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Contents JUNE/JULY 2013 VOLUME 21 / ISSUE 4
Front Cover Photo: A Raytheon RIM-161B SM-3 Block-IA surface-to-air missile dashes skywards during a launch test. This weapon, among others, is examined in this edition’s article examining missile defence initiatives; ‘A Shot In The Dark?’ © US Missile Defence Agency
Flip That COIN Andrew Brookes The British operated aircraft over the Middle East in the Twenties and Thirties because they were a much cheaper way of countering insurgents than battalions on the ground. Over the years, major air forces invested in new jet engines and swept wings, but there remained a place for old technology
APCs and IFVs in the Asia Pacific Christopher F Foss Traditionally Armoured Personnel Carriers (APCs), tracked and wheeled alike, have been used to transport infantry where they dismount and fight on foot. APCs are still used by many countries, but they are now being supplemented by Infantry Fighting Vehicles (IFVs)
40 Up Close and Personal Thomas Withington Close Air Support (CAS), the art of achieving a direct hit on enemy troops or materiel which maybe just metres away from friendly forces on a fast-moving battlefield has been an increasingly precise exercise since it came to prominence during the First World War
Training and Simulation: Wargames Thomas Withington The training potential offered by simulation technology is a constantly evolving field. Advances in computing and video graphics provide an ever-deepening level of detail to the instructor and student alike across the land, sea and air domains
34 AMR UAV Directory 2013 Bianca Siccardi AMR’s UAV Directory has been researched using a range of resources notably AMR correspondents, industry experts and serving military personnel throughout the region as well as open sources
Seeing Through the Dark
Anti-Surface Warfare: From Gun to Missile
Peter Donaldson With the importance of dismounted soldiers so strongly brought to the fore by counter-insurgency campaigns of the last decade, range of products intended to increase their effectiveness in terms of target detection, recognition and identification in all weathers and light conditions has grown dramatically
Ted Hooten Warships target other warships with merchantmen as the secondary target, and the weapon options for what is now called Anti-Surface Warfare (ASuW) are surprisingly broad
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Editorial PARIS IN THE SPRING t is an honour to be appointed as the new editor of the Asian Military Review, following the sudden and untimely death of its previous editor Adam Baddeley. I had the privilege of calling Adam one of my closest friends. Having worked together for over a decade, he was a constant source of inspiration, knowledge and advice, not to mention much laughter! Adam set a high editorial standard for the magazine, which I hope that I can continue in the future. He is sorely missed, and I dedicate this edition to him.
This year’s Paris Air Show occurred just as the finishing touches were being put to this issue. Although extremely busy on the civil side, with perennial rivals Boeing and Airbus announcing bumper orders, and emerging manufacturers from Brazil and Canada, notably Embraer and Bombardier making their presence felt, the military side of the show seemed quiet. True, defence budgets around the world, particularly in Europe and North America, are contracting. This is not only the result of the economic downturn affecting the West; budgets are also being slashed in anticipation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation’s withdrawal from Afghanistan next year. The combat aircraft manufacturers, which used to dominate the world’s air shows, were quiet to say the least and, perhaps underlining the pinch in Washington DC, the American presence at the show was notably muted compared to previous years.
That said the Russians livened things up with a show-stopping Sukhoi Su-35. Once again, this Russian combat aircraft builder showed that it can continue to produce jets capable of seemingly impossible manoeuvres, with the airframe tossed around the sky like a leaf in the wind, while the audience watched in open-mouthed amazement.
Paris 2013 did feel like a largely civilian event with a military element. To be fair, this trend has been the case for many years, and is set to remain so in the future. The Cold War, which provided the perfect arena for all of the major protagonists to showcase their brightest and best military aviation offerings, is long gone, but that has not stopped the Russians from stealing this year’s show. Thomas Withington, Editor
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FLIP THAT COIN
The British operated aircraft over the Middle East in the Twenties and Thirties because they were a much cheaper way of countering insurgents than battalions on the ground. Over the years, major air forces invested in new jet engines and swept wings, but there remained a place for old technology.
by Andrew Brookes
or example, from 1948 the RAF battled Communist insurgents in Malaya with a variety of piston-engine aircraft including Avro Lincolns. Come 1955 and the first RAF jet bomber squadron went on active duty overseas. Four Canberra B6s left Lincolnshire for Malaya to bomb insurgents in their jungle hide-outs. Hitting roughly-constructed bashas under dense jungle foliage with 1,000lb bombs as directed by Air Observation Post Austers, or against a six-figure map reference provided by a ground liaison officer, was asking a lot. On one occasion a Canberra overshot the aiming datum by 3,000m. As the official historian of the Malayan Emergency put it, “Canberras carried half the bomb load of Lincolns and their cruising speed of 250kt at the optimum bomb-
ing height required more elaborate navigational aids and made map-reading impracticable and visual bomb-aiming difficult. The pilot had a poorer visibility than in a Lincoln and the Canberra could not be flown at night or in close formation, and could not be employed in a
strafing role. They suffered, in common with all jet aircraft in the tropics, from a serious limitation in their endurance at low level, which precluded postponing or delaying an air strike once they were airborne. This was a serious disadvantage in the uncertain weather conditions of Malaya, especially when Canberras were operating in the northern part of the coun-
The North American F-105 Thunderchief was another aircraft used extensively in the counterinsurgency role by the United States Air Force during the Vietnam War. However, the aircraft showed itself to be vulnerable to ground-based air defences © US DoD
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try far from their parent base in Singapore.” It was horses for courses and while the shiny B-52s and centuryseries fighters practised for a war of survival against the USSR, the USAF procured light warplanes for use over Korea and Vietnam. US airmen used armed versions of the piston-engined T-6 Texan trainers dubbed ‘Mosquitos’ for artillery spotting and forward air control over Korea. In the early 1960s, the US Army tested armed versions of the Cessna YAT-37D Dragonfly (or Super Tweet), Douglas A4D-1 Skyhawk, and Fiat G.91. But the lessons of the Second World War
North American Rockwell’s OV-10 Bronco was an early post-Second World War attempt to produce a dedicated counter-insurgency aircraft. Recent proposals to place the aircraft back into production have so far come to naught © US DoD
had been forgotten by the USAF as unarmoured supersonic fighters with vulnerable fuel tanks and hydraulic control systems were knocked down or damaged by North Vietnamese peasants armed with automatic small arms with simple sights. About 43% of all the F105 Thunderchiefs ever built were shot down over Vietnam because this tactical nuclear bomber was unmanoeuverable and vulnerable to antiaircraft fire. The military helicopter came of age in Vietnam but whether fixed wing or rotary, rugged and simpler aircraft proved their worth for nations who had no need or use for Major League aircraft. The era of dedicated counter-insurgency (COIN) warfare had truly arrived and the
ultimate COIN aircraft today is the Spectre AC-130 Gunship. In the Maysan province of Iraq, Brigadier Richard Holmes noted that “the AC-130 effect on morale was palpable…some of the British soldiers undoubtedly owe their lives to the ability of the Spectre crews to understand the ground battle and weigh in with super-accurate fire at midnight in a burning town.” But only a super-power can afford this aweinspiring capability. James S Corum has reviewed dozens of major insurgencies since 1945 from which he identified good strategy and good intelligence as the two keys to effective counter-insurgency. While there is no air power
solution to counter-insurgency, there is certainly a large role for air power: it can bring firepower, transport, reconnaissance and constant presence to the COIN fight. US counter-insurgency doctrine recommends the use of inexpensive, low-tech aircraft and technology for less developed allies facing insurgency. Simply put, US doctrine recognises that effective counterinsurgency requires more than just the use of US forces; it is also about helping allied nations win their own conflicts. For a re-emerging nation like Iraq, light, armed aircraft with sensors and weapons that are affordable, nimble and flexible have great appeal. The same will prove true in Afghanistan which needs to support indigenous ground forces without breaking the budget. More importantly, because of the simplicity of the aircraft, coalition forces can train airmen to fly and service them once their combat troops have withdrawn. However, as we stand on the threshold of dramatic technological changes, is the ‘cheap’ COIN aircraft of yesteryear achievable or viable?
There are plenty of nations for whom COIN aircraft are the ideal solution. Last August Embraer handed over an initial batch of four A-29 Super Tucano aircraft to the Indonesian Air Force (TNI-AU). Twelve more are to follow and these sixteen light attack and tactical training aircraft are part
Although the English Electric Canberra served with the Royal Air Force for many years, its deployment during the Malayan Emergency in the 1950s underscored the limitations of this aircraft in the counter-insurgency role © Wikimedia Commons
of the Indonesian Defence Force's equipment modernisation programme. The Super Tucano is a mature and proven mission-ready aircraft to replace the TNI-AU’s (Indonesian Air Force’s) fleet of OV-10 Broncos in support of light attack, surveillance, aerial intercepts and COIN missions. Modern COIN aircraft such as the Super Tucano incorporate advanced electronic/optical/infrared and laser technology together with secure radios plus datalink communications. The
The Cessna AT-37D Dragonfly was developed during the late-1950s/early-1960s as a counterinsurgency aircraft. It served during the Vietnam War with the United States Air Force, and is believed to remain in service with the Peruvian Air Force © Wikimedia Commons
Super Tucano is currently in service with Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Colombia, Ecuador, Chile and Burkina Faso, and has been ordered by the Angolan and Mauritanian air forces. The A-29 Super Tucano was built specifically for counter-insurgency missions and is credited with helping the Colombian gov-
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ernment defeat the FARC guerilla movement. Around 160 A-29s are now in operation and they have logged 130,000 flight hours, including over 18,000 combat hours without any combat loss. Budget deficits affect Washington as much as anywhere else, but it surprised many when USAF Chief of Staff General
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COUNTER INSURGENCY Norton Schwartz announced the Light Attack Armed Reconnaissance Aircraft (LAAR) programme in September 2008. Envisaged as a fillip to industry, the USAF envisaged a $2 billion purchase of 100 LAAR aircraft. Initially, LAAR was to be a small plane with an advanced sensor suite, hardpoints for light missiles, bombs and rockets, and an independent capability to find and engage targets at night. LAAR would also function as a forward air control
aircraft, directing gunfire and ordnance from other platforms. The aircraft would need to operate from austere forward operating bases, and be largely self-sustaining. Proposed candidates for the LAAR programme included a modified crop duster demonstrated at the 2009 Paris Air Show, the Alenia M346, the Super Tucano (see above), Pilatus PC-6 Porter and Hawker Beechcraft AT-6B Texan II. Although the Pentagon expected LAAR to
A Republic of Singapore Air Force McDonnell Douglas A-4SU Skyhawk is seen here in this image. Alongside the Cessna Dragonfly, the Skyhawk would be used extensively by the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps during the Vietnam War © US DoD
be based on an ‘in production’ aircraft, Boeing tried to sneak in the OV-10(X) Bronco, based on the Vietnam-era twinengine, twin-boom forward air controller platform. Boeing said it was prepared to resume Bronco production at a facility not yet chosen, which shows how important even COIN aircraft are to the balance sheets of major aeronautical players. Embraer’s Super Tucano was already being tested in Afghanistan under a US Navy programme known as Imminent Fury. Meanwhile the thrust of LAAR was Alenia Aermacchi’s M346 Master represents a new breed of light jet trainer which can also be configured to perform the COIN mission. The Republic of Singapore Air Force currently has twelve of the aircraft on order © Wikimedia Commons
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Hawker Beechcraft’s T-6 Texan-II has been acquired by the Iraqi Air Force. The country has purchased a total of 15 of the machines. The Texan-II is available in its trainer (T-6) and armed (AT-6) configurations, the latter version being ideal for COIN operations © US DoD
shifting to reflect Defense Secretary Gates’ view that platforms and missions must be relevant to conflicts like those in Iraq and Afghanistan. Furthermore, it had to be something that was readily transferable to partner nations. It was to be an affordable, modular, open-architecture aircraft and equipment. Some of these requirements, including those for high-altitude capability and for an on-board oxygen generation system, seem tailored to the war in Afghanistan. To many in the Pentagon, it seemed timely to bring back Vietnam War era CAS/COIN tactics and to merge them with 21st century weapons and technolo-
gy. You could see their point. The LAAR platform was to fly at altitudes up to 30,000ft with a range up to 900nm. The aircraft was to be fitted with fuel tanks,
The projected LAAR COIN aircraft might not have the cachet of the F-16C/D or F/A18E/F, but it would do much of what they did for around $1,000 per flight hour l
multi-function display (MFD) and fully compatible head up display (HUD) with night vision goggle (NVG) for a six-hour mission. It would be expected to perform missions such as streaming video, forwarding air control, escort, CAS, intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR). Using a wide-range of equipped such as electro-optical, infrared and laser sensors, LAAR would be armed with .50 calibre machine guns pods, 2.75 inch rocket pods, air-to-ground Hellfire or Maverick, AIM-9 air-to-air missiles, laser guided bombs including Paveway II and Paveway IV, joint direct attack munitions (JDAM) and small diameter bombs. The projected LAAR COIN aircraft might not have the cachet of the F-16C/D or F/A18E/F, but it would do much of what they did for around $1,000 per flight hour.
Several turboprop machines are marketed as COIN platforms including Embraer’s A-29 Super Tucano. One of the major attractions of such aircraft for Counter-Insurgency missions is their relatively low operating costs compared to their jet-propelled counterparts © Embraer
At the end of 2011, the USAF selected the A-29 Super Tucano for what is now designated the Light Air Support (LAS) aircraft for COIN duties. Beechcraft lodged an objection, but this year it was confirmed that the A-29 Super Tucano had won the USAF's LAS contract to supply Afghanistan with an initial batch of 20 aircraft. We can expect further orders but history teaches that while a light strike aircraft can fulfil COIN missions, a heavier aircraft such as a gunship is best suited for a developing nation’s air force in conducting a CAS mission. The highly popular CASA 212 light transport is a good choice for a gunship conversion platform. It is notable that the initiative to field simple effective aircraft for COIN missions comes not from professional air forces but rather from the civil sector. Perhaps there is not a lot of glory in training and equipping allied air forces to fight insurgents.
A few years ago the USAF planned to buy dozens of cheap, turboprop-driven COIN aircraft to provide light air support and ISR for troops fighting insurgents in places like Iraq and Afghanistan. These were supposed to take the burden for such unglamorous missions off of jet fighters like the F-16, which cost far more
to operate. However, the draw-down combined with shrinking defence budgets has forced the USAF to reduce the programme though each aircraft still ended up at $18m apiece. The Pentagon will now use a small fleet of turboprops to help build up the nascent Afghan air force and the air arms of “other nations”, which opens the possibility for more Super Tucano sales. Recent French experience over Mali has done nothing to dampen the appeal of COIN aircraft. French COIN operations over the vast, desolate region of the Sahara were carried out by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), fixed wing aircraft such as Rafale, Mirage 2000D and F-1CR, and attack helicopters. The COIN effort would have been much better served, at lower cost, with a robust and heavily armed aircraft which could
Precision air attack is vital in an age of 24-hour rolling news, and loitering in support of land forces to ensure target discrimination demands local air supremacy.
just about self-deploy from France to Mali. There was almost no French weapon used against insurgents in Mali that could not be carried by the Super Tucano. Mali’s neighbour, Burkina Faso and Mauritania, recently acquired six of them. Easy to maintain and heavily-armed aircraft that are capable of working closely with special operations forces are far better suited to COIN operations in low intensity conflicts than fast jets costing $20,000 an hour, even in limited numbers. But when good intelligence is more important than a big stick, is the next generation of unmanned combat air vehicles with their loitering capability, all-seeing sensors and precise dual-mode Brimstone missiles the most sensible COIN platform of the future? In sum, Mali is just the latest example of how rugged offensive aircraft could combine ISR and high firepower with relatively low acquisition and operating costs. But it is still horses for courses. For all its virtues and cost effectiveness, a turboprop aircraft such as the Super Tucano or CASA 212 can only go about its COIN, close air support and aerial reconnaissance business in a low threat environment. Precision air attack is vital in an age of 24-hour rolling news, and loitering in support of land forces to ensure target discrimination demands local air supremacy over the battlespace. Just like the current family of UAVs, you would not want to employ them in the first stages of any campaign against Syria or Iraq.
