STROLLS IN TARTU THE HEART OF THE CITY
Tartu is simultaneously young and one of the oldest cities, not only in Estonia but also in the Baltic States. In Tartu, you will find exciting places, buildings, and monuments from different times. A walk in the heart of the city extends the walkerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s horizon and introduces the environment, which the citizens of Tartu rightfully and proudly consider to be the heart of their hometown. To this day, the so-recognizable and yet unrecognizable spirit of Tartu floats here. The historic route has been designed for walkers interested in history and introduces sights and buildings in their historical perspective. History does include not only wars and military monuments, but also science and culture, building art, and botany. Therefore, we can safely say that when the water droplet reflects the sea, the history of Tartu reflects the history of Estonia as a whole. Open your mind and have fun discovering!
Tartu City Government 2017, www.tartu.ee Text: L. KĂ¤ngsepp, Artwerk Photos: A. Andresen, A. Haas, K. Ilves, O. Kuusk, K. Paalits, L. Laurikainen, H. Leis, M. Lokk, J. Nilson, Oop, V. Parhomenko, J. Sokk, M. Toom, R. Toom, J. Voolaid, Artwerk: O. Helm, K. Kutsar, A. Pluum, L. Vuks, www.visitestonia.com, www.visittartu.com, Tartu City Government Archive, et.wikipedia.org Design: Artwerk
A STROLL IN THE HEART OF TARTU The beginning and the end of the route: Town Hall Square. 1,5 hours 4,1 km 5400 steps Town Hall Square – Rüütli Street – St. John’s Church – Ülikooli Street – Küüni street – Kalevi street – Lille street – Soola street – across the street at Soola-Turu intersection – Sadama street (AHHAA Science Center) – open market – Market Building – promenade by Emajõgi River – Bridge Kaarsild.
1. Town Hall Square (Raekoja plats 1a)
In the Middle Ages, the heart of the city government - the Town Hall Square was built here. The current building, completed in the 1780s, is already the third in the same place. On the first floor of the Town Hall there was a prison and a weigh house, on the upper floors there was the city council. To this day, the city council and city government, as well as the information center, operate in the city hall. Every day at 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21, the chimes sound in Town Hall Tower with 34 bells made in Germany and the Netherlands.
2. Sculpture of Kissing Students
In 1951, a fountain that became a favorite meeting place was built in front of the Town Hall, which after rebuilding in 1998 was adorned with a sculpture “Kissing Students” (by M. Karmin and T. Trummal). Every year on April 30th, at half past five in the evening, the head of the girl student kissing in the sculpture of the Town Hall Square is decorated with a white-redgreen wreath for the night of the 1st of May. Tartu is a city where one-fifth of the population consists of students, a fact that creates a magical, young and purposeful atmosphere.
3. The Leaning House (Town Hall Square 18) The Leaning house, which the people call the Pisa Tower of Tartu, was erected near the medieval city wall in 1793. The riverside of the building rests on the old city wall, the other on a base made of pylons. This is also the reason for the tilting of the house. The building is also called the Barclay House, as Princess Barclay lived in this house. Later the building housed a pharmacy, where at the beginning of the 20th century the writer O. Luts worked as a pharmacist. The house is currently housing the Art Museum of Tartu. 4. Estonian Sports and Olympic Museum (Rüütli 15) The most substantial sports museum in the Baltics has an excellent collection of objects related to all Estonian physical culture. 5. St. John’s Church (Jaani Street 5) The church has been located at the same place probably since the first half of the 13th century. Initially, the building was made of wood. The oldest parts of the current building date back to the 14th century. St. John’s Church can be considered the building with the richest adornment of terra-cotta in medieval Europe! The church suffered significantly during the last war, and the restoration work was completed in 2005. 6. Jaan Tõnisson Monument
The monument was erected in memory of the former Estonian state governor, prime minister, publisher and editor-inchief of Postimees, J. Tõnisson, and is located on the Tõnisson Square opposite the former Postimees publishing house.
