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VOLUME 22/ISSUE 3

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DELIVERS HOPE. WHEN ALL SEEMS HOPELESS. Typhoon relief. Guiuan, Philippines.

COMBAT · HUMANITARIAN · LOGISTICS · RESCUE · SPECIAL OPS Around the globe, V-22 Ospreys are making a critical difference in humanitarian aid and disaster relief missions—delivering food, water, medical supplies and time-sensitive cargo to those in need. The V-22’s unique blend of helicopter flexibility, high speed and long range provides timely aid to remote areas that would otherwise be unreachable, saving lives in the balance.


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Contents JUNE 2014 VOLUME 22 / ISSUE 3

The Rotary Club Expands United Kingdom-based aerospace journalist Andrew Drweiga takes a close look at the expanding market for military helicopter procurements around the Asia-Pacific, reviewing current and future acquisition programmes.

Front Cover Photo: A United States Air Force McDonnell Douglas/Boeing F-15E Strike Eagle multi-role combat aircraft launches infra-red decoy flares from its Integrated Self-Protection System (ISPS). ISPSs are examined by AMR editor Thomas Withington in this issue © Wikimedia Commons

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Smart Defence against Smart Bombs

Wheels of Fortune

While Precision-Guided Munitions have revolutionised warfare since their advent in the late-1960s, United Kingdom-based defence journalist Peter Donaldson explains that there are several ground-based air defence systems entering service designed to counter their advantage.

Although the appetite in the West for Mine-Resistant AmbushProtected vehicles may be reducing, it looks set to increase in the Asia-Pacific with a demand ready to be satisfied by local and international designs, as United Kingdom-based defence journalist Claire Apthorp finds out.

Evading the Electrons Investment is flowing into airborne integrated self-protection systems to enhance aircraft protection, as AMR editor Thomas Withington explains.

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Beam Me Up Scotty! Significant procurement activity is ongoing in the naval surveillance radar domain with several nations around the Asia-Pacific, and further afield, kitting their ships out with new systems and upgrading existing radars, as AMR editor Thomas Withington describes.

Down to the Wire Cyber security efforts are moving forward in the Asia-Pacific, arguably the most ‘wired’ region of the world. Several governments and international actors are working hard to keep the web safe, as Brussels-based cyber security expert Neil Robinson explains.

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Twenty Thousand Leagues under the Sea United Kingdom-based naval journalist Edward Hooton takes us through several of the exciting developments occurring in the submarine domain in the Asia-Pacific, examining capability decisions taken by several fleets around the region.

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AMR editor Thomas Withington’s ‘Pulse’ column provides all of the latest news and analysis across the defence RF (Radio Frequency) spectrum

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Content & Edit June 14:AMR

Index of Advertisers

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Editorial DEATH FROM ABOVE

he tempo of the use of Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles (UCAVs) by the United States and her allies has increased since the 11 September 2001 attacks on the Eastern Seaboard of the US, but so has opposition in some quarters of civil society around the world to this twenty-first century means of killing. The use of UCAVs to attack senior members of the Al Qaeda and Taliban Islamist movements has reportedly caused them to lose increasing numbers of cadres. Recently, US UCAV strikes have occurred in southern Yemen where up to 40 suspected Al Qaeda militants reportedly lost their lives to such attacks during a three-day period from 18 April 2014, according to the British Broadcasting Corporation. UCAV attacks have not been restricted to Yemen; they have also been directed against suspected Islamist militants in Afghanistan and Pakistan, to name two other locations. Ending the lives of suspected insurgents in this fashion has become increasingly attractive to governments involved in the fight against Al Qaeda and other violent Islamist organisations. Deploying a UCAV does not risk an aircrew being shot down over hostile territory. Secondly, UCAVs offer a degree of stealth, operating at high altitudes and being largely inaudible to their intended victims, denying them warning time and a chance to escape. Thirdly, UCAV strikes can be executed from over-thehorizon with the aircrew controlling the flying machine, and the aircraft itself operating from the country performing the attack, thanks to intercontinental satellite communications. This means that nations performing drone strikes are not beholden to third countries for air basing and thus permission to perform UCAV attacks from their soil. The London-based Bureau of Investigative Journalism (BIJ) estimates that between 2004 and 2014, the United States has performed a total of 369 UCAV attacks. According to its figures, these attacks have killed a total of 2,851 people. It estimates that 286 of these individuals have been civilians, 274 have been of an unknown origin, but up to 2,291 have been suspected insurgents. Opposition to UCAV attacks stresses that such operations are opaque. A report by the BIJ entitled ‘Drone Warfare: More than 2,400 dead as Obama’s drone campaign marks five years’ argues that “escalation in the drone war has happened with almost no official transparency from the White House”. Similarly, an open letter to the United Nations Human Rights Council, published by the New York-based non-governmental organisation (NGO) Human Rights Watch on 27 March 2014, argued that the NGO has “serious concerns that some if not many US drone attacks may violate international law”. Finally, some commentators such as Ivan Eland, a senior fellow and director of the Centre on Peace and Liberty at the California-based think-tank The Independent Institute, argue that the use of UCAVs to target militants is paradoxically creating more insurgents from individuals angry at the attacks (ref. his article United States Accelerates a Counterproductive Drone War in Yemen, published in the Huffington Post on 23 April 2014). As the use of UCAVs increases so will disquiet in some quarters about their employment. Concerns regarding legality, proportionality and their potential counter-productive nature are legitimate, as is attacking suspected insurgents to weaken militant organisations to performing violent attacks. Governments will increasingly need to balance concerns regarding UCAV employment with the need to counter violent political extremism. Thomas Withington, Editor

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Pulse:AMR

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PULSE by Thomas Withington Radar

Northrop Grumman has received approval from the office of the Assistant Secretary of the United States Navy for Research, Development and Acquisition for the Low Rate Initial Production of the AN/TPS-80 Ground/Air Task Oriented Radar (G/ATOR). This follows the award to Northrop Grumman of a $24.5 million cost-plus-incentive-fee, firm-fixed-price contract covering the commencement of production engineering and anticipated cost growth. The S-band (2.3-2.5/2.7-3.7 gigahertz/GHz) AN/TPS-80 uses an Active Electronically-Scanned Array (AESA) antenna and can perform a wide range of tasks, from air surveillance to air traffic control. The radar can be mounted on a trailer or on the back of an AM General HMMWV (High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle) and will be incrementally upgraded throughout its life. These improvements will add additional functionality such as the ability to perform short-range air defence and baseline IFF (Interrogation Friend or Foe) functions (Increment 1); counter battery and artillery location (Increment 2); Mode-5/Mode-S IFF enhancements, improved countermeasures resistance, and health and usage monitoring (Increment 3); and air traffic control functions (Increment 4). The United States Marine Corps is expected to receive 17 Increment 1 AN/TPS-80s, 38 Increment 2/3 systems and 14 Increment 4 radars. India’s OIS Advanced Technology (OIS-AT) is moving forward with its development of its Foliage-Penetrating Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). In a 5 February 2014 press release from the company, it announced that it hopes to have a prototype of the radar developed by the end of 2015. In terms of performance, this Very High Frequency/Ultra High Frequency (250-500 megahertz) radar can capture imagery from a swathe measuring 2.8 nautical miles (5.3 kilometres) when flying at 15,000 feet (4,572 metres), according to Sanjay Bhandari, chairman and managing director of OIS-AT. Mr. Bhandari adds that, regarding installation, “the system is designed for both podded installation on a fixed-wing aircraft, as well as on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle,” adding that, “the imaging functions are designed to be carried out on-board the aircraft.” For installation on an inhabited aircraft, Mr. Bhandari foresees the radar being carried by a Hawker Beechcraft B200 King Air twin turboprop or equivalent aircraft. That said, he also mentions that the company is designing the radar, “with Mil-Std 1553 (Military Standard-1553) compatibility in perspective”. Mil-Std-1553 is a United States Department of Defense military standard pertaining to the design characteristics of a serial data bus which can allow subsystems to be installed on an aircraft and to work with that aircraft’s avionics. Mr. Bhandari argues that, “Most of the SARs on the market do not have the foliage penetration capability. This is the key feature that distinguishes our radar from other products. The radar is designed to have full polarisation and ground/foliage penetration. The software is also designed to allow dismount detection and eventually some target identification as well in addition to mere detection.”

