"

APPENDIX 12

198 10"

07 .10 . 2 0 1 5

07 .10 . 2 0 1 5

2020+ FULL BUILD-OUT CHILLED WATER

2020+ FULL BUILD-OUT COMMUNICATIONS


12480V SUB-STATION

"

12

"

12

12"

"

12

"

12

12" CITY WATER

8"

8"

"

12

8"

12 20'-0" WATER LINE EASEMENT

20'-0" WATER LINE EASEMENT

" 12

8"

8"

CITY WATER

8"

8"

6"

"

UTILITY P L A N N I N G P R O G E S S

12480V SUB-STATION

UTILITY P L A N N I N G P R O G E S S

CITY WATER

8"

CITY WATER

8"

8"

20'-0" WATER LINE EASEMENT

12 "

APPENDIX 199

8" 12

"

4"

" 12

07 .10 . 2 0 1 5

07 .10 . 2 0 1 5

2020+ FULL BUILD-OUT HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRIC

2020+ FULL BUILD-OUT DOMESTIC WATER


"

18

15

"

18"

8"

8"

8"

2"

8"

8"

8"

3"

3"

12"

4"

2"

4"

8"

2" 2"

2"

6"

2"

MAIN CAMPUS GAS METER

2" 6"

8"

FUTURE SERVICE CONNECTION AND SECONDARY CAMPUS METER

3"

3"

3"

2"

3"

3"

4"

2"

2"

12"

" 12

8"

8"

8"

8"

UTILITY P L A N N I N G P R O G E S S

8"

UTILITY P L A N N I N G P R O G E S S

4"

2"

12"

16"

APPENDIX 8"

200 18" 8"

24" 8" 8"

3"

8" 8"

8" 8"

07 .10 . 2 0 1 5

07 .10 . 2 0 1 5

2020+ FULL BUILD-OUT SANITARY SEWER

2020+ FULL BUILD-OUT NATURAL GAS


PL AC E

DR IVE

BE ND

PINE S

WHI SP ER ING

DEA N

MUR RA Y EX PR ES SW AY

RO AD WOO DA LL

N PLA COHE

MAY FL OW ER

NO RF OLK

DR IVE

/ SO UT HE RN

CE

RA ILW AY

MUR RA YPL AC E

CANDLERS MOUNTAIN ROAD BOUL EVAR D UNIVE RSITY

AV EN UE SA VA NN AH

FE RR Y RO AD WAR DS

RA LE IGH

AV E.

PALMER DR.

460

29

GR OV E

DR IVE MO UN TA IN 46 0BY PA SS

LIBE RTY

CANDLERS MOUNTAIN ROAD

WA RD S

ROAD

RO AD

460

SS PA 0 BY 46

MO UNTA IN

WALTON

GROVE

CA ND LERS

AVEN UE

LANE

VISTA

ROAD

STREET

MIDDLE

DRIVE

AVENUE

HILL

IVE DR

ROAD

29

LAN

RO AD

DALE STREET

E

WA RD S

AL TA

IVE DR

LEESVILLE

VIEW KE LA

LE ILLE CIRC BROOKV

AD RO

WOODBINE

RO AD

FE RR Y RD . WAR DS

RO AD FERR Y

RDS WA

ROAD

D EL RFI TE ES CH

PLACE SUNBURY

LAKEVIEW DRIVE

WAR DS

GR OV E RO AD RO AD

LEESVILLE

GR OV E

STREET

DRIVE

DR.

29

ATLANTA

DRIVE

460

NORTH

DRIVE

LA NE

TRANSITIONAL SURFACE E AL OND AV

RO AD LA NE

. DCT OOT GEWWES ED

LEE SVILL E

CIR CLE

AL TA

RA Y

IEW REV MO IVE DR

DR IVE

IEW REV MO

LE ES VILL E

RO AD

E AC YPL RE MO

OVEA ERST RO BR AD OO K

HE RORMIT AD AG E

IVE DR

IVE DR EW NVI EE GR

AD ST M DRERT. ERO IVLIN EG VILL ES LE

LYNCHBURG REGIONAL AIRPORT

MOUNTA IN

ST RE ET RO AD

460 CANDLERS

FE RR Y

DE LT A

29 WAR DS

RO AD

MYR WESTL E T LN

MYR EA TL ST ELN

46 0 BY PA SS

MIDDLE

DRIVE

ROAD

IVE DR

ED DRGEW IVE OO D

IVE DR

IVE DR

WAR DS

STREET

EVIEW LAK

ROAD

FIELD TER CHES

VIEW RE MO

CLE D CIR LAN WOOD

DSOR WIN

MEL INDA

ROAD

11 00

AD RO

TO DD RO SB AD UR Y

ROAD

DE L

DR IVE

DRIVE

RY FER

DR IVE

ROAD McVEIGH

VIEW KE LA

DA MELIN

WARDS

TA AL

1100

DR IVE

LIG HT DR HOUS IVE E

TU LA NE

DRIVE

RO AD PO ST OLD

YORKSHI RE CIRC LE

YO RK SH IRE CIRC LE

DR IVE PA RKV IEW

DR IVE

CEDAR

ACE URF CH S ROA APP

E AC E PL RIDG NB KE

FR ED ER ICK DR IVE

E IV DR

TAKOMA

IS CORNWALL

DRIVE

N TO AL W

WAD E

20:1

CIRCLE

TIM BE RL AK E RO AD

' 00 40

AV EN UE

. DR

IVE DR

LOCKEWOOD

DR IVE

AP PR OA CH SU RF AC E

AV EN UE

LANE

STREET

GATLIN

AM NOTTINGH

IVE DR

MOU NTAIN VIEW

ER ICSS ON

120 0

N TO AL W

S HILL

DRIVE

IVE N DR SO ICS ER

RTE. 368

CANDLERS MOUNTAIN ROAD

OR INDS W

ELD PL.

CHESTERFI

AM INGH CK BU

SETTLE MEN T

HARV ARD STR EET

460

STREET

PACOS

McVEIGH

GR EE NV IEW

HA VE NW OO D

A NT LA AT

CLE CIR NT MO OAK

LE RC T CI ON KM OA

IVE K DR EE G CR MIN EA DR

HILLS DRIVE

W AT KIN S PL AC E

GR EE NV IEW

IVE DR

CLE CIR NT MO OAK

AD E RO SVILL LEE

ROAD

GR EE NVI EW

SPRING DRIVE

DRIVE

1500

M BUCKINGHA

34:1

HARVARD STREET

ET RE ST

CH BRAN

WINDSOR

CHES TERF IELD PL.

E RIV ED AL RD NTE HU

D AR RV HA

AD RO

AD RO

460

ET RE ST

SA VA NN AH

FARLEY

. DR ICK SW UN BR

COURT PRINCIPAL

CLE W CIR D VIE GRAN

. PL

MILL

T UR D CO WOO LE ND CA

DRIVE OAKS SEVEN

IVE D DR OO EW LOCK

AD E RO AK RL BE TIM

460

ROAD

LE E CIRC RIDG LD WOO

GRAVES

TIM BR OO KPL AC E

ST REE T

D OO RW BA

SE EHOU STON GRAND VIEW CIRCLE

CE T PLA WALNU

ST REE T

OL DPO ST

RO AD

YA LE

OLD

. DR

AN DE

AD Y RO RR FE

ROAD VILLAGE

E

460

WOOD

DR IVE

460

RK E PA LLEG CO

LAN

TE MPL E CI RC LE

TE MPL E CI RC LE

IVE DR

QUAIL

E AK RL BE TIM

FO RE ST

350 0

DS WAR

VILL AG E RO AD

0 110

ST .

CIRCLE

STONEHOUSE

ROUNDELAY

COLLEG E PAR K DRIV E

AD ERO AK RL BE TIM

SUBLETT COURT

OAK DRIVE

MO NT VIE W

766 RT.

ROAD ROUNDELAY

LANE

LE RC D CI AN DL WOO

LE RC D CI AN DL WOO

IEW RKV PA

WH ITE

LEESVILLE ROAD

CO UR T

WILL OW AD RO

IVE N DR SO AR PE

29

460 SMOKETREE

CIRCLE

AD E RO RLAK BE TIM

ROAD

ROAD

ROUNDELAY

RDS WA

WA RD S FE RR Y RO AD

AD Y RO FERR

. RD

CE ON PLA AAR

WARDS

IVE N DR SO AR PE

SE MIN OL E AV EN UE

LO GAN SLA NE

AVENUE GLASS

AD E RO AK RL BE TIM

MILL

HILLS

LE

DRIVE GATE TER WA

WA RD S FE RR Y RO AD

CANDLERS MOUNTAIN ROAD

WILL OW

CO URT

OL

OAK

S OR YL TA

MAI NT AINE D)

501

20:1 CONICAL:SURFACE

SM OK ET RE LA E NE

ES AV D GR OL

BEVERLY

HILLS CIRC

OLD WA RDS RO AD

MEAD OW BROO K BEND

AD RO

0 120

PL AC E (N OT CITY

AY SW ES PR EX

DS AR DW OL

BEVERLY

KENW OOD PLA CE

G UR HB NC LY

AD E RO AK RL BE TIM

RICHLA ND DRIV E

MIL L

GR AVES D

HO OK

RIC HLAN DDR IVE

AD RO

E AC PL

IVE S DR AM AD

OAK CO URT

CIRCLE

AUTUMN

NELS ON

BRIDGETON CT.

