Page 1

DSI COVER Feb 15:cover-feb3.qxd 10/02/15 11:09 AM Page 1

FIRE POWER

ARMY MODERNISATION Require higher budgetary support, upgradation of recruitment standards & personnel skills I GURMEET KANWAL COMMUNICATION

ADVANCED NETWORK CENTRIC Urgent need for a comprehensive vision for capacity building in a digitised battlefield I DAVINDER KUMAR FEBRUARY 2015

DEFENCE and SECURITY of INDIA

DSI

www.defencesecurityindia.com

VOLUME 7

ISSUE 1

` 250

INDIAN AEROSPACE:

MOVING TOWARDS INDIGENISATION IF INDIA HAS TO REALISE ITS POTENTIAL THEN IT NEEDS TO GRASP THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY AND ITS DEFENCE INDUSTRY THAT ARE CONSTITUENTS OF ITS NATIONAL POWER I M MATHESWARAN


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AERO INDIA 2015 Israel Pavilion Hall A, Booth A1.1


Letter from the Editor.qxd:contents-aug.qxd 09/02/15 1:09 PM Page 2

FEBRUARY 2015

LETTER FROM THE

DSI

editor

T

he tenth edition of the sub-continent’s premier air show Aero India ’15 is upon us already. Two years ago, when the last edition of the Aero India show was held, there was a sense of a lack of direction. India had already down-selected Rafale to be its chosen medium, multirole combat aircraft (MMRCA). And the wooing of India by the global aerospace majors was over. So, even if F/A 18 Super Hornets flew over-head with a lot of sound and fury it still did not create too much of awe: from the viewpoint of the large posse of media-people to the aam aadmi, it was all been there, done that. The panache with which the top aerospace executives moved around; the way their foot soldiers rallied visitors to their chalets, were all a bit off-key. But this year again, the show is expected to excel, with the whirly-birds – the helicopters – being the showstoppers. Indian armed forces are expected to procure over the next couple of years a thousand-odd choppers of all varieties. Be they light utility helicopters, multirole helicopters or attack and heavy lift helicopters, billions of dollars are supposed to change hands. From the viewpoint of the domestic private sector, seeking a foothold in the global aerospace sector, there is a lot to chew on. The first is the collaboration between the international manufacturing majors with Indian majors like the Tatas, L&T and Reliance that is on anvil for manufacturing domestically aerospace elements, on conditions of ‘Make in India’ mantra that the Prime Minister Narendra Modi has given to the country. Will there be shopping for partners by the aerospace majors at Aero India, I see that happening at the micro, small and medium enterprises sector. They will be the sector waiting to be discovered in this Aero India ’15. They will create the eco-system for the country to take wings in this crucial segment of industry. There was a time when automobile manufacture was the top slot in technological growth. Now is the time for the aerospace, so say the experts, some of whom have written in this issue of DSI. So read on!

Pinaki Bhattacharya

3

The show is expected to excel, with the whirly-birds – the helicopters – being the showstoppers. Indian armed forces are expected to procure over the next couple of years a thousand-odd choppers of all varieties.


Contents 2nd time:contents-feb-R.qxd 10/02/15 11:05 AM Page 2

CONTENTS

FEBRUARY 2015

HELICOPTER

DSI

08

EXPANDING CAPABILITIES AND EMERGING MISSIONS Helicopters today are integral part of land, sea and air operations of modern armies and are being increasingly employed in sub-conventional operations (counter-insurgency and counter-terrorist operations) across the world.

INDIA-ISRAEL

4

16

NAVAL WARFARE

32

COMMUNICATION

48

NEW VISTAS IN DEFENCE TIES

RESURGENCE OF THE NAVAL GUN

The defence relationship between India and Israel has grown concurrently with the growth in the bilateral trade. There has been robust institutional interaction between each other’s armed forces and national security apparatuses

The key to blue water navy is its ability to destroy targets before they are able to pose a threat. Indian Navy is modernising the main and auxiliary gun with greater chance of survivability

There is an urgent need for a comprehensive vision for capacity building in a digitised battlefield, formulated together by all the stake holders

MAKE IN INDIA

FIRE POWER

AEROSPACE

24

40

ADVANCED NETWORK CENTRIC SOLUTIONS FOR INDIAN ARMED FORCES

54

INDIAN AEROSPACE: MOVING TOWARDS INDIGENISATION

ARMY REQUIREMENTS AND MODERNISATION STRATEGY FOR GAINING MOMENTUM GROWTH

If India has to realise its potential then it will need to grasp the nuances of the role of technology and its defence industry that are constituents of its national power

The army’s modernisation plans require substantially higher budgetary support, simultaneous upgradation of recruitment standards and, consequently skills to absorb high-tech weapon systems

5

Linked to India’s growth as regional power is the development of aeronautical sector. A significant number of SMEs and MSMEs that constitute the domestic aeronautical sector can be loci for the growth.


Contents 2nd time:contents-feb-R.qxd 10/02/15 11:05 AM Page 2

CONTENTS

FEBRUARY 2015

HELICOPTER

DSI

08

EXPANDING CAPABILITIES AND EMERGING MISSIONS Helicopters today are integral part of land, sea and air operations of modern armies and are being increasingly employed in sub-conventional operations (counter-insurgency and counter-terrorist operations) across the world.

INDIA-ISRAEL

4

16

NAVAL WARFARE

32

COMMUNICATION

48

NEW VISTAS IN DEFENCE TIES

RESURGENCE OF THE NAVAL GUN

The defence relationship between India and Israel has grown concurrently with the growth in the bilateral trade. There has been robust institutional interaction between each other’s armed forces and national security apparatuses

The key to blue water navy is its ability to destroy targets before they are able to pose a threat. Indian Navy is modernising the main and auxiliary gun with greater chance of survivability

There is an urgent need for a comprehensive vision for capacity building in a digitised battlefield, formulated together by all the stake holders

MAKE IN INDIA

FIRE POWER

AEROSPACE

24

40

ADVANCED NETWORK CENTRIC SOLUTIONS FOR INDIAN ARMED FORCES

54

INDIAN AEROSPACE: MOVING TOWARDS INDIGENISATION

ARMY REQUIREMENTS AND MODERNISATION STRATEGY FOR GAINING MOMENTUM GROWTH

If India has to realise its potential then it will need to grasp the nuances of the role of technology and its defence industry that are constituents of its national power

The army’s modernisation plans require substantially higher budgetary support, simultaneous upgradation of recruitment standards and, consequently skills to absorb high-tech weapon systems

5

Linked to India’s growth as regional power is the development of aeronautical sector. A significant number of SMEs and MSMEs that constitute the domestic aeronautical sector can be loci for the growth.


Contributors.qxd:contributors-aug.qxd 09/02/15 4:03 PM Page 1

CONTRIBUTORS

FEBRUARY 2015

DSI

DEFENCE and SECURITY of INDIA FEBRUARY 2015 AIR MARSHAL(RETD) M MATHESWARAN

DR S KULSHRESTHA

LT GENERAL (RETD) DAVINDER KUMAR

S. KRISHNASWAMY

S. SAMUEL C. RAJIV

LT GEN (RETD) BS PAWAR

Air Marshal M Matheswaran was the Deputy Chief of Integrated Defence Staff at Head Quarters IDS until his retirement 0n 31 Mar 2014. He was responsible for Policy, Plans and Force Structure development of theThree Services, including budget analysis, Acquisition, procurement and technology management. He was responsible for formulating the long-term and short-term integrated defence plans. Air Marshal M Matheswaran was commissioned in 1975. He is an alumni of National Defence Academy. His academic achievements include Master’s, M Phil, Ph.D in “Defence and Strategic Studies” (University of Madras) and a Post Graduate Diploma in Financial Management.

RAdm. S. Kulshreshtha, Indian Navy in the year 1975 and served as Director General of Naval Armament Ministry of Defence (Navy) where he was directly responsible for availability of reliable and safe naval armament. He has superannuated from Indian Navy in 2011 and is currently unaffiliated. He has been writing in defence journals on issues related to matters Navy, Armament technology and indigenisation.

Davinder Kumar superannuated in September 2011 as the CEO & Managing Director ofTata Advanced Systems Ltd. He has been on the Board of Directors of a number of Private and Public sector companies. Earlier, he was the Signal Officer-in-Chief of the Indian Army responsible for conception, planning and execution of communication networks, electronic warfare and information security projects.

Air Chief Marshal S Krishnaswamy is a former Chief of the Air Staff and headed the Air Force during 2002-2004. He has held many senior appointments in the IAF – that includes Deputy Chief, Vice Chief and Commander-in-Chief of three operational Air Commands of the Air Force. He initiated and headed major inductions and programs for the IAF. He is recipient of many decorations and awards, among them the ‘Agni Award’ for outstanding contribution to aeronautics.

Rajiv is an Associate Fellow, Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA), New Delhi. His research interests include India-Israel relations, Iran nuclear issue, among others. His publications include ‘The Delicate Balance: Israel and India’s Foreign Policy Practice’, Strategic Analysis, January 2012, ‘In Pursuit of a Chimera: Nuclear Imbroglio between Sanctions and Engagement’, Strategic Analysis, November 2012, among others. He has also published inThe Jerusalem Post, Business Standard, ISN, ETH, Zurich and Asiatimes.

An alumni of Rashtriya Indian Military College and National Defence Academy, Lt Gen BS Pawar was commissioned into Artillery in June 1968. He was Maj Gen Artillery, Western Command during Operation Parakram and was awarded the AtiVashist Seva Medal. He also headed the Army Aviation Corps and was instrumental in the operationalisation of the Advanced Light Helicopter during his tenure. A defence analyst, he writes for a number of defence journals/ publications and is also on the Editorial Board of some of them.

GURMEET KANWAL Gurmeet Kanwal is former director, Centre for Land Warfare Studies, New Delhi. He commanded an infantry brigade during Operation Parakram on the Line of Control in 2001-03. A soldierscholar, he has authored several books including Indian Army:Vision 2020 and Nuclear Defence: Shaping the Arsenal. He is a wellknown columnist and TV analyst on national security issues.

VOLUME 7, ISSUE 1

EDITOR Pinaki Bhattacharya JR. FEATURES WRITER Jaya Singh ASST. ART DIRECTOR Ajay Kumar SENIOR MANAGER INTERNATIONAL MARKETING Vishal Mehta (E-Mail: vishalmehta@mtil.biz) MANAGER MARKETING Jakhongir Djalmetov (E-Mail: joha@mtil.biz) AD SALES Prateek Singh (E-Mail: prateeksingh@mtil.biz) SALES & MARKETING COORDINATOR Atul Bali (E-Mail: atul@mtil.biz) PRODUCTION & PRE-PRESS Sunil Dubey, Ritesh Roy, Jeetendra Madaan MTC PUBLISHING LIMITED 323, Udyog Vihar, Ph-IV, Gurgaon 122016 Ph: +91 0124-4759500 Fax: +91 0124-4759550 CHAIRMAN J. S. Uberoi PRESIDENT Xavier Collaco FINANCIAL CONTROLLER Puneet Nanda GLOBAL SALES REPRESENTATIVES Benelux Cornelius W. Bontje Tel: (41) 79 635 2621 Email: cbontje@ymail.com France/Spain Stephane de Remusat, REM International Tel: (33) 5 3427 0130 Email: rem-media@sfr.fr Germany/Austria/Switzerland/Italy/UK Sam Baird, Whitehill Media Tel: (44-1883) 715 697 Mobile: (44-7770) 237 646 E-Mail: sam@whitehillmedia.com Russia Alla Butova, NOVO-Media Latd, Tel/Fax : (7 3832) 180 885 Mobile : (7 960) 783 6653 Email :alla@mediatransasia.com Scandinavia/South Africa Emanuela Castagnetti-Gillberg Tel: +46 31 799 9028 E-Mail:egillberg@glocalnet.net South Korea Young Seoh Chinn, Jes Media Inc. Tel: (82-2) 481 3411 E-Mail: corres1@jesmedia.com East-Central Europe/Greece/Turkey Zena Coupé Tel: (44) 1923 852537 Email: zena@expomedia.biz USA (East/South East)/Canada Margie Brown, BLESSALL Media LLC. Tel : (+1 540) 341 7581 Email :margiespub@rcn.com USA (West/SouthWest)/Brazil Diane Obright, Blackrock Media Inc. Tel: +1 (858) 759 3557 Email: blackrockmediainc@icloud.com Defence and Security of India is published and printed by Xavier Collaco on behalf of MTC Publishing Limited. Published at 323, Udyog Vihar, Ph- IV, Gurgaon 122016 and printed at Nutech Photolithographers B-240, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase-I,New Delhi-110020, India. Entire contents Copyright © 2008. All rights reserved. Reproduction and translation in any language in whole or in part without permission is prohibited. Requests for permission should be directed to MTC Publishing Limited. Opinions carried in the magazine are those of the writers’ and do not necessarily reflect those of the editors or publishers. While the editors do their utmost to verify information published they do not accept responsibility for its absolute accuracy. The publisher assumes no responsibility for the return of unsolicited material or for material lost or damaged in transit. All correspondence should be addressed to MTC Publishing Limited. SUBSCRIPTION INFORMATION Defence and Security of India is obtained by subscription. For subscription enquiries, please contact: dsisubscriptions@mtil.biz

www.mediatransasia.in/defence.html http://www.defencesecurityindia.com


Contributors.qxd:contributors-aug.qxd 09/02/15 4:03 PM Page 1

CONTRIBUTORS

FEBRUARY 2015

DSI

DEFENCE and SECURITY of INDIA FEBRUARY 2015 AIR MARSHAL(RETD) M MATHESWARAN

DR S KULSHRESTHA

LT GENERAL (RETD) DAVINDER KUMAR

S. KRISHNASWAMY

S. SAMUEL C. RAJIV

LT GEN (RETD) BS PAWAR

Air Marshal M Matheswaran was the Deputy Chief of Integrated Defence Staff at Head Quarters IDS until his retirement 0n 31 Mar 2014. He was responsible for Policy, Plans and Force Structure development of theThree Services, including budget analysis, Acquisition, procurement and technology management. He was responsible for formulating the long-term and short-term integrated defence plans. Air Marshal M Matheswaran was commissioned in 1975. He is an alumni of National Defence Academy. His academic achievements include Master’s, M Phil, Ph.D in “Defence and Strategic Studies” (University of Madras) and a Post Graduate Diploma in Financial Management.

RAdm. S. Kulshreshtha, Indian Navy in the year 1975 and served as Director General of Naval Armament Ministry of Defence (Navy) where he was directly responsible for availability of reliable and safe naval armament. He has superannuated from Indian Navy in 2011 and is currently unaffiliated. He has been writing in defence journals on issues related to matters Navy, Armament technology and indigenisation.

Davinder Kumar superannuated in September 2011 as the CEO & Managing Director ofTata Advanced Systems Ltd. He has been on the Board of Directors of a number of Private and Public sector companies. Earlier, he was the Signal Officer-in-Chief of the Indian Army responsible for conception, planning and execution of communication networks, electronic warfare and information security projects.

Air Chief Marshal S Krishnaswamy is a former Chief of the Air Staff and headed the Air Force during 2002-2004. He has held many senior appointments in the IAF – that includes Deputy Chief, Vice Chief and Commander-in-Chief of three operational Air Commands of the Air Force. He initiated and headed major inductions and programs for the IAF. He is recipient of many decorations and awards, among them the ‘Agni Award’ for outstanding contribution to aeronautics.

Rajiv is an Associate Fellow, Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA), New Delhi. His research interests include India-Israel relations, Iran nuclear issue, among others. His publications include ‘The Delicate Balance: Israel and India’s Foreign Policy Practice’, Strategic Analysis, January 2012, ‘In Pursuit of a Chimera: Nuclear Imbroglio between Sanctions and Engagement’, Strategic Analysis, November 2012, among others. He has also published inThe Jerusalem Post, Business Standard, ISN, ETH, Zurich and Asiatimes.

An alumni of Rashtriya Indian Military College and National Defence Academy, Lt Gen BS Pawar was commissioned into Artillery in June 1968. He was Maj Gen Artillery, Western Command during Operation Parakram and was awarded the AtiVashist Seva Medal. He also headed the Army Aviation Corps and was instrumental in the operationalisation of the Advanced Light Helicopter during his tenure. A defence analyst, he writes for a number of defence journals/ publications and is also on the Editorial Board of some of them.

GURMEET KANWAL Gurmeet Kanwal is former director, Centre for Land Warfare Studies, New Delhi. He commanded an infantry brigade during Operation Parakram on the Line of Control in 2001-03. A soldierscholar, he has authored several books including Indian Army:Vision 2020 and Nuclear Defence: Shaping the Arsenal. He is a wellknown columnist and TV analyst on national security issues.

VOLUME 7, ISSUE 1

EDITOR Pinaki Bhattacharya JR. FEATURES WRITER Jaya Singh ASST. ART DIRECTOR Ajay Kumar SENIOR MANAGER INTERNATIONAL MARKETING Vishal Mehta (E-Mail: vishalmehta@mtil.biz) MANAGER MARKETING Jakhongir Djalmetov (E-Mail: joha@mtil.biz) AD SALES Prateek Singh (E-Mail: prateeksingh@mtil.biz) SALES & MARKETING COORDINATOR Atul Bali (E-Mail: atul@mtil.biz) PRODUCTION & PRE-PRESS Sunil Dubey, Ritesh Roy, Jeetendra Madaan MTC PUBLISHING LIMITED 323, Udyog Vihar, Ph-IV, Gurgaon 122016 Ph: +91 0124-4759500 Fax: +91 0124-4759550 CHAIRMAN J. S. Uberoi PRESIDENT Xavier Collaco FINANCIAL CONTROLLER Puneet Nanda GLOBAL SALES REPRESENTATIVES Benelux Cornelius W. Bontje Tel: (41) 79 635 2621 Email: cbontje@ymail.com France/Spain Stephane de Remusat, REM International Tel: (33) 5 3427 0130 Email: rem-media@sfr.fr Germany/Austria/Switzerland/Italy/UK Sam Baird, Whitehill Media Tel: (44-1883) 715 697 Mobile: (44-7770) 237 646 E-Mail: sam@whitehillmedia.com Russia Alla Butova, NOVO-Media Latd, Tel/Fax : (7 3832) 180 885 Mobile : (7 960) 783 6653 Email :alla@mediatransasia.com Scandinavia/South Africa Emanuela Castagnetti-Gillberg Tel: +46 31 799 9028 E-Mail:egillberg@glocalnet.net South Korea Young Seoh Chinn, Jes Media Inc. Tel: (82-2) 481 3411 E-Mail: corres1@jesmedia.com East-Central Europe/Greece/Turkey Zena Coupé Tel: (44) 1923 852537 Email: zena@expomedia.biz USA (East/South East)/Canada Margie Brown, BLESSALL Media LLC. Tel : (+1 540) 341 7581 Email :margiespub@rcn.com USA (West/SouthWest)/Brazil Diane Obright, Blackrock Media Inc. Tel: +1 (858) 759 3557 Email: blackrockmediainc@icloud.com Defence and Security of India is published and printed by Xavier Collaco on behalf of MTC Publishing Limited. Published at 323, Udyog Vihar, Ph- IV, Gurgaon 122016 and printed at Nutech Photolithographers B-240, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase-I,New Delhi-110020, India. Entire contents Copyright © 2008. All rights reserved. Reproduction and translation in any language in whole or in part without permission is prohibited. Requests for permission should be directed to MTC Publishing Limited. Opinions carried in the magazine are those of the writers’ and do not necessarily reflect those of the editors or publishers. While the editors do their utmost to verify information published they do not accept responsibility for its absolute accuracy. The publisher assumes no responsibility for the return of unsolicited material or for material lost or damaged in transit. All correspondence should be addressed to MTC Publishing Limited. SUBSCRIPTION INFORMATION Defence and Security of India is obtained by subscription. For subscription enquiries, please contact: dsisubscriptions@mtil.biz

www.mediatransasia.in/defence.html http://www.defencesecurityindia.com


Helicopter-Balli Pawar.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 09/02/15 12:56 PM Page 1

HELICOPTER

FEBRUARY 2015

DSI

KEY POINTS l The new generation helicopter platforms are expected to feature the latest advances in aeronautics. l Helicopters are employed for various missions including attack, air assault etc. l There is an urgent need to develop a public and privates sectors c0llaboration towards developing helicopter manufacturing base in the country.

HELICOPTERS: EXPANDING CAPABILITIES AND EMERGING MISSIONS

T

Helicopters today are integral part of land, sea and air operations of modern armies and are being increasingly employed in sub-conventional operations (counter-insurgency and counterterrorist operations) across the world.

BS PAWAR

MV-22B helicopter receives its final checks prior to take-off © US Navy

8

9

he Vietnam war, also referred to as the helicopters’ war formed the test bed for validating the concepts of air mobility and assault and the advent of the military helicopter in the true sense. The helicopter was universally employed for various missions including attack, air assault, aerial resupply, aerial reconnaissance and command and control. Actual integration of assault and armed helicopters evolved during the Vietnam war, leading to the need for armed helicopters/ gunships with the final advent of dedicated attack helicopters (AH). Helicopters today are integral part of land, sea and air operations of modern armies and are being increasingly employed in sub-conventional operations (counterinsurgency and counter-terrorist operations) across the world. This trend is likely to continue in the future, with helicopters acquiring special features as in the case of Black Hawks used in ‘Operation Neptune Spear,’ the US operation to eliminate Osama Bin Laden. Military Aviation today is looking at the next generation of military helicopters and the strategy to modernise vertical lift capability long term, with improved avionics, electronics, range, speed, propulsion, survivability and high altitude performance. The philosophy is to improve on the present limitations by examining emerging technologies within the realm of the possible, with speeds in excess of 170 knots, combat range of 800 km, hover with full combat-load under high/hot conditions and with a degree of autonomous flight capability. There is a need to harness technological innovation by looking beyond current force technology and identifying possible next generation solutions in areas such as propulsion, airframe materials, rotor systems, engine technology, survivability equipment and mission systems among others.


Helicopter-Balli Pawar.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 09/02/15 12:56 PM Page 1

HELICOPTER

FEBRUARY 2015

DSI

KEY POINTS l The new generation helicopter platforms are expected to feature the latest advances in aeronautics. l Helicopters are employed for various missions including attack, air assault etc. l There is an urgent need to develop a public and privates sectors c0llaboration towards developing helicopter manufacturing base in the country.

HELICOPTERS: EXPANDING CAPABILITIES AND EMERGING MISSIONS

T

Helicopters today are integral part of land, sea and air operations of modern armies and are being increasingly employed in sub-conventional operations (counter-insurgency and counterterrorist operations) across the world.

BS PAWAR

MV-22B helicopter receives its final checks prior to take-off © US Navy

8

9

he Vietnam war, also referred to as the helicopters’ war formed the test bed for validating the concepts of air mobility and assault and the advent of the military helicopter in the true sense. The helicopter was universally employed for various missions including attack, air assault, aerial resupply, aerial reconnaissance and command and control. Actual integration of assault and armed helicopters evolved during the Vietnam war, leading to the need for armed helicopters/ gunships with the final advent of dedicated attack helicopters (AH). Helicopters today are integral part of land, sea and air operations of modern armies and are being increasingly employed in sub-conventional operations (counterinsurgency and counter-terrorist operations) across the world. This trend is likely to continue in the future, with helicopters acquiring special features as in the case of Black Hawks used in ‘Operation Neptune Spear,’ the US operation to eliminate Osama Bin Laden. Military Aviation today is looking at the next generation of military helicopters and the strategy to modernise vertical lift capability long term, with improved avionics, electronics, range, speed, propulsion, survivability and high altitude performance. The philosophy is to improve on the present limitations by examining emerging technologies within the realm of the possible, with speeds in excess of 170 knots, combat range of 800 km, hover with full combat-load under high/hot conditions and with a degree of autonomous flight capability. There is a need to harness technological innovation by looking beyond current force technology and identifying possible next generation solutions in areas such as propulsion, airframe materials, rotor systems, engine technology, survivability equipment and mission systems among others.


Helicopter-Balli Pawar.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 09/02/15 12:57 PM Page 3

HELICOPTER

FEBRUARY 2015

Ka-226T camouflage-designed helicopter with Indian soldiers

Future Developments and Expanding Capabilities: The advances in helicopter designs have not been as impressive as for fighter aircraft. While jet fighters are in their fifth generation, the helicopters are still strutting around with the same old designs and airframes, with mostly upgrades to its credit – It has been without a new helicopter design since the induction in the 1980s of the Apache attack helicopter built by Boeing. The Apache AH-64E( Block-III), the latest version also called ‘The Guardian’ is a vivid example, where even though 26 new technologies have been incorporated, relating mainly to more powerful engines, composite rotor blades, upgraded transmission system and capability to control UAVs, the main design and configuration remains the same. However, today the global helicopter industry is undergoing a significant transformation as are customer demands and the capabilities offered by cutting edge technologies. Significant advances in technology such as computation structural

dynamics modelling, expanded use of additive manufacturing, fly-by-wire controls, advanced condition based maintenance (CBM) and health and usage monitoring (HUMS) systems and advanced turbine engine programmes, promise a big leap in rotorcraft capabilities. Governments worldwide are initiating new defence procurements, while simultaneously developing and expanding indigenous production and development capabilities for both military and civil applications – India has also taken the lead in this area by its recent exposition of its ‘Make in India Policy’ in the defence sector and inviting the private sector to be part and parcel of the growing defence aerospace industry. The US remains the world’s largest purchaser and developer of military helicopters, with major aviation giants like Sikorsky, Boeing and Bell taking the lead in the design, development and manufacture of state-of-art military and civil helicopters. The US military has embarked on the most transformative science and technology initiative in

10

decades – the Joint Multi-Role (JMR) technology demonstration effort, where the industry plans to prove the revolutionary capabilities of high speed approaches for a family of future military products. In Russia the Moscow-based Russian Helicopters has been a leading player in the Global Helicopter Industry, with its major thrust being towards design and development of military helicopters. Europe has in the last two decades also emerged as a major contender in the helicopter market, both in the civil and military domain. Airbus Helicopter formerly ‘Eurocopter’ and Anglo-Italian Agusta Westland are the two major companies whose products have flooded the civil as well as military market around the globe. The new generation helicopter platforms are expected to feature the latest advances in aeronautics giving military helicopters improved flight performance especially in relation to speed. This offers the new generation machines unprecedented capabilities - increased autonomy, reduced acoustic signatures (enhanced stealth),

more accurate navigation systems, enhanced data acquisition and protection systems, more effective weapons and munitions and improved reliability and maintainability at lower operating costs. Helicopters will have to become truly modular, making it possible to change part of the system without affecting overall integrity. The concept of modularity is likely to increase, especially with the emergence of the concept of multirole machines. World over today the armed forces are seriously looking at the multirole concept, due to the changing nature of conflicts and financial constraints. This concept basically revolves around the use of utility helicopters both in the lift/logistics and armed role. The size of such helicopters would be between cargo and light observation and their armament would generally be restricted to guns and rockets. Some of these may also have the capability to be fitted with air to air and air to ground missiles. The ALH is a classic example of a multirole helicopter with its utility and armed version (Rudra) available to the Indian Military. The US military is already moving in this direction and their JMR fleet vision envisages narrowing down the more than 20 helicopter types spread across the services to only three basic models, plus a new ‘ultra’ category extending vertical takeoff and landing aircraft into the domain of medium sized fixed wing transports. The vision lays down that no helicopter in all three basic categories - light, medium and heavy will be slower than today’s fastest conventional helicopter and should be powerful enough to carry their predecessors as external payload. With regards to data acquisition, day/night observation and detection capabilities will increase and become more diversified specially in respect to information sharing and cooperation with other aircraft and UAVs. This aspect has already been incorporated in the Block III Apache model. Target engagement capabilities with regard to weapon range and precision is likely to remain the focus of future development. With sub conventional operations gaining ascendency around the world, helicopter survivability will assume greater significance. Advances in stealth, such as reductions in radar and acoustic signatures offer major results in this area, as does the development of early detection/jamming countermeasure capabilities.

DSI

Sikorsky S-70B Seahawk is strong contender for Indian Navy multi-role helicopters contract

The new generation helicopter platforms are expected to feature the latest advances in aeronautics giving military helicopters improved flight performance especially in relation to speed

Some of the above technologies are already being incorporated in the development of Eurocopters X2 and X3, and Sikorsky’s X2 co-axial compound helicopter as technology demonstrators. The main emphasis is on speed, stealth, reliability and survivability. Many of these designs go well beyond the tried and tested rotor and propeller system that has defined generations of helicopter technology since their introduction into the military use in the forties. The co-axial rotor design by cutting out the requirement of a tail rotor,provides a whole heap of benefits to include more power (enhancing the payload

11

capability), greater speeds, stability and noise reduction. Infact in its demonstrative flight, Sikorsky’s X2 achieved a speed of 287 mph a major leap from the current standard helicopter speeds – the X2 has a rear tail fin rotor which provides the speed boost rather than anti torque thrust. Its military version the Sikorsky ‘S-97 Raider’ is stated to be the future light tactical scout helicopter of the US Military. Eurocopters X3 technology demonstrator is another oddball chopper that can’t seem to figure out whether it wants to be a helicopter or a plane. But this aircraft is already turning heads by having achieved speeds that are fifty percent faster than the conventional helicopters and lower vibration levels. The X3 has two propellers on the side of the craft there by removing the need for a tail rotor and is being projected by Airbus Helicopters for the military’s use in search and rescue, special forces operations and troop transport. Finally, the development of innovative concepts, along the lines of V-22 Osprey (tilt rotor technology), could generate fresh momentum in the utility/logistics domain. The V-22 has operated extensively in Afghanistan and was instrumental in the rescue of a downed US pilot in Libya in 2013. Agusta Westland has also come up with a similar rotorcraft, the AW-609 - a significant player in the emerging tilt rotor market. Agusta Westland sees the craft as a troop transporter similar to the Bell Boeing V22 Osprey. Such an aircraft would


Helicopter-Balli Pawar.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 09/02/15 12:57 PM Page 3

HELICOPTER

FEBRUARY 2015

Ka-226T camouflage-designed helicopter with Indian soldiers

Future Developments and Expanding Capabilities: The advances in helicopter designs have not been as impressive as for fighter aircraft. While jet fighters are in their fifth generation, the helicopters are still strutting around with the same old designs and airframes, with mostly upgrades to its credit – It has been without a new helicopter design since the induction in the 1980s of the Apache attack helicopter built by Boeing. The Apache AH-64E( Block-III), the latest version also called ‘The Guardian’ is a vivid example, where even though 26 new technologies have been incorporated, relating mainly to more powerful engines, composite rotor blades, upgraded transmission system and capability to control UAVs, the main design and configuration remains the same. However, today the global helicopter industry is undergoing a significant transformation as are customer demands and the capabilities offered by cutting edge technologies. Significant advances in technology such as computation structural

dynamics modelling, expanded use of additive manufacturing, fly-by-wire controls, advanced condition based maintenance (CBM) and health and usage monitoring (HUMS) systems and advanced turbine engine programmes, promise a big leap in rotorcraft capabilities. Governments worldwide are initiating new defence procurements, while simultaneously developing and expanding indigenous production and development capabilities for both military and civil applications – India has also taken the lead in this area by its recent exposition of its ‘Make in India Policy’ in the defence sector and inviting the private sector to be part and parcel of the growing defence aerospace industry. The US remains the world’s largest purchaser and developer of military helicopters, with major aviation giants like Sikorsky, Boeing and Bell taking the lead in the design, development and manufacture of state-of-art military and civil helicopters. The US military has embarked on the most transformative science and technology initiative in

10

decades – the Joint Multi-Role (JMR) technology demonstration effort, where the industry plans to prove the revolutionary capabilities of high speed approaches for a family of future military products. In Russia the Moscow-based Russian Helicopters has been a leading player in the Global Helicopter Industry, with its major thrust being towards design and development of military helicopters. Europe has in the last two decades also emerged as a major contender in the helicopter market, both in the civil and military domain. Airbus Helicopter formerly ‘Eurocopter’ and Anglo-Italian Agusta Westland are the two major companies whose products have flooded the civil as well as military market around the globe. The new generation helicopter platforms are expected to feature the latest advances in aeronautics giving military helicopters improved flight performance especially in relation to speed. This offers the new generation machines unprecedented capabilities - increased autonomy, reduced acoustic signatures (enhanced stealth),

more accurate navigation systems, enhanced data acquisition and protection systems, more effective weapons and munitions and improved reliability and maintainability at lower operating costs. Helicopters will have to become truly modular, making it possible to change part of the system without affecting overall integrity. The concept of modularity is likely to increase, especially with the emergence of the concept of multirole machines. World over today the armed forces are seriously looking at the multirole concept, due to the changing nature of conflicts and financial constraints. This concept basically revolves around the use of utility helicopters both in the lift/logistics and armed role. The size of such helicopters would be between cargo and light observation and their armament would generally be restricted to guns and rockets. Some of these may also have the capability to be fitted with air to air and air to ground missiles. The ALH is a classic example of a multirole helicopter with its utility and armed version (Rudra) available to the Indian Military. The US military is already moving in this direction and their JMR fleet vision envisages narrowing down the more than 20 helicopter types spread across the services to only three basic models, plus a new ‘ultra’ category extending vertical takeoff and landing aircraft into the domain of medium sized fixed wing transports. The vision lays down that no helicopter in all three basic categories - light, medium and heavy will be slower than today’s fastest conventional helicopter and should be powerful enough to carry their predecessors as external payload. With regards to data acquisition, day/night observation and detection capabilities will increase and become more diversified specially in respect to information sharing and cooperation with other aircraft and UAVs. This aspect has already been incorporated in the Block III Apache model. Target engagement capabilities with regard to weapon range and precision is likely to remain the focus of future development. With sub conventional operations gaining ascendency around the world, helicopter survivability will assume greater significance. Advances in stealth, such as reductions in radar and acoustic signatures offer major results in this area, as does the development of early detection/jamming countermeasure capabilities.