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TRACKING PROGRESS: APCS AND IFVS IN THE ASIA PACIFIC Traditionally Armoured Personnel Carriers (APCs), tracked and wheeled alike, have been used to transport infantry as near to their objective as possible where they dismount and fight on foot. APCs are still used by many countries, but they are now being supplemented by Infantry Fighting Vehicles (IFVs).
by Christopher F Foss sually an APC is armed with a 7.62mm or 12.7mm Machine Gun (MG) which was initially in an unprotected mount but later provided with protection, such as a cupola or turret. Ballistic protection was normally against small arms fire and shell splinters. APCs can be tracked or wheeled with the latter being normally in the 8x8 configuration which have greater volume and mobility than older 6x6 vehicles. The latest IFVs have a higher level of ballistic protection as well as increased protection against mines and Improvised Explosive Devices (IED). They are also
A Chinese Peopleâ€™s Liberation Army ZBD-04 Infantry Fighting Vehicle during a parade in Beijing. The export version of this vehicle is known as the VN11 on the international market ÂŠ Wikimedia commons
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better armed and are usually fitted with a one or two person turrets armed with a stabilised medium-calibre cannon and a 7.62mm co-axial MG. In most cases this turret is fitted with a computerised Fire Control System (FCS) with the commander and gunner having stabilised day/thermal sighting systems equipped with an integrated laser rangefinder.
The first IFV to be deployed by the Peopleâ€™s Liberation Army (PLA) was the WZ501 which is essentially a reversedengineered Russian BMP-1 IFV fitted with a one-person turret armed with a 73mm gun and 7.62mm co-axial MG along with a Red Arrow 73 (HJ-73) Anti-Tank Guided Weapon (ATGW) mounted over the former weapon. The latest IFV to enter service with the PLA is the ZBD-04 which is being offered
The Armoured Combat Vehicle (ACV) is in service with the Malaysian Army. It is fitted with Sharpshooter one-person turret armed with stabilised 25mm cannon and 7.62mm co-axial MG ÂŠ FNSS
on the export market by China North Industries Corporation (NORINCO) under the designation of the VN11. This has a new Chinese-designed hull fitted with a locally manufactured and modified turret from Russia which is armed with a 100mm gun, a 30mm cannon and a 7.62mm co-axial MG. In addition to firing conventional ammunition, the 100mm gun can fire a laser-guided missile. The turret is a further development of that installed on the widely-deployed Russian BMP-3 IFV. The ZBD-04 has a crew of three consisting of a commander, gunner and driver, and carries seven dismounts. It is fully-amphibious being propelled in
the water at a maximum speed of 13 km/h by two water jets mounted one on either side at the rear of the hull. The PLA has always deployed a mix of tracked and wheeled IFV as the latter do offer a number of significant advantages including lower operating and support costs, and have greater strategic mobility.
Marder 1A3 IFV
Under a recently-signed deal with Germany, Indonesia is to field a batch of ex-German Army Marder 1A3 IFVs fitted with a two-person turret armed with a 20mm cannon and a 7.62 mm co-axial MG. Indonesia already deploys a batch of 22 BMP-2 IFVs which were delivered in 1998/2000 from Slovakia. These retain their two-person turrets armed with a 30mm cannon, 7.62mm co-axial MG and roof-mounted ATGW. More recently the Indonesian Marines
Indonesia is getting a batch of Marder 1A3 vehicles but Rheinmetall is also offering the Marder Evolution shown here which has a number of improvements ÂŠ Rheinmetall
have taken delivery of 20 Russian BMP-3F IFVs optimised for amphibious operations with another batch of vehicles now being delivered. The BMP-3F is the most wellarmed vehicle in its class and is fitted with a two-person turret equipped with a 100mm 2A70 gun that, in addition to firing conventional ammunition, can launch a laser-guided projectile. Mounted next to the 100mm 2A70 gun is a 30mm 2A72 cannon and 7.62 mm PKT MG, with further two 7.62mm PKT MGs mounted one on either side at the front of the hull. The Indonesian Marines also deploy a batch of 34 Nexter Systems AMX-10P vehicles of which ten are fitted with the twoperson TS90 turret armed with a 90mm gun and 7.62mm co-axial MG. The remaining 24 have a one-person turret armed with a .50 M2 HB MG. These were optimised for amphibious operations and are fitted with water jets which give a maximum speed when afloat of up to 10 km/h.
To start replacing its fleet of old SIBMAS (6x6) and Condor (4x4) vehicles Malaysia selected the Turkish FNSS Savunma Sistemleri Pars (8x8). A contract has been placed for a total of 257 units through the Malaysian company DEFTECH. In Malaysian service the Pars will be called the AV8 and, in addition to having allwheel drive it features all-wheel steering, cameras for situational awareness and an air conditioning system. A total of twelve variants will be supplied by 2018 with the most well-armed models being fitted with a Denel Land Systems two-person turret outfitted with a 30mm cannon and 7.62mm coaxial MG. The IFV version is fitted with a one-person
The Republic of Korea (ROK) has been self-sufficient in the design, development and production of AFVs for many years
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FNSS Sharpshooter turret housing a 25mm cannon and 7.62mm co-axial MG. The Royal Malaysian Army also operates a fleet of FNSS Savunma Sistemleri tracked Armoured Combat Vehicles (ACVs) with the first batch consisting of 211 vehicles in ten versions which were delivered from 2002. This was followed by an additional batch of 48 vehicles ordered in 2008 which have now been delivered. Furthermore, Malaysia has taken delivery of eight stretched ACV vehicles armed with a French TDA 120mm muzzle-loaded recoiling mortar system.
The Republic of Korea (ROK) has been self-sufficient in the design, development and production of AFVs for many years. It is estimated that Doosan Infracore Defense Products built almost 2,000 Korean Infantry Fighting Vehicles (KIFVs) and variants for the ROK Army with 111 being supplied to Malaysia to meet an Urgent Operational Requirement (UOR). The baseline KIFV has a hull similar to that of the BAE Systems Armoured Infantry Fighting Vehicle (AIFV) devel-
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A K21 IFV of the Republic of Korea Army prepared for amphibious operations and clearly showing its two-person turret armed with 40mm cannon and 7.62mm co-axial MG, pontoons inflated and the trim vane erected at front of the hull © Christopher F. Foss
oped for the export market. It is armed with a protected weapon station equipped with a .50 M2 HB MG with an unprotected 7.62mm MG on a pintle mounted to the immediate left side. In addition to the crew of three the vehicle carries nine dismounts. More specialised versions include Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) reconnaissance, air defence (with a turret-mounted 20mm cannon), ambulance, command post, mortar carrier and recovery vehicles. By today’s standard the KIFV lacks armour, mobility and firepower and this has led to the development and fielding of the latest Doosan Next Infantry Fighting Vehicle (NIFV) which is now referred to as
the K21. When compared to the older KIFV the K21 represents a step change in capability in the key areas of armour, mobility and firepower with the first production contract being for over 450 vehicles. The
The first example of the AV8 as delivered to the Royal Malaysian Army. It is fitted with a oneperson Sharpshooter 25mm turret which is already installed in one version of the ACV used by Malaysia © FNSS
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K21 has a typical Gross Vehicle Weight of around 26 tonnes and has a crew of three consisting of commander, gunner and driver, plus nine dismounts. The vehicle is fitted with a two-person turret carrying a 40mm cannon and a 7.62mm MG, with a pod of two ATGW being installed on the left side of the turret. A computerised FCS is fitted which allows stationary and mov-
Bionix 2 IFV is now in service with the Singapore Army and is fitted with a two-person turret armed with an ATK 30mm MK44 cannon and 7.62mm co-axial MG Â© STK
ing targets to be engaged with a high firstround-hit probability under almost all conditions. With the aid of integrated inflatable pontoons the K21 is fully amphibious and is propelled in the water up to a maximum speed of 6 km/h. It is also fitted with an NBC system and full air conditioning for use in high ambient conditions. Using the KIFV hull an expanding family of variants has been developed including an ARV and driver training vehicle. For the export market it can be fitted with different weapon systems.
For many years the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) deployed the BAE Systems M113 series tracked APC as well as many more specialised versions such as a command post vehicle and mortar carrier.
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Singapore Armed Forcesâ€™ Terrex ICV fitted with remote weapon station outfitted with a 40mm AGL and 7.62mm co-axial MG, and clearly showing external stowage racks on the hull side ÂŠ STK
These have been enhanced in a number of areas including an upgraded power pack, additional armour and, in some cases, enhanced firepower. Some have also been fitted with the RAFAEL Advanced Defense Systems Remote Weapons Stations (RWS) armed with an ATK 25mm M252 dual-feed cannon, and 7.62mm coaxial MG. Meanwhile others have been fitted with the locally-developed cupola armed with a .50 MG and a 40mm AGL. These upgraded M113 series vehicles have been supplemented by the locallydeveloped Singapore Technologies Kinetics (STG) Bionix family of vehicles (FOV). The Bionix 25 IFV is fitted with a two-person turret possessing a stabilised 25mm M242 dual feed cannon and a 7.62mm co-axial MG with an addition 7.62mm MG mounted one on either side of the roof at the rear. In addition to the crew of three consisting of commander, gunner and driver the Bionix UFV carries seven dismounts. The Bionix 25 was followed by
the Bionix 30 which is similar but armed with the more potent ATK 30mm MK44 dual feed cannon and 7.62mm axial MG. There is also the Bionix APC which has the same locally developed cupola as fitted to the upgraded M113, but with more internal volume it can carry nine dismounts. More specialised versions of the Bionix including an ARV, armoured vehicle launched bridge and flail-type mine clearing vehicle. Like other countries, Singapore is moving to more balanced fleet of tracked and wheeled AFVs and STK developed the
The Bionix APC has the same locally developed cupola as fitted to the upgraded M113, but with more internal volume it can carry nine dismounts l
ASIAN MILITARY REVIEW
Terrex Infantry Carrier Vehicle (ICV) to meet the operational requirements of the SAF with first vehicles deployed in 2010. The first production contract was for a total of 135 vehicles which is sufficient for three battalions but there have been follow on contracts for additional vehicles. The baseline Terrex ICV has a crew of two and carries eleven dismounts. It is fitted with an RWS armed with a 40mm AGL and a 7.62mm co-axial MG, a .50 MG, or a combination of these weapons. The hull is of all welded steel with applique amour and, unlike many of the recently-developed 8x8 vehicles, the Terrex ICV is fully amphibious via two propellers installed one on either side under the hull rear. The Terrex ICV also features applique armour, cameras for enhanced situational awareness through a full 360 degrees and a battle management system. In addition to the baseline Terex ICV there are a number of more specialised versions and these are known to include ATGW, command, engineer, reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition and specialised strike observer mission variants.
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UAV DIRECTORY 2013
Prepared by Bianca Siccardi l
UAV DIRECTORY he Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) industry is one of the fastest-growing sectors in military aviation. The global market for UAVs has witnessed remarkable expansion in recent years and it is expected to maintain this trend in the years to come. The rising demand and the increasing use of these aircraft are underlined by the general reluctance to risk the lives of aircrew during combat operations, by ongoing military operations and by the ability of UAVs to gather real-time intelligence. Modern UAVs show remarkable advantages over manned aircraft. These include their reduced manpower compared to conventional aircraft, their ideal suitability for continuous reconnaissance tasks and, more specifically, their ability to find, designate and strike mobile targets. AMR’s UAV Directory has been researched using a range of resources notably AMR correspondents, industry experts and serving military personnel throughout the region as well as open sources.
Heron I, IAI; Project Nankeen lease via MacDonald Dettwiler extended to end of 2012, supporting three-platform Army and RAAF Unit from Kandahar which began in January 2010, flew 4000 hours in first year of operations. Scan Eagle, Isitu/Boeing; Interim Tier 2 type requirement until Shadow 200 fielded. Deployed Iraq 2006-8 and in Afghanistan since 2007. In Afghanistan they have flown 32000 hours on 6,200 missions, or an average of 22 hours a day for nearly five years RQ-7B Shadow 200, AAI; Selected under JP129 Phase 2 and requested from US DCSA in May 2011. Deployed to Afghanistan in May 2012. Skylark I, Elbit Systems; Eight systems ordered in Nov. 2005 onwards with 20 STA Reg. deployed to E Timor and Iraq, further orders subsequently. Aerosonde III, AAI; Solomons in 2003 four Aerosondes sent to the Solomon Islands on Operation Anode with Army’s 131 STA Battery. Avatar, Condarra; 18 UAVs acquired since
2001 deployed to E. Timor with ADF SF in 2003, status unknown. Trials and development
Patr io t GQ -90, Guardian Aerospace Systems; MALE 20 hour endurance, 20kg payload, focus on RAN as customer, completed flight test programme. RQ-4 Global Hawk, Northrop Grumman; Flew non-stop to Australia in 2001 and took part in joint exercise Tandem Thrust. Planned to acquire the UAV as part of its participation in BAMS project but dropped out in 2009 although options remain for maritime and littoral surveillance from 2016. MQ-4C again being pushed by Northrop Grumman.
NOTES: According to the Australian Government’s 2013 Defence White Paper, the nation plans to replace the RAAF’s obsolete fleet of eighteen AP-3C Orion surveillance aircraft with the new Boeing P-8A Poseidon, integrated with UAVs capable of being employed in broad area maritime surveillance. The latest news from Australia concerns the acquisition of Northrop Grumman’s MQ-4C Triton unmanned aerial vehicle. The Government recently
announced its intention to issue a letter of request to the United States for pricing, capability and availability information. Although this step does not commit the country to the acquisition of the drone, Australia has a requirement for up to seven high-altitude, long-endurance UAVs under Phase 1B of Project AIR 7000. The MQ-4C Triton, a descendant of the long-range Global Hawk and specifically configured for maritime surveillance, could indeed answer such a need. The US would be eager to partner with Australia in developing a system based on the Triton Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS), as this would significantly improve the joint capabilities of the two countries, and their ability to respond to regional challenges.