The monument was opened in 2001; the authors are sculptor M. Karmin and architect T. Trummal.
7. The main building of the University of Tartu
(Ülikooli 18) The main building of the University of Tartu was built according to the design of J.W. Krause and was inaugurated in 1809. Since then, all major events and celebrations of university life have been celebrated in the university assembly hall. Due to the very good acoustics, often concerts are organized, and thanks to its spaciousness, also conferences are held in the assembly hall. The historic carcer is located in the attic of the main building, and the university’s art museum is on the first floor.
8. Von Bock House (Ülikooli Street 16)
Following the reopening of the university, Oberst von Bock gave the lower floor of his house to the university to use for free for five years. Later, the University of Tartu bought the building. For a shorter or longer time the house has also been the Library of the Learned Estonian Society, a Clinic, and the Veterinary School. During the Soviet era, the building was at the disposal of the so-called red chairs and was nicknamed “the Marx House.” In 2007, on the end wall of the building, on the side towards the Town Hall, was painted a wall painting depicting the main building of the university - the exact replica of the engraving by L. Höflinger from the year 1860. On the end wall towards Jakobi Street, there is a photo exhibition by A. Madisson depicting the lecturers of the University.
9. Pirogov Square
Pirogov Square is a traditional meeting and hangout place for Tartu students.
10. Barclay Square and Monument
A small promenade runs opposite Central Park, next to which, in 1849 was erected a monument to Feldmarsal M.A. Barclay de Tolly (1761-1818). The Russian military commander with Baltic German roots and with family ties also to Tartu. Barclay de Tolly was also the Russian Minister of War, and in 1814 he led the conquest of Paris.
11. Sculpture “Father and Son”
The sculpture by Ü. Õun Küün Street in Tartu symbolizes the relationship between different generations, where children are increasingly outgrowing their parents. Õun, of Tartu origin, modeled “Father and Son” in 1977. The author has portrayed himself and his infant son Kristjan. The sculpture was opened on Children’s Day, June 1, 2004.
12. Theater Vanemuine (Vanemuise Street 6)
In 1865, the Vanemuine Society was founded in Tartu on the initiative of J.V. Jannsen. On the 5th anniversary of the Society, a play by L. Koidula â&#x20AC;&#x153;Cousin from Saaremaaâ&#x20AC;? was performed, this is considered to be the beginning of the Vanemuine Theater, and the Estonian national theater. The theater moved to this location in 1906, and the history of Vanemuine began for the first professional theater in Estonia. The current theater house was completed in 1967 to replace the theater house that was destroyed in World War II.
13. Tartu Environmental Education Centre
(Lille Street 10) The Tartu Environmental Education Center with its spacious park is a bit of nature right in the heart of Tartu, providing a peaceful setting, with exciting and educational recreation for both children and adults.
14. Science Center AHHAA
(Sadama Street 1) The largest and most modern science center in the Baltic States offers the opportunity to experiment with science and technology, experiment and discover yourself.
15. Tartu open market (Salt 10) In the market in the center of Tartu, at the end of Soola Street on the banks of the Emajõgi River, people trade in local grown foodstuffs and crafts, and to a lesser extent, in industrial goods. 16. Tartu Market Building and “Bronze Pig”
Tartu Market Building was completed in December 1937 and remained the most representative market building in Estonia for a long time. The example was the market building of Liepaja. In 2008, in front of the market building was placed a sculpture “Bronze Pig” by M. Karmin on the occasion of the 70th anniversary of the Market, based on a poem by I. Hirv and a scheme of cutting a pig. The pig is a symbol of wealth and trade.
17. Water Meter Tower
The Water Meter Tower - information display on the Emajõgi Riverbank was opened in 2010. The display shows real-time air and water temperature and the water level in the Emajõgi River. Data is updated every 10 minutes.
18. Bridge Kaarsild (Arch Bridge) Bridge Kaarsild is a pedestrian bridge between the city center and the Ülejõe district. The bridge was built in 1957-1959 in the place of the former Kivisild (Stone Bridge), on the foundations of its shore pillars. Until the completion of the bridge, a long riverboat regularly carried people across the river in the 1950s (roughly twenty meters above the bridge).