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Northrop Grumman’s AN/TPS-80 Ground/Air Task Oriented Radar will soon enter low-rate initial production following a decision taken to this effect by the Assistant Secretary of the United States Navy for Research, Development and Acquisition © Northrop Grumman

Thales will supply six Smart-S Mk.2 naval surveillance radars to the Royal Malaysian Navy for installation onboard the force’s new ‘Gowind’ class corvettes, all of which are expected to be operational by 2018. The S-band three-dimensional air and surface search radar has a maximum instrumented range of 130nm (250km) with the capability to detect missiles at a range of 27nm (50km) and large aircraft at 110nm (200km). Up to 500 air and surface targets can be tracked simultaneously, and has an integral IFF system. The radar produces up to twelve beams, each of which is two degrees in width. It is capable of detecting targets at between zero and 70 degrees of elevation. When performing general surveillance it rotates at 13.5 revolutions-per-minute (rpm), although this increases to 27rpm when the radar is tasked with defending the ship against incoming threats. Smart-S family radars are used onboard a number of vessels including the eight ‘Karel Doorman’ class frigates operated by the navies of Belgium, Chile, Portugal and The Netherlands, which have the Smart-S Mk.1; the ‘Absalon’ class frigate combat support ship of the Kongelige Danske Marine (Royal Danish Navy) which have the Smart-S Mk.2; the ‘Sigma’ class corvettes operated by the Royal Moroccan Navy (Smart-S Mk.2); the ‘Bradenburg’ class frigates (Smart-S Mk.2) of the Deutsche Marine (German Navy); the ‘Ada’ class frigates (Smart-S Mk.2) of the Türk Deniz Kuvvetleri (Turkish Navy); the Royal Canadian Navy’s ‘Halifax’ class frigates (Smart-S Mk.2); the Royal Omani Navy’s ‘Khareef’ class corvettes (Smart-S Mk.2); the ‘Almirante Padilla’ class frigates (Smart-S Mk.2) of the Armada Nacional de la

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PULSE República de Colombia (Colombian Navy) and the Republic of Korea Navy’s ‘Incheon’ class frigates (Smart-S Mk.2). The Smart-S Mk.1 radar is now out of production, although Thales notes that there are some important differences between the Mk.1 and Mk.2 incarnations of the radar. For example, while the Smart-S Mk.1 has dedicated transmit and receive antennae, the Smart-S Mk.2 has these in a single integrated antenna. The newer radar is fitted with an IFF antenna, and can also accommodate customer-specified IFF antennae. Meanwhile, the Smart-S Mk.1 radar comes equipped with a Travelling Wave Tube (TWT) antenna, whereas the Smart-S Mk.2 has a solid state transmitter. There are also important differences between the two radars regarding performance with the Smart-S Mk.1 achieving a range of 81nm (150km) versus the 250km of the Smart-S Mk.2. Moreover, the Smart-S Mk.1 can monitor up to 200 tracks while this increases to 750 tracks for the Smart-S Mk.2. On 17 March 2014 Thales announced that it had won a contract to supply the Smart-S Mk.2 radar to equip the Ślązak Offshore Patrol Vessel which the Marynarka Wojenna (Polish Navy) currently has under construction and is expected to enter service by 2016. As of early March 2014, the Honduran Navy announced that it had received the first of three radars delivered from Israel. The pro-

curement of these radars, local press reports reveal, has cost the country $25 million. The Honduran Navy has not announced the type of radar which it has procured, or where these radars will be sited. However, press reports have referred to them as ‘aerial’ leading to speculation that they may be mounted on an aerostat. It is known that IAI Elta does produce aerostat-mounted radars in the form of the EL/M-2022A. According to IAI Elta official documentation, this radar has a range of up to 200nm (370km). It can track up to 256 targets and provides both SAR and Inverse SAR imagery. The radar is also designed to spot small targets in rough seas, which would make it particularly useful in detecting boats used by drug traffickers as part of Honduras’ anti-narcotics strategy.

Electronic Warfare

Raytheon has revealed to AMR that it is currently in the Technology Maturation and Risk Reduction (TMRR) phase for its Next Generation Jammer (NGJ) airborne Electronic Warfare (EW) system. The NGJ is being developed for the United States Navy’s Boeing E/A-18G Growler EW aircraft which is replacing the service’s Northrop Grumman EA-6B Prowler EW platform. The NGJ is itself replacing the erstwhile Exelis AN/ALQ-99 EW pod which equips Growlers and which also equipped the EA-6B. A written

Raytheon’s Next Generation Jammer is being developed to equip the United States Navy’s Boeing E/A-18G Growler electronic warfare aircraft. This jammer will replace the existing Exelis AN/ALQ99 jamming pods which the force currently uses for the airborne electronic warfare mission © Raytheon

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Airborne Systems will deliver components for the Mk.59 Mod.0 Decoy Launcher System (DLS) used by the United States Navy. The contract, worth $17.9 million to the company, will equip surface vessels with the DLS to protect them from radar detection and from attack by anti-ship missiles © Airborne Systems

statement provided to AMR by Raytheon noted that the company will “focus on two areas over the next twelve months—the development and fabrication of prototype hardware and software to support the Technology Readiness Assessment and secondly requirements development and initiation for the preliminary design of the prime mission product.” This work is being performed under Increment-1 of the company’s Technology Development TMRR phase. Raytheon has said that it does not expect to perform any test flights as part of the Increment-1 phase of the contract. In US Navy service, the NGJ will equip the E/A18G, although given that the product is compatible with the United States Department of Defence Military Standard 1553 (Mil-Std1553) serial data bus requirements, it could fit other third-party aircraft which have Mil-Std-1553 compatibility. No technical information has been released by Raytheon regarding the design of the NGJ, although it is thought to utilise Active Electronically Scanned Array technology for the jamming of emitters. Although the frequency range of the NGJ is classified, it is probable that it will cover the radar spectrum from 0.2-18 GHz, with a possible extension to 40 GHz. In terms of output power, it will almost certainly exceed the 6-8-10.8 kilowatts offered by the AN/ALQ-99. Raytheon’s statement added that the US Navy is expected to eventually procure up to 114 NGJ ship sets which will equate to two pods per-aircraft. In related news, on 22 March 2014, the US Navy announced that it plans to purchase additional E/A-18G aircraft, with Admiral Jonathon Greenert, Chief of Naval Operations, expressing a preference to this end. The request is still