BZK-005, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics; MALE UAV thought to have been in limited service since 2009 with a 40 hr endurance. Pterodactyl 1/Yilong, AVIC; Predator-like MALE with 400km range first seen in 2008 with initial development completed in 2009 and production beginning during 2010 and
IAI Heron MALE UAV, operated by the Australian armed forces is based on leading-edge technology with fullyautomatic take-off and landing features. It provides deep-penetration reconnaissance, wide-area and realtime intelligence © Commonwealth of Australia
ASIAN MILITARY REVIEW
UAV DIRECTORY can be equipped with AR-1 missiles. W-30/ W-50 series, NRIST; Sometimes called PW-1 and entered service with the People’s Liberation Army during 2005, radius of 100km. Later PW-2 version has longer range. ASN206/7, Xian ASN Technology; In service with PLA. RMAX, Yamaha Motor Company; Nine systems procured in 2001 for paramilitary use ASN-15, Xian ASN Technology; Hand launched UAV in 2000 largely used for test and proof of concept. ASN-104/5B, Xian ASN Technology; In service with PLA. ASN-206/ 207, Xian ASN Technology; Developed from mid 1990, limited service, range of 150km, ASN-207 first seen publicly in 2002. ASN-209, Xian ASN Technologies; Twinboom pusher design called Silver Eagle in PLAN service, reported to be tested by PLA as a communictions relay in June 2011. I-Z, Z-3, Z-2, NRIST; rotary wing design, some military and paramilitary use from early 2000s. Harpy, IAI; Sold to China in 1994, When China returned the Harpy for maintenance, US concerns over possibility of upgrade to
Harop standard, saw Israel return the UAV in 2005. WJ-600, CASIC; 130Kg MALE design for maritime surveillance, turbo-jet powered, options for air to surface engagement, in early development, 3hr endurance WJ-600A has 5 hr endurance, a number delivered in PLAAF. X 200, Yotaisc Science and Technology Development: VTOL UAV introduced during Singapore Air Show. Trials and development
CH-3, CASIC; MALE 12 hr endurance, canard design 108nm radius in advanced development, first seen in public in 2008, reported to be fitted with FT-5 small PGMs. Long Haul Eagle, AVIC; Another Global Hawk like design, status unknown. Soaring Dragon, Xianglong; Global Hawk class, reported range of 7000km. ASN-213, Xian ASN Technology; 5Kg design with in-flight morphing design first seen in 2008. Night Eagle, AVIC; Hand launched, similar to Aerosonde design. Whirlwind Scout, AVIC; Compact VTOL ducted fan design. U8E , AVIC; Lightweight VTOL design
shown as Singapore Airshow 2010. SL-200, CASC; Armed HALE, described as a stealthy design. CH-802, Poly Technologies Inc; Hand launched similar to Pointer, 3m wingspan, 2kg payload, endurance 3hours. V750, Qingdao Haili Helicopter Manufacturing Co; Rotary wing UAV. Tian Yi-3, LOEC; High speed HALE. Warrior Eagle, AVIC; Only sketches seen publicly and may utilize a morphing wing design. Soarhawk, Sunward; Described as similar to the piston-engined ADCOM SAT-400, status unknown. DUF-2, BUAA; Hand launched SUAV. Wing Long, AVIC; Completed flight testing in Oct 2008, 20 hour endurance and a range of 400km. Anjian/Darksword, Shenyang Aircraft Co; UCAV in early development. BL-60, BVE; K-MAX like rotary design. SV U200, Sunward Tech Star-Lite; First flight of rotary wing platform in 2012, planned endurance of 2+hrs. Daofeng/Blade SF-460, CASIC; Prototype, 3 hr endurance, first seen Zuhai 2010. Daofeng 300, CASIC, 31kg weight, operates civil SLR camera, endurance of 3+hrs. Blue Eage 200W, Keyuan; MALE, endurance of 12 hours speed of 160kmph, equipped with air to ground munitions on six external hard points. T-120, Hubei Taihang Xinghe Aircraft Manufacturing; reconnaissance UAV with speed of up to Mach 1.5. T-100, Hubei Taihang Xinghe Aircraft Manufacturing; electrically powered SUAV. TF-1C, Shenyang Aerospace; 1200km range endurance of 12 hours. TF-5, Shenyang Aerospace; 13kg SUAV single CCD camera. TF-8, Shenyang Aerospace, Hand launched platoon level, 4.7Kg SUAV. Z-5, PLA Research Institute; Shown publicly in Sept. 2011 rotary wing design. NOTES: According to a recent report issued by the Pentagon’s Defense Science Board (DSB), China’s move into unmanned systems is “alarming” and unlimited resources, combined with technological awareness, might allow the country to match or even outpace US spending on unmanned systems
The Northrop Grumman MQ-4C Triton is being developed to provide continuous maritime surveillance and is expected to enter service around 2015. The Australian government and the Indian Navy have expressed their interest in acquiring the drone © Northrop Grumman
in the future, becoming a global competitor. One Chinese company in particular is aiming to target South East Asia—Indonesia and Malaysia initially—with its unmanned helicopter. Yotaisc Science and Technology Development introduced its X200 vertical take-off/landing (VTOL) UAV on the occasion of last year’s Singapore Airshow. Provided with two flight control modes, autonomous navigation and manual remote control, this UAV has a compact structure, efficient power and is capable of carrying a 100 kg payload at a cruising speed of 93 mph. It has a multi-redundant inertial navigation system and global positioning system (GPS), and is designed to perform military and civilian tasks: from reconnaissance and surveillance, communications relay, electronic interference and biochemical detection to border patrol, disaster monitoring, agricultural spraying and condition monitoring.
Searcher I & II, IAI; India’s Army and Navy are understood to have acquired 18 and possibly as many as 50-70 UAVs. Lakshya, DRDO/ADE & HAL; High speed reusable drone with 100 now in service. Israel pulled out of Lakshya buy in 2005. Heron I/II, IAI; IAF/IN order in 2002 for four UAVs. Navy ordered 12 in 2005 and operates the UAVs in mixed units along-
side its Searcher UAVs. Potential requirement for 50 UAVs. Harpy, IAI; 30 in service delivered from 2005. Harop/Harpy II, IAI; 10 UAV/Loitering Munition ordered by IAF in 2009 in $100m deal with video datalink system. Deliveries started in 2011. Trials and development
Rustom 1, DRDO/ARDE; First successful test flight in Oct. 2010 after prototype crashed in Nov. 2009, 12-15 hr endurance, airframe built by Zephyr Aerospace. A fifth, 25 minute flight took place in Nov. 2011 attaining a speed of 100kmph. Rustom HALE, DRDO/ADE; MALE UAV in development for tri-service customers, also precursor for UCAV development prototype in 2014-15, 12-15 hour endurance and 45kg payload. Netra SUAV, ARDE/Ideaforge Technology; 1.5m Quadrotor SUAV, altitude 200m, 30 min endurance. Nishant, DRDO/ADE; Development began in 1990 trial completed in Feb. 2011. 12 Nishants ordered in 2005 with four delivered so far and two crashing in April 2010. The balance due by 2013-14. Kapothaka, DRDO/ADE; Mini-UAV to test ISR as well as launch and recovery concepts Pawan, DRDO/ADE; SUAV in development.
ASIAN MILITARY REVIEW
Gagan, DRDO/ADE; TUAV in development. Global Hawk, Northrop Grumman; Listed India as a potential customer at Paris Air Show 2011 in maritime and overland role UCAV, N/A; IAF issued RFI in mid 2010. RQ -16B T-Hawk, Honeywell Aerospace; Demonstrated at the Counter Terrorism and Jungle Warfare College at Kanker in Chattisgarh in 2010. ‘HALE’ UAV, N/A; IN HALE RFI issued October 2010. NG reported to have responded with its MQ-4C BAMS which could operate with P-8I Poseidon. TER P 2, MKU; hand launched pusher SUAV, 90 min endurance, 10X optical zoom day camera and Uncooled IR camera range 10km. Cheetak-based UAV, IAI/HAL; discussions to produce an unmanned version of the stalwart helo. Skylark, Elbit/BEL; Indianised example on show at DEFEXPO 2012. Lakshya-II, DRDO; Tenth test flight of target drone in January for 30 mins, operating from 12-800m.
NOTES: The Indian Air Force (IAF) plans to purchase 300 additional UAVs, including combat rotary and micro-UAVs, while the infantry has decided to scale three mini-UAVs to every infantry battalion. Within the next three years, India’s
UAV DIRECTORY requirements are likely to be worth up to $1.25 billion. All the production will be performed locally. Given India’s everyday tense situation on the Pakistani and Chinese boarders, along with the country’s aviation industry boom, UAV technology will undoubtedly reveal its usefulness and success in different types of tasks. Maritime operations, as well as surveillance and reconnaissance operations are boosting the demand for medium altitude, long endurance UAVs and tactical UAVs. India is currently operating the Searcher and the Heron Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) UAV model , and has recently acquired the unmanned combat aircraft (UCAV) Harop, due to become operational this year. All three models are manufactured by Israel’s IAI. India is, without any doubt, one of the most significant markets for the Heron. Israel has sold India scores of the UAV worth almost US $1 billion, in several deals.
Searcher Mk I I, IAI; fielding in 2012, delayed and originally ordered in 2006 from Kital Philippines Corp. SS-5, PT Wesco Aerospace; one or more systems reported to be deployed to Aceh in 2005. Aerosonde, AAI; Deployed with paramilitary and Police forces. Trials and development
BBPT-04C Sriti, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology; 10km range tactical UAV using a flying wing design. ALAP, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology; 25kg, 50km range UAV. ‘TUAV’, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology; 120kg UAV with a range of 120km. Three design shape prototypes; the BPPT-01A “Wulung” with Hi rectangular-wing, Low Boom T-tail, the BPPT-01B “Gagak” with Low rectangularwing, Low Boom V-Tail and the BPPT-02A “Wulung” with a Hi rectangular-wing, Hi Boom Inverted V-Tail design. NOTES: Indonesia has recently disclosed details about the development of a new
The Elbit Skylark I miniature UAV. Launched by hand, it is capable of sending real-time video to a portable ground station. Skylark is in operation with the Australian armed forces. © Elbit Systems
UAV. The Ministry of Defence, together with the Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT) and the state-owned companies PT Dirgantara Indonesia (DI) and PT LEN Industri signed, last 29 April, a cooperative development agreement, aimed at constructing the BPPT01A-200-PA7 Wulung unmanned aerial vehicle. The Indonesian UAV weighs 60 kilograms (with the capacity of carrying an additional 25) and can fly for up to four hours at a maximum altitude of 3,658 meters at 55 knots per hour. The drone, ready to be mass produced this year, is equipped with a surveillance camera providing real-time recordings to ground control station, a feature that well fulfils the country’s surveillance and security needs, given its vast territories.
ASIAN MILITARY REVIEW
Forward Flying Observation System, Fuji Heavy Industries; Development of rotary wing design began in 1991 with three systems equipping Army artillery units from 2004. Civil version is the RPH-2. R MAX, Yamaha Motor Company; Deployed with Japan’s Iraq contingent in 2005. B Type Machine II, Fuji Imvac; Deployed over Fukushima. ScanEagle, Insitu; Two systems on order. TAyoutoK(C)Ogata Mujinki (TACOM), Fuji Heavy Industries; Trans. ‘Multi-role small UAV’. Japan’s Technical Research and Development Institute have been working on the concept since 1995. Evaluation flight test in 2001. In 2011 Japan released film of two turbo jet powered drones carried by an F-15J. TACOM launched while aloft and returns to base using a retractable undercarriage. A prototype launched from a Mitsubishi/Lockheed Martin F-2 was lost at sea in 2010.
UAV DIRECTORY NOTES: Japan seems far behind others as regards UAVs. There are however a large number of UAV companies in Japan including Fuji Heavy Industries, Yamaha Motor, Yanmar Agricultural Equipment, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Sky Remote, Hirobo, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Hitachi, NEC Corporation, GH Craft, Fuji Imvac and Nippi Corporation.
NORTH KOREA Fielded
P ch ela, Yakovlev OKB; Unconfirmed reports that North Korea acquired the Russian UAV in 1995.
NOTES: North Korea seems to be developing “kamikaze” drones, possibly aimed at targeting South Korean military forces. These programmes have been underway for a while.
SOUTH KOREA Fielded
J/AQM-1, Fuji Heavy Industries; Air force target drone, entered services 1987, indigenous design. BQM-34AJ, Fuji Heavy Industries; Navy target drone, licensed development of Firebee. Trials and development
RQ-8A Fire Scout, Northrop Grumman; Company believes it has interest from the military. B Type Machine II, Fuji IMVAC, Used to monitor Fukushima. Ball Shaped UAV; Development or SUAV for Urban ops for Army. RQ-16B T-Hawk, Honeywell Aerospace; Used to monitor Fukushima. Global Hawk, Northrop Grumman; listed Japan as a potential customer at Paris Airshow 2011 in maritime and overland role. Thought to be as part of 2011-2015 Mid-Term Defence Programme with three of the UAVs potentially required probably working in conjunction with P-3C Orion. Japanese interests first noted in 2004. Improved satellite surveillance the main alternative.
Harpy, IAI; 100 systems valued at $45m fielded from 1999. RQ-101 Night Intruder 300, KAI; Began development in 1991 with Ministry funding with the Army receiving five systems 20012004 for Corps level operation, Navy also acquired the system. Shadow 400, AAI; One system in service with Navy for evaluation from 2006. Skylark II, Elbit Systems; Announced selection in Dec 2007, equipped with the MicroCoMPASS E/O payload with first delivery in 2008. Trials and development
KUS-11 TUAV, KAI; Division level solution, awarded development contract in Sept. 2010, delivery in 2015. K US-9, Korean Air, KAI; Development completed in 2009, work on project now ended Devil Killer, KAI; Miniature UAV weighs 25Kg, endurance 8 hrs. KUS-15, Korean Air; V-tail MALE design, mock up shown at Seoul 2011. Night Intruder NI-11N, KAI; Development began in 2006 with focus on maritime surveillance. Korean - Combat Unmanned Vehicle, KAI; K-CUAV model at Seoul 2011.
KUS-X, Korean Air; Turbo-jet Delta design wing space 4.5m length 3.5m. Urban Star, Kyung An Cable Company; VTOL UAV in development. Remoe ye-002A, Ucon Systems; 1.5m wingspan, range 10km endurance 1 hr. CCD TV or IR with single axis scanning. Remoeye-006, Ucon Systems; pylon mounted high wing design, 6.8kg, 2.59m wingspan, 2 hr. endurance. Remoeye-015, Ucon Systems; Development complete in June 2005, 15kg TUAV endurance 4hrs plus range 40km, CCD TV or IR camera payload. Remo H-120, Ucon Systems; In development, 340CC engine rotary wing design endurance of two hours and range of 50km. RQ-8A Fire Scout, Northrop Grumman; Company believes it has interest. RQ-4 Global Hawk B lock 30, Northrop Grumman; Korea allocating $40m for partial payment in 2011 budget for four aircraft for delivery in 2015-16 but since canceled plans. Northrop Grumman had partnered with DACC Aerospace, Foosung, KJF and Korean Air. Smart UAV , KARI and Ministry of Knowledge Economy; Tilt rotor design launched in 2002 with significant government funding, unveiled in 2005 was to begin flight testing in 2011, at 500kmph aircraft described as the world's fastest UAV, altitude of 20,000ft and operational radius of 200km. FMA V, Korea Agency for Defense Development, Hanwha and USAFRL, Flapping Wing MAV, weigh 200g, endurance 25 minutes. NOTES: South Korea continues to have an existing requirement for a high altitude, long endurance UAV. Following the collapse of efforts to acquire the Northrop Grumman Global Hawk. AeroVironment Global Obsever and Boeing's Phantom Eye are being publicly cited as candidates for this requirement with Israeli competition also expected notably from the Heron TP.