LO OK OU T DR IVE CO UR T

OLD

VA LO RIE

OR YL TA

RO AD

ROAD WARDS

MO NT E CA RL O

DR IVE

DR IVE

RO AD

IVE DR

EY PL CO

AD RO

HILLS

LY NC HB UR G

MILL

SANDBRIDGE CT.

OLD

MILL GRAVES

DR IVE SP RING VA LE

RENO DRIVE

DRIVE

MO UN TA IN

DRIVE

DS AR DW OL

BEVERLY

CE O PLA BOR MIDDLE

ICK FENW

ET RE ST

BENT

CE PLA

RIC HLAN D

CA ND LE RS

YO UN G

E NS LAN LOGA

PEAC HTRE E

WHISTLEWOOD COURT

NT BE

SHIRE BERK

IVE DR

IEW EV DL MID

DR IVE

IVE DR

IVE DR

E

RO BIN

DRIVE

NFIELD GLE

IVE DR

AD K RO BROO OW MEAD

DR IVE

FE NW ICK DR IVE

D EL NFI GLE

LSON NE

DRIVE

ALE DRIV

IVE DR

CE PLA NT GE RE

NE E LA ILL KV OO BR

SUNC REST

DRIVE

DRIVE

ON NELS

DRIVE

D EK ROA LE CRE LITT

ROBIN

SPRINGV

FFIELD SHE

AD

E HTRE PEAC

DRIV E

ROBIN DRIVE

BORDER STREET

DRIVE

D

ROAD

SS ROA

AD RO

RENO DRIVE

ROBIN DRIVE

FFIELD SHE

RO

DRIVE

HILL VIEW

RE NO

SH OR T CANDLER S MOU NTAIN ROAD

VE LD DRI SHEFFIE

LICH FORD LANE

MEAD OW BROO K

DRIVE

PARK

501

ON NORT

INDUSTRIAL

EDGEWOOD AVENUE

ROAD

NORCRO

LOOKOUT

REST SUNC

TOMA HAWK

NUE D AVE EWOO EDG

WARDS

TON

RT FO

STREET

E

AD RO

MOR

MILL ES AV GR

DRIV

DRIVE

TOMAHAWK

ET RE ST

UE EN AV

DRIVE

GRAVES

IN BL DU

E AC Y PL NE AR KILL

DR IVE

IVE DR

DRIVE

COBBLESTONE

QUAK ER

ELEVATION = 1288 MSL

IVE DR WS DO MEA

DRIVE

PARK WA Y

NG LO

ROAD

IVE DR VALLEYDALE

LY NC H PL AC E

EDINB ORO AVEN UE

CE

JO HN

NUE AVE ORO EDINB

MILLRA

AU TU MN

501

Scale 1 in. = 600 ft.

AirZone by Surface Approach Conical Horizontal Transitional APPENDIX

201


Timelines and Dates of Important Events

Liberty University

DigitalCommons@Liberty University Faculty Publications and Presentations

Jerry Falwell Library

2011

Timeline and Important Dates of Liberty University Abigail Ruth Sattler

Liberty University, arsattler@liberty.edu

Liberty University 1971:  History Department established.  Education Department established.  Lynchburg Baptist College founded by Dr. Jerry Falwell. The college opened with 154 students meeting in Thomas Road Baptist Church.  January, 1971 – Dr. Falwell announces his intention of founding a university. (CHLU)  September 13, 1971 – First day of classes (1971-1972 Course Catalog). 1972:  The first Scaremare is held.  A Bible Institute was established for those who wanted a two-year, in-depth study of the English Bible. (CHLU)  Property for a new campus was purchased on Candler’s Mountain. (CHLU)  January, 1972 – The first student body at Liberty take a week-long trip to Israel. (AIJ)  January 18, 1972 – Lynchburg Baptist College incorporated. 1972-1973:  536 students started the school year. (CHLU) 1973:      

Follow this and additional works at: http://digitalcommons.liberty.edu/lib_fac_pubs Part of the Library and Information Science Commons Recommended Citation Sattler, Abigail Ruth, "Timeline and Important Dates of Liberty University" (2011). Faculty Publications and Presentations. Paper 52. http://digitalcommons.liberty.edu/lib_fac_pubs/52

This Miscellaneous is brought to you for free and open access by the Jerry Falwell Library at DigitalCommons@Liberty University. It has been accepted for inclusion in Faculty Publications and Presentations by an authorized administrator of DigitalCommons@Liberty University. For more information, please contact scholarlycommunication@liberty.edu.

202

APPENDIX

Liberty Baptist Theological Seminary opens. Dr. J. Gordon Henry was appointed Academic Dean. (CHLU) Dr. A. Pierre Guillermin was appointed Executive Vice-President. (CHLU) The student body takes a week-long trip to England. (AIJ) September 27, 1973 – LBC plays its first football game vs. Massanutten Military Academy (a prep school). LBC lost 42-32. (Kevin Keys) October 25, 1973 – LBC wins its first football game playing against Ferrum Junior College with a score of 29-7. (Kevin Keys)

1973-1974:  A six-story hotel was purchased in the downtown area to house students and to hold classes. (CHLU) 1974:     

The first class graduates. The Telecommunications Department is established. The Wrestling team is founded by Bob Bonheim. (AIJ) Ed Dobson coaches the first soccer team. (AIJ) The Board of Trustees is established? (Faculty Handbook 1973-1974, Course Catalogs 1973-1974, 1974-1975)


 

April, 1974 – Lynchburg Baptist College receives permission to grant degrees from the Virginia State Council of Higher Education. May 22, 1974 - LBC’s first Commencement speaker, Dr. J. Harold Smith. (CHLU)

1974-1975:  1,428 students began the school year. (CHLU) 1975:  First Lady Flames basketball game.  Dr. A. Pierre Guillermin was named President of LBC and Lynchburg Baptist Theological Seminary. (CHLU)  The first Miss Liberty is crowned.  The Department of Psychology is established.  Dr. Falwell is named clergyman of the year.  January – July, 1975 – The LBC Chorale and Jerry Falwell toured America to raise funds for LBC. (AIJ)  July 13, 1975 – College name changed to Liberty Baptist College. 1975-1976:  The LBC School colors are changed from yellow and green to red white and royal blue. 1976:  The Liberty Bell is constructed as part of the bicentennial celebration. With the help of Tom Arnold and Les Shoffer, this is the story behind the Liberty Bell: The Liberty Bell, housed in a building erected on the School of Religion parking lot, was unveiled on July 4, 1976 on Liberty Mountain in commemoration of America’s bicentennial as part of a fund raising campaign. Dr. B. R. Lakin delivered the message that day on the present site of the Barnes and Noble bookstore currently under construction. The Liberty Bell was commissioned by the school and is engraved with 70,000 names of “Friends of Liberty.” In 1977, construction of the campus began on Liberty Mountain.  The intramural sports program is established.  The Track Team is added (News & Advance 02-06-76)  LBC wrestling team won the National Christian College Athletic Association (NCCAA) National Championship. (CHLU) 1976-1977:  1,871 students started classes; some had to temporarily sleep on the floor due to the rapid increase in students. (CHLU) 1977:  Department of Biology and Chemistry established.  Second year in a row that the wrestling team won the National Christian College Athletic Association (NCCAA) National Championship. (CHLU)

      

January 21, 1977 - 2,500 students, faculty, and administration met on Liberty Mountain for a prayer meeting. They prayed that all of the debt would be cleared and construction would begin on the mount for school buildings. (CHLU) February 1977 - 2.5 million dollars was received to erase the debt. (CHLU) March 1, 1977 - LBC building program began for the campus buildings. (CHLU) April 21, 1977 – Grading begins on Liberty Mountain June 1977 - LBC was granted Candidate Status with Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) Commission on Colleges (COC). (CHLU) September 2, 1977 - 3,500 students, faculty, and friends saw two classroom buildings and others in progress. (CHLU) December 1977 - 12 dorms were completed and ready to use. (CHLU)

