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Ivan Kupčík

Portolánový atlas jaume olivese (1563) ve vědecké knihovně v olomouci

© Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci, 2010 © Vědecká knihovna v Olomouci, 2010 ISBN 978–80–244–2580–1 (Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci) ISBN 978–80–7053–278–2 (Vědecká knihovna v Olomouci)


Ivan Kupčík

Portolánový atlas jaume olivese (1563) ve vědecké knihovně v olomouci

© Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci, 2010 © Vědecká knihovna v Olomouci, 2010 ISBN 978–80–244–2580–1 (Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci) ISBN 978–80–7053–278–2 (Vědecká knihovna v Olomouci)


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OBSAH CONTENTS OBSAH CONTENTS

 Česky  italiano  English  espaÑol

Původ, terminologie, používání a význam portolánových map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 The origin, terminology, use, and significance of portolan charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 57 83 Kartografická rodina Olivesů (Olivů) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 The cartographic family of the Oliveses (Olivas) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 59 85 Jaume Olives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Jaume Olives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 60 86 Olomoucký atlas a jeho původ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 The Olomouc atlas and its origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 61 87 Místní názvy, ikonografie, vexilologie a heraldika, orografie, hydrografie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Place names, iconography, vexillogy and heraldry, orography, hydrography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 62 88 Rozbor jednotlivých atlasových listů . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Description of the particular atlas pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 64 90 Závěr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 74 100 Dochované atlasy a mapy Jaume Olivese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Atlases and charts by Jaume Olives which have been preserved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 76 102 Doslov . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Afterword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 78 104 Poznámky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 80 106 Apendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 81 107 Toponyma / Toponyms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Dynastie Olivesů (Olivů) / Members of the Olives (Oliva). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Literatura / Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Obrazové přílohy / Pictorial supplements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

PŮVOD, TERMINOLOGIE, POUŽÍVÁNÍ A VÝZNAM PORTOLÁNOVÝCH MAP

PŮVOD, TERMINOLOGIE, POUŽÍVÁNÍ A VÝZNAM PORTOLÁNOVÝCH MAP

Na přelomu 13. a 14. století, kdy byl mapový obraz tehdy známého světa ještě závislý na představách církevních kartografů, nás překvapí nový typ map, který v porovnání s ostatní pevninou znázorňuje přesněji a  podrobněji mořská pobřeží. Objevoval se většinou ve Středozemí a jeho přičinliví autoři se v něm omezovali ponejvíce na zákres známého světa, vždy s  důrazem na  mediteránní oblast. Tyto mapy byly na tu dobu nezvykle přesné, třebaže se objevily náhle, bez zřejmé vývojové řady a bez patrných předchůdců. Pocházejí nejspíše přímo z  oblasti Středozemního moře, kde se jejich výroba soustřeďovala jednak do  italských měst (Janov, Savona, Benátky, později Ancona, Livorno, Neapol, Mesina), jednak z Katalánie (Barcelona, Mallorca), vyloučen však není ani jejich pontický původ z krajin kolem Černého moře. Jedná se o  tzv. portolánové, dříve rovněž označované jako kompasové mapy. Jejich používání je po prvé zmíněno v popisu expedice z jihofrancouzského přístavu Sainte Louis do Tunisu v r. 1269. Používání portolánových map na moři je dokumentováno řadou textů (Guillaume de Nangis, ca 1300, Ramon Llull alias Raimundus Lullus, ca 1305) a od 15. století rukopisnými poznámkami přímo v mapách. Přesto není snadné jednoznačně definovat tehdejší používání mapy. Označení „portolánová“ mapa se vyvinulo z  pozdně latinského termínu portulano popř. z  italského názvu portolano, který platil pro rukopisy s nautickými pokyny. Charles du Fresne du Cange (1610– 1689) se r. 1678 zmiňuje o termínu portolani annotati, který se r. 1285 týkal textových instrukcí o  navigaci. Ty byly předkládány v  knižní podobě a obsahovaly údaje o vzdálenostech a směrech mezi jednotlivými přístavy a  potřebné detaily o  přístavištích. Od  17. století se termín „portulant“ týkal, alespoň ve  francouzské jazykové oblasti, „knih pobřežních map“ (Claude-François-Milliet de Chales, 1621– 1678) anebo „přesného popisu pobřeží, přístavů, rejd a  kotvišť“ jak písmem tak pomocí map (Jean- Mathieu de Chazelles, 1657–1710). Tyto pojmy byly r. 1762 oficiálně uznány pařížskou Akademií a byly převzaty i pro popisy a znázornění dalších moří (průliv La Manche, Baltské moře). V 18. století termín ve velkých encyklopediích nadále chybí, objevuje se ale ve  2. polovině 19. století v  evropských slovnících. Učenci řady zemí poté rozšířili v  19. století termín „portolán“ na  všechny staré námořní mapy tak, že na  počátku 20. století je všeobecně používán. Přibližně od  roku 1960 používají odborníci

termín „portolán“ opět jen pro textové instrukce k nautice a pro starší námořní mapy s typickou sítí kompasových linií upřednostňují termín „portolánové“ mapy. Používání těchto námořních map předpokládalo znalost principu kompasu, třebaže magnetickou střelku ještě kolem r. 1436 nahrazoval přírodní magnet. Středověká latinská literatura se o kompasu zmiňuje od počátku 13. století a do Středomoří jej zavedli pravděpodobně již dříve Vikingové prostřednictvím Normanů. S  tímto kompasem, s pomocí směrové růžice či jednoduchého průsečíku o 16 paprscích rozbíhajících se zpravidla od  středu mapy (popřípadě s  pomocí dalších 16 růžic respektive průsečíků z obvodu mapy o dvojnásobném počtu paprsků) mohli se plavci s přispěním mapy nejen zorientovat a určovat směr plavby, ale i přesněji zakreslovat již poznané nebo nové ostrovy a výběžky pevnin. Jen tak lze vysvětlit, že obraz Středozemního moře má poprvé přijatelný tvar i rozměry. Portolánové mapy byly kresleny většinou na  pergamen a  jejich posláním bylo s  pomocí v  mapě zakreslených kompasových růžic a  kompasových linií, s  pomocí kompasu, přesýpacích hodin a  speciálních tabulek, tzv. „toleta de marteloio“, doložených k  r. 1436, pravděpodobně ale mnohem starších, provádět navigaci při plavbě napříč otevřeným mořem (pillegio), na rozdíl od dlouho převládající příbřežní plavby (steria). Popis v mapovém poli byl u portolánových map v  románských jazycích, převážně z  posledního stádia vývoje portolánových map se dochovaly i  řecké, osmanské a  nizozemské exempláře. Středověké portolánové mapy byly určeny pro navigaci a  plavbu v  koridoru obvyklých tras podél pobřeží Středozemního moře a evropského pobřeží Atlantského oceánu. Plavba probíhala zpravidla za dne při vizuálním kontaktu s pevninou a byla přerušována nejpozději po dvou až třech dnech. Plavci přitom využívali lokálních větrů a mořských proudů. Význam portolánových map a atlasů neupadl ale v oblasti Středozemního moře ani v 16. a 17. století v zapomenutí, změnilo se ale poslání mapových produktů. Dle posledních, dosud neuveřejněných výzkumů, se kolem r. 1440 podstatně změnil obsah portolánových map (1). Skončilo období, kdy na portolánových mapách byly znázorňovány encyklopedické znalosti a převahu nacházelo umění,

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4

OBSAH CONTENTS OBSAH CONTENTS

 Česky  italiano  English  espaÑol

Původ, terminologie, používání a význam portolánových map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 The origin, terminology, use, and significance of portolan charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 57 83 Kartografická rodina Olivesů (Olivů) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 The cartographic family of the Oliveses (Olivas) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 59 85 Jaume Olives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Jaume Olives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 60 86 Olomoucký atlas a jeho původ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 The Olomouc atlas and its origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 61 87 Místní názvy, ikonografie, vexilologie a heraldika, orografie, hydrografie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Place names, iconography, vexillogy and heraldry, orography, hydrography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 62 88 Rozbor jednotlivých atlasových listů . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Description of the particular atlas pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 64 90 Závěr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 74 100 Dochované atlasy a mapy Jaume Olivese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Atlases and charts by Jaume Olives which have been preserved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 76 102 Doslov . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Afterword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 78 104 Poznámky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 80 106 Apendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 81 107 Toponyma / Toponyms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Dynastie Olivesů (Olivů) / Members of the Olives (Oliva). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Literatura / Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Obrazové přílohy / Pictorial supplements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