DSI

Sikorsky S-70B Seahawk is strong contender for Indian Navy multi-role helicopters contract

The new generation helicopter platforms are expected to feature the latest advances in aeronautics giving military helicopters improved flight performance especially in relation to speed

Some of the above technologies are already being incorporated in the development of Eurocopters X2 and X3, and Sikorsky’s X2 co-axial compound helicopter as technology demonstrators. The main emphasis is on speed, stealth, reliability and survivability. Many of these designs go well beyond the tried and tested rotor and propeller system that has defined generations of helicopter technology since their introduction into the military use in the forties. The co-axial rotor design by cutting out the requirement of a tail rotor,provides a whole heap of benefits to include more power (enhancing the payload

11

capability), greater speeds, stability and noise reduction. Infact in its demonstrative flight, Sikorsky’s X2 achieved a speed of 287 mph a major leap from the current standard helicopter speeds – the X2 has a rear tail fin rotor which provides the speed boost rather than anti torque thrust. Its military version the Sikorsky ‘S-97 Raider’ is stated to be the future light tactical scout helicopter of the US Military. Eurocopters X3 technology demonstrator is another oddball chopper that can’t seem to figure out whether it wants to be a helicopter or a plane. But this aircraft is already turning heads by having achieved speeds that are fifty percent faster than the conventional helicopters and lower vibration levels. The X3 has two propellers on the side of the craft there by removing the need for a tail rotor and is being projected by Airbus Helicopters for the military’s use in search and rescue, special forces operations and troop transport. Finally, the development of innovative concepts, along the lines of V-22 Osprey (tilt rotor technology), could generate fresh momentum in the utility/logistics domain. The V-22 has operated extensively in Afghanistan and was instrumental in the rescue of a downed US pilot in Libya in 2013. Agusta Westland has also come up with a similar rotorcraft, the AW-609 - a significant player in the emerging tilt rotor market. Agusta Westland sees the craft as a troop transporter similar to the Bell Boeing V22 Osprey. Such an aircraft would


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manned helicopters could not fly. Northrop Grumman’s ‘Fire Scout’, is another helicopter UAV which is already in service with the US Navy,capable of operating from ship decks. The latest in the unmanned field is the unmanned version of Sikorsky’s UH60A Black Hawk helicopter modified for both manned and unmanned flights. The Indian Military is also seriously examining these unmanned options.

The Indian Scenario

Sikorsky MH-60R Seahawk dips the sonar into the Pacific Ocean

be ideal for deployment in our North Eastern region where the infrastructure is woefully inadequate. The latest in the tilt rotor field is ‘Bell’s V-280 Valor’ third generation tilt rotor demonstrator. Bell’s Valor programme is a quantum technology jump on its earlier V-22 Osprey aircraft and attacks affordability with technology – the Valor is expected to fly in 2017.

Another area of future development is helicopter UAVs. Two avenues are already being explored and implemented in different countries- UAV-helicopter cooperation and development of rotary wing UAVs. Lockheed Martin’s K-MAX helicopter UAV was deployed in Afghanistan for logistic resupply and has proved to be quite a hit. It has been able to fly in adverse weather conditions when

Indian Helicopters potential requirements HELICOPTER Cheetah/Chetak ALH Attack Helicopter LCH MI-26/CHINOOK MI-8/17/17IV/17V-5

ARMY H I 230 Replacement 60 120 (70 Rudra) 39 Apaches 114 -

AIR FORCE H I 75 Replacement 40 16 (Rudra) 30 22 Apaches 60 4 15 * 200 80 *

NAVY H 50-60 10 -

I Replacement 10-20-? -

Sea King

-

-

17

16 + 44*

Ka-28

-

-

REMARKS

10

H-Held, I-Induction

12

RFI ISSUED Doubtful MI25/35 Not approved yet * Chinooks * MI-17V-5 to replace MI8/MI17 *(S-70B to replace Sea King) Need upgrade

The operational diversities of the Indian armed forces coupled with extremity and variety of terrain (from sea level to high altitude) underline the need for state of art, modern technology helicopters capable of operating both by day and night in a complex battlefield environment of future. As per reports the armed forces are looking to induct as many as 1000 plus helicopters in the coming decade ranging from attack and high altitude reconnaissance to medium and heavy lift variants. Presently the Indian military holds in its kitty approximately 600 helicopters of all types and class including specialised ones, but majority of these have far exceeded their life span and are either obsolete or nearing obsolescence. The Chetak/ Cheetah held with the Army, Navy and Air force are vintage and awaiting replacement. The latest attempt to replace these ageing and obsolescent helicopters has met a similar fate to that of the earlier procurement project of 2004, cancelled in 2008.The trials for the current project were completed in 2013 - in fray were the Airbus AS 550 C3 Fennec and the Russian Kamov Ka 226T (both state-of-art helicopters with latest avionics and glass cockpit). The decision to cancel this critical project was taken by the MoD in August last year after allegations of corruption and technical deviations in the selection process. With the ‘Make in India’ policy in place, a fresh RFI has been issued in October last year with the aim of identifying probable Indian vendors including Indian companies forming joint ventures (JVs) with foreign companies. Indian majors like Tata’s, Reliance, Mahindra, etc are likely to enter the fray looking at JV’s with foreign majors like American - Bell and Sikorsky, Russian Kamov and European - Airbus Helicopters. Navy is also looking to replace its current fleet of Chetak/ modified Chetak-MATCH (mid air torpedo carrying helicopter) with a twin engine, 4.5 ton helicopter capable of

Indian Air Force Mi-17V5 helicopter

operating from warship decks, as well as being armed with rockets/guns and light weight torpedoes. In the light utility category, the ALH has already entered service with all three services and Coast Guard. The ALH has also been test evaluated for high altitude operations with the fitment of a more powerful engine ‘Shakti’ being produced jointly by HAL and French firm Turbomeca. This is a major achievement and will give a boost to helicopter operations in high altitude areas especially Siachen. The induction of the armed version of the ALH (Rudra) has already commenced with a unit currently under raising for the army – however a major drawback in the Rudra presently is the lack of a suitable anti tank guided missile in its weapon arsenal. In the medium lift category the air force holds the MI-8 and the MI-17 Russian helicopters. While the MI-8 fleet is in the process of being replaced by MI-17’s, the majority of the existing MI-17 fleet has been upgraded/ refurbished in respect of avionics

and night capability. Currently 80 MI-17 V5 helicopters are being acquired from Russia these helicopters are upgraded versions, with glass cockpit, night capability and armament package and will boost the armed forces lift capability. In the heavy lift category there is nothing worthwhile held with the Indian military, barring a few Russian MI 26 helicopters whose high altitude capability is poor. Based on the army’s requirement of a suitable helicopter capable of lifting under slung the Ultra Light Howitzer being acquired from the United States for deployment in mountains, the process for acquisition was set into motion. Trials for the same have been completed with the American Chinook CH 47 scoring over the Russian MI-26. Fifteen numbers are planned for induction. The weakest Link is in the Indian Military inventory is the holding of specialized helicopters like the attack and antisubmarine warfare. (ASW). The MI 25/MI 35 attack helicopters held are vintage and require replacement on priority. Even the

13

Sea King ASW helicopters held with the navy need upgrade/ replacement with a state-of-art modern ASW helicopter. In the recent trials conducted for acquisition of attack helicopters the American Apache Longbow has been selected over the Russian MI-28 (Havoc). The induction of 22 Apaches Block III (Latest Upgraded Version) is likely to commence this year. The army has also put in its requirement for 39 Apaches Block III for its three Strike Corps – in principle approval for the same has already been given by the MoD. The Navy had also conducted extensive trials for replacement of its multirole Sea King fleet with the European NH-90 and American Sikorsky 70B in fray-in the recent Defence Acquisition Council meeting the selection of Sikorsky 70B has been approved.

Indigenous Development In India the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) a Public Sector Undertaking continues to dominate the military aircraft industry. However, with the opening up of


Helicopter-Balli Pawar.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 09/02/15 12:57 PM Page 5

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manned helicopters could not fly. Northrop Grumman’s ‘Fire Scout’, is another helicopter UAV which is already in service with the US Navy,capable of operating from ship decks. The latest in the unmanned field is the unmanned version of Sikorsky’s UH60A Black Hawk helicopter modified for both manned and unmanned flights. The Indian Military is also seriously examining these unmanned options.

The Indian Scenario

Sikorsky MH-60R Seahawk dips the sonar into the Pacific Ocean

be ideal for deployment in our North Eastern region where the infrastructure is woefully inadequate. The latest in the tilt rotor field is ‘Bell’s V-280 Valor’ third generation tilt rotor demonstrator. Bell’s Valor programme is a quantum technology jump on its earlier V-22 Osprey aircraft and attacks affordability with technology – the Valor is expected to fly in 2017.

Another area of future development is helicopter UAVs. Two avenues are already being explored and implemented in different countries- UAV-helicopter cooperation and development of rotary wing UAVs. Lockheed Martin’s K-MAX helicopter UAV was deployed in Afghanistan for logistic resupply and has proved to be quite a hit. It has been able to fly in adverse weather conditions when

Indian Helicopters potential requirements HELICOPTER Cheetah/Chetak ALH Attack Helicopter LCH MI-26/CHINOOK MI-8/17/17IV/17V-5

ARMY H I 230 Replacement 60 120 (70 Rudra) 39 Apaches 114 -

AIR FORCE H I 75 Replacement 40 16 (Rudra) 30 22 Apaches 60 4 15 * 200 80 *

NAVY H 50-60 10 -

I Replacement 10-20-? -

Sea King

-

-

17

16 + 44*

Ka-28

-

-

REMARKS

10

H-Held, I-Induction

12

RFI ISSUED Doubtful MI25/35 Not approved yet * Chinooks * MI-17V-5 to replace MI8/MI17 *(S-70B to replace Sea King) Need upgrade

The operational diversities of the Indian armed forces coupled with extremity and variety of terrain (from sea level to high altitude) underline the need for state of art, modern technology helicopters capable of operating both by day and night in a complex battlefield environment of future. As per reports the armed forces are looking to induct as many as 1000 plus helicopters in the coming decade ranging from attack and high altitude reconnaissance to medium and heavy lift variants. Presently the Indian military holds in its kitty approximately 600 helicopters of all types and class including specialised ones, but majority of these have far exceeded their life span and are either obsolete or nearing obsolescence. The Chetak/ Cheetah held with the Army, Navy and Air force are vintage and awaiting replacement. The latest attempt to replace these ageing and obsolescent helicopters has met a similar fate to that of the earlier procurement project of 2004, cancelled in 2008.The trials for the current project were completed in 2013 - in fray were the Airbus AS 550 C3 Fennec and the Russian Kamov Ka 226T (both state-of-art helicopters with latest avionics and glass cockpit). The decision to cancel this critical project was taken by the MoD in August last year after allegations of corruption and technical deviations in the selection process. With the ‘Make in India’ policy in place, a fresh RFI has been issued in October last year with the aim of identifying probable Indian vendors including Indian companies forming joint ventures (JVs) with foreign companies. Indian majors like Tata’s, Reliance, Mahindra, etc are likely to enter the fray looking at JV’s with foreign majors like American - Bell and Sikorsky, Russian Kamov and European - Airbus Helicopters. Navy is also looking to replace its current fleet of Chetak/ modified Chetak-MATCH (mid air torpedo carrying helicopter) with a twin engine, 4.5 ton helicopter capable of

Indian Air Force Mi-17V5 helicopter

operating from warship decks, as well as being armed with rockets/guns and light weight torpedoes. In the light utility category, the ALH has already entered service with all three services and Coast Guard. The ALH has also been test evaluated for high altitude operations with the fitment of a more powerful engine ‘Shakti’ being produced jointly by HAL and French firm Turbomeca. This is a major achievement and will give a boost to helicopter operations in high altitude areas especially Siachen. The induction of the armed version of the ALH (Rudra) has already commenced with a unit currently under raising for the army – however a major drawback in the Rudra presently is the lack of a suitable anti tank guided missile in its weapon arsenal. In the medium lift category the air force holds the MI-8 and the MI-17 Russian helicopters. While the MI-8 fleet is in the process of being replaced by MI-17’s, the majority of the existing MI-17 fleet has been upgraded/ refurbished in respect of avionics

and night capability. Currently 80 MI-17 V5 helicopters are being acquired from Russia these helicopters are upgraded versions, with glass cockpit, night capability and armament package and will boost the armed forces lift capability. In the heavy lift category there is nothing worthwhile held with the Indian military, barring a few Russian MI 26 helicopters whose high altitude capability is poor. Based on the army’s requirement of a suitable helicopter capable of lifting under slung the Ultra Light Howitzer being acquired from the United States for deployment in mountains, the process for acquisition was set into motion. Trials for the same have been completed with the American Chinook CH 47 scoring over the Russian MI-26. Fifteen numbers are planned for induction. The weakest Link is in the Indian Military inventory is the holding of specialized helicopters like the attack and antisubmarine warfare. (ASW). The MI 25/MI 35 attack helicopters held are vintage and require replacement on priority. Even the

13

Sea King ASW helicopters held with the navy need upgrade/ replacement with a state-of-art modern ASW helicopter. In the recent trials conducted for acquisition of attack helicopters the American Apache Longbow has been selected over the Russian MI-28 (Havoc). The induction of 22 Apaches Block III (Latest Upgraded Version) is likely to commence this year. The army has also put in its requirement for 39 Apaches Block III for its three Strike Corps – in principle approval for the same has already been given by the MoD. The Navy had also conducted extensive trials for replacement of its multirole Sea King fleet with the European NH-90 and American Sikorsky 70B in fray-in the recent Defence Acquisition Council meeting the selection of Sikorsky 70B has been approved.

Indigenous Development In India the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) a Public Sector Undertaking continues to dominate the military aircraft industry. However, with the opening up of


Helicopter-Balli Pawar.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 09/02/15 12:57 PM Page 7

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FEBRUARY 2015

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There is an urgent need to develop a collaborative approach towards developing helicopter manufacturing base in the country for using the strengths of both the public and private sector towards fulfilling national aspirations

Airbus Helicopter EC725 is contender for the Indian Coast Guard’s and Naval Multi-Role Helicopter requirement

the defence manufacturing sector to the private industry and thrust on indigenous production capability with a‘Make in India’ policy in place, this equation is likely to change. Presently the most significant development in the HAL helicopter development venture is the Light Combat Helicopter (LCH), stated to be a state of art attack helicopter with capability to operate in the mountains. The LCH uses the technology of the existing ALH and its configurations, except that the fuselage is suitably modified and streamlined for

tandem seating required for a modern day attack helicopter. An indigenous attack helicopter is a step in the right direction as it can be tailored to suit the terrain and climatic conditions of our area of operations – its ability to operate in the mountains is a major achievement. A number of development flights have taken place since its maiden flight on 29 Mar 2010 and it is expected to be ready for trial evaluation this year. Both air force and army are the potential customers for induction of the same. Apache helicopter is likely to be inducted this year

14

The HAL is also looking at the development and manufacture of a three tonne class Light Utility Helicopter (LUH), which presently has reached the design freeze stage – this development is to cater to the Light Observation and Reconnaissance class of helicopters for the military. However, with the cancellation of the project for the purchase of 197 LUH (replacement helicopters for Cheetah/Chetak), the field is now wide open for the Indian industry both private and public. The current involvement of the private industry is limited to the two JV’s by Tata Advanced Systems Limited, one with Sikorsky for making S-92 helicopter cabins and the other with Agusta Westland for the manufacture of the AW-119 Ke light helicopter (civil version). Separate facilities have been established in Hyderabad and production commenced in both cases. The involvement of private industry in helicopter development needs to be encouraged by the Government in order to stop the monopoly of HAL and ensure greater competition in the market. The HAL also needs to keep in mind the developing future helicopter technology and incorporate the same in its future projects, even if it involves going in for JVs. There is an urgent need to develop a collaborative approach towards developing helicopter manufacturing base in the country for using the strengths of both the public and private sector towards fulfilling national aspirations.


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India-Israel-S Samuel.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 10/02/15 11:51 AM Page 1

INDIA-ISRAEL TIES

FEBRUARY 2015

NEW VISTAS IN INDIA-ISRAEL DEFENCE TIES The defence relationship between India and Israel has grown concurrently with the growth in the bilateral trade. There has been robust institutional interaction between each other’s armed forces and national security apparatuses Hermes 900 is Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) UAS with multi-mission performance capabilities © Elbit Systems

S. SAMUEL C. RAJIV

KEY POINTS l

The lack of indigenous efforts in niche technological areas has been the primary drivers of India-Israel defence trade. l The LR-SAM programme illustrates that Israel and India are jointly developing capabilities to benefit both armed forces. l India has affirmed that the procurement process would be expedited to cater to the pressing modernization requirements.

C

ooperation in the defence sector has been an essential component of India-Israel bilateral ties. This has included the buying of niche Israeli defence equipment like unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV’s), Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS) and surveillance radars for the Air Force, joint development of missile systems for the Air Force and the Navy, buying of sophisticated weaponry like sniper rifles for Special Forces, antimissile defence systems (AMD) for Indian

16

Navy warships, underwater harbour defence surveillance systems for the Indian Navy, maritime patrol radars made by Elta for Dornier aircraft of the Coast Guard, among other equipment. The defence relationship has grown concurrently with the growth in the bilateral trade, from $ 200 million in 1992 to more than $ 6 billion during 2013-14. There has also been robust institutional interaction between each other’s armed forces and national security apparatuses, and brainstorming

on internal security as well as nonproliferation issues, among others. The total financial volume of this defence cooperation has been open to speculation. Among the few occasions when the government informed Parliament as to the financial volume of India-Israel defence trade was when former Defence Minister AK Antony informed Rajya Sabha in May 2007 that ‘defence purchases’ from Israel during the period 2002-2007 were worth $ 5 billion. In August 2013, Antony, in a written

reply in the Lok Sabha indicated that 29 per cent of the Indian Army’s capital procurement during 2010-13 was from Israel. These details are pertinent given the fact that stress on non-disclosure have been the guiding principle as regards India-Israel defence trade across different governments in New Delhi.

The Political Context While the Congress-led government of PV Narasimha Rao established full diplomatic

17

DSI

relations with Israel in 1992, the relationship matured under the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)-led governments from 1998-2004. The BJP was open to engaging with Israel at the highest political levels during its tenure in power. Ariel Sharon became the first Israeli prime minister to visit India in September 2003, at the invitation of Atal Bihari Vajpayee. This was in contrast with the low-level political engagement followed by the subsequent Congress-led United Progressive Alliance (UPA) from 2004-2014. It is pertinent to note that despite the high levels of defence cooperation between the two countries, no Indian defence minister has ever visited Israel. The last visit by an Indian National Security Advisor was way back in September 1999 by Brajesh Misra. The low levels of ‘high-level’ political contacts during the decade of UPA rule, however, did not impinge negatively on the growth trajectory of India-Israel defence cooperation. It should be noted though that the Israeli leadership was in favour of a more active and overt political engagement with India. Foreign Minister Avigdor Lieberman, while welcoming then External Affairs Minister SM Krishna to Israel in January 2012 on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of establishment of diplomatic relations, pointedly hoped that such visits would become ‘more frequent’. The BJP has always been a votary of stronger ties between India and Israel and its leaders have time and again (especially while in the opposition) expressed appreciation of the Israeli government’s muscular anti-terrorism and national security policies, notwithstanding the fact that some of these policies may or may not be successful in the complex Indian context. The Modi government came to office professing to follow a stronger stance on national security issues. It is pertinent to note that among the first acts Modi did after being sworn in as the prime minister was embarking on the INS Vikramaditya on June 13, 2014 and dedicating the aircraft carrier to the nation. The government has further affirmed that the procurement process would be expedited to cater to the pressing modernization and upgrade requirements of the Indian armed forces. The Ministry of Defence (MOD) in its year-end review in December 2014 pointed out that the Defence Acquisition Council (DAC), the apex decision-making body of the


India-Israel-S Samuel.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 10/02/15 11:51 AM Page 1

INDIA-ISRAEL TIES

FEBRUARY 2015

NEW VISTAS IN INDIA-ISRAEL DEFENCE TIES The defence relationship between India and Israel has grown concurrently with the growth in the bilateral trade. There has been robust institutional interaction between each other’s armed forces and national security apparatuses Hermes 900 is Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) UAS with multi-mission performance capabilities © Elbit Systems

S. SAMUEL C. RAJIV

KEY POINTS l

The lack of indigenous efforts in niche technological areas has been the primary drivers of India-Israel defence trade. l The LR-SAM programme illustrates that Israel and India are jointly developing capabilities to benefit both armed forces. l India has affirmed that the procurement process would be expedited to cater to the pressing modernization requirements.

C

ooperation in the defence sector has been an essential component of India-Israel bilateral ties. This has included the buying of niche Israeli defence equipment like unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV’s), Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS) and surveillance radars for the Air Force, joint development of missile systems for the Air Force and the Navy, buying of sophisticated weaponry like sniper rifles for Special Forces, antimissile defence systems (AMD) for Indian

16

Navy warships, underwater harbour defence surveillance systems for the Indian Navy, maritime patrol radars made by Elta for Dornier aircraft of the Coast Guard, among other equipment. The defence relationship has grown concurrently with the growth in the bilateral trade, from $ 200 million in 1992 to more than $ 6 billion during 2013-14. There has also been robust institutional interaction between each other’s armed forces and national security apparatuses, and brainstorming

on internal security as well as nonproliferation issues, among others. The total financial volume of this defence cooperation has been open to speculation. Among the few occasions when the government informed Parliament as to the financial volume of India-Israel defence trade was when former Defence Minister AK Antony informed Rajya Sabha in May 2007 that ‘defence purchases’ from Israel during the period 2002-2007 were worth $ 5 billion. In August 2013, Antony, in a written

reply in the Lok Sabha indicated that 29 per cent of the Indian Army’s capital procurement during 2010-13 was from Israel. These details are pertinent given the fact that stress on non-disclosure have been the guiding principle as regards India-Israel defence trade across different governments in New Delhi.

The Political Context While the Congress-led government of PV Narasimha Rao established full diplomatic

17

DSI

relations with Israel in 1992, the relationship matured under the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)-led governments from 1998-2004. The BJP was open to engaging with Israel at the highest political levels during its tenure in power. Ariel Sharon became the first Israeli prime minister to visit India in September 2003, at the invitation of Atal Bihari Vajpayee. This was in contrast with the low-level political engagement followed by the subsequent Congress-led United Progressive Alliance (UPA) from 2004-2014. It is pertinent to note that despite the high levels of defence cooperation between the two countries, no Indian defence minister has ever visited Israel. The last visit by an Indian National Security Advisor was way back in September 1999 by Brajesh Misra. The low levels of ‘high-level’ political contacts during the decade of UPA rule, however, did not impinge negatively on the growth trajectory of India-Israel defence cooperation. It should be noted though that the Israeli leadership was in favour of a more active and overt political engagement with India. Foreign Minister Avigdor Lieberman, while welcoming then External Affairs Minister SM Krishna to Israel in January 2012 on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of establishment of diplomatic relations, pointedly hoped that such visits would become ‘more frequent’. The BJP has always been a votary of stronger ties between India and Israel and its leaders have time and again (especially while in the opposition) expressed appreciation of the Israeli government’s muscular anti-terrorism and national security policies, notwithstanding the fact that some of these policies may or may not be successful in the complex Indian context. The Modi government came to office professing to follow a stronger stance on national security issues. It is pertinent to note that among the first acts Modi did after being sworn in as the prime minister was embarking on the INS Vikramaditya on June 13, 2014 and dedicating the aircraft carrier to the nation. The government has further affirmed that the procurement process would be expedited to cater to the pressing modernization and upgrade requirements of the Indian armed forces. The Ministry of Defence (MOD) in its year-end review in December 2014 pointed out that the Defence Acquisition Council (DAC), the apex decision-making body of the


India-Israel-S Samuel.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 09/02/15 1:02 PM Page 3

INDIA-ISRAEL TIES Ministry, set a ‘scorching pace’ by clearing proposals worth nearly INR 150,000 crores (about $24 billion as per current average exchange rate). These dynamics would therefore translate into greater political and defence engagement with a country like Israel which is identified by the MOD as one of India’s ‘main defence partners’, along with the US, Russia, France and the United Kingdom. In a sign of such interactions, Prime Minister Modi met with his Israeli counterpart Benjamin Netanyahu at the side lines of the United Nations General Assembly in September 2014, for the first such meeting in over a decade. Both the leaders committed to take the defence relationship further, along with expanding cooperation in other fields like cyber security, water management, agriculture and solid waste management. This brief interaction was close on the heels of the Israeli military action ‘Operation Protective Edge’ during July-August 2014 that led to the death of over 2,000 Palestinians. When the Modi government was opposed to a debate on this Israeli military action in the Indian Parliament in July 2014, it was accused of being soft on Israel and of abandoning the cause of the Palestinians. The government however clarified that it had ‘procedural’ objections to a discussion and that it was not deviating from India’s long-standing support to the Palestinians, including in such fora like the United Nations.

Spice2000 is air-to-ground weapon systems capable of hitting and destroying targets with a stand-off range of 60 km with pinpoint accuracy and at high attack volumes © Rafael

Dynamics of India-Israel Defence Trade: The Spike Saga The procurement saga associated with the Israeli-made Spike anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) in many ways captures the dynamics enveloping India-Israel defence trade. These include lack of effective progress involving indigenous options, cost effectiveness of the Israeli systems, and Israeli willingness to share critical technology with India as against peer competitors. The decision in favour of the Spike ATGM was among the

first policy decisions taken by the new government pertaining to the India-Israel defence relationship. The DAC headed by then Defence Minister Arun Jaitley on October 25, 2014 approved the purchase of over 8000 Spike ATGMs and 300 launchers worth INR 3,200 crores ($ 525 million) according to reports, each missile thus costing about $ 65,000. Reports noted that the American FGM-148 Javelin missile (while costs vary with different versions, the 2014 cost of each unit

Spike is multi-purpose, multi-platform electro-optic missile system in use by infantry units as well as mounted on combat vehicles, attack helicopters and naval vessels © Rafael

18


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India-Israel-S Samuel.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 09/02/15 1:02 PM Page 5

INDIA-ISRAEL TIES

FEBRUARY 2015

India has recently acquired Il-76 based AEW&C platforms that are equipped with the Israeli Phalcon mission suite

Elbit Systems helmet display and tracking system provides enhanced day/night situational awareness and increased survivability © Elbit Systems

of the FGM-148F version was reportedly about $ 245,000) was a contender for the contract. While Spike is produced by Rafael Advanced Defence Systems, Javelin is produced by Lockheed Martin and Raytheon Corporation. The decision was taken in the background of renewed tensions with China and Pakistan on the border in the aftermath of the Modi government assuming office. The October 2014 DAC meeting cleared proposals worth over INR 80,000 crores ($ 13 billion) for equipment as varied as submarines to be built in India and Dornier maritime surveillance aircraft, along with the Spike ATGM. It is pertinent to note that the Request for Proposal (RFP) for such advanced ‘fire-andforget’ anti-tank missiles effective over a range of more than 2 kms was initially floated in June 2010. Rafael was the only company that responded to the request. Reports in March 2011 noted that other companies including General Dynamics (which makes the Stryker ATGM), Raytheon, MBDA (the pan-European group made up of missile manufacturers from Britain, Italy and France and which makes the MMP ATGM) and Russia’s Rosoboronexport (which markets the third-generation Shturm-SM ATGM made by KBM), did not respond, possibly due to apprehensions over transferring the technology to India.

Given that India’s Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) prohibited single-vendor purchases, a decision in favour of Spike was eventually not taken in April 2013. Such prohibitions were put in place due to apprehensions over corruption involving such single-vendor purchases as well as to encourage competition and favourable offers from vendors. The Indian Army meanwhile was facing a critical equipment shortage, including for anti-tank ammunition. Reports noted that the then Army Chief Gen. V.K. Singh had informed the government about the imperative need to take steps to address such shortages in a letter dated March 12, 2012 to former Prime Minister, Manmohan Singh. Gen Singh specifically pointed to the lack of ‘critical ammunition to defeat enemy tanks’. In order to tide over the shortage, the DAC headed by Antony in July 2013 cleared the proposal to buy additional 4,500 Frenchmade Milan 2T ATGM’s. While the October 2014 DAC decision involves about 8,000 ATGMs and 300 launchers, reports noted that the requirement for such third-generation ATGMs was huge. India, for instance, had over 350 infantry battalions and would require over 2000 launchers and 24,000 missiles to replace the second-generation ATGMs in its inventory like the ‘wireguided’ Russian-made Konkurs-M and the

20

DSI

French Milan systems, as against the ‘wireless’ systems like the Spike and the Javelin. While the Konkurs-M has been in service since 2003, different versions of the Milan have been in service with the Indian Army since the 1970s. An October 2012 report in the Defence News noted that a Milan ATGM costs about $30,000. Given such huge requirements for more modern ATGMs, it could be possible that the Javelin could also make up some numbers if a favourable decision is taken in its favour subsequently. Reports in the Defence News noted that the then US Deputy Defence Secretary (and incoming Defence Secretary) Ashton Carter in September 2013 during a visit to New Delhi had proposed the ‘joint development’ of the Javelin. If true, such an offer would take care of the reported apprehensions regarding technology transfer that apparently hindered the participation of US companies in the ATGM tendering process. It could also bring down the costs of the system as against buying them off the shelf. It is pertinent to note that the Javelin missile was fired by Indian soldiers in a demonstration as part of the Indo-US joint exercise Yudh Abhyas as far back as in October 2009. Rafael however would be in the driver’s seat to cater to the Indian requirements having bagged the initial contract and on account of its cost effectiveness, as well as

the huge variety it can offer as part of the Spike systems. These include Extended Range (ER) and Non Line of Sight (NLOS) versions having ranges from 8 kms to 25 kms. India meanwhile carried out the successful trials of the indigenously developed third-generation fire-and-forget ATGM HeliNa (a version of the Nag missile) after integration with the Dhruv Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) in June 2014. Such ATGM’s are conceptually similar to the Spike NLOS versions (which are also fired from helicopters) and hence could potentially be an option open to the Indian armed forces. It remains to be seen however if India can successfully mass produce such missiles, thus offsetting the requirement of procuring such systems from overseas vendors. The Nag missile has seen an uneven developmental trajectory. It was part of the core missile systems that was intended to be developed under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP), launched way back in 1983 and was first tested in 1990. The missile faced problems in its infra-red seeker guidance system in subsequent user trials specifically in hot desert conditions. The system was fine-tuned and the Army also placed orders for over 400 such missiles in 2010. It is not clear however as to when these missiles would be inducted.

Among India-Israel joint development programmes that would mature over the coming months include the long range surface-to-air missile (LR-SAM) for the Indian Navy (IN) as well as the Israeli Navy and the medium-range SAM (MR-SAM) for the IAF

The lack of effective progress of indigenous efforts in niche technological areas has been one of the primary drivers of India-Israel defence trade. The Phalcon AWACS for instance procured from Israel was mounted on Russian aircraft due to the setback encountered by the indigenous programme in 1999 (when an Avro aircraft in testing crashed). Other systems like the

21

Russian A-50 AWACS were tested but did not meet the ‘requirements’ of the IAF (as informed by then Defence Minister George Fernandes in the Rajya Sabha in August 2000). Israeli willingness to supply such critical technology is another crucial determinant. The 1998 contract to supply Phalcon AWACS technology to China for instance was annulled in July 2000 on account of US pressure.

Going Forward Maturing Indian Capabilities As and when Indian capabilities in such niche technological areas like Advanced Early Warning and Control Aircraft (AEW&C) and UAVs mature, it can be expected that reliance on foreign suppliers would reduce. In this context, it is pertinent to note that the Rajya Sabha was informed in May 2010 that India would buy 3 more AEW&C aircraft during the 12th (2012-2017), 13th and 14th Plans. It is not clear however if these will be procured from Israel, as indigenous systems, mounted on Embraer aircraft, are currently in an advanced stage of development. The first such aircraft was received in Bengaluru in August 2012. The MoD’s year-end review statement for 2014 states that two such aircraft, fitted with indigenous radars, data links, mission system controller ‘have been flying’.