1977 – 1978:  150 men were housed at the Kennedy House, an abandoned hospital, and the college rented a floor of the Ramada Inn 1978:  Learning assistance center is established.  May 7, 1978 - 403 students graduated – the largest class LBC had graduated. (CHLU) The first commencement held on Liberty Mountain. (AIJ)  The Chapel tent is commissioned. The tent was leased to use for a meeting place for chapel services. (CHLU) 1978 – 1979:  1,000 freshmen arrived on campus to start their college career at LBC. (CHLU) 1979:      

Teacher Education building is completed. Multi-purpose center is built. Wrestling and Track won the NCCAA National Championships. (CHLU) 21 buildings were completed or under construction. (CHLU) The “I Love America” rallies began. (AIJ) March 30, 1979 - Dedication of 3,000 seat gymnasium. (CHLU)

1979 – 1980:  Basketball team won the NCCAA National Basketball Championship in Division I. (CHLU) 1980:  The Academic Awards Assembly begins.  LBC was granted Candidate Status with Transnational Association of Christian Colleges and Schools (TRACS). (CHLU)  February 2, 1980 - Liberty Bible Institute merges with the Division of Religion to form the Institute of Biblical Studies headed by Harold Wilmington.  October, 1980 - Presidential candidate Ronald Reagan speaks to the National Religious Broadcasters at LBC. (Selah 1981)

APPENDIX

203


December 12, 1980 – LU receives accreditation from SACS retroactive to May 1980 class.

1981:  The Prayer Chapel is constructed.  Tennis courts are built.  LBC obtains membership in the National Collegiate Athletic Association at the Division II level.  Track Team won NCCAA National title. (CHLU)  The last 277 students living at the hotel were moved onto Liberty Mountain to live in the dorms. (CHLU)  Liberty Counsel is created. (N&A article 6/17/81)  June 17, 1981 - The WRVL radio station first broadcast.  October 13, 1981 – Dr. Duane Gish debates Dr. Russell Doolittle on the topic of evolution. (AIJ) 1981 – 1982:  3,528 Students began school at LBC. (CHLU)  25 buildings were on campus (18 dorms, 4 classroom buildings, a multi-purpose center, administration building, and prayer chapel). (CHLU) 1982:      

The Masters of Education program is established. The Center for Creation Studies is established. The School of Religion building is constructed. February 9, 1982 – The “Understanding Politics Conference” at LBC hosts former Polish Ambassador Romuald Spasowski. (AIJ) April 25, 1982 - B.R. Lakin School of Religion Building dedicated; 1,050 students were trained for full-time Christian service in 1982-83. (CHLU) September 24, 1982 – Nine teacher education programs are certified by the Virginia Board of Education.

1982 – 1983:  The school paper Liberty Champion began publication. (CHLU) 1983:    

The Department of Journalism is established. The Department of Human Ecology is established. April 13, 1983 - Vice President George Bush spoke at LBC. (CHLU) October 3, 1983 - Ted Kennedy speaks on campus.

1984:  Self study program began.  The monument to the unborn babies is built.  LBC received Accreditation from TRACS. (CHLU)

204

APPENDIX

   1985:             

April 11, 1984 – The three day conference “Baptist Fundamentalism ‘84” begins. August, 1984 – The Biology education program is certified by the Virginia Board of Education after the ACLU protests. December 11, 1984 – LU approved as a level III institution by SACS. SACS accredited the Graduate programs in Religion and Education (CHLU). DeMoss Hall is donated and constructed. The courtyard of flags is constructed. The Language lab is constructed. The History Department is established. Center for Creation Studies and the Museum of Earth and Life History were established. (CHLU) Arthur S. DeMoss Learning Center was erected in memory of Arthur S. DeMoss. (CHLU) The Hancock Athletic Center was added (CHLU) The courtyard was redesigned with 52 flags. (AIJ) The first LIGHT campaign ministers in Korea and the Philippines. Liberty School of Life Long Learning (LUSLLL) was founded, offering an AA, BS, MA, and MBS. (CHLU) May 2, 1985 – College name changed to Liberty University. (CHLU) May 6, 1985 - 668 students graduated. (CHLU) November 5-6, 1985 – Treasure Island floods. (AIJ)

1985 – 1986:  The campus was comprised of 47 buildings with 5,930 students enrolled for this academic year. (CHLU)  LU added four three-story dorms and expanded the cafeteria. (CHLU) 1986:  WLBU TV is established  The Center for Creation Studies museum opens.  December 18, 1986 – SACS approves a ten-year reaffirmation. 1987:  The bookstore moves to the DeMoss location.  February, 1987 – LU applies for SACS level IV status.  December, 1987 - LU received approval for level-four candidate status offering the D.Min. and M.B.A. degrees. (CHLU)  December 10, 1987 - SCHE authorizes enrollment for MBA and DMIN. 1987 – 1988:  School of Religion offered course work for the D.Min. degree, LU's first Doctoral program. (CHLU)


1988:        

LU is approved for SACS level IV. The Department of Health Sciences is established. The Computer Lab is opened. The College of General Studies is established. The LU athletic program is inducted into the NCAA. The senior dorms are built. The Chronicle of Higher Education declares LU to be “the largest private university in the state of Virginia”. Fall 1988 - LU’s Athletic Program was accepted by the NCAA into Division I level for all 16 men's and women's sports. (CHLU)

1988 – 1989:  LU was recognized as the largest private university in the state of Virginia. (CHLU)  Almost 11,000 students in both resident and external degree programs were enrolled in fall 1988, representing 50 states and more than 30 foreign nations. (CHLU)  268 full- and part-time faculty served LU. (CHLU) 1989:         1990:      

The first Health Outreach team ministries go to Haiti. An Olympic size track facility is constructed. Fall 1989 - Sam Rutigliano appointed Head Football Coach. (CHLU) January, 1989 - Liberty Center for Research and Scholarship was founded to internally help facilitate the integration of academic disciplines around a biblical world view. (CHLU) January 22, 1989 - First Student Center opened - named for David A. DeMoss, a student who died in an automobile accident while attending Liberty. (CHLU) May 8, 1989 - Ground was broken for a 12,000-seat football stadium. (CHLU) October 21, 1989 - Stadium officially opened to a Homecoming crowd of 12,750. (CHLU) November, 1989 - Track and Field facility was completed. (CHLU) LU received Reaffirmation of Accreditation from TRACS. (CHLU) The new science labs are constructed. May 12, 1990 - President George H.W. Bush speaks at commencement. October 22, 1990 - The Vines Center is completed. It is opened to host Super Conference. (CHLU) November 30, 1990 - Vines Center was dedicated, named in honor of Odie and Minnie Vines – one of the largest and finest on-campus arenas in the state of Virginia. (CHLU) November, 1990 – A Chicago-based company reneges on a multi-million dollar bond deal causing all short-term debt to come due. (AIJ)

1991:  The first class of nursing students graduates.

  

The Freshman seminar is instituted. March 14, 1991 – LU President Dr. A.P. Guillermin is confirmed to the national Advisory Council on Educational Research and Improvement after having been nominated by President George H.W. Bush. (AIJ) May, 1991 - LU enters the Big South Conference.

1991 – 1992:  Liberty Champion received "All American Paper" award with four marks of distinction from the Associated College Press. (CHLU) 1992:  The Nursing department moves into a new complex of offices, classrooms, conference room and skills laboratory.  Liberty Bible Institute reopens.  Liberty Baptist Theological Seminary separates from the School of Religion.  Senior dorms close.  The LU debt restructuring is finalized.  Summer 1992 - The Reber-Thomas dining hall opens.  Fall, 1992 - The Office for Minority and International students was established. (CHLU) 1993:  LU's chapter of Alpha Lambda Delta was named the winner of the 1993 Order of the Torch. (CHLU)  March, 1993 - Initial accreditation of Nursing Program by National League for Nursing (NLN). (CHLU)  May 15, 1993 - Commencement speaker, Dr. James Dobson, at LU’s 20th Commencement exercises in the Vines Center. (CHLU) 1993 – 1994:  Enrollment was 9,178 including both resident and external degree students. (CHLU) 1994:  March 7, 1994 - Flames Men's Basketball won the Big South Conference Tournament and received its first NCAA Tournament berth in its third year of eligibility. (CHLU)  October 29, 1994 - The LU Stadium received a new name – Williams Stadium in honor of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Williams. (CHLU) 1994 – 1995:  The Debate Team claimed National Championships in both the American Debate Association and the National Debate Tournament. (CHLU)  LU's basketball team hosted the Big South Conference Tournament; there was a tournament attendance record broken with more than 18,000 fans attending the Big South games. (CHLU)  Track and Field team won the Big South Conference. (CHLU)