PŮVOD, TERMINOLOGIE, POUŽÍVÁNÍ A VÝZNAM PORTOLÁNOVÝCH MAP

PŮVOD, TERMINOLOGIE, POUŽÍVÁNÍ A VÝZNAM PORTOLÁNOVÝCH MAP

Na přelomu 13. a 14. století, kdy byl mapový obraz tehdy známého světa ještě závislý na představách církevních kartografů, nás překvapí nový typ map, který v porovnání s ostatní pevninou znázorňuje přesněji a  podrobněji mořská pobřeží. Objevoval se většinou ve Středozemí a jeho přičinliví autoři se v něm omezovali ponejvíce na zákres známého světa, vždy s  důrazem na  mediteránní oblast. Tyto mapy byly na tu dobu nezvykle přesné, třebaže se objevily náhle, bez zřejmé vývojové řady a bez patrných předchůdců. Pocházejí nejspíše přímo z  oblasti Středozemního moře, kde se jejich výroba soustřeďovala jednak do  italských měst (Janov, Savona, Benátky, později Ancona, Livorno, Neapol, Mesina), jednak z Katalánie (Barcelona, Mallorca), vyloučen však není ani jejich pontický původ z krajin kolem Černého moře. Jedná se o  tzv. portolánové, dříve rovněž označované jako kompasové mapy. Jejich používání je po prvé zmíněno v popisu expedice z jihofrancouzského přístavu Sainte Louis do Tunisu v r. 1269. Používání portolánových map na moři je dokumentováno řadou textů (Guillaume de Nangis, ca 1300, Ramon Llull alias Raimundus Lullus, ca 1305) a od 15. století rukopisnými poznámkami přímo v mapách. Přesto není snadné jednoznačně definovat tehdejší používání mapy. Označení „portolánová“ mapa se vyvinulo z  pozdně latinského termínu portulano popř. z  italského názvu portolano, který platil pro rukopisy s nautickými pokyny. Charles du Fresne du Cange (1610– 1689) se r. 1678 zmiňuje o termínu portolani annotati, který se r. 1285 týkal textových instrukcí o  navigaci. Ty byly předkládány v  knižní podobě a obsahovaly údaje o vzdálenostech a směrech mezi jednotlivými přístavy a  potřebné detaily o  přístavištích. Od  17. století se termín „portulant“ týkal, alespoň ve  francouzské jazykové oblasti, „knih pobřežních map“ (Claude-François-Milliet de Chales, 1621– 1678) anebo „přesného popisu pobřeží, přístavů, rejd a  kotvišť“ jak písmem tak pomocí map (Jean- Mathieu de Chazelles, 1657–1710). Tyto pojmy byly r. 1762 oficiálně uznány pařížskou Akademií a byly převzaty i pro popisy a znázornění dalších moří (průliv La Manche, Baltské moře). V 18. století termín ve velkých encyklopediích nadále chybí, objevuje se ale ve  2. polovině 19. století v  evropských slovnících. Učenci řady zemí poté rozšířili v  19. století termín „portolán“ na  všechny staré námořní mapy tak, že na  počátku 20. století je všeobecně používán. Přibližně od  roku 1960 používají odborníci

termín „portolán“ opět jen pro textové instrukce k nautice a pro starší námořní mapy s typickou sítí kompasových linií upřednostňují termín „portolánové“ mapy. Používání těchto námořních map předpokládalo znalost principu kompasu, třebaže magnetickou střelku ještě kolem r. 1436 nahrazoval přírodní magnet. Středověká latinská literatura se o kompasu zmiňuje od počátku 13. století a do Středomoří jej zavedli pravděpodobně již dříve Vikingové prostřednictvím Normanů. S  tímto kompasem, s pomocí směrové růžice či jednoduchého průsečíku o 16 paprscích rozbíhajících se zpravidla od  středu mapy (popřípadě s  pomocí dalších 16 růžic respektive průsečíků z obvodu mapy o dvojnásobném počtu paprsků) mohli se plavci s přispěním mapy nejen zorientovat a určovat směr plavby, ale i přesněji zakreslovat již poznané nebo nové ostrovy a výběžky pevnin. Jen tak lze vysvětlit, že obraz Středozemního moře má poprvé přijatelný tvar i rozměry. Portolánové mapy byly kresleny většinou na  pergamen a  jejich posláním bylo s  pomocí v  mapě zakreslených kompasových růžic a  kompasových linií, s  pomocí kompasu, přesýpacích hodin a  speciálních tabulek, tzv. „toleta de marteloio“, doložených k  r. 1436, pravděpodobně ale mnohem starších, provádět navigaci při plavbě napříč otevřeným mořem (pillegio), na rozdíl od dlouho převládající příbřežní plavby (steria). Popis v mapovém poli byl u portolánových map v  románských jazycích, převážně z  posledního stádia vývoje portolánových map se dochovaly i  řecké, osmanské a  nizozemské exempláře. Středověké portolánové mapy byly určeny pro navigaci a  plavbu v  koridoru obvyklých tras podél pobřeží Středozemního moře a evropského pobřeží Atlantského oceánu. Plavba probíhala zpravidla za dne při vizuálním kontaktu s pevninou a byla přerušována nejpozději po dvou až třech dnech. Plavci přitom využívali lokálních větrů a mořských proudů. Význam portolánových map a atlasů neupadl ale v oblasti Středozemního moře ani v 16. a 17. století v zapomenutí, změnilo se ale poslání mapových produktů. Dle posledních, dosud neuveřejněných výzkumů, se kolem r. 1440 podstatně změnil obsah portolánových map (1). Skončilo období, kdy na portolánových mapách byly znázorňovány encyklopedické znalosti a převahu nacházelo umění,

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Ivan Kupčík

Nautical Atlas by Jaume Olives (1563) at the Olomouc Research Library

The Origin, Terminology, Use, and significance of Portolan Charts

The Origin, Terminology, Use, and significance of Portolan Charts

It is quite surprising that at the turn of the 13th and 14th centuries, when the picture of the world known at the time as shown on the charts of that period was dependent on the opinions of church officials, a new type of chart emerged, a type that describes coasts in more detail than inland regions. These maps were to be found mostly in the Mediterranean with their industrious makers confining themselves to drawing the known world with a  persistent emphasis on the Mediterranean regions. Unusually accurate for the times, these charts appeared out of the blue without any apparent evolution and any apparent predecessors. In all probability, they originated from the Mediterranean proper with their production concentrated in Italian cities, such as Genoa, Savona, Venice, and at a later point in Ancona, Livorno, Naples, and Messina, as well as in Catalonia (Barcelona and Mallorca). A Pontian origin in the regions along the Black Sea, however, is also possible. These maps are known as portolan charts, earlier also as compass charts, and the first reference to their use appears in an account of an expedition from the port of Sainte Louis in southern France to Tunisia in 1269. The use of portolan charts at sea is documented by a range of texts, including Guillaume de Nangis, about 1300, and Ramon Llull alias Raimundus Lullus, about 1305, and by handwritten notes, which began to appear in portolan charts in the 15th century. Despite this fact it is not an easy task to clearly define how these charts were used. The term portolan chart evolved from the late Latin term portulano, or perhaps from the Italian name portolano, which applied to manuscripts with nautical instructions. In 1678 Charles du Fresne du Cange (1610–1689) makes a reference to the term portolani annotati, which in 1285 meant textual instructions on navigation. These took the form of a book containing distances and directions between ports and the necessary details about harbours. From the 17th century the term portulant, at least as far as French-speaking countries were concerned, applied to ‘books of coastal maps’ (Claude-François Milliet de Chales, 1621–1678) or ‘detailed descriptions of coasts, harbours, roadsteads, and anchorage places’ in the form of texts or charts (Jean-Mathieu de Chazelles, 1657–1710). These terms were officially recognised by the Paris Academy in 1762 and adopted for descriptions and representations of other seas, such the English Channel or the Baltic Sea. The term had not yet been included in the voluminous encyclopaedias of the 18th century, but does appear in European dictionaries in the second half of the 19th century. In that century scholars in many countries extended

the term portolan to all old nautical maps and charts. By the early 20th century, the term was in general use. Since about 1960, scholars have been using the term portolan to specifically refer to textual nautical instructions, while reserving the term portolan charts for older nautical charts with the typical net of compass lines. The use of these nautical charts presupposed a knowledge of the compass principle, although the natural magnet rather than the magnetic needle was still in use at around 1436. References to compasses began to appear in medieval Latin literature in the early 13th century, and it is quite likely that the compass had been introduced to the Mediterranean by Vikings via Normans. Using the compass and with the help of a direction rose or a simple intersection of 16 lines usually radiating from the centre of the chart (or with the help of another 16 roses, or intersections, situated along the edges of the chart and having twice as many lines) seamen were not only able to orientate with the chart and pilot the ship, but also plot the known or newly discovered islands and headlands with better detail. Only this can explain the fact that these charts are the first to give a  picture of the Mediterranean Sea with appropriate shape and dimensions. Portolan charts were usually drawn on parchment. With the aid of compass roses drawn in the charts, compass lines, a compass, an hourglass, and special tables known as toleta de marteloio, recorded to have been around as of 1436 but likely to be of earlier origin, the purpose of these charts was to facilitate navigation through the open sea (pillegio) in contrast to the long-prevailing method of sailing along the coast (steria). The inscriptions in portolan charts were in Romance languages; some Greek, Ottoman and Dutch examples have survived, which date back prevailingly to the last phase of portolan chart development. Medieval portolan charts were meant for navigation and sailing on the usual routes along the Mediterranean coast and the European coast of the Atlantic Ocean. Taking advantage of local winds and sea currents, seamen usually sailed by day within visible distance of the coast, breaking up the voyage no later than after two or three days. The significance of portolan charts and atlases continued to be appreciated in the Mediterranean throughout the 16th and 17th centuries. What did change, however, was the purpose of maps. According to the latest, as yet unpublished research, the content of portolan charts had seen major changes by around 1440 (1). The period of portolan


