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From urban agriculture to ÂŤ agriurbanism Âť What is urban agriculture ? Agriculture and urban sprawl : the case of Paris Agriurbanism for a sustainable food-governorship

Dr Roland Vidal Research Ingenior


What is urban agriculture ? Three different examples

Poor cities in low income countries with high demographic increase

Poor districts of rich cities with industrial and demographic decrease

Dense cities of rich countries with constant demographic increase

And another kind of agriculture‌ - Urban, according to its functions - Periurban, according to its position

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Ex. 1 : Urban agriculture in poor cities of low income countries Self-consumption agriculture using gap spaces inside town Meeting an urgent economical need due to severe urban poverty Mainly located in urban extensions where there isn’t any available transport system

This is a crisis agriculture due to a crisis of food governorship : the city has rarely been the best place to produce food

Colombo, ÂŤ Making edible landscape Âť Montreal University program

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Ex. 1 : Urban agriculture in poor cities of low income countries Mainly in slums and shantytowns‌

But also in informal settlements and lowcost public housing

Above : Subsistence farming at Kibera (large shantytown near Nairobi, Kenya) Left : Sheeps breeding on a terrace in a collective housing district, Dakar (Senegal)

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Ex 2 : Poor districts of rich cities with industrial and demographic decrease

Detroit Michigan, USA A city designed and once occupied by 2 million people‌ now housing 900,000. 100 km2 of unoccupied brownfields. An opportunity to fight against malnutrition

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Ex. 3 : Dense cities of rich countries with constant demographic increase

A kind of urban hobby farming (better named ÂŤgardeningÂť) Timely when using forsaken places Not timely when competing with public space

Initially openning spaces, finally closing them‌ 6


Urban and periurban agriculture Urban, according to its functions, periurban, according to its position Characterized by its location on the outskirts of the city, but having functional relationships with it. Here, farmed and built areas can participate in the process of urbanization and together design the urban area territory

According to french statistics (INSEE), 30 % of France farmed area is now in peri-urban location

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Different kinds of relationship between farming and city

Horse riding

Urban waste recylcling in 1920

Farm self-picking

Urban waste recylcling in 2010

Cultural and/or leasure pratices

Environmental functions 8


Agriculture through the city

From urban agriculture to ÂŤ agriurbanism Âť What is urban agriculture ? Agriculture and urban sprawl : the case of Paris Agriurbanism for a sustainable food-governorship

Dr Roland Vidal Research Ingenior


Black : sprawling of continuous urban area Red : proportional diagram of demographic increase

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Black : sprawling of continuous urban area Red : proportional diagram of demographic increase

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Black : sprawling of continuous urban area Red : proportional diagram of demographic increase

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Black : sprawling of continuous urban area Red : proportional diagram of demographic increase

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Black : sprawling of continuous urban area Red : proportional diagram of demographic increase

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Black : sprawling of continuous urban area Red : proportional diagram of demographic increase

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Black : sprawling of continuous urban area Red : proportional diagram of demographic increase

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Black : sprawling of continuous urban area Red : proportional diagram of demographic increase

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Black : sprawling of continuous urban area Red : proportional diagram of demographic increase

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Sources - Avant 1900 : Jacques Dupâquier : Histoire des populations de l'Europe, Fayard, 1997 - Après 1900 : IAU-IDF / INSEE

Note that the black spot is growing much faster than the red spot

Each person now holds 4 to 5 times more space than in 1200

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First time : urban growth Second time : urban sprawl Third time : urban crumbling

Sources - Avant 1900 : Jacques Dupâquier : Histoire des populations de l'Europe, Fayard, 1997 - Après 1900 : IAU-IDF / INSEE

Consequence : Agricultural space landlocked and fragmented

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D’après Phlipponneau, La vie rurale de la Banlieue Parisienne, A. Colin, 1956

«Les cultures de banlieue à la fin du XVIIIe siècle»

What about the horticultural belt ? Supplying city with fruits and vegetables (perishable food)

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D’après Phlipponneau, La vie rurale de la Banlieue Parisienne, A. Colin, 1956

«Les cultures de banlieue à la fin du XVIIIe siècle»

What about the horticultural belt ? Supplying city with fruits and vegetables (perishable food)

The city

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D’après Phlipponneau, La vie rurale de la Banlieue Parisienne, A. Colin, 1956

«Les cultures de banlieue à la fin du XVIIIe siècle»

What about the horticultural belt ? Supplying city with fruits and vegetables (perishable food)

The city

The Horticultural belt

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What about the horticultural belt ?

D’après Phlipponneau, La vie rurale de la Banlieue Parisienne, A. Colin, 1956

«Les cultures de banlieue à la fin du XVIIIe siècle»

Supplying city with fruits and vegetables (perishable food)

The reality Is close to the theoretical scheme of Von Thünen (1783-1850)

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What about the horticultural belt ?