HISTORICAL TARTU The beginning and the end of the route: Town Hall Square. 1,5 hours 4 km 5250 steps Town Hall – Town Hall Square – Küüni Street – Barclay Square – Vallikraavi Street – the historic staircase of the house of Fraternity Estonia to Toomemäe – down Lossi Street to Ülikooli Street – Pirogov Square – von Bock House – Main Building of the University – Jaani Quarter (Luts Theater House, Toy Museum, Antonius’ Yard, St. John’s Church, Swedish-era main building of the University, Citizen’s Museum) – Lai Street (noblemen’s homes, Botanical Gardens) – New Theater – Tartu Town Wall – Magasini Street – Uspenski Church – Rüütli Street – Town Hall Square – Bridge Kaarsild and Mock-up of Bridge Kivisild.
1. Town Hall Square
For centuries, the Town Hall Square with a history which dates back to ancient times has been the center of Tartu. Naturally, already at that time, the principal trading point of the settlement was the area connecting the fortress in Toomemäe with the port by the River Emajõgi. Nowadays, Town Hall Square is a trapezoid-shaped city center square with classicist buildings and a fountain with the sculpture “Kissing Students.”
2. Town Hall
In the Middle Ages, the heart of the city government - the Town Hall was built here. The current building, completed in the 1780s, is already the third building in the same place. On the first floor of the Town Hall there was a prison and a weigh house, on the upper floors there was the city council. To this day, the city council and city government, as well as the information center, operate in the city hall. Every day at 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21, the chimes sound in the Town Hall Tower with 34 bells made in Germany and the Netherlands.
3. Küüni Street
Küüni Street is one of the busiest streets in Tartu. Historically, it has been a shopping street, from 1821 to the Second World War there was a traders’ courtyard here, today Kaubahoovi Park, or Central Park, is in this place. The Tartu department
store (completed in 2005), Tartu supermarket (1989) and GMP Plaza, established in the place of a former hotel London, are located on Küüni Street. In 2004 on Children’s Day, the sculpture of Ü. Õun “Father and Son” (from the year 1977) was placed here. The street bore the name of Küün (Kühnstraße) from 1550 to 1936. The medieval name was restored in 1989.
4. Barclay Square and Monument
A small promenade runs opposite Central Park, next to which, in 1849, was erected a monument to Feldmarsal M.A. Barclay de Tolly (1761-1818). The Russian military commander with Baltic German roots and with family ties also to Tartu was the Russian Minister of War, and in 1814 he led the conquest of Paris.
5. A former inn and clinic
(Vallikraavi Street 10) The building currently at this address was built at the end of the 19th century. Here was a private surgical clinic where J. Kuperjanov, the hero of the Estonian War of Independence died in 1919. Later, the Grand Hotel was located in the building, after the war there was the Hotel Toome, and then one building of the Tartu University Hospital.
6. Historical building of Fraternity Estonia
(Vallikraavi Street 9) The house was built at the end of the 1860s and was also the home of Fraternity Estonia, one of the oldest student organizations in Tartu. Currently, there is a publishing house in the building.
At Toomemägi, was located the earliest Estonian ancient fortress Tarbatu and later, with the bishopric castle and Cathedral, it was the center of the medieval Bishopric of Dorpat. The bishop’s castle was destroyed during the Great Northern War. After the Northern War, the bastions built during Swedish time were leveled. At the beginning of the 19th century, Toomemägi went to the ownership of the University, and the park and university buildings were erected here.
8. Monument of Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Struve
Fr. GW Struve, a well-known astronomer, and geodesist (17931864) was the first director of the observatory. He began to equip this observatory with the best observation equipment of his time. Observations at that time were with the largest lens telescope in the world, with the Fraunhofer refractor made in 1824, which made both Tartu Observatory and the scientist himself world famous. The Struve Monument is an abstract piece carrying the spirit of his time reflecting the drive of human thought into space.