India-Israel-S Samuel.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 09/02/15 1:02 PM Page 5

INDIA-ISRAEL TIES

FEBRUARY 2015

India has recently acquired Il-76 based AEW&C platforms that are equipped with the Israeli Phalcon mission suite

Elbit Systems helmet display and tracking system provides enhanced day/night situational awareness and increased survivability © Elbit Systems

of the FGM-148F version was reportedly about $ 245,000) was a contender for the contract. While Spike is produced by Rafael Advanced Defence Systems, Javelin is produced by Lockheed Martin and Raytheon Corporation. The decision was taken in the background of renewed tensions with China and Pakistan on the border in the aftermath of the Modi government assuming office. The October 2014 DAC meeting cleared proposals worth over INR 80,000 crores ($ 13 billion) for equipment as varied as submarines to be built in India and Dornier maritime surveillance aircraft, along with the Spike ATGM. It is pertinent to note that the Request for Proposal (RFP) for such advanced ‘fire-andforget’ anti-tank missiles effective over a range of more than 2 kms was initially floated in June 2010. Rafael was the only company that responded to the request. Reports in March 2011 noted that other companies including General Dynamics (which makes the Stryker ATGM), Raytheon, MBDA (the pan-European group made up of missile manufacturers from Britain, Italy and France and which makes the MMP ATGM) and Russia’s Rosoboronexport (which markets the third-generation Shturm-SM ATGM made by KBM), did not respond, possibly due to apprehensions over transferring the technology to India.

Given that India’s Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) prohibited single-vendor purchases, a decision in favour of Spike was eventually not taken in April 2013. Such prohibitions were put in place due to apprehensions over corruption involving such single-vendor purchases as well as to encourage competition and favourable offers from vendors. The Indian Army meanwhile was facing a critical equipment shortage, including for anti-tank ammunition. Reports noted that the then Army Chief Gen. V.K. Singh had informed the government about the imperative need to take steps to address such shortages in a letter dated March 12, 2012 to former Prime Minister, Manmohan Singh. Gen Singh specifically pointed to the lack of ‘critical ammunition to defeat enemy tanks’. In order to tide over the shortage, the DAC headed by Antony in July 2013 cleared the proposal to buy additional 4,500 Frenchmade Milan 2T ATGM’s. While the October 2014 DAC decision involves about 8,000 ATGMs and 300 launchers, reports noted that the requirement for such third-generation ATGMs was huge. India, for instance, had over 350 infantry battalions and would require over 2000 launchers and 24,000 missiles to replace the second-generation ATGMs in its inventory like the ‘wireguided’ Russian-made Konkurs-M and the

20

DSI

French Milan systems, as against the ‘wireless’ systems like the Spike and the Javelin. While the Konkurs-M has been in service since 2003, different versions of the Milan have been in service with the Indian Army since the 1970s. An October 2012 report in the Defence News noted that a Milan ATGM costs about $30,000. Given such huge requirements for more modern ATGMs, it could be possible that the Javelin could also make up some numbers if a favourable decision is taken in its favour subsequently. Reports in the Defence News noted that the then US Deputy Defence Secretary (and incoming Defence Secretary) Ashton Carter in September 2013 during a visit to New Delhi had proposed the ‘joint development’ of the Javelin. If true, such an offer would take care of the reported apprehensions regarding technology transfer that apparently hindered the participation of US companies in the ATGM tendering process. It could also bring down the costs of the system as against buying them off the shelf. It is pertinent to note that the Javelin missile was fired by Indian soldiers in a demonstration as part of the Indo-US joint exercise Yudh Abhyas as far back as in October 2009. Rafael however would be in the driver’s seat to cater to the Indian requirements having bagged the initial contract and on account of its cost effectiveness, as well as

the huge variety it can offer as part of the Spike systems. These include Extended Range (ER) and Non Line of Sight (NLOS) versions having ranges from 8 kms to 25 kms. India meanwhile carried out the successful trials of the indigenously developed third-generation fire-and-forget ATGM HeliNa (a version of the Nag missile) after integration with the Dhruv Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) in June 2014. Such ATGM’s are conceptually similar to the Spike NLOS versions (which are also fired from helicopters) and hence could potentially be an option open to the Indian armed forces. It remains to be seen however if India can successfully mass produce such missiles, thus offsetting the requirement of procuring such systems from overseas vendors. The Nag missile has seen an uneven developmental trajectory. It was part of the core missile systems that was intended to be developed under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP), launched way back in 1983 and was first tested in 1990. The missile faced problems in its infra-red seeker guidance system in subsequent user trials specifically in hot desert conditions. The system was fine-tuned and the Army also placed orders for over 400 such missiles in 2010. It is not clear however as to when these missiles would be inducted.

Among India-Israel joint development programmes that would mature over the coming months include the long range surface-to-air missile (LR-SAM) for the Indian Navy (IN) as well as the Israeli Navy and the medium-range SAM (MR-SAM) for the IAF

The lack of effective progress of indigenous efforts in niche technological areas has been one of the primary drivers of India-Israel defence trade. The Phalcon AWACS for instance procured from Israel was mounted on Russian aircraft due to the setback encountered by the indigenous programme in 1999 (when an Avro aircraft in testing crashed). Other systems like the

21

Russian A-50 AWACS were tested but did not meet the ‘requirements’ of the IAF (as informed by then Defence Minister George Fernandes in the Rajya Sabha in August 2000). Israeli willingness to supply such critical technology is another crucial determinant. The 1998 contract to supply Phalcon AWACS technology to China for instance was annulled in July 2000 on account of US pressure.

Going Forward Maturing Indian Capabilities As and when Indian capabilities in such niche technological areas like Advanced Early Warning and Control Aircraft (AEW&C) and UAVs mature, it can be expected that reliance on foreign suppliers would reduce. In this context, it is pertinent to note that the Rajya Sabha was informed in May 2010 that India would buy 3 more AEW&C aircraft during the 12th (2012-2017), 13th and 14th Plans. It is not clear however if these will be procured from Israel, as indigenous systems, mounted on Embraer aircraft, are currently in an advanced stage of development. The first such aircraft was received in Bengaluru in August 2012. The MoD’s year-end review statement for 2014 states that two such aircraft, fitted with indigenous radars, data links, mission system controller ‘have been flying’.


India-Israel-S Samuel.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 09/02/15 1:02 PM Page 7

INDIA-ISRAEL TIES Promise of Joint Development Programmes Among India-Israel joint development programmes that would mature over the coming months include the long range surface-to-air missile (LR-SAM) for the Indian Navy (IN) as well as the Israeli Navy and the medium-range SAM (MR-SAM) for the IAF. The LR-SAM system has been making steady progress with two control and navigation flight tests being conducted in Israel in July 2012. ‘Home-on-target’ flights tests were conducted in August 2013 after its integration onto a warship. The missile was successfully tested against a flying target in Israel in November 2014 by the Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI), DRDO’s partner in developing the missile. The former DRDO Chief Avinash Chander who witnessed the event termed it a ‘milestone in cooperation between the two countries in developing advanced weapons systems’. The MR-SAM land-based airdefence system development is slated to be completed by 2016. Positive development Pertaining to India-Israel defence trade lifting of ban on the Israeli Military Industries (IMI) was revoked in September 2014. This followed the closure of the corruption case against IMI by the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) on account of ‘paucity of information’. The firm was blacklisted in March 2012 for a period of 10 years following investigation by the CBI which began in May 2009 regarding irregularities in the $350 million deal to supply and manufacture bimodular charge system (BMCS) for the 155mm howitzers at the Ordinance Factory Board (OFB), Nalanda. Following the ban on the IMI, reports noted that the Indian Army was faced with shortages in ammunition for its 155mm Bofors howitzers. The IMI was also involved in critical consultancy for the Arjun Mk-2 main battle tank (MBT). Indigenous efforts to develop the BMCS meanwhile seem to have made progress with the MOD in December 2014 stating that the ‘user and DGQA trials of BMCS using both Soltam and Bofors guns were completed’. It is pertinent to note that the CBI had in September 2011 closed the case against an Indian arms dealer for allegedly receiving kickbacks from the Israeli gun manufacturer Soltam, for lack of evidence.

FEBRUARY 2015

DSI

Iron Dome is effective for quick detection, discrimination and interception of rockets & mortar threats with ranges of up to 70 km and also against aircraft, helicopters, UAVs and PGMs © Rafael

In Closing Israel and India are jointly developing capabilities to benefit each other’s armed forces, as the LR-SAM programme illustrates. Both countries have undertaken joint marketing of such systems like the Dhruv ALH, developed by India, which are currently in the service of six countries. There is a strong Israeli presence in defence exhibitions like the Aero India, which showcase the best of that country’s technology that could potentially dovetail into current and future Indian requirements. At the Aero India 2015, there will be 15 exhibitors displaying

22

technologies and equipment related to fields as varied as aerospace and precision guided weapons. There continues to be a perfect fit between Israeli capabilities in niche technological areas, its willingness to share such technology with India, Israeli export imperatives and its defence industry’s strong emphasis on R&D, coupled with Indian requirements for modernisation and upgrade. The pragmatic reasons which underpin the defence relationship would continue to be operative for each other’s mutual benefit into the foreseeable future.


Indian Aerospace-Matheswaran.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 09/02/15 4:15 PM Page 1

MAKE IN INDIA

FEBRUARY 2015

INDIAN AEROSPACE SECTOR: MOVING TOWARDS INDIGENISATION If India has to realise its potential then it will need to grasp the nuances of the role of technology and its defence industry that are constituents of its national power

M MATHESWARAN

KEY POINTS

Technology, National Security and International Order

l

The importance of technology in the nation’s security and economy calculus can only be appreciated if the changed nuances of India’s role and stature in the global system are recognised. India, in the 21st century, has clearly moved upwards into the ranks of major powers in the hierarchy of nations on the strength of the size of its economy, its potential, population, and its natural resources. If its potential has to be realised then India will need to grasp the nuances of the role of technology and its defence industry in its national power. India has an unenviable task of overcoming its lag in its defence industrial capability while simultaneously achieve the task of leapfrogging into the knowledge sector. These are enormous challenges particularly in an environment of intensely competitive politics amongst nations. Politics amongst great powers is very dynamic. Advances in science and technology have long influenced the course of international politics. Technology, in fact, is one of the key determinants in shaping relations among nations, alongside wars and economic shifts. In the 21st century, aerospace technologies are the currency of power for major nations. If India has to play an effective role in the international system, it needs to strategise its industrial policies after scrutinising its technological capabilities at three levels. The first level is an estimate of the country’s capacity to produce the most important critical technologies today. It is now well established that the most important technology today appears to be aerospace, information and communication technologies in all its manifestations. The

DPSUs need to be restructured to become more competitive,efficient and accelerate indigenisation. l ‘Make in India’ slogan can become a reality with adoption of DARPA model. l India needs to aggregate its own expertise in IT and a few other sectors with the external resources to create its own aerospace sector.

P

rime minister Narendra Modi and his government have generated huge expectations of a major transformation in the area of defence industries. The “Make in India” slogan of the new government has announced a national programme, designed to facilitate investment, foster innovation, enhance skill development and aims to build best-in-class manufacturing infrastructure. The first few steps - hike in FDI to 49% in defence sector; urgency that is displayed in institutionalising the defence acquisition mechanisms and focus on Buy and Make categorisation of large purchases; pressure on DRDO to dismantle its bureaucratic structures, bring in accountability and focus on young scientists; support to private sector in defence; and bringing in scrutiny and accountability in Defence Public Sector Units (DPSUs) - have given the impression and hope that the government may display the necessary resolve to bring in radical reforms. These expectations revolve around much needed reforms to energise defence manufacturing, defence R & D, and defence exports. The barometre for measuring a major power’s strength is demonstrated by its technological capability in the aerospace domain. IAF Hawk Advanced Jet Trainer

LCA Tejas has recently achieved technological breakthrough with indigenously developed engine starter in extreme cold conditions in Ladakh

24

25

DSI

second level is the country’s capacity to produce the most important critical technologies of tomorrow. These lie in the areas of materials, manufacturing, biotechnology, aeronautics and surface transportation, and energy and environment. The third level is the country’s capacity to produce the most important militarily critical technologies of today and which would continue to be critical into the near future. National Security strategy will have to factor the nuances of these three levels in order to develop a successful defence industrial eco-system. Technology (here it is the dominant technology of the times) and industry are required to be coupled in a positive growth model in order to ensure growth of the national economy. An analysis of 60-year Kondratieff cycles over the past 250 years establishes the fact that world economic growth is linked to the emergence of “dominant technologies” in each cycle. The current cycle is driven by aerospace and information technologies, which indicates the critical areas that the nation must focus on, for its investment in the defence industry. It is also indicative of the opportunities and challenges that exist for the industry and entrepreneurs hoping to enter the defence industry segment.

India’s Aerospace Sector Three important developments in the second half of the 20th century characterise the current transformations taking place in the defence-industrial base from of the postSecond World War era. These are: interdependency in the core sectors of aviation, space, computers, and communications led to an exponential growth and fusion into


Indian Aerospace-Matheswaran.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 09/02/15 4:15 PM Page 1

MAKE IN INDIA

FEBRUARY 2015

INDIAN AEROSPACE SECTOR: MOVING TOWARDS INDIGENISATION If India has to realise its potential then it will need to grasp the nuances of the role of technology and its defence industry that are constituents of its national power

M MATHESWARAN

KEY POINTS

Technology, National Security and International Order

l

The importance of technology in the nation’s security and economy calculus can only be appreciated if the changed nuances of India’s role and stature in the global system are recognised. India, in the 21st century, has clearly moved upwards into the ranks of major powers in the hierarchy of nations on the strength of the size of its economy, its potential, population, and its natural resources. If its potential has to be realised then India will need to grasp the nuances of the role of technology and its defence industry in its national power. India has an unenviable task of overcoming its lag in its defence industrial capability while simultaneously achieve the task of leapfrogging into the knowledge sector. These are enormous challenges particularly in an environment of intensely competitive politics amongst nations. Politics amongst great powers is very dynamic. Advances in science and technology have long influenced the course of international politics. Technology, in fact, is one of the key determinants in shaping relations among nations, alongside wars and economic shifts. In the 21st century, aerospace technologies are the currency of power for major nations. If India has to play an effective role in the international system, it needs to strategise its industrial policies after scrutinising its technological capabilities at three levels. The first level is an estimate of the country’s capacity to produce the most important critical technologies today. It is now well established that the most important technology today appears to be aerospace, information and communication technologies in all its manifestations. The

DPSUs need to be restructured to become more competitive,efficient and accelerate indigenisation. l ‘Make in India’ slogan can become a reality with adoption of DARPA model. l India needs to aggregate its own expertise in IT and a few other sectors with the external resources to create its own aerospace sector.

P

rime minister Narendra Modi and his government have generated huge expectations of a major transformation in the area of defence industries. The “Make in India” slogan of the new government has announced a national programme, designed to facilitate investment, foster innovation, enhance skill development and aims to build best-in-class manufacturing infrastructure. The first few steps - hike in FDI to 49% in defence sector; urgency that is displayed in institutionalising the defence acquisition mechanisms and focus on Buy and Make categorisation of large purchases; pressure on DRDO to dismantle its bureaucratic structures, bring in accountability and focus on young scientists; support to private sector in defence; and bringing in scrutiny and accountability in Defence Public Sector Units (DPSUs) - have given the impression and hope that the government may display the necessary resolve to bring in radical reforms. These expectations revolve around much needed reforms to energise defence manufacturing, defence R & D, and defence exports. The barometre for measuring a major power’s strength is demonstrated by its technological capability in the aerospace domain. IAF Hawk Advanced Jet Trainer

LCA Tejas has recently achieved technological breakthrough with indigenously developed engine starter in extreme cold conditions in Ladakh

24

25

DSI

second level is the country’s capacity to produce the most important critical technologies of tomorrow. These lie in the areas of materials, manufacturing, biotechnology, aeronautics and surface transportation, and energy and environment. The third level is the country’s capacity to produce the most important militarily critical technologies of today and which would continue to be critical into the near future. National Security strategy will have to factor the nuances of these three levels in order to develop a successful defence industrial eco-system. Technology (here it is the dominant technology of the times) and industry are required to be coupled in a positive growth model in order to ensure growth of the national economy. An analysis of 60-year Kondratieff cycles over the past 250 years establishes the fact that world economic growth is linked to the emergence of “dominant technologies” in each cycle. The current cycle is driven by aerospace and information technologies, which indicates the critical areas that the nation must focus on, for its investment in the defence industry. It is also indicative of the opportunities and challenges that exist for the industry and entrepreneurs hoping to enter the defence industry segment.

India’s Aerospace Sector Three important developments in the second half of the 20th century characterise the current transformations taking place in the defence-industrial base from of the postSecond World War era. These are: interdependency in the core sectors of aviation, space, computers, and communications led to an exponential growth and fusion into


Indian Aerospace-Matheswaran.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 09/02/15 4:15 PM Page 3

MAKE IN INDIA

FEBRUARY 2015

Two Indian Air Force Mirage 2000 fighters take off during “Garuda” Indo-France joint air force excercise in Gwalior

aerospace sector; resultant growth of information technologies leading to the overarching role of IT in all segments of technology; and, the rising fusion of defence and civilian sectors. These developments are now beginning to impact on India’s aerospace sector. India’s aerospace industry has remained constrained for more than half a century by the government’s skewed policies. All aerospace industrial activities were restricted to the defence segment. Until the end of 20th century, Indian government followed a policy of limiting defence production to the public sector, followed a licence system and banned exports. As a result, private industry lacked avenues and opportunities for aerospace development. The public sector, dominated by the DPSUs – HAL, BEL, and BDL has become primarily manufacturers of products under licence. They lack innovation, suffer from inefficiencies and poor quality control. The existing policies give them no motivation for

The IAF plans to operate a fleet of 272 Sukhoi Su-30MKI MRCAs. These will be required for the IAF by 2020. Most of the aircraft will be assembled by HAL

The public sector, dominated by the DPSUs – HAL, BEL, and BDL have become primarily manufacturers of products under licence.They lack innovation, suffer from inefficiency and poor quality control. The existing policies gave them no motivation for export orientation

26

DSI

export orientation. But this has begun to change in recent times. Indian aerospace sector is almost entirely in the domain of defence public sector units (DPSUs). Aircraft manufacture has been entirely dominated by Hindustan Aeronautics limited (HAL). Its various divisions, located at Bangalore, Hyderabad, Lucknow, Korwa, Kanpur, Nasik, and Koraput, have accounted for all the work. The net result is that instead of concentrating on the responsibilities of design, lead integration, and final assembly, HAL has sought to do all activities within its various divisions. As a result, its track record on development of its own designs, quality control, timely delivery etc has suffered enormously. More importantly, it has failed to manage its supply chain and thus the ecosystem of clustered development has failed to materialise. This has hurt the nation enormously. At the heart of this malaise lies the insecurity of the DPSUs as

they view the entry of private sector as a threat to their existence. The story is similar with respect to other DPSUs such as BEL, BDL etc. In short, the DPSUs, driven by flawed policies of the government, have now become barriers to overall aerospace development in the country.

Changes leading to Emerging Trends in Aerospace Sector India’s indigenisation efforts in the aerospace sector will need to focus on combining its areas of strength (IT, automobiles, systems integration) intelligently, and addressing its areas of weaknesses (materials, advanced manufacturing, tooling, machines, design and development) effectively through joint ventures. Indian private sector has matured to global standards in information technology and the automobile sector. Having emerged successfully as part of the global supply chain, they now have imbibed global standards of quality, efficiency, and

innovation, and export orientation. The IT sector has matured significantly wherein they are now in global league with respect to design, analyses, and advanced algorithm development capabilities. Companies like TCS, Satyam (Tech Mahindra now), Infosys, Wipro, Infotech are contributors for advanced work packages for major aerospace companies like Boeing, Airbus, Bombardier etc. On the mechanical infrastructure side, companies like Tatas, Mahindras, L & T, Reliance, and Bharat Forge are showing the resolve to move into the aerospace sector with their own investment and a global outlook to slot themselves into the global supply chain. It is also interesting to note that major research centres have been established by world’s leading aerospace majors to capitalise India’s human resource pool. General Electrics Jack Welch research centre employs nearly 3000 Indian engineers to aid their research work in

27

aeronautics and polymers. Honeywell, Boeing, Lockheed Martin, etc have established similar centres. Airbus and Rolls Royce have their own sourcing mechanisms. Policy changes that are underway are helping the emerging trends. The acquisition policy and offset management are showing significantly positive trends. The practice of forced nomination of acquisition orders to DPSUs has been done away with almost entirely. The DPSUs are now being forced to compete with private industry. Competition is something they are ill-equipped to handle, and therefore, they continue to create barriers using all mechanisms at their disposal. The DPSUs will need to be restructured to become more competitive, develop export orientation, and become more efficient and accelerate indigenisation. They have enormous assets and resources, which can be used very effectively in partnership with private industry to develop and market various products.


Indian Aerospace-Matheswaran.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 09/02/15 4:15 PM Page 3

MAKE IN INDIA

FEBRUARY 2015

Two Indian Air Force Mirage 2000 fighters take off during “Garuda” Indo-France joint air force excercise in Gwalior

aerospace sector; resultant growth of information technologies leading to the overarching role of IT in all segments of technology; and, the rising fusion of defence and civilian sectors. These developments are now beginning to impact on India’s aerospace sector. India’s aerospace industry has remained constrained for more than half a century by the government’s skewed policies. All aerospace industrial activities were restricted to the defence segment. Until the end of 20th century, Indian government followed a policy of limiting defence production to the public sector, followed a licence system and banned exports. As a result, private industry lacked avenues and opportunities for aerospace development. The public sector, dominated by the DPSUs – HAL, BEL, and BDL has become primarily manufacturers of products under licence. They lack innovation, suffer from inefficiencies and poor quality control. The existing policies give them no motivation for

The IAF plans to operate a fleet of 272 Sukhoi Su-30MKI MRCAs. These will be required for the IAF by 2020. Most of the aircraft will be assembled by HAL

The public sector, dominated by the DPSUs – HAL, BEL, and BDL have become primarily manufacturers of products under licence.They lack innovation, suffer from inefficiency and poor quality control. The existing policies gave them no motivation for export orientation

26

DSI

export orientation. But this has begun to change in recent times. Indian aerospace sector is almost entirely in the domain of defence public sector units (DPSUs). Aircraft manufacture has been entirely dominated by Hindustan Aeronautics limited (HAL). Its various divisions, located at Bangalore, Hyderabad, Lucknow, Korwa, Kanpur, Nasik, and Koraput, have accounted for all the work. The net result is that instead of concentrating on the responsibilities of design, lead integration, and final assembly, HAL has sought to do all activities within its various divisions. As a result, its track record on development of its own designs, quality control, timely delivery etc has suffered enormously. More importantly, it has failed to manage its supply chain and thus the ecosystem of clustered development has failed to materialise. This has hurt the nation enormously. At the heart of this malaise lies the insecurity of the DPSUs as

they view the entry of private sector as a threat to their existence. The story is similar with respect to other DPSUs such as BEL, BDL etc. In short, the DPSUs, driven by flawed policies of the government, have now become barriers to overall aerospace development in the country.

Changes leading to Emerging Trends in Aerospace Sector India’s indigenisation efforts in the aerospace sector will need to focus on combining its areas of strength (IT, automobiles, systems integration) intelligently, and addressing its areas of weaknesses (materials, advanced manufacturing, tooling, machines, design and development) effectively through joint ventures. Indian private sector has matured to global standards in information technology and the automobile sector. Having emerged successfully as part of the global supply chain, they now have imbibed global standards of quality, efficiency, and

innovation, and export orientation. The IT sector has matured significantly wherein they are now in global league with respect to design, analyses, and advanced algorithm development capabilities. Companies like TCS, Satyam (Tech Mahindra now), Infosys, Wipro, Infotech are contributors for advanced work packages for major aerospace companies like Boeing, Airbus, Bombardier etc. On the mechanical infrastructure side, companies like Tatas, Mahindras, L & T, Reliance, and Bharat Forge are showing the resolve to move into the aerospace sector with their own investment and a global outlook to slot themselves into the global supply chain. It is also interesting to note that major research centres have been established by world’s leading aerospace majors to capitalise India’s human resource pool. General Electrics Jack Welch research centre employs nearly 3000 Indian engineers to aid their research work in

27

aeronautics and polymers. Honeywell, Boeing, Lockheed Martin, etc have established similar centres. Airbus and Rolls Royce have their own sourcing mechanisms. Policy changes that are underway are helping the emerging trends. The acquisition policy and offset management are showing significantly positive trends. The practice of forced nomination of acquisition orders to DPSUs has been done away with almost entirely. The DPSUs are now being forced to compete with private industry. Competition is something they are ill-equipped to handle, and therefore, they continue to create barriers using all mechanisms at their disposal. The DPSUs will need to be restructured to become more competitive, develop export orientation, and become more efficient and accelerate indigenisation. They have enormous assets and resources, which can be used very effectively in partnership with private industry to develop and market various products.


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MAKE IN INDIA

Challenges and Barriers The current environment has raised enormous hopes and optimism. However, they can be translated into success only if we recognise the challenges and barriers in order to address them effectively. Since aerospace industry deals with high ends of technology, the government needs to address three crucial areas of policy. The following three tenets must be recognised: l Human capital is crucial l State must prevent ‘vested interests’ from blocking structural economic change l States that have managed to achieve the above have been characterised by political consensus and social cohesion Analysis of Indian policies with respect to defence industry clearly indicates the failure of Indian policy makers to address the three propositions. Even advanced economies face failures if they do not guard against these observations. The growth process gets stunted due to the following reasons: l Slow and steady build-up of rigidities in the economy l Vested interests gaining political power l The above two makes it harder for the states to undergo necessary structural and economic change The above three challenges faced by a country are well analysed by economists

DSI

Indigenisation has hardly been achieved. There were many reasons for this, the main being vested interests of the foreign OEMs and countries, which ensured that our contracts for licence production, were limited for Indian armed forces only. Thus, Indian manufactured components and spares were never used for the global market

such as Schumpeter and Olson. In recent times, sociologist Espen Moe reframes the three main conditions for nations to rise to industrial excellence and leadership. For technological and industrial leadership a country needs to fulfill two conditions. In the final analysis, what makes a country rise to technological and industrial excellence is the combination of a high value on the human capital variable and a low value on the vested interests variable, but that this low value is contingent on a high value on the consensus and cohesion variable. In 2001, the government constituted a committee under the chairmanship of Dr Vijay Kelkar, to examine the process of allowing accelerated participation of the private sector in the defence industry. This writer attended virtually every meeting of the committee in 2004 and 2005. Even a decade after the report was submitted, the government is far from implementing the core recommendations. Hence, the current enthusiasm will mean little if the current status of problems and challenges are not addressed. These need to be examined in

28

An IAF 14th Sqn (SEPECAT) Jaguar GR-I participate in Exercise Cooperative Cope Thunder with the USAF

the context of the three observations of “Human Capital, Vested Interests, and Political Consensus and Social Cohesion” as brought out earlier. Vested interests – External: India has produced thousands of aircraft and aerospace systems over the last five decades. But indigenisation has hardly been achieved. There were many reasons for this, the main being vested interests of the foreign OEMs and countries, which ensured that our contracts for licence production, were limited for Indian armed forces only. Thus, Indian manufactured components and spares were never used for the global market of the same product nor did India get the benefit of being a partner sharing the MRO business of the world market. This limitation had very adverse impact on the technology absorption capability of the Indian DPSUs, and this was exactly what the OEM had aimed to achieve and continue to do so. Vested Interests – Political: Political interests have created vested interests of their own that have gone on to play a

AFP

The prioritisation of acquisition in favour of Buy Indian, and Buy and Make Indian has given an enormous fillip to the indigenisation process. This has energised not only the major companies like the Tatas, Mahindras, L & T etc, but has given a significant boost to the MSMEs in the country. Development of a huge MSME ecosystem is crucial for indigenisation efforts in the country. If the aerospace ecosystem were allowed to develop by encouraging joint ventures and higher levels of FDI, it would automatically lead to greater levels of indigenisation. Of course, this needs to be combined with a more transparent and realistic approach to implement development programmes. ‘Make in India’ slogan can become a reality when an active and competitive development model like the US agency, DARPA is adopted. This has been one of the core recommendations of the Kelkar committee. It needs to be revisited again.

FEBRUARY 2015

disruptive influence on the defence industry. Public sector units (PSUs) provided major avenues through which the government could address various social objectives of employment, affirmative action, and rural development. That these objectives were met is unquestionable. Political parties competed with each other to be seen as espousing these social objectives. It provided a huge electoral guarantee to the party in power. These social objectives were achieved at a huge long-term cost as aerospace industries were located at areas where they failed to energise the development of ancillary industries. It is an open secret that many hi-tech weapons acquisitions have been influenced by political patronage. A combination of Cold War compulsions and its related strategic compulsions, and the vast variety of technicalities in the defence sector (unlike Space and Atomic Energy), have all contributed for the field to be exploited for political machinations. This has been and continues to be one of the critical factors contributing to the failure of the

indigenisation process over the last five decades. This can only be resolved in bringing the defence industrial strategy to be executed and monitored by an apex body at the national level, directly accountable to the PM. Vested Interests – Structural and Bureaucratic: The third important ‘vested interest’ comes from the structural and bureaucratic systems of the defence industry. The bureaucracy (administrative and finance) in Department of Defence Production (DDP) has always viewed the DPSUs and Ordnance Factories as their own rather than take a nationalistic view of the defence industry (both Public and Private) as such. Thus DPSUs and OFs have used their influence on DDP to be nominated for all projects, in spite of their capacity constraints, at the cost of private sector development. Human Capital: Aerospace industry’s need for “human capital” with high level of education and skills is well established. The need for high quality “human capital” in the coming years will be hard to meet. The issue

29

gets worse due to archaic policies that have been followed so far with respect to technical manpower. India churns out lakhs of engineers every year but industry inputs indicate that over 80% of them are of low quality unfit for high-end technological industries. If the country has to make a success of the “Make in India” objective, these serious drawbacks in the “human capital” domain will need to be addressed. Political Consensus and Social Cohesion: India is a huge and vibrant democracy, and a country of large political diversity. While the former is a significant strength, the latter functions as a huge ‘vested interest’ group that focuses only on self-serving gains and short-term political survival. As a result, the country rarely exhibits unity of purpose, when taking decisions with respect to defence industry and defence economics. Depending on the political party in power, decisions taken are invariably at different ends of the spectrum or deeply polarised. More importantly, it should be highlighted that narrow political self-interests have led to decisions that


Indian Aerospace-Matheswaran.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 09/02/15 4:15 PM Page 5

MAKE IN INDIA

Challenges and Barriers The current environment has raised enormous hopes and optimism. However, they can be translated into success only if we recognise the challenges and barriers in order to address them effectively. Since aerospace industry deals with high ends of technology, the government needs to address three crucial areas of policy. The following three tenets must be recognised: l Human capital is crucial l State must prevent ‘vested interests’ from blocking structural economic change l States that have managed to achieve the above have been characterised by political consensus and social cohesion Analysis of Indian policies with respect to defence industry clearly indicates the failure of Indian policy makers to address the three propositions. Even advanced economies face failures if they do not guard against these observations. The growth process gets stunted due to the following reasons: l Slow and steady build-up of rigidities in the economy l Vested interests gaining political power l The above two makes it harder for the states to undergo necessary structural and economic change The above three challenges faced by a country are well analysed by economists

DSI

Indigenisation has hardly been achieved. There were many reasons for this, the main being vested interests of the foreign OEMs and countries, which ensured that our contracts for licence production, were limited for Indian armed forces only. Thus, Indian manufactured components and spares were never used for the global market

such as Schumpeter and Olson. In recent times, sociologist Espen Moe reframes the three main conditions for nations to rise to industrial excellence and leadership. For technological and industrial leadership a country needs to fulfill two conditions. In the final analysis, what makes a country rise to technological and industrial excellence is the combination of a high value on the human capital variable and a low value on the vested interests variable, but that this low value is contingent on a high value on the consensus and cohesion variable. In 2001, the government constituted a committee under the chairmanship of Dr Vijay Kelkar, to examine the process of allowing accelerated participation of the private sector in the defence industry. This writer attended virtually every meeting of the committee in 2004 and 2005. Even a decade after the report was submitted, the government is far from implementing the core recommendations. Hence, the current enthusiasm will mean little if the current status of problems and challenges are not addressed. These need to be examined in

28

An IAF 14th Sqn (SEPECAT) Jaguar GR-I participate in Exercise Cooperative Cope Thunder with the USAF

the context of the three observations of “Human Capital, Vested Interests, and Political Consensus and Social Cohesion” as brought out earlier. Vested interests – External: India has produced thousands of aircraft and aerospace systems over the last five decades. But indigenisation has hardly been achieved. There were many reasons for this, the main being vested interests of the foreign OEMs and countries, which ensured that our contracts for licence production, were limited for Indian armed forces only. Thus, Indian manufactured components and spares were never used for the global market of the same product nor did India get the benefit of being a partner sharing the MRO business of the world market. This limitation had very adverse impact on the technology absorption capability of the Indian DPSUs, and this was exactly what the OEM had aimed to achieve and continue to do so. Vested Interests – Political: Political interests have created vested interests of their own that have gone on to play a

AFP

The prioritisation of acquisition in favour of Buy Indian, and Buy and Make Indian has given an enormous fillip to the indigenisation process. This has energised not only the major companies like the Tatas, Mahindras, L & T etc, but has given a significant boost to the MSMEs in the country. Development of a huge MSME ecosystem is crucial for indigenisation efforts in the country. If the aerospace ecosystem were allowed to develop by encouraging joint ventures and higher levels of FDI, it would automatically lead to greater levels of indigenisation. Of course, this needs to be combined with a more transparent and realistic approach to implement development programmes. ‘Make in India’ slogan can become a reality when an active and competitive development model like the US agency, DARPA is adopted. This has been one of the core recommendations of the Kelkar committee. It needs to be revisited again.