APPENDIX

205


1995:  Super Conference XIV heard House Speaker Newt Gingrich. (CHLU)  Spring, 1995 - Dr. Richard Barnhart, Director of Academic Computing, announced entrance to the information highway. (CHLU)  October 10, 1995 – The Earl H. Schilling Center is dedicated. (AIJ)

1995 – 1996:  The Debate Team claimed for the second year in a row National Championships in both the American Debate Association and the National Debate Tournament. (CHLU)

  

1996:  May, 1996 - Commencement speaker, Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas. (CHLU) 1997:  LU received Reaffirmation of Accreditation from SACS. (CHLU)  January, 1997 - National League for Nursing (NLN) reaccreditation of Nursing Program. (CHLU)  May, 1997 - Commencement speaker, Dr. Billy Graham, evangelist. (CHLU)  June 19, 1997 - Dr. A. Pierre Guillermin retired after 22 years of service as LU’s second president. (AIJ)  June 19, 1997 - Dr. John M. Borek, Jr. was appointed President by the Board of Trustees. (CHLU) 1998:  Information Technology Resource Center (ITRC) received approval as an official Microsoft Training Center. (CHLU)  Teacher Education Program re-certified by ACSI. (CHLU)  The Hangar Food Court was constructed. (CHLU)  April, 1998 - Construction began on Dorm 33, a six-story residence hall for 400 female students. (CHLU)  May, 1998 - Commencement speaker, Dr. John M. Borek, Jr., LU President. (CHLU)  August, 1998 - NCAA re-certification of LU’s Athletic Program. (CHLU)  August, 1998 - Liberty University Worship Institute established. (CHLU)  September 2, 1998 - LU library was renamed the A. Pierre Guillermin Library in honor of LU’s President Emeritus. (CHLU)  September 12, 1998 - Dedication and reopening of the renovated David’s Place. (CHLU) 1999:  November 15, 1999 - Southern Baptist Conservatives of Virginia voted unanimously to recognize LU as a fully cooperating institution affiliated with the SBCV. (CHLU) 2000:  January 7, 2000 – The Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees votes to begin immediate construction to add three floors to the DeMoss building. (AIJ)

206

APPENDIX

 

January 12, 2000 - Official approval by the State Council of Higher Education in Virginia (SCHEV) to use EDP courses in graduate education for Virginia Teacher Licensure. (CHLU) January 13, 2000 - Coach Sam Rutigliano retired as Head Football Coach. (CHLU) July 19, 2000 - SCHEV approves the Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) degree program. (CHLU) September 20, 2000 - TRACS Reaffirmation of LU until 2010. (CHLU) October 3, 2000 - The LaHaye Lounge in Dorm 13 was dedicated. (CHLU) December, 2000 - Expansion and renovation begins on the 4-floor DeMoss Learning Center. (CHLU)

2001:  Summer, 2001 - On-line payment and check-in processes established to enhance student services. (CHLU)  Summer, 2001 - A Cyber Lounge is established in the Reber-Thomas Dining Hall. (CHLU)  April, 2001 - TRACS approves the MSN degree program. (CHLU)  May, 2001 - LU received a $4.5 million dollar leadership gift and a matching amount to provide the funding for the Tim and Beverly LaHaye Student Center. (CHLU)  July 18, 2001 - SCHEV approves LU’s first Ph.D. program with concentrations in Professional Counseling and Pastoral Counseling. (CHLU)  July 19, 2001 - SACS approves the M.S.N. degree program, in which students will enroll for the Fall Semester. (CHLU)  August 22, 2001 - Fall Semester begins with classes convening in the newly refurbished first floor of the DeMoss Learning Center. (CHLU) 2002:  Charles Billingsley is appointed to lead LU’s new National Center for Worship Training with Dr. Ron Geise to coordinate the academic degrees. (AIJ)  January, 2002 - Spring Semester begins with classes convening in the new second floor of DeMoss Learning Center. (CHLU)  April, 2002 - Dr. David DeWitt, Biology professor, receives 3-year grant ($123,529) from the National Institute of Health for his Alzheimer’s disease research. (CHLU)  April 30, 2002 - SACS approves the Ph.D. in Counseling program to commence in Fall 2002. (CHLU)  May, 2002 - Women’s softball team wins Big South Conference Softball Championship. (CHLU)  May, 2002 - LU Athletic Department is awarded the Big South Conference Sasser Cup for 2001-2002; this is the 4th Commissioner’s Cup awarded to LU in the last 5 years. (CHLU)  May, 2002 - The Center for Teaching Excellence was established to provide opportunities for faculty development. (CHLU)  August, 2002 - Air Force ROTC program initiated. (CHLU)


   

October, 2002 - LU Nursing Department hosted over 400 nurses from central Virginia and surrounding states for the Centra Health Nursing Summit “Creating a New Tomorrow". (CHLU) October, 2002 - Graduate Senate established. (CHLU) October, 2002 - Integrated Learning Resource Center (ILRC) established merging the learning resources of the library (print and electronic) with the academic computing labs. (CHLU) October 8, 2002 - LU Board of Trustees approves the School of Law, LU’s first professional school. (CHLU)

2003:  Spring, 2003 - Liberty Debate wins the 2002-2003 CEDA and NDT national championships. (CHLU)  Sumer, 2003 - English Language Institute (ELI) was initiated. (CHLU)  Fall, 2003 - Record number of students enrolled in the University Honors Program – 396. (CHLU)  Fall, 2003 - Campus East residence hall community of 6 multi-story apartment dormitories was completed. (CHLU)  Fall, 2003 - Ridgeway Television Studio was constructed in the Vines Center to produce live broadcasts of Convocation services and other events. (CHLU)  January 20, 2003 - SCHEV approves the Juris Doctorate (JD) degree. (CHLU)  January 20, 2003 - SCHEV gives full approval to confer the Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) degree. (CHLU)  February, 2003 - Hobby Lobby purchased the 888,000 square foot Ericsson facility located on 133 acres adjoining Liberty University and donated the facility to Jerry Falwell Ministries. (CHLU)  March 28, 2003 - SCHEV approves the Bachelor of Science in Management Information Systems. (CHLU)  March 28, 2003 - SCHEV approves the Post-Graduate Degree, Education Specialist (Ed.S.). (CHLU)  April, 2003 - The Champion newspaper wins 7 awards in the annual Virginia Press Association competition for Virginia student newspapers. (CHLU)  May, 2003 - Commencement speaker, Dr. Adrian Rogers, Pastor, Bellevue Baptist Church, Memphis, Tennessee; Founder, Love Worth Finding Ministries. (CHLU)  August, 2003 - Visitor’s Center relocated to the Grand Lobby of the DeMoss Learning Center. (CHLU)  August 22, 2003 - Falwell Library/Museum opens adjacent to the Grand Lobby of the DeMoss Learning Center. (CHLU)  October, 2003 - Super Conference: Dr. Rick Warren and the Purpose Driven Church Conference. (CHLU)  October 8, 2003 - Sport Management Program Review Council (SMPRC) re-approves the Sport Management Program until June 30, 2010. (CHLU)  October 29, 2003 - Teacher Education Program achieves first time National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) accreditation at the initial teacher preparation level and provisional accreditation at the advanced preparation level. (CHLU)

 

November, 2003 - TRACS gives full approval of Ed.D. and M.S.N. degree programs. (CHLU) November 12, 2003 - ACSI approves the Educational Leadership and Administration Graduate Program with recertification in Spring 2012. (CHLU)

2004:  Fall, 2004 - 13 new residence halls and a club house were constructed at Campus East; a pedestrian tunnel connecting Campus East to Main Campus was completed. (CHLU)  March, 2004 - LU Debate wins the American Debate Association national championship. (CHLU)  March 1, 2004 – The nationally televised program “Live from Liberty” is begun. (AIJ)  March 24, 2004 - Dr. John M. Borek, Jr. announces his resignation as President of LU, effective June 30, 2004. (CHLU)  April 24, 2004 - Title deed to the 113-acre 880,000 square foot facility (formerly Ericsson) was presented to Dr. Falwell and TRBC. (CHLU)  April 29, 2004 - LU dedicated the C. Daniel Kim International Student Center. (CHLU)  May 27, 2004 - Dr. Falwell announced that the Board of Trustees authorized the division of the School of Business and Government with the creation of the Helms School of Government. (CHLU)  June, 2004 - Athletic Training program receives 5-year Initial Accreditation from the Committee on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP). (CHLU)  July, 2004 - David L. Young appointed Executive Vice President/COO of Liberty University. (CHLU)  July 6, 2004 - SACS approves the J.D. program(CHLU)  August 13, 2004 - LU Law School opened with an inaugural class of 60 students. (CHLU)  September 27, 2004 - SACS approves the M.A. in Communication Studies degree program. (CHLU)  October, 2004 – Nursing Department receives 10 year accreditation for the BSN and 5 year accreditation for the MSN program from the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE). (CHLU)  October 6, 2004 - LU honors former Senator Jesse Helms by publicly naming the newly distinct and separate School of Government as the Liberty University Helms School of Government during a special convocation. (CHLU)  November, 2004 - The LaHaye Student Center on Campus North officially opens. (CHLU)  December 22, 2004 - LU opens a new highway ramp on U.S. Route 460 West. (CHLU) 2005:  March 11, 2005 - Dr. Thom Park named Director of Athletics. (CHLU)  December 2, 2005 - Danny Rocco named Head Football Coach. (CHLU) 2006:  January 11, 2006 - LU Hockey Team plays for the first time on home ice in the LaHaye Ice Center. (CHLU)