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Ivan Kupčík

Nautical Atlas by Jaume Olives (1563) at the Olomouc Research Library

The Origin, Terminology, Use, and significance of Portolan Charts

The Origin, Terminology, Use, and significance of Portolan Charts

It is quite surprising that at the turn of the 13th and 14th centuries, when the picture of the world known at the time as shown on the charts of that period was dependent on the opinions of church officials, a new type of chart emerged, a type that describes coasts in more detail than inland regions. These maps were to be found mostly in the Mediterranean with their industrious makers confining themselves to drawing the known world with a  persistent emphasis on the Mediterranean regions. Unusually accurate for the times, these charts appeared out of the blue without any apparent evolution and any apparent predecessors. In all probability, they originated from the Mediterranean proper with their production concentrated in Italian cities, such as Genoa, Savona, Venice, and at a later point in Ancona, Livorno, Naples, and Messina, as well as in Catalonia (Barcelona and Mallorca). A Pontian origin in the regions along the Black Sea, however, is also possible. These maps are known as portolan charts, earlier also as compass charts, and the first reference to their use appears in an account of an expedition from the port of Sainte Louis in southern France to Tunisia in 1269. The use of portolan charts at sea is documented by a range of texts, including Guillaume de Nangis, about 1300, and Ramon Llull alias Raimundus Lullus, about 1305, and by handwritten notes, which began to appear in portolan charts in the 15th century. Despite this fact it is not an easy task to clearly define how these charts were used. The term portolan chart evolved from the late Latin term portulano, or perhaps from the Italian name portolano, which applied to manuscripts with nautical instructions. In 1678 Charles du Fresne du Cange (1610–1689) makes a reference to the term portolani annotati, which in 1285 meant textual instructions on navigation. These took the form of a book containing distances and directions between ports and the necessary details about harbours. From the 17th century the term portulant, at least as far as French-speaking countries were concerned, applied to ‘books of coastal maps’ (Claude-François Milliet de Chales, 1621–1678) or ‘detailed descriptions of coasts, harbours, roadsteads, and anchorage places’ in the form of texts or charts (Jean-Mathieu de Chazelles, 1657–1710). These terms were officially recognised by the Paris Academy in 1762 and adopted for descriptions and representations of other seas, such the English Channel or the Baltic Sea. The term had not yet been included in the voluminous encyclopaedias of the 18th century, but does appear in European dictionaries in the second half of the 19th century. In that century scholars in many countries extended

the term portolan to all old nautical maps and charts. By the early 20th century, the term was in general use. Since about 1960, scholars have been using the term portolan to specifically refer to textual nautical instructions, while reserving the term portolan charts for older nautical charts with the typical net of compass lines. The use of these nautical charts presupposed a knowledge of the compass principle, although the natural magnet rather than the magnetic needle was still in use at around 1436. References to compasses began to appear in medieval Latin literature in the early 13th century, and it is quite likely that the compass had been introduced to the Mediterranean by Vikings via Normans. Using the compass and with the help of a direction rose or a simple intersection of 16 lines usually radiating from the centre of the chart (or with the help of another 16 roses, or intersections, situated along the edges of the chart and having twice as many lines) seamen were not only able to orientate with the chart and pilot the ship, but also plot the known or newly discovered islands and headlands with better detail. Only this can explain the fact that these charts are the first to give a  picture of the Mediterranean Sea with appropriate shape and dimensions. Portolan charts were usually drawn on parchment. With the aid of compass roses drawn in the charts, compass lines, a compass, an hourglass, and special tables known as toleta de marteloio, recorded to have been around as of 1436 but likely to be of earlier origin, the purpose of these charts was to facilitate navigation through the open sea (pillegio) in contrast to the long-prevailing method of sailing along the coast (steria). The inscriptions in portolan charts were in Romance languages; some Greek, Ottoman and Dutch examples have survived, which date back prevailingly to the last phase of portolan chart development. Medieval portolan charts were meant for navigation and sailing on the usual routes along the Mediterranean coast and the European coast of the Atlantic Ocean. Taking advantage of local winds and sea currents, seamen usually sailed by day within visible distance of the coast, breaking up the voyage no later than after two or three days. The significance of portolan charts and atlases continued to be appreciated in the Mediterranean throughout the 16th and 17th centuries. What did change, however, was the purpose of maps. According to the latest, as yet unpublished research, the content of portolan charts had seen major changes by around 1440 (1). The period of portolan


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Jaume Olives

is supported by the note figlio di master Jaume Olives in the portolan chart preserved in two copies after his son Domingo Olives (7).

Bartolomeo Olives was in all likelihood the founder of the cartographic family of cartographers and twelve charts and five atlases of his have been preserved in libraries and archives (3). The chrono­logical survey of the members of the Olives family involved in the chartmaking business shows that Jaume Olives, Bartolomeo’s brother and the author of the Olomouc atlas, was the next one in the line of the Olives chart-makers. Born in Mallorca, Jaume worked, according to Rosselló (4), in Palma, in an old harbour neighbourhood called Santa Maria de la Clastra situated east of the cathedral of La Seo, where it appears he learnt the craft of designing and drawing portolan charts. According to Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld (1832–1901), a Swedish polar explorer and one of the best experts in the history of maps and charts, Jaume became a practical sailor in later years and used his skill at making portolan charts as a second income when staying on shore in the ports of the Mediterranean Sea (5). The Italian scholar Guiseppe Caraci ���������������������������������������������������������� (1893–1971)����������������������������������������������� , however, expressed his disagreement with Nordenskiöld’s opinion 33 years later (6). The good reputation of Jaume

His profession first brought Jaume to Marseille, from where a chart dated 1550 has been preserved. He consequently found customers in Messina, and his stay there is documented by six charts dated, respect­ively, 1552, 1553, 1559 (two charts), 1561, and after 1600. After a decade in Sicily, he continued his profession in Naples, from where three charts and three atlases (including the Olomouc atlas) dated 1563 and 1564 have been preserved, with two of the atlases comprising six and one four sheets. Jaume was then active in his chartmaker’s profession in Marseille once again, where he drew another chart in 1566. His last cartographic trace is in Barcelona consisting of an atlas with his autograph dated 1572 (8). One atlas by Jaume Oliva preserved until today, of an unknown number of sheets, made in Mallorca, is without any date, but undoubtedly dates back to the 16th century. The curator of the manuscript collection at the University Library of Princeton, Don Skemer, absolutely refuses that Jaume could be its author (9). The Latin exlibris of Vilém de Brand of Dusseldorf. A printed quotation in the upper part of the exlibris – Spes Deo Confisa Nunquam Confusa – and a handwritten quotation in the bottom part – Scire et sapere, viaticum est optimum – translate to ‘Sense and knowledge are the best guides through life’ and ‘With the love of God you shall not stray from the right path’.

The Olomouc Atlas and Its Origin The Olomouc Atlas and Its Origin The Olomouc Research Library is as yet the only locale to study the original portolan charts of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea in the Czech Republic (10). The Manuscript Department contains an atlas of portolan charts (comprised of six sheets) by Jaume Oliva made in Naples in 1563 and two portolan charts by Joan (Johann) Oliva made in Livorno in 1624 (11). The nautical atlas by Jaume Oliva in the Olomouc collections had been unknown in literature and to the professional public until the 1930s. Bernhard Brandt (1881–1938), professor of the Institute of Geography, Faculty of Sciences of the German university in Prague, teaching the history of cartography at Ovocný trh, along with other subjects, published black-and-white reproductions of the atlas pages under the title Der Olmützer See-Atlas des Jaume Olives aus Mallroca 1563 in 1931 and added a commentary included in volume 2 of Kartographishe Denkmaler der Sudetenlander (1930–1936). Printed by Státní tiskárna (State Printers), this work was published in parts by the K. André commission publishing house with the patronage of the Ministry of Education and Folk Culture in Prague and the German Society of Arts and Sciences for the Czechoslovak Republic. This part was dedicated to the German geographer Hermann Wagner (1840–1929) of Göttingen University, one of the first scientific cartographers and a world renowned authority on the history of cartography. The original atlas in a closed form of portrait size 30.8 × 23.5 cm bears the title Mappae Geographicae Halamo descriptae and is identified by mark M II 33. On the fly leaf is the Latin exlibris of the former owner of the atlas, reading Guilielmus De Brand Dusseldorpio, Montanus Sac. Caes. et Reg. Maj. medicus aulicus et Regni Hungariae eques, that is of Vilém de Brand of Dusseldorf, court doctor to the Holy Emperor and King and knight of the Hungarian Kingdom (12). The inscription Conventus Lucensis on the next page indicates that the atlas was once deposited in the library of the Louka Premonstra­ tensian monastery on the southern outskirts of Znojmo; the Louka monastery was founded by Mary Princess of Wittlesbach in 1190 and closed by Emperor Joseph II in 1784. The major portion of the books at Louka library, comprising more than ten thousand volumes, was then moved to various places, among others the library in the

Portolan atlas - front cover decorated with blind finishing.

Premonstratensian monastery situated in the nearby town of Geras, Lower Austria, or the library of the Premonstratesian monastery in Prague-Strahov. Nearly twenty of the Louka books are inventoried in the library of the Strahov Premonstratensian monastery in Prague. The copy of the Olomouc atlas is comprised of seven pages of parchment. There is a wind rose in the centre of the title page, the author’s autograph and an indication of the place and date the atlas was made Jaume oliues mallorchī en napols aˉny 1563 is at the top, and the name of the supposed Greek co-author of Corfu (S d’ cōn tastin de nicolo de curffo) is at the bottom. The other pages contain the following charts: 1. Eastern Mediterranean from western Greece to the Levantine coast with the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. 2. Central Mediterranean from western Greece to, and including, the Balearic Islands. 3.  Western Mediterranean from Mallorca through Gibraltar to the Atlantic coast from the White Cape in Africa to Skagerrak in Europe, including the British Isles and the headlands of Iceland in the north and those of Labrador in the west. 4. Atlantic coast from the Cape of Finisterre to the Green Cape in Africa, with the Canary Islands and the Cape Verde Islands. 5. North Atlantic Ocean with islands including the headlands of the coast of North America. 6. Eastern Mediterranean from Corfu to Cyprus including the coast of southern Turkey, Levant, and North Africa, without the Black Sea. There are six blank pages glued between the hardcover and the parchment pages containing the atlas charts both at the front and at the back of the atlas. The paper has a  watermark featuring two crossed arrows and a hexagram at the intersection.


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is supported by the note figlio di master Jaume Olives in the portolan chart preserved in two copies after his son Domingo Olives (7).