9. Tartu Observatory
The observatory built at the beginning of the 19th century was, at the time, one of the most important centers of world astronomy. Scientists engaged here in geodesy, seismology, time measurement, theoretical and experimental physics.
The meridian map measured from northern Norway to the Black Sea under the leadership of the directors of the observatory Fr. G.W. Struve and C.F. Tenner is nowadays known as the Struve geodetic arc. In 2005, the arc which was of great importance in the development of geodesy and cartography was included in the UNESCO World Heritage list. One of the most important points on the Struve arc is also Tartu Observatory, currently the branch of the University of Tartu Museum.
10. Location of ancient fortress and bishops castle
The oldest fortress of Estonians, Tarbatu, occupied by the Crusaders in the 13th century, was located on the site of the present Observatory, and in its surroundings. By the year 1234, a stone bishops fortress, consisting of the main fortress and the front fortress was built on the site of the ancient fortress. It was destroyed in the Northern War in 1708. In the second half of the 18th century, the Russians reconstructed the northern slope of the fortress hill into an earth fortress.
11. Old Anatomical Theatre (Lossi Street 38) The Old Anatomical Theatre is one of the first renovated buildings of the university, built by the design of the Universityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s architect W.J. Krause in 1803-1805. The prominent anatomist A. Rauber, pharmacologist R. Buchheim, physiologist F. Bidder and surgeon N. Burdenko worked in this house.
12. Monument of Friedrich Robert Faehlmann
Fr. R. Faehlmann (1798-1850) was the founder of Estonian national literature, a doctor and a Democrat. Since 1824, Faehlmann worked as a doctor in Tartu. He was an Estonian language lecturer at the University and also read the course of Pharmacology and Prescriptions as a Teaching Assistant. The monument was opened in 1930, and its author is V. Mellik.
13. Kuradisild (Devil’s Bridge) Kuradisild was built on the occasion of the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty of the Russian Tsars in 1913 and devoted to the memory of Emperor Alexander I. The bridge is one of the few concrete buildings preserved from the beginning of the 20th century. The name of the Devil’s Bridge may originate from the contrast to the nearby Angel’s Bridge. It is also suggested in the literature that the reason might be
the name of the head of the bridge building, the professor of medicine and the surgeon W.Z. von Manteuffel (in German, Teufel means “devil”).
14. Supreme Court building (Lossi Street 17)
In 1778, a military barrack-hospital was built on Toomemäe, which is the forerunner of the current Supreme Court building. The university gained the ownership of the barracks with
a broken stone wall in 1805. After construction, the building began to be used as a clinical institute consisting of a medical, surgical and obstetric clinic. In the years 1845-1847, the clinic was rebuilt and received its new style that has been preserved to this day. Since 1995, the building is the home of the Supreme Court.
15. Monument of Johan Skytte
Mr. Skytte was a Swedish civil servant, a teacher, and adviser to Swedish King Gustav II Adolf. He was the initiator of the idea of establishing the University of Tartu, and also was its first chancellor. At the opening assembly of the University, he made a speech as the Livonian General Governor, and the University Chancellor, stating the position that not only noblemen and townspeople but also poor peasants, should be
able to study at the university. This was an extraordinary idea throughout Europe. J. Skytte’s monument was opened in 2007 on the occasion of the 375th anniversary of the University of Tartu in the presence of Queen Silvia of Sweden.
16. Ruins of the Cathedral and the University of Tartu Museum
The construction of the Cathedral began in the 13th century. At the end of the Middle Ages, it was one of the most significant sacred buildings in the old Livonia. During the Reforma-
tion and in the Livonian War, the church was destroyed. The fire of 1624 finished up the destruction. In connection with the re-opening of the university in 1802, the churchâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s choral part of the church was reconstructed for the use of the University Library, which was located there until 1982. Currently, the White Hall of the University of Tartu is located in these rooms. The hall has an excellent acoustic quality and is a valued concert venue.