FEBRUARY 2015

disruptive influence on the defence industry. Public sector units (PSUs) provided major avenues through which the government could address various social objectives of employment, affirmative action, and rural development. That these objectives were met is unquestionable. Political parties competed with each other to be seen as espousing these social objectives. It provided a huge electoral guarantee to the party in power. These social objectives were achieved at a huge long-term cost as aerospace industries were located at areas where they failed to energise the development of ancillary industries. It is an open secret that many hi-tech weapons acquisitions have been influenced by political patronage. A combination of Cold War compulsions and its related strategic compulsions, and the vast variety of technicalities in the defence sector (unlike Space and Atomic Energy), have all contributed for the field to be exploited for political machinations. This has been and continues to be one of the critical factors contributing to the failure of the

indigenisation process over the last five decades. This can only be resolved in bringing the defence industrial strategy to be executed and monitored by an apex body at the national level, directly accountable to the PM. Vested Interests – Structural and Bureaucratic: The third important ‘vested interest’ comes from the structural and bureaucratic systems of the defence industry. The bureaucracy (administrative and finance) in Department of Defence Production (DDP) has always viewed the DPSUs and Ordnance Factories as their own rather than take a nationalistic view of the defence industry (both Public and Private) as such. Thus DPSUs and OFs have used their influence on DDP to be nominated for all projects, in spite of their capacity constraints, at the cost of private sector development. Human Capital: Aerospace industry’s need for “human capital” with high level of education and skills is well established. The need for high quality “human capital” in the coming years will be hard to meet. The issue

29

gets worse due to archaic policies that have been followed so far with respect to technical manpower. India churns out lakhs of engineers every year but industry inputs indicate that over 80% of them are of low quality unfit for high-end technological industries. If the country has to make a success of the “Make in India” objective, these serious drawbacks in the “human capital” domain will need to be addressed. Political Consensus and Social Cohesion: India is a huge and vibrant democracy, and a country of large political diversity. While the former is a significant strength, the latter functions as a huge ‘vested interest’ group that focuses only on self-serving gains and short-term political survival. As a result, the country rarely exhibits unity of purpose, when taking decisions with respect to defence industry and defence economics. Depending on the political party in power, decisions taken are invariably at different ends of the spectrum or deeply polarised. More importantly, it should be highlighted that narrow political self-interests have led to decisions that


Indian Aerospace-Matheswaran.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 09/02/15 4:15 PM Page 7

MAKE IN INDIA

FEBRUARY 2015

A MiG-29K aircraft of the Indian Navy in flight

incremental approach by gradually increasing ability to modify existing equipment for the local combat environment or to extend service life. By focusing almost exclusively on the production of major weapon systems and platforms, India missed the opportunity to energise innovation that would have addressed component replacement and adaptation of own technology solutions to improve or replace spares and maintenance equipment. This can now be addressed by bringing in its very capable

I

nterview of Steven Gillard, Vice President, Customer Business – Defence, Rolls-Royce with Defence and Security of India magazine.

have created a separation of the civil industry from the defence industry. The most striking example is in the separation of civil aviation from military aviation, wherein the two departments have worked at conflicting purposes to create ‘vested interests’ rather than create a synergy for the nation in research and industrial activity. Only states characterised by strong political consensus and/or social cohesion have the strength and relative autonomy to resist the power of vested interests.

Conclusion A country’s technological capability can be measured by its strength and control over critical technologies in the aerospace sector. India’s aerospace sector now has the potential and opportunities to leapfrog into advanced capabilities. But this can only be achieved through deliberate strategy of overcoming its challenges and barriers.

A country’s technological capability can be measured by its strength and control over critical technologies in the aerospace sector. India’s aerospace sector now has the potential and opportunities to leapfrog into advanced capabilities

30

An important theory in the development of defence industry for developing countries and emerging powers is the concept of the “ladder of production”. Deeper analysis shows that India has consistently violated this theoretical ladder, skipping or ignoring steps in pursuit of symbolic goals. It has regularly rejected the option of using local R & D to make incremental improvements to existing arms but instead, preferred to purchase or develop fully new systems. The separation of the Indian defence sector from the private industry has isolated it and prevented an effective contribution to the national economy. Another major weakness in the Indian aerospace industry is the virtual absence of a significant refit and modernisation capability. If the “ladder of production” concept had been followed, particularly through the involvement of the private sector, it would have built strength through

Q. Please briefly narrate RollsRoyce’s 80 year old journey in India A. Rolls-Royce began its journey in India eight decades ago with the powering of the first Tata Aviation aircraft with Gypsy engines. In 1933 IAF took to the skies powered by Bristol Jupiter engines. In 2013, International Aerospace Manufacturing Private Limited (IAMPL), a 50:50 JV with HAL, became operational in Bengaluru. IAMPL manufactures engine parts (compressor shrouds and cones) for Rolls-Royce gas turbines both for new production and the aftermarket. The IAMPL facility is now at full production employing over 140 people and will produce 25,000 aerospace parts for Rolls-Royce in 2015 across a wide range of engine programs including for the Trent XWB. In addition, around 1000 engineers, through our partnership with QuEST & TCS, work at Roll-Royce managed engineering centres in Bengaluru. This is the one of the largest population of RollsRoyce engineers outside the UK and they provide high quality engineering solutions and services across the entire product development life-cycle across all our sectors including civil aerospace. Q. What are your views on the ‘Make in India’ initiative? What is the update on the IAMPL facility in Bangalore? A. Rolls-Royce supports the ‘Make in India’ initiative as it will not only help Indian industries become globally

private sector into this domain. Skilful use of existing industrial infrastructure and more sophisticated foreign partners creates genuine opportunity for India’s military industry to make significant strides in the near future. The private sector has built significant strengths in IT (Infosys, TCS, Wipro, HCL etc are good examples), Telecommunications, Space technology, nuclear applications, heavy industry, materials, automobiles, consumer electronics etc. Advances in ITES has

competitive but will also allow companies like us to further support the country’s modernisation needs. We are committed to supporting the government’s vision of positioning India as a global manufacturing hub. Our IAMPL facility – a 50:50 JV with HAL, in Bangalore wasn’t required by an offset commitment but was the result of recognition of the value for both parties. It became operational in 2013 and has now successfully started production and reached full capacity in 2014. Built with an investment of US$25 million, this facility manufactures compressor shrouds and cones for RollsRoyce gas turbines both for new production and the aftermarket. Currently IAMPL ships more than 130 different engine compressor parts to Rolls-Royce aero engines facilities. Q. Please update us on the next generation of Turbofans by Rolls-Royce? A. Rolls-Royce unveiled its new designs for the next generation of turbofans. The new designs feature the technology innovation designed to transform performance. A range of new technologies have been combined in order to meet our customer needs like: better fuel efficiency, reliability and environmental performance. Rolls-Royce is looking to build on the success of the Trent family of engines with two new generation engine designs. The first design, Advance, will offer at

31

DSI

enabled cross application and merger of civil and military sectors in many areas. If the defence sector were opened for flow of technology and expertise from civil sector, it would energise the defence industry through healthy competition. Skilful use of foreign expertise through intelligent FDI policies would contribute immensely to job creation in hi-tech sector and skill development. The government, while pushing for “Make in India” policy, should be careful not to create a barrier for highend technologies from abroad.

least 20% better fuel burn and CO2 emissions than the first generation of Trent engine and could be ready from the end of this decade. The second design, UltraFan™, a geared design with a variable pitch fan system, is based on technology that could be ready for service from 2025 and will offer 25% improvement in fuel burn and emissions against the same baseline. Q. How does Rolls-Royce view the increase in FDI in the defence sector? A. Defence technology comes with huge investments in research and development (R&D). With increased FDI limit India can now focus on increasing its share of defence budget to R&D which is only 6% compared to 15% in France and 12% in the US. At Rolls-Royce, we believe that it will help catalyse rapid indigenisation and substantially increase the attractiveness of the sector as a place to transfer technology and set-up a manufacturing hub. We are already working with many partners in India which we are very proud of – TCS/ Quest, HAL, etc. With a higher FDI, there will be opportunities to further contribute in the development and upgrading of India’s defence sector. Q. Mention about your participation at Aero India 2015 A. This year at Aero India 2015, we will highlight our ‘Partnership with India – Past, Present and Future’ by showcasing our technologically advanced and innovative products. We will feature our three innovative engines – the Adour, which powers the Hawk trainer, the Trent 700 from the Airbus A330 tanker aircraft and the C-130J’s AE2100 engine.


Indian Aerospace-Matheswaran.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 09/02/15 4:15 PM Page 7

MAKE IN INDIA

FEBRUARY 2015

A MiG-29K aircraft of the Indian Navy in flight

incremental approach by gradually increasing ability to modify existing equipment for the local combat environment or to extend service life. By focusing almost exclusively on the production of major weapon systems and platforms, India missed the opportunity to energise innovation that would have addressed component replacement and adaptation of own technology solutions to improve or replace spares and maintenance equipment. This can now be addressed by bringing in its very capable

I

nterview of Steven Gillard, Vice President, Customer Business – Defence, Rolls-Royce with Defence and Security of India magazine.

have created a separation of the civil industry from the defence industry. The most striking example is in the separation of civil aviation from military aviation, wherein the two departments have worked at conflicting purposes to create ‘vested interests’ rather than create a synergy for the nation in research and industrial activity. Only states characterised by strong political consensus and/or social cohesion have the strength and relative autonomy to resist the power of vested interests.

Conclusion A country’s technological capability can be measured by its strength and control over critical technologies in the aerospace sector. India’s aerospace sector now has the potential and opportunities to leapfrog into advanced capabilities. But this can only be achieved through deliberate strategy of overcoming its challenges and barriers.

A country’s technological capability can be measured by its strength and control over critical technologies in the aerospace sector. India’s aerospace sector now has the potential and opportunities to leapfrog into advanced capabilities

30

An important theory in the development of defence industry for developing countries and emerging powers is the concept of the “ladder of production”. Deeper analysis shows that India has consistently violated this theoretical ladder, skipping or ignoring steps in pursuit of symbolic goals. It has regularly rejected the option of using local R & D to make incremental improvements to existing arms but instead, preferred to purchase or develop fully new systems. The separation of the Indian defence sector from the private industry has isolated it and prevented an effective contribution to the national economy. Another major weakness in the Indian aerospace industry is the virtual absence of a significant refit and modernisation capability. If the “ladder of production” concept had been followed, particularly through the involvement of the private sector, it would have built strength through

Q. Please briefly narrate RollsRoyce’s 80 year old journey in India A. Rolls-Royce began its journey in India eight decades ago with the powering of the first Tata Aviation aircraft with Gypsy engines. In 1933 IAF took to the skies powered by Bristol Jupiter engines. In 2013, International Aerospace Manufacturing Private Limited (IAMPL), a 50:50 JV with HAL, became operational in Bengaluru. IAMPL manufactures engine parts (compressor shrouds and cones) for Rolls-Royce gas turbines both for new production and the aftermarket. The IAMPL facility is now at full production employing over 140 people and will produce 25,000 aerospace parts for Rolls-Royce in 2015 across a wide range of engine programs including for the Trent XWB. In addition, around 1000 engineers, through our partnership with QuEST & TCS, work at Roll-Royce managed engineering centres in Bengaluru. This is the one of the largest population of RollsRoyce engineers outside the UK and they provide high quality engineering solutions and services across the entire product development life-cycle across all our sectors including civil aerospace. Q. What are your views on the ‘Make in India’ initiative? What is the update on the IAMPL facility in Bangalore? A. Rolls-Royce supports the ‘Make in India’ initiative as it will not only help Indian industries become globally

private sector into this domain. Skilful use of existing industrial infrastructure and more sophisticated foreign partners creates genuine opportunity for India’s military industry to make significant strides in the near future. The private sector has built significant strengths in IT (Infosys, TCS, Wipro, HCL etc are good examples), Telecommunications, Space technology, nuclear applications, heavy industry, materials, automobiles, consumer electronics etc. Advances in ITES has

competitive but will also allow companies like us to further support the country’s modernisation needs. We are committed to supporting the government’s vision of positioning India as a global manufacturing hub. Our IAMPL facility – a 50:50 JV with HAL, in Bangalore wasn’t required by an offset commitment but was the result of recognition of the value for both parties. It became operational in 2013 and has now successfully started production and reached full capacity in 2014. Built with an investment of US$25 million, this facility manufactures compressor shrouds and cones for RollsRoyce gas turbines both for new production and the aftermarket. Currently IAMPL ships more than 130 different engine compressor parts to Rolls-Royce aero engines facilities. Q. Please update us on the next generation of Turbofans by Rolls-Royce? A. Rolls-Royce unveiled its new designs for the next generation of turbofans. The new designs feature the technology innovation designed to transform performance. A range of new technologies have been combined in order to meet our customer needs like: better fuel efficiency, reliability and environmental performance. Rolls-Royce is looking to build on the success of the Trent family of engines with two new generation engine designs. The first design, Advance, will offer at

31

DSI

enabled cross application and merger of civil and military sectors in many areas. If the defence sector were opened for flow of technology and expertise from civil sector, it would energise the defence industry through healthy competition. Skilful use of foreign expertise through intelligent FDI policies would contribute immensely to job creation in hi-tech sector and skill development. The government, while pushing for “Make in India” policy, should be careful not to create a barrier for highend technologies from abroad.

least 20% better fuel burn and CO2 emissions than the first generation of Trent engine and could be ready from the end of this decade. The second design, UltraFan™, a geared design with a variable pitch fan system, is based on technology that could be ready for service from 2025 and will offer 25% improvement in fuel burn and emissions against the same baseline. Q. How does Rolls-Royce view the increase in FDI in the defence sector? A. Defence technology comes with huge investments in research and development (R&D). With increased FDI limit India can now focus on increasing its share of defence budget to R&D which is only 6% compared to 15% in France and 12% in the US. At Rolls-Royce, we believe that it will help catalyse rapid indigenisation and substantially increase the attractiveness of the sector as a place to transfer technology and set-up a manufacturing hub. We are already working with many partners in India which we are very proud of – TCS/ Quest, HAL, etc. With a higher FDI, there will be opportunities to further contribute in the development and upgrading of India’s defence sector. Q. Mention about your participation at Aero India 2015 A. This year at Aero India 2015, we will highlight our ‘Partnership with India – Past, Present and Future’ by showcasing our technologically advanced and innovative products. We will feature our three innovative engines – the Adour, which powers the Hawk trainer, the Trent 700 from the Airbus A330 tanker aircraft and the C-130J’s AE2100 engine.


Naval Gun-S Kulshrestha.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 10/02/15 11:12 AM Page 1

NAVAL WARFARE

FEBRUARY 2015

DSI

RESURGENCE OF THE NAVAL GUN The key to blue water navy is its ability to destroy targets before they are able to pose a threat. Indian Navy is modernising the main and auxiliary gun with greater chance of survivability KEY POINTS

Oto Melara’s long range gun systems 127mm (5 inch) mounting. Oto Melara is developing a range of extended range ammunition, Vulcano, for this mounting © Oto Melara

l

India has to focus on the ways of tackling challenges emanating from shores and water harbor threats. l IN is opting for new gun systems with the feasibility of retro fitment on existing and under construction warships. l The missiles, despite their falling prices cannot match the cost benefits accrued by the traditional naval gun.

DR. S KULSHRESTHA

“Without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, and with it, everything honorable and glorious.” —President George Washington

B

lue water navies across the world are reassessing their capabilities to meet the demands of littoral warfare. The shallow waters harbor threats like small submarines, mines, hostile boat swarms, shore based aircrafts/UAVs, gun batteries and missiles. The Navies have to focus on tackling challenges emanating from shores before getting unfettered access to coastal areas of interest. Neutralizing swarms of small hostile craft in littorals due to their intermingling with local fishing craft in restricted maneuverability and short reaction times pose a formidable problem to Navies designed for standoff operations. Scenario and simulation studies have established that most of the NATO frigates are vulnerable to an attacking swarm of four to eight such small hostile craft. The small hostile craft’s weapons of choice include hand held weapons (the PK / RPK 7.62 mm,

32

33


Naval Gun-S Kulshrestha.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 10/02/15 11:12 AM Page 1

NAVAL WARFARE

FEBRUARY 2015

DSI

RESURGENCE OF THE NAVAL GUN The key to blue water navy is its ability to destroy targets before they are able to pose a threat. Indian Navy is modernising the main and auxiliary gun with greater chance of survivability KEY POINTS

Oto Melara’s long range gun systems 127mm (5 inch) mounting. Oto Melara is developing a range of extended range ammunition, Vulcano, for this mounting © Oto Melara

l

India has to focus on the ways of tackling challenges emanating from shores and water harbor threats. l IN is opting for new gun systems with the feasibility of retro fitment on existing and under construction warships. l The missiles, despite their falling prices cannot match the cost benefits accrued by the traditional naval gun.

DR. S KULSHRESTHA

“Without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, and with it, everything honorable and glorious.” —President George Washington

B

lue water navies across the world are reassessing their capabilities to meet the demands of littoral warfare. The shallow waters harbor threats like small submarines, mines, hostile boat swarms, shore based aircrafts/UAVs, gun batteries and missiles. The Navies have to focus on tackling challenges emanating from shores before getting unfettered access to coastal areas of interest. Neutralizing swarms of small hostile craft in littorals due to their intermingling with local fishing craft in restricted maneuverability and short reaction times pose a formidable problem to Navies designed for standoff operations. Scenario and simulation studies have established that most of the NATO frigates are vulnerable to an attacking swarm of four to eight such small hostile craft. The small hostile craft’s weapons of choice include hand held weapons (the PK / RPK 7.62 mm,

32

33


Naval Gun-S Kulshrestha.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 10/02/15 11:13 AM Page 3

NAVAL WARFARE the NSV 12.7 mm, the Rheinmetall MG 3, the AK 47, AK 74, the FN FAL, the H&K G3 etc), and rockets launchers like the RPG-7. Navies are modernizing the main and auxiliary gun and Close in weapon system CIWS out fits because various studies have brought out that ships using a mix of sophisticated high and low calibre weapons with high probability of hits, have much greater chance of survivability then those with semiautomatic systems. Navies are upgrading both the ordnance and the software. The goal is to achieve very high hit probabilities with high firing rates. Further, Studies carried out in the US to meet the requirements of the US marines, have concluded that; naval surface fire support NSFS had been crucial during the past operations. Larger calibre guns provide support at much longer ranges and are essential for destroying fortified positions. With the advent of Precision Guidance in larger calibre rounds, collateral damage has been considerably reduced. Their penetration ability in case of hard targets is practically as good as ordnance delivered by air. In order to achieve similar effects in suppressing the enemy, using smaller calibre guns like the MK 45 (5 inch), much greater number of rounds would have to be fired. During protracted war, the large calibre gun outshines the missiles because of high replacement costs of the missiles. It has a definite edge over the smaller calibre guns as the smaller calibre rounds have much lesser lethality. Both missiles and smaller calibre gun ammunition also require a large quantity to be stored onboard. The Air support operations in high threat environments are hindered by availability, mission priorities, weather, as well as prohibitive costs. All these make the large calibre gun a very cost beneficial solution in Naval Surface Fire Support (NSFS) missions. Thus, it can be seen that the Naval Gun is likely to continue for a much longer period than previously anticipated. Conventionally the gun outfits of naval ships have included a heavy gun (57 mm calibre up wards), an auxiliary gun of up to 35 mm calibre, and a small calibre gun for close air/ missile defense. The number of turrets has depended upon the size and the role of the ship. Some of the heavy naval guns are, AGS 155, OTO Breda 127/54, OTO Melara 127/64, OTO Melara 76 mm gun (traditional /compatto/rapid), Bofors 57/70 mm MKII

FEBRUARY 2015

The ‘Zumwalt’ class destroyers of the US Navy are equipped with BAE Systems’ 155mm Advanced Gun System (AGS) © (BAE Systems)

number 30 mm guns for the warships. Indian Navy has also raised an RFI for 12.7 mm heavy machine guns for ships and rigid inflatable boats (RHIB). Some of the popular and interesting guns and gun systems are briefly described in the succeeding paragraphs.

DSI

INS Mumbai is the third of the Indian Navy’s Delhi class guided missile destroyers built by Mazagon Docks

Heavy Guns

Naval Gun is likely to continue for a much longer period than previously anticipated. Conventionally the gun outfits of naval ships have included a heavy gun (57 mm caliber up wards), an auxiliary gun of up to 35 mm caliber, and a small caliber gun for close air/ missile defence

/ MKIII, CADAM Turret / Loire 100mm / MK55 Mod 68, and Giat CADAM Turret. Examples of auxiliary guns are, Rheinmetall GDM-08 with MSP 500, Rheinmetall RH 202, OTO Breda 40/L70 twin, Mauser EADS MLG 30/27 mm, Allied Telesyn DS 30M Automated Small Calibre Gun System and Oerlikon Gam/BO1. Some of the CIWS are, Raytheon / Diehl RIM 116 Block 1 HAS, Signaal GAU-8/A, GE / GDC MK 15 Mod 2, and Mauser Oerlikon

34

MeRoKa. However, the inability of these guns to rapidly train, elevate, or depress to prosecute swarming targets from different directions at close quarters has resulted in their poor effectiveness in littoral warfare. Navies are therefore opting for modernized or new gun systems having the feasibility of retro fitment on existing and under construction warships. An apt example is the selection of the MK 46 GWS for US Navy’s LCS and LPD 17 programs. The MK 46 GWS is capable of defeating small, fast, highly maneuverable surface craft. Indian Naval ships have the following main guns; A-190(E) 100mm, AK-100 100mm naval gun,AK-176-M 76mm gun,AK-76/62 76mm gun, Twin mount gun (76mm), OTO Melara SRGM 76 mm gun. The CIWS guns include; AK-630 sixbarreled 30 mm Gatling gun, and the AK230 twin 30 mm gun. Indian Navy had placed an RFP for 127 mm guns in Nov 2013, reports in the media indicate that Oto Melara has been shortlisted by the Ministry of Defense to supply thirteen 127mm guns to the Indian Navy. Two of the guns would be supplied directly and 11 would be license produced by BHEL Haridwar. Oto Melara emerged as a single bidder since BAE Systems UK had failed to respond. As far as smaller calibre guns are concerned, a RFI for 30 in number 40mm guns with EOFS has been issued in 2011 and the DAC has in addition cleared a proposal for 116 in

The Oto Melara 127/64 LW - VULCANO System consists of four key sub-systems, namely, the medium calibre 127/64 LW Gun assembly, the Automated Ammunition Handling System, the Naval Fire Control Support and the VULCANO family of ammunition. It is intended for surface fire and naval gunfire support as main role and anti-aircraft fire as secondary role. The compactness of the gun feeding system makes possible the installation on even narrow section ships. It is designed with a modular feeding magazine, having four drums with 14 ready to fire rounds each. The drums can be reloaded during firing and there is flexibility in selection of type of ammunition. The ammunition flow is reversible as rounds can be downloaded automatically. The gun can fire standard 127mm / 5 inches ammunition as well as the new VULCANO family of ammunition. The VULCANO allows a smooth integration with any Combat Management System since it has digital / analogical interface and ballistic calculation capabilities. The Automatic Ammunition Handling System is a modular solution, which can be adapted to any ship‘s ammunition magazine layout; the loading of the feeding magazine of the gun does not require gunners during operation and thus permits sustained firing of the gun. The Naval Fire Control Support is a mission planning system that can also support the Combat Management System for definition of possible firing solutions, ammunition selection, trajectory definition, and best ship course identification. VULCANO ammunition family, comprises of Ballistic Extended Range (BER) and Guided Long Range (GLR) ammunition with different multifunctional fuses, sensor and final guidance. This provides extended the ranges of the gun up to 100km. It is also noteworthy that the 127/64 LW VULCANO System is free of the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR). The OTO MELARA 76/62 SR, in service with 58 Navies worldwide as also with

Indian Navy, is a multirole medium calibre naval gun mount, designed for anti-missile and anti-aircraft roles. The 76/62 gun can fire at the rate of 120 rds/min, thereby delivering a large amount of ammunition payload on the target. The advancements in ammunition for this gun would be of significant interest to the Indian Navy as the 3AP fuse increases the lethality of this gun significantly in asymmetric and air threats. It is effective in meeting requirements of both, high speed maneuvering missiles and the new NSFS and ASuW, emerging from Littoral warfare.

35

The 3AP fuse can fit the 76/62 prefragmented ammunition, ensuring reliable performances in critical engagement conditions, such as those involving sea skimming missiles and fast maneuvering boats. The 3AP fuse is programmable in three modes; Impact (Fast and Delayed Action); Time (Volume Saturation and Air Burst); and the Proximity (Standard, Gated, Anti-Missile, Conventional Air Defense, Air Defense, Anti Surface). The 3AP fuse has a microwave RF sensor, which behaves like a seeker detecting the target at long range. The relative velocity and position are


Naval Gun-S Kulshrestha.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 10/02/15 11:13 AM Page 3

NAVAL WARFARE the NSV 12.7 mm, the Rheinmetall MG 3, the AK 47, AK 74, the FN FAL, the H&K G3 etc), and rockets launchers like the RPG-7. Navies are modernizing the main and auxiliary gun and Close in weapon system CIWS out fits because various studies have brought out that ships using a mix of sophisticated high and low calibre weapons with high probability of hits, have much greater chance of survivability then those with semiautomatic systems. Navies are upgrading both the ordnance and the software. The goal is to achieve very high hit probabilities with high firing rates. Further, Studies carried out in the US to meet the requirements of the US marines, have concluded that; naval surface fire support NSFS had been crucial during the past operations. Larger calibre guns provide support at much longer ranges and are essential for destroying fortified positions. With the advent of Precision Guidance in larger calibre rounds, collateral damage has been considerably reduced. Their penetration ability in case of hard targets is practically as good as ordnance delivered by air. In order to achieve similar effects in suppressing the enemy, using smaller calibre guns like the MK 45 (5 inch), much greater number of rounds would have to be fired. During protracted war, the large calibre gun outshines the missiles because of high replacement costs of the missiles. It has a definite edge over the smaller calibre guns as the smaller calibre rounds have much lesser lethality. Both missiles and smaller calibre gun ammunition also require a large quantity to be stored onboard. The Air support operations in high threat environments are hindered by availability, mission priorities, weather, as well as prohibitive costs. All these make the large calibre gun a very cost beneficial solution in Naval Surface Fire Support (NSFS) missions. Thus, it can be seen that the Naval Gun is likely to continue for a much longer period than previously anticipated. Conventionally the gun outfits of naval ships have included a heavy gun (57 mm calibre up wards), an auxiliary gun of up to 35 mm calibre, and a small calibre gun for close air/ missile defense. The number of turrets has depended upon the size and the role of the ship. Some of the heavy naval guns are, AGS 155, OTO Breda 127/54, OTO Melara 127/64, OTO Melara 76 mm gun (traditional /compatto/rapid), Bofors 57/70 mm MKII

FEBRUARY 2015

The ‘Zumwalt’ class destroyers of the US Navy are equipped with BAE Systems’ 155mm Advanced Gun System (AGS) © (BAE Systems)

number 30 mm guns for the warships. Indian Navy has also raised an RFI for 12.7 mm heavy machine guns for ships and rigid inflatable boats (RHIB). Some of the popular and interesting guns and gun systems are briefly described in the succeeding paragraphs.

DSI

INS Mumbai is the third of the Indian Navy’s Delhi class guided missile destroyers built by Mazagon Docks

Heavy Guns

Naval Gun is likely to continue for a much longer period than previously anticipated. Conventionally the gun outfits of naval ships have included a heavy gun (57 mm caliber up wards), an auxiliary gun of up to 35 mm caliber, and a small caliber gun for close air/ missile defence

/ MKIII, CADAM Turret / Loire 100mm / MK55 Mod 68, and Giat CADAM Turret. Examples of auxiliary guns are, Rheinmetall GDM-08 with MSP 500, Rheinmetall RH 202, OTO Breda 40/L70 twin, Mauser EADS MLG 30/27 mm, Allied Telesyn DS 30M Automated Small Calibre Gun System and Oerlikon Gam/BO1. Some of the CIWS are, Raytheon / Diehl RIM 116 Block 1 HAS, Signaal GAU-8/A, GE / GDC MK 15 Mod 2, and Mauser Oerlikon

34

MeRoKa. However, the inability of these guns to rapidly train, elevate, or depress to prosecute swarming targets from different directions at close quarters has resulted in their poor effectiveness in littoral warfare. Navies are therefore opting for modernized or new gun systems having the feasibility of retro fitment on existing and under construction warships. An apt example is the selection of the MK 46 GWS for US Navy’s LCS and LPD 17 programs. The MK 46 GWS is capable of defeating small, fast, highly maneuverable surface craft. Indian Naval ships have the following main guns; A-190(E) 100mm, AK-100 100mm naval gun,AK-176-M 76mm gun,AK-76/62 76mm gun, Twin mount gun (76mm), OTO Melara SRGM 76 mm gun. The CIWS guns include; AK-630 sixbarreled 30 mm Gatling gun, and the AK230 twin 30 mm gun. Indian Navy had placed an RFP for 127 mm guns in Nov 2013, reports in the media indicate that Oto Melara has been shortlisted by the Ministry of Defense to supply thirteen 127mm guns to the Indian Navy. Two of the guns would be supplied directly and 11 would be license produced by BHEL Haridwar. Oto Melara emerged as a single bidder since BAE Systems UK had failed to respond. As far as smaller calibre guns are concerned, a RFI for 30 in number 40mm guns with EOFS has been issued in 2011 and the DAC has in addition cleared a proposal for 116 in

The Oto Melara 127/64 LW - VULCANO System consists of four key sub-systems, namely, the medium calibre 127/64 LW Gun assembly, the Automated Ammunition Handling System, the Naval Fire Control Support and the VULCANO family of ammunition. It is intended for surface fire and naval gunfire support as main role and anti-aircraft fire as secondary role. The compactness of the gun feeding system makes possible the installation on even narrow section ships. It is designed with a modular feeding magazine, having four drums with 14 ready to fire rounds each. The drums can be reloaded during firing and there is flexibility in selection of type of ammunition. The ammunition flow is reversible as rounds can be downloaded automatically. The gun can fire standard 127mm / 5 inches ammunition as well as the new VULCANO family of ammunition. The VULCANO allows a smooth integration with any Combat Management System since it has digital / analogical interface and ballistic calculation capabilities. The Automatic Ammunition Handling System is a modular solution, which can be adapted to any ship‘s ammunition magazine layout; the loading of the feeding magazine of the gun does not require gunners during operation and thus permits sustained firing of the gun. The Naval Fire Control Support is a mission planning system that can also support the Combat Management System for definition of possible firing solutions, ammunition selection, trajectory definition, and best ship course identification. VULCANO ammunition family, comprises of Ballistic Extended Range (BER) and Guided Long Range (GLR) ammunition with different multifunctional fuses, sensor and final guidance. This provides extended the ranges of the gun up to 100km. It is also noteworthy that the 127/64 LW VULCANO System is free of the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR). The OTO MELARA 76/62 SR, in service with 58 Navies worldwide as also with

Indian Navy, is a multirole medium calibre naval gun mount, designed for anti-missile and anti-aircraft roles. The 76/62 gun can fire at the rate of 120 rds/min, thereby delivering a large amount of ammunition payload on the target. The advancements in ammunition for this gun would be of significant interest to the Indian Navy as the 3AP fuse increases the lethality of this gun significantly in asymmetric and air threats. It is effective in meeting requirements of both, high speed maneuvering missiles and the new NSFS and ASuW, emerging from Littoral warfare.

35

The 3AP fuse can fit the 76/62 prefragmented ammunition, ensuring reliable performances in critical engagement conditions, such as those involving sea skimming missiles and fast maneuvering boats. The 3AP fuse is programmable in three modes; Impact (Fast and Delayed Action); Time (Volume Saturation and Air Burst); and the Proximity (Standard, Gated, Anti-Missile, Conventional Air Defense, Air Defense, Anti Surface). The 3AP fuse has a microwave RF sensor, which behaves like a seeker detecting the target at long range. The relative velocity and position are


Naval Gun-S Kulshrestha.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 10/02/15 11:13 AM Page 5

NAVAL WARFARE

FEBRUARY 2015

Oto Melara’s 127/64 LW gun can fire the VULCANO family of Ballistic Extended Range (BER) and Guided Long Range (GLR) rounds © Oto Melara

booster. AGS-L can also fire a high capacity ballistic 155 mm ASuW projectile (ASuWP). The AGS-L can store up to 240 LRLAP and 48 ASuWP.