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to be approved by the United States Department of Defence, and would be requested during 2015. Airborne Systems of Bridgend, Wales, has been awarded a firm-fixed-price contract worth $17.9 million from the United States Naval Surface Warfare Centre for the supply of components for the US Navy’s Mk.59 Mod.0 Decoy Launcher System (DLS). The Mk.59 Mod.0 DLS launches inflatable floating corner reflector decoys which can be used by a warship to mask its own radar reflection from Anti-Ship Missiles (AShMs) and naval surveillance radars. Airborne Systems has not revealed when deliveries of these components will commence, or when they will conclude, although in a written statement to AMR, they did reveal that the firm is supplying the “Mk.59 corner reflector decoys and launch tubes, plus the firing system”, adding that “these components constitute the complete standalone decoy system”. The Mk.59 Mod.0 device is being rolled out across surface combatants in the US Navy to enhance their protection against AShMs and detection by naval surveillance radar. Airborne electronic warfare systems designed to protect combat aircraft against Infra-Red (IR) guided Surface-to-Air Missiles (SAMs) were put through their paces at the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation’s (NATO) biannual EMBOW exercise held in lateMarch 2014 at the Armée de l’Air (French Air Force) airbase of Cazaux in southwestern France. During the exercise the performance of the Miysis Directional IR Countermeasure (DIRCM) developed by Italy’s Selex was demonstrated against an array of simulated IR threats demonstrating its ability to acquire, track and jam first, second and third generation simulated IR-guided ManPortable Air Defence Systems. During the exercise, the Miysis equipment was installed onboard an Airbus Military C-212 turbo-

Selex’s Miysis Directional Infra-Red Countermeasure was put through its paces during the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation’s biannual EMBOW exercise intended to improve airborne infra-red countermeasures which this year took place in southwestern France © Selex

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PULSE In February 2014, Boeing received a contract for its Combat Survivor Evader Locator radio to equip the United States Air Force. Deliveries of these radios are expected to be concluded in 2015, with up to 2,500 being delivered to this end © Boeing

prop aircraft belonging to the French Direction Générale de l’Armement (DGA/General Armament Directorate) defence procurement agency. In total, eleven NATO nations participated in the EMBOW exercise with France and Germany leading the initiative. Ten helicopters, seven freighters and 15 multi-role combat aircraft were deployed to support the exercise and up to 25 different SAM and air-to-air IR threats were simulated during the initiative. Information gathered from the exercise is used to improve the performance of existing and future airborne IR countermeasures, along with information regarding such threats gained from ongoing military operations which involve NATO members in Afghanistan, Mali and the Central African Republic.

Radio

Boeing will deliver up to 2,500 of its Combat Survivor Evader Locator (CSEL) radios to the United States Air Force (USAF) between 2014 and 2015. The news was revealed in a press release published by Boeing on 4 February 2014 which also mentioned that the order was worth up to $24 million to the firm. The CSEL

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takes the form of a handheld radio which is issued to aircrews for use in case they have to abandon their aircraft. The radio is outfitted with a Global Positioning System module to provide geolocation for the user and for Search-and-Rescue personnel who can track the CSEL. It can provide data communications at over-thehorizon ranges and Very High Frequency (30-300 megahertz) and Ultra High Frequency (UHF/300 megahertz to three gigahertz) line-of-sight voice communications and UHF satellite communications, according to Steve Capps, Boeing CSEL programme manager. Other waveforms supported by the CSEL, Mr. Capps adds, include those required to connect the radio to the international Cospas-Sarsat satellite-based search and rescue alert detection and information distribution centre which is supported by several countries around the world. In addition, the radio can support Terminal Area Guidance which uses computer algorithms to construct a three-dimensional trajectory for an aircraft utilising its current position, heading, speed and altitude to aid navigation towards its intended destination—a function which is vital for helping to locate and rescue downed aircrew.

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satellite communications across the Iridium Thales’ InnovDay event held in Paris on Thales’ recent and Inmarsat constellations, the Echo easily 6 March 2014 provided an opportunity to InnovDay provided an connects with any civilian smartphone. Once see some of the research and development opportunity to see connected, it provides two-way chat text mesinitiatives that the company is driving forsaging and geolocation using AES-256 stanward in its tactical communications some of the research dard encryption. Moreover, users can send domain. InnovDay has become a regular and development out an emergency short-burst alert to call for annual event for the company to showcase initiatives that help if they are in trouble. According to Giles the research that it is pursuing across its the company is Peeters, defence director at Track24, the “Echo business areas to company employees and acts as the satellite communications transmitto the press. Of particular interest was a driving forward ter/receiver for the smartphone.” The use of new ad hoc networking waveform which the Iridium and Inmarsat constellations means that “you can use the company is rolling out for its Flexnet wideband software our system in the North Pole and it will work in exactly the same defined radio families. This UHF waveform is designed to carry way as if it was being used in a city.” The ability of the Echo to pervoice and data traffic at rates of between 2.3-to-six megabits-perform position reporting means that it can also be utilised to prosecond. According to a written statement from Thales provided to vide Blue Force Tracking, giving “situational awareness at the lowAMR, this waveform is already in service with undisclosed cusest tactical level,” Mr. Peeters adds. The company commenced tomers in the Asia-Pacific and Europe. production of the Echo in March 2014 for a Canadian customer. In terms of performance, it offers up to 14 hours of battery life when SATCOM providing position reports every minute, although the battery life Track24 Defence of Ontario, Canada has provided Pulse with an increases to four-and-a-half days if the Echo is sending out posiupdate regarding the company’s Echo handheld satellite-based tion reports every 15 minutes. tracking and message system. Using L-band (one to two gigahertz)


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MILITARY

H E L I C O P T E R S

The Republic of Korea Navy will be the first international operator of AgustaWestland’s AW159 Wildcat. The aircraft is also being procured by the Royal Navy, and in the future it will also equip the British Army Air Corps © AgustaWestland

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Military Helicopters:AMR

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MILITARY

H E L I C O P T E R S

s the United States continues its much-vaunted Asia-Pacific foreign policy ‘pivot’, many nations through their own volition and some with the encouragement of the US are now analysing how they should be updating their maritime rotary assets. In many cases buying new is preferred to upgrading existing fleets as most of these legacy rotary aircraft are still equipped with analogue instrumented cockpits and thus behind in generational terms contemporary digitally instrumented aircraft. Additionally, there is now more wealth around the region, leading to increasing defence budgets while Western markets are slowed by defence cutbacks emanating from the continued economic downturn affecting Europe and the United States. These factors provide greater opportunity for harder bargaining with helicopter Original Equipment Manufacturers by customers now seeking to strengthen their own aerospace sectors. Technology transfer has replaced simple assembly of acquisitions as part of today’s defence contracts.

A EXPANDING THE ROTARY CLUB The drive towards expanding maritime capability now being expressed by many nations in the Asia-Pacific region seems to be accelerating and as part of that trend, arguably, it is naval helicopters that are emerging as one of the most urgent requirements.

by Andrew Drwiega

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Increased tension

The increase in China’s defence spending, together with the growing unpredictability of its strategy demonstrated by its creation of an Air Defence Identification Zone (ADIZ) over the East China Sea in November 2013, has increased tension among several of its neighbours, not least with Japan and Taiwan as the disputed islands of Senkaku/Diaoyu are within the ADIZ. While there is no aggressive patrolling by the Chinese military to assert its sovereignty claims at the moment, there are suspicions among some of China’s neighbours regarding Beijing’s longer term ambitions. This move, combined with China’s territorial claims in the South China Sea, are encouraging some nations such as Japan and Korea to increase their maritime forces in the form of their naval and Coast Guard fleets. In addition to fixed wing aircraft, Japan has shown that it wants to increase its capacity for reconnaissance and surveillance of the airspace and seas around its