Eagle 150B, CTRM; Conversion of CTRM’s Eagle 150 trainer aircraft into an aircraft which could function either as manned air-
UAV DIRECTORY craft or a UAV, three aircraft and a GCS entered service in 2002 and withdrawn in Feb 2006. Aludra Mk1, CTRM; Trials from October 2008 to late 2010. Aludra Mk2, CTRM; Mk2 version leased by Malaysian Armed forces since 2008 who will continue to operate two from Semporna in East Malaysia. Yabhon Aludra, CTRM/Adcom; co-development with UAE firm, 500kg MALE design with endurance of 30 hours. Two aircraft to be leased for counter-terrorism surveillance via CTRM. ScanEagle, Insitu Pacific; leased by CTRM to Malaysian Armed Forces. Trials and development
Cyber Eye, Sapura; demonstrated to Malaysian Military, sales to Thailand, Australia and Europe. Cyber Sh ark, Sapura; demonstrated to Malaysian Military. Cyber Hawk, Sapura; 20kg with 6 hr endurance. Cyber Quad, Sapura; two sizes, linked to SAKTI soldier programme. S-100, Schiebel; Camcopter was the only UAV taking part in LIMA 2011 flight displays.
Trials and development
Kahu/ Hawk, SKYCAM UAV NZ; New Zealand is exploring SUAV concepts, 80 minutes endurance, 12km range.
NOTES: New Zealand troops benefited from UAV coverage in Afghanistan. Kahu Hawk is a 3kg design operated by 16 Field Regiment with two systems each of a GCS and two aircraft having been acquired to date.
Turkish help similar to the US Army RQ-7B Shadow 200. Burraq, Pakistan Aeronautical Complex; Based on Falco-Selex Galileo technology and is believed to be intended as Pakistan's main equivalent to the American Predator to be equipped with NESCom designed laser designator and laser-guided missiles. Falco, Selex Galileo; Pakistan bought 4-5 unarmed reconnaissance drones from Italy. First Italian produced aircraft operational in early 2009 after delivery 2006-8. Some produced locally by Pakistan Aeronautical Complex with local production beginning in August 2009. Bravo+ /Jaso os II , AWC; in use of the Pakistan Air Force since 2004 and supports Operations and Training Programme. CH-3, CASC; 20 UAVs reported ordered from China and equipped with FT-5 PGM. Luna, EMT; Acquired for Pakistani Army in 2006. Trials and development
S-100C, Scheibel; VTOL UAV tested on PN Type 21 frigate in March 2008 in a four hour mission. RQ-7 Shadow 200, AAI; 12 UAVs in three systems requested although now in limbo with an estimated cost of $150m from the Pakistan Counterinsurgency Capability Fund budget The Republic of Singapore Air Force added the Hermes 450 to its UAV fleet in 2007. The drone, manufactured by Israel’s Elbit Systems, and has an endurance of over 20 hours © Elbit Systems
Uqab-II, ACES; First squadron inducted into Pakistan Navy in July 2011 and tasked with Maritime Interdiction Operation. The timing coincided with the crash of an Uqab-II Navy UAV near an oil refinery. Developed from Eagle Eye system. Uqab, Integrated Dynamics; Flight tests completed in March 2008, developed with
ASIAN MILITARY REVIEW
‘UQAB III’, ACES; presumed designation for HALE/’Strategic’ version with radius of operation of over 300km. K1, AWC; Trial by Army in 1997.
NOTES: Pakistan aviation firms involved in UAV development include Integrated Dynamics Surveillance & Target Unmanned Aircraft, East West Infiniti, Air Weapons Complex National Development Complex (NDC) and Pakistan Aeronautical Complex.
Predator A, General Atomics; Two of the UAVs operating in Philippines were reported to be registered with the Office of the National Security Advisor. Hun ter R Q-5, Northrop Grumman/IAI; Reported to be from the US Army and operated by the Philippines Air Force. Trials and development
B lue Ho rizo n, UVision Air; reportedly obtained for trials and operational testing in 2001.
Searcher I, IAI; Fielded with No. 119 and No. 128 Sqns RSAF operates at least ten sys-
UAV DIRECTORY tems, deployed to Afghanistan as part of Singapore’s deployment since 2010. Hermes H-450, Elbit Systems; No. 116 Sqn operates the UAV with 12 platforms fielded since 2007. Heron 1, IAI; delivered in 2012, equipped with IAI/Tamam Multimission Optronic Stabilized Payload, to replace Searcher 1 with 119 Sqn. Skyblade III, ST Aerospace; Fielded with Army in 2011, equipping units at battalion and brigade level developed by Singapore Armed Forces (SAF), the DSO National Laboratories, ST Aerospace and the Defence Science and Technology Agency. Skyblade II, ST Aerospace; delivered to SAF in mid 2005, 5kg range of 8km. Skylark, Elbit Systems; Fielded by RSAF from 2006. Scan Eagle, Insitu Pacific; Republic of Singapore Navy successfully trialed the ScanEagle in March 2009, the trials involving the successful operation of the UAV from a RSN frigate and LST. Fielded in 2012 operated in Exercise in May off RSS Valiant corvette. Trials and development
Blue H orizon, Singapore Technologies Dynamics, MALE ordered in 1998 acquired in 1999.
ST Skyblade IV, ST Aerospace, 54nm range UAV unveiled 2006. FanTail 5000, ST Aerospace, VTOL SUAV 30 min hover endurance 8km range ground and naval role. MAV -1, ST Aerospace; Low-observable developmental UAV. RQ -8A Fire Scout, Northrop Grumman; Company believes it has interest from the military. Skyblade 360, ST Aerospace's, SUAV in development 9kg 3 hour endurance with 6 hours with fuel cell, range 15km altitude 900m first flown May 2011.
NOTES: The Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF) integrated its Heron 1 into 199 Squadron on 23 May 2012. Featuring stateof-the-art avionics, communication systems and detection capabilities, the Israel Aerospace Industries drone, developed by the Malat division, replaced the Searcher UAV, in service since 1994. Compared to its predecessor, the Heron 1 UAV features an endurance of 40 hours and a range of 350 km. The advanced unmanned aircraft is equipped with an Automatic Take Off and Landing (ATOL) system, allowing the desired flight route to be scheduled prior to launch, as well as setting the return to a predesignated recovery point. The potentials of
such vehicle are essential to the needs of Singapore, as it provides the RSAF with an enhanced situational awareness. Compared to the Searcher, the Heron UAV gives the possibility to see things in colour, as compared to the monochrome video system of the previous model. This allows the detection of targets that could not have been revealed using the Searcher.
SRI LANKA Fielded
Searcher, IAI; Mks II and III variants equip No 111 Air Surveillance Squadron based at Anuradhapura with one or two systems in service. NOTES: No public plans for new UAVs although in 2011 the Sri Lankan military said they were testing an indigenously developed UAV.
Ch ung Shyan g II, CSIST; Initiated programme in 2002 unveiled in 2005, entered service with 601st and 602nd Airborne Brigades in 2011, 32 platforms ordered. “Zhongxiang III UAV", CSIST; Prototype crashed and found by fishermen in June 2010, reported counter-radar role. Trials and development
'MQ-9 Equivalent', CSIST; Concept shown at last Aerospace and Defense technology Exhibition. UCAV, CSIST; Could be deployed in several years similar to X-45/X-47B. AI Rider, Gang Yu Corp; Indigenous sixrotor 1.5Kg design launched at Secutech, in Taipei in April used by Taiwan’s military and academic institutions for surveillance and geographic surveying. Kestrel II, CSIST; Early development nonoperational. Car dinal, CSIST; Hand launched MiniUAV, 1.5 hour endurance military interest reported. Blue Magpie, CSIST; Hand launched MiniUAV, no military interest reported. AL-4, Aeroland UAV Inc; Hand launched UAV ordered by non-Military customer in Taiwan. ‘Gray-faced B uzzard ’, National Cheng Kung University; Fuel-cell/lithium battery
The small, low-cost, long-endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle built by Insitu, a Boeing subsidiary, is widely employed by the Australian armed forces. It provides tactical aerial reconnaissance support to land forces © Commonwealth of Australia
powered 22kg UAV first flew in 2010. S p o o n b il l , National Cheng Kung University; Flew 92km in 52 minutes over water in 2009.
Cyber Eye, Sapura; Three systems acquired from Malaysia in 2009. Aer ostar; Aeronautics Defence Systems design; One system, ordered in late 2010. R aven , AeroVironment; Successive contracts with Aeronautics since 2008. Searcher I&II, IAI; One system comprising four UAVs and GCS and RVT, since retired. Trials and development
G-STAR , Innocon/G-Force Composites; based on MiniFalcon 2, RTAF has bought one system for TUAV evaluation. RQ-8A Fire Scout, Northrop Grumman; Company believes there is interest. NOTES: Thai Air Force is leading efforts on
UAV strategy with plans outlined in 2009 to equip a squadron and calling for a three systems with 15km, 30km and 100km range aimed at acquiring capability and building a domestic research and production base.
Trials and Development
R&D U AV/ Irkut-200 V arian t; Irkut Engineering; deal announced in March 2012.
N OT ES : The Vietnam Aerospace Association has signed a deal with Irkut Engineering for a 100kg UAV system to develop UAV competency and experience in the country. This will initially be done for civilian purposes, and evolved later for military applications.
ACQUIRING THE DRONE: RQ-4 Block 10 Global Hawk (Northrop Grumman); - Being one of the most reliable and well-known UAVs, the Northrop Grumman RQ-4 Global Hawk has roused the interest in many Asia-Pacific countries, with some showing a strong interest in developing similar technology.
Hermes 450 (Elbit Systems) - The Republic of Singapore Air Force added the Hermes
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450 to its UAV fleet in 2007. The drone, manufactured by Israel’s Elbit Systems, and has an endurance of over 20 hours. RAAF Heron (Commonwealth of Australia) - IAI Heron MALE UAV, operated by the Australian armed forces is based on leading-edge technology with fully-automatic take-off and landing features. It provides deep-penetration reconnaissance, widearea and real-time intelligence. ScanEagle (Commonwealth of Australia) – The small, low-cost, long-endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle built by Insitu, a Boeing subsidiary, is widely employed by the Australian armed forces. It provides tactical aerial reconnaissance support to land forces. Skylark I LE (Elbit Systems) - The Elbit Skylark I miniature UAV. Launched by hand, it is capable of sending real-time video to a portable ground station. Skylark is in operation with the Australian armed forces. US Navy’s First Triton Unmanned Aircraft (No rthro p Grumman) - The Northrop Grumman MQ-4C Triton is being developed to provide continuous maritime surveillance and is expected to enter service around 2015. The Australian government and the Indian Navy have expressed their interest in acquiring the drone.
NIGH T V ISION
SEEING THROUGH THE DARK With the importance of dismounted soldiers so strongly brought to the fore by the counter-insurgency campaigns of the last decade, the range of products intended to increase their effectiveness in terms of target detection, recognition and identification in all weathers and light conditions has grown dramatically and the technology continues to evolve.
by Peter Donaldson
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NIGHT VIS ION THERMAL
DARPA’s Advanced Wide FoV Architectures for Image Reconstruction and Exploitation (AWARE) programme’s purpose is to drive technology for new sensors that will enable soldiers to see clearly in all weathers and light conditions © DARPA
time or near it is a major driver behind the development of digital sensors with standard interfaces to link them with tactical communication systems such as personal role radios and fully integrated soldier systems. This important and lucrative market naturally attracts big hitters among sys-
he emphasis is on increasing performance while reducing size, weight, cost and power consumption. While the basic sensor technology still relies on analogue image intensifiers sensitive to the visible spectrum and into the near infrared, and thermal imaging devices that operate in the mid-wave and long-wave portions of the spectrum, key performance parameters such as sensitivity, resolution and signal-to-noise ratios are all improving in both the smallest uncooled microbolometer thermal imagers and their higher-performing cooled cousins. The need to share information in real
tems houses from around the world including: BAE Systems, Cassidian Optronics, DRS Technologies, Elbit Systems, FLIR Systems Inc, Indra, ITT Exelis, L-3 Warrior Systems, Raytheon, Sagem DS, Selex ES, Thales and Vectronix, plus some notable smaller specialists such as OIP Sensor Systems, STS-EO (part of the US O’Gara Group) and Thermoteknix. There has also been huge growth in the number of form factors and mounting options available with a parallel drive for multi-sensor, switchable and even fused systems and a premium on modularity. For
US soldiers demonstrate helmet-mounted fused I2 and thermal goggles and weapon-mounted night vision devices © ITT Exelis
NIGH T V ISION
BAE Systems’ HAMMER multi-sensor handheld targeting system is designed to generate data accurate enough to guide GPS- and laserguided weapons in all weathers © BAE Systems
the infantry soldier whose primary weapon is an assault rifle, the current trend is to provide night vision devices that can be fixed to the rifle, mounted on the head or a helmet or held in one hand to provide an edge in dismounted close combat. For tactical leaders and observers there are monocular, bi-ocular and binocular devices that have a single sensor, either thermal or image intensified, if the emphasis is on light weight and compactness, gradually growing in size and complexity through the addition of more sensors such as laser rangefinders and pointers, digital magnetic compasses, GPS receivers and even inertial sensors and accelerometers as the demands of the mission for target location accuracy grow. The most sophisticated of such systems are those intended for specialists such as Forward Air Controllers (FACs), Joint Terminal Attack Controllers (JTACs) and artillery observers. The state of the art among the smallest systems now consists of dual-sensor image intensified and thermal sensors that enable the soldier to switch between
them or use a combination of the two, depending on light conditions and the tactical situation, along with the ability to inject other information into the display, which could be a feed from a rifle-mounted camera, a map or a compass rose, for example. An alternative approach is to provide ‘clip-on’ thermal capability for image-intensified devices already in inventories around the world.
i-Aware, JETS set new targets
Perhaps the best-known fused dual-sensor device is ITT Exelis’ i-Aware Tactical
Mobility Night Vision Goggle (TM NVG). Integrating an image intensifier and an uncooled thermal imager, i-Aware also connects to soldier radios and has been chosen by Selex ES for the Italian Army’s Future Soldier programme in a deal announced in April 2013. This follows an exclusive cooperation agreement signed between the two companies in October of 2012 and close cooperation among them and the Italian Army throughout the design phase of the system. “For more than 50 years, Exelis has been advancing night vision technology to support the missions of our domestic and international customers,” said Nick Bobay, president of the Exelis Night Vision and Tactical Communications Systems division. “Our i-Aware TM-NVG provides the night vision capability our customers have come to expect and new capabilities that our customers will need for the future. We are pleased that Selex ES has awarded Exelis this contract to provide the most advanced technology availExelis’ offers the i-Aware Tactical or F6044 Series Tactical Mobility Night Vision Goggle (TM-NVG) with integrated colour display import and camera capture export capabilities © ITT Exelis
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NIGHT VIS ION THERMAL
Taken from a range of 15 km with a Sensors Unlimited SWIR camera, this image of the Berkeley, California shoreline reveals clear details of buildings hidden from visual spectrum cameras by atmospheric obscurants © Sensors Unlimited
grow our electronics systems offerings, we look forward to working with the Army on this next-generation product.” HAMMER builds on the company’s already fielded Target Reconnaissance Infrared Geolocating Rangefinder (TRIGR) system, adding a laser marker and a nonmagnetic compass. Team member Elbit Systems of America is providing the laser target marker based on designators
able to support the Italian Army’s Future Soldier program.” At the other end of the spectrum in terms of multi-sensor sophistication are the systems that the US Army has selected for the three-year Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) phase of its Joint Effects Targeting System (JETS) programme. BAE Systems and DRS Technologies each received contracts worth around $15 million for the Target Location and Designation System (TDLS) element of JETS. BAE Systems is to supply its new Handheld Azimuth Measuring, Marking, Electro-optic imaging and Ranging (HAMMER) precision targeting system: “This lightweight precision targeting system allows dismounted combat operators to locate and mark targets in all weather and lighting conditions, with the precision required for GPS-guided and laser-guided munitions,” said Dr. Mark Hutchins, director of Targeting Programs at BAE Systems. “With BAE Systems’ strategy to
TTHE HE TRIJICO TRIJICON NB BATTERY ATTTERY ATTE A RY ACOG A
Manually Adjustable Illuminated Reticle Built-In BDC and Ranging Reticle Powered by a Single AA Battery (12,000 hours+) Waterproof to 100 Meters Designed to MIL-SPEC Standards *Picture shown with optional Trijicon RMR® reflex sight. © 2013 Trijicon, Inc.