DSI

The Narwhal, which can be armed with two different types of 20 mm cannon © Nexter

Guns below 40 mm calibre

measured and a built-in CPU sets up the trigger point of maximum lethality. In addition, a Digital Signal Processor provides full rejection of sea clutter at minimal distance from sea surface. What is of importance is the fact that the 76/62 gun mount including the ones already in service can be upgraded by the introduction of a Fuse Programmer Device. DART (Driven Ammunition with Reduced Time of flight) guided projectile, has also been developed by Oto Melara, it can be re-vectored towards the target during its flight. It can be fired by 76mm Strales system. The STRALES is highly effective against anti-ship missiles. DART is a subcalibre projectile with canard which is directed to the target by the guidance beam generated by an antenna placed on the gun mount. Its effectiveness is further increased by 3AP microwave programmable fuse and pre-fragmented warhead. As far as coastal gun batteries are concerned the Indian Navy can look at heavier gun systems like the 155mm (6inch) Advanced Gun System Light, manufactured by BAE Systems (Minneapolis) , which provides a heavy volume, precise and sustained gun fire support. The Long Range Land Attack Projectile, LRLAP ammunition is being developed by BAE Louisville, Kentucky and

BEL has developed “Gun Fire Control System” (GFCS) for the Indian Navy for the P-28 class of ships.The GFCS is a quick reaction, multisensor, and multi-weapon, short/medium/long range defense system against air, surface, or shore targets on board naval ships

Lockheed Martin Missile and Fire Control, Orlando, Florida. The LRLAP for AGS-L is capable of hitting targets at a range of 74 nm at the rate of six rounds per minute with the rocket booster assisted launch. It is multi piece ammunition and the shell is loaded with modular launch charges and rocket

36

BAE Systems is working on the Mk 38 Mod 3, in partnership with Rafael, Israel. The Mod 3 uses a 30 mm ATK cannon with a coaxial .50-calibre M2 heavy machine gun in place of the 25mm M242 cannon that is fitted on the Mod 1 & 2 mounts. The 30mm cannon provide a 500-meter longer effective range over the M242 Bushmaster. The Mod 3 has a greater range of elevation: -20 degrees to +75 degrees to engage air targets such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and helicopters. The Mod 3 mount carries about three times the ammunition load of the existing gun mounts. The MK 46 GWS is a remotely operated naval gun system that uses 30mm high velocity cannon, a forward looking infrared sensor, a low light television camera, and a laser rangefinder for shipboard self defense against small, high speed surface targets. The gun can be operated locally at the gun turret or remotely at the Remote Operating Console in the Combat Information Centre (LPD 17 class)/Mission Control Centre (LCS class). It has a range of 2000 meters and a rate of fire of 200 rpm. The system includes the MK 44 Mod 2 30mm Bushmaster II cannon, i.e. a single barrel, open bolt, dual feed, electrically powered, chain driven automatic cannon. Oto Melara claims that its twin Fast Forty 40 mm gun, firing 900 rounds per minute, can kill an incoming supersonic missile at ranges up to 3,280 yards (3,000 m). The mount automatically switches from the lighter HE round to the heavier APFSDS when the missile reaches a range of 1,100 yards (1,000 m). The Bofors 40 Mk4 naval gun system has been designed to be an agile, flexible weapon system that enables a very quick response. Its long range and a high rate of fire are complemented by its low weight and compact dimensions. It has the capability to switch between optimized ammunition types, including programmable 40mm 3P all-target ammunition. The Nexter Narwhal (Naval Remote Weapon Highly Accurate Lightweight) naval remote weapon system is particularly designed for use in light ships with very high maneuverability for monitoring and close-in

combat actions but may also be suitable for heavier tonnage ships. The fully stabilised NARWHAL rapid-fire gun system comes in two variants: NARWHAL 20A with a 20mm M621 cannon and NARWHAL 20B with a 20mm M693 cannon. In its basic configuration, the NARWHAL consists of a gyro stabilised mounting armed with a 20 mm cannon, a day camera, and a firecontrol system. It is remotely-controlled from a control panel enabling system operation, target acquisition and tracking and fire opening by the operator.

Fire Control Systems BEL has developed ‘’Gun Fire Control System’’ (GFCS) for the Indian Navy for the P-28 class of ships. The GFCS is a quick reaction, multi-sensor, and multiweapon, short/medium/long range defense system against air, surface, or shore targets on board naval ships. The GFCS is designed to provide air or surface defense with 76mm and 30mm guns. It will track hostile targets through radars or video tracking systems, based on data provided by early warning search radars. Data generated by sensors is processed and used to control the weapons by directing them in the direction of incoming missiles. It comprises five functional sub-systems: tracker, weapon control, sight control, combat management

system, and support systems, each of which can be used as an independent system. Sagem is modernizing fire control systems for French Naval surveillance frigates. It is using new-generation ElectroOptical Multifunction System (EOMS-NG) to provide fire control for the ship’s 100mm gun as well as contribute to their tactical situation awareness and self-defense. The single unit high-performance EOMS-NG optronic system features day-night infrared search and track (IRST) type passive panoramic observation, identification, tracking and fire control as well as very short reaction time between detection and engagement. Ideal for fighting piracy and illicit traffic, the EOMS-NG will replace the existing Najir optronic system. SAGEM’s VIGY MM is a high precision electro optic fire control system which can be Integrated in a Combat Management System or operated in a stand-alone mode. VIGY MM allows manual or automatic sector surveillance, automatic target tracking, aid to identification and transmission or reception of 3D target designation information. VIGY MM is able to control several guns of different calibres simultaneously. It is easy to operate and maintain. VIGY MM comprises of, a high-performance gyro stabilized platform providing an accurate line of sight, a ballistic computer allowing high accuracy

37

gun firing, and a Man-Machine Interface (MMI). VIGY MM has high reliability, performance, and accuracy. Over 400 systems in the VIGY MM range (formerly PANDA, LYNX, NAJIR Mk1, Mk2, and 2000, VIGY 20) are currently operated by 30 navies worldwide.

Conclusion Promising development of the laser weapon system ‘LaWS’, whose prototype has undergone successful trials on board USS Ponce in the recent past may lead to a very cost effective solution against small boats and UAVs, but it cannot replace the naval gun in all its roles. The electromagnetic rail gun, has potential and can fire non explosives shells to large distances (>100Kms) with great accuracy at velocities up to 7.5 Mach, but it is still some time away. The missiles, despite their falling prices cannot match the cost benefits accrued by the traditional naval gun. On the other hand, rapid technological improvements in gun shells and fuses have satisfactorily demonstrated very high ranges (>100Kms) and accuracies. The naval gun thus continues to be entrenched in its position as the main work horse armament on board ships of the major navies and is likely to remain the mainstay of warships at least until 2025 if not up to 2040.


Naval Gun-S Kulshrestha.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 10/02/15 11:13 AM Page 5

NAVAL WARFARE

FEBRUARY 2015

Oto Melara’s 127/64 LW gun can fire the VULCANO family of Ballistic Extended Range (BER) and Guided Long Range (GLR) rounds © Oto Melara

booster. AGS-L can also fire a high capacity ballistic 155 mm ASuW projectile (ASuWP). The AGS-L can store up to 240 LRLAP and 48 ASuWP.

DSI

The Narwhal, which can be armed with two different types of 20 mm cannon © Nexter

Guns below 40 mm calibre

measured and a built-in CPU sets up the trigger point of maximum lethality. In addition, a Digital Signal Processor provides full rejection of sea clutter at minimal distance from sea surface. What is of importance is the fact that the 76/62 gun mount including the ones already in service can be upgraded by the introduction of a Fuse Programmer Device. DART (Driven Ammunition with Reduced Time of flight) guided projectile, has also been developed by Oto Melara, it can be re-vectored towards the target during its flight. It can be fired by 76mm Strales system. The STRALES is highly effective against anti-ship missiles. DART is a subcalibre projectile with canard which is directed to the target by the guidance beam generated by an antenna placed on the gun mount. Its effectiveness is further increased by 3AP microwave programmable fuse and pre-fragmented warhead. As far as coastal gun batteries are concerned the Indian Navy can look at heavier gun systems like the 155mm (6inch) Advanced Gun System Light, manufactured by BAE Systems (Minneapolis) , which provides a heavy volume, precise and sustained gun fire support. The Long Range Land Attack Projectile, LRLAP ammunition is being developed by BAE Louisville, Kentucky and

BEL has developed “Gun Fire Control System” (GFCS) for the Indian Navy for the P-28 class of ships.The GFCS is a quick reaction, multisensor, and multi-weapon, short/medium/long range defense system against air, surface, or shore targets on board naval ships

Lockheed Martin Missile and Fire Control, Orlando, Florida. The LRLAP for AGS-L is capable of hitting targets at a range of 74 nm at the rate of six rounds per minute with the rocket booster assisted launch. It is multi piece ammunition and the shell is loaded with modular launch charges and rocket

36

BAE Systems is working on the Mk 38 Mod 3, in partnership with Rafael, Israel. The Mod 3 uses a 30 mm ATK cannon with a coaxial .50-calibre M2 heavy machine gun in place of the 25mm M242 cannon that is fitted on the Mod 1 & 2 mounts. The 30mm cannon provide a 500-meter longer effective range over the M242 Bushmaster. The Mod 3 has a greater range of elevation: -20 degrees to +75 degrees to engage air targets such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and helicopters. The Mod 3 mount carries about three times the ammunition load of the existing gun mounts. The MK 46 GWS is a remotely operated naval gun system that uses 30mm high velocity cannon, a forward looking infrared sensor, a low light television camera, and a laser rangefinder for shipboard self defense against small, high speed surface targets. The gun can be operated locally at the gun turret or remotely at the Remote Operating Console in the Combat Information Centre (LPD 17 class)/Mission Control Centre (LCS class). It has a range of 2000 meters and a rate of fire of 200 rpm. The system includes the MK 44 Mod 2 30mm Bushmaster II cannon, i.e. a single barrel, open bolt, dual feed, electrically powered, chain driven automatic cannon. Oto Melara claims that its twin Fast Forty 40 mm gun, firing 900 rounds per minute, can kill an incoming supersonic missile at ranges up to 3,280 yards (3,000 m). The mount automatically switches from the lighter HE round to the heavier APFSDS when the missile reaches a range of 1,100 yards (1,000 m). The Bofors 40 Mk4 naval gun system has been designed to be an agile, flexible weapon system that enables a very quick response. Its long range and a high rate of fire are complemented by its low weight and compact dimensions. It has the capability to switch between optimized ammunition types, including programmable 40mm 3P all-target ammunition. The Nexter Narwhal (Naval Remote Weapon Highly Accurate Lightweight) naval remote weapon system is particularly designed for use in light ships with very high maneuverability for monitoring and close-in

combat actions but may also be suitable for heavier tonnage ships. The fully stabilised NARWHAL rapid-fire gun system comes in two variants: NARWHAL 20A with a 20mm M621 cannon and NARWHAL 20B with a 20mm M693 cannon. In its basic configuration, the NARWHAL consists of a gyro stabilised mounting armed with a 20 mm cannon, a day camera, and a firecontrol system. It is remotely-controlled from a control panel enabling system operation, target acquisition and tracking and fire opening by the operator.

Fire Control Systems BEL has developed ‘’Gun Fire Control System’’ (GFCS) for the Indian Navy for the P-28 class of ships. The GFCS is a quick reaction, multi-sensor, and multiweapon, short/medium/long range defense system against air, surface, or shore targets on board naval ships. The GFCS is designed to provide air or surface defense with 76mm and 30mm guns. It will track hostile targets through radars or video tracking systems, based on data provided by early warning search radars. Data generated by sensors is processed and used to control the weapons by directing them in the direction of incoming missiles. It comprises five functional sub-systems: tracker, weapon control, sight control, combat management

system, and support systems, each of which can be used as an independent system. Sagem is modernizing fire control systems for French Naval surveillance frigates. It is using new-generation ElectroOptical Multifunction System (EOMS-NG) to provide fire control for the ship’s 100mm gun as well as contribute to their tactical situation awareness and self-defense. The single unit high-performance EOMS-NG optronic system features day-night infrared search and track (IRST) type passive panoramic observation, identification, tracking and fire control as well as very short reaction time between detection and engagement. Ideal for fighting piracy and illicit traffic, the EOMS-NG will replace the existing Najir optronic system. SAGEM’s VIGY MM is a high precision electro optic fire control system which can be Integrated in a Combat Management System or operated in a stand-alone mode. VIGY MM allows manual or automatic sector surveillance, automatic target tracking, aid to identification and transmission or reception of 3D target designation information. VIGY MM is able to control several guns of different calibres simultaneously. It is easy to operate and maintain. VIGY MM comprises of, a high-performance gyro stabilized platform providing an accurate line of sight, a ballistic computer allowing high accuracy

37

gun firing, and a Man-Machine Interface (MMI). VIGY MM has high reliability, performance, and accuracy. Over 400 systems in the VIGY MM range (formerly PANDA, LYNX, NAJIR Mk1, Mk2, and 2000, VIGY 20) are currently operated by 30 navies worldwide.

Conclusion Promising development of the laser weapon system ‘LaWS’, whose prototype has undergone successful trials on board USS Ponce in the recent past may lead to a very cost effective solution against small boats and UAVs, but it cannot replace the naval gun in all its roles. The electromagnetic rail gun, has potential and can fire non explosives shells to large distances (>100Kms) with great accuracy at velocities up to 7.5 Mach, but it is still some time away. The missiles, despite their falling prices cannot match the cost benefits accrued by the traditional naval gun. On the other hand, rapid technological improvements in gun shells and fuses have satisfactorily demonstrated very high ranges (>100Kms) and accuracies. The naval gun thus continues to be entrenched in its position as the main work horse armament on board ships of the major navies and is likely to remain the mainstay of warships at least until 2025 if not up to 2040.


Rostec DSI Feb 15.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 09/02/15 4:01 PM Page 1

Su-30MKI

Su-30: MORE ECONOMICAL AND SENSIBLE OPTION

I

ndia chose Dassault’s twinengine, delta-wing Rafale three years ago over F/A-18 Super Hornet, F-16 Fighting Falcon, MiG-35, Gripen and the Eurofighter Typhoon. The French Rafale won the MMRC (medium multi-role combat aircraft), the contract is nowhere in sight even after three years– forget the delivery date.

The French Rafale is a modern aircraft but the plane is a budget buster. The Indian Air Force’s requirement of 126 medium jet fighters will cost $20-30 billion upfront and another $20 billion for support systems and training. According to experts the deal will certainly divert funds needed in ‘Make in Policy’. In this backdrop Defence Minister

Manohar Parikkar’s statement that extra numbers of made in India Sukhois and locally developed Tejas light combat fighters will do the job is to be praised. India wants Dassault to take full responsibility for the production of the jets at a state-run facility in Bangalore under the 2012 bid offer, Indian Defence Ministry officials

said. Dassault has refused to guarantee the Rafales to be manufactured in India, which becomes the bone of contention between the two countries leading to delay in the deal. To procure Rafale, India will have to construct an entire new factory – that is, re-invent the wheel. According to Defence Ministry India could consider buying more

MiG-29

Russian-made Sukhoi-30 planes if the proposed deal with France collapsed.The Sukhoi-30 MKI is a formidable multi-role fighter aircraft. In every war game and mock combat exercise that it has come up against western aircraft, the Flanker has emerged victorious. The Rafale is an ultra modern aircraft but it can’t outrun SU 30MKI. Rafale’s ballooning cost is a major problem. According to experts; two Su-30MKI will come at a Rafale’s cost. On the other hand, Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd has been producing Su-30 MKIs and can crank up production by merely adding an extra assembly line. If war breaks out, there’s nothing more reassuring than to know that aircraft lost can be replaced by home factories rather than imports.The Su-30s/MiG29M2s are sustainable alternative as it would leave India with funds to spend on Tejas and the advanced medium combat aircraft(AMCA) and help the Indian aviation industry trying to get back on its feet. Defense Minister Manohar Parrikar discussed the so-called India-Russia fifth-generation fighter jet project with his Russian counter-

part Sergei Shoigu recently in New Delhi. “There were some apprehensions expressed over the slow pace of work in some joint projects,” Parrikar said, adding they agreed to speed them up. The credibility of India (as an arms buyer) is already pretty shaky and it’s going to get shakier (if they cancel the Rafale deal),” said Rahul Bedi, a defence analyst at IHS Jane’s. Numbers of combat aircraft are drastically dipping and scrapping the deal is not an option now as this deal would be complementary for both the parties. The armed forces have been negotiating on the Rafale for a long time. There is no sign of plan B till date. France said last month that its bid to supply the Rafale jets to India will require more negotiations between Paris and New Delhi. A French delegation is to visit New Delhi this month to rescue Dassault Aviation’s multi-billion dollar bid to sell 126 Rafale combat jets to the Indian Air Force, Reuters reported. Recently, in a meeting between Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar and his French counterpart , sources said French “were told categorically to stick to the RFP”.


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Su-30MKI

Su-30: MORE ECONOMICAL AND SENSIBLE OPTION

I

ndia chose Dassault’s twinengine, delta-wing Rafale three years ago over F/A-18 Super Hornet, F-16 Fighting Falcon, MiG-35, Gripen and the Eurofighter Typhoon. The French Rafale won the MMRC (medium multi-role combat aircraft), the contract is nowhere in sight even after three years– forget the delivery date.

The French Rafale is a modern aircraft but the plane is a budget buster. The Indian Air Force’s requirement of 126 medium jet fighters will cost $20-30 billion upfront and another $20 billion for support systems and training. According to experts the deal will certainly divert funds needed in ‘Make in Policy’. In this backdrop Defence Minister

Manohar Parikkar’s statement that extra numbers of made in India Sukhois and locally developed Tejas light combat fighters will do the job is to be praised. India wants Dassault to take full responsibility for the production of the jets at a state-run facility in Bangalore under the 2012 bid offer, Indian Defence Ministry officials

said. Dassault has refused to guarantee the Rafales to be manufactured in India, which becomes the bone of contention between the two countries leading to delay in the deal. To procure Rafale, India will have to construct an entire new factory – that is, re-invent the wheel. According to Defence Ministry India could consider buying more

MiG-29

Russian-made Sukhoi-30 planes if the proposed deal with France collapsed.The Sukhoi-30 MKI is a formidable multi-role fighter aircraft. In every war game and mock combat exercise that it has come up against western aircraft, the Flanker has emerged victorious. The Rafale is an ultra modern aircraft but it can’t outrun SU 30MKI. Rafale’s ballooning cost is a major problem. According to experts; two Su-30MKI will come at a Rafale’s cost. On the other hand, Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd has been producing Su-30 MKIs and can crank up production by merely adding an extra assembly line. If war breaks out, there’s nothing more reassuring than to know that aircraft lost can be replaced by home factories rather than imports.The Su-30s/MiG29M2s are sustainable alternative as it would leave India with funds to spend on Tejas and the advanced medium combat aircraft(AMCA) and help the Indian aviation industry trying to get back on its feet. Defense Minister Manohar Parrikar discussed the so-called India-Russia fifth-generation fighter jet project with his Russian counter-

part Sergei Shoigu recently in New Delhi. “There were some apprehensions expressed over the slow pace of work in some joint projects,” Parrikar said, adding they agreed to speed them up. The credibility of India (as an arms buyer) is already pretty shaky and it’s going to get shakier (if they cancel the Rafale deal),” said Rahul Bedi, a defence analyst at IHS Jane’s. Numbers of combat aircraft are drastically dipping and scrapping the deal is not an option now as this deal would be complementary for both the parties. The armed forces have been negotiating on the Rafale for a long time. There is no sign of plan B till date. France said last month that its bid to supply the Rafale jets to India will require more negotiations between Paris and New Delhi. A French delegation is to visit New Delhi this month to rescue Dassault Aviation’s multi-billion dollar bid to sell 126 Rafale combat jets to the Indian Air Force, Reuters reported. Recently, in a meeting between Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar and his French counterpart , sources said French “were told categorically to stick to the RFP”.


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ARMY MODERNISATION

GAINING MOMENTUM The army’s modernisation plans require substantially higher budgetary support, simultaneous upgradation of recruitment standards and, consequently skills to absorb high-tech weapon systems

15-year Long-Term Integrated Perspective Plan (LTIPP) 2012-27 and the 12th fiveyear Defence Plan 2012-17 were accorded “in principle” approval by the Defence Acquisition Council chaired by the Defence Minister. However, guaranteed financial backing for these plans has not been provided by the government so far. The army’s modernisation drive, which was virtually at a standstill, till recently, has now begun to gather momentum. During a meeting of the Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) in October 2014, the Defence Minister approved the purchase of 8,356 Israeli Spike Anti-tank Guided Missile (ATGMs) and 321 launchers for the

Army’s infantry battalions at a cost of Rs 3,200 crore, rather than the American Javelin missile. The DAC also cleared the purchase of 1,761 radio relay containers at a cost of Rs 662 crore, building of 363 Armoured Personnel Carriers at Rs 1,800 crore and buying of critical rolling stock at Rs 740 crore. According to Rajat Pandit, Defence Editor of the Times of India, the then COAS, “Gen Bikram Singh… identified 31 of the 680 projects as ‘Priority-I’, which include(d) assault rifles, howitzers, bullet-proof jackets, tank/artillery ammunition and missiles. The around Rs 10,000 crore project for induction of 1,78,000 new-generation assault rifles, T-90S Tank

GURMEET KANWAL

KEY POINTS l

Firepower capabilities need to be enhanced by an order of higher magnitude, especially in terms of PGMs. l The army has initiated a project to equip all its infantry battalions with with new assault weapons and carbines. l The army’s modernisation plans require substantially higher budgetary support, speeding up of acquisition process.

D

efence planning in India has been marked by knee jerk reactions to emerging situations and haphazard single-Service growth. The absence of a clearly enunciated national security strategy, the failure to commit funds for weapons and equipment acquisition on a long-term basis and delays in decision making have together handicapped military modernisation. Also, there is a “critical hollowness” in defence preparedness, including large-scale deficiencies in ammunition and equipment, as revealed in former COAS Gen V K Singh’s letter to the Prime Minister in March 2012. With projected expenditure of US$ 100 billion on military modernisation over the next 10 years, it is now being realised that force structures must be configured on a tri-Service, long-term basis to meet future threats and challenges. In early-2012, the

40

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DSI

with interchangeable barrels for conventional warfare and counter-insurgency operations, for instance, is being finalised.”

Upgradation of Mechanised Forces While Pakistan has acquired 320 T-80 UD tanks and is on course to add Al Khalid tanks that it has co-developed with China to its armour fleet, some vintage T-55 tanks continue in the Indian army’s inventory despite their obsolescence, in addition to T-72, T-72 M1 and T-90 main battle tanks (MBTs). Even though the indigenously developed Arjun MBT has not fully met the army’s expectations due to recurring technological problems and cost over-runs, the tank has entered serial production to equip two regiments. Consequently, 310 T90S MBTs had to be imported from Russia. In December 2007, a contract was signed for an additional 347 T-90 tanks to be assembled in India. Meanwhile, a programme has been launched to modernise the T-72 M1 Ajeya MBTs that have been the mainstay of the army’s Strike Corps and their armoured divisions since the 1980s. The programme seeks to upgrade to the night fighting capabilities and fire control system of the tank, among other modifications. These tanks will be given either the TIFCS or TISAS fire control system with thermal imaging night sights. Approximately 1,700 T-72 M1s have been manufactured under licence at the Heavy Vehicle Factory (HVF), Avadi. To make up ammunition deficiencies, 60,000 Armour-piercing fin-stabilized discardingsabot rounds (APFSDS) anti-tank rounds are being imported from Russia. The BMP-1 and the BMP-2 infantry combat vehicles (ICVs), which have been the mainstay of the mechanised infantry battalions for long, are now ageing and replacements need to be found soon. A project has been sanctioned to upgrade 1,600 BMP-2s with 650 hp engines. The replacement ICVs must be capable of being deployed for internal security duties and counter-insurgency operations in addition to their primary role in conventional conflict. A project to build 2,600 Future Infantry Combat Vehicles (FICV) costing approximately Rs 60,000 crore has been approved by the government. The 22-24 tonne FICV will be indigenously designed and manufactured and, among others, Larsen & Toubro, the Mahindras and the Tatas have shown interest.


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FIRE POWER

FEBRUARY 2015

ARMY MODERNISATION

GAINING MOMENTUM The army’s modernisation plans require substantially higher budgetary support, simultaneous upgradation of recruitment standards and, consequently skills to absorb high-tech weapon systems

15-year Long-Term Integrated Perspective Plan (LTIPP) 2012-27 and the 12th fiveyear Defence Plan 2012-17 were accorded “in principle” approval by the Defence Acquisition Council chaired by the Defence Minister. However, guaranteed financial backing for these plans has not been provided by the government so far. The army’s modernisation drive, which was virtually at a standstill, till recently, has now begun to gather momentum. During a meeting of the Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) in October 2014, the Defence Minister approved the purchase of 8,356 Israeli Spike Anti-tank Guided Missile (ATGMs) and 321 launchers for the

Army’s infantry battalions at a cost of Rs 3,200 crore, rather than the American Javelin missile. The DAC also cleared the purchase of 1,761 radio relay containers at a cost of Rs 662 crore, building of 363 Armoured Personnel Carriers at Rs 1,800 crore and buying of critical rolling stock at Rs 740 crore. According to Rajat Pandit, Defence Editor of the Times of India, the then COAS, “Gen Bikram Singh… identified 31 of the 680 projects as ‘Priority-I’, which include(d) assault rifles, howitzers, bullet-proof jackets, tank/artillery ammunition and missiles. The around Rs 10,000 crore project for induction of 1,78,000 new-generation assault rifles, T-90S Tank

GURMEET KANWAL

KEY POINTS l

Firepower capabilities need to be enhanced by an order of higher magnitude, especially in terms of PGMs. l The army has initiated a project to equip all its infantry battalions with with new assault weapons and carbines. l The army’s modernisation plans require substantially higher budgetary support, speeding up of acquisition process.

D

efence planning in India has been marked by knee jerk reactions to emerging situations and haphazard single-Service growth. The absence of a clearly enunciated national security strategy, the failure to commit funds for weapons and equipment acquisition on a long-term basis and delays in decision making have together handicapped military modernisation. Also, there is a “critical hollowness” in defence preparedness, including large-scale deficiencies in ammunition and equipment, as revealed in former COAS Gen V K Singh’s letter to the Prime Minister in March 2012. With projected expenditure of US$ 100 billion on military modernisation over the next 10 years, it is now being realised that force structures must be configured on a tri-Service, long-term basis to meet future threats and challenges. In early-2012, the

40

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with interchangeable barrels for conventional warfare and counter-insurgency operations, for instance, is being finalised.”

Upgradation of Mechanised Forces While Pakistan has acquired 320 T-80 UD tanks and is on course to add Al Khalid tanks that it has co-developed with China to its armour fleet, some vintage T-55 tanks continue in the Indian army’s inventory despite their obsolescence, in addition to T-72, T-72 M1 and T-90 main battle tanks (MBTs). Even though the indigenously developed Arjun MBT has not fully met the army’s expectations due to recurring technological problems and cost over-runs, the tank has entered serial production to equip two regiments. Consequently, 310 T90S MBTs had to be imported from Russia. In December 2007, a contract was signed for an additional 347 T-90 tanks to be assembled in India. Meanwhile, a programme has been launched to modernise the T-72 M1 Ajeya MBTs that have been the mainstay of the army’s Strike Corps and their armoured divisions since the 1980s. The programme seeks to upgrade to the night fighting capabilities and fire control system of the tank, among other modifications. These tanks will be given either the TIFCS or TISAS fire control system with thermal imaging night sights. Approximately 1,700 T-72 M1s have been manufactured under licence at the Heavy Vehicle Factory (HVF), Avadi. To make up ammunition deficiencies, 60,000 Armour-piercing fin-stabilized discardingsabot rounds (APFSDS) anti-tank rounds are being imported from Russia. The BMP-1 and the BMP-2 infantry combat vehicles (ICVs), which have been the mainstay of the mechanised infantry battalions for long, are now ageing and replacements need to be found soon. A project has been sanctioned to upgrade 1,600 BMP-2s with 650 hp engines. The replacement ICVs must be capable of being deployed for internal security duties and counter-insurgency operations in addition to their primary role in conventional conflict. A project to build 2,600 Future Infantry Combat Vehicles (FICV) costing approximately Rs 60,000 crore has been approved by the government. The 22-24 tonne FICV will be indigenously designed and manufactured and, among others, Larsen & Toubro, the Mahindras and the Tatas have shown interest.


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FIRE POWER

FEBRUARY 2015

to enter service in the near future. These three weapon systems together will provide a major boost to the artillery’s ability to destroy key targets at long ranges. It is also time to now consider the induction of unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs) armed with air-to-surface missiles into the artillery for air-to-ground precision attacks. General Deepak Kapoor, former COAS, has written, “More than 80 per cent of the equipment of the Corps of Army Air Defence is obsolete.” The vintage L-70 40 mm AD gun system, the four-barrelled ZSU-23-4 Schilka (SP) AD gun system, the SAM-6 (Kvadrat) and the SAM-8 OSA-AK have all seen better days and need to be urgently replaced by more responsive modern AD systems that are capable of defeating current and future threats. The L-70, ZU-23 and ZSU-23-4 Schilka (SP) systems are being upgraded. After prolonged trials, two regiments of the Akash surface-to-air missile (SAM) have been ordered by the army. The short-range surface-to-air missile (SR-SAM) and medium-range (MR-SAM) acquisition programmes are embroiled in

Armed version of HAL’s Dhruv, called Rudra (God of the Tempest). This model is armed with two twelve-round 68 mm rocket pods and four MBDA air-to-air missiles © HAL

Artillery and Air Defence: Heading for Obsolescence During future conventional conflict largescale manoeuvre will not be possible in the mountains due to the restrictions imposed by the difficult terrain and in the plains against Pakistan due to the need to avoid escalation to nuclear levels. Hence, firepower capabilities need to be enhanced by an order of magnitude, especially in terms of precision-guided munitions (PGMs). This will involve substantial upgradation of ground-based (artillery guns, rockets and missiles) and aeriallydelivered (fighter-bomber aircraft and attack helicopter) firepower. PGMs are also required in much larger numbers than are held at present and UCAVs need to be added to the army’s arsenal. Only then will it be possible to achieve future military objectives, including the destruction of the adversary’s war machine. Despite the lessons learnt during the Kargil conflict of 1999, where artillery firepower had undeniably paved the way for victory, modernisation of the artillery continues to lag behind. The last major acquisition of towed gun-howitzers was that of about 400 pieces of 39-calibre 155 mm FH-77B howitzers from Bofors of Sweden in the mid-1980s. New tenders have been

floated for 155mm/ 39-calibre light weight howitzers for the mountains and 155mm/52-calibre long-range howitzers for the plains, as well as for self-propelled guns for the desert terrain. As re-trials have not yet commenced, it will take almost five years more for the first of the new guns to enter service. The MoD is in the process of acquiring 145 155 mm/39-calibre M777 howitzers for the mountains through the Foreign Military Sales (FMS) route from the US in a government-to-government deal, serviced by BAE Systems. However, the deal is reportedly stuck for want of agreement on the offsets obligations. Indigenous efforts to manufacture 155mm howitzers include that by the Ordnance Factories Board to produce Dhanush, a 45-calibre 155mm howitzer based on the designs for which Transfer of Technology (ToT) was obtained from Bofors in the 1980s, but not utilised. The Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) approved a proposal from the OFB to manufacture 144 howitzers of 45-calibre with the option to acquire another 400 provided the prototypes successfully meet the army’s GSQR in user trials. Meanwhile, the DRDO has embarked on its own venture to design and develop a 155mm howitzer in partnership with a private sector company.

42

In the first meeting of the DAC chaired by him on November 22, 2014, defence Minister Manohar Parrikar approved the acquisition of 814 truck-mounted 155 mm/52-calibre guns under the ‘buy and make in India’ category. While the first 100 guns will be imported, the remaining will be made in India. The total project cost is estimated to be Rs 15,750 crore. Several Indian companies are known to be interested in the indigenous design and development of modern artillery systems in conjunction with overseas partners. Bharat Forge (partner Elbit of Israel), Tata Power SED (Denel, South Africa) and L&T (Nexter, France) are likely to bid for this contract when the RfP is issued by the MoD. A contract for the acquisition of two regiments of the 12-tube, 300 mm Smerch multi-barrel rocket launcher (MBRL) system with 90 km range was signed with Russia’s Rosoboronexport in early-2006. The BrahMos supersonic cruise missile (Mach 2.8 to 3.0), with a precision strike capability, very high kill energy and maximum range of 290 km, was inducted into the army in July 2007. These terrain hugging missiles are virtually immune to counter measures due to their high speed and very low radar cross section. The indigenously designed and manufactured Pinaka multi-barrel rocket system is likely

red tape. The first flight test of the longrange SAM (LR-SAM), being jointly developed in collaboration with Israel, was conducted in November 2014. Air defence is one area where the army has lagged behind seriously in its modernisation efforts. But the process has now begun and better late, than never.