APPENDIX

207


             

January 23, 2006 - Jeff Barber announced as new Athletics Director. (CHLU) February 13, 2006 - The American Bar Association (ABA) grants provisional accreditation to the Liberty University School of Law at the earliest date possible for a new law school. (CHLU) March 6, 2006 - Dr. Ergun Caner installed as President of Liberty Theological Seminary. (CHLU) April 17, 2006 - Liberty University Debate, in its 25th year of competition, makes history by winning all three National Policy Debate Rankings Championships. (CHLU) June 30, 2006 - Law School Founding Dean, Bruce Green, resigns. (CHLU) July, 2006 - Ronald S. Godwin appointed Executive Vice President/COO of Liberty University. (CHLU) July 19, 2006 - SACS approves the Master of Science in Accounting degree program. (CHLU) August, 2006 - DLP Academic Policy changes: Associate Deans for each College/School responsible for DLP. (CHLU) August, 2006 - Newly-constructed A. L. Williams Football Operations Center opens. (CHLU) August, 2006 - The Graduate Writing Center was established. (CHLU) October, 2006 - LU Transit Services internally operated transit service launched. (CHLU) October 19, 2006 - Mathew D. Staver appointed Dean of LU School of Law. (CHLU) December 4, 2006 - Vice Chancellor, Jerry Falwell, Jr., named Blue Ridge Business Journal’s Business Person of the Year. (CHLU) December 11, 2006 - Liberty University is reaffirmed by SACS; next reaffirmation is 2016. (CHLU)

2007:  January, 2007 - LU Transit formed a partnership with the Greater Lynchburg Transportation Company (GLTC). (CHLU)  February, 2007 - Liberty Bible Institute renamed Willmington School of the Bible. (CHLU)  March, 2007 - Liberty University’s Board of Trustees approves the initiation of the School of Engineering and Computational Science, replacing the Center for Computer and Information Technology. (CHLU)  April 17, 2007 - LU Debate sweeps debate rankings championships for the second consecutive year. (CHLU)  April 25, 2007 - Official groundbreaking for the Towns/Alumni Ministry Training Center, a 1,100 seat lecture hall named in honor of Dr. Elmer Towns, Co-Founder of Liberty University. (CHLU)  April 30, 2007 - SACS approves the B.S. in Computer Engineering, B.S. in Electrical Engineering, B.S. in Industrial and Systems Engineering, and B.S. in Software Engineering degree programs. (CHLU)  May, 2007 - Six four-story apartment-style brick dorms are added to Campus East; this increases the total number of buildings on Campus East to 25. (CHLU)  May, 2007 - Ritchie McKay named LU Men’s Basketball Coach. (CHLU)  May 8, 2007 - LU Monogram is completed. (CHLU)

208

APPENDIX

             

May 15, 2007 – Dr. Jerry Falwell dies at age 73. May 19, 2007 - LU Law School graduates its inaugural class. (CHLU) June 20, 2007 - Liberty University launches Liberty University Online Academy offering a full year’s curriculum, plus enrichment courses, for grades 3 through 12 via the Internet. (CHLU) June 22, 2007 - SACS approves the Master of Arts in English degree program. (CHLU) June 28, 2007 - The School of Engineering and Computational Sciences is established with Dr. Ron Sones as Dean of the School. (CHLU) July 19, 2007 - SACS approves the Associate of Arts in Government degree program. (CHLU) August 10, 2007 - Chancellor Jerry Falwell, Jr. announces that Liberty University is debtfree for the first time in its history due to life insurance policies on Dr. Falwell. (CHLU) August 13, 2007 - SACS approves the Master of Sacred Theology (STM) degree program. (CHLU) August 20, 2007 - Liberty University has record enrollment of 10,400 on campus students on the first day of classes. (CHLU) September 7, 2007 - Sandor Development Co. of Scottsdale, Arizona donates the Plaza Shopping Center, consisting of 42 acres and 467,000 square feet of buildings, to Liberty University. (CHLU) September 7, 2007 - SACS approves the Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) degree program. (CHLU) October, 2007 - The National Liberty Journal renamed The Liberty Journal and restyled in a new magazine format. (CHLU) December, 2007 - LU seeks City of Lynchburg approval to expand to 15,000 students. Plans submitted to increase on new campus housing for 5,166 students. (CHLU) December 18, 2007 – Liberty Theological Seminary changes its name back to Liberty Baptist Theological Seminary.

2008:  The university bookstore moves to a freestanding building.  January 23, 2008 - LU’s Distance Learning Program ranked third in nation by the Online Education Database. (CHLU)  February, 2008 – The Graduate Center for Research and Evaluation becomes the Center for Research and scholarship.  February 14, 2008 - SACS approves online certificate programs in DLP: ComputerBased Skills; Counseling and Care Giving; Global Executive; Bible Exposition, Pastoral Leadership and Global Evangelism. (CHLU)  February 26, 2008 - Governor Timothy M. Kaine signed legislation naming a section of U.S. 460 in Lynchburg the “Jerry Falwell Parkway”. (CHLU)  March, 2008 - Montview, former residence of Senator Carter Glass and the site of Dr. Jerry Falwell’s office, becomes a museum and VIP guest bed and breakfast. (CHLU)  March 25, 2008 - DLP enrolls its 25,000th student, exceeding the enrollment goal of 25,000 students by June 2009. (CHLU)  April 2, 2008 - The Center for Pre-Law Studies in the Helms School of Government is dedicated. (CHLU)


          

April 24, 2008 - The Department of Aviation became the School of Aeronautics. May 20, 2008 - SACS approves the Ph.D. in Theology and Apologetics and the M.A. in History. (CHLU) June 11, 2008 - LU voluntarily withdraws from its accreditation through TRACS. (CHLU) June 24, 2008 - New fountain flows in front of the Arthur S. DeMoss Learning Center. (CHLU) July 1, 2008 - LU closes out enrollment for Fall 2008 with an expected enrollment of 11,300; for the first time in LUs history 400 students are placed on a waiting list. (CHLU) August 12, 2008 - Dr. Ron Godwin named Vice Chancellor. (CHLU) September, 2008 - LU joins the Council of Independent Colleges in Virginia (CICV). (CHLU) September 3, 2008 - Doc’s Diner Grand Opening. (CHLU) September 19, 2008 – The Towns Alumni auditorium was officially dedicated and opened. (CHLU) September 22, 2008 – LU joins the Council of Independent Colleges in Virginia. (CHLU) November 4, 2008 - The LU Distance Learning Program changes its name to Liberty University Online.

  

June 21, 1956 – A prayer meeting is held in the abandoned Donald Duck Bottling Company building. An organizational meeting is held where Dr. Jerry Falwell is formally made the pastor, the name Thomas Road Baptist Church is approved, a simple constitution and by-laws are approved and the first three trustees are elected. (AIJ) June 24, 1956 – The first church service is held in the Donald Duck Bottling Company building. (AIJ) September, 1956 – Jerry Falwell begins a weekly broadcast program called “The Deep Things of God”. (AIJ) December, 1956 – The half hour weekly television broadcast “Thomas Road Baptist Church Presents” is aired with WLVA, the Lynchburg ABC affiliate. (AIJ)

1957:  June 16, 1957 – TRBC celebrates its first anniversary. 864 people attend Sunday school. (AIJ) 1962:  December 10, 1962 – TRBC signs a contract with J.E. Jamerson & Sons to build the second TRBC sanctuary. (AIJ)

2009:  The Chancellor establishes the CRS fund to finance the Center for Research and Scholarship.

1963:  Spring, 1963 – TRBC buys Treasure Island Youth Camp which was previously a YMCA family recreational center. (AIJ)

2010:  Dr. Elmer Towns becomes the Dean of the Seminary.  Winter – the building of a library building was announced.  January 7, 2010 – The Center for Worship and Music moves from the College of Arts & Sciences to the School of Religion. Doug Randlett assumes the title of Associate Dean for Practical and Experiential Education.  January 23, 2010 - The Grand opening of the National Civil War Chaplin’s Museum is held. CSA and US Honor Guards were at the event with black powder rifles.  March 31, 2010 – The Center for Creation Studies at Liberty University celebrates its 25th Anniversary and dedicates the new Hall of Creation with displays and exhibits.  August, 2010 – The Law School receives full accreditation from the American Bar Association.