Bartolomeo Olives was in all likelihood the founder of the cartographic family of cartographers and twelve charts and five atlases of his have been preserved in libraries and archives (3). The chrono­logical survey of the members of the Olives family involved in the chartmaking business shows that Jaume Olives, Bartolomeo’s brother and the author of the Olomouc atlas, was the next one in the line of the Olives chart-makers. Born in Mallorca, Jaume worked, according to Rosselló (4), in Palma, in an old harbour neighbourhood called Santa Maria de la Clastra situated east of the cathedral of La Seo, where it appears he learnt the craft of designing and drawing portolan charts. According to Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld (1832–1901), a Swedish polar explorer and one of the best experts in the history of maps and charts, Jaume became a practical sailor in later years and used his skill at making portolan charts as a second income when staying on shore in the ports of the Mediterranean Sea (5). The Italian scholar Guiseppe Caraci ���������������������������������������������������������� (1893–1971)����������������������������������������������� , however, expressed his disagreement with Nordenskiöld’s opinion 33 years later (6). The good reputation of Jaume

His profession first brought Jaume to Marseille, from where a chart dated 1550 has been preserved. He consequently found customers in Messina, and his stay there is documented by six charts dated, respect­ively, 1552, 1553, 1559 (two charts), 1561, and after 1600. After a decade in Sicily, he continued his profession in Naples, from where three charts and three atlases (including the Olomouc atlas) dated 1563 and 1564 have been preserved, with two of the atlases comprising six and one four sheets. Jaume was then active in his chartmaker’s profession in Marseille once again, where he drew another chart in 1566. His last cartographic trace is in Barcelona consisting of an atlas with his autograph dated 1572 (8). One atlas by Jaume Oliva preserved until today, of an unknown number of sheets, made in Mallorca, is without any date, but undoubtedly dates back to the 16th century. The curator of the manuscript collection at the University Library of Princeton, Don Skemer, absolutely refuses that Jaume could be its author (9). The Latin exlibris of Vilém de Brand of Dusseldorf. A printed quotation in the upper part of the exlibris – Spes Deo Confisa Nunquam Confusa – and a handwritten quotation in the bottom part – Scire et sapere, viaticum est optimum – translate to ‘Sense and knowledge are the best guides through life’ and ‘With the love of God you shall not stray from the right path’.

The Olomouc Atlas and Its Origin The Olomouc Atlas and Its Origin The Olomouc Research Library is as yet the only locale to study the original portolan charts of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea in the Czech Republic (10). The Manuscript Department contains an atlas of portolan charts (comprised of six sheets) by Jaume Oliva made in Naples in 1563 and two portolan charts by Joan (Johann) Oliva made in Livorno in 1624 (11). The nautical atlas by Jaume Oliva in the Olomouc collections had been unknown in literature and to the professional public until the 1930s. Bernhard Brandt (1881–1938), professor of the Institute of Geography, Faculty of Sciences of the German university in Prague, teaching the history of cartography at Ovocný trh, along with other subjects, published black-and-white reproductions of the atlas pages under the title Der Olmützer See-Atlas des Jaume Olives aus Mallroca 1563 in 1931 and added a commentary included in volume 2 of Kartographishe Denkmaler der Sudetenlander (1930–1936). Printed by Státní tiskárna (State Printers), this work was published in parts by the K. André commission publishing house with the patronage of the Ministry of Education and Folk Culture in Prague and the German Society of Arts and Sciences for the Czechoslovak Republic. This part was dedicated to the German geographer Hermann Wagner (1840–1929) of Göttingen University, one of the first scientific cartographers and a world renowned authority on the history of cartography. The original atlas in a closed form of portrait size 30.8 × 23.5 cm bears the title Mappae Geographicae Halamo descriptae and is identified by mark M II 33. On the fly leaf is the Latin exlibris of the former owner of the atlas, reading Guilielmus De Brand Dusseldorpio, Montanus Sac. Caes. et Reg. Maj. medicus aulicus et Regni Hungariae eques, that is of Vilém de Brand of Dusseldorf, court doctor to the Holy Emperor and King and knight of the Hungarian Kingdom (12). The inscription Conventus Lucensis on the next page indicates that the atlas was once deposited in the library of the Louka Premonstra­ tensian monastery on the southern outskirts of Znojmo; the Louka monastery was founded by Mary Princess of Wittlesbach in 1190 and closed by Emperor Joseph II in 1784. The major portion of the books at Louka library, comprising more than ten thousand volumes, was then moved to various places, among others the library in the

Portolan atlas - front cover decorated with blind finishing.

Premonstratensian monastery situated in the nearby town of Geras, Lower Austria, or the library of the Premonstratesian monastery in Prague-Strahov. Nearly twenty of the Louka books are inventoried in the library of the Strahov Premonstratensian monastery in Prague. The copy of the Olomouc atlas is comprised of seven pages of parchment. There is a wind rose in the centre of the title page, the author’s autograph and an indication of the place and date the atlas was made Jaume oliues mallorchī en napols aˉny 1563 is at the top, and the name of the supposed Greek co-author of Corfu (S d’ cōn tastin de nicolo de curffo) is at the bottom. The other pages contain the following charts: 1. Eastern Mediterranean from western Greece to the Levantine coast with the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. 2. Central Mediterranean from western Greece to, and including, the Balearic Islands. 3.  Western Mediterranean from Mallorca through Gibraltar to the Atlantic coast from the White Cape in Africa to Skagerrak in Europe, including the British Isles and the headlands of Iceland in the north and those of Labrador in the west. 4. Atlantic coast from the Cape of Finisterre to the Green Cape in Africa, with the Canary Islands and the Cape Verde Islands. 5. North Atlantic Ocean with islands including the headlands of the coast of North America. 6. Eastern Mediterranean from Corfu to Cyprus including the coast of southern Turkey, Levant, and North Africa, without the Black Sea. There are six blank pages glued between the hardcover and the parchment pages containing the atlas charts both at the front and at the back of the atlas. The paper has a  watermark featuring two crossed arrows and a hexagram at the intersection.


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41 Double page three (chart two) contains the central Mediterranean from the west coast of Greece with the Adriatic Sea, the Ionian Sea, the Tyrrhenian Sea, and the Ligurian Sea including the western Balearic Islands. The North African coast is represented from Mostagano (mastigani) in what is now Algeria in the west to the city of Ptolemais (tolometa) in the east. Minor islands are represented in colour; the coasts of Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily are only suggested by colour lines, in a similar fashion as the European continent, and identified by circular heraldic discs. The coastal line of eastern Italy is interrupted in several spots, the miniature crosses in front of the west coast of Sardinia stand for dangerous reefs and rocks. The mean scale of the chart is approximately 1 : 6 500 000. This chart, also, shows the Apennine peninsula deviating from the north-south axis to a larger extent in the east-west direction. There are a range of islands, geographically described, from Kvarner in the north to Zakynthos in the south along the Dalmatian coast. The chart is one of the most complex representations of the Adriatic coast in the mid 16th century. The Italian stretch of the Adriatic is described by names as far as the port of Otranto (otrando). Major ports, such as Genoa or Venice, as well as inland cities, such as those along the Danube, began to be represented in portolan charts at approximately the same period as compass roses, i.e. in the second half of the 14th century (18), and can be recognised thanks to architectural miniatures. Chart three features a miniature of Venice drawn as islands and having the ‘campanila’, but lacking the ‘lidi’, i.e. the frontal island barrier already represented in the maritime charts by Pinelli-Walkenaer (about 1384, British Library, London) or those by Albertinus de Virga (1409, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris). In

contrast, the miniature of Genoa has a harbour pool and a beacon, with this miniature having been employed to designate Genoa in most previous portolan charts. The symbol of Venice is a  banner with the Venetian lion, while the banner of Genoa features a  red cross originally on a white field. The crossed crosses in the banner over Avignon symbolise the city, which remained under the administration of papal legates for as long as four centuries after Pope Gregory’s XI return to Rome in 1377. The remaining European cities designated with a banner are Marseille (marsela), Senj (seya) and Dubrovnik (raGosa) on the Dalmatian coast. Two cities along the Danube are designated by rudimentary city symbols consisting of a city wall and from one to three battlements. When considering other portolan charts of the time, these cities would seem to be Bratislava and Budapest. Particularly informative are the banners over the following cities in North Africa: Surt (naym), Sirte – Medinet Sultan (Zedicho), Tarabulas – Tripolis (tripol d. barbar), Tabarca (tabarca), Bejaija – Bougie – Bugea (boGia), and Al-Djazair – Algier – Zizera (alGer). It is also apparent that banners are not always reli­able signs to date charts. The red gonfanon (or gonfalon) with a Turkish crescent designates the ports of Surt (naym), Tarabulas – Tripolis (tripol d. barbar), Tabarca (tabarca), and Bejaija – Bougie – Bugea (boGia). The same holds true for the choice of symbolic colours in which the islands were painted, as these colours were used instead of heraldic coats of arms. The north coast of the Mediterranean from Tarragona to Narbonne, which Jaume had probably been fairly familiar with, is the only coast for which the study includes both the primary (red) and the secondary place names.

A detail with a schematic of Venice. A detail with a schematic of Budapest and Bratislava.

The Adriatic Sea eroding the Dalmatian coast and the Italian Peninsula. At the top, a striking mapping of Venice.

A detail with a schematic of Avignon. Corsica and Sardinia with round heraldic shields. A red cross on a silver (white etc.) background on the Corsica shield refers to the former domain of Genova, while the red stripes on a gold background of the Sardinian shield refer to the Spanish (Aragonia) rule. Genoa is a city with an individual iconographic tradition in portolan charts dating back to the Renaissance era. As one of the most important commercial centres of the Mediterranean, around the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, it was less graphically emphasized in medieval portolan charts when compared to Venice and Jerusalem. The city is drawn as a fortified complex of buildings in the background with a round harbour pool in the front. The pool consisted of a forwarded older pier with a domineering lighthouse in the left point, and of a newer pier (Molo Vecchio) and harbour (Porto Vecchio) on the right. The front side of the development contained secular buildings; in the rear there are prominent the steeples of the San Matteo church (1278), San Lorenzo cathedral (1118), and of the Palazzo Ducale building (end of the 13th century) with the city banner in the form of a gonfalon forming the centre of the whole picture. In contrast to the flat Venice, this seemingly three-dimensional drawing captures the slope character of the city. The symbolic representations of the picture may agree with the urban dominants of the then Genoa because the construction of the later Baroque palaces commenced only after the atlas had been made.