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MILITARY

H E L I C O P T E R S

The Fiscal Year 2014 Japanese defence budget has provision to add another four Sikorsky SH-60K maritime support helicopters to the Japanese Maritime Defence Force. The Japanese armed forces are a major user of Sikorsky’s UH/SH-60 family of medium-lift utility and maritime support rotorcraft © Japanese Ministry of Defence

scattered territory. In the Japanese defence budget overview for 2014 (published December 2013) there is the provision for the acquisition of four Sikorsky SH-60K maritime support helicopters at a cost of $234 million for the Japanese Maritime Self-Defence Force (JMSDF). These would succeed the older Sikorsky SH-60Js and provide a better Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) capability. There is also a $11.6 million budget for a Life Extension Programme for two existing SH-60J helicopters. The Japanese Air Self-Defence Force has a budget of $1.1 billion for three Sikorsky UH-60J medium-lift utility helicopters for Search And Rescue (SAR) and is looking at the longer term upgrade of its Boeing CH-47J Chinook heavylift rotorcraft to increase its preparedness for disaster assistance. All of the UH-60 variants are manufactured under license by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. Interestingly there is funding for study and research into a ship based Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) which would be compatible with vessels in the JMSDF. The visualization in the document shows this

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to be a rotorcraft with the assumption made that it would be an existing UAV rather than a new design. Like Japan, the Republic of Korea (RoK) sees a need to bolster its amphibious capabilities and will raise an RoK Marine Corps Aviation Combat Element in 2017 through to 2020. It will comprise around two mobile helicopter battalions likely equipped with UH-60P Black Hawks. The RoK also confirmed an order for eight AgustaWestland AW159 Wildcat maritime support helicopters that will fly off the RoK Navy’s (RoKN) new Future Frigate Experimental (FFX) ‘Incheon’ class vessels, the first three of which are currently being introduced into service. The

The Republic of Korea sees a need to bolster its amphibious capabilities and will raise an RoK Marine Corps Aviation Combat Element from 2017 l

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eventual plan is to have 15 of the inshore patrol vessels. Having already purchased and operated the AgustaWestland Super Lynx 300, the RoK is the first international customer to procure the new AW159. Deliveries will start in 2015 and should be concluded by the end of 2016. The Royal Navy (RN) and British Army are the lead customers with 28 and 34 airframes on order respectively. The RN will use the helicopter mainly on its Type 45 ‘Daring’ class and Type 23 ‘Duke’ class destroyers and frigates. The RoKN will not be waiting for the Future Anti Surface Guided WeaponHeavy (FASGW-Heavy) from MBDA even though the British and French governments have now allocated over $839 million to the Demonstration and Manufacture contract. The FASGW-Heavy is a Anglo-French initiative to procure a new heavy air-tosurface missile. Although a welcome development, after much delay, it will still not result in FASGW-Heavy entering service until around 2020. Instead the RoKN will use Rafael’s Spike Non Line of Sight (NLoS) multi-purpose missile which can be laserguided onto its target. It has a range of 13 nautical miles (25 kilometres). The RoKN Wildcats will feature the Thales Compact Flash Sonics dipping sonar (also on Australia’s new Sikorsky


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H E L I C O P T E R S MH-60R Seahawk maritime support helicopters), a Selex Seaspray 7000E Active Electronically Scanned Antenna radar, and a nose mounted L3 Wescam MX-15Di optronics pod. As its base ship is a frigate, the helicopter’s roles will be varied but will include reconnaissance aimed at locating ships, submarines, people and also national maritime security and surveillance.

Malaysia

Whether the Royal Malaysian Navy (RMN) will follow the RoKN’s lead remains to be seen as it is also a Super Lynx 300 operator. The RMN is looking for an ASW helicopter and as it already operates the Super Lynx AW159 Wildcat might also be an option. The RMN has also been asking whether a maritime version of the Eurocopter EC-725 Caracal would be an option to increase compatibility of logistics and maintenance with the Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF), which already operates the EC-725. However, Sikorsky will once again be eager to enter its MH-60R in any maritime competition. Ultimately, this aspiration is

dependant on funding. This is because during the Singapore Airshow in February 2014, it emerged that Malaysia was likely to delay the acquisition of new equipment until the Eleventh Malaysia Plan (2016-2020), which details government spending priorities and intentions. The life extension of up to 15 of the 28 RMAF Sikorsky S-61A-4 Nuri medium-lift utility helicopters is supposed to be happening, as is their transfer to the Army. However, the fleet is not in good shape and it remains to seen whether any additional Airbus Helicopter EC-725s will be added to the twelve already conducting operations with 10 Squadron based at Kuantan air base on the coast of the South China Sea. Airod is the local company tasked with upgrading the Nuris. The potential for Malaysia to procure an attack helicopter to counter insurgents has sparked interest from Boeing, Airbus Helicopter and Bell Helicopter which are promoting the AH-64D Apache, EC-665 Tiger and AH-1Z Cobra gunships respectively. However the lack of funds for what would be a ‘big ticket’ buy would suggest

The Royal Malaysian Air Force is an operator of the Airbus Helicopters EC-725 medium-lift utility helicopter. The country’s navy is now examining whether this aircraft could fulfil its requirements © Royal Malaysian Air Force

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that this will not happen soon. It is more likely that utility helicopters will fulfil the gunship role for the immediate future. The Army bought eleven AgustaWestland AW109 Light Utility Helicopters, a type which has served the Belgian armed forces in the reconnaissance and attack roles within the Belgian Air Component since 1992.

Thailand

Another international first is the order from the Royal Thai Army for six Airbus Helicopter UH-72A Lakota medium-lift machines through a Foreign Military Sales (FMS) agreement with the US government. The $34 million order includes mission equipment package and airborne communications in the form of Raytheon AN/ARC-231 radios. With a completion date of early April 2015, the helicopters will be built at Airbus Helicopters’ facility in Columbus, Mississippi. In February 2014 the Royal Thai Army accepted two AgustaWestland AW139 medium-lift utility helicopters which had been ordered at the end of December 2012. They will be used for transport and utility missions.


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H E L I C O P T E R S

Australia

The Australian Defence Force’s 22 Airbus Helicopter EC-665ARH (Armed Reconnaissance Helicopter) have been beset by problems and although the first operational aircraft was delivered in September 2009 it was over two years late. It has been hampered by the slow establishment of the logistics flow from the manufacturer in France. After the initial but ultimately unsuccessful purchase then return of Kaman’s SH-2 Seasprite helicopters for the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) procured to meet the Air 9000 Phase 8 multirole helicopter programme, the RAN then selected the MH-60R Seahawk. The first four of 24 Australian Sikorsky SH-60R Seahawks have now been delivered to the RAN crewmen who are training at Jacksonville Naval Air Station in Florida. Commenting on the Seahawk’s ability to carry the Lockheed Martin AGM-114 Hellfire air-to-surface missile, Commander David Frost, the commanding officer of the RAN’s NUSQN 725 naval air squadron, remarked in an article published by the PR Newswire on 25 February 2014 that, “it’s been a capability gap that we’re now going to be able to fill with this aircraft. It’s an aircraft that’s jam-packed with sensors the likes of which we’ve never seen and the US Navy are still coming to grips with.” The RAN will have all of its SH-60Rs by the end of 2017. Raytheon Integrated Defence Systems was awarded a $42.5 million firmfixed-price contract to supply the RAN’s Seahawks with low frequency dipping sonar systems with a completion date for the supply and installation of 2017.