Army Aviation: Clipped Wings The modernisation plans of the Army Aviation corps have also not made much headway. According to the Standing Committee on Defence report tabled in Parliament in April 2012, there is a huge shortage of helicopters with the Army Aviation corps. The army faces a shortage of 18 Cheetah, 76 Advance Light Helicopters (Dhruv) and 60 armed Advance Light Helicopters (Rudra). The corps has acquired a small number of Dhruv ALH but still lacks medium lift helicopters that are critical for the mountains. The total requirement of ALHs is about 150-160. The new NDA has approved a project for indigenous development under the ‘buy

Akash Surface to Air Missile System successfully flight tested at the Integrated Test Range

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Firepower capabilities need to be enhanced by an order of magnitude, especially in terms of precision-guided munitions (PGMs). This will involve substantial upgradation of groundbased (artillery guns, rockets and missiles) and aerially-delivered (fighterbomber aircraft and attack helicopter) firepower


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FEBRUARY 2015

to enter service in the near future. These three weapon systems together will provide a major boost to the artillery’s ability to destroy key targets at long ranges. It is also time to now consider the induction of unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs) armed with air-to-surface missiles into the artillery for air-to-ground precision attacks. General Deepak Kapoor, former COAS, has written, “More than 80 per cent of the equipment of the Corps of Army Air Defence is obsolete.” The vintage L-70 40 mm AD gun system, the four-barrelled ZSU-23-4 Schilka (SP) AD gun system, the SAM-6 (Kvadrat) and the SAM-8 OSA-AK have all seen better days and need to be urgently replaced by more responsive modern AD systems that are capable of defeating current and future threats. The L-70, ZU-23 and ZSU-23-4 Schilka (SP) systems are being upgraded. After prolonged trials, two regiments of the Akash surface-to-air missile (SAM) have been ordered by the army. The short-range surface-to-air missile (SR-SAM) and medium-range (MR-SAM) acquisition programmes are embroiled in

Armed version of HAL’s Dhruv, called Rudra (God of the Tempest). This model is armed with two twelve-round 68 mm rocket pods and four MBDA air-to-air missiles © HAL

Artillery and Air Defence: Heading for Obsolescence During future conventional conflict largescale manoeuvre will not be possible in the mountains due to the restrictions imposed by the difficult terrain and in the plains against Pakistan due to the need to avoid escalation to nuclear levels. Hence, firepower capabilities need to be enhanced by an order of magnitude, especially in terms of precision-guided munitions (PGMs). This will involve substantial upgradation of ground-based (artillery guns, rockets and missiles) and aeriallydelivered (fighter-bomber aircraft and attack helicopter) firepower. PGMs are also required in much larger numbers than are held at present and UCAVs need to be added to the army’s arsenal. Only then will it be possible to achieve future military objectives, including the destruction of the adversary’s war machine. Despite the lessons learnt during the Kargil conflict of 1999, where artillery firepower had undeniably paved the way for victory, modernisation of the artillery continues to lag behind. The last major acquisition of towed gun-howitzers was that of about 400 pieces of 39-calibre 155 mm FH-77B howitzers from Bofors of Sweden in the mid-1980s. New tenders have been

floated for 155mm/ 39-calibre light weight howitzers for the mountains and 155mm/52-calibre long-range howitzers for the plains, as well as for self-propelled guns for the desert terrain. As re-trials have not yet commenced, it will take almost five years more for the first of the new guns to enter service. The MoD is in the process of acquiring 145 155 mm/39-calibre M777 howitzers for the mountains through the Foreign Military Sales (FMS) route from the US in a government-to-government deal, serviced by BAE Systems. However, the deal is reportedly stuck for want of agreement on the offsets obligations. Indigenous efforts to manufacture 155mm howitzers include that by the Ordnance Factories Board to produce Dhanush, a 45-calibre 155mm howitzer based on the designs for which Transfer of Technology (ToT) was obtained from Bofors in the 1980s, but not utilised. The Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) approved a proposal from the OFB to manufacture 144 howitzers of 45-calibre with the option to acquire another 400 provided the prototypes successfully meet the army’s GSQR in user trials. Meanwhile, the DRDO has embarked on its own venture to design and develop a 155mm howitzer in partnership with a private sector company.

42

In the first meeting of the DAC chaired by him on November 22, 2014, defence Minister Manohar Parrikar approved the acquisition of 814 truck-mounted 155 mm/52-calibre guns under the ‘buy and make in India’ category. While the first 100 guns will be imported, the remaining will be made in India. The total project cost is estimated to be Rs 15,750 crore. Several Indian companies are known to be interested in the indigenous design and development of modern artillery systems in conjunction with overseas partners. Bharat Forge (partner Elbit of Israel), Tata Power SED (Denel, South Africa) and L&T (Nexter, France) are likely to bid for this contract when the RfP is issued by the MoD. A contract for the acquisition of two regiments of the 12-tube, 300 mm Smerch multi-barrel rocket launcher (MBRL) system with 90 km range was signed with Russia’s Rosoboronexport in early-2006. The BrahMos supersonic cruise missile (Mach 2.8 to 3.0), with a precision strike capability, very high kill energy and maximum range of 290 km, was inducted into the army in July 2007. These terrain hugging missiles are virtually immune to counter measures due to their high speed and very low radar cross section. The indigenously designed and manufactured Pinaka multi-barrel rocket system is likely

red tape. The first flight test of the longrange SAM (LR-SAM), being jointly developed in collaboration with Israel, was conducted in November 2014. Air defence is one area where the army has lagged behind seriously in its modernisation efforts. But the process has now begun and better late, than never.

Army Aviation: Clipped Wings The modernisation plans of the Army Aviation corps have also not made much headway. According to the Standing Committee on Defence report tabled in Parliament in April 2012, there is a huge shortage of helicopters with the Army Aviation corps. The army faces a shortage of 18 Cheetah, 76 Advance Light Helicopters (Dhruv) and 60 armed Advance Light Helicopters (Rudra). The corps has acquired a small number of Dhruv ALH but still lacks medium lift helicopters that are critical for the mountains. The total requirement of ALHs is about 150-160. The new NDA has approved a project for indigenous development under the ‘buy

Akash Surface to Air Missile System successfully flight tested at the Integrated Test Range

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Firepower capabilities need to be enhanced by an order of magnitude, especially in terms of precision-guided munitions (PGMs). This will involve substantial upgradation of groundbased (artillery guns, rockets and missiles) and aerially-delivered (fighterbomber aircraft and attack helicopter) firepower


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FIRE POWER and make (India)’ category of light reconnaissance and observation helicopters. While this decision will give a boost to Indian aviation industry, it is bound to delay the acquisition by at least five to seven years. The positive development is that a few army aviation brigade bases have been established recently for better coordination of aviation operations, particularly in operational areas like Ladakh where the daily demand is very high. The army’s plans

FEBRUARY 2015

to acquire attack helicopters for close air support, particularly during mechanised warfare in the plains that have been consistently resisted by the IAF which holds all the attack helicopters in the inventory at present. Under Gen Bikram Singh as the COAS, the desire to have attack helicopters flown by army pilots received a new impetus at a time when India is considering the acquisition of new helicopters. Several modern machines including the US Apache are in the reckoning.

M777 155mm Howitzer providing Indirect Fire Support © Australian DOD

Force Multipliers for the Infantry The modernisation plans of India’s cutting edge infantry battalions, which are aimed at enhancing their capability for surveillance and target acquisition at night and boosting their firepower for precise retaliation against infiltrating columns and terrorists holed up in built-up areas, are moving forward but at a snail’s pace. The army has initiated a project to equip all its infantry battalions with a system that had for long been called the Future Infantry Soldier as a System (FINSAS). The new system will be a force multiplier and will include a modular weapon with a thermal imaging sight, UBGL and Laser range finder that will replace the INSAS rifle, a combat helmet equipped with a head-up display and communications head set, a smart vest with a body monitoring system, a back pack with integrated GPS and radio and protective footwear. The new combat system is expected to be built indigenously with COTS components being imported. It resembles the US Army Land Warrior system and is expected to cost over Rs 25,000 crore to equip 350 infantry battalions. Plans also include the acquisition of hand-held battlefield surveillance radars (BFSRs), and hand-held thermal imaging devices (HHTIs) for observation at night. Stand-alone infra-red, seismic and acoustic sensors need to be acquired in large numbers to enable infantrymen to dominate the Line of Control (LoC) with Pakistan and detect infiltration of Pakistan-sponsored terrorists. A global tender has also been issued for 66,000 assault rifles of 5.56mm calibre for approximately USD 700 million. According to Brig Arun Sahgal (Retd), “Other infantry shortages include; close quarter battle carbines, general purpose machine guns, light-weight anti-materiel rifles, mine protected vehicles, snow scooters for use at heights above 21,000 feet in Siachen, 390,000 ballistic helmets, over 30,000 third generation NVDs, 180,000 lightweight bullet proof jackets together with other assorted ordnance including new generation grenades.”

Modernisation of C4I2SR Systems Modern strategic and tactical-level command and control systems need to be acquired on priority basis for better all-arms synergy during conventional and subconventional conflict. The umbrella system will be the Command Information Decision Support System (CIDSS). It will have several

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Rafael’s Spike LR fire-and-forget anti-tank missile has recently been approved for purchase by Defence Acquisition Council

component systems. The principal system will be the Tactical Command, Control, Communications and Information (TacC3I) system. It will provide connectivity from Corps HQ level downwards and the Army Strategic Operational Information Dissemination System (ASTROIDS) will connect Corps HQ with the Command HQ and the Army HQ. While Phase 1 of the Artillery Combat Command and Control system (ACCC&S) covering about 40 per cent of artillery units has been completed, the other component systems of CIDSS like the Battlefield Surveillance System (BSS), the Electronic Warfare System (EWS) and the Air Defence Control and Reporting System (ADC&RS) are still in various stages of development. One digital communications system that is in place is Project AWAN (Army Wide Area Network). The Tactical Communication System (TCS) is a system that is meant for offensive operations – a mobile system that can ‘leapfrog’ forward as offensive operations progress into enemy territory. The offensive operations echelons of the ‘pivot’ or ‘holding’ Corps deployed on the international boundary and the three Strike Corps will be equipped with TCS. TCS will replace the obsolescent Plan AREN system. Requests for Information (RFI) were floated for a Tactical Communication System (TCS) for offensive operations and a Battlefield Management System (BMS) for communication at the tactical level in defensive operations a few years ago, but since then the acquisition process has

The army’s plans to acquire attack helicopters for close air support, particularly during mechanised warfare in the plains that have been consistently resisted by the IAF which holds all the attack helicopters in the inventory at present

meandered continuously and this has resulted in prolonged delays in introducing both these systems into service. The new optical fibre network being laid as an alternative to the 3G spectrum surrendered by the armed forces will go a long way in providing modern land-line communications in peace stations and to limited extent up to the war-time locations of higher formation HQ. However, future communication systems will need to provide wide-band data capabilities to facilitate the real time transmission of images and battlefield video while on the move all the way down to armoured and artillery regiments and infantry battalions.

45

This task will be done by the BMS, which will be integrated with the Army Static Communications (ASCON) system. The ASCON is the backbone communication network of the army. ASCON provides voice and data links between static headquarters and those in peace-time locations. It is expected to be of modular design so that it can be upgraded as better technology becomes available. The BMS is meant for communications from the battalion headquarters forward to the companies and platoons. It will enable the Commanding Officer to enhance his situational awareness and command his battalion through a secure communications network with builtin redundancy. It was reported on July 23, 2013, that BMS has been categorised as a ‘make India’ system by the Defence Acquisition Council headed by then Defence Minister, AK Antony. This implies that the system must be designed and developed in India by domestic companies. The expressions of interest (EOIs) are likely to be sent to Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), Electronics Corporation of India, Computer Maintenance Corporation, ITI, domestic private-sector major Tata Power SED, Rolta India, Wipro, Larsen & Toubro, HCL, Punj Lloyd, Bharat Forge, Tata Consultancy, Info Systems and Tech Mahindra. This will ensure that Indian companies invest in developing the required communications technology and acquire the ability to design and implement robust tactical communications systems.


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FIRE POWER and make (India)’ category of light reconnaissance and observation helicopters. While this decision will give a boost to Indian aviation industry, it is bound to delay the acquisition by at least five to seven years. The positive development is that a few army aviation brigade bases have been established recently for better coordination of aviation operations, particularly in operational areas like Ladakh where the daily demand is very high. The army’s plans

FEBRUARY 2015

to acquire attack helicopters for close air support, particularly during mechanised warfare in the plains that have been consistently resisted by the IAF which holds all the attack helicopters in the inventory at present. Under Gen Bikram Singh as the COAS, the desire to have attack helicopters flown by army pilots received a new impetus at a time when India is considering the acquisition of new helicopters. Several modern machines including the US Apache are in the reckoning.

M777 155mm Howitzer providing Indirect Fire Support © Australian DOD

Force Multipliers for the Infantry The modernisation plans of India’s cutting edge infantry battalions, which are aimed at enhancing their capability for surveillance and target acquisition at night and boosting their firepower for precise retaliation against infiltrating columns and terrorists holed up in built-up areas, are moving forward but at a snail’s pace. The army has initiated a project to equip all its infantry battalions with a system that had for long been called the Future Infantry Soldier as a System (FINSAS). The new system will be a force multiplier and will include a modular weapon with a thermal imaging sight, UBGL and Laser range finder that will replace the INSAS rifle, a combat helmet equipped with a head-up display and communications head set, a smart vest with a body monitoring system, a back pack with integrated GPS and radio and protective footwear. The new combat system is expected to be built indigenously with COTS components being imported. It resembles the US Army Land Warrior system and is expected to cost over Rs 25,000 crore to equip 350 infantry battalions. Plans also include the acquisition of hand-held battlefield surveillance radars (BFSRs), and hand-held thermal imaging devices (HHTIs) for observation at night. Stand-alone infra-red, seismic and acoustic sensors need to be acquired in large numbers to enable infantrymen to dominate the Line of Control (LoC) with Pakistan and detect infiltration of Pakistan-sponsored terrorists. A global tender has also been issued for 66,000 assault rifles of 5.56mm calibre for approximately USD 700 million. According to Brig Arun Sahgal (Retd), “Other infantry shortages include; close quarter battle carbines, general purpose machine guns, light-weight anti-materiel rifles, mine protected vehicles, snow scooters for use at heights above 21,000 feet in Siachen, 390,000 ballistic helmets, over 30,000 third generation NVDs, 180,000 lightweight bullet proof jackets together with other assorted ordnance including new generation grenades.”

Modernisation of C4I2SR Systems Modern strategic and tactical-level command and control systems need to be acquired on priority basis for better all-arms synergy during conventional and subconventional conflict. The umbrella system will be the Command Information Decision Support System (CIDSS). It will have several

44

DSI

Rafael’s Spike LR fire-and-forget anti-tank missile has recently been approved for purchase by Defence Acquisition Council

component systems. The principal system will be the Tactical Command, Control, Communications and Information (TacC3I) system. It will provide connectivity from Corps HQ level downwards and the Army Strategic Operational Information Dissemination System (ASTROIDS) will connect Corps HQ with the Command HQ and the Army HQ. While Phase 1 of the Artillery Combat Command and Control system (ACCC&S) covering about 40 per cent of artillery units has been completed, the other component systems of CIDSS like the Battlefield Surveillance System (BSS), the Electronic Warfare System (EWS) and the Air Defence Control and Reporting System (ADC&RS) are still in various stages of development. One digital communications system that is in place is Project AWAN (Army Wide Area Network). The Tactical Communication System (TCS) is a system that is meant for offensive operations – a mobile system that can ‘leapfrog’ forward as offensive operations progress into enemy territory. The offensive operations echelons of the ‘pivot’ or ‘holding’ Corps deployed on the international boundary and the three Strike Corps will be equipped with TCS. TCS will replace the obsolescent Plan AREN system. Requests for Information (RFI) were floated for a Tactical Communication System (TCS) for offensive operations and a Battlefield Management System (BMS) for communication at the tactical level in defensive operations a few years ago, but since then the acquisition process has

The army’s plans to acquire attack helicopters for close air support, particularly during mechanised warfare in the plains that have been consistently resisted by the IAF which holds all the attack helicopters in the inventory at present

meandered continuously and this has resulted in prolonged delays in introducing both these systems into service. The new optical fibre network being laid as an alternative to the 3G spectrum surrendered by the armed forces will go a long way in providing modern land-line communications in peace stations and to limited extent up to the war-time locations of higher formation HQ. However, future communication systems will need to provide wide-band data capabilities to facilitate the real time transmission of images and battlefield video while on the move all the way down to armoured and artillery regiments and infantry battalions.

45

This task will be done by the BMS, which will be integrated with the Army Static Communications (ASCON) system. The ASCON is the backbone communication network of the army. ASCON provides voice and data links between static headquarters and those in peace-time locations. It is expected to be of modular design so that it can be upgraded as better technology becomes available. The BMS is meant for communications from the battalion headquarters forward to the companies and platoons. It will enable the Commanding Officer to enhance his situational awareness and command his battalion through a secure communications network with builtin redundancy. It was reported on July 23, 2013, that BMS has been categorised as a ‘make India’ system by the Defence Acquisition Council headed by then Defence Minister, AK Antony. This implies that the system must be designed and developed in India by domestic companies. The expressions of interest (EOIs) are likely to be sent to Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), Electronics Corporation of India, Computer Maintenance Corporation, ITI, domestic private-sector major Tata Power SED, Rolta India, Wipro, Larsen & Toubro, HCL, Punj Lloyd, Bharat Forge, Tata Consultancy, Info Systems and Tech Mahindra. This will ensure that Indian companies invest in developing the required communications technology and acquire the ability to design and implement robust tactical communications systems.


Army Modernisation-Gurmeet Kanwal.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 09/02/15 12:35 PM Page 7

FIRE POWER

FEBRUARY 2015

BRAHMOS cruise missile vertical launched from INS Teg frigates Talwar-class (Project 1135.6)

DSI

According to the government, a secure network of Very Small ApertureTerminal (V-SAT) has been commissioned for reliable and stable communication in the forward areas. Phase-III of the Army Static Communication Network has been initiated and is planned to be eventually extended to KashmirValley and the North-East

indigenised with help from the DRDO. The ‘Sarvatra’ bridge manufactured indigenously is qualitatively superior to its precursor, the imported AM-50 Bridge set. Also, to match the increasingly advanced types of improvised explosive devices (IED) employed by terrorists and anti-national elements, particularly in the insurgencyprone areas, a state-of-the-art counter-IED equipment is being procured and issued to units deployed in such areas.

Concluding Observations MNCs with suitable technologies and the right experience that are expected to compete include Israel Aerospace Industries, Rafael and Elbit of Israel; Thales and Nexter of France; Rhode & Schwartz of Germany; BAE Systems of the UK; Lockheed Martin, Raytheon and General Dynamics of the US; and, Selex of Italy. According to the Press Information Bureau, a secure network of Very Small Aperture Terminal (V-SAT) has been commissioned for reliable and stable communication in the forward areas. PhaseIII of the Army Static Communication Network (ASCON) has been initiated and is

planned to be eventually extended to Kashmir Valley and the North-East. An RfP has been issued for a Mobile Cellular Communications Sys (MCCS) for the northern and the eastern regions. Efforts are also under way to replace existing telephone lines with Optical Fibre Cable (OFC). The operational capabilities of army engineers, signal communications, reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition (RSTA) branches need to be substantially enhanced so that the overall combat potential of the army can be improved by an order of magnitude. According to the Press Information Bureau, the production of assault bridges has been

46

To enable the army to fight and win the nation’s future wars in an era of strategic uncertainty, the government must give a major boost to the army’s modernisation drive. The army’s modernisation plans require substantially higher budgetary support than what has been forthcoming over the last decade, the speeding up of the weapons and equipment acquisition process and the simultaneous upgradation of recruitment standards and, consequently, personnel skills so as to be able to absorb high-tech weapon systems. Doctrine, organisation and training standards will need to keep pace with technological modernisation to make the Indian army a 21st century force to be reckoned with.


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COMMUNICATION

FEBRUARY 2015

ADVANCED NETWORK CENTRIC SOLUTIONS FOR INDIAN ARMED FORCES There is an urgent need for a comprehensive vision for capacity building in a digitised battlefield, formulated together by all the stake holders

DAVINDER KUMAR

Troop Level Radar

48

KEY POINTS l

NCW capability pre-supposes availability of a Doctrine, Technology, Organization transformation synergy, skills and assured budgetary support. l The prevailing strategic environment has forced India’s armed forces to prepare for the possibility of a “two front” war. l India needs national security doctrine without any further delay

N

et centricity is all about “information” through all its stages, namely collection, storage, processing and dissemination to bring about informed decision making, synergy, maximum effects, speed in execution while ensuring extensive battlefield transparency. It also encompasses Information denial, perception management through exploitation of electronic and print media and social networking. It creates efficiency, economy of force and facilitates operations across the full spectrum of warfare; nuclear to asymmetric and strategic to tactical and involves all organs of the Government from the very beginning. It is technology intensive with Information and Communication Technology (ICT), communication networks and media as the nuclei. While the principals of war and the need for net centricity have not changed, the parameters have changed drastically. The battlespace has enlarged disproportionately making the physical bordersirrelevant and changing the concept of national sovereignty. When combined with the accuracy, range and lethality of present day weapons and munitions, it has given rise to a new concept of Effect Based Operations. Ubiquitous application of ICT has resulted in a Digital Battlefield with tremendous increase in the speed of operations, diffusion of power, associated vulnerabilities and Information Warfare emerging as a new dimension of warfare. Net Centric capability pre-supposes a strong political will and the availability of a Doctrine, Technology, Organization transformation synergy, skills and assured budgetary support.Typically, a Digitised Battlefield will be shaped in accordance with the National Doctrine and would remain a, “work in progress” due to the rapid march of technology and consequent impact on conduct of warfare.

DSI

India’s Security Landscape

The Indian Scenario

India is today located in the world’s most unstable regions due to the ongoing war against al Qaeda and the Taliban in Afghanistan and on the AfghanistanPakistan border. Unresolved territorial and boundary disputes with China and Pakistan andChina’s unprecedented economic and military growth, and a “string of pearls” strategy to surround India with naval bases in the northern Indian Ocean region pose direct security threat to India. The prevailing strategic environment has forced India’s armed forces to prepare for the possibility of a “two front” war, while the army and other security forces are engaged in fighting an ongoing “half front” internal security war1. Central to this preparation would beour national security doctrine supported by enhancement of our Net Centricity through advanced technological, organizational, training and related capabilities in all dimensions of land, air, sea, space and cyber space across full spectrum of warfare. This is an inescapable requirement for binding the nation’s comprehensive combat power into a viable and coherent force that would include the armed forces, defense and intelligence agencies and other government and private organizations. It would be economical, enhance our kinetic effectiveness, command and control and and provide various options, through situational awareness, for both protecting our own assets and addressing the weaknesses of our adversaries in offensive operations.

Unfortunately, our efforts towards net centricity, particularly during the last decade or so, have been tardy at best. Consequently, while we have islands of excellence in each Service and in the Government, they lack effectiveness and synergy. Our Commanders and policy makers largely continue to be technology shy and prefer to operate in their comfort zone of industrial warfare era of tanks and guns. They still seem to be fighting the last war as is quite evident from the recent two articles on “Modernisation of Defence Forces” in a reputed defence magazine on the eve of the Army Day.

What We Need to Do The Government had ordered a number of studies by eminent people between 1999 and 2013 with a view to have a cohesive and practical civil-military framework at the core of the Government; increase the effectiveness of the Armed Forces, DRDO and establishment of a viable Defence Industrial Base; their recommendations, though many in common, have yet to be implemented.These suitably updated should provide the basis of our working on the Advanced Network Centric Solutions for our Armed Forces.

National Security Doctrine It is ironical that despite the fact that India has seen four wars with Pakistan and one with China; five decades of insurgency in the Northeast and the ongoing insurgency

Air warriors at the Air Traffic Control (ATC) of Air Force Station Srinagar controlling the heavy movement of aircraft and helicopters during rescue operations in J&K © IAF

49


Advanced Network-Davinder Kumar.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 09/02/15 12:37 PM Page 1

COMMUNICATION

FEBRUARY 2015

ADVANCED NETWORK CENTRIC SOLUTIONS FOR INDIAN ARMED FORCES There is an urgent need for a comprehensive vision for capacity building in a digitised battlefield, formulated together by all the stake holders

DAVINDER KUMAR

Troop Level Radar

48

KEY POINTS l

NCW capability pre-supposes availability of a Doctrine, Technology, Organization transformation synergy, skills and assured budgetary support. l The prevailing strategic environment has forced India’s armed forces to prepare for the possibility of a “two front” war. l India needs national security doctrine without any further delay

N

et centricity is all about “information” through all its stages, namely collection, storage, processing and dissemination to bring about informed decision making, synergy, maximum effects, speed in execution while ensuring extensive battlefield transparency. It also encompasses Information denial, perception management through exploitation of electronic and print media and social networking. It creates efficiency, economy of force and facilitates operations across the full spectrum of warfare; nuclear to asymmetric and strategic to tactical and involves all organs of the Government from the very beginning. It is technology intensive with Information and Communication Technology (ICT), communication networks and media as the nuclei. While the principals of war and the need for net centricity have not changed, the parameters have changed drastically. The battlespace has enlarged disproportionately making the physical bordersirrelevant and changing the concept of national sovereignty. When combined with the accuracy, range and lethality of present day weapons and munitions, it has given rise to a new concept of Effect Based Operations. Ubiquitous application of ICT has resulted in a Digital Battlefield with tremendous increase in the speed of operations, diffusion of power, associated vulnerabilities and Information Warfare emerging as a new dimension of warfare. Net Centric capability pre-supposes a strong political will and the availability of a Doctrine, Technology, Organization transformation synergy, skills and assured budgetary support.Typically, a Digitised Battlefield will be shaped in accordance with the National Doctrine and would remain a, “work in progress” due to the rapid march of technology and consequent impact on conduct of warfare.

DSI

India’s Security Landscape

The Indian Scenario

India is today located in the world’s most unstable regions due to the ongoing war against al Qaeda and the Taliban in Afghanistan and on the AfghanistanPakistan border. Unresolved territorial and boundary disputes with China and Pakistan andChina’s unprecedented economic and military growth, and a “string of pearls” strategy to surround India with naval bases in the northern Indian Ocean region pose direct security threat to India. The prevailing strategic environment has forced India’s armed forces to prepare for the possibility of a “two front” war, while the army and other security forces are engaged in fighting an ongoing “half front” internal security war1. Central to this preparation would beour national security doctrine supported by enhancement of our Net Centricity through advanced technological, organizational, training and related capabilities in all dimensions of land, air, sea, space and cyber space across full spectrum of warfare. This is an inescapable requirement for binding the nation’s comprehensive combat power into a viable and coherent force that would include the armed forces, defense and intelligence agencies and other government and private organizations. It would be economical, enhance our kinetic effectiveness, command and control and and provide various options, through situational awareness, for both protecting our own assets and addressing the weaknesses of our adversaries in offensive operations.

Unfortunately, our efforts towards net centricity, particularly during the last decade or so, have been tardy at best. Consequently, while we have islands of excellence in each Service and in the Government, they lack effectiveness and synergy. Our Commanders and policy makers largely continue to be technology shy and prefer to operate in their comfort zone of industrial warfare era of tanks and guns. They still seem to be fighting the last war as is quite evident from the recent two articles on “Modernisation of Defence Forces” in a reputed defence magazine on the eve of the Army Day.

What We Need to Do The Government had ordered a number of studies by eminent people between 1999 and 2013 with a view to have a cohesive and practical civil-military framework at the core of the Government; increase the effectiveness of the Armed Forces, DRDO and establishment of a viable Defence Industrial Base; their recommendations, though many in common, have yet to be implemented.These suitably updated should provide the basis of our working on the Advanced Network Centric Solutions for our Armed Forces.

National Security Doctrine It is ironical that despite the fact that India has seen four wars with Pakistan and one with China; five decades of insurgency in the Northeast and the ongoing insurgency

Air warriors at the Air Traffic Control (ATC) of Air Force Station Srinagar controlling the heavy movement of aircraft and helicopters during rescue operations in J&K © IAF

49


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COMMUNICATION

FEBRUARY 2015

An IAF Air Warrior on the lookout, providing valuable inputs to the pilots and ensuring safe flying environment at Air Force Station Srinagar © IAF

in the Kashmir Valley which is over two decades old; and successful termination of insurgency in Punjab; that we still have not been able to evolve a national security doctrine. While the Armed Forces have issued their respective Service doctrines, and a Joint Warfare doctrine; these lack the political backing, direction, macro level policy framework and consequently the much needed synergy. India has a wellarticulated and declared nuclear doctrine. We need to pronounce the national security doctrine without any further delay,duly approved by the Parliament and reviewed every five years. Further, in view of the changing and evolving security scenario, India needs to announce the Cyber security, limited warfare and asymmetric warfare doctrines with the same urgency.

Vision and Policy There is a crying need for a comprehensive vision document, policy and the road map for capacity building in a digitized battlefield, formulated together by all the stake holders, duly approved by the Government and backed by necessary finance and an empowered implementing organization accountable to the Government. Based on this document, we should work out the technologies, organization, training and human resource requirements. We should take the existing assets in account and integrate those with the new system.

Technology Availability of requisite technology by way of hardware, software, semiconductor chips fabrication, electronic manufacturing facilities, R&D infrastructure, system integration capabilities, and an enabling policy frame work for involvement of the private sector and academia and skilled human resource are some of the challenges India faces to implement advanced net centric solutions.We hope that these would receive due attention from the present Government. We need an urgent and innovative drive to build these capabilities and achieve “Technological Sovereignty” by 2020.

Organisation When threatened, it is not only the Armed Forces which have to respond in a unified manner but it is the entire nation, the government and all its organs, the media and the people which have to respond in an integrated fashion. Herein, therefore, lies the absolute importance of organization transformation for net centricity. The single point politico-military dialogue, which is required to establish a coherent national strategy and quick decision making is lacking in the present security setup. Institutionally, the next step is clearly the creation of a Chief of Defence Staff (CDS). The inescapable doctrinal implication of this post is the integration of conventional and nuclear doctrines.This is also required to negate the glaring anomaly in our security

50

decision making structure by way of the absence of a military high command in decisions of war and peace. Present security environment necessitatesJoint threat assessment, planning and execution within the Armed Forces and with the Ministries. There is an urgent and definite requirement ofgreater integration of the three Service Headquarters with the Ministry of Defence. Further, an institutionalized policy frame work is required for service headquarters and Integrated Defence Staff to interact with other Ministries and Government institutions.A cohesive, practical and responsive civil-military framework is absolutely essential for comprehensive capacity building for 21st century warfare, economy of effort and as a foundation for advanced net centricity in our national security set up. In the current security scenario, nuclear, space and cyber security capabilities are at the heart of a nation’s comprehensive combat power. India needs to raise Space and Cyber Commands without any further delay. The Services need to carry out very critical review of their respective organisations to generate necessary resources for these Commands. We need highly synergized, mobile, lean and mean, joint organisations supported by efficient logistics and infrastructure.

Command, Control, Computers, Communications, Intelligence, Surveillance and Target Acquisition (C4ISTAR) C4ISTAR, in essence, is about co-evolution of Technology, Organization (i.e Architecture and Processes) and People and about control and disruption of Information and quick decision making. Indian Armed Forces, individually, have done well and have developed rudimentary capabilities particularly at the operational and tactical levels. We need Joint C4ISTAR capabilities duly supported by technology, highly skilled human resource, innovation and training. Joint C4ISTAR enables ability to mass effects without massing forces; protects against asymmetric threats; and provides joint force flexibility, analysis, interpretation, and efficiency. It calls for Inter-operability of systems and sub-systems, standards and protocols for inter connection, integration and information management; policies, procedures and formats for Information assurance, data storage, information

management and so on. In a digital battlefield, while C4ISTAR is a necessary requirement, we must have systems, drills and capabilities to interfere and negate the adversary’s C4ISTAR assets through electronics, cyber and physical means. Concurrently, we must protect our assets and ensure that they operate successfully in the hostile environment.

Electro-Magnetic Space Management The Electro-Magnetic (EM) Space is extremely complex, crowded and needs to be managed and regulated dynamically in real time. The situation is much more challenging in a digitized battle space environment where practically every system starting from a diesel generator to a missile system requires spectrum to operate or else contributes, “Noise” which restricts the availability of the EM space. Add to this the high power of various radars, communication systems and electronic warfare systems and the fact that the same resource is being used by the adversary and the civilian networks. The increasing EM density of users and high power in weapon radar systems and communications have impact on electronic control and devices that may mal-function, cause de-sensitization and random undesired effects called the Electromagnetic Environment Effects or E3. The development of high energy beam weapons, LASER weapons and designators, UAVs and other aviation resources, missiles and Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) systems; satellite constellations have further added to the challenge of management and regulation of EM space. We would need a system and organization that would ensure the availability of the navigation and position locating systems, bandwidth, communication ranges and connectivity in an intense and hostile EM space environment, including Electro Magnetic Pulse (EMP), in real time.4 This would require modeling and simulation of the battlespace EM environment and highly skilled man power drawn from the nation and abroad. It would be a national effort with dedicated organization within the Defence and Security forces.

authority. Indian standards for communication and data networks must be propagated without any further delay. The Networks for Spectrum of the services must be integrated with the National Broadband and Intelligence Networks. We need elevated communication platforms like UAVs, aerostats, aero planes and satellites for communications with full secrecy, high capacity, resilience and redundancy. Tactical communications including for the forward edge and Special Forces and to support the Battle Field Management Systems are critical gaps requiring immediate attention. Army and Air Force satellites must be made available and integrated with the naval satellite at the earliest. Mobile satellite communications are another strategic deficiency. India must attend to the strategic inadequacies of indigenous design and manufacture of electronic products and systems and set up semi-conductor fabrication facilities (FABs) immediately. For true and secure advanced net centricity, operationalization of National Policy on

DSI

Electronics, 2012 and establishment of viable Defence Industrial Base are strategic imperatives and a pre-requisites.