40

41 Double page three (chart two) contains the central Mediterranean from the west coast of Greece with the Adriatic Sea, the Ionian Sea, the Tyrrhenian Sea, and the Ligurian Sea including the western Balearic Islands. The North African coast is represented from Mostagano (mastigani) in what is now Algeria in the west to the city of Ptolemais (tolometa) in the east. Minor islands are represented in colour; the coasts of Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily are only suggested by colour lines, in a similar fashion as the European continent, and identified by circular heraldic discs. The coastal line of eastern Italy is interrupted in several spots, the miniature crosses in front of the west coast of Sardinia stand for dangerous reefs and rocks. The mean scale of the chart is approximately 1 : 6 500 000. This chart, also, shows the Apennine peninsula deviating from the north-south axis to a larger extent in the east-west direction. There are a range of islands, geographically described, from Kvarner in the north to Zakynthos in the south along the Dalmatian coast. The chart is one of the most complex representations of the Adriatic coast in the mid 16th century. The Italian stretch of the Adriatic is described by names as far as the port of Otranto (otrando). Major ports, such as Genoa or Venice, as well as inland cities, such as those along the Danube, began to be represented in portolan charts at approximately the same period as compass roses, i.e. in the second half of the 14th century (18), and can be recognised thanks to architectural miniatures. Chart three features a miniature of Venice drawn as islands and having the ‘campanila’, but lacking the ‘lidi’, i.e. the frontal island barrier already represented in the maritime charts by Pinelli-Walkenaer (about 1384, British Library, London) or those by Albertinus de Virga (1409, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris). In

contrast, the miniature of Genoa has a harbour pool and a beacon, with this miniature having been employed to designate Genoa in most previous portolan charts. The symbol of Venice is a  banner with the Venetian lion, while the banner of Genoa features a  red cross originally on a white field. The crossed crosses in the banner over Avignon symbolise the city, which remained under the administration of papal legates for as long as four centuries after Pope Gregory’s XI return to Rome in 1377. The remaining European cities designated with a banner are Marseille (marsela), Senj (seya) and Dubrovnik (raGosa) on the Dalmatian coast. Two cities along the Danube are designated by rudimentary city symbols consisting of a city wall and from one to three battlements. When considering other portolan charts of the time, these cities would seem to be Bratislava and Budapest. Particularly informative are the banners over the following cities in North Africa: Surt (naym), Sirte – Medinet Sultan (Zedicho), Tarabulas – Tripolis (tripol d. barbar), Tabarca (tabarca), Bejaija – Bougie – Bugea (boGia), and Al-Djazair – Algier – Zizera (alGer). It is also apparent that banners are not always reli­able signs to date charts. The red gonfanon (or gonfalon) with a Turkish crescent designates the ports of Surt (naym), Tarabulas – Tripolis (tripol d. barbar), Tabarca (tabarca), and Bejaija – Bougie – Bugea (boGia). The same holds true for the choice of symbolic colours in which the islands were painted, as these colours were used instead of heraldic coats of arms. The north coast of the Mediterranean from Tarragona to Narbonne, which Jaume had probably been fairly familiar with, is the only coast for which the study includes both the primary (red) and the secondary place names.

A detail with a schematic of Venice. A detail with a schematic of Budapest and Bratislava.

The Adriatic Sea eroding the Dalmatian coast and the Italian Peninsula. At the top, a striking mapping of Venice.

A detail with a schematic of Avignon. Corsica and Sardinia with round heraldic shields. A red cross on a silver (white etc.) background on the Corsica shield refers to the former domain of Genova, while the red stripes on a gold background of the Sardinian shield refer to the Spanish (Aragonia) rule. Genoa is a city with an individual iconographic tradition in portolan charts dating back to the Renaissance era. As one of the most important commercial centres of the Mediterranean, around the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, it was less graphically emphasized in medieval portolan charts when compared to Venice and Jerusalem. The city is drawn as a fortified complex of buildings in the background with a round harbour pool in the front. The pool consisted of a forwarded older pier with a domineering lighthouse in the left point, and of a newer pier (Molo Vecchio) and harbour (Porto Vecchio) on the right. The front side of the development contained secular buildings; in the rear there are prominent the steeples of the San Matteo church (1278), San Lorenzo cathedral (1118), and of the Palazzo Ducale building (end of the 13th century) with the city banner in the form of a gonfalon forming the centre of the whole picture. In contrast to the flat Venice, this seemingly three-dimensional drawing captures the slope character of the city. The symbolic representations of the picture may agree with the urban dominants of the then Genoa because the construction of the later Baroque palaces commenced only after the atlas had been made.


56

Ivan Kupčík

L’atlante nautico di Jaume Olives (Napoli, 1563) presso la Biblioteca scientifica di Olomouc

Origine, terminologia, utilizzo ed importanza delle carte portolaniche

Origine, terminologia, utilizzo ed importanza delle carte portolaniche A cavallo dei secoli XIII e XIV, quando l’immagine del mondo allora conosciuto dipendeva ancora dalle rappresentazioni dei cartografi ecclesiastici, è sorprendente l’esistenza di un nuovo tipo di mappa che, paragonato alle altre raffigurazioni della terraferma, ci mostra con maggiore precisione e particolarità i perimetri costieri. L’uso di tali mappe era frequente soprattutto nel bacino del Mediterraneo, ed i  loro autori industriosi si limitavano a  raffigurarvi più che altro le immagini del mondo conosciuto, accentuando sempre la zona del Mar Mediterraneo. Questo tipo di mappe erano sorprendentemente precise per l’epoca, nonostante fossero apparse all’improvviso, senza una linea di sviluppo e  senza apparenti predecessori. Queste carte probabilmente provengono dal bacino del Mediterraneo, dove la loro stesura si concentrava in città italiane (Genova, Savona, Venezia e, successivamente, anche Ancona, Livorno, Napoli e Messina) e nella Catalogna (Barcellona, Maiorca). Non si esclude però la loro origine pontica, in particolare dalle regioni intorno al Mar Nero. Si tratta delle cosiddette carte portolaniche, un tempo denominate anche “planisferi”. L’uso di queste carte viene menzionato, per la prima volta, nella descrizione di una spedizione partita nel 1269 dal porto di Saint Louis nella Francia meridionale alla volta di Tunisi. L’utilizzo di carte portolaniche sul mare è documentato in tutta una serie di testi (ad es. Guillaume de Nangis, 1300 circa, Ramon Llul alias Raimundus Lullus, 1305 circa) e, a partire dal XV secolo, anche dalle annotazioni scritte a mano direttamente sulle carte. Ciò nonostante, non è facile definire inequivocabilmente l’utilizzo delle mappe a quel tempo. Il termine “carte portolaniche” deriverebbe dall’espressione tardo latina portulano, event. dalla parola italiana portolano, utilizzata per i  manoscritti contenenti istruzioni nautiche. Charles du Fresne du Cange (1610–1689) menziona nel 1678 l’espressione portolani annotati, che riguardava, nel 1285, le istruzioni testuali di navigazione. Dette istruzioni venivano presentate sotto forma di libri e contenevano i dati sulle distanze e sulle rotte da seguire da un porto all’altro, nonché altri dettagli necessari sui luoghi di approdo. A partire dal XVII secolo il termine “portulant” riguardava, almeno per quanto riguarda i  paesi francofoni, i  “libri contenenti mappe delle coste” (ClaudeFrançois-Milliet de Chales, 1621–1678) ovvero la “descrizione dettagliata delle coste, dei porti, delle rade e degli approdi”, sia attraverso lettere che con l’ausilio di mappe (Jean-Mathieu de Chazelles, 1657– 1710). Nel 1762, i suddetti termini furono ufficialmente riconosciuti dall’Accademia di Parigi e cominciarono ad essere utilizzati anche per

le descrizioni e le illustrazioni di altri mari (Canale della Manica, Mar Baltico). Nel XVIII secolo, nelle grandi enciclopedie, questo termine è ancora assente, comparirà solo nella seconda metà del secolo XIX nei dizionari europei. Nel XIX secolo, gli studiosi di diversi paesi cominciarono ad utilizzare il termine “portolano” per tutte le carte nautiche antiche e dall’inizio del XX secolo aveva un’accezione ancora più ampia. A partire dal 1960 circa, gli esperti utilizzano nuovamente il termine “portolano” solo per le istruzioni testuali relative alla nautica, mentre per le carte nautiche antiche con la tipica rete dei gradi preferiscono usare l’espressione “carte portolaniche” (carte nautiche medievali). L’utilizzo di dette carte nautiche presupponeva la conoscenza del principio della bussola, anche se nel 1436 l’ago magnetico fu già sostituito dalla calamita naturale. La letteratura medievale latina lo menziona già all’inizio del XIII secolo, nel Mediterraneo fu introdotto alcuni secoli prima dai Vichingi (i Normanni). Grazie all’uso della bussola magnetica e  con l’aiuto della rosa dei venti o  di un semplice punto d’intersezione con 16 rombi direzionati solitamente dal centro della mappa (eventualmente con l’aiuto di altre 16 rose dei venti ovvero punti d’intersezione del perimetro della mappa con un numero doppio di raggi totali), i navigatori furono in grado non solo di orientare le mappe e determinare quindi le rotte di navigazione, ma anche di disegnarvi con maggior precisione le isole già note o sconosciute e le lingue di terra. Solo così riusciamo a spiegarci perché l’immagine del Mar Mediterraneo ha per la prima volta una forma e delle dimensioni accettabili. Le carte portolaniche venivano compilate per lo più su pergamene ed il loro scopo era quello di facilitare la navigazione sulle rotte da seguire attraverso il mare aperto (pillegio), con l’aiuto delle rose dei venti e delle reti dei gradi, della bussola magnetica, della clessidra e delle tabelle speciali, le cosiddette “toleta de marteloio”, documentate a partire dal 1436, ma presumibilmente molto più antiche, a differenza del sistema a lungo praticato della navigazione lungo il litorale (steria). Le istruzioni sulle carte portolaniche venivano scritte in lingua romanza, si sono altresì conservate carte portolaniche, risalenti al loro ultimo periodo di sviluppo, redatte in lingua greca, ottomana o olandese. Le carte portolaniche medievali erano destinate alla navigazione lungo le rotte abituali litoranee, soprattutto del Mar Mediterraneo e  delle coste europee dell’Oceano Atlantico. Si navigava di solito di