1964:  March 29, 1964 – the TRBC congregation moves into the new 1,000 seat auditorium (named the Moody building). (AIJ)  June 1, 1964 – Jerry Falwell announces plans to construct a new nineteen room educational building. (AIJ)

2011:  Barbara Baxter, the director of the Law Library retired.  March 28-April 1, 2011 – The first Israel Emphasis week was held at Liberty University. Thomas Road Baptist Church 1956:  June 17, 1956 – The first service of Thomas Road Baptist Church is held in Mountain View Elementary School. 35 adults attended as well as their children. (AIJ)

1965:  The two-story Spurgeon building is completed. (AIJ) 1966:  A building is begun on a third building for TRBC. 1967:  The Deaf Ministry is begun at TRBC. 1968:  TRBC celebrates its 12th anniversary by inviting Pastor Oliver B. Greene to pitch his bigtop tent in the parking lot and hold a revival. 5,040 attended. (AIJ)  The Bus Ministry is begun. 1969:  April 6, 1969 – Ground is broken for the construction of a new sanctuary and two large educational buildings at TRBC. (AIJ)

APPENDIX

209


 

June 2, 1969 – construction is begun on the octagon-shaped sanctuary based on a design by Thomas Jefferson. (AIJ) June 8, 1969 – TRBC celebrates its 13th anniversary in the Lynchburg Municipal Stadium. 7,250 people attend. (AIJ)

1970:  TRBC installs color cameras for broadcasts from the new TRBC sanctuary. (AIJ)  January, 1970 – The two new educational buildings at TRBC are completed. (AIJ)  March 29, 1970 – Frank Wellington conducts a “Kid’s Krusade”, 1,000 children attend. (AIJ)  June 28, 1970 – The new sanctuary of TRBC opens and TRBC celebrates its 14th anniversary. (AIJ) 1971:  December, 1971 - The first Living Christmas Tree is presented. (AIJ) 1972:  July 24, 1972 – Newsweek Magazine publishes a story proclaiming that TRBC was the fastest growing church in America. (AIJ)  December, 1972 – William Schief of the Office of Securities and Exchange Commission contacted TRBC about bonds the church had issued the previous year. (AIJ) 1973:  July 3, 1973 – the church is sued by the Securities and Exchange Commission for fraud and deceit in connection with the bonds issued in 1971.  August 9, 1973 – the TRBC’s trial in the Securities and Exchange Commission lawsuit begins. (AIJ)  August 10, 1973 – TRBC is cleared of the fraud and deceit charges. (AIJ) 1974:  TRBC receives donations of over $2 million. (AIJ)  Student Missionary Intern Training for Evangelism (S.M.I.T.E.) is formed at TRBC by Roscoe Brewer. (AIJ) 1977:  The Annual Outreach Conference is combined with the Pastors and Workers Conference to form the first Super-Conference. Paul Harvey, nationally known radio news commentator, addressed the opening session. “Jesus First” pins were introduced. (AIJ) 1978:  Missionary teams helped Cambodian refugees.  S.M.I.T.E. teams helped in Haiti.  April 8-19, 1978 – Dr. Falwell and a team of evangelical leaders from the U.S. traveled to the Middle East on an invitation from Israel and Egypt. They met with Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin, and other heads of state.

210

APPENDIX

1979:  TRBC is featured in a Wall Street Journal article about the “electric church”. (AIJ)  TRBC, working with Larry Ward of Food for the Hungry International, gathered aid for the Southeast Asian “Boat People”. (AIJ) 1984:  TRBC hosts the National Baptist Bible Fellowship Conference. 1992:  June 14, 1992 – Lt. Col. Oliver North shares his personal testimony as TRBC celebrates its 36th anniversary. 1995:  March 25, 1995 – TRBC hosts a Promise Keepers rally. 1999:  October 24, 1999 – TRBC hosts a controversial summit meeting with high profile leaders of the homosexual movement. The summit called for an end to violence against homosexuals. (AIJ) 2001:  July 1, 2001 – TRBC celebrates its 45 anniversary and the 225th anniversary of America. Charlton Heston attended and spoke on the price of freedom. Tino Wallenda of the Flying Wallenda family walked a 80 ft high 400 ft long wire as he gave his testimony. (AIJ)  November 9, 2001 – Jerry Falwell files a federal lawsuit challenging Virginia’s laws that prohibit churches from incorporating. (AIJ) 2002:  February 2, 2002 – TRBC hosts the first “Day of Prophecy” Conference which also marked the opening of the Tim LaHaye School of Prophecy. (AIJ)  April, 2002 – After winning their lawsuit, TRBC becomes the first church to incorporate in Virginia since 1777. (AIJ)  November, 2002 – TRBC contracts to buy the Ericsson Complex. (AIJ) 2006:  July 2, 2006 – TRBC holds its first service in the new sanctuary on Campus North. (N&A 07-02-2006) Falwell Ministries 1959:  January, 1959 – Jerry Falwell buys a farm in Stonewall Virginia and hires Mr. and Mrs. W.D. Greene as the first directors of the Elim Home for Alcoholics. (AIJ)


1964:  December, 1964 – Elim Home for Alcoholics moves to Madison Heights. Ray and Amanda Horsley take over as directors. (AIJ) 1965:  The prison ministry Hope Aglow Ministries was founded in 1965 by Rev. Ed and Mrs. Alfreda Martin. (AIJ) 1979:  The Moral Majority was founded on June 6, 1979 (MOR1-1-1-2). It was founded by Dr. Jerry Falwell, Dr. Tim LaHaye, Dr. Bob Billings, Dr. Charles Stanley, Dr. D. James Kennedy, and Dr. Greg Dixon (Evangelical Review 1981). The Moral Majority was disbanded in 1989. 1981:  A legal arm for the Moral Majority is created in 1981 (article June 24, 1981).  June 17, 1981 - The WRVL radio station first broadcast. 1982:  The Liberty Godparent Home is founded by Dr. Jerry Falwell. (AIJ)  The Fundamentalist Journal begins publication. (AIJ) 1984:  David Horsley takes over as the director of the Elim Home after the death of his father, Ray Horsley, the former director. (AIJ) 1985:  November 5-6, 1985 - The James River flood of 1985 wipes out Treasure Island. (AIJ)  November 11, 1985 – The Save-A-Baby ministry changes its name to the Liberty Godparent Home. (N&A) 1986:  TRBC begins using Camp Hydaway in place of the flooded Treasure Island. (AIJ) 1988:  March, 1988 – The TRBC Bus Ministry began an inner city ministry by founding the Good Samaritan Center. The name changed to “The Center” in 1993. (AIJ) 1989:  The Liberty Counsel is created in Orlando Florida by Mathew and Anita Staver. (AIJ) 1995:  February, 1995 - The National Liberty Journal is begun as a newspaper. (AIJ) 1999:  Jerry Falwell joins forces with Mathew and Anita Staver of the Liberty Counsel. (AIJ)

2004:  November 9, 2004 - The Moral Majority Coalition is founded. 2007:  Fall, 2007 – The National Liberty Journal changes format from a newspaper to a magazine and is renamed the Liberty Journal. Affiliated Schools

1967:  August 28, 1967 - Lynchburg Christian Academy is founded as a ministry of Thomas Road Baptist Church with 102 students. LCA was begun with grades Kindergarten – 5th Grade. (AIJ) 1973:  Liberty Theological Seminary is founded. 1975:  Dr. A. Pierre Guillermin was named President of LBC and Lynchburg Baptist Theological Seminary. (CHLU) 1976:  In May of 1976 the Lynchburg Baptist Theological Seminary graduated its first class.  September – Liberty Home Bible Institute begins with more than 2,000 students. (CHLU) 1980:  February 2, 1980 - Liberty Bible Institute merges with the Division of Religion to form the Institute of Biblical Studies headed by Harold Wilmington. 1992:  Liberty Baptist Theological Seminary separates from the School of Religion. 2001:  The Tim LaHaye School of Prophecy is founded. (AIJ) 2002:  February 2, 2002 – TRBC hosts the first “Day of Prophecy” Conference which also marked the opening of the Tim LaHaye School of Prophecy. (AIJ) 2005:  Lynchburg Christian Academy changes its name to Liberty Christian Academy. (AIJ)  September, 2005 – LCA moves to Campus North.