Internet Protocol (IP) Addresses In a digital battlefield, all resources at land, sea, air and space are integrated through complex communication and data networks. These networks are likely to be working on IP. This would necessitate that every soldier, weapon and support system has an IP address. This is a huge challenge both from the allocation and communication security points of view and a great vulnerability to be managed. We need to have a dedicated organization at the National level for this as also to decide on the standards to be incorporated. Purely from security and survivability points of view, it may be desirable to have an alternate to IP addresses or perhaps have a dedicated internet.

Battle Field Transparency With the battlefield transparency as high as 90 per cent, we need to conduct the warfare in an entirely different manner. While

Communication Networks Communication Networks are at the heart of Net-centricity. There is an urgent need to upgrade and integrate existing networks of the three services with the national networks, and place them under a single

Indian army soldiers use a field radio in Sonamarg, Kashmir

51


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COMMUNICATION

FEBRUARY 2015

An IAF Air Warrior on the lookout, providing valuable inputs to the pilots and ensuring safe flying environment at Air Force Station Srinagar © IAF

in the Kashmir Valley which is over two decades old; and successful termination of insurgency in Punjab; that we still have not been able to evolve a national security doctrine. While the Armed Forces have issued their respective Service doctrines, and a Joint Warfare doctrine; these lack the political backing, direction, macro level policy framework and consequently the much needed synergy. India has a wellarticulated and declared nuclear doctrine. We need to pronounce the national security doctrine without any further delay,duly approved by the Parliament and reviewed every five years. Further, in view of the changing and evolving security scenario, India needs to announce the Cyber security, limited warfare and asymmetric warfare doctrines with the same urgency.

Vision and Policy There is a crying need for a comprehensive vision document, policy and the road map for capacity building in a digitized battlefield, formulated together by all the stake holders, duly approved by the Government and backed by necessary finance and an empowered implementing organization accountable to the Government. Based on this document, we should work out the technologies, organization, training and human resource requirements. We should take the existing assets in account and integrate those with the new system.

Technology Availability of requisite technology by way of hardware, software, semiconductor chips fabrication, electronic manufacturing facilities, R&D infrastructure, system integration capabilities, and an enabling policy frame work for involvement of the private sector and academia and skilled human resource are some of the challenges India faces to implement advanced net centric solutions.We hope that these would receive due attention from the present Government. We need an urgent and innovative drive to build these capabilities and achieve “Technological Sovereignty” by 2020.

Organisation When threatened, it is not only the Armed Forces which have to respond in a unified manner but it is the entire nation, the government and all its organs, the media and the people which have to respond in an integrated fashion. Herein, therefore, lies the absolute importance of organization transformation for net centricity. The single point politico-military dialogue, which is required to establish a coherent national strategy and quick decision making is lacking in the present security setup. Institutionally, the next step is clearly the creation of a Chief of Defence Staff (CDS). The inescapable doctrinal implication of this post is the integration of conventional and nuclear doctrines.This is also required to negate the glaring anomaly in our security

50

decision making structure by way of the absence of a military high command in decisions of war and peace. Present security environment necessitatesJoint threat assessment, planning and execution within the Armed Forces and with the Ministries. There is an urgent and definite requirement ofgreater integration of the three Service Headquarters with the Ministry of Defence. Further, an institutionalized policy frame work is required for service headquarters and Integrated Defence Staff to interact with other Ministries and Government institutions.A cohesive, practical and responsive civil-military framework is absolutely essential for comprehensive capacity building for 21st century warfare, economy of effort and as a foundation for advanced net centricity in our national security set up. In the current security scenario, nuclear, space and cyber security capabilities are at the heart of a nation’s comprehensive combat power. India needs to raise Space and Cyber Commands without any further delay. The Services need to carry out very critical review of their respective organisations to generate necessary resources for these Commands. We need highly synergized, mobile, lean and mean, joint organisations supported by efficient logistics and infrastructure.

Command, Control, Computers, Communications, Intelligence, Surveillance and Target Acquisition (C4ISTAR) C4ISTAR, in essence, is about co-evolution of Technology, Organization (i.e Architecture and Processes) and People and about control and disruption of Information and quick decision making. Indian Armed Forces, individually, have done well and have developed rudimentary capabilities particularly at the operational and tactical levels. We need Joint C4ISTAR capabilities duly supported by technology, highly skilled human resource, innovation and training. Joint C4ISTAR enables ability to mass effects without massing forces; protects against asymmetric threats; and provides joint force flexibility, analysis, interpretation, and efficiency. It calls for Inter-operability of systems and sub-systems, standards and protocols for inter connection, integration and information management; policies, procedures and formats for Information assurance, data storage, information

management and so on. In a digital battlefield, while C4ISTAR is a necessary requirement, we must have systems, drills and capabilities to interfere and negate the adversary’s C4ISTAR assets through electronics, cyber and physical means. Concurrently, we must protect our assets and ensure that they operate successfully in the hostile environment.

Electro-Magnetic Space Management The Electro-Magnetic (EM) Space is extremely complex, crowded and needs to be managed and regulated dynamically in real time. The situation is much more challenging in a digitized battle space environment where practically every system starting from a diesel generator to a missile system requires spectrum to operate or else contributes, “Noise” which restricts the availability of the EM space. Add to this the high power of various radars, communication systems and electronic warfare systems and the fact that the same resource is being used by the adversary and the civilian networks. The increasing EM density of users and high power in weapon radar systems and communications have impact on electronic control and devices that may mal-function, cause de-sensitization and random undesired effects called the Electromagnetic Environment Effects or E3. The development of high energy beam weapons, LASER weapons and designators, UAVs and other aviation resources, missiles and Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) systems; satellite constellations have further added to the challenge of management and regulation of EM space. We would need a system and organization that would ensure the availability of the navigation and position locating systems, bandwidth, communication ranges and connectivity in an intense and hostile EM space environment, including Electro Magnetic Pulse (EMP), in real time.4 This would require modeling and simulation of the battlespace EM environment and highly skilled man power drawn from the nation and abroad. It would be a national effort with dedicated organization within the Defence and Security forces.

authority. Indian standards for communication and data networks must be propagated without any further delay. The Networks for Spectrum of the services must be integrated with the National Broadband and Intelligence Networks. We need elevated communication platforms like UAVs, aerostats, aero planes and satellites for communications with full secrecy, high capacity, resilience and redundancy. Tactical communications including for the forward edge and Special Forces and to support the Battle Field Management Systems are critical gaps requiring immediate attention. Army and Air Force satellites must be made available and integrated with the naval satellite at the earliest. Mobile satellite communications are another strategic deficiency. India must attend to the strategic inadequacies of indigenous design and manufacture of electronic products and systems and set up semi-conductor fabrication facilities (FABs) immediately. For true and secure advanced net centricity, operationalization of National Policy on

DSI

Electronics, 2012 and establishment of viable Defence Industrial Base are strategic imperatives and a pre-requisites.

Internet Protocol (IP) Addresses In a digital battlefield, all resources at land, sea, air and space are integrated through complex communication and data networks. These networks are likely to be working on IP. This would necessitate that every soldier, weapon and support system has an IP address. This is a huge challenge both from the allocation and communication security points of view and a great vulnerability to be managed. We need to have a dedicated organization at the National level for this as also to decide on the standards to be incorporated. Purely from security and survivability points of view, it may be desirable to have an alternate to IP addresses or perhaps have a dedicated internet.

Battle Field Transparency With the battlefield transparency as high as 90 per cent, we need to conduct the warfare in an entirely different manner. While

Communication Networks Communication Networks are at the heart of Net-centricity. There is an urgent need to upgrade and integrate existing networks of the three services with the national networks, and place them under a single

Indian army soldiers use a field radio in Sonamarg, Kashmir

51


Advanced Network-Davinder Kumar.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 09/02/15 12:37 PM Page 5

COMMUNICATION

FEBRUARY 2015

camouflage and concealment will always be important; greater emphasis will be on Deception, Dispersal, Mobility and Organization Transformation. Decision making will have to be very quick in an environment of greater ambiguity, uncertainty and information overload.

Command and control and mission management systems providing accurate tactical picture for enhanced situational awareness and effective synchronised operation in the battlefield © Elbit Systems

Information Warfare (IW)

Indigenous Position Locating System Indian Regional Navigation System (IRNS) is likely to be available by early 2016. This would meet the strategic requirements of the pointing, navigation and target detection of indirect fire weapon systems, radars, intelligence systems, communications, combat aviation, special operations, maneuver, own and enemy force tracking and forward observers. The IRNS will have to be integrated with our weapons and systems and be able to functionin an extremely hostile physical and electronic environment.

Data Management The sensors at the tactical, operational and strategic levels as indeed other intelligence sources create a very large amount of data running into tens of terabytes. This data has to be stored, processed, analyzed and transmitted in a fully secure manner to all concerned ensuring its integrity and timeliness. The real challenge is synthesizing and analyzing the data collected, convert the same to usable information; and to quickly disseminate the results in the desired format to all those who need it in an extremely hostile electronic and physical environment. It requires modern data storage and retrieval systems, highly qualified human resource and very robust and resilient data networks supporting bandwidth on demand. Related challenges are the standardization of formats amongst the Services, digitization of the existing information and its integration and indigenous development/absorption of technologies like the Big Data and Analytics.

We need elevated communication platforms like UAVs, aerostats, aeroplanes and satellites for communications with full secrecy, high capacity, resilience and redundancy. Tactical communications including for the forward edge and Special Forces and to support the Battle Field Management System

Digital Imagery Inherent to a digital battlefield is an efficient Geographical Information System (GIS), high resolution digital imagery from multiple sources and the ability to manipulate, model and combine the images. This mandates the availability of digital maps, overlays, sophisticated hardware and software and very well trained human resource in the forms of image analysts and

interpreters. With rapid advancement in the sensor’s capabilities and the availability of different sensors, the capability of fusing images from visible light to radar images to images transmitted by multi-spectral satellites is an operational imperative. Acquisition of this capability is a challenge as indeed is the development and manufacturing of sensors indigenously.

52

IW is both an asset and a challenge to net centricity as it deals with the protection, interference and destruction of the “information” and the “information assets/systems” including the human resource. Information Assurance concerns protecting own information in all its stages of capture, storage, processing and dissemination. The challenge is the design, production and fielding of cryptographic systems and their integration within the Services and other organs of decision making in the country. The networks and other communication assets will have to be secured through different levels of secrecy and protected from cyber-attacks and cyber espionage. Concurrently, counter intelligence and crypto analysis capabilities will have to be enhanced substantially. Information Dominance demands availability of potent Electronic and Optical Warfare and Intelligence Systems in all dimensions of a digital battlefield. Development of capabilities to launch cyber-attacks includinguse of cyber weapons for creating physical disruptions will have to be a part of our national security doctrine and the implementation of advanced net centricity. Perception management will start well before the commencement of the conflict and last much after its termination. Development of capability to launch “Social Engineering” Attacks, Deception and Denial and Perception management through very skilled use of media, intelligence and communication assets must be part of our capacity build up.

Electronic Warfare (EW) Electronic Warfare (EW) is an important ingredient of Information Warfare (IW). We need to achieve a synergetic integration of EW capabilities between the three Services. This requires a common EW policy, incorporation of a central agency preferably under the cyber command, coordination of all procurements through this agency and provision of a common IFF (Identify Friend or Foe) in the Services to avoid fratricide.

Training Advance net centricity capability demands highly qualified and skilled human resource. Their induction, training, periodic up gradation and retention are major challenges. More important is the training and orientation of the Commanders and Leaders to absorb and exploit this capability.

India has lost more than a decade in the orientation and capacity building of its Armed Forces for 21st century warfare. There is an immediate need to adopt a “Systems” approach and “leap frog” the capability building through exploitation of dual technologies, national information infrastructure and involvement of private sector, Indian diaspora and Academia. This

I

nterview of Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), Chairman and Managing Director, S K Sharma with Defence and Security of India magazine. Q. What’s the cost of the upgrade project of the Schilka air defence system, the first of which was handed over to the Indian Army in November 2014? What’s the size and scope of this upgrade program? A. BEL handed over the first Upgraded Schilka Weapon System to the Indian Army in November 2014. Schilka Upgrade is an all-weather, self-propelled, tracked, low-level Air Defence Weapon System. This program involves upgradation from analog Radar system to state-of-the-art Search-cum-Track Digital Radar with electro optical fire control system. Also, Main Engine, Auxiliary Engine, Integrated Fire Detection and Suppression System, NBC (Nuclear, Biological & Chemical) filter and Communication system have been upgraded. New air conditioner has been provided for the comfort of the crew. The upgraded system provides drastic improvements in operational performance, accuracies, power consumption and Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF). The addition of an electro-optical system operating in parallel with the radar enables accurate identification, acquisition and tracking of targets while operating in an ECM environment. The system is capable of firing aerial targets while on the move. The system can accept cueing from external Surveillance Radar. The system can engage enemy aircraft during day or night and in all weather conditions. Q. Could you share some details on your agreement with Elbit Systems Electro-optics-Elop Ltd, Israel, for the joint production of Compact MultiPurpose Advance Stabilisation

DSI

requires organizational, cultural and attitudinal transformation to bring in synergy, mutual trust and transparency. While one can see a few green shoots in the policies and decisions of the present Government, it will have to display greater political will and urgency in capacity building through incorporation of advanced net centricity in our Armed Forces.

Indian Air Force (IAF) is called MRSAM. The initial developmental order for the supply of LRSAM program for 3 ships and MRSAM program has been placed on IAI by the Government of India. The LRSAM has been installed in the first ship and trials also successfully completed. There is no role for BEL in the initial supply of developmental orders from the Navy and Air Force for the LRSAM and MRSAM programs, respectively. However, in future supplies of LRSAM, BEL has been identified as Lead Integrator and production agency for Radars. System (CoMPASS) for Naval helicopter applications, and the progress made so far? A. BEL entered into a Technology Collaboration Agreement (TCA) with Elbit Systems Electro-optics-Elop Ltd (ELOP) in 2010 for manufacture of CoMPASS for the Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) program. As per the TCA, BEL has acquired the License, Know-How, Technical Information, Training, Technical Assistance to manufacture BEL’s work share, perform final assembly / testing of the CoMPASS using ELOP’s work share and to sell the CoMPASS to ELOP in case of ALH program and to sell the CoMPASS to end user only for future programs, subject to Israeli Government approval. The technology transfer also enables BEL to provide D-level maintenance to customers. Q. What’s BEL’s part in the India-Israel Barak-8 project? How has it helped in indigenization of complicated systems? A. The Barak-8 project was taken up by DRDO and Israel Aerospace Industry (IAI) to jointly develop the shipborne Air Defense Missile System called LRSAM. The adaptation of this program for the

53

Q. Could you talk about BEL’s latest joint venture with Thales? A. Subsequent to the approval from the Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) and the Ministry of Defence (MoD), a Joint Venture Company (JVC) between BEL and Thales, France, was incorporated in Bangalore on August 28, 2014, and named as ‘BEL-Thales Systems Limited’. BEL and Thales have share ratio of 74% and 26% respectively. The JVC has obtained all statutory approvals and licenses for commencement of business and is operational. Currently, the JVC is focusing on Air Traffic Management Radars for both civilian and defence markets. Q. What’s your take on Aero India 2015, and what are the things that BEL is going to showcase here? A. BEL will showcase: Electronic Warfare & Avionics, Radars, Electro Optics, Fire Control Systems, Shelters, Sonars, C4I Systems, Simulators, Communication equipment like Software Defined Radios, HF Radios & Radio Relays, and Encryptors including Terminal End Secrecy Device (TESD), IP Encryptor and Link Encryptor for Versatile Environment (LIVE).


Advanced Network-Davinder Kumar.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 09/02/15 12:37 PM Page 5

COMMUNICATION

FEBRUARY 2015

camouflage and concealment will always be important; greater emphasis will be on Deception, Dispersal, Mobility and Organization Transformation. Decision making will have to be very quick in an environment of greater ambiguity, uncertainty and information overload.

Command and control and mission management systems providing accurate tactical picture for enhanced situational awareness and effective synchronised operation in the battlefield © Elbit Systems

Information Warfare (IW)

Indigenous Position Locating System Indian Regional Navigation System (IRNS) is likely to be available by early 2016. This would meet the strategic requirements of the pointing, navigation and target detection of indirect fire weapon systems, radars, intelligence systems, communications, combat aviation, special operations, maneuver, own and enemy force tracking and forward observers. The IRNS will have to be integrated with our weapons and systems and be able to functionin an extremely hostile physical and electronic environment.

Data Management The sensors at the tactical, operational and strategic levels as indeed other intelligence sources create a very large amount of data running into tens of terabytes. This data has to be stored, processed, analyzed and transmitted in a fully secure manner to all concerned ensuring its integrity and timeliness. The real challenge is synthesizing and analyzing the data collected, convert the same to usable information; and to quickly disseminate the results in the desired format to all those who need it in an extremely hostile electronic and physical environment. It requires modern data storage and retrieval systems, highly qualified human resource and very robust and resilient data networks supporting bandwidth on demand. Related challenges are the standardization of formats amongst the Services, digitization of the existing information and its integration and indigenous development/absorption of technologies like the Big Data and Analytics.

We need elevated communication platforms like UAVs, aerostats, aeroplanes and satellites for communications with full secrecy, high capacity, resilience and redundancy. Tactical communications including for the forward edge and Special Forces and to support the Battle Field Management System

Digital Imagery Inherent to a digital battlefield is an efficient Geographical Information System (GIS), high resolution digital imagery from multiple sources and the ability to manipulate, model and combine the images. This mandates the availability of digital maps, overlays, sophisticated hardware and software and very well trained human resource in the forms of image analysts and

interpreters. With rapid advancement in the sensor’s capabilities and the availability of different sensors, the capability of fusing images from visible light to radar images to images transmitted by multi-spectral satellites is an operational imperative. Acquisition of this capability is a challenge as indeed is the development and manufacturing of sensors indigenously.

52

IW is both an asset and a challenge to net centricity as it deals with the protection, interference and destruction of the “information” and the “information assets/systems” including the human resource. Information Assurance concerns protecting own information in all its stages of capture, storage, processing and dissemination. The challenge is the design, production and fielding of cryptographic systems and their integration within the Services and other organs of decision making in the country. The networks and other communication assets will have to be secured through different levels of secrecy and protected from cyber-attacks and cyber espionage. Concurrently, counter intelligence and crypto analysis capabilities will have to be enhanced substantially. Information Dominance demands availability of potent Electronic and Optical Warfare and Intelligence Systems in all dimensions of a digital battlefield. Development of capabilities to launch cyber-attacks includinguse of cyber weapons for creating physical disruptions will have to be a part of our national security doctrine and the implementation of advanced net centricity. Perception management will start well before the commencement of the conflict and last much after its termination. Development of capability to launch “Social Engineering” Attacks, Deception and Denial and Perception management through very skilled use of media, intelligence and communication assets must be part of our capacity build up.

Electronic Warfare (EW) Electronic Warfare (EW) is an important ingredient of Information Warfare (IW). We need to achieve a synergetic integration of EW capabilities between the three Services. This requires a common EW policy, incorporation of a central agency preferably under the cyber command, coordination of all procurements through this agency and provision of a common IFF (Identify Friend or Foe) in the Services to avoid fratricide.

Training Advance net centricity capability demands highly qualified and skilled human resource. Their induction, training, periodic up gradation and retention are major challenges. More important is the training and orientation of the Commanders and Leaders to absorb and exploit this capability.

India has lost more than a decade in the orientation and capacity building of its Armed Forces for 21st century warfare. There is an immediate need to adopt a “Systems” approach and “leap frog” the capability building through exploitation of dual technologies, national information infrastructure and involvement of private sector, Indian diaspora and Academia. This

I

nterview of Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), Chairman and Managing Director, S K Sharma with Defence and Security of India magazine. Q. What’s the cost of the upgrade project of the Schilka air defence system, the first of which was handed over to the Indian Army in November 2014? What’s the size and scope of this upgrade program? A. BEL handed over the first Upgraded Schilka Weapon System to the Indian Army in November 2014. Schilka Upgrade is an all-weather, self-propelled, tracked, low-level Air Defence Weapon System. This program involves upgradation from analog Radar system to state-of-the-art Search-cum-Track Digital Radar with electro optical fire control system. Also, Main Engine, Auxiliary Engine, Integrated Fire Detection and Suppression System, NBC (Nuclear, Biological & Chemical) filter and Communication system have been upgraded. New air conditioner has been provided for the comfort of the crew. The upgraded system provides drastic improvements in operational performance, accuracies, power consumption and Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF). The addition of an electro-optical system operating in parallel with the radar enables accurate identification, acquisition and tracking of targets while operating in an ECM environment. The system is capable of firing aerial targets while on the move. The system can accept cueing from external Surveillance Radar. The system can engage enemy aircraft during day or night and in all weather conditions. Q. Could you share some details on your agreement with Elbit Systems Electro-optics-Elop Ltd, Israel, for the joint production of Compact MultiPurpose Advance Stabilisation

DSI

requires organizational, cultural and attitudinal transformation to bring in synergy, mutual trust and transparency. While one can see a few green shoots in the policies and decisions of the present Government, it will have to display greater political will and urgency in capacity building through incorporation of advanced net centricity in our Armed Forces.

Indian Air Force (IAF) is called MRSAM. The initial developmental order for the supply of LRSAM program for 3 ships and MRSAM program has been placed on IAI by the Government of India. The LRSAM has been installed in the first ship and trials also successfully completed. There is no role for BEL in the initial supply of developmental orders from the Navy and Air Force for the LRSAM and MRSAM programs, respectively. However, in future supplies of LRSAM, BEL has been identified as Lead Integrator and production agency for Radars. System (CoMPASS) for Naval helicopter applications, and the progress made so far? A. BEL entered into a Technology Collaboration Agreement (TCA) with Elbit Systems Electro-optics-Elop Ltd (ELOP) in 2010 for manufacture of CoMPASS for the Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) program. As per the TCA, BEL has acquired the License, Know-How, Technical Information, Training, Technical Assistance to manufacture BEL’s work share, perform final assembly / testing of the CoMPASS using ELOP’s work share and to sell the CoMPASS to ELOP in case of ALH program and to sell the CoMPASS to end user only for future programs, subject to Israeli Government approval. The technology transfer also enables BEL to provide D-level maintenance to customers. Q. What’s BEL’s part in the India-Israel Barak-8 project? How has it helped in indigenization of complicated systems? A. The Barak-8 project was taken up by DRDO and Israel Aerospace Industry (IAI) to jointly develop the shipborne Air Defense Missile System called LRSAM. The adaptation of this program for the

53

Q. Could you talk about BEL’s latest joint venture with Thales? A. Subsequent to the approval from the Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) and the Ministry of Defence (MoD), a Joint Venture Company (JVC) between BEL and Thales, France, was incorporated in Bangalore on August 28, 2014, and named as ‘BEL-Thales Systems Limited’. BEL and Thales have share ratio of 74% and 26% respectively. The JVC has obtained all statutory approvals and licenses for commencement of business and is operational. Currently, the JVC is focusing on Air Traffic Management Radars for both civilian and defence markets. Q. What’s your take on Aero India 2015, and what are the things that BEL is going to showcase here? A. BEL will showcase: Electronic Warfare & Avionics, Radars, Electro Optics, Fire Control Systems, Shelters, Sonars, C4I Systems, Simulators, Communication equipment like Software Defined Radios, HF Radios & Radio Relays, and Encryptors including Terminal End Secrecy Device (TESD), IP Encryptor and Link Encryptor for Versatile Environment (LIVE).


Aerospace-Krishnaswamy 2nd time.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 10/02/15 11:31 AM Page 1

AEROSPACE

FEBRUARY 2015

INDIAN AERONAUTICS: REQUIREMENTS AND STRATEGY FOR GROWTH Linked to India’s growth as a regional power is the development of its aeronautical sector. A significant number of SMEs and MSMEs that constitute the domestic aeronautical sector can be the loci for the growth.

RafaleM aircraft on its way to a ground attack mission, armed with four laser-guided weapons © Dassault

S. KRISHNASWAMY

KEY POINTS l

India needs a quick reaction, technologically enabled armed force to defend itself. l There is a need for a swing-role fighter aircraft in the IAF, which bill can now be filled by the Su-30 MKI. l The country’s private sector have taken small steps to become a part of the global supply chain of the aeronautical sector.

I

ndia’s gradual ascendency as a ‘Potential Power’ called for a strong military to contribute to peace in the region. Adversaries took initiatives and often surprised Indian defences that India had to deal with. On any future conflict, the

Indian military needs to achieve its objective quickly before it is compelled to halt by global pressures and to prevent escalation. Therefore, the essence of future wars/combat operations would be speed and mobility. Aerospace assets thus become essential elements for the success of any short sharp battles although bootson-ground would be a necessity. Such a strategy calls for a very high quality and depth of intelligence. Military movement and deployment are and would need to be continually monitored from space and from air besides other means on ground and at sea. To manage contingencies effectively calls for comprehensive ownership and capability package – some held centrally but essential combat elements constituting operational, support and maintenance

54

systems are held with each Service. India needs a ‘mean and light-footed’ elite military that can perform at lightning speed. Indian military is directed as the nation’s ‘Defence Forces’ unlike ‘Expeditionary’ as being the characteristics of British or American military. These ‘characteristics’ define the kind of inventory that the military needs, its structure and training. If not planned carefully, there is a risk of India running into a wasteful expenditure blindly emulating Western military structures and sophistications. Let us not forget that the West, with all its sophistication got beaten by turbaned horsemen with archaic weapons or by highly motivated rural militia that had least sophisticated weapons. No longer speed or manoeuvrability being key factors - the important criteria -

information of situations in air and on ground in real-time. The SU-30MKI has the potential to evolve as a ‘Swing-Role’ machine. It can carry formidable arsenal and range of sensors in a variety of combinations over great distances that could be extended by mid-air refuelling. The Indian Air Force requires major proportion of assets to be single-role fighters of the light-weight class like the LCA for operational efficiency and costeffectiveness. The LCA is very versatile (light weight multi-role) and is designed specifically for India, to operate at high altitudes and in mountains though it has taken 25 years to develop it. Having rolled out successfully, we need to make the LCA in large numbers at a fast pace and stop import of this class of combat machines. One good way could be to licenseout/outsource production to private/joint ventures in India in a similar manner that India obtained license production of military machines from abroad. The government must encourage FDI in such join ventures to produce aircraft and helicopters that are designed in India. Helicopter design and development in India is a success story. Started in early 80’s HAL engaged a German design group to develop the Advanced Light Helicopter at HAL to meet the requirements of the military. HAL designers participated and learned a great deal through this program. Learning from ALH project, they developed many new variants, the latest being the attack variant - the LCH. These ventures

but the demand is for flexibility of role. Network centric operations based on realtime information calls for quick response in a complex environment.The top-end requirementis for ‘Swing-Role’ fighters that have on-board a variety of sensors and weapon systems and can engage variety of targets on a single mission. These machines carry comprehensive sensors and have allweather capability. This is different from Multi-Role aircraft which require to be configured on ground to carry specific weapons and stores to engage specific targets.The nerve centre of network centric capability is the ‘Data Link’. ‘Data Link’ has been introduced in the Indian Air Force to be able to network all its operational elements and sensors. The data/voice link permits secure directions and videography of

DSI

proved the advantage of having a fully integrated design, development and production capability under one roof. But, the recent confusion on development of Light Utility Helicopter (LUH) project highlights our weakness - lack of coordination between the Services, MOD and HAL and the inability to take timely decision. The idea to import light helicopter having reached full capability to design and produce is a dent to our national interests. It is similar to the story of importing basic trainer for the Air Force. Having achieved self-sufficiency in design/development/ production of trainer aircraft, the government spent over Rs 3,000 Cr to import turbo-prop trainers for the Air Force. Here again, a strategy to outsource/license out production of ALH, LCH and the futuristic LUH to private sector could be a good strategy as suggested for producing the LCA. The helicopters, unlike combat aircraft could have attractive civilian and foreign markets. One reads extensively about what aircraft the Air Force should procure or produce or design but very little is projected on mission deliverables. Air weapons consist of wide range of missiles and munitions of extreme sophistication – laser guided, TV guided, remotely guided, satellite guided and many more. Weapons are now designed for pinpoint accuracy and avoid collateral damage. What a 1000 kg TNT bomb achieves or could achieve, modern technology makes it possible to achieve equal damage with a 100kg bomb delivered more accurately.

IAF Mi-17V-5

55


Aerospace-Krishnaswamy 2nd time.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 10/02/15 11:31 AM Page 1

AEROSPACE

FEBRUARY 2015

INDIAN AERONAUTICS: REQUIREMENTS AND STRATEGY FOR GROWTH Linked to India’s growth as a regional power is the development of its aeronautical sector. A significant number of SMEs and MSMEs that constitute the domestic aeronautical sector can be the loci for the growth.

RafaleM aircraft on its way to a ground attack mission, armed with four laser-guided weapons © Dassault

S. KRISHNASWAMY

KEY POINTS l

India needs a quick reaction, technologically enabled armed force to defend itself. l There is a need for a swing-role fighter aircraft in the IAF, which bill can now be filled by the Su-30 MKI. l The country’s private sector have taken small steps to become a part of the global supply chain of the aeronautical sector.

I

ndia’s gradual ascendency as a ‘Potential Power’ called for a strong military to contribute to peace in the region. Adversaries took initiatives and often surprised Indian defences that India had to deal with. On any future conflict, the

Indian military needs to achieve its objective quickly before it is compelled to halt by global pressures and to prevent escalation. Therefore, the essence of future wars/combat operations would be speed and mobility. Aerospace assets thus become essential elements for the success of any short sharp battles although bootson-ground would be a necessity. Such a strategy calls for a very high quality and depth of intelligence. Military movement and deployment are and would need to be continually monitored from space and from air besides other means on ground and at sea. To manage contingencies effectively calls for comprehensive ownership and capability package – some held centrally but essential combat elements constituting operational, support and maintenance

54

systems are held with each Service. India needs a ‘mean and light-footed’ elite military that can perform at lightning speed. Indian military is directed as the nation’s ‘Defence Forces’ unlike ‘Expeditionary’ as being the characteristics of British or American military. These ‘characteristics’ define the kind of inventory that the military needs, its structure and training. If not planned carefully, there is a risk of India running into a wasteful expenditure blindly emulating Western military structures and sophistications. Let us not forget that the West, with all its sophistication got beaten by turbaned horsemen with archaic weapons or by highly motivated rural militia that had least sophisticated weapons. No longer speed or manoeuvrability being key factors - the important criteria -

information of situations in air and on ground in real-time. The SU-30MKI has the potential to evolve as a ‘Swing-Role’ machine. It can carry formidable arsenal and range of sensors in a variety of combinations over great distances that could be extended by mid-air refuelling. The Indian Air Force requires major proportion of assets to be single-role fighters of the light-weight class like the LCA for operational efficiency and costeffectiveness. The LCA is very versatile (light weight multi-role) and is designed specifically for India, to operate at high altitudes and in mountains though it has taken 25 years to develop it. Having rolled out successfully, we need to make the LCA in large numbers at a fast pace and stop import of this class of combat machines. One good way could be to licenseout/outsource production to private/joint ventures in India in a similar manner that India obtained license production of military machines from abroad. The government must encourage FDI in such join ventures to produce aircraft and helicopters that are designed in India. Helicopter design and development in India is a success story. Started in early 80’s HAL engaged a German design group to develop the Advanced Light Helicopter at HAL to meet the requirements of the military. HAL designers participated and learned a great deal through this program. Learning from ALH project, they developed many new variants, the latest being the attack variant - the LCH. These ventures

but the demand is for flexibility of role. Network centric operations based on realtime information calls for quick response in a complex environment.The top-end requirementis for ‘Swing-Role’ fighters that have on-board a variety of sensors and weapon systems and can engage variety of targets on a single mission. These machines carry comprehensive sensors and have allweather capability. This is different from Multi-Role aircraft which require to be configured on ground to carry specific weapons and stores to engage specific targets.The nerve centre of network centric capability is the ‘Data Link’. ‘Data Link’ has been introduced in the Indian Air Force to be able to network all its operational elements and sensors. The data/voice link permits secure directions and videography of

DSI

proved the advantage of having a fully integrated design, development and production capability under one roof. But, the recent confusion on development of Light Utility Helicopter (LUH) project highlights our weakness - lack of coordination between the Services, MOD and HAL and the inability to take timely decision. The idea to import light helicopter having reached full capability to design and produce is a dent to our national interests. It is similar to the story of importing basic trainer for the Air Force. Having achieved self-sufficiency in design/development/ production of trainer aircraft, the government spent over Rs 3,000 Cr to import turbo-prop trainers for the Air Force. Here again, a strategy to outsource/license out production of ALH, LCH and the futuristic LUH to private sector could be a good strategy as suggested for producing the LCA. The helicopters, unlike combat aircraft could have attractive civilian and foreign markets. One reads extensively about what aircraft the Air Force should procure or produce or design but very little is projected on mission deliverables. Air weapons consist of wide range of missiles and munitions of extreme sophistication – laser guided, TV guided, remotely guided, satellite guided and many more. Weapons are now designed for pinpoint accuracy and avoid collateral damage. What a 1000 kg TNT bomb achieves or could achieve, modern technology makes it possible to achieve equal damage with a 100kg bomb delivered more accurately.