17. Sacrificial Stone
Ancient Estonians used to make sacrifices to ask for Godâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s favor. The stones also had a magical healing effect. There are about 400 sacrificial stones in Estonia.
18. Monument of Johann Karl Simon Morgenstern
J.K.S Morgenstern (1770-1852) was Professor of Classical Philology and Aesthetics at the University of Tartu, founder and the first director of the University Library and the founder of the University Art Museum. His personal library (about 11,500 volumes) is kept at the University Library.
19. Monument of Karl Ernst von Baer
K.E. von Baer (1792-1876) was a Baltic-German scholar, a founder of embryology, who discovered mammalian eggs. He was a graduate of the University of Tartu, worked in KĂśnigsberg and St. Petersburg. Seven geographical objects in the world have been named in his honor.
20. Angel’s Bridge
The name of the Angel’s Bridge, completed in 1838 and is apparently derived from the name “English Bridge,” because the Toomemäe Park was built in the English style. On the Toomemäe side of the bridge is the bas-relief of G. Fr. Parrot, the first rector of the university when it reopened in 1802.
21. Lossi Street
At the present site of the present Lossi (Castle) Street, there was a street already at the end of the ancient times, from 11 to 12 it received a wooden paving. The upper part of the street that the beginning of the Middle Ages, was bearing the name Doom after Toomemäe, was later renamed Schloßstraße or Loss Street (Castle Street); the lower end of the street was called Schmidestraße or Sepa (Blacksmith) Street.
22. Püssirohukelder (Gun Powder Cellar)
Right on the slope of Toomemäe, there is Püssirohukelder, which was used as a gunpowder cellar until the beginning of the 19th century, later the cellar was owned by the university. The cellar was built in 1767 in a trench which separated the bishop’s castle from the front fortress. Bricks used for construction were obtained from the ruins of the Medieval St Mary’s Church and from the walls of the bishop’s castle. In 1827, the University leased the cellar to the beer manufacturer Schramm. At the end of the 19th century, the cellar was also used to study earthquakes and magnetic phenomena. Currently, there is a beer restaurant listed in the Guinness Book of Records as a beer restaurant with the world’s highest ceiling, 11-meters high.
23. Pirogov Square
Pirogov Square is a traditional meeting and a hangout place for Tartu students.
24. Monument of Nikolai Pirogov
N. Pirogov (1810-1881) was a Russian surgeon, anatomist, and pedagogue. He studied between 1828 and 1832 at the Institute of Professors at the University of Tartu, defended his doctoral thesis and was a professor here in 1836-1841. He is considered the founder of field surgery and topographic anatomy. N. Pirogov was one of the first doctors in Europe who used ether for narcosis, introduced a rigid plaster cast, and developed bone plastics for the amputation of a leg. The monument was completed in 1952.
25. Von Bock House (Ülikooli Street 16) Following the reopening of the university, Oberst von Bock gave the lower floor of his house to the university to use for free for five years. Later, the University of Tartu bought the building. For a shorter or longer time the house has also been the Library of the Learned Estonian Society. Also, a Clinic and the Veterinary School was here. During the Soviet era, the building was at the disposal of the so-called red chairs and was nicknamed “the Marx House.” In 2007, on the end wall of the building, on the side towards the Town Hall, was painted a wall depicting the main building of the university - the exact replica of the engraving by L. Höflinger from the year 1860. On the end wall towards Jakobi Street, there is a photo exhibition by A. Madisson depicting the lecturers of the University.
26. The main building of the University of Tartu
(Ă&#x153;likooli 18) The main building of the University of Tartu was built according to the design of J.W. Krause and was inaugurated in 1809. Since then, all major events and celebrations of university life have been celebrated in the university assembly hall. Due to the outstanding acoustics concerts are organized, and thanks to its spaciousness, also conferences are held in the assembly hall. The historic carcer is located in the attic of the main building, and the universityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s art museum is on the first floor.