Wixom, MI USA
already fielded with the US Marine Corps. DRS says that it will design and manufacture its prototype systems in its facilities in Dallas, Texas and Melbourne, Florida and expects to complete the work by March 2016: “The DRS JETS solution is the result of several years of innovation and development. We offer an integrated design that affordably improves soldier precision targeting capability,” said Mike Sarrica,
NIGH T V ISION
President of DRS Network and Imaging Systems. “This award is a testament to the hard work and dedication of DRS team members to understanding our customer’s requirements and developing, qualifying, testing and producing a superior product.”
AWARE pushes sensor performance
While sensor fusion and systems integration, aided by Size, Weight and Power (SWaP) improvements are paying dividends and taking much of the limelight, there is still much to come from basic sensor performance. For example, thermal infrared cameras continue to advance in directions that will benefit the dismounted warfighter. DRS Technologies' engineers working under the auspices of DARPA’s Advanced Wide-field-of-view Architectures for image Reconstruction and Exploitation (AWARE) programme have demonstrated an LWIR
camera whose detector elements are only five microns across, DARPA announced in mid-April. This, says the agency, means that the pixels are about half the size of the photons they detect, around one twelfth the diameter of a human hair or one sixth of the area of current state-of-the-art detector elements. The detector chip is configured as a 1,280 x 720 focal plane array. As with the visual cameras in the latest smartphones, smaller pixels allow the optical elements and packaging to be made much smaller without sacrificing sensitivity, resolution or field of view, DARPA points out. A higher density of pixels over a given area makes it easier to capture the photons from, and thus image, a target. The cumulative result is a smaller, lighter and more portable LWIR camera, the organisation elaborates. Because the cost of focal plane arrays is proportional to the chip area, making Night vision devices are critical for dismounted troops and the trend towards multi-purpose, multi-spectral systems promises more capability and reduced physical burden © ITT Exelis
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them smaller could also make them cheaper. DARPA explains that because the arrays are created on wafers of a given size and cost, the smaller they are, the more each wafer can yield and the lower the unit cost of each array. This technology could be a game changer as current high-resolution LWIR cameras are too big for a soldier to carry into battle and too expensive for individual deployment. The AWARE programme under which the five-micron LWIR imager has been demonstrated has been created to address what DARPA describes as the immense need to increase field of view, resolution and day/night capability at reduced SWaP and cost. The main driver, says the organisation, is to provide dismounted soldiers, ground troops and near-ground support platforms with the best available imaging tools to improve their combat effectiveness. The AWARE programme’s purpose is to push the envelope of imager performance though new detector and camera designs and ground support systems that use advanced distributed aperture sensors. AWARE is also advancing sensors in other parts of the infrared spectrum. The High Operating Temperature MWIR (HOT MWIR) effort, for example, seeks to fill the performance, SWaP and cost gap between uncooled and cooled sensors for soldiers through the use of an MWIR detector that, although cooled, operates at a significantly higher temperature than the 80°K typical today. Made from Mercury Cadmium Telluride (HgCdTe), it features micro-miniature pixels and a small, battery-powered cooler, a combination that allows for a large format sensor in a small, low power package. The detector material’s sensitivity across the IR spectrum is enabled, says DARPA, by new optics developed to combine MWIR and SWIR capabilities into a single platform. The first application is a long-range handheld sight with laser detecting capability. “Never before has a MCT MWIR with “see spot” capability been developed into such small handheld sights and potentially unequalled performance in future sniper scopes,” explained Nibir Dhar, AWARE programme manager. “The HOT-MWIR
NIGHT VIS ION THERMAL
Basic image intensified pocket scopes like this Envis M703E can provide any warfighter with an edge in challenging situations, such as survival, evasion, resistance and escape training © USAF
scope’s range is significantly farther than the current thermal weapon sights. Such a capability should lead to increased standoff distance for snipers and provide a significant advantage over adversaries.”
Short wave of the future?
Sensors entirely new to the battlefield could also have a major impact in the near future. One that is likely to find its way into a wide range of military sensing and imaging applications, particularly including infantry night vision systems, is cameras that operate in the Short Wave Infra-Red (SWIR) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum between 0.9 to 1.7 microns. Invisible to the human eye, image intensifiers and thermal imagers, SWIR radiation is plentiful both by day and night from a phenomenon known as night sky radiance. This emits between five and seven times as much illumination as starlight and almost all of it is in the SWIR wavelengths, according to Sensors Unlimited Inc, now a division of UTC Aerospace Systems, which is pioneering the uncooled indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) detector technology and promoting it for a wide range of applications in the military and beyond. A further benefit of SWIR imagery is its natural appearance brought about by the fact that the light is reflected off the scene in much the same way that daylight, starlight
and moonlight are, rather than being emitted by objects and their surroundings the way that MWIR and LWIR light is. Because SWIR radiation is present by day and night, cameras that can exploit it could potentially be used instead of separate day and night sights and could also replace both image intensifiers and thermal imagers in some night sensing applications—particularly where SWaP constraints are severe—and complement them in others. SWIR sensors, however, don’t work in total darkness but can be used with dedicated SWIR illuminators— lasers or LEDs—also invisible to the human eye and other night vision sensors. The on-going transition to eye-safe lasers on the battlefield is also likely to make SWIR sensors more useful because, according to Sensors Unlimited Inc, they can see all of the most common wavelengths from the 850 and 1,060 microns lasers that image intensified night vision devices can also see to the eye safe systems operating at around 1,500 microns
Sensors entirely new to the battlefield could also have a major impact in the near future l
that they cannot. A little over a year ago, Sensors Unlimited (then part of Goodrich ISR Systems) launched a ‘cubic inch’ SWIR camera described as smaller, lighter and more power efficient than any other on the market. With a volume of less than one cubic inch, weighing 26 g without its lens and consuming just 1.5W, the GA640C-15A is aimed squarely at applications in handheld, helmet or weaponmounted devices. The sensor is a 640x512 element InGaAs uncooled focal plane array with a 15-micron pixel pitch. It comes with the company’s Camera Link digital output designed to provide plug-and-play, 12-bit video imagery at 30 Hz that can be viewed, digitally processed and/or transmitted over communications networks. Capable of penetrating smoke, haze and fog, it needs no temperature stabilisation, using Non-Uniformity Correction (NUC) instead, and also provides automatic gain control. The GA640C-15A’s standard spectral range is 0.9 to 1.7 microns, but it can be extended into the Near Infrared (NIR) band with an optional 0.7 to 1.7 micron sensor, which is what enables it to see the shorter laser wavelengths. In April of this year, the company launched a slightly larger camera, the SU640C SX, which the company claims is the highest resolution VGA SWIR camera on the market, thanks to its 640 x 512 element sensor with a pitch of just 12.5 microns.
UP CLOSE AND PERSONAL
Close Air Support (CAS), the art of achieving a direct hit on enemy troops or materiel which maybe just metres away from friendly forces on a fast-moving battlefield has been an increasingly precise exercise since it came to prominence during the First World War. by Thomas Withington 40
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t was during this conflict that commanders realized the utility of using aircraft to attack targets close to the Forward Edge of the Battle Area, but it was arguably during the Second World War that several of the CAS techniques still used today were developed. However, the application of aircraft to this task was no easy matter almost seventy years ago. The author Derek Robinson depicts how much of a challenging and difficult mission CAS was in his novel A Good Clean Fight, set in the Western Desert during the battles of 1942. The novel depicts the difficulties experi-
The Boeing GBU-31 Joint Direct Attack munition adds a precision guidance tail kit to dumb bombs. In its vanilla guise it uses satellite guidance to reach its target. Later upgrades have added a laser seeker in the form of the GBU-54 © US DoD
enced by a Royal Air Force pilot using a Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawk fighter aircraft to perform CAS: “He resisted the roll, never took his eyes off the target and bombed from what he guessed was five hundred feet.” Seventy years ago, a pilot had to rely on their own flying acumen, the design of their aircraft and the sharpness of their eyesight to get a bomb on to its target. This was further complicated by Anti-Aircraft Artillery (AAA) that was invariably rushing up to hit the diving plane, smoke which may partially obscure the target during the attack and hostile fighters determined to knock the aircraft out of the sky. During the intervening years which followed the end of the Second World War a revolution has occurred in the world of CAS. Today this mission can be executed using Precision-Guided Munitions (PGMs) which can outfit existing dumb bombs with guidance kits and, in some cases, propul-
sion motors to improve accuracy and to afford the delivering aircraft a degree of stand-off range to place them beyond the reach of hostile AAA. Guidance is usually provided via Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite and laser guidance. These help to keep the munition on target as it travels towards its quarry. Although they first began to enter widespread usage by the United States Air Force (USAF), US Navy and Marine Corps vis-à-vis CAS towards the end of the Vietnam War, PGMs are now a standard element of contemporary air operations. As this article will show, several systems are on the market which can equip a range of aircraft. They include Boeing’s Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) family, Rafael Advanced Defense Systems’ Spice product, Raytheon’s Paveway series and Sagem’s Armement Air-Sol Modulaire (Modular Air-toGround Armament or ‘AASM’).
Much like Raytheon (see below), Boeing was recently awarded a contract to produce Joint Direct Attack Munition guid-
One of the latest incarnations of Boeing’s successful Joint Direct Attack Munition family is the GBU-54 LJDAM. This adds a laser seeker to the weapon’s Global Positioning System satellite guidance © US DoD
AIR SUPPORT ance kits and spare parts, and to provide repair and sustainment services as part of a $99.9 million contract awarded by the United States Department of Defense on 15th March. The contract will run until January 2016, and includes the supply of JDAM kits for a foreign customer, although the identity of this buyer is not being revealed. The JDAM architecture is built around a GPS kit and the weapon can achieve a stand-off range of circa 28 kilometres (15 nautical miles). The rationale behind the development of JDAM was to provide a precision weapon which would not be adversely affected by battlefield obscurants such as smoke and moisture in the air unlike laser-guided bombs. One of the key attractions of JDAM has been its cost with the price tag for guidance kits being around $27,000 per unit. This compares very favorably to other precision strike systems on the market such as the Raytheon BGM-109C/D Tomahawk Land Attack Missile. Throughout its service life, the JDAM family has been progressively upgraded. This has included the addition of a laser seeker to provide a choice of guidance options realized via the Precision Laser Guidance Set (PLGS) initiative developed by Boeing in partnership with Israelâ€™s Elbit Systems. Contracts followed for this weapon in 2007 with Boeing delivering 400 laser seekers to the United States Air Force and 200 to the Navy. The laser-guided variant of the JDAM is known as the GBU-54 LJDAM (Laser JDAM). It made its first appearance in combat in August 2008, successfully destroying a moving vehicle. Full rate production of the GBU54 LJDAM commenced in September 2012, with Boeing currently building 2,300 bomb guidance kits. Export sales occurred, notably to Germany, which has become the first customer for the weapon signing a contract with Boeing for its supply in July 2008. Alongside its fulfillment of this contract, Boeing has been involved in the provision of anti-jamming kits to augment the weapon. In addition to the GBU-54 LJDAM, other variants of this weapon are under development. In 2009, it was announced
that Boeing was developing the extended range JDAM-ER. This will have a reach of 80km (43nm) albeit with no degradation in accuracy. Moreover, the price of this weapon is expected to be lower at circa $10,000 per unit. Production of the JDAMER is expected to commence in 2015.
Small Diameter Bomb
One perennial concern with any PGM is the size of the bombâ€™s warhead. Although accuracy has steadily improved over the years, concerns regarding collateral damage have resulted in design engineers evolving weapons with comparatively small explosive loads. This allows the bomb to detonate destroying the target while reducing damage to the surround-
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ing area. This is particularly relevant when CAS is being performed in a builtup environment. Designated as the GBU-53B Small Diameter Bomb-II (SDB-II) and produced by Raytheon, the 114kg (250lb) weapon reaches its target using GPS, laser, Millimeter Wave (MMW) radar and InfraRed (IR) guidance. When the weapon is released small wings pop out of its body giving it a standoff range of 22km (40nm), although as the weapon is un-powered, this will vary according to launching altitude. The four distinct guidance modes are intended to provide the user with a large number of targeting options. The semiactive laser ensures pin-point accuracy, while the MMW radar allows the detec-
The GBU-12 Paveway-II precisionguided munition provides accurate guidance for the Mk.82 general purpose bomb. The weapon uses a nose-mounted laser and small fins for guidance © US DoD
craft, although other platforms may be added in the future. Low rate initial production is expected to commence by the end of 2013. In fact, in January this year, Raytheon announced that it had performed a successful fit check of the GBU53B in the weapons bay of the F-35A, with four weapons equipping the space alongside a single air-to-air missile.
tion of moving targets and can be used in all weathers, unlike the laser seeker. The IR guidance system, meanwhile, allows the detection of targets with a heat signature such as vehicles with their engines running and concentrations of troops. As the IR seeker is uncooled, this can be done rapidly, as the weapon does not require any time for the sensor to chill before it can be used. While the bomb itself contains several sensor types, the same is the case for the warhead which comprises both a shaped charge, and a combined blast and fragmentation warhead to provide a maximum destructive effect against personnel as well as buildings and vehicles. To date, the SDB-II programme covers the manufacture of up to 17,000 weapons;
12,000 of which will be for the United States Air Force and 5,000 for the US Navy. The weapon will be deployed onboard the Lockheed Martin F-35B/C Lightning-II Joint Strike Fighter and Boeing F/A-18E/F Hornet combat air-
The JDAM family has been progressively upgraded. This has included the addition of a laser seeker to provide a choice of guidance options realized via the Precision Laser Guidance Set l
While Elbit Systems of Israel has been involved in the design and production of Boeing’s JDAM family (see above) their fellow Israeli defence specialists Rafael Advanced Defense Systems has developed the SPICE (Smart, Precise Impact and Cost-Effective) guidance kit to augment dumb bombs. Rafael has produced the SPICE family in three distinct versions: The SPICE-1000 equips 1,000lb (454kg) weapons such as the BLU-110, RAP-1000 and Mk.83 munitions. The SPICE-2000 similarly equips warheads in the 2,000lb (909kg) class such as the BLU109, RAP-2000 and Mk.84. Finally, the SPICE-2000 uses the SPICE-1000 body but adds deployable wings to provide the weapon with a stand-off distance in the region of 60km (32nm). The company says that SPICE boasts a circular error probable in the region of three metres (ten feet). One of the features of the weapon is that it can compare imagery gathered from its optronic seeker with an integral database of images to ensure that the bomb hits its intended target. Moreover, it is possible to designate SPICE to hit its target using a specific attack profile so as to ensure the maximum destructive effect against the target. The Israeli Air Force is known to use the SPICE family of PGMs.