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Ivan Kupčík

L’atlante nautico di Jaume Olives (Napoli, 1563) presso la Biblioteca scientifica di Olomouc

Origine, terminologia, utilizzo ed importanza delle carte portolaniche

Origine, terminologia, utilizzo ed importanza delle carte portolaniche A cavallo dei secoli XIII e XIV, quando l’immagine del mondo allora conosciuto dipendeva ancora dalle rappresentazioni dei cartografi ecclesiastici, è sorprendente l’esistenza di un nuovo tipo di mappa che, paragonato alle altre raffigurazioni della terraferma, ci mostra con maggiore precisione e particolarità i perimetri costieri. L’uso di tali mappe era frequente soprattutto nel bacino del Mediterraneo, ed i  loro autori industriosi si limitavano a  raffigurarvi più che altro le immagini del mondo conosciuto, accentuando sempre la zona del Mar Mediterraneo. Questo tipo di mappe erano sorprendentemente precise per l’epoca, nonostante fossero apparse all’improvviso, senza una linea di sviluppo e  senza apparenti predecessori. Queste carte probabilmente provengono dal bacino del Mediterraneo, dove la loro stesura si concentrava in città italiane (Genova, Savona, Venezia e, successivamente, anche Ancona, Livorno, Napoli e Messina) e nella Catalogna (Barcellona, Maiorca). Non si esclude però la loro origine pontica, in particolare dalle regioni intorno al Mar Nero. Si tratta delle cosiddette carte portolaniche, un tempo denominate anche “planisferi”. L’uso di queste carte viene menzionato, per la prima volta, nella descrizione di una spedizione partita nel 1269 dal porto di Saint Louis nella Francia meridionale alla volta di Tunisi. L’utilizzo di carte portolaniche sul mare è documentato in tutta una serie di testi (ad es. Guillaume de Nangis, 1300 circa, Ramon Llul alias Raimundus Lullus, 1305 circa) e, a partire dal XV secolo, anche dalle annotazioni scritte a mano direttamente sulle carte. Ciò nonostante, non è facile definire inequivocabilmente l’utilizzo delle mappe a quel tempo. Il termine “carte portolaniche” deriverebbe dall’espressione tardo latina portulano, event. dalla parola italiana portolano, utilizzata per i  manoscritti contenenti istruzioni nautiche. Charles du Fresne du Cange (1610–1689) menziona nel 1678 l’espressione portolani annotati, che riguardava, nel 1285, le istruzioni testuali di navigazione. Dette istruzioni venivano presentate sotto forma di libri e contenevano i dati sulle distanze e sulle rotte da seguire da un porto all’altro, nonché altri dettagli necessari sui luoghi di approdo. A partire dal XVII secolo il termine “portulant” riguardava, almeno per quanto riguarda i  paesi francofoni, i  “libri contenenti mappe delle coste” (ClaudeFrançois-Milliet de Chales, 1621–1678) ovvero la “descrizione dettagliata delle coste, dei porti, delle rade e degli approdi”, sia attraverso lettere che con l’ausilio di mappe (Jean-Mathieu de Chazelles, 1657– 1710). Nel 1762, i suddetti termini furono ufficialmente riconosciuti dall’Accademia di Parigi e cominciarono ad essere utilizzati anche per

le descrizioni e le illustrazioni di altri mari (Canale della Manica, Mar Baltico). Nel XVIII secolo, nelle grandi enciclopedie, questo termine è ancora assente, comparirà solo nella seconda metà del secolo XIX nei dizionari europei. Nel XIX secolo, gli studiosi di diversi paesi cominciarono ad utilizzare il termine “portolano” per tutte le carte nautiche antiche e dall’inizio del XX secolo aveva un’accezione ancora più ampia. A partire dal 1960 circa, gli esperti utilizzano nuovamente il termine “portolano” solo per le istruzioni testuali relative alla nautica, mentre per le carte nautiche antiche con la tipica rete dei gradi preferiscono usare l’espressione “carte portolaniche” (carte nautiche medievali). L’utilizzo di dette carte nautiche presupponeva la conoscenza del principio della bussola, anche se nel 1436 l’ago magnetico fu già sostituito dalla calamita naturale. La letteratura medievale latina lo menziona già all’inizio del XIII secolo, nel Mediterraneo fu introdotto alcuni secoli prima dai Vichingi (i Normanni). Grazie all’uso della bussola magnetica e  con l’aiuto della rosa dei venti o  di un semplice punto d’intersezione con 16 rombi direzionati solitamente dal centro della mappa (eventualmente con l’aiuto di altre 16 rose dei venti ovvero punti d’intersezione del perimetro della mappa con un numero doppio di raggi totali), i navigatori furono in grado non solo di orientare le mappe e determinare quindi le rotte di navigazione, ma anche di disegnarvi con maggior precisione le isole già note o sconosciute e le lingue di terra. Solo così riusciamo a spiegarci perché l’immagine del Mar Mediterraneo ha per la prima volta una forma e delle dimensioni accettabili. Le carte portolaniche venivano compilate per lo più su pergamene ed il loro scopo era quello di facilitare la navigazione sulle rotte da seguire attraverso il mare aperto (pillegio), con l’aiuto delle rose dei venti e delle reti dei gradi, della bussola magnetica, della clessidra e delle tabelle speciali, le cosiddette “toleta de marteloio”, documentate a partire dal 1436, ma presumibilmente molto più antiche, a differenza del sistema a lungo praticato della navigazione lungo il litorale (steria). Le istruzioni sulle carte portolaniche venivano scritte in lingua romanza, si sono altresì conservate carte portolaniche, risalenti al loro ultimo periodo di sviluppo, redatte in lingua greca, ottomana o olandese. Le carte portolaniche medievali erano destinate alla navigazione lungo le rotte abituali litoranee, soprattutto del Mar Mediterraneo e  delle coste europee dell’Oceano Atlantico. Si navigava di solito di

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Ivan Kupčík

La Carta Náutica de Jaume Olives (1563) en la Biblioteca Científica de Olomouc

Origen, terminología, uso y significado de las cartas portulanas

Origen, terminología, uso y significado de las cartas portulanas

En la confluencia de los siglos XIII y XIV, época en la que el concepto de mapa del hasta entonces mundo conocido aún derivaba de la concepción de los cartógrafos eclesiásticos, nos sorprende un nuevo tipo de mapa que, en comparación con la tierra firme, ilustra de formas más exacta y detallada la costa. Este tipo de mapa se manifestó sobre todo en el Mediterráneo y sus aplicados autores en la mayoría de los casos se limitaban a esbozar el mundo conocido, siempre haciendo énfasis en la región mediterránea. Estos mapas eran para la época inusualmente precisos a pesar de que aparecieron súbitamente, sin ningún desarrollo progresivo y sin antecesores evidentes. Más bien provienen directamente de la zona del mar Mediterráneo donde su producción se concentraba, por un lado, en ciudades italianas (Génova, Savona, Venecia, posteriormente Ancona, Livorno, Nápoles, Mesina) y por el otro, en Cataluña (Barcelona, Mallorca), sin embargo, no queda excluído su origen póntico en la región que rodea el mar Negro. Se trata de los llamados portulanos, anteriormente denominados cartas de vientos. Su uso es mencionado por primera vez en la descripción de una expedición del puerto del sur de Francia – Sainte Louis – a Túnez en el año 1269. El uso de las cartas portulanas en el mar se encuentra documentado en una gran serie de textos (Guillaume de Nangis, hacia 1300, Ramón Llull alias Raimundus Lullus hacia 1305) y a partir del siglo XV en comentarios manuscritos directamente en los mapas. No obstante, no es fácil precisar unívocamente la función de los mapas de entonces. La designación de carta “portulana” se desarrolló o bien a partir del término latino tardío portulano, o bien a partir de la palabra italiana portolano, que era válida para los manuscritos con indicaciones náuticas. Charles du Fresne du Cange (1610–1689) menciona el término portolani anotati en el año 1285 refiriéndose a  textos de instrucciones sobre navegación. Estos eran presentados en estilo erudito y contenían datos sobre distancias y rumbos entre distintos puertos y detalles necesarios sobre amarraderos. A partir del siglo XVII el término “portulant” hacía referencia, al menos en la región francófona, a un “libro del mapas de litoral” (Claude-François-Milliet de Chales, 1621–1678) o “descripción exacta de litorales, puertos, radas y fondeaderos, tanto por escrito como con mapas (Jean-Mathieu de Chazelles, 1657–1710). Estos conceptos fueron reconocidos oficialmente por la Academia Parisiense en 1762, adoptados también para describir e ilustrar otros mares (canal de La Mancha, mar Báltico). En el siglo XVIII el término sigue estando ausente en las grandes