APPENDIX

211


2006:  March 6, 2006 - Dr. Ergun Caner installed as President of Liberty Theological Seminary. (CHLU) 2007:  February, 2007 - Liberty Bible Institute renamed Willmington School of the Bible. (CHLU)  December 18, 2007 – Liberty Theological Seminary changes its name back to Liberty Baptist Theological Seminary. Jerry Falwell

1933:  August 11, 1933 – Jerry Falwell is born.

1952:  January 20, 1952 – Jerry Falwell is saved after attending a service at the Park Avenue Baptist Church. (AIJ) 1958:  April 12, 1958 – Jerry Falwell marries Macel Pate. (AIJ) 1962:  June 17, 1962 – Jerry Falwell Jr. is born. (AIJ) 1964:  November 7, 1964 – Jean Ann Falwell is born. (AIJ) 1966:  September 7, 1966 – Jonathan Falwell is born. (AIJ) 1968:  Jerry Falwell is given an honorary Doctor of Divinity degree from Tennessee Temple School in Chattanooga. (AIJ) 1973:  November 9, 1973 - Lucile Pate (mother to Macel Falwell) dies of intestinal cancer. (AIJ) 1976:  September 30, 1976 – Jerry Falwell attends a meeting of religious broadcasters who met with President Gerald R. Ford in the Cabinet Room of the White House. (AIJ) 1977:  April 28, 1977 – Helen V. Falwell (mother to Jerry Falwell) dies at the age 82. (AIJ) 1979:

212

APPENDIX

October 8, 1979 – Religious Heritage of America selects Dr. Jerry Falwell as America’s Clergyman of the Year. (AIJ)

1984:  August 18, 1984 – Samuel Murin Pate (Father to Macel Falwell) dies of heart failure at age 84. (AIJ) 1985:  January 21, 1985 – Dr. and Mrs. Falwell attend the second inauguration of President Reagan. (AIJ) 1987:  May 4, 1987 – Jonathan and Macel Falwell graduate from Liberty University. (AIJ) 1989:  July 26, 1989 – Jerry L. Falwell III (Trey) is born. (AIJ) 1996:  August, 1996 – Dr. Jerry Falwell meets with newly-elected Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. (AIJ)  September 9, 1996 – Jerry Falwell launches his “God Save America” campaign consisting of a 52 week prayer campaign across the nation. (AIJ) 1997:  January 7, 1997 – Jerry Falwell and Larry Flynt are interviewed on the Larry King Live show about the release of the movie The People v. Larry Flynt. (AIJ) 1998:  Jerry Falwell begins circulating a weekly email called The Falwell Confidential. (AIJ) 2000:  January 2, 2000 - The Virginia Historical Society names Jerry Falwell as Virginia’s Most Influential Clergyman of the 20th Century. (AIJ) 2007:  May 15, 2007 – Dr. Jerry Falwell dies at age 73. Outside Events

1984:  March, 1984 – Pastor B.R. Lakin dies and is buried on Liberty Mountain near the prayer chapel.  May 15, 1984 – Francis Schaeffer dies of cancer. 1987: The PTL Scandal began when secretary Jessica Hahn accused Jim Bakker of rape. That investigation revealed a large amount of corruption and embezzlement in the organization. PTL


filed for bankruptcy and was managed for a time by Jerry Falwell. Jim Bakker was sent to prison for embezzlement in 1989. Term List: CHLU – Chronological History of Liberty University (from the Office of Institutional Effectiveness). AIJ – An Incredible Journey (TRBC 50th anniversary book) N&A – News & Advance newspaper

APPENDIX

213


KEY

Scientific Name

N - NATIVE S - SLOPE PLANTING G - GENERAL CAMPUS PALETTE

B - BIOFILTER AND WETLAND

W - WOODLAND PLANTING

P - POND OR POND EDGE

Scientific Name

Common Name

N G W S B P

TREES X

N G W S B P

Magnolia virginica

Sweetbay Magnolia

Magnolia x ‘Loebneri’

Loebner Magnolia

Nyssa sylvatica

Black Gum

X

X

X

Oxydendron arborea

Sourwood

X

X

X

Pinus strobus

White Pine

X

X

X

Platanus acerifolia ‘Bloodgood’

Bloodgood London Plane

Platanus occidentalis

American Sycamore

Acer palmatum

Japanese Maple

Acer rubrum ‘Armstrong’

Armstrong Red Maple

X

X

Acer rubrum ‘October Glory’

October Glory Red Maple

X

X

X

Acer saccharum ‘Commemoration’

Commemoration Sugar Maple

X

X

X

Acer saccharum ‘Legacy’

Legacy Sugar Maple

X

X

X

Amelanchier arborea ‘Autumn Brilliance’

Autumn Brilliance Serviceberry

X

X

X

X

Betula nigra ‘Heritage’ or ‘Duraheat’

Heritage or Duraheat River Birch

X

X

X

X

Carpinus betulus

European Hornbeam

Carpinus betulus ‘Fastigiata’

Pyramidal European Hornbeam

Carpinus caroliniana

Ironwood

X

Carya ovata

Hickory

X

Cercis canadensis

Redbud

X

X

Cercis canadensis ‘Forest Pansy’

Forest Pansy Redbud

X

X

Cladrastis kentuckea

Yellowwood

X

Cryptomeria japonica

Japanese Cryptomeria

Fagus grandiflora

American Beech

Fagus sylvatica ‘Dawyck’

Dawyck Fastigiate Beech

X

Ginkgo biloba

Ginkgo

X

Ginkgo biloba ‘Princeton Sentry’

Princeton Sentry Ginkgo

X

SHRUBS

Gleditsia triacanthos

Honey Locust

X

X

Hamamelis vernalis

Vernal Witch Hazel

X

X

X

Hamamelis virginiana

Witch Hazel

X

X

X

Hamamelis x ‘Arnold’s Promise’

Arnold’s Promise Witch Hazel

Hamamelis x intermedia ‘Jelena’

Witch Hazel Copper Beauty - Jelena

Ilex opaca

American Holly

X

X

X

Juniperus virginiana

Eastern Redcedar

X

X

X

Lagerstroemia indica

Crepe Myrtle

Liquidambar styraciflua ‘Rotundiloba’

Rotundiloba Sweet Gum

X

X

X

X

Liquidambar styraciflua ‘Slender Silhouette’

Slender Silhouette Sweet Gum

X

X

X

X

Liriodendron tulipifera

Tulip Poplar

X

X

X

Magnolia ‘Galaxy’

Galaxy Magnolia

Magnolia grandiflora

Southern Magnolia

Magnolia grandiflora ‘Alta’

X

Common Name

X

X

X

X

X X

X X

X

Prunus subhirtella

Higan Cherry

X

X

Prunus subhirtella ‘Autumnalis’

Autumn Blooming Higan Cherry

X

X

Prunus x yedoensis

Yoshino Cherry

X

Quercus alba

White Oak

X

X

X

Quercus bicolor

Swamp White Oak

X

X

X

Quercus coccinea

Scarlet Oak

X

X

X

Quercus phellos

Willow Oak

X

X

X

X

Quercus rubra ‘Shumardii’

Shumard Oak

X

X

X

X

Sophora japonica

Japanese Scholar Tree

Taxodium distichum

Bald Cypress

X

X

Thuja occidentalis

Arborvitae

X

X

Thuja occidentalis ‘Emerald’

Emerald Arborvitae

X

X

Thuja plicata ‘Green Giant’

Green Giant Arborvitae

X

Tilia cordata

Littleleaf Linden

X

Ulmus americana ‘Valley Forge’

Valley Forge American Elm

Ulmus parvifolia

Chinese Elm

X

Zelkova serrata

Japanese Zelkova

X

Abelia x grandiflora ‘Rose Creek’

Rose Creek Abelia

X

Amelanchier arborea ‘Prince William’

Prince William Serviceberry

X

X

X

Aronia arbutifolia ‘Brilliantissima’

Brilliantissima Choke Cherry

X

X

X X

X

Aronia melanocarpa

Black Chokeberry

X

X

X X

X

Buxus sempervirens

American Boxwood

X

Buxus sempervirens ‘Graham Blandy’

Graham Blandy American Boxwood

X

Buxus sempervirens ‘Green Mountain’

Green Mountain American Boxwood

X

Cephalanthus occidentalis

Button Bush

X

Cornus sericea

Red Twig Dogwood

X

Forsythia x intermedia ‘Golden Nugget’

Golden Nugget Forsythia

Fothergilla gardenii

Dwarf Fothergilla

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X X X

X X

X

X X

X X

X X

X

X X X

X

X

X

X X

X

X

X

X

X

Fothergilla x Mount Airy

Mount Airy Fothergilla

X

X

X X

X

Hydrangea quercifolia

Oak Leaf Hydrangea

X

X

X

X

X

Hypericum calycinum

Aaron’s Beard

X

X

X X

Alta Southern Magnolia

X

X

Hypericum frondosum

Golden St. John’s Wort

X

X

X X

Magnolia grandiflora ‘Little Gem’