IAF Mi-17V-5

55


Aerospace-Krishnaswamy.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 09/02/15 3:11 PM Page 3

AEROSPACE Missiles could have ranges of 3 kms to well over 100 kms and are designed to engage a tank or a ship or an area or an aircraft in the sky or a submarine under water. Weapons and munitions have limited shelf-life. We need to develop and make these indigenously to remain cost-effective. Most of these weapons and sensors are imported and some are even more complex to design and produce than aircraft. India needs to explore seriously the strategy to develop weapons and munitions as importantly as developing aircraft. India could emulate the strategy of Israel in this regard. Israel did not develop or produce combat aircraft/helicopters or aero-engines other than to develop a couple of prototypes to prove concepts and ability. Instead, it focused on upgrading and enhancing the capability of its operational aircraft and developed a wide range of air weapons, sensors and force-multipliers like AWACS and UAVs. Many of these products and technologies were subsequently acquired by US and Europe as well as India. Israel collaborated extensively with the US on a wide range of aerospace technology and intelligence. They are today recognized for world-class expertise on electronic warfare and operational network, security and overhaul/repair/upgrade of large commercial aircraft for a variety of roles. Government of India has gone through a major re-vamp after the new government has taken over. Clarion call is to ‘Make in India’. While this process would take time to establish, depleting squadron strength of the Air Force needs to be checked. Hopefully, a decision would be taken soon on induction of the MMRCA. In parallel, the SU-30MKI should be modernised to make it swing-role capable with more powerful sensors. Major effort should be initiated to license produce and repair spare parts for the aircraft, engine

FEBRUARY 2015

and sub-systems in the country improving availability. Private sector should be encouraged to set up LCA production. HAL had built 3,700 aircraft and similar number of aero-engines under license. Also, MROs of HAL and Air Force combined have repaired or overhauled some 10,000 aircraft and 50,000 engines! Only HAL has today the end-to-end capability in India to design, develop, integrate, produce, test, deliver and support a complete aircraft or helicopter. Private sector has entered aeronautics with high expectations, thanks to the offset policy initiated by the government. But it does not have the end-to-end capability to develop aircraft or helicopters and the only route available for them is through ‘license production,’ which also would need expertise and funding – the route being Joint Ventures. What then could be the difference from a PSU? The PSU investors are public. It would be a golden day for India when PSU could be run along the lines of private sector with tight control on manpower and expenditure with assured delivery and profitability. Today, PSU aerospace worker

India needs to explore seriously the strategy to develop weapons and munitions as importantly as developing aircraft. India could emulate the strategy of Israel in this regard.

Indian Navy P-8I maritime patrol aircraft

56

is least productive as compared to any other sector in India. Considering the enormity of scope and global demand, the country must push both sectors to take up world-class programs taking advantage of capabilities and advantages of both sectors. Private sector in a JV and supported by FDI should be encouraged to license produce aircraft and helicopters developed in India and also market. The government should extend financial support and other forms of encouragement. HAL shouldundertake integration, testing and delivery functions until the private sector is ready to undertake these functions. The produce should be absorbed by the MOD (Including foreign sales). As confidence is gained, private sector could develop designs within the country. Over the last decade, there have been significant changes in global economic scenario where countries have become inter-dependent. Aerospace products from the West were sold to China including transfer of technology. It took a while for this ethos to trickle in for India. Over the last decade, many private sector companies have entered aerospace segment. There are over 2,000 SMEs and 500 MSME in aerospace sector and they are growing. Indian aerospace industry is now internationally competitive. Quality of product has been found to be excellent with high enthusiasm to learn. Organizations like SIATI are giving excellent support to these SME/MSMEs to work with OEMs. The scenario has never been as positive before. Success of a couple of large companies reflects this confidence. Dynamatic Technologies, a Bangalore based company with many years of experience in manufacturing in the automobile sector has earned the title ‘Infosys of Aerospace Manufacturing’.Since 2014, its orders for aerospace structural parts and sub-assemblies has tripled to about Rs 6,000Cr of which Rs 1,800Cr from European Airbus towards 320/350 production. It is the only Tier-I supplier as on date from India on Aerospace products. It also produces major sub-assemblies for the Sukhoi-30MKI produced by HAL in Nasik. The company, in JV with AeroVironment is likely to be selected for supply of UAV for the Military. The Company has significantly upgraded and expanded to meet the growing demand for its products and services in Aerospace. It has commenced production of cabin for BELL-407 and

DSI

IAF C-130J aircraft

another important US customer is the Boeing. They are now making subassemblies for Chinook Helicopters. It is a grand success story of a private company in aerospace sector in India – the first one of its kind! Dynamatic has delivered thousands of components to Airbus over the last five years or so with zero-defect and every delivery on-time! Their immaculate performance has been acknowledged as an ‘outstanding Tier-1 supplier’. Tata Technologies and Tata Advanced Systems (TAS) have made entry into aerospace engineering and manufacture taking advantage of the offset policy of the government. Learning the art and skills of design and manufacture through its collaboration with multitude of global companies, it has recently entered partnership with Lockheed-Martin (making major sub-assemblies for C-130J and cabin of Sikorsky-S92 helicopter) and further expanded to a wide range of applications covering airframe, electrooptical systems, Surface to Air Missile systems, ground systems, UAV, and composites. They also have joint venture with HAL to manufacture composite structures which is a strategic area. Mahindra acquired Aerostaff and Gipps Aero companies in Australia that produce light utility and agriculture aircraft. It has partnered with National Aeronautical Laboratory to develop and produce light utility aircraft in India in three variants. In collaboration with Aernnova of Spain, an Rs 150 Cr engineering facility has been created in Bangalore to produce advanced structures for a variety of aircraft and applications. Recent JV of Mahindra’s with Telephonics of US makes it possible to develop and produce airborne radars for the

Indian military and also radar for civil applications. When we started on LCA and also wished to upgrade existing radars in the fleet, we did not have any other manufacture support other than HAL. Such JVs would help India develop advanced systems. We could conclude that the country is well poised for significant growth in Aerospace design, development and manufacture. However, for this vision to succeed, the government needs to get proactive and bring all players together. Being highly complex technical area, some essentials are missed and a clear path does not seem to emerge (Having to push-start). The following are some aspects to consider: l The government and potential operators must acknowledge that the country has reached self-sufficiency in certain areas of design, development and production in aeronautics. We are capable of making all varieties of trainers and light utility aircraft, combat aircraft of light/medium category and Light helicopters. None of these should be imported. l Manufacture/production of aero-structure and some of avionics and allied components have started in private sector (Tata, Mahindra). The government should survey these for potential. Accordingly identify these for license manufacture of Indian designed weapons and sensors with transfer of technology from DRDO or elsewhere supported by the government. These companies should be incentivised through appropriate measures. l PSUs should focus on design and development and production support. Other than prototype and initial batch production of limited numbers, the rest of the production run should be handed over to private sectors on license. Government

57

should work out modalities. Private sector should be free to export civil application and the military variants on approval by the government (as is done in the West). l DRDO and R&D of PSUs should coordinate. Their group role and objectives should be clearly defined by the government. Objective of DRDO and R&D is to ensure accountability and timely delivery. l The government responsibilities stated above are highly technical and require deep involvement. This calls for permanent body other than the bureaucracy of MOD/Civil aviation etc. An “Aeronautical Commission” should be created as a permanent body to oversee the entire activity of aerospace programs and industry. The head of the Commission should have the status of MOS and would report to the Defence Minister. (Details of proposed Aeronautical Commission would be beyond the scope of this article.) The Commission should create a Project Management Body to monitor all projects in the country with fully empowered teams (finance and functions) designated to run each of these. It is no longer practical for a Minister or his department such as MOD to run major programs as being currently followed. Countries that have major aeronautical projects have fully empowered organisations within the government. All projects in these countries are run by the Users. Since we have now established good relationship with the US, we should seek their support to establish structure and organisation in this country. The US has over 200 years’ experience on managing defence industries and their methods are very well documented. Instead of limiting ourselves to buying their product, we could learn from their experience.


Aerospace-Krishnaswamy.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 09/02/15 3:11 PM Page 3

AEROSPACE Missiles could have ranges of 3 kms to well over 100 kms and are designed to engage a tank or a ship or an area or an aircraft in the sky or a submarine under water. Weapons and munitions have limited shelf-life. We need to develop and make these indigenously to remain cost-effective. Most of these weapons and sensors are imported and some are even more complex to design and produce than aircraft. India needs to explore seriously the strategy to develop weapons and munitions as importantly as developing aircraft. India could emulate the strategy of Israel in this regard. Israel did not develop or produce combat aircraft/helicopters or aero-engines other than to develop a couple of prototypes to prove concepts and ability. Instead, it focused on upgrading and enhancing the capability of its operational aircraft and developed a wide range of air weapons, sensors and force-multipliers like AWACS and UAVs. Many of these products and technologies were subsequently acquired by US and Europe as well as India. Israel collaborated extensively with the US on a wide range of aerospace technology and intelligence. They are today recognized for world-class expertise on electronic warfare and operational network, security and overhaul/repair/upgrade of large commercial aircraft for a variety of roles. Government of India has gone through a major re-vamp after the new government has taken over. Clarion call is to ‘Make in India’. While this process would take time to establish, depleting squadron strength of the Air Force needs to be checked. Hopefully, a decision would be taken soon on induction of the MMRCA. In parallel, the SU-30MKI should be modernised to make it swing-role capable with more powerful sensors. Major effort should be initiated to license produce and repair spare parts for the aircraft, engine

FEBRUARY 2015

and sub-systems in the country improving availability. Private sector should be encouraged to set up LCA production. HAL had built 3,700 aircraft and similar number of aero-engines under license. Also, MROs of HAL and Air Force combined have repaired or overhauled some 10,000 aircraft and 50,000 engines! Only HAL has today the end-to-end capability in India to design, develop, integrate, produce, test, deliver and support a complete aircraft or helicopter. Private sector has entered aeronautics with high expectations, thanks to the offset policy initiated by the government. But it does not have the end-to-end capability to develop aircraft or helicopters and the only route available for them is through ‘license production,’ which also would need expertise and funding – the route being Joint Ventures. What then could be the difference from a PSU? The PSU investors are public. It would be a golden day for India when PSU could be run along the lines of private sector with tight control on manpower and expenditure with assured delivery and profitability. Today, PSU aerospace worker

India needs to explore seriously the strategy to develop weapons and munitions as importantly as developing aircraft. India could emulate the strategy of Israel in this regard.

Indian Navy P-8I maritime patrol aircraft

56

is least productive as compared to any other sector in India. Considering the enormity of scope and global demand, the country must push both sectors to take up world-class programs taking advantage of capabilities and advantages of both sectors. Private sector in a JV and supported by FDI should be encouraged to license produce aircraft and helicopters developed in India and also market. The government should extend financial support and other forms of encouragement. HAL shouldundertake integration, testing and delivery functions until the private sector is ready to undertake these functions. The produce should be absorbed by the MOD (Including foreign sales). As confidence is gained, private sector could develop designs within the country. Over the last decade, there have been significant changes in global economic scenario where countries have become inter-dependent. Aerospace products from the West were sold to China including transfer of technology. It took a while for this ethos to trickle in for India. Over the last decade, many private sector companies have entered aerospace segment. There are over 2,000 SMEs and 500 MSME in aerospace sector and they are growing. Indian aerospace industry is now internationally competitive. Quality of product has been found to be excellent with high enthusiasm to learn. Organizations like SIATI are giving excellent support to these SME/MSMEs to work with OEMs. The scenario has never been as positive before. Success of a couple of large companies reflects this confidence. Dynamatic Technologies, a Bangalore based company with many years of experience in manufacturing in the automobile sector has earned the title ‘Infosys of Aerospace Manufacturing’.Since 2014, its orders for aerospace structural parts and sub-assemblies has tripled to about Rs 6,000Cr of which Rs 1,800Cr from European Airbus towards 320/350 production. It is the only Tier-I supplier as on date from India on Aerospace products. It also produces major sub-assemblies for the Sukhoi-30MKI produced by HAL in Nasik. The company, in JV with AeroVironment is likely to be selected for supply of UAV for the Military. The Company has significantly upgraded and expanded to meet the growing demand for its products and services in Aerospace. It has commenced production of cabin for BELL-407 and

DSI

IAF C-130J aircraft

another important US customer is the Boeing. They are now making subassemblies for Chinook Helicopters. It is a grand success story of a private company in aerospace sector in India – the first one of its kind! Dynamatic has delivered thousands of components to Airbus over the last five years or so with zero-defect and every delivery on-time! Their immaculate performance has been acknowledged as an ‘outstanding Tier-1 supplier’. Tata Technologies and Tata Advanced Systems (TAS) have made entry into aerospace engineering and manufacture taking advantage of the offset policy of the government. Learning the art and skills of design and manufacture through its collaboration with multitude of global companies, it has recently entered partnership with Lockheed-Martin (making major sub-assemblies for C-130J and cabin of Sikorsky-S92 helicopter) and further expanded to a wide range of applications covering airframe, electrooptical systems, Surface to Air Missile systems, ground systems, UAV, and composites. They also have joint venture with HAL to manufacture composite structures which is a strategic area. Mahindra acquired Aerostaff and Gipps Aero companies in Australia that produce light utility and agriculture aircraft. It has partnered with National Aeronautical Laboratory to develop and produce light utility aircraft in India in three variants. In collaboration with Aernnova of Spain, an Rs 150 Cr engineering facility has been created in Bangalore to produce advanced structures for a variety of aircraft and applications. Recent JV of Mahindra’s with Telephonics of US makes it possible to develop and produce airborne radars for the

Indian military and also radar for civil applications. When we started on LCA and also wished to upgrade existing radars in the fleet, we did not have any other manufacture support other than HAL. Such JVs would help India develop advanced systems. We could conclude that the country is well poised for significant growth in Aerospace design, development and manufacture. However, for this vision to succeed, the government needs to get proactive and bring all players together. Being highly complex technical area, some essentials are missed and a clear path does not seem to emerge (Having to push-start). The following are some aspects to consider: l The government and potential operators must acknowledge that the country has reached self-sufficiency in certain areas of design, development and production in aeronautics. We are capable of making all varieties of trainers and light utility aircraft, combat aircraft of light/medium category and Light helicopters. None of these should be imported. l Manufacture/production of aero-structure and some of avionics and allied components have started in private sector (Tata, Mahindra). The government should survey these for potential. Accordingly identify these for license manufacture of Indian designed weapons and sensors with transfer of technology from DRDO or elsewhere supported by the government. These companies should be incentivised through appropriate measures. l PSUs should focus on design and development and production support. Other than prototype and initial batch production of limited numbers, the rest of the production run should be handed over to private sectors on license. Government

57

should work out modalities. Private sector should be free to export civil application and the military variants on approval by the government (as is done in the West). l DRDO and R&D of PSUs should coordinate. Their group role and objectives should be clearly defined by the government. Objective of DRDO and R&D is to ensure accountability and timely delivery. l The government responsibilities stated above are highly technical and require deep involvement. This calls for permanent body other than the bureaucracy of MOD/Civil aviation etc. An “Aeronautical Commission” should be created as a permanent body to oversee the entire activity of aerospace programs and industry. The head of the Commission should have the status of MOS and would report to the Defence Minister. (Details of proposed Aeronautical Commission would be beyond the scope of this article.) The Commission should create a Project Management Body to monitor all projects in the country with fully empowered teams (finance and functions) designated to run each of these. It is no longer practical for a Minister or his department such as MOD to run major programs as being currently followed. Countries that have major aeronautical projects have fully empowered organisations within the government. All projects in these countries are run by the Users. Since we have now established good relationship with the US, we should seek their support to establish structure and organisation in this country. The US has over 200 years’ experience on managing defence industries and their methods are very well documented. Instead of limiting ourselves to buying their product, we could learn from their experience.


Defence Buzz Feb 15:DSI Defence Talk-May09.qxd 09/02/15 12:43 PM Page 2

DEFENCE BUZZ

FEBRUARY 2015

DSI

DEFENCE BUZZ An Update on Defence News

Integrated Life Support System

ILSS-OBOGS an indigenous ‘on-board oxygen generating system’ (OBOGS) based ‘integrated life support system’ (ILSS) designed and developed to provide enhanced physiological protection to aircrew of high speed and high altitude fighter aircraft-Tejas with primary objective of meeting long endurance flights was symbolically handed over by Dr.VC Padaki, Director, DEBEL (Defence Bio-medical and Electro-medical Laboratory) to Dr P S Subramaniam, DS, Program Director – Combat Aircrafts and Director Aeronautical Development Agency. Designed to get integrated within the confined space available in the aircraft, the OBOGS replaces the Liquid Oxygen based system (LOX) by utilizing bleed air from the aircraft engine by separating oxygen from other components by a process based on Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) technology.The use of OBOGS technology offers advantage of unlimited endurance in the sky (unlike LOX system wherein

endurance is limited by the storage capacity). Also, it provides improved safety, reduced logistics and significantly lowered operational costs. Developed by DEBEL, a DRDO lab focused

and ‘Gravity Induced Loss of Consciousness’ (G-LOC) during high G manoeuvres. The technology consists of On-Board Oxygen Generation System (OBOGS) that provides oxygen for breathing, a breathing regulator that supplies the breathing gas to

A dedicated solid state oxygen sensor to sense oxygen concentration in the breathing gas is an integral part of the system. India will join the elite club of five countries who have established and mastered the technology in the field of ILSS

on development of bio-medical and electro-medical soldier support systems, the advanced ILSS- OBOGS addresses the need for preventing in-flight Hypoxia (during high altitude flying and emergency escape)

the aircrew at desired flow and pressure, an Anti-G-Valve (AGV) that inflates the anti-G suit to apply desired counter pressure and an Electronic Controller Unit (ECU) to coordinate various functions.

for military flying once the trials are successfully completed. The ILSS-OBOGS has the versatility to be customized to the needs of other Indian fighter aircrafts like MIG-29, Sukhoi-30 Mk1 and Mirage-2000.

is a multi-mission UAV with day/night operational capability, launched from an all-terrain hydro-pneumatic launcher and is recovered with the help of on board parachute system and an underbelly airbag. It is designed for battlefield surveillance and reconnaissance, target tracking & localization, and artillery fire correction. The electro-optic payloads

are mounted on a stabilized steerable platform. A sophisticated image processing system is used for analyzing the images transmitted from the UAV. The aircraft has a jam resistant command link and digital down link for transmission of imagery. The air vehicle has autonomous flight capabilities and is controlled from a user friendly Ground Control Station.

Panchi UAV: Maiden flight test Panchi, the wheeled version of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Nishant capable of taking-off and landing using small airstrips had its maiden flight lasting about 20 minutes. The flight was preceded by a series of high speed taxi trials. The UAV Panchi has all the surveillance capabilities of UAV Nishant. However, it will have longer endurance as it

does not have to carry the air bags and parachute system as in the case of UAV Nishant. The conventional Nishant UAV already inducted in Army

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DEFENCE BUZZ

FEBRUARY 2015

DSI

Agni 5 ICBM successfully test-fired India’s ICBM Agni 5 was successfully test fired from a canister . Agni 5 ICBM is about 17m long and weighing over 50 ton majestically rose from the confines of its canister. At the predetermined moment, having risen to about 20 meters height, it’s first stage motor ignited lifting Agni 5 into the sky. The flight continued on its predetermined path during which, the second all composite light weight motor, followed by the third, innovatively designed conical all composite rocket motor propelled the missile into space taking it to a height of more than 600 km. The missile, after reaching peak of its trajectory turned towards earth to continue its journey towards the intended target with a speed now increasing due to the attraction of earth’s gravitational pull and its path precisely directed by the advanced on-board computer and inertial navigation system. As the missile entered earth’s atmosphere,

Indigenous guided glide bomb A 1000 kg glide bomb designed and developed by Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) was successfully tested, in Bay of Bengal of the coast of Odisha. The bomb was dropped by an Indian Air force aircraft. The bomb, guided by its ‘on board navigation system’ glided for nearly 100 km before hitting the target with great precision. The flight of the glide bomb was monitored by radars and electro-optic systems stationed at Integrated Test Range (ITR). Multiple DRDO laboratories namely, DARE, Bangalore, ARDE, Pune and TBRL, Chandigarh, with RCI, Hyderabad as the nodal laboratory have contributed towards development of the glide bomb. The complete avionics package and navigation system has been designed and developed by RCI.

the atmospheric air rubbing the skin of the missile during the re-entry phase raised the temperature to beyond 4000 degree Celsius. However, the indigenously designed and developed carbon-carbon composite heat shield continued to burn sacrificially protecting in the process the payload, maintaining the inside temperature below 50 degree Celsius. Finally, commanded by the on-board computer with a support of highly accurate ring laser gyro based inertial navigation system, the most modern micro inertial navigation system (MINS), fully digital control system and advanced compact avionics, the missile hit the designated target point accurately, meeting all mission objectives. All the radars and electro-optical systems along the path monitored all the parameters of the Missile and displayed in real time.

State-of-the-art BRAHMOS Technical Position The Chief of Air Staff, Air Chief Marshal Arup Raha inaugurated the state-of-the-art BRAHMOS Technical Position . The BRAHMOS missile system was inducted into the Indian Navy in 2005 after a series of successful test launches starting from 2001. The commencement of deliveries of the land-attack

BRAHMOS in Indian Army started from 2007. With the induction of the land based weapon complex for the Indian Air Force, BRAHMOS has now been successfully inducted into all the three wings of the Armed Forces. The Su-30 MKI armed with BRAHMOS missile is a combination of lethal strike with the ability of air fighting

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within and beyond the visibility range. It will provide IAF with the capability of attacking targets protected by powerful air defence assets, including aircraft carriers. Jointly developed by India and Russia, BRAHMOS is a precision strike weapon for Army, Navy & Air Force.This universal missile can be fitted in ships, Mobile Launchers, Submarines and Aircraft against land and sea targets.


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Defence Buzz Feb 15:DSI Defence Talk-May09.qxd 09/02/15 12:49 PM Page 4

DEFENCE BUZZ

FEBRUARY 2015

DSI

Russsia to cooperate in ‘Make in India’ policy India and Russia re-affirmed their commitment to the long standing friendship and cooperation in the area of Defence Cooperation. This was reiterated during the meeting of the visiting Russian Minister of Defence, Sergei Shoigu with Defence Minister of India, Manohar Parrikar. The two Defence Ministers resolved to carry forward the understanding reached during the summit meeting in order to further strengthen the special and privileged strategic partnership between the two countries. The two sides reviewed the entire gamut of defence cooperation.They expressed confidence that the

cooperation would be taken forward and be further strengthened. Both sides reviewed the ongoing area of defence cooperation and projects.They decided to hold interactions at

Navy displays operational prowess Indian Navy displayed the entire spectrum of Naval operations at Kochi,Southern Naval Command . The demonstration commenced with marine commandos delivering the programme schedule to the Governor. A flypast by 15 helicopters and fixed wing aircraft of the Navy including the latest P8-I set the tempo for rest of the activities which lasted for about two hours and included demonstration of landing of a Sea king helicopter on a moving warship, firing of weapons, special operations by the marine commandos from air and water, simulation of VBSS (visit, board, search and seizure) operations etc. Helobatics by the Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) and warship formation led by INS Kolkata, the largest indigenously built warship of Indian Navy, followed by warshipsTir, Sharda, Sarvekshak, Kuthar, Kabra, Kalpeni and sail training ship Sudarshini provided the spectators with ample view of

the operational prowess of the Indian Navy. The Coastal security and force protection capabilities were demonstrated by a group of six Fast Interceptor Crafts (FIC) carrying out various manoeuveres. A continuity drill performed by two contingents from INS Dronacharya stood out for its

regular intervals to conform to project deadlines. The two Defence Ministers also discussed possible future areas of cooperation in high technology defence platforms as well as armament

stunning and precise discipline and skills in weapon handling. The demonstration concluded with the ceremonial sunset ceremony which included “Beating Retreat” performed by the Naval Band followed by the lowering of the National Flag and Naval Ensign after which all the warships sailed past the gathering with their silhouette illuminated.

for the three Services. Besides signing the agreed protocol, the two leaders also witnessed the signing of an agreement on exchange of Flight Safety Exchange Information. The two Defence Ministers expressed satisfaction over the successful conduct of joint exercises conducted individually between Army, Navy and Air Force of both sides in 2014.They also noted that both sides are working together to progress cooperation in the field of training. The two sides resolved to continue to meet at regular intervals to carry forward an already robust defence cooperation.

IAF receives first overhauled Su-30 MKI

The Defence Minister, Manohar Parrikar handed over the first overhauled Su-30 MKI to the Chief of Air Staff, Air Chief Marshal Arup Raha at Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), Nasik .The handing over of the world’s first overhauled SU-30 MKI coincides with 50 years of establishment of Nasik Division of the HAL. The world’s first overhauled SU-30 MKI took to the skies, thereby demonstrating the technical prowess of the HAL.

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MD2437_Experial_Imdex2015 whale_trade visitor_FAP-DSI.pdf 1 12/19/2014 10:48:05 AM

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DEFENCE BUZZ

FEBRUARY 2015

DSI

LCA, Tejas first series production

India and Mongolia strengthen ties The 4th Director General Level Talks between the Border Security Force of India and General Authority for Border Protection of Mongolia was held recently at New Delhi. Both sides observed that they always shared strong Historical, Cultural and Spritual ties. With the growth of global terrorism, transnational crimes like Drug Trafficking, Smuggling of illegal Arms & Ammunition, there is need for increased cooperation between the two countries for effective prevention and detection of crimes. Both BSF and GABP underscored the need for continuous mutual cooperation between the two forces. Brigadier General

Lhachinjav Sh (Head of General Authority for Border Protection of Mongolia), expressed his great satisfaction towards progress of cooperation between the two forces. The co-operation between the two Border Guarding Forces started in the year 2008, since then, the state of co-operation has been very positive, as the highest level meetings between Border Guarding Forces of the both the Countries are taking place regularly. They discussed on various issues like Cooperation in Capacity Building , GABP Mangolia requires assistance in capacity building in the area of Special operations. BSF will train GABP Mangolia officers in Special Operations.

Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar handed over the first series production Light Combat Aircraft, Tejas made by HAL to the Indian Air Force at a ceremony at HAL Bangalore Complex . Mr. Parrikar also viewed the flying display of HAL’s main products: Tejas, Dhruv (Rudra), LCH and Hawk. He also visited design and flight hangars of Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH), Dhruv and production facilities of LCA Tejas.

Flight Control Systems, Open Architecture Computer etc. The Naval variant of LCA is also under development and had last month did its first flight from the shore based test facility (STBF) at Goa. In the design and development program, HAL has produced 15 aircraft including the 7 in Limited Series Production (LSP), 2 Technology Demonstrators, 3 Fighter Prototype, 2 Trainer Prototype and 1 Naval Prototype. These aircraft

Tejas is a 4.5th Generation Aircraft. It is significant for its lighter weight and greater agility and manoeuvrability. The lighter weight is achieved by use of higher percentage of Carbon Fibre Composites. Other significant features of this indigenous aircraft are the Digital Fly-By-Wire System,

have completed more than 2800 flights. HAL is the principal partner for the development of LCA along with the Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) which is the nodal design agency and responsible for program management of the project.

India-Mauritius greater maritime domain awareness

New DG Air Operations

The Chief of Naval Staff Admiral RK Dhowan visited Mauritius to further consolidate the bridges of friendship as well as explore new avenues of defence cooperation. The Chief of Naval Staff met various Government and Defence officials during his stay at Mauritius. The Admiral jointly with his counterpart, Commissioner of Police inaugurated the data flow of the Information Exchange on

Air Marshal Anil Khosla took over as Director General Air Operations at Air Headquarters. An alumnus of the National Defence Academy, he was commissioned in the fighter stream of the Indian Air Force in December 1979. He has over 4000 hours of flying experience having flown the Jaguar and MiG 21. He is equally experienced on both Ground attack and Air Defence roles with specialization on maritime role.

white shipping (merchant marine) for greater Maritime Domain Awareness to the mutual benefit of both maritime nations. The country’s strategic location in the Indian Ocean, has resulted in a close relationship between India and Mauritius. The Indian Navy has been actively supporting and cooperating with Mauritius Maritime agencies towards meeting their maritime security needs in terms of

hydrography surveys, supplementing Exclusive Economic Zone surveillance efforts, provisioning of naval hardware such as ships and aircraft as well as cooperation in training. The Mauritius Coast Guard Ship Barracuda has recently been built by GRSE Kolkata while orders have been placed by MCGS on GSL for construction of 2 Fast Attack Craft and 10 Fast Interceptor Craft.

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AS2015 DSI._AS2015 DSI. 18/12/2014 3:46 pm Page 1

AUSTRALIAN INTERNATIONAL AIRSHOW AND AEROSPACE & DEFENCE EXPOSITION

AVALON2015 24 FEBRUARY - 1 MARCH 2015 GEELONG, AUSTRALIA

Trade Visitor pre-registration is now open... ...Don’t miss out register now! http://www.airshow.com.au/airshow2015/TRADE/trade-visitors/pre-registration.asp AVALON 2015 is Australia’s premier aerospace and defence exposition and a leading aerospace and defence forum for Australia, Asia and the Indo-Pacific region. AVALON 2015 will be the perfect occasion for you to connect with the aerospace and defence community. The industry-only Trade Sessions of the 2015 Australian International Airshow and Aerospace & Defence Exposition are Tuesday 24, Wednesday 25 and Thursday 26 February and until 1400 on Friday 27 February. Only qualified trade visitors may attend during these times. These industry-only Trade Sessions are reserved for those with a professional, business or operational involvement in aviation, aerospace, defence or related government or industry sectors. Registration as a trade visitor is required. Business card, company identification, applicable association membership card, CASA license or similar evidence of qualification may be required as a part of the registration process. The cost of entry as a trade visitor to Avalon 2015 is AUD$60 per person per day. Defence personnel will be given free entry on Tuesday 24 to Thursday 26 February and until 2pm on Friday 27 February on presentation of their current Defence identification. No person under the age of 16 years will be admitted during the Trade Sessions.

www.airshow.com.au


Interview BSF.qxd:INDO-PAK.qxd 09/02/15 4:12 PM Page 1

INTERVIEW

FEBRUARY 2015

DSI

“MODERNISATION OF BSF IS A CONTINUOUS PROCESS” In this interview with DSI , the Director General of BSF, D K Pathak speaks about the role and modernisation of the force Q. To effectively counter the armed aggression by Pakistan, BSF was operationalised on 1st Dec’ 1965 under the leadership of Rustamji. How do you see the evolution of the force since then and the significant role it has come to play in national security? A. The BSF was raised on 1st Dec’ 1965 with 25 Battalions. BSF today is the largest border guarding force in the world with 173 Battalions including four specialized Disaster Management Battalions, its own air and water Wings, Artillery Regiments and excellent Training Institutions. BSF has always played an important role in the nation’s security matrix. The gallant role played by BSF during the Indo-Pak war of 1971, militancy in Punjab, J&K and North-East and recently in the areas affected by Left Wing Extremism reflects not only its glorious past but also instil a great sense of pride among all of us and encourages us to achieve more in the future. Q. Over the years in addition to its mandated function of securing the national borders, preventing infiltration and smuggling etc. BSF has also been called upon to assist in the counter-insurgency and other homeland security objectives. Has this overstretched the sinews of the force and diluted its effectiveness? A. Whenever BSF receives a task, our endeavour is to carry it out in a people friendly way. Yes, most of the time, we have to withdraw from our basic border duties from International Boundary to perform the tasks related to Internal Security. However, diversified roles have augmented our professional competency and have made the force more effective to deal security related issues. Our

Q. Training is half the battle won. How do you propose to increase training standards? A. Regular training, exposure to best practices and introduction to modern methods and technologies in every sphere of our assigned role remains an abiding commitment. It is for the same reason that the same finds a place in our motto “thou i;ZUr drZO;”. We constantly seek to upgrade our skill sets and are getting transformed into a world class agency by organizing regular basic and in-service training for our staff. Further, we also seek to utilize the finest training facilities across the world. Finally, being a niche and cutting edge area of work, we believe that the best training is obtained through professional experience. Hence, emphasis is placed on ground operations. achievements in bringing normalcy in Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir, North Eastern states and recently in Anti National duties speaks about the yeomen contribution made by this great force. Special focus is given for continuous updation and training and we also ensure that Force always maintain its effectiveness in every sphere of security. Q. What is the scope of the modernisation programme of the BSF? How much of it has been achieved till date? A. To meet the challenges of internal and external security, we have a very ambitious plan of modernisation and steps in the right direction have already been initiated. The modernisation of the Force (BSF) is not something which can be done once and for all, it is a continuous process. But every aspect is addressed in this process – whether it is communication, armament or clothing.

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Q. The home minister has recently enhanced the delegated financial powers to all the director generals of the CAPFs for procurements. For the BSF specifically, what is the most crucial among all the procurement plans? A. With delegated power and increased financial power, our plan of modernisation would be implemented faster due to reduced layers of decision-making and the procurement procedures. Q. What is your vision for BSF ? A. The BSF has always displayed highest standards of professionalism, valour and loyalty to the Nation. I not only want this tradition to continue but would like to take it to a greater height. I want the force to be combat ready all the times so as to perform any assigned task with professionalism of the highest standard.


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DSI Feb 15  

India's only magazine on national security, strategic affairs and policy matters

DSI Feb 15  

India's only magazine on national security, strategic affairs and policy matters

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