New Zealand

New Zealand has recently equipped its Defence Force with five AgustaWestland AW109 LUH that are being used by 3 Squadron as training helicopters and for light utility duties. The AW109 LUHs replaced the venerable Bell 47 Sioux aircraft. Once trained, aircrew then progress to the new NH-90s that are being introduced into the Royal New Zealand Navy (RNZN) or the five naval Kaman SH-2G maritime support helicopters operated by 6 Squadron. These are also being replaced through a $242 million order for ten

Six Airbus Helicopter UH-72A Lakota helicopters have been ordered by the Thai Army. The one pictured here incorporates a modern, night vision goggle-compatible glass cockpit. This helicopter is in use with the United States Army © Airbus Helicopter

Kaman Aerospace SH-2G helicopters (eight front line and two attrition airframes), together with spares, training aids including a full motion simulator and munitions. The SH-2G Seasprites are aircraft that were returned to Kaman by the RAN in 2008. New Zealand Defence Force personnel are at Kaman’s storage facility in Connecticut, United States to help regenerate the aircraft and bring them into service. The eight NH Industries NH-90 medium-lift utility helicopters are years late in delivery according to Secretary of Defence Helene Quilter quoted in an article in the New Zealand Herald on 8 December 2013. The first aircraft was delivered in October 2011 and is listed as an ‘attrition airframe’ while the last aircraft is now expected by September 2014 – 34 months late. The contract was signed in July 2006.

Philippines

As the Philippines armed forces gather speed in addressing the Republic Act No. 10349 of the Armed Forces of the Philippines Modernisation Act 1995, the former of which was passed on 11 December 2012, the improvement of its helicopter assets has already been partly addressed. Just one month after Typhoon Haiyan (called Typhoon Yolanda locally) hit the

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country on 3 November 2013, the deadliest in Philippine history killing over 6,000 people, the first three (of five) AgustaWestland AW109 Power medium-lift utility helicopters arrived from Italy. Costing $30 million, the aircraft will operate from the navy’s BRP Gregorio del Pilar and BRP Ramon Alcaraz frigates. The two additional AW109s will be ‘combat capable’. The aim of the 15-year programme enshrined in Republic Act No. 10349 that runs through to the end of 2027 is aimed at restoring the operational capability to the Philippine armed forces with a modern fleet of rotorcraft. Additional helicopters will be required for airborne search and ASW roles bringing the naval fleet size up to around 18 aircraft. Indeed the competition for these ASW helicopters has been initiated with $121 million bids to be received for the first two ASW helicopters which would be delivered within two years. However, there have already been objections with one parliamentary member saying that the main threat faced by the country was from insurgents on land. The air force is also modernising and has selected a traditional source, Bell Helicopter, to help it achieve its aims. Working through the Canadian

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H E L I C O P T E R S Commercial Corporation (CCC), the Philippine Department of National Defence (DND) has committed to eight Bell 412EP medium-lift utility helicopters, five of which will be configured for combat and utility operations while the remaining three will serve as VIP aircraft. The Bell 412EP has a dual digital automatic flight control system. “We chose the Bell 412EP because of its versatility and performance in extreme environments,” said undersecretary Fernando I. Manalo from the DND, according to a 2 April 2014 press release published by Bell Helicopter. The ambition is to have the first three aircraft delivered before the start of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Summit in 2015, to be hosted in the Philippines, which last hosted the event in 1996. Previously the Philippine Air Force has operated Bell UH-1Hs and two Bell 412s medium-lift utility machines.

help to “integrate aerial surveillance” within the coastguard, he added in his speech. There will be four DN-2000 vessels with the first already delivered. With a top speed of 21 knots (39 kilometres-per-hour) and a range of around 5,000 nautical miles (9,260 kilometres), the addition of a helicopter would increase the ship’s mission capability. The rear flight deck can operate helicopters weighing up to 14 tons and aircraft believed to be at the forefront of con-

Vietnam

sideration include the Russian Kamov Ka27 and Airbus Helicopter’s AS-565 Panther maritime support rotorcraft. Although the acquisition has not officially been launched Maj. Nguyen stated that it could happen by the middle of 2014. Russian Helicopters is likely to increase its promotion of the new Kamov Ka-52 Alligator gunship following its appearance at the Singapore Airshow in February 2014. Billed as a reconnaissance

Speaking at the OPV (Offshore Patrol Vessels) Asia-Pacific 2014 conference, held in Singapore during March 2014, Major Nguyen Khac Vuot, deputy director for the International Relations Division of the Vietnamese Coast Guard announced that the service was looking to procure helicopters for its ‘DN-2000/Damen 9014’ class Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs). According to Major Nguyen the helicopters will be one of the assets that will

While Indonesia seems genuine in its commitment to buy Boeing Apache AH-64E Guardian attack helicopters, it is also continuing to try and build up its aerospace sector

The Royal Australian Navy has received its first four Sikorsky MH-60R Seahawk maritime support helicopters. Aircrews for these rotorcraft are currently undergoing training in the United States © Australian Department of Defence

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and ground attack platform, Russia will be pushing this aircraft as an alternative to Western attack helicopters together with the Mi-17V-5 and the Mi-171Sh combat and utility helicopters.

Indonesia

While Indonesia seems genuine in its commitment to buy Boeing Apache AH64E Guardian attack helicopters, it is also continuing to try and build up its aerospace sector since its near collapse in the late 1990s. While it too has naval helicopter requirements, its close relationship with Airbus Helicopters for rotary wing and Airbus Group for the manufacture of turboprop freighters has put the European company in prime position to bid for new orders. In 2013 Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono revealed a nine percent increase, from 2013 figures, to the annual defence budget for 2014 which is worth $7.9 billion. He stated that the objective was to create “the minimum essential force” as well as boosting the country’s indigenous defence industry.

Burma

Burma may well provide opportunities for international helicopter manufacturers to provide updated aircraft for its rather aged military rotorcraft fleet. The government announced a defence budget of $2.4 billion for 2014, which is estimated to be around 14% of total government expenditure. The recent purchase of Mi-35 Hind attack helicopters adds to a very mixed collection of aircraft owned by the Burmese Air Force. Other Russian types include the Mi-17 and Mi-2, Polish PZL W-3 and American Bell UH-1 Iroquois, Bell 205 and Bell 206 medium-lift utility aircraft. It also has Indian HAL Dhruv support helicopters. As the above discussion notes, the AsiaPacific is very much a growth area for military helicopter suppliers. Regional disputes and fleet recapitalization is driving forward demand. Along with the demand for new military rotorcraft from the Middle East, helicopter manufacturers will be keenly competing to secure lucrative contracts, particularly in light of the current downturn Western defence budgets.


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SMART DEFENCE AGAINST SMART BOMBS In the wars of the last two decades, the relationship between Precision Guided Munitions (PGMs) and Integrated Air Defence Systems (IADS) has been one in which the former, in the hands of the United States and its allies, have destroyed examples of the latter deployed by antagonists.

by Peter Donaldson

uch PGM success to date against IADS has resulted from a combination of factors including standoff ranges that allow them to be launched from outside the reach of Surface-to-Air Missiles (SAMs) and with support from decoys, jamming and surprise tactics such as the use of very low flying attack helicopters against radar sites. Stealthy aircraft have also played a vital role. The IADS defeated in Iraq, Serbia and Libya lacked the airborne elements, in the form of fighter aircraft, required to maximise range and deal with very low flying targets, a lesson not lost on China, India, Japan, Pakistan, Russia, Singapore, the Republic of Korea, Taiwan and Thailand, all of whom have developed or acquired Airborne Early Warning (AEW) aircraft and networked Multi-Role Combat Aircraft (MRCA). Most recently, for example, Thailand declared its “Gripen Integrated Air Defence System” operational on 13 September 2013. Key elements of the system include a pair of Saab 340 twin turboprops equipped with that company’s Erieye Airborne Early Warning radar and command and control system, twelve Saab JAS-39C/D Gripen MRCA, datalinks and a ground segment that includes mission planning, debriefing and training systems.