Raytheon’s highly successful Paveway PGM family has been around since the mid-1960s with the weapons originally being developed by Texas Instruments. Since then, Paveway has been progressively modernized through several build standards which have brought steadily increasing capabilities to the design. Most recently, on 30th March this year, Raytheon was awarded a contract by the United States
AIR SUPPORT Department of Defense worth $31.4 million for the supply of 396 GBU-49 and 96 GBU-50 PGMs, plus GBU-49 and GBU-50 inert training rounds. All of these items are expected to be delivered by the end of 2018. The GBU-49 which, confusingly, is also designated as the EGBU-12 (Enhanced GBU-12) adds a laser guidance package to a Mk.82 500-lb (250kg) dumb bomb. The size of the weapon makes it ideally suited to attacking targets such as Main Battle Tanks and relatively small protected structures. As well as retaining a laser guidance system, these bombs have a GPS fitted. This latter capability is important as obscurants in the atmosphere such as smoke particles, fog or other weather phenomena can degrade the performance of the laser seeker, causing the weapon to lose its target lock. The EGBU-12 was introduced in 2001 and has been used extensively during combat operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. Users of the weapon include the United States, United Kingdom, Denmark and Spain. Raytheon’s GBU-50 Paveway-II weapon equips a Mk.84 bomb with a laser seeker and wing guidance kit. Entering service in the mid-1970s, this PGM has been used operationally by several NATO air forces, the Royal Australian Air Force, plus the
United States Air Force, Marine Corps and Navy. Like the GBU-49, the GBU-50 has conflicting designations. For example, it is also known as the GBU-10. Like its GBU-49 sibling, the weapon is available with a dual-mode guidance kit which adds a GPS package; this PGM being designated as the GBU-50/B or EGBU-10. Both of these weapons are produced by Lockheed Martin and Raytheon. The former company has supplied them to the US Navy, with the latter achieving export sales to the RAF. Away from the theatres of Afghanistan and Iraq, Paveway bombs have recently been employed by the Royal Malaysian Air Force during Kuala Lumpur’s combat operations in Sabah, Eastern Malaysia.
Since its combat debut in Afghanistan during 2008, Sagem’s AASM weapon has been used in this conflict and during NATO operations over Libya in 2011. The AASM architecture includes a guidance kit and propulsion system to equip a 250lb bomb. The basic guidance kit includes a GPS and Inertial Navigation System (INS), although other versions are in the pipeline adding laser guidance and infrared optronics, along with guidance kits to equip 125kg (280lb) and 1,000kg
The original version of the Small Diameter Bomb was Boeing’s GBU-39. The attraction of this weapon is that several PGMs can be accommodated on a single airframe which may, in the past, have had only sufficient room for one or two larger munitions © US DoD
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(2,200lb) bombs. The AASM, which is also known as the ‘Hammer’, is available in three distinct versions: The SBU-38 is equipped with a GPS/INS, the SBU-54 includes a laser guidance system, plus the GPS/INS with the SBU-64 including an IR seeker along with the GPS/INS. With a range in the region of 50km (27nm), the AASM guidance kits can outfit Mk.81,
Sagemâ€™s AASM modular air-to-ground weapon has been used extensively in several recent campaigns, including combat operations in Afghanistan and Libya, and most recently, in Mali ÂŠ Thomas Withington
Mk.82 and Mk.83 dumb bombs and, along with France, export sales have been concluded with Morocco. Saudi Arabia is also strongly expected to receive the weapon in the near future. Current design trends point to the path that PGM evolution may take in the future. As Raytheon has demonstrated with the GBU-53B, precision-guided munitions are getting smaller enabling individual aircraft to carry a larger bomb load to hit even more aim points. In addition, several of the weapons surveyed in this article, such as the JDAM, Paveway and AASM series feature a number of guidance systems to make them as accurate as possible. The latter point is especially relevant, as for CAS the scalpel of precision airpower can never be sharp enough.
TRAINING & SIMULATION
The training potential offered by simulation technology is a constantly evolving field. Advances in computing and video graphics provide an ever-deepening level of detail to the instructor and student alike across the land, sea and air domains. by Thomas Withington
his article will discuss some of the simulation products for land, sea and air operations training available from a number of companies around the world. Firms involved in the provision of land warfare simulators include Roke Manor and Rheinmetall. In the naval domain, similar training aids are provided by firms such as DCNS, Transas, Kongsberg and VStep; while several air operations simulation products are available from L3 Link, CAE and e.Sigma.
The United Kingdom’s Roke Manor has enjoyed the benefit of working closely with the British Army in the development of its Dismounted Close Combat Simulator (DCCS). One of the key benefits of DCCS is that it can be used to replicate future weapons systems in accurate combat scenarios that are derived from realworld experience before these weapons systems grace the battlefield. The DCCS is just one of several simulation technologies offered by the company which also includes the creation of synthetic environments within which a customer can develop their requirements for a new weapons system or capability. Such techniques can be very helpful for the rapid prototyping of new product designs.
Germany’s Rheinmetall offers a full suite of computer-based training aids. These include systems able to monitor live training exercises which may be several days in duration, and combat simulators capable of replicating specific weapons systems. The company’s Combined Arms Tactical Trainer can be utilized for the rehearsal and training of combat scenarios including formations of up to brigade size. TacSI is Rheinmetall’s flagship product in this regard, with the product being scalable from running on a single laptop up to large As well as being a leading provider of warships and submarines, DCNS produces a range of simulators. These include systems designed for the Royal Malaysian Navy which is purchasing the company’s ‘Scorpéne’ class of conventional submarine © DCNS
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TRAINING & SIMULATION
This picture gives a clue as to the dramatic performance of DCNS’s Dive Training Simulator. Such capabilities are important in providing submariners with as realistic an impression of the subsea environment as possible © DCNS
networks of users. TacSI is in use with the German and Swiss armed forces. Meanwhile a variety of land vehicles can be reproduced with the company’s driving simulators. To this end, Rheinmetall has provided such systems to train crews operating the Leopard-1A5 Main Battle Tank and CV-9030N Infantry Fighting Vehicles. In particular, such driving simulators are extremely useful for mimicking dangerous ice and snow conditions. Along with its work in providing simulators for land warfare, Rheinmetall is involved in the manufacture of aircraft simulators. In particular, the company assists the development of the Eurofighter Typhoon via its involvement in the Eurofighter Simulation Systems GmbH joint venture which is developing full mission simulators to replicate the aircraft. These will allow aircrew to train with simulated ground-to-air missile threats, and to practise electronic warfare techniques. Similarly, Rheinmetall is engaged in developing the Eurocopter EC-665 Tigre attack
helicopter simulator alongside Thales Training and Simulation Limited. The importance of simulators in aircrew training is underlined when one realizes that flight crew will spend up to 70 percent of their time in the simulator during training. Beyond these airframes, Rheinmetall is involved in the development of the NH Industries NH-90TTH/NFH medium-lift tactical transport and naval support helicopter, and has provided technologies for the MiG-29K and Panavia Tornado ECR/IDS combat aircraft simulators. Finally, for the naval environment, Rheinmetall produces several distinct products which include its Team Trainer for submarine command team training, Combat Information Centre Team Trainer; its Anti-Submarine Warfare and Mine Hunting simulators; and its Naval Light Gun Sensor and Weapons Systems Trainer.
Given their expertise in designing and producing warships and submarines, it is
unsurprising that French shipbuilder DCNS also provides naval simulation solutions. To this end, the firm has developed a comprehensive training system for its ‘Scorpéne’ class of conventional hunter-killer submarine which it is providing to Malaysia. The facilities which the company has established at the Royal Malaysian Navy base in Kota Kinabalu in eastern Malaysia represent the first training centre established for Scorpéne submarine instruction. Supplementing the ship and submarine trainers DCNS provides to customers, the company offers instructor training schemes to allow nations to train their own personnel who can then tutor their colleagues incountry on new ships and submarines. In addition, as part of the assistance which DCNS is offering to the Brazilian Navy, the firm is providing training for their Latin American counterparts in submarine design, operations and maintenance.
Joining DCNS as a maritime simulator provider is Norway’s Kongsberg. The firm provides the Proteus Action Speed Tactical Trainer (Proteus-ASTT) for naval instruction. Proteus-ASTT can be used to
TRAINING & SIMULATION
Other products in VStep’s Nautis stable include its premium trainer. This is a comparatively larger system than the portable simulator and can be permanently based at a fixed site © VStep
train a warship’s crew and, as well as having an instructor station, it can replicate many aspects of a warships’ specification including its combat management system. Additionally helicopter, submarine and aircraft operations can be mimicked, along with a vessel’s weapons systems. The company’s official literature notes that Proteus-ASTT is highly scalable and can equip a laptop, or furnish dedicated workstations which can be networked together to perform a range of missions including anti-surface, and anti-submarine warfare, air defence, electronic warfare and mine countermeasures missions. It is worth noting that while Kongsberg provide the Proteus-ASTT for naval training, the firm builds several other training aids including the Battlefield Synthetic Environment (BaSE) and Protector Combat Vehicle Simulator. BaSE can be used for air, land and maritime scenario training, providing high fidelity terrain and models plus realistic battlefield obscurants such as smoke and explosive effects. BaSE can run on either a desktop PC or a laptop. Meanwhile, Kongsberg’s Protector Combat Vehicle Simulator can
train a complete crew, and several simulators can be networked together simultaneously for manoeuvre training.
Much as Kongsberg’s products can run on either a desktop PC or laptop, VStep’s Nautis’ Naval Task Force Trainee Station can be used with any Windows operating system onboard a standard desktop PC. Designed for seamanship and navigation training the Naval Task Force Trainee Station can be employed for navigation, ship-handling and communications training. Furthermore, it is possible to train crew members in specific operations such as replenishment-at-sea, amphibious landings and helicopter operations using the system. Editing tools allow the instructor to carefully plan the scenario which they wish to employ.
Kongsberg’s Proteus Action Speed Tactical Trainer (Proteus-ASTT) can be used to train a warship’s crew, replicating many aspects of a warships’ operations l
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A complementary product to the Nautis Naval Task Force Trainee Station is the company’s Naval Task Force Instructor Station Suite. Features such as the Ocean Editor allow the instructor to change the behaviour of the sea during the exercise while the ChartData Editor enables them to modify the positions of buoys on a map. The weather can be changed during an exercise while aircraft can be added to the scenario along with specific situations such as a ship in distress. According to Pjotr van Schothorst of VStep, the Nautis Naval Task Force simulator was “launched in 2010, and has been bought by various navies such as the Royal Australian Army and most recently the Indonesian Navy.” The two bridge simulators delivered to Indonesia replicate the bridges of the country’s ‘Sigma’ class corvette. According to Mr. van Schothorst, one of the discriminating factors of the Nautis product line is its easy-to-use software which “makes it possible to create and run exercises in a matter of minutes, thereby enabling a client to get much more value out of his investment.” In addition, “Nautis uses similar computer graphics technology in modern computer games. This high graphics quality leads to a high level of realism and training value.” The hardware footprint required to run Nautis is small, with Mr. van Schothorst noting
TRAINING & SIMULATION
VStep provide a range of maritime and naval simulator systems; these include the company’s Nautis product line. Nautis provides a range of systems which can be tailored to the needs of the user, with portable systems such as this available © VStep
that a full bridge simulator can be run with just two PCs, with a six-screen desktop trainer needing a single PC. One of the newest products to enter the VStep portfolio is the Trainee Assessment and Analysis Module. This enables instructors to “define certain observation and assessment parameters upfront, like maximum sailing speed in a certain area, minimum distance that should be kept to other vessels and the correct communication channel to be used,” says Mr. van Schothorst. “When the trainee runs the exercise, the instructor can see where the trainee offends these criteria, and after the exercise is finished, he can effectively run through all these mistakes and print out an assessment report with a score which is based on the upfront defined criteria.”
Away from the oceans, L3 Link is one of the major names in aircraft simulation. On 4th February this year, the company announced that it had been selected to build a Mission Training Centre (MTC) for United States Air Force Lockheed Martin F-16 aircrew at Spangdahlem Air Base, Germany. This is the seventh such system which has been purchased from the company. The MTC includes four high-definition simulators; a mission
observation centre, four instructor/operator stations and two brief/debrief systems. The secret to the high fidelity of L-3 Link’s aircraft simulator products lies in its use of high definition display technology, databases and image and physics processing to create a highly realistic environment for the crews. Significantly, in 2012, the company purchased Thales Training and Simulation Limited’s civil aircraft simulation and training business which, according to Sean Clark, director of international business development at the company “has already opened up new markets and allowed us to develop new products for new customers.” The company is also a world leader in providing networking for simulators, enabling several machines in disparate locations to work together in a synthetic environment: “Today, devices can be located in different parts of one country, or in different parts of the globe. We are networking these devices across multiple time zones and multiple countries.” L3 Link is keeping a sharp eye on future technological trends, especially regarding the commercial computer industry and advances in projection technology. “We are always driven by technology,” says Mr. Clark, “as the technology gets better, we can bring this into the simulator.”
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CAE joins L3 as a provider of aircraft simulation solutions. According to Gene Colabatistto, the firm’s Military Group President “the company has a wellearned reputation in flight simulation and training.” In recent years, the firm has won contracts to develop simulators for Kuwait’s Lockheed Martin KC-130J turboprop tanker/transport aircraft and Oman’s Airbus Military C-295 tactical freighters. Moreover, the firm is developing simulators for the Airbus Military A330-Multi Role Tanker Transport platforms acquired by the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. Beyond the tanker and transport domains, the firm has developed simulators for the Sikorsky MH-60R/S Seahawk, AgustaWestland AW-139, NH Industries NH-90 and Boeing CH-47 Chinook helicopters, along with the Alenia Aermacchi M346 and BAE Systems Hawk lead-in trainers; plus the Boeing P-8A Poseidon maritime patrol aircraft.
