Metropolitan Food Systems and Planning Opportunities and Challenges Prof. dr. Arnold van der Valk Wageningen University The Netherlands
The Part Planners Play Food systems Planning in Metropolitan & Urban Areas:
Alleged Benefits and Challenges
Content • Key concepts • Impressions from New York City • Urban and regional food Systems and Spatial Planning: Theory and Practice • Best Practices from all over the globe • Lessons
Metropolitan Food Systems Planning a novel perspective on urban, peri-urban and regional development
Food systems planning concerns food production, distribution, retail, consumption, waste disposal, jobs
Urban and metropolitan food systems (UMFS) 1. UMFS is a multi-faceted phenomenon 2. UMFS is research tool which helps in understanding and assessing patterns in urban and regional development 3. UMFS is a planning concept which sheds new light on urban rural and regional land use planning.
Spatial Planning Revisited Spatial planning is the accomplishment of meaningful links - between ongoing and future actions projects and strategies impacting on the spatial organisation of a territory. Making sense of complex reality. Plans and policies are conceived as frames for the use, management and design of the physical environment and landscape â€“ as perceived by the people. Planning is effectuated primarily through dialogue, design and decision making.
New York City: Eye-opener
Educational and aesthetic value of gardens.
Roof Top Farm in Queens: Crop Mob
Compost Free for Everyone
Survival without a green card in the Bronx.
Urban agriculture in Bronx.
Urban Ag for Sustenance of the Poor
Proliferation of farmers markets.
Whole Foods Market. Healthy, local, commercially viable â€“
For the wealthy few?
The revival of agriculture in the Hudson Valley.
The Part Planners Play in US • Planners take stock of complex process of food chain (collect data) and land use implications • Produce zoning ordinances and environmental impact reports inducing opportunities for urban agriculture • Mapping access to healthy food.
Urban and Regional Food Systems and Planning: Theory and Practice
The Part Planners Play
Source: Wiskerke 2009
Directions in U&M FSP Need to (re)define rural, (peri-)urban, agricultural, parks and plantations, waste, storm water systems, energy systems, earning capacity of buildings a.o. Need for re-invention of rules of thumb ratios and design concepts in (mono-functional) land use planning, urban planning and landscape architecture – both in academia and in practice. Sustainable Food Systems Planning is Embedded in Emerging Collaborative Planning Paradigm (Government to Governance) – institutional change don’t come easy!
Urban Growth strategiesPlay Green and Low Density
NYC and Detroit • NYC scars of 70s: community gardens, allotments •
roof top gardens
• Commercial horticulture: Hantz Farm Project
Auckland NZ • Reduce energy consumption costs and other costs of suburbia • Intensify along public transport routes and nodes • Build within Urban Growth Boundaries • Prefer Medium and High Density Building
Production: Ring in Food Chain
Best practices from all over the globe
The story of peri urban agriculture in Australia is one of short term intensive farming which regularly relocates in the face of urban demand
urban growth boundaries state policies urban footprints
Hanoi: stated preferences by urban residents Choose
1 out of 4 pictures representing future use of the urban area near your house
The Nairobi case: periurban areas
German Health Improvement and Prevention Research Programme (BMBF): the Casablanca Case
Casablanca Case Studies: exploring daily life in the peri-urban area â€“ Ouled Ahmed
Land use and residence
Work place residence and commuting
Scenario Process: Seven Sectoral Scenarios Urban Development Casablanca Food Basket Migration and Socio-Cultural Practices Water Urban Economy Energy Regional Climate
governance technical support
Sub-Concept 1 Urban Agriculture as space for regional food production
The food items of Casablanca Source: University of Hohenheim
Urban and Rural â€“ New Linkages and Synergies
+++ +++ +++ +++
food provision +++ regional products and markets +++ recreational space +++ beautiful landscape +++ natural heritage joint water use +++ water treatment systems +++ risk management +++ income generating activities ++ open space production +++ healthy habitat development +++ resource and energy efficient cycles +++ peri-urban tourism adapted technologies +++ city as an innovation multiplier +++ reduction of CO2 emissions +++ network +
Pilot Project 1: Urban Agriculture + Industry Establishing a water-reuse management between an industry estate and adjoining agriculture combining advanced technology and simple systems
Pilot Project 4: Urban Agriculture + Healthy Food Production Building up a healthy urban foodstuff production in the peri-urban area and securing better income potential for the small farmers by teaching organic farming
Proposal Summerschool MĂŠdiouna 2010 - Hyperproductive Rural Zone
Project-Study Precise Urban Agriculture
Planning and Research • Step 1: Establish Values and Goals of Participants pertaining to Food Safety, Sustainability, Health, Economy, Landscape • Step 2: Assess Rings in Regional Food Chain – Land Use, Land Tenure, Farming, Waste, Logistics, Energy, Water Management, Ecology • Step 3: Dialogue and Co-design, New Spatial Design Concepts, Joint Learning, Projects. • Step 4: Monitoring, Re-assessment, Iteration in Process.
The Flemish Garden City
THE FLEMISH GARDEN COMPLEX
Productivity of vegetable gardens (2007) (Internet survey)
Rough extrapolation for garden area in Flanders (not validated)
Flemish professional agriculture & horticulture (LARA, 2007)
52 million pieces
2,750 million pieces
Source: V. Dewaelheyns 2012
* Internetsurvey in Flanders (2007) // N=1.138
current food production
Lessons • Metropolitan Food Systems – a promising new perspective in spatial planning. Relocalisation of food. • Food system is chain – urban agriculture is a ring in the chain. • Urban environment is potential resource for sustainable agriculture: nutrients, energy, labour, knowledge, investment capital and growing market for whole foods.