27. Monument of Gustav II Adolf
Gustav II Adolf (1594-1632) was the king of Sweden and commander of the army. Shortly before the battle of LĂźtzen, where he fell, he signed the founding document of the University of Tartu. The original monument was erected on the 10th anniversary of the Republic of Estonia. In 1950, the monument was destroyed by Soviet power. The restored monument was opened on April 23, 1992, by King of Sweden Karl XVI Gustav and Queen Silvia. Already in 1988, Tartu students made a sculpture from the snow on the flower bed located behind the main building, which resembled a monument located in the same place until 1950.
28. Theater House (Lutsu 2)
The first remains of the wooden building of the plot originate from the beginning of the 14th century. In the same century, in place of wooden buildings stone buildings were built that have over time repeatedly been rebuilt. The building received
its current shape in the middle of the 18th century when it belonged to the pastor of St. John’s Church. Significant is the baroque portal and door of the building. The house happily survived both the great fire of Tartu in 1775 and the 20th-century wars. Currently, it is possible to watch performances here, perform plays, and enjoy the museum of theatre puppets. The remains of the medieval home can be seen in the cellar rooms.
29. The main building of the Tartu Toy Museum
(Lutsu street 8) The museum’s main building is one of Tartu’s oldest preserved wooden buildings. First, there was the Tartu Garrison Schoolhouse and the Russian Church. The Tartu District School has also been operating here, where mostly children from city handicraftsmen families were studying. To date, from the original building have been preserved the mantle chimney, horizontal log walls, a large part of the permanent board lining of the courtyard facade, and the wooden cornice. In 1998, the house became the site of the Toy Museum. After the renovation, there is a permanent exposition of the museum and a play and crafts room.
30. The Guild of Saint Antonius (Lutsu Street 3 and 5) In the Antonius courtyard in the Jaani quarter is the Guild of Saint Antonius which unites artists and craftsmen. Arts and crafts workshops operate in three buildings. Open-air events, fairs, and concerts are held in the yard, and a cafe is available. The Guild of Saint Antonius mentioned for the first time in 1449. The Guild owned a vast area from Väikese Gildi Street (current Munga Street) until Lutsu Street.
31. St. John’s Church (Jaani Street 5)
The church has been located at the same place probably since the first half of the 13th century. Initially, the building was made of wood. The oldest parts of the current building date back to the 14th century. St. John’s Church can be considered the building with the richest terra-cotta adornment of medieval Europe! The church suffered significantly during the last war, and the restoration work was completed in 2005.
32. The Swedish era main building of the University (Jaani Street 8)
The building on this plot was first mentioned in the 16th century. In 1640, Academia Gustaviana moved to the stone house located on the plot. After the transfer of the Academia Gustaviana to Pärnu, the building stayed with the commandant and after the Great Northern War went to the Russians in the form of ruins. In 1766, the house was restored as a court building, to which later a prison was added. Today the building is used as a residential building. In the masonry, alongside with the parts formed in the 19th century, parts of the buildings of the 17th and 18th centuries have also survived.
33. 19th century Tartu Citizen’s Home Museum
(Jaani Street 16) The museum is located in a wooden dwelling house built in the 1740s, is one of the oldest preserved buildings in Tartu. The visitor will find the home of a Tartu bourgeois citizen in the 1830s. The living room, dining room, and the bedrooms, along with the workroom of the master of the house have been furnished in the style characteristic of the Biedermeier era.
34. Lai Street (noblemen’s houses, Botanical Garden) The Bredestraße (translated by Lai Street) has been mentioned as the street name already in 1547 in the Town Hall records. In Lai Street are located several homes of noblemen built at the end of the 18th century and in the first half of the 19th century. Lai Street 32 belonged for a long time to the family of the Lipharts, the owners of the Raadi manor. In 1921, the property was bought by Fraternity Vironia.