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Counter Rocket And Mortar (C-RAM) systems derived from naval close-in weapon systems look set for increasing use in defence of integrated air defence systems against precision-guided munitions; Raytheon’s Centurion system being one example of this trend © US Army

Aerostat IADS

Aerostats must now be considered among the airborne elements of an IADS, as a recent US test of the Raytheon Joint Land

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Attack Cruise Missile Defence Elevated Netted Sensor (JLENS) against a cruise missile target shows. In the first test, which took place at the US Army’s Dugway Proving Ground in Utah on 17 July 2013, a JLENS radar system detected and tracked a target simulating an anti-ship cruise missile and transferred its radar track information to a United States Air Force (USAF) Boeing F-15E Eagle MRCA, which shot the target down with an Raytheon AIM-120 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM). “JLENS has demonstrated a proven capability against cruise missiles and surface moving targets including swarming boats, making it a very capable and affordable system for territorial defence”, Raytheon’s JLENS programme director Doug Burgess told AMR. PGMs and precision strike capabilities are proliferating beyond US and Western control thanks to successful exports of very capable weapons by Russia and China and indigenous developments by many other countries with varied relationships with the US, the West and each other. US forces and those deployed alongside them have not had to face PGMs or indeed any threats to their own IADS on land. At sea, of course, navies have had to be able to defend themselves from PGMs in the form of anti-ship missiles and homing torpedoes for decades. Naval realities aside, the main focus has been on ballistic missiles, which don’t count as PGMs because they lack the seekers, guidance and control systems that

WEAPONS

cle and a missile with the demonstrated ability to destroy one, and so would have to rely on attacking its kill chain, spoofing or destroying its seeker.

Changing Syrian calculus

Raytheon’s AGM-154 Joint Stand Off Weapon (JSOW) is a family of low-cost, air-to-ground weapons that enables engagement of targets well beyond most enemy air defences. The weapon was developed as a joint venture involving the United States Air Force and Navy © Raytheon

enable them to hit a moving target or avoid interceptor missiles. A notable exception is China’s Changfeng Mechanics and Electronics Technology Academy’s DF21D ‘carrier killer’ anti-ship ballistic missile, the re-entry vehicle of which is believed to have terminal guidance and significant manoeuvrability. The US currently lacks a target capable of mimicking the DF-21D’s manoeuvring re-entry vehi-

Strike capabilities are proliferating beyond US and Western control thanks to successful exports of very capable weapons by Russia and China

However, the IADS that has been exercising US, NATO and Israeli defence planners most of late is, of course, that of Syria. The Syrian IADS’ system’s main components are radars and missiles of Soviet origin that Syria acquired in the 1970s. Contrary to some analyses, RAND Corporation researcher Karl P. Mueller, co-writing with Thomas Hamilton and Jeffrey Martini, (respectively RAND’s senior physical scientist and Middle East analyst) in the report ‘Airpower Options for Syria: Assessing Objectives and Missions for Aerial Intervention’, believes that it could be easily overcome. “The extensive but mostly antiquated Syrian integrated air defence system, while it should be taken seriously, is less formidable than many imagine”, Mr. Mueller argues in an the August 2013 report outlining air power options for a potential intervention: “US and allied air power could readily destroy its fixed elements in a major campaign and is relatively well prepared to deal with the residual threat that surviving mobile systems would pose to other air operations over the longer term.” In the same study, the authors report that some SAMs have been upgraded but; “neither Russia nor China has chosen to supply Syria with the most modern sys-

Surface-to-Air Missile sites are on the target list for MBDA’s stealthy Taurus KEPD 350 air-to-ground missile, which is also designed to kill hard and deeply-buried targets and, with void sensing technology to target a specific floor in a building © MBDA

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tems that they use themselves”. US and allied pilots overcame similar legacy Soviet/Russian-designed systems in Iraq and Serbia, and regularly train against simulations of them, the RAND study continues, also pointing out that the Israeli Air Force has penetrated Syria’s air defences several times since 2007. Mr. Mueller told AMR that this analysis still stands: “Our take is that the Syrian air defences are large but not of very high quality, so if the US or NATO were thinking about military intervention the question is more about whether they want to do it rather than whether they are capable of doing it.” Asked whether he thought Syria’s capabilities had been exaggerated, he said: “I think it is partly that some people make their assessments based on just reading lists of hardware and numerically there is a lot of air defence equipment in Syria, so if you use bean counting it looks like there’s a lot there to overcome. And quantity does make a difference; it means that if we are going to launch some sort of an air campaign where you actually felt that the first step needed to be to incapacitate the Syrian air defence system that would be a fairly big job. Each unit may not be particularly dangerous but there’s a lot out there.”

S-300 conundrum

Syria’s IADS, then, is not representative of the kind of system most likely to be encountered in future conflicts. It does not yet include, for example, the potentially game-changing Antey-Almaz S-300 SAM system family. Russia’s contract to supply Syria with these has been seen as a deterrent to Western military intervention, something with which Russian President Vladimir Putin has generated considerable political leverage. S-300s deployed in Syria could threaten aircraft a long way outside its airspace as they have a range of 2.7 to 81 nautical miles (5-150 kilometres), and the system is said to be capable of shooting down cruise missiles. Mr. Putin has said that no complete systems have yet been delivered to Syria and that the delivery process has been suspended. On 4 June 2013, following a summit with the European Union, he said: “It’s

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Stealthy long-range weapons such as the MBDA Storm Shadow/SCALP air-to-ground cruise missile have successfully penetrated integrated air defence systems in Iraq and Libya, but have not been tested in combat against the most modern of air defences © MBDA

a serious weapon. We would not like to tip the balance of power in the region. We signed the contract a few years ago. It has not been implemented yet”, media outlet Russia Today reported. On 27 January 2014, however, Israel’s Jerusalem Post reported strikes on S-300 missile launchers in the Syrian port city of Latakia believed to have taken place late on the night of 26 January 2014. If key elements of these highly capable systems have indeed been destroyed before they could be put into operation, it could reduce Russia’s influence over the situation and alter the calculus for potential future intervention, although in the West at least for the time being, there appears to be little appetite for such a course of action. Russia has supplied this weapon to some of its Asia-Pacific neighbours, with several versions of the S-300 making their way to China in the 2000s including the S300PMU1/2 and the S-300FM naval

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weapon, while Vietnam reportedly received S-300PMU-1 systems during 2005, according to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI).

Turkish endorsement for China?