enciclopedias, sin embargo aparece en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX en diccionarios europeos. Eruditos de muchos países más tarde difundieron en el siglo XIX el vocablo “portolan” en todos los antiguos mapas náuticos y a principios del siglo XX esta palabra es divulgada de forma generalizada. Aproximadamente a partir del año 1960 los expertos utilizan el término “portolan” de nuevo exclusivamente para hacer referencia a instrucciones textuales sobre náutica y para las anteriores cartas náuticas con la típica red de líneas de rumbos se inclinaron por el término cartas portulanas. El uso de estos mapas náuticos presuponía el conocimiento del principio de la brújula a pesar de que aún hacia el año 1436 la aguja magnética era sustituida por el imán genuino. La literatura latina medieval hace referencia a este hecho a partir de principios del siglo XIII y fue introducido en el Mediterráneo probablemente ya antes por los vikingos a  través de los normandos. Gracias a  esta brújula y con ayuda de la rosa de los vientos o de un simple punto de intersección con 16 rayos equidistantes situados por norma general en la línea central del mapa (o con ayuda de otras 16 rosas de los vientos o, mejor dicho, puntos de intersección de la circunferencia que contiene el doble de rayos) los navegantes no sólo podían orientar el mapa y determinar la dirección de la travesía, sino también esbozar de forma más exacta lo ya conocido o nuevas islas y promontorios en tierra firme. Sólo de esta forma se puede explicar que por primera vez la percepción del mar Mediterráneo tiene una forma y dimensión admisibles. Las cartas portulanas en su mayoría se esbozaban en pergamino y su cometido era, realizar la navegación durante la travesía a mar abierto (pillegio), con ayuda de la rosa de los vientos y  de las líneas de la brújula dibujadas en el mapa, de la brújula, de relojes de arena y de tablas especiales – denominadas toleta de marteloio, documentadas hacia el año 1436, sin embargo con probabilidad mucho más antiguas – a diferencia de la navegación bordeando la costa que predominó durante mucho tiempo (steria). La descripción en el campo de los mapas se realizaba en las cartas portulanas en lenguas románicas; sobre todo se han conservado del último estadio de desarrollo de las cartas portulanas ejemplares griegos, osmanlíes y holandeses. Las cartas portulanas medievales estaban designadas para la navegación y travesía en el corredor de rutas habituales a lo largo de la costa del mar Mediterráneo y del océano Atlántico europeo. La travesía


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Ivan Kupčík

La Carta Náutica de Jaume Olives (1563) en la Biblioteca Científica de Olomouc

Origen, terminología, uso y significado de las cartas portulanas

Origen, terminología, uso y significado de las cartas portulanas

En la confluencia de los siglos XIII y XIV, época en la que el concepto de mapa del hasta entonces mundo conocido aún derivaba de la concepción de los cartógrafos eclesiásticos, nos sorprende un nuevo tipo de mapa que, en comparación con la tierra firme, ilustra de formas más exacta y detallada la costa. Este tipo de mapa se manifestó sobre todo en el Mediterráneo y sus aplicados autores en la mayoría de los casos se limitaban a esbozar el mundo conocido, siempre haciendo énfasis en la región mediterránea. Estos mapas eran para la época inusualmente precisos a pesar de que aparecieron súbitamente, sin ningún desarrollo progresivo y sin antecesores evidentes. Más bien provienen directamente de la zona del mar Mediterráneo donde su producción se concentraba, por un lado, en ciudades italianas (Génova, Savona, Venecia, posteriormente Ancona, Livorno, Nápoles, Mesina) y por el otro, en Cataluña (Barcelona, Mallorca), sin embargo, no queda excluído su origen póntico en la región que rodea el mar Negro. Se trata de los llamados portulanos, anteriormente denominados cartas de vientos. Su uso es mencionado por primera vez en la descripción de una expedición del puerto del sur de Francia – Sainte Louis – a Túnez en el año 1269. El uso de las cartas portulanas en el mar se encuentra documentado en una gran serie de textos (Guillaume de Nangis, hacia 1300, Ramón Llull alias Raimundus Lullus hacia 1305) y a partir del siglo XV en comentarios manuscritos directamente en los mapas. No obstante, no es fácil precisar unívocamente la función de los mapas de entonces. La designación de carta “portulana” se desarrolló o bien a partir del término latino tardío portulano, o bien a partir de la palabra italiana portolano, que era válida para los manuscritos con indicaciones náuticas. Charles du Fresne du Cange (1610–1689) menciona el término portolani anotati en el año 1285 refiriéndose a  textos de instrucciones sobre navegación. Estos eran presentados en estilo erudito y contenían datos sobre distancias y rumbos entre distintos puertos y detalles necesarios sobre amarraderos. A partir del siglo XVII el término “portulant” hacía referencia, al menos en la región francófona, a un “libro del mapas de litoral” (Claude-François-Milliet de Chales, 1621–1678) o “descripción exacta de litorales, puertos, radas y fondeaderos, tanto por escrito como con mapas (Jean-Mathieu de Chazelles, 1657–1710). Estos conceptos fueron reconocidos oficialmente por la Academia Parisiense en 1762, adoptados también para describir e ilustrar otros mares (canal de La Mancha, mar Báltico). En el siglo XVIII el término sigue estando ausente en las grandes

enciclopedias, sin embargo aparece en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX en diccionarios europeos. Eruditos de muchos países más tarde difundieron en el siglo XIX el vocablo “portolan” en todos los antiguos mapas náuticos y a principios del siglo XX esta palabra es divulgada de forma generalizada. Aproximadamente a partir del año 1960 los expertos utilizan el término “portolan” de nuevo exclusivamente para hacer referencia a instrucciones textuales sobre náutica y para las anteriores cartas náuticas con la típica red de líneas de rumbos se inclinaron por el término cartas portulanas. El uso de estos mapas náuticos presuponía el conocimiento del principio de la brújula a pesar de que aún hacia el año 1436 la aguja magnética era sustituida por el imán genuino. La literatura latina medieval hace referencia a este hecho a partir de principios del siglo XIII y fue introducido en el Mediterráneo probablemente ya antes por los vikingos a  través de los normandos. Gracias a  esta brújula y con ayuda de la rosa de los vientos o de un simple punto de intersección con 16 rayos equidistantes situados por norma general en la línea central del mapa (o con ayuda de otras 16 rosas de los vientos o, mejor dicho, puntos de intersección de la circunferencia que contiene el doble de rayos) los navegantes no sólo podían orientar el mapa y determinar la dirección de la travesía, sino también esbozar de forma más exacta lo ya conocido o nuevas islas y promontorios en tierra firme. Sólo de esta forma se puede explicar que por primera vez la percepción del mar Mediterráneo tiene una forma y dimensión admisibles. Las cartas portulanas en su mayoría se esbozaban en pergamino y su cometido era, realizar la navegación durante la travesía a mar abierto (pillegio), con ayuda de la rosa de los vientos y  de las líneas de la brújula dibujadas en el mapa, de la brújula, de relojes de arena y de tablas especiales – denominadas toleta de marteloio, documentadas hacia el año 1436, sin embargo con probabilidad mucho más antiguas – a diferencia de la navegación bordeando la costa que predominó durante mucho tiempo (steria). La descripción en el campo de los mapas se realizaba en las cartas portulanas en lenguas románicas; sobre todo se han conservado del último estadio de desarrollo de las cartas portulanas ejemplares griegos, osmanlíes y holandeses. Las cartas portulanas medievales estaban designadas para la navegación y travesía en el corredor de rutas habituales a lo largo de la costa del mar Mediterráneo y del océano Atlántico europeo. La travesía


108

109 Levantské pobřeží: Levant coast:

toponyma toponyms toponyma toponyms První mapa (druhý dvojlist) Chart one (Double page two) Černé a Azovské moře

od Istanbulu na sever a východ po evropském pobřeží a zpět na západ po severotureckém pobřeží:

Black Sea and Sea of Azov

from Istanbul northwards along the coast of Europe and Asia and back along the north coast of Turkey: Název na mapě Name in the chart costantinopoli pera stanchinay mesembria barna tayasea licostayna moncastro pidea

Dnešní název Present name Istanbul Patras Burgas Neseber Varna Rusalka Constanta Maurocastro (Belgorod-Dnestrovskij) Dneprovskij liman

Ostrov Krym: Crimea Island: vaspro caffa soldaia sanbara comania tabardi tana capa madas marui locho sauastropoli

Kerč (Kerch) Caffa (Feodosiya) Soldaia (Yalta) Sevastopol Comania Taganrod Azov Ačuevo (Achuyevo) Tamaň (Kiziliašský liman, záliv – bay) Anapa Vitazevskij liman (záliv – bay) Suchumi (Sukhumi)

Severoturecké pobřeží: North coast of Turkey: trapisonda sirisonda leona fadida Simiso Sinopi castelas Siuastro p.naxia carpi comidia polmen

Trapesonda Quiresonda Ordu Fatsa Simiso Sinopi (Sinop) Catalzetin Samastro Baba Br. Carpi Nikomedea Palimen

cosmen lalitxa tortosa tripoldesuria barut sur acri spesaira Jaffa scalona Gilsata larissa

Skete Laiaza Tortoza (Tartuz) Tripoli de Suria (Tarabulus) Bejrut (Baruti) Sur (Sour) Acri (Acre) Caesarea (Haifa) Jaffa Asquelon Gaza El ´Arish

Severoafrické pobřeží: North Africa coast: Evropské pobřeží od Dardanel na jih: European coast from the Dardanelles southwards: Galipoli eneo moroyna asprosa lastropoli lastramola salonich G.sal. volo larmiro ladena Senas napoli morea maluasia coron modo clarensa petray sello lepāto

Gelibolu Enez Xanthé Aspróválter Kavala Loutra Thessaloniki Thessaloniki (záliv – bay) Volos Larmiro Lamía Athenai Napoli (Náuplion) Morea (poloostrov – peninsula) Malvasia Koróni Methóni Killíni Patrai Itéa Lepanto

Asijské pobřeží od Bosporu na jih a po jihotureckém pobřeží na východ:

Asian Turkey from the Bosporus southwards, and along the south coast of Turkey eastwards: ladeniti folla lamires altolaGo palatiGa cosinen mesi maGri Satalia scandaloz antiotxa curcho taraso layasa

Landremiti Foca Lesmire (İzmir) Ephesus (Kusadasi) Gulluk Skete Marmaris Macre (Fethiye) Satallia (Antalya) Candeloro Antiocheta Silifke Tarsus Laiaza

damiata Rositto allixandri lucho bonandria tolometa

Damietta Rosetta Alexandria Luco (Marsa Lucch) Bonandrea (Derna) Tolometa (Tolemaide)

Paphos Limassol Famagusta

Kréta: Crete: cania candia

taraG. tamarit cubellas sitGes c. lobreGat barsalona s:pol S.fi liu palamos c. dea Guafeid. ampurias rosas c.de Creus copliura canat salsas c.lucat narbona

Tarragona Tamarit Cubelles Sitges el Llobregat Barcelona Sant Pol Sant Feliu Palamós C. de Begur Empúries Roses Cabo de Creus Collioure Canet Salses Port Leucate Narbonne

malorca sollari alcudia ciutadela mao eyuissa

Mallorca Soller Alcudia Ciudadela Mahon Ibiza

Pobřeží od Narbonne Chanía Herakleion (Iraklion)

Další červeně pojmenované ostrovy: Other red named islands: Rodes scarpanto SeriGo stalimino tenedo matali xio xamo nicalia morGo niesia tino andra Squiro niGroponto nio millo lonGo sapiensia

Pobřeží od Tarragony po Narbonne v jižní Francii: Coast from Tarragona to Narbonne in southern France:

Baleáry (červené názvy): Balearic Islands (red names):

Kypr: Cyprus: bafa linusi famaGosta

Druhá mapa (třetí dvojlist) Chart two (Double page three)

Rhodos Kárpathos Kýthéra Limnos Gökçeada Lesbos Chíos Samos Ikaria Amorgos Náxos Tinos Ándros Skyros Eubolia (Euboea) Iós Mélos Thelos Sapiéntza

v jižní Francii po Reggio di Calabria v jižní Itálii:

Coast from Narbonne

in southern France to Reggio di Calabria in southern Italy: maGalona monpaler ay Gosmortas arles marsela tolon eras fersus antibo nissa monaGo xxmilla arbenGa nori saona Genoua p. uenras spesia pisa puzblin ciuitaueia Roma natoni tarasina Gaieta napoli sorenti salerno poliarstro scalia lamantia turpia riyoli

Maguleone Montpellier Aigues Mortes Arles Marseille Toulon Hyeres Fréjus Antibes Nice Monaco Ventimíglia Albenga Noli Savona Genua Portovénere La Spézia Pisa Piombino Civitavécchia Roma Nettuno Terracina Gaeta Napoli (Naples) Sorrento Salerno Palinuro Scalea Amantea Tropea Rezo (Reggio di Calabria)


108

109 Levantské pobřeží: Levant coast:

toponyma toponyms toponyma toponyms První mapa (druhý dvojlist) Chart one (Double page two) Černé a Azovské moře

od Istanbulu na sever a východ po evropském pobřeží a zpět na západ po severotureckém pobřeží:

Black Sea and Sea of Azov

from Istanbul northwards along the coast of Europe and Asia and back along the north coast of Turkey: Název na mapě Name in the chart costantinopoli pera stanchinay mesembria barna tayasea licostayna moncastro pidea

Dnešní název Present name Istanbul Patras Burgas Neseber Varna Rusalka Constanta Maurocastro (Belgorod-Dnestrovskij) Dneprovskij liman

Ostrov Krym: Crimea Island: vaspro caffa soldaia sanbara comania tabardi tana capa madas marui locho sauastropoli

Kerč (Kerch) Caffa (Feodosiya) Soldaia (Yalta) Sevastopol Comania Taganrod Azov Ačuevo (Achuyevo) Tamaň (Kiziliašský liman, záliv – bay) Anapa Vitazevskij liman (záliv – bay) Suchumi (Sukhumi)

Severoturecké pobřeží: North coast of Turkey: trapisonda sirisonda leona fadida Simiso Sinopi castelas Siuastro p.naxia carpi comidia polmen

Trapesonda Quiresonda Ordu Fatsa Simiso Sinopi (Sinop) Catalzetin Samastro Baba Br. Carpi Nikomedea Palimen

cosmen lalitxa tortosa tripoldesuria barut sur acri spesaira Jaffa scalona Gilsata larissa

Skete Laiaza Tortoza (Tartuz) Tripoli de Suria (Tarabulus) Bejrut (Baruti) Sur (Sour) Acri (Acre) Caesarea (Haifa) Jaffa Asquelon Gaza El ´Arish

Severoafrické pobřeží: North Africa coast: Evropské pobřeží od Dardanel na jih: European coast from the Dardanelles southwards: Galipoli eneo moroyna asprosa lastropoli lastramola salonich G.sal. volo larmiro ladena Senas napoli morea maluasia coron modo clarensa petray sello lepāto

Gelibolu Enez Xanthé Aspróválter Kavala Loutra Thessaloniki Thessaloniki (záliv – bay) Volos Larmiro Lamía Athenai Napoli (Náuplion) Morea (poloostrov – peninsula) Malvasia Koróni Methóni Killíni Patrai Itéa Lepanto

Asijské pobřeží od Bosporu na jih a po jihotureckém pobřeží na východ:

Asian Turkey from the Bosporus southwards, and along the south coast of Turkey eastwards: ladeniti folla lamires altolaGo palatiGa cosinen mesi maGri Satalia scandaloz antiotxa curcho taraso layasa

Landremiti Foca Lesmire (İzmir) Ephesus (Kusadasi) Gulluk Skete Marmaris Macre (Fethiye) Satallia (Antalya) Candeloro Antiocheta Silifke Tarsus Laiaza

damiata Rositto allixandri lucho bonandria tolometa

Damietta Rosetta Alexandria Luco (Marsa Lucch) Bonandrea (Derna) Tolometa (Tolemaide)

Paphos Limassol Famagusta

Kréta: Crete: cania candia

taraG. tamarit cubellas sitGes c. lobreGat barsalona s:pol S.fi liu palamos c. dea Guafeid. ampurias rosas c.de Creus copliura canat salsas c.lucat narbona

Tarragona Tamarit Cubelles Sitges el Llobregat Barcelona Sant Pol Sant Feliu Palamós C. de Begur Empúries Roses Cabo de Creus Collioure Canet Salses Port Leucate Narbonne

malorca sollari alcudia ciutadela mao eyuissa

Mallorca Soller Alcudia Ciudadela Mahon Ibiza

Pobřeží od Narbonne Chanía Herakleion (Iraklion)

Další červeně pojmenované ostrovy: Other red named islands: Rodes scarpanto SeriGo stalimino tenedo matali xio xamo nicalia morGo niesia tino andra Squiro niGroponto nio millo lonGo sapiensia

Pobřeží od Tarragony po Narbonne v jižní Francii: Coast from Tarragona to Narbonne in southern France:

Baleáry (červené názvy): Balearic Islands (red names):

Kypr: Cyprus: bafa linusi famaGosta

Druhá mapa (třetí dvojlist) Chart two (Double page three)

Rhodos Kárpathos Kýthéra Limnos Gökçeada Lesbos Chíos Samos Ikaria Amorgos Náxos Tinos Ándros Skyros Eubolia (Euboea) Iós Mélos Thelos Sapiéntza

v jižní Francii po Reggio di Calabria v jižní Itálii:

Coast from Narbonne

in southern France to Reggio di Calabria in southern Italy: maGalona monpaler ay Gosmortas arles marsela tolon eras fersus antibo nissa monaGo xxmilla arbenGa nori saona Genoua p. uenras spesia pisa puzblin ciuitaueia Roma natoni tarasina Gaieta napoli sorenti salerno poliarstro scalia lamantia turpia riyoli

Maguleone Montpellier Aigues Mortes Arles Marseille Toulon Hyeres Fréjus Antibes Nice Monaco Ventimíglia Albenga Noli Savona Genua Portovénere La Spézia Pisa Piombino Civitavécchia Roma Nettuno Terracina Gaeta Napoli (Naples) Sorrento Salerno Palinuro Scalea Amantea Tropea Rezo (Reggio di Calabria)


122

123

Třetí dvojlist (druhá mapa) / Double page three (chart two).


122

123

Třetí dvojlist (druhá mapa) / Double page three (chart two).


Ivan Kupčík

Portolánový atlas Jaume Olivese (1563) ve Vědecké knihovně v Olomouci Vydaly v koedici Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci, Křížkovského 8, 771 47 Olomouc a Vědecká knihovna v Olomouci, Bezručova 3, 779 11 Olomouc Idea Jiří Rudolf Editor Jiří Glonek Redakční rada Ivo Barteček, Hana Dziková, Jiří Glonek, Miloš Korhoň, Jiří Rudolf Obálka a grafická úprava Jan Krátký Sazba a reprodukce Martin Navrátil Helmertova transformace Michaela Novosadová Překlady Jiří Vymlátil (ENG), České překlady s. r. o. (ITA), Isabel Contreras Hein (SPA) Doslov Ivo Barteček Překlady doslovu Jiří Vymlátil (ENG), Eva klímová (ITA), Lenka Zajícová (SPA)

Tisk GRASPO CZ, a. s., Zlín 1. vydání Olomouc 2010 ISBN 978–80–244–2580–1 (Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci) ISBN 978–80–7053–278–2 (Vědecká knihovna v Olomouci)

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Portolánový atlas Jaume Olivese (1563) ve Vědecké knihovně v Olomouci  

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Portolánový atlas Jaume Olivese (1563) ve Vědecké knihovně v Olomouci  

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