35. University of Tartu Botanical Gardens
(Lai Street 38) The Botanical Gardens were founded in 1803. There are about 6,000 different plant species in the area of 3.1 hectares. The Palm Building is the highest greenhouse in the Baltics (22 m). On the territory of the Botanical Gardens, a corner of the city wall with the fortification tower was located, and in the corner, there was a Novgorod merchants’ district with a residential building, a cemetery, and a church. The pond of the Botanical Garden is part of the moat surrounding the city wall, which is still filled with water.
36. New Theater (Lai Street 37)
The New Theater is located opposite the botanical gardens in the former gym of the University of Tartu. The gym building was built in 1892 according to R. Guleke’s design. In the Middle Ages, there was the Holy Spirit Church and a hospital.
37. Ruins of the Tartu city wall
(the corner of Lai Street and Vabaduse Street) A part of the medieval city wall has been preserved. Initially, the length of the city wall was built of rubble stones and was about 2 km, the average height 9 m and with a diameter of 2 m. The city wall had 27 towers, 9 of which had a gate. This section of the wall was probably completed at the beginning of the 14th century.
38. Genialists’ Club (Magasini Street 3 and 5) In the past, there have been several educational institutions in this building. After the war, there was a dormitory of the Construction School, and after that the Kalev ski center. In 2008, the Genialists’ Club, the favorite “Subculture House,” moved to the former gym, where they make experimental music and theater. 39. Uspensky Church (Magasini Street 1) The Uspensky Apostolic-Orthodox Church of the Ascension of Mary is located in the place where the Dominican monastery and the Church of Mary Magdalene were previously located, which were destroyed during the Iconoclastic Fury. In 1753 the wooden Uspensky Church was erected in the place of the ruins, and in 1775 it burned down in the great fire of the city. In 1783, a new stone church was built. The layout of the church was initially in the form of a Greek cross.
40. Rüütli Street
The street starts from Town Hall Square and ends on Lai Street and is about 380 m long. The street received its current straight line after the fire of the year 1775. The street is also called the Main Street and the Great Street, which refers to its central role. Today there are plenty of pubs and cafes on Rüütli Street, and the main nightlife of the city is concentrated on this street.
41. London Hotel House
(Rüütli Street 9 / Küütri Street 10/12) The history of the house dates back to the second half of the 16th century. In the building, there was a girls’ school and a
beer factory. In 1933-1940 the legendary Ko-Ko-Ko (Kolme Koopa Kohvik, Three Caves Cafe) settled here, and in 19751997, the super favorite beer restaurant Humal, which has been mentioned or described in memoirs and fiction by many well-known cultural figures. The London Hotel was opened in 2002. The hotel of the same name also operated in Tartu before World War II on Kauba Street.
42. The Leaning House (Town Hall Square 18)
The Leaning house, which the local people call the Pisa Tower of Tartu, was erected near the medieval city wall in 1793.The riverside side of the house rests on the old city wall, the other
on a base made of pylons. This is also the reason for the tilting of the house. The building is also called the Barclay House, as Princess Barclay lived in this house. Later the building housed a pharmacy, where at the beginning of the 20th century the writer O. Luts worked as a pharmacist. The house currently houses the Art Museum of Tartu.
43. Bridge Kaarsild (Arch Bridge)
Bridge Kaarsild is a pedestrian bridge between the city center and Ülejõe district. The bridge was built in 1957-1959 in the place of the former Kivisild (Stone Bridge), on the foundations of its shore pillars. Before the completion of the bridge, a long riverboat regularly carried people across the river in the 1950s (roughly twenty meters above the bridge).
44. Model of Kivisild Bridge
The bronze model of the former Kivisild Bridge, a sculpture at Kaarsild Bridge, was placed at the site under the leadership of the Kivisilla Foundation. For a long time, Tartu Kivisild was the only stone bridge in the Baltics. The bridge was decided to be built after the fire of 1775 on the initiative of General Governor of Livonia G. Browne, and it was funded by the Empress Catherine II. During construction, the northern side branch of Emajõgi River was filled in, and the island of Holm was merged with the northern shore of the Emajõgi River. The bridge was destroyed in World War II.
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