Air defence training is a speciality of e.Sigma of Germany which provides the ALVE trainer to train Control and Reporting Centre (CRC) personnel. A range of tasks used by such individuals can be practiced using the ALVE such as fighter controller procedures, the handling of radar surveillance data and the rehearsal of air operations in busy envi-
ronments. Of note is the trainer’s ability to simulate the diverse number of weapons and sensor systems which air defence personnel may encounter during their work, along with air operations mounted at the NATO or multinational level. Open architecture allows ALVE to be upgraded with ease to take into account new weapons systems as and when they appear, and to allow a wide variety of missions and exercises to be simulated. Defence budgets in Europe and North America are decreasing. This could offer opportunities to computer simulation providers as budgets may impact on the frequency and size of training exercises in the coming years. Simulation technol-
There is a steadily increasing demand for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle simulators, to prepare aircrews for their mission and for commanding such aircraft. L3 Link provide products to this end which can mimic a UAV’s ground control station © L3
ogy could offer one means by which some training efforts could be supplemented or replaced at lower cost. According to CAE’s Gene Colabatistto; “Simulation offers a number of benefits, notably cost advantages, which simply cannot be ignored in today’s constrained budget environment. The increased cost of fuel, environmental impacts, and significant wear and tear on weapon systems all point to the greater use of simulation.” This is echoed by Pjotr van Schothorst of VStep who argues that in the naval domain “training on real vessels is extremely expensive: one corvette can easily use $100,000 in fuel per day. So a full mission vessel simulator or classroom of desktop trainers can pay itself back in just a few days time.” Nevertheless, Mr. Colabatistto emphasises that this is “not to say, however, that we are advocating for no live training— that is unrealistic and would be counterproductive to preparing defence and security forces for mission success. We do believe, though, that the balance of live and virtual training needs to shift more toward virtual and there needs to be more integration between the live, virtual and constructive domains.” L3 Link is one of the world’s leading companies regarding the provision of flight training simulators. The company recently won a significant order to equip the United States Air Force with its Lockheed Martin F-16 Viper Mission Training Centre © L3
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ANTI-SURFACE WARFARE: FROM GUN TO MISSILE
Warships target other warships with merchantmen as the secondary target, and the weapon options for what is now called AntiSurface Warfare (ASuW) are surprisingly broad. ince the 1960s the prime weapon for ASuW has been the missile both in the air-tosurface version, first used with spectacular success to sink the battleship Roma in 1943, and the surface-to-surface version whose value was demonstrated by the Egyptian Navy’s stand-off sinking of the Israeli destroyer Eilat in 1967. The latter was achieved with a first generation weapon still much used in Asia, the Russian P-15 Termit, better known by the NATO designation SS-N-2 ‘Styx’.
by Ted Hooten
In its original version ‘Styx’ continues to be used by India, North Korea and Vietnam while China has produced an improved version HY-2 (CSS-N-3 ‘Seersucker’). All are characterised by a large launch weight (2.5 tonne) with simple autopilot guidance augmented by active radar (HY-2 can use an infra-red seeker) powered by a rocket motor fuelled by kerosene and nitric acid with a sub-sonic speed (Mach 0.9). They have a maximum range of some 21.5-43 nautical miles (40-80 kilometres), although HY-2 can reach 51 nautical miles (95 kilometres), but it is a crude, relatively dumb
ASIAN MILITARY REVIEW
weapon, with a powerful (454 kilogramme) warhead while its corrosive fuel system requires careful maintenance. The ‘Styx’ family are essentially shiplaunched weapons, in major surface combatants such as destroyers and frigates as well as smaller ones such as corvettes and fast attack craft, but the second-generation of weapons are more versatile and can be used from ships, aircraft and even submarines. The most famous are Harpoon, used by eight Asian navies, and Exocet used by six Asian navies, but they have similar sub-sonic speeds and are more sophisticated. Guidance is based upon inertial navigation systems which receive inputs of launch platform co-ordinates and approximate target co-ordinates and then use accelerometer motion sensors and gyroscopic rotation sensors to provide data to a computer which continuously calculates the location, direction and velocity of the missile and compares own location with that of the target. Within proximity to the target the missile activates its own radar to detect it and to control the terminal phase, this sensor having the ability to guide the weapon into either the horizontal or the vertical centre of the radar image.
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One of the most popular long range gun systems is Oto Melara's 127mm (5 inch) mounting. Oto Melara are developing a range of extended range ammunition, Vulcano, for this mounting © Oto Melara
Similar weapons are MBDA’s Otomat Mk 2 used by Bangladesh and Malaysia, the Russian 3M24 Uran (Uranium) selected by India and Vietnam and China’s YJ-83 or CSS-N-6 ‘Saccade’ whose export version is designated C-802 with version used by Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Myanmar, Pakistan and Thailand. Asian-produced weapons are Japan’s Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Type 90 (SSM-1B) and South Korea’s LIG Nex1 Haeseong (Sea Star) or SSM-700K as well as Taiwan’s Hsiung Feng II (Brave Wind II). There is a growing Asian interest in supersonic anti-ship missiles which have the advantage of reducing a target’s reac-
tion times; indeed they can halve the effective range of close-in weapon systems. But their very velocity is the problem, and the reason they are not more widely used for they have less time for their radar processors to evaluate information from the sensor and allow the guidance system to react. Indeed it has been suggested they may be more vulnerable to electronic counter-measures than sub-sonic weapons which have sufficient fuel to re-acquire lost targets. India uses both the Russian 3M80/3M82 Moskit (Mosquito) or SS-N-22 ‘Sunburn’ and the PJ-10 Brahmos, jointly developed with the Russians, while China also uses ‘Sunburn’ but only in Russianbuilt Sovremenny class destroyers. ‘Sunburn’ is capable of Mach 3, has a range of 65 nautical miles (120 kilometres) and carries a 320 kilogramme warhead while Brahmos is a Mach 2.8 ramjet-powered
These missiles also have a degree of intelligence approaching their target indirectly, turning at a predetermined way point or even way points, and at varying heights depending upon whether or not the mission requirement is for fuel efficiency, to achieve greater range or a covert approach, flying just above the waves to make them more difficult for the target’s radars to detect. Alternatively, the missiles can be pre-set to dive upon the target at a steep angle for greater lethality. Because they are designed to strike the most vulnerable part of a ship both Harpoon and Exocet have smaller warheads than ‘Styx’; 221 and 165 kilogrammes respectively. The turbo-jet powered Harpoon had the longer range, up to 130 nautical miles (240 kilometres) compared with 38 nautical miles (70 kilometres) in the rocket-powered Exocet MM40 but Exocet Block 3 has a turbo-jet engine giving a range of 97 nautical miles (180 kilometres) with greater accuracy thanks to the incorporation of a Global Positions System (GPS) unit using satellite navigation inputs. The Boeing (formerly McDonnell Douglas) Harpoon anti-ship missile is used extensively by Asia's navies © Boeing
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The latest version of Exocet is the MM 40 Block 3 which replaces the rocket motor with a jet to extend range. This is now being actively marketed in the region © MBDA
this threat scenario producing Hsiung Feng I as a development of the Israeli Gavriel (Gabrial) II, a rocket propelled weapon also acquired by Sri Lanka. This has semi-active radar and manual guidance, a 225 kilogramme warhead and a range of 20 nautical miles (36 kilometres). Indonesia announced last year it plans to acquire a class of 24 fast attack craft from PT Palindo Marine which will receive Chinese designed C-705 with turbo-jet propulsion. Indonesia is the launch customer for these weapons which have a 110 kilogramme warhead. It is worth noting that helicopters embarked on surface combatants such as frigates are sometimes equipped with short-range anti-ship missiles, such as the MBDA Sea Skua used by the Republic of Korea Navy, and these are primarily for small, high-value, targets. Compared with the missile the gun may seem an anachronism in ASuW yet it remains a useful tool, especially against smaller targets and merchantmen. Indeed large calibre weapons have been used to disperse and drive back formations of Fast Inshore Attack Craft in the Gulf. The
Light anti-ship missiles, such as the MBDA Sea Skua, are an increasing feature of ASuW operations. Usually launched by helicopter they are now being sought for small fast attack craft © MBDA
weapon with a range of 160 nautical miles (290 kilometres). Air and submarinelaunched versions are under development and recent tests indicate the weapon now has a manoeuvring approach capability while Russia and India have recently agreed to develop hypersonic BrahMos 2 missile capable of flying at speeds of Mach 5-Mach 7. Taiwan has developed a supersonic weapon, Hsiung Feng III for the Cheng Kung (Oliver Hazard Perry) class frigates. It is reported to have a range of 110 nautical miles (200 kilometres) a speed of Mach 2 and a 190 kilogramme warhead. Shorter range weapons are a major requirement for navies which operate in archipelagos and use fast attack craft both for patrol purposes to restrict similar, hostile, craft and also to combat amphibious warfare threats. Taiwan was the first Asian country to develop weapons to operate in
BAE Systems' 5 inch (127mm) Mark 45 gun is used by Japan and South Korea and has been selected for Australia's Hobart class destroyers © BAE Systems
ASIAN MILITARY REVIEW
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ANTI-SURFACE WARFARE advantages of the gun are faster reaction times than any missile and greater versatility because it can also be used in the Naval Gun Support (NGS) to provide fire support for troops ashore and it also has an AntiAir Warfare role, although this is limited especially in larger calibre weapons. The most common larger calibre weapons are 76mm (3 inch), 100mm, 127mm (5 inch) and 130mm. The Oto Melara 76mm family is used by a dozen Asian navies while the Russian single barrel AK-176 and the twin barrel AK-276 by India and Vietnam; the Russian 100mm AK-100 and the Chinese derivative the ENG-2 are used by five navies. The largest calibre weapons are 127mm by Oto Melara 127/54 (licencebuilt in South Korea as KD 127) used by two navies while the BAE Systems Mk 54 is used by six. The Chinese Navy uses twin-barrel SM-2 mountings.
With ranges of 8.5 nautical miles (16 kilometres) for the Oto Melara 76/62 to 15 nautical miles (38 kilometres) these The MSI Defence Systems' DS Seahawk DS30M gun system is typical of modern medium to light calibre gun mountings. It is stabilised, remotely operated and can take a variety of ordnance ÂŠ MSI Defence Systems
weapon mountings tend to be unmanned with below-deck magazine or magazines which feed high explosive, semi armourpiercing and multi-mode ammunition to the breech through a remotely controlled handling system. However, they are relatively short ranged and would not normally be used in engagements with major surface combatants. They, too, are very versatile with an AAW role, and though their range reduces their effectiveness they can still protect against Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and in-coming missiles. While the 76mm gun is often used in fast attack craft small surface combatants of this type as well as patrol boats have alternative gun systems for the ASuW role, as well as for ship self protection especially in harbours or restricted waterways against FIAC or suicide type threats. The most popular calibre weapons are 30-40mm because they have high sustained firing
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The holy grail of modern naval guns is a 155mm mounting. BAE Systems developed one based upon the 4.5 inch Mark 8 but the financial crisis means development was abandoned. This is an artist's impression of the mounting in service © BAE Systems
rates; 650-700 rd/min for Oerlikon 30mm and 300 rd/min for Bofors 40mmL/70, as well as longer ranges up to 3.2 nautical miles (6 kilometres) for an Oerlikon (with extended range ammunition) and 6.75 nautical mile (12.5 kilometres) for the Bofors. One of the most unusual Asian gun mountings is the Indian Ordnance Factory’s CRN-91 Sarath based upon the turret of the Russian-designed BMP-2 infantry combat vehicle with 30mm gun. It has been navalised for the Indian Navy and Coast Guard in patrol boats as well as the Magar class tank landing ships. The older weapons are manned but there is a tendency towards unmanned mountings with Oto Melara producing the widest range in both with single and twin calibre mountings in use with half-adozen navies while 40mm mountings have been made in South Korea and Singapore. Bofors enhanced their weapon through the 3P (Prefragmented, Programmable Proximity) rounds which may be set to impact, post-impact or proximity settings before being fired. BAE Systems Weapon Systems and Support are completing development of the Bofors 40mm Mark 4 gun system which incorporates technology from the Mark 3 (bought by Brazil and Japan) as well as weapons used in the CV90 infantry combat vehicle. The objective is to cut the weight, cost and volume of the Mark 3 mounting by at least
40 per cent so that it could fit into smaller vessels to broaden the market. The mounting is available with remote and manual control and weighs 2.3 tonnes unloaded compared with 4 tonnes for the Mark 3 and it is only 1.99 metres high and 2.14 metres wide. It is deck-mounted with 70-round reloadable magazine in the 1.845 metre diameter mounting ring to augment the 30 rounds in the mounting. The 70 calibre weapon can fire 300 rounds/minute up to 6.75 nautical miles (12.5 kilometres) and should be available to customers early in 2014 and the compa-
The Saab RBS 15 is another anti-ship missile which is associated with fast attack craft © Saab Bofors Dynamics
ASIAN MILITARY REVIEW
ny plan to offer packages with electrooptical directors. There is a growing tendency towards mountings which are compatible with several guns. One is Rafael’s Typhoon which can carry seven different models, and with on-mount electro-optics is produced by BAE Systems in the United States as the US Navy’s Mk 38 Mod 1 (unmanned) and Mod 2 (unmanned) with 25mm Bushmaster gun. Typhoon is used by six Asian navies. BAE Systems Land and Armaments, which produces the mounting under licence, revealed at Euronaval in October a mock-up of a Mod 3 version with 25mm or 30mm Mark 44 Bushmaster II. The mounting, with onboard electro-optical director as in Mod 2, is being developed in anticipation of a requirement for a 30mm gun to equip the Littoral Combat Ship with a formal requirement anticipated this year. The elevating mass and most of the barrel are fully enclosed with a shaped housing and, compared with the 1.04 tonnes unloaded weight of the Mod 2, the new mounting, which will also be marketed for export and can accept coaxial machinegun, will have unloaded weights of 1.35 tonnes with 30mm gun and 1.28 tonnes with 25mm. The Oto Melara Model 504 Marlin, for example, accepts 30mm and 25mm weapons as does MSI’s Seahawk family, and the AAW capability of the latter is enhanced with shortrange Thales LML surface-to-air missiles. Remotely operated and stabilised mountings, such as Nexter’s Narwhal 20mm gun family and MSI-Defence Systems’ Seahawk 20 are becoming available to provide even greater versatility. Narwhal has a mass of 350-400 kilogrammes, an on-mount director with optional laser rangefinder and plans for 25mm and 30mm versions. Seahawk has been developed for the retrofit market and while based upon the Denel G12 20mm it can take any 20mm weapon allowing the continued use of stocks of 20mm x 139 ammunition. While the gun’s importance in ASuW is much smaller than it was it still remains important with the smaller calibre weapons also being valuable in the field of EEZ protection where collateral damage can be politically unacceptable.
BUSINESS WITH ROSONBORNEXPORT A NEED OF NATIONAL INTEREST, SAYS US DEFENCE DEPARTMENT
espite from scrutiny from US Congress, the Pentagon has decided to go ahead with the procurement of MI-17 transport helicopters for Afghan Military from Russian arms exporters Rosobornexport, terming it as a move in national interest. The opposition to the procurement has come over the sales of
arms to Syrian President Bashar al-Assad by the Russian company. However a recent news suggests that US Deputy Defence Secretary Ashton Carter wrote to the US lawmakers stating that the defence department â€œhas an urgent, nearterm need to purchase an additional 30 new military-use MI-17 helicoptersâ€? for counter
terrorism forces in Afghanistan. He has also outlined the steps that were taken to reevaluate the purchase. The letter was addressed to US lawmakers including Republican Representative Bill Young of Florida, chairman of the House defense appropriations subcommittee, and
Democratic Senator Richard Durbin of Illinois, who heads his chamber’s defense appropriations panel. He added that the US Army tried and failed to find any alternative that would meet the requirement. “Careful consideration of all the information available to the department” after the Army evaluation “confirms it would be in the public interest to procure the MI-17s needed” from the Russian firm, Carter wrote. Rosoboronexport is the main contributor to the Russian arms export and according to Pentagon has been the only company controlling the export of MI-17. The US Army had initially bought 21 helicopters worth $375 million and further agreed in to buy ten more. The Mi-17 helicopters are meant to help Afghanistan fulfill its tasks now that military forces from the US and other countries are in the process of being withdrawn. Compared to other options such as the American Black Hawk helicopters, the Mi17 is a better fit, including: The ability to use existing infrastructure, support and service already in place for Russian helicopters. Familiarity of Afghan pilots with the Mi-17 eliminates the need to train them to use a new helicopter type. The Mi-17 helicopters are lower in cost. This is not the first time that the US has bought military equipment from Russia, but the purchases of Mi-17 helicopters are still notable since they don’t occur very often between the two former rivals during the Cold War. As per the defense authorization law for the current fiscal year funds cannot be used to pay the Russian company unless the Pentagon invokes a national security waiver. But as per Ashton Carter this prohibition would not apply to the funds approved in 2012 which will be used in buying 30 helicopters. Also, Frank Kendall, Undersecretary for Acquisition in a letter to Senator John Cornyn has mentioned that although he shares the concern about the origin of these helicopters but he also believes that the mission in Afghanistan is of huge importance and should be preferred over ending relationship with Russian company. Even James Miller, Undersecretary for Policy, in another letter to the Senator did mention that the company is supplying weapon to Syria which are being used by Assad’s forces in atrocities against civilian population but the acquisition is still needed to build capacity of security forces in Afghanistan because these helicopters can perform in extreme weather and are easy for Afghans to use items that have ‘low technical complexity’.