Turkey’s selection of a Chinese groundbased air defence system in 2013, thought to be closely related to the S-300 (see above) for its medium-range SAM requirement seems to present the US and NATO with both a threat and an opportunity. At the time of writing (April 2014), there is still uncertainty about whether Turkey will continue with this acquisition. It is under pressure from its NATO allies not to buy the China Precision Machinery Import Export Corporation (CPMIEC) FD-2000 SAM system (the export version of the local HQ-9) and local reports emerged at the end of March 2014 that the Turkish government is considering the procurement of a domestic system, possibly via a development programme to be led by domestic contractor Aselsan. The FD-2000 is believed to incorporate much S-300 technology. In response to the Turkish decision, US politicians have opposed the integration of Chinese SAMs into NATO’s air and missile defence networks on security grounds, citing worries over Chinese technicians learning


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about command and control message formats, communications protocols and performance details. In the meantime, Turkey has repeatedly postponed the decision regarding its future medium-range SAM solution and the latest extension reportedly moves the deadline to the end of June 2014 to provide time to consider revised bids from the Raytheon/Lockheed Martin consortium and from Eurosam. Six Republican senators wrote to Secretary of State John Kerry and Secretary of Defence Charles ‘Chuck’ Hagel on 11 October 2013 about the HQ-9 issue: “We strongly urge you to exert all available diplomatic pressure to prevent Turkish procurement of a CPMIEC missile defence system and ensure NATO will never allow such a system to be integrated into NATO’s security architecture”, wrote Mark Kirk, John Cornyn, Roger F Wicker, John Barrasso, John Boozman, James Inhofe and Ted Cruz. The HQ-9 offers a range of more than 67 nm (125km) up to an altitude of more than 98,400ft (30,000m) and CPMIEC offered four batteries for $3.4 billion, according to the US-China Economic and Security Review Commission. The equivalent numbers for the competing systems are 65nm (120km) range and 65,600ft (20,000m) altitude and a cost of $4.4 billion for the Eurosam SAMP/T Aster-30; 24nm (45km)

range, 49,000ft (15,000m) altitude and a cost of $4.6 billion for the Raytheon/Lockheed Martin Patriot MIM-104F PAC-3, and 215nm (400km) range, 164,000ft (50,000m) altitude and a cost of $8.4 billion for the Rosoboronexport/Almaz-Antey S-400 Triumf. Whether Turkey finally fields the HQ-9 or not, its first choice will serve as a powerful marketing tool.

Point defence for IADS

The PGM’s advantage over IADS has long been predicated on range to keep the launch aircraft beyond the reach of SAMs. In future, however, it is likely to depend in large part on the PGM’s ability to avoid being shot down. This technological tussle, very familiar in the naval arena where the balance of advantage between anti-ship missiles and hard-kill defences is narrow and fiercely fought over, is increasingly important over land. Several new systems can pose a groundto-air threat to PGMs. In tests with the Almaz-Antey TOR-M2 mobile tracked air defence missile system, according to a statement made by Sergei Druzin AlmazAntey’s research and development chief, published by the company in November 2014 he said that five missiles were fired at “very difficult” targets, three of which were hit head-on and two destroyed by shrapnel from their warheads.

The KBP Tula Pantsir-S1 gun and missile air defence system is seen here mounted on a Kamaz truck. The weapon is designed to engage cruise missiles and precision guided munitions. It may have already been used in combat to down a Turkish Air Force McDonnell Douglas RF-4 reconnaissance aircraft in June 2012 © Wikimedia Commons

The KBP Instrument Design Bureau’s Pantsir-S1 combined gun and missile system is attracting strong interest around the world for its capability against cruise missiles, guided bombs and UAVs in addition to high-performance strike aircraft and helicopters. Russia has also developed Ultra High Frequency (300 megahertz to three gigahertz) radars, such as NNIIRT’s 1L121E, that are optimised to detect small targets such as UAVs and PGMs. This kind of system could make today’s non-stealthy missiles and guided bombs irrelevant, certainly in the opening stages of future conflicts.

Game-changing lasers?

The conceptual CVS302 Hoplite is intended for the most lethal battlefields of 2035 and beyond. The weapon will use low observable features, flexible subsonic/supersonic propulsion, low-level flight and agile mission control to penetrate defences en route to the target © MBDA

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Short range weapons such as the PantsirS1, as well as point defence missile systems and adaptations of naval Close In Weapon Systems (CIWS) into land-based CounterRocket, Artillery, Mortar (C-RAM) weapons seem an ideal platform for defending long-range SAM systems and other IADS elements such as radars, control vans and command shelters from PGMs. Indeed, China’s Ludun 2000 antiaircraft gun is believed to be a copy of the Thales Goalkeeper system mounted on an eight-wheel truck for this role. The emerging technology of high energy laser CIWS/C-RAM applications may even prove to be game-changing in this application. Whether today’s stealthy PGMs or defences such as these currently hold the advantage is unclear.


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BEAM

ME UP SCOTTY!

Once upon a time, warships were bereft of radar; instead they were reliant on their observers to spot land or enemy ships. The advent of radar in the Second World War would become arguably the biggest revolution in naval warfare since the development of the Ironclad in the 19th century.

by Thomas Withington

CEA Technologies of Australia is rolling out its CEAFAR and CEAMOUNT radars onboard the Royal Australian Navy’s ‘ANZAC’ class frigates, with this upgrade programme expected to be completed in 2016 © CEA Technologies

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oday naval surveillance radars are as essential to maritime operations as surface-to-air and anti-ship missiles, sonar and maritime support helicopters, and the demand for these radars is booming. According to the Washington DCbased consultancy Avascent, the market for such products in the Asia-Pacific region alone is expected to reach over $235 million by 2016/2017, compared to the $66 million that the company says the market was worth in 2013. This represents a potential 356 percent increase over a four-year period. These figures are derived from stated and expected procurements of radars by the navies of Australia, Japan, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan and Vietnam. Significant procurement activity in the naval radar domain has been witnessed over the past two years, both in the AsiaPacific region and across the wider world, as navies seek to replace ageing naval radars with new equipment, and to procure new radars for forthcoming vessels.

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Australia

Australia is one Asia-Pacific nation which is investing in naval radars. To this end, it is procuring CEA Technologies’ S-band (2.5-2.5/2.7-3.7 gigahertz) and X-band

(8.5-10.68 gigahertz/GHz)) CEAFAR and CEAMOUNT radars. According to a spokesperson for CEA Technologies the first examples of these radars were installed on “HMAS Perth in the third quarter of 2010, with the current final delivery schedule for 2016”. This final delivery will complete the radar upgrade of all eight frigates. Although the CEAFAR and CEAMOUNT radars are produced in S-band and X-band configurations for the Royal Australian Navy, “CEA Technologies is nearing completion of applications for the same technology in the L-band (one to two gigahertz) to provide longer-range, three-dimensional volume surveillance with an integrated Identification Friend or Foe capability,” adds the spokesperson.

European Suppliers

New naval radar products launched over the past twelve months include Airbus Defence and Space (formerly Cassidian) TRSS Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) X-band (eight to twelve gigahertz) radar. Designed for small and mediumsized combatants, the TRSS can enable such vessels to perform surveillance in littoral areas. The TRSS follows Airbus

Defence and Space’s TRS-4D naval surveillance radars which are currently equipping the Deutsche Marine (German Navy) forthcoming ‘F-125 Baden-Württemberg’ class frigates which are expected to enter service between 2016 and 2018. All of these radars will be delivered to the fleet by 2017, according to a statement supplied to AMR by the company. The C-band (5.25-5.925 GHz) TRS-4D has 70 degrees of elevation coverage and the AESA antenna which can either rotate, providing 360 degrees of azimuth scanning, or remain stationary to scan a 50 degree swathe. It has a range of up to 135 nautical miles (250 kilometres), and a minimum coverage of under 328 feet (100 metres) with the ability to detect and track approximately 1,000 targets simultaneously. The radar is also available with both fixed-panel and rotating antennas. Italian radar house Selex offers a number of radars to naval customers. The firm’s Kronos family, notably the RAN-40L radar configuration includes C-band threedimensional naval radars which use AESA radars to provide fire control and surveillance. To this end, these Kronos radars equip the Indian Navy’s INS Vikrant aircraft carrier and several vessels of the