D’après Phlipponneau, La vie rurale de la Banlieue Parisienne, A. Colin, 1956

«Les cultures de banlieue à la fin du XVIIIe siècle»

Supplying city with fruits and vegetables (perishable food)

AGER HORTUS

In yellow (ager) : wheat fields, dotted with orchards and vineyards

URBS

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Bursting of the horticultural belt

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Bursting of the horticultural belt 1 : The belt grows with the city

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Bursting of the horticultural belt 1 : The belt grows with the city 2 : The city begins to sprawl (along the valleys), and the belt follows

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Bursting of the horticultural belt 1 : The belt grows with the city 2 : The city begins to sprawl (along the valleys), and the belt follows 3 : Railway transportation accelerates sprawling

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Bursting of the horticultural belt 1 : The belt grows with the city 2 : The city begins to sprawl (along the valleys), and the belt follows 3 : Railway transportation accelerates sprawling 4 : Vegetable farms follow railways : the farmers don’t deliver at city markets but at railway stations

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Bursting of the horticultural belt 1 : The belt grows with the city 2 : The city begins to sprawl (along the valleys), and the belt follows 3 : Railway transportation accelerates sprawling 4 : Vegetable farms follow railways : the farmers don’t deliver at city markets but at railway stations 5 : Vegetable farms leave city proximity for better climates.

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Bursting of the horticultural belt 1 : The belt grows with the city 2 : The city begins to sprawl (along the valleys), and the belt follows 3 : Railway transportation accelerates sprawling 4 : Vegetable farms follow railways : the farmers don’t deliver at city markets but at railway stations 5 : Vegetable farms leave city proximity for better climates. 6 : Road transportation replaces train.

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Bursting of the horticultural belt 1 : The belt grows with the city 2 : The city begins to sprawl (along the valleys), and the belt follows 3 : Railway transportation accelerates sprawling 4 : Vegetable farms follow railways : the farmers don’t deliver at city markets but at railway stations 5 : Vegetable farms leave city proximity for better climates. 6 : Road transportation replaces train. 7 - The city sprinkles among the wheat fields, landlocking and fragmenting agricultural territory

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Agriculture through the city

From urban agriculture to ÂŤ agriurbanism Âť What is urban agriculture ? Agriculture and urban sprawl : the case of Paris Agriurbanism for a sustainable food-governorship

Dr Roland Vidal Research Ingenior


Urban sprawl view from the night sky

Supply area of Paris 3000 m2 / inhab. = 3 600 000 ha

Field crops & grassland > 90 %

Wich agricultural area needs Paris’ population ?

Fruits & vegetables < 10 %

According to the calculation of INRA researchers, French agriculture uses 3000 m2 to feed one inhabitant - 1800 m2 of arable land - 1200 m2 of grassland

Cartographie Michel Bonavitacola (ANPCEN)

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The « food-miles » issue : distinguishing transportation modes

Field crops products on worldwide market

Fuel consumption Every food on national market (usually home trip full)

in liter / ton / 100 km

Fresh food on local market (usually home trip empty) 250

World transportation of fresh food (neither ecological nor fair)

Movement of the consumer’s car (home trip full but departure empty)

Economy of scale meets ecology of scale 16


Local agriculture and ecological footprint Taking into account the global energy cost

Some scientific results raising questions : Transportation accounts for less 20% of carbon emission in the life cycle assessment of food commodities. The main part comes from production (Kelly Rai Chi et al., Fair miles, USA, 2009)

A tomato grown in Essex in the UK is not necessarily more environnementally friendly than the same type of tomato grown in Spain and trucked to the UK (Dep for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs, DEFRA, UK, 2008)

The carbon cost of lamb production in New Zealand and imported in Germany is three times lower to that of local producted one (Elmar Schlich, INRA, 2006)

Optimizing production in terms of soil and climate is also good for protecting environnement 17


Some principles of Agriurbanism Studentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work : Parisâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; school of Agronomy (AgroParisTech)

An agricol territory, 25 km from Paris In green : usual courses of tractors In red : usual difficulties

Respect the functionality of agriculture when designing urban extensions

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Redesigning limits of the city without fragmenting agricultural space Studentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work : Versailles school of Architecture (ENSAV)

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Use architectural creativity to densify the urban fringes Renew the answer to the social desire of suburban detached house (responsible for 70% of urban sprawl) In the example right (Bjarke Ingels Group, Denmark) : - Nice view and sunshine for every house - Private outdoor space - Good isolation and no intervisibility - Collective spaces chosen, not imposed - 100 houses / hectare (4 times more than left example) www.big.dk

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Learn to admire the beauty of field crops and not only dream of outdated little farms

Studentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work : Versaillesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; school of Landscape-architecture (ENSP)

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Agriculture through the city_From urban agriculture to «agriurbanism»_Roland Vidal