Little Gem Southern Magnolia

X

X

Hypericum ‘Hidcote’

Hidcote St. John’s Wort

X

X X

Magnolia soulangiana

Saucer Magnolia

X

Ilex glabra ‘Densa’

Densa Inkberry

X

X

X

X

X

Magnolia sprengeri

Sprengeri Magnolia

X

Ilex glabra ‘Shamrock’

Shamrock Inkberry

X

X

X

X

X

Magnolia stellata

Star Magnolia

X

Ilex verticillata ‘Jim Dandy’

Jim Dandy Winterberry Holly (Male)

X

X

X

X

214

APPENDIX


Scientific Name

Common Name

N G W S B P

Scientific Name

X

X

PERENNIALS, GROUNDCOVERS, GRASSES,

X

X

X

X

BULBS, POND PLANTS

X X

X

X

X

X X

X

X

Winter Jasmine

X

X

Juniperus conferta ‘Emerald Sea’

Emerald Sea Shore Juniper

X

X

Juniperus horizontalis

Creeping Juniper

X

X

X

Juniperus virginiana ‘Grey Owl’

Grey Owl Eastern Redcedar

X

X

X

Leucothoe axillaris

Coastal Leucothoe

X

X

X

Leucothoe fontanesiana

Drooping Leucothoe

X

X

X

Lindera benzoin

Spice Bush

X

X

X

Myrica cerifera

Wax Myrtle

X

X

Physocarpus opulifolius

Ninebark

X

X

X X

Physocarpus opulifolius ‘Summer Wine’

Summer Wine Ninebark

X

X

X

Prunus laurocerasus

Cherry Laurel

Prunus laurocerasus ‘Otto Luyken’

Otto Luyken Cherry Laurel

Rhododendron atlanticum

Coastal Azalea

X

X

Rhododendron austrinum ‘Coleman’s Early Yellow’

Coleman’s Early Yellow Florida Azalea

X

X

Rhododendron canescens

Piedmont Azalea

X

X

X

Rhododendron catawbiense

Catawba Rhododendron

X

X

X

Rhododendron catawbiense ‘Chinoides’

Chinoides Catawba Rhododendron

X

X

X

Rhododendron ‘Delaware Valley White’

Delaware Valley White Azalea

X

Rhododendron ‘Hershey’s Red’

Hershey’s Red Azalea

X

X

Rhododendron periclymenoides

Pinxterbloom Azalea

X

X

X

Rhododendron viscosum

Swamp Azalea

X

X

X

Rhododendron x ‘Frances Rogers’

Frances Rogers Azalea

X

Rhododendron x Kurume ‘Sherwood Orchid’

Sherwood Orchid Kurume Azalea

X

Rhododendron yedoense var poukhanense

Poukhanense Korean Azalea

X

X

Rhus aromatica ‘Grow Low’

Grow Low Fragrant Sumac

X

X X

Rosa Knock Out

Knockout Rose

X

Syringa meyeri

Korean Lilac

X

Taxus baccata ‘Repandens’

Prostrate Yew

X

Taxus x densiformis

Densiformis Yew

X

Vaccinium angustifolium

Lowbush Blueberry

Viburnum rhytidophyllum

Leatherleaf Viburnum

Viburnum carlesii

Koreanspice Viburnum

Viburnum dentatum

Arrowwood viburnum

X

X

X

X

X

Viburnum nudum

Possumhaw Viburnum

X

X

X

X

X

Viburnum obovatum ‘Reifler’s Dwarf’

Riefler’s Dwarf Viburnum

X

X

X

VIburnum ‘Pragense’

Prague Viburnum

Viburnum trilobum ‘Spring Green Compact’

Spring Green Compact Cranberry Bush

Viburnum utile ‘Conoy’

Conoy Viburnum

X

Weigela

Weigela

X

Ilex verticillata ‘Red Sprite’

Red Sprite Winterberry Holly

X

X

Ilex verticillata ‘Southern Gentleman’

Southern Gentleman Winterberry Holly (Male)

X

X

Ilex verticillata ‘Winter Red’

Winter Red Winterberry Holly

X

X

X

Itea virginica ‘Henry’s Garnet’

Henry’s Garnet Virginia Sweetspire

X

X

Itea virginica ‘Little Henry’

Little Henry Virginia Sweetspire

X

Jasminum nudiflorum

X

X

X X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X X

X X

X

X X

Common Name

N G W S B P

Allium sphaerocephalon ‘Drumstick’

Drumstick Allium

Amsonia hubrichtii

Threadleaf Bluestar

X

X X

X X

Amsonia tabernaemontana

Eastern Bluestar

X

X

X

Anemone canadensis

Meadow Anemone

X

Aster divaricatus

Woodland Aster

X

Aster novae angliae

New England Aster

X

X

Aster oblongifolius ‘Raydon’s Favorite’

Raydon’s Favorite Aromatic Aster

X

X

Caltha palustris

Marsh Marigold

X

Camassia lechtlinii

Large Camas Lily

X

Carex laxiculmus ‘Bunny Blue’

Bunny Blue Sedge

X

X

X

Carex pensylavanica

Pennsylvania Sedge

X

X

X

Carex stricta

Tussock Sedge

X

Carex vulpinoides

Fox Sedge

X

Dryopteris erythrosora ‘Brilliance’

Brilliance Autumn Fern

Dryopteris goldiana

Goldie’s Wood Fern

X

Echinacea purpurea

Purple Cone Flower

X

Epimedium spp.

Epimedium

X

Euphorbia amygdaloides var. robbiae

Robb’s Spurge

X

Geranium macrorrhizum

Bigroot Geranium

X

Geranium macrorrhizum ‘Ingwersen’s Variety’

Ingwersens’ Variety Bigroot Geranium

X

Helleborus orientalis

Lenten Rose

Heuchera macrorhiza ‘Autumn Bride’

Autumn Bride Alumroot

X

Iris versicolor

Blue Flag Iris

X

X

X

Juncus effusus

Soft Rush

X

X

X

Liatris spicata

Dense Blazing Star

X

Liriope muscari ‘Royal Purple’

Royal Purple Lily Turf

Lousiana Iris hybrids - blue, yellow, white

Lousiana Iris, various

X

Matteucia struthiopteris

Ostrich Fern

X

Mertensia virginica

Virginia Bluebells

X

Muhlenbergia capillaris

Pink Muhly Grass

X

Narcissus spp.

Daffodils, various

X

Nasella tenuissima

Mexican Feather Grass

X

Nymphaea odorata

Water Lily

Ophiopogon japonicus

Mondo Grass

Osmunda cinnamomea

Cinnamon Fern

X

X

X

X

Osmunda regalis

Royal Fern

X

X

X

X

Pachysandra terminalis

Japanese Spurge

X

Paeonia lactiflora ‘Red Charm’

Red Charm Peony

X

Panicum virgatum ‘Cheyenne Sky’

Cheyenne Sky Switchgrass

X

X

X

X

X

Panicum virgatum ‘Shenandoah’

Shenandoah Switchgrass

X

X

X

X

X

Peltandra virginica

Arrow Arum

X

Polystichum achrostichiodes

Christmas Fern

X

X X X X X

X

X

X

X

X X

X

X

X

X X X

X X

X

X X

X X

X

X X

X

X

X X

X

X X

X X

X

APPENDIX

215


Scientific Name

Common Name

N G W S B P

Pontederia cordata

Pickerel weed

X

Rudbeckia fulgida

Black-eyed Susan

X

X

Sagittaria latifolia

Broadleaf Arrowhead

X

Sarcococca Hookeriana

Himalayan Sweetbox

Sedum ‘Autumn Joy’

Autumn Joy Sedum

Solidago rugosa ‘Fireworks’

Fireworks Goldenrod

X

X

Solidago sphacelata ‘Golden Fleece’

Golden Fleece Goldenrod

X

X

Sporobolus heterolepis

Prairie Dropseed

X

X

Saururus cernuus

Lizard’s Tail Plant

X

Tulipa darwin

Tulips

Waldstenia fragaroides

Barren Strawberry

X

X

Campsis radicans

Trumpet Vine

X

X

Gelsemimum sepervirens

Carolina Jessamine

X

X

Lonicera sempervirens

Coral Honeysuckle

X

X

Parthenocissus quinquefolia

Virginia Creeper

X

X

Parthenocissus tricuspidata

Boston Ivy

X

X X X

APPENDIX

X

X X

VINES

216

X

X


Profile for VMDO Architects

Liberty University Campus Master Plan  

Liberty University Campus Master Plan