ROSOBORNEXPORT ANNOUNCES SUPPLY OF ADDITIONAL 12 MIL MI-17V5 HELICOPTERS
he Russian arms exporter Rosobornexport announced their decision to supply 12 Mil Mi-17V5 military transport helicopters to Afghan National Army by 2013 as part of agreement between Pentagon and the company in 2011 for 21 helicopters. This transact was a part of $367.5 million agreement between Rosobornexport and Pentagon in May 2011 for 21 Mi-17V5s and could be worth possibly worth $900 million with spares and services, according to US officials. In his statement to a Russia’s news agency, Grigory Kozlov, director of Rosobornexport’s helicopter exports said that the option agreement has been signed and the delivery will be done by the end of the year. He mentioned that the payment by Pentagon for the same has already been started along with delivery of special equipments to be fitted in the helicopters that are meant for
security mission in Afghanistan. US and Russia may soon enter into a fresh agreement of additional additional Mi-17 helicopters for Afghanistan. “I reckon this issue (the additional buy) will be resolved by the end of May and we will enter a new round of talks on the manner of language of helicopters on top of the current 21 plus 12 units,” said Kozlov. —Anandita Bhardwaj
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ASIA PACIFIC PROCUREMENT UPDATE by Pierre Delrieu
Chinese Premier Li Keqiang and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh met in New Delhi as part of the newly-elected Chinese Premier’s first visit abroad. During talks on 19th May, they discussed the boundary dispute between their two countries. Indian Defense Minister AK Antony and National Security Adviser Shiv Shankar Menon announced they planned to visit Beijing over the summer to discuss means of resolving the boundary dispute. In April, troops from the
had been discussed with Prime Minister Singh and passed off as “an incident”. Meanwhile, New Delhi announced it would deploy an additional 40,000 troops in the form of a mountain corps to bolster its strength on the Chinese border, just a couple of weeks after Prime Minister Keqiang’s visit. According to Indian MoD this deployment had been planned for about 2 year and had been waiting for approval of Ministry of Finance. This ongoing dispute involves the longest contested boundary in the world. China
two countries came face-to-face in the northern region of Ladakh, when Chinese troops entered nearly 10 kilometres inside Indian territory across the Line of Actual Control, the de-facto boundary between the two countries. The incident threatened to increase tensions, and Indian opposition parties asked the government to take a tough line against the Chinese intrusion. However, during last month’s visit of China’s premier in New Delhi, the issue
claims 92,000 square kilometres of Indian territory. The border between India and China is defined by the 4,056-kilometre LAC, which is neither marked on the ground, nor on mutually-accepted maps. Although the deployment of additional troops along the border is bound to raise tempers in Beijing, analysts agree that India and China can ill-afford to go to war in the immediate future as both seek to grow their economies.
In Canberra on 5th June, Indian Defence Minister AK Antony and his Australian counterpart, Stephen Smith, agreed to step up military exchanges and naval combat exercises between the two countries, as part of its policy to strengthen defence ties
with countries in the Asia-Pacific Region, including Thailand. They agreed to pursue “a regular bilateral Defence Ministers’ meetings to promote exchanges between the Defence establishments and the Armed Forces of both sides”, said the Indian Ministry of Defence in a
One week after taking office, Pakistan’s new government announced a ten percent raise in defence spending, despite a crippling budget deficit of 8.8 percent. The budget for fiscal year 2013-14 will begin on 1st July amid a weak economic growth, high inflation, decreasing foreign exchange reserves and unprecedented power cuts. The new budget will allocate 627 billion rupees (US $6.3 billion) for defence, a ten percent increase compared to the 570 billion rupees allocated in the outgoing year, ending 30th June. The army is the most powerful institution in Pakistan, a country ruled for half its life by the military. Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, who had troubled relations with the army in the past, took office in early June after winning the 11th May elections; marking an historic transition of democratic power.
Finance minister Ishaq Dar announced that the government would clear $5 billion in circular debt from the energy sector within the next 60 days and help minimize power cuts in the country, but gave no details on how the government would find the necessary money, considering Pakistan is still paying off an $11.3 billion loan made from the International Monetary Fund in 2008. Years of under-investment, mismanagement and corruption cause power outages of up to 20 hours a day in the Pakistani blistering summer heat, when temperatures can reach up to 50°C.
India and Japan have agreed to form a joint working group to explore cooperation on the US-2 amphibious aircraft
made by Japan’s ShinMaywa during talk in Tokyo on 29th May. Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and his Japanese counterpart, Shinzo Abe, agreed on a joint working group to decide the terms of this cooperation, which could include joint production, operation and training on the US-2. The amphibian has a sensor fit capable of detecting and tracking surface vessels, ships, submarine periscopes, and low-flying aircraft and missiles.
joint statement issued after the talks. Without specifying concerns over Chinese assertiveness in the South China Sea, the statement added that: “maritime security and freedom of navigation in accordance with principles of international law is critical for the growth and
prosperity of the Asia Pacific and Indian Ocean Region.” AK Antony also said he would discuss possible areas of cooperation and collaboration in defence production with Thailand with his Thai counterpart, Air Chief Marshal Sukumpol Suwanatat.
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The 12th International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) Shangri-La Dialogue Asia Security Summit was held in Singapore from 31st May to 2nd June. The annual inter-governmental security forum, initiated in 2002, gathers key policymakers in the defence and security establishments from regional states and from major powers with significant stakes in Asia-Pacific security. Nguyen Tan Dung, Prime Minister of Vietnam, opened Asia’s largest informal defence gathering with a Keynote Address in which he called on the countries of the region to 'build strategic
trust' to overcome disputes. The summit brought together defence ministers, military chiefs and senior government officials from 31 countries as well as experts and journalists from around the world with discussions focusing on issues such as “Defending National Interests; Preventing Conflict”, “Military Modernisation and Strategic Transparency”, “New Trends in Asia-Pacific Security” and “Advancing Defence Cooperation In The AsiaPacific”. However, maritime disputes and the risks of conflicts that could hurt Asia’s economic growth were a running theme during the three-day conference. During the summit, Lt. Gen. Qi Jianguo, deputy chief of the general staff of the Chinese
People’s Liberation Army announced that China would continue to consider its patrols in Asian seas as legitimate. Adding that Chinese warships would continue to patrol waters where Beijing has territorial claims, regardless of growing rows with neighbouring countries over the South China Sea and islands controlled by Japan. China is locked in a territorial dispute with Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam in the South China Sea and affirms that it has sovereign rights to nearly all of the sea, including areas much closer to other countries, and thousands of kilometres from the Chinese coast. The four countries dispute the Chinese claims over several Pacific islands, much as Japan refuses China’s claim over the Senkaku islands in the East China Sea, which Beijing calls the Diaoyus. China’s peaceful intentions have come under growing scepticism in the region, as they are inconsistent with moves to send naval patrols to waters claimed by other countries such as China’s occupation of a shoal near the Philippines’ main island last year and the deployment in March of naval ships to within 80 kilometres (50 miles) of Malaysia’s coast.
extended up to October 2017. Singapore is the only country that India has offered its facilities to for training and exercises. As the world’s fourth lead-
ing financial centre with one of the busiest ports, Singapore has a strategic importance for India in its efforts to contain the growing influence of China.
Singapore will continue using military facilities in India for the exercise and training of its troops for another five years, as stated in an agreement signed in Singapore on 4th June by new Indian Defence Secretary Radha Krishna Mathur, and Singaporean Permanent Secretary of Defense, Chiang Chie Foo. India and Singapore had first signed a five-year defence cooperation pact in 2007 allowing Singaporean troops to exercise regularly on Indian territory. This agreement will now be is
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SINGAPORE AND AUSTRALIAN SUBMARINE RESCUE ARRANGEMENT
Singapore Navy (RSN) Chief Rear-Admiral Ng Chee Peng has signed the Submarine Rescue Arrangement with Royal Australian Navy (RAN)’s Chief of Navy Vice-Admiral Ray Griggs on board the RSN’s submarine rescue and support vessel, MV Swift Rescue. The Submarine Rescue Arrangement establishes a framework between the RSN and RAN in the area of submarine rescue support and cooperation. Under the arrangement, the RSN will make available to the RAN MV Swift Rescue and other resources to render support and assistance in the event of an RAN submarine incident.
SAGEM WINS MAJOR CONTRACT FROM SINGAPORE NAVY
Sagem has signed a contract with the Singapore’s Defence Science and Technology Agency to develop and produce a new Gun FireControl System (GFCS) for eight Littoral Mission Vessels ordered by Singapore Navy. Sagem’s new GFCS is a centralized system located at the ship’s operations center that integrates several functions: main and secondary guns, radar, optronics and navigation systems. Capable of operating from several multifunction consoles concurrently, Sagem’s GFCS will also be interfaced with the combat management system.
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On 30th May, the ruling Liberal Democratic Party of Japan (LDPJ) decided set in motion a proposal for the fullscale rearmament of the country's armed forces. The reform will focus on the creation of a marine corps, increasing the efficiency of air and missile defences, as well as upgrading the equipment of the army and navy with modern weapons capable of attacking enemy naval bases. Japan is currently ranked fifth in the world in
terms of military expenditure and the Japanese Self-Defence Forces has been actively modernising; spending an approximate $44 billion in armament each year. However, since the end of the Second World War, the Japanese authorities have not been allowed to possess fullfledged conventional armed forces, and cannot engage in the production and procurement of cruise missiles or strategic bombers, for example. Following the end of the
Second World War, the country adopted a new constitution significantly limiting its military capabilities; even as regards self-defence. Ex-ministers Shigeru Ishiba and Gen Nakatani, the two men behind the proposed rearmament, have drafted a reform that was approved and sent to the government for consideration. Shigeru Ishiba stated that the restrictions introduced after the war relating to the size of the Japanese armed forces have long been out of date and that it was time for Japan to move towards the establishment of conventional armed forces. If changes in the Constitution come into effect, the Japanese armed forces could potentially perform fullscale air strikes against enemy military bases, as well as increasing the effectiveness of anti-missile defence capabilities intended to defend the country against the tense situation on the Korean peninsula. In addition, Japan will create marine units capable of defending remote Japanese islands in the Pacific.
ed 13% of the aircraftâ€™s development. The RoKAF, which now owns 50 units, offered to dispense training to Indonesian pilots and maintenance crews to familiarize them with the aircraft. KAI is confident it will soon close another deal for 12 FA-50s - an armed variant of the T-50 with Manila. The Philippines
said they wanted to use the aircraft for training and for light fighter/attack missions. In other projects, KAI and Lockheed Martin also made an offer to meet an eight aircraft requirement to Poland. Warsaw is reviewing the technical proposals issued by the different bidders, and could issue a decision as soon as early 2014.
RISE OF THE KOREAN T-50 GOLDEN EAGLE
The South Korean aerospace company KAI (Korea Aerospace Industries) announced it would deliver 16 T-50 Golden Eagle advanced jet trainer aircrafts to Indonesia by February 2014. Jakarta had ordered T-50s in May 2011, marking the first export sale for this type of supersonic advanced trainer and multirole light fighter. The T-50 Golden Eagle, formerly known as the KTX-2, is a jet trainer and light attack aircraft which was initially built for the Republic of Korea Air Force (RoKAF) and has been in active service since 2005. Manufactured at the KAI facility in Sachon, the T-50 is the result of collaboration with Lockheed Martin, which fund-
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TAIWANâ€™S SECOND HAND ROLLS-ROYCE T56 TURBOPROP ENGINES
With the support of the US Foreign Military Sales (FMS) mechanism, which facilitates sales of U.S. arms, but also defence equipment, defence services, and military training to foreign governments, Taiwan is about to acquire 16 reconditioned Rolls-Royce T56 turboprop engines. These T56 engines will serve to power some of the 12 former US Navy Lockheed P-3C Orion maritime patrol and antisubmarine warfare aircraft Taiwan also bought from the US in 2011, to ultimately replace the Grumman S-2 Tracker aircraft now operating in its navy. The T56 engine - formerly known as the Allison T56 - is a single shaft, modular design military turboprop with a 14stage axial flow compressor driven by a four stage turbine. Originally developed by the Allison Engine Company for the Lockheed Martin C-130 transport, entering production in 1954, this turboprop engine is now produced by the British manufacturer RollsRoyce, which acquired Allison in 1995. The commercial version of the T56 is know under the designation 501-D. The T56 has an unusually long and numerous production run; over 18,000 engines have been produced since 1954, logging over 200 million flying hours. Worth a total of $10.6 million, the deal between Taiwan and the FMS was contracted to the US Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division and is expected to be completed in February 2014. In an online statement, the US Department of Defense announced the overhaul will be undertaken by StandardAero, in San Antonio, Texas.
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and US Army personnel participate in skills-based live-fire training and adventurous training, at Puckapunyal and Melbourne. During the exercise, 14 personnel from each of the three nations participated in live-firing activities focused on advanced marksmanship skills within urban terrain, as well as adventurous training including abseiling from buildings in the Melbourne CBD.
AUSTRALIA, JAPAN AND US CONCLUDES FIRST JOINT EXERCISE
Australia, Japan and the United States have concluded Exercise Southern Jackaroo, the first ground exercise involving the three nations held in Australia. The inaugural exercise took place from 18 to 26 May 2013. Exercise Southern Jackaroo saw Australian Army, Japan Ground Self Defense Force
AUSTRALIA CONSIDERING TRITON UNMANNED AIRCRAFT
Australian MOD announced that the Government would issue a Letter of Request to the United States (US) to gain access to detailed cost, capability and availability information on the US Navy’s MQ-4C Triton unmanned Aircraft. The acquisition of high-altitude, long-endurance
Australian Department of Defence has signed a major Land Materiel Maintenance (LMM) contract with Transfield Services of Australia. The contract is for an initial term of six years,
unmanned aircraft for maritime patrol and other surveillance is being developed under project AIR 7000 Phase 1B. One of the options being considered for AIR 7000 Phase 1B is the US Navy MQ-4C Triton Broad Area Maritime Surveillance Unmanned Aircraft System produced by Northrop Grumman. To help assess the suitability of the Triton for Australia’s requirements, the Government
will establish a Foreign Military Sales Technical Services Case with the United States Navy to obtain detailed cost, capability and availability information to inform future Government consideration of Project AIR 7000 Phase 1B. The release of a Letter of Request for the FMS Technical Services Case does not commit Australia to the acquisition of the MQ-4C Triton.
with five one-year options. The LMM agreement will provide equipment maintenance services to Joint Logistics Command Units across Australia. The contract covers the maintenance of land-based vehicle fleets primarily operat-
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AUSTRALIA US DEFENCE TRADE COOPERATION TREATY
Australian Minister for Defence Stephen Smith and US Ambassador to Australia, Jeffrey Bleich, exchanged diplomatic notes to bring the Australia – United States Defence Trade Cooperation Treaty into force. The Treaty’s entry into force reflects Australia and the US’ commitment to cooperation in Defence capability and technology. The Australia-US Defence Trade Cooperation Treaty was signed in Sydney on 5 September 2007. The Treaty creates a framework for the transfer of eligible defence goods, services and technology between approved entities in Australia and the US, known as the Approved Community, without the need to apply for separate export licences. The Treaty will improve delivery times, improve sustainment and give Australian industry better access to technical data to tender for US contracts.
ed by Army. The work will include inspection, scheduled servicing, repair and modification of equipment, programmed maintenance and project work, maintenance of regional loan pools, management of repair pools and support to operations.