Airbus Defence and Space’s TRSS Active Electronically Scanned Array radar is equipping the ‘F-125 Baden-Württemberg’ class frigates of the German Navy, with deliveries to the fleet expected to be completed by 2017 © Airbus Defence and Space

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R A D A R S air some distance beyond the horizon. This phenomenon gives the radar a range of up to 22 nm (40 km). The radar covers 20 degree of elevation and has a beamwidth of under 1.2 degrees. It can automatically detect and track up to 500 targets. It was reported in mid-February 2014 that Thales and Damen Schelde Naval Shipbuilding of the Netherlands had signed a contract for the installation of the Surface Scout Mk.3 naval surveillance radar onboard the forthcoming Joint Support Ship (JSS) of the Koninklijke Marine (Royal Netherlands Navy). Alongside the Surface Scout Thales has a new S-band radar in the form of the NS100 or Naval Smarter-100, according to a Thales naval radar expert. He adds that the company “is reusing a lot of technology from the SMART-S Mk.2 radar” (for a detailed description of this system, see this month’s Pulse column). The design of the Smarter-100 is highly scalable, which means that it should be relatively easy to increase the radar’s capabilities in the future via software upgrades and the plugand-play addition of new hardware. Looking further towards the future, according to the Thales radar expert sees the potential for a Smarter-200 radar as an eventual replacement for the Smart-S Mk.2. The company is not actively marketing this radar at present although it does envisage offering it to customers in the 2015/16 timeframe.

India

Thales’ I-Mast is seen here atop one of the Royal Netherlands Navy’s ‘Holland’ class Offshore Patrol Vessels. The mast integrates the ship’s Thales’ SeaMaster-400 and SeaWatcher-100 radar alongside a number of other RF emitters and sensors © Thomas Withington

Marina Militaire (Italian Navy). According to Marco Buratti, marketing and sales director for the land and naval systems division at Selex, the company is now moving ahead with the design of a new radar which will feature four fixed antennae to provide 360 degrees surveillance (each antenna providing 90 degrees of coverage) to be housed in an integrated mast. This will also use the C-band frequency range, according to Mr. Buratti, who adds that “we already have prototypes in testing.

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The plan is for us to be ready for customers in the 2017-2018 timeframe.” Airbus Defence and Space is not the only European company showcasing new products. In 2012 Thales unveiled its twodimensional Surface Scout X-band radar. The Surface Scout has an over-thehorizon range, thanks to its employment of Evaporation Ducting which uses a band of moist air typically up to 66ft (20m) above the sea surface to ‘bend’ RF transmissions which follow this band of

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In June 2013, the Indian Ministry of Defence issued a solicitation to acquire up to 31 surface surveillance radars for its navy. The acquisition is expected to be worth up to $300 million. Local companies have teamed with foreign suppliers to compete for this acquisition. Nova Integrated Systems of Hyderabad, southern India has joined forces with Terma of Denmark (see below). Mahindra Defence Systems of Mumbai, on India’s west coast, is partnering with Israel Aerospace Industries’ Elta Systems Division (see below) while Tata Power SED, based in Mumbai and Bangalore, southern India has teamed with Indra of Spain and Broadcast Engineering Consultants of New Delhi working with Russia’s Rosoboronexport


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BAE Systems Type-997 ARTISAN (Advanced Radar Target Indication Situational Awareness and Navigation) radar is equipping a number of ships in the Royal Navy including its forthcoming ‘Queen Elizabeth’ class aircraft carriers © BAE Systems

state arms export agency. Other players include Data Patterns of Chennai southern India and South Africa’s Reutech, and Larsen and Toubro of Mumbai which has joined forces with Airbus Defence and Space. Bharat Electronics and India’s Defence Research and Development Organisation have partnered together for the initiative. Few details have officially been released regarding the requirement, particularly vis-à-vis the ships which these new radars will equip although it is known that they will outfit vessels displacing over 3,000 tonnes. In addition, it is understood that India is searching for an X-band system which must be able to identify small targets, with the ability to track up to 50 targets simultaneously.

Indonesia

The Indonesian Navy has procured the SCANTER-4001 from Danish radar house Terma for installation on the first of its ‘Fatahillah’ class corvettes. The X-band SCANTER-4100 is a two-dimensional air and sea surveillance radar providing coverage up to a range of 90 nm (167 km) and a ceiling of 35,000ft (10,668m).

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Israel

Israeli radar specialists IAI Elta offers a number of naval radars as part of its MFSTAR series. MFSTAR family members include the S-band EL/M-2258 ALPHA (Advanced Lightweight Phased Array Radar) three-dimensional system which can detect low-flying missile targets at 14nm (25km), and higher-altitude conventional threats at 65nm (120km). The EL/M2258 covers 360 degrees in azimuth and 70 degrees in elevation, imposing a weight penalty of 700 kilograms (1,540 pounds) on a vessel. The multifunction nature of this radar is underlined by the fact that it can perform fire control as well as sea and air surveillance. The EL/M-2258’s sibling, the EL/M-2248 fixed array naval radar, uses

Kelvin Hughes of the United Kingdom continues to enjoy healthy sales of its SharpEye family of naval surveillance radars

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fixed-panel AESA antennae and transmits in the S-band. It offers similar ranges to the EL/M-2258 ALPHA although it is capable of detecting high altitude targets at a range of 135nm (250km). This radar is being installed on the ‘Sa’ar’ class corvettes of the Israeli Navy.

United Kingdom

Kelvin Hughes of the United Kingdom continues to enjoy healthy sales of its SharpEye family of naval surveillance radars. In November 2013 it announced that it would be outfitting several vessels of the Irish Navy with its S-band SharpEye radar, the installation of which commenced in November 2012 with radars being installed onboard the LÉ Niamh, a ‘Róisín’ class Offshore Patrol Vessel (OPV). Her sister, the LÉ Róisín, received a SharpEye radar in 2013. These radars will also be rolled out across the LÉ Samuel Beckett and the LÉ James Joyce, both ‘Samuel Beckett’ class OPVs, by 2015. SharpEye is available in both S-band and X-band configurations with the radars having a range of up to 48nm (89km). In addition to equipping the vessels of the Irish


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Navy, the SharpEye S-band radar has also been selected to equip the Royal Navy’s RFA Argus medical vessel, with the Xband variant of the radar equipping the RFA Fort Rosalie fleet replenishment ship. As far as larger Royal Navy combatants are concerned, the Royal Navy’s Type-23 ‘Duke’ class frigate HMS Iron Duke returned to service in 2013 with a new BAE Systems Type-997 ARTISAN (Advanced Radar Target Indication Situational Awareness and Navigation) radar. The Type-997‘s maximum instrumented range is in the order of 108nm (200km) with the detection of an aircraft-sized target at 100nm (185km) and a missile at 27nm (50km). It provides 70 degree elevation coverage and the tracking of over 800 targets. The Type-997 was selected by the United Kingdom Ministry of Defence in August 2008 to be rolled out onboard all Type-23 frigates, plus the Royal Navy’s two forthcoming ‘Queen Elizabeth’ class aircraft car-

riers, and the HMS Albion and HMS Bulwark ‘Albion’ class amphibious support ships. This radar replaces the ships’ erstwhile BAE Systems’ Type-996/AWS-9 Sband surveillance radar which equips all 13 Type-23 vessels in service with the Royal Navy, and the three Type-23 frigates equipping the Armada de Chile (Chilean Navy).

United States

The United States Navy is moving forward with the integration of Saab’s C-band Sea Giraffe AMB radar aboard the USS Independence eponymous class Littoral Combat Ship (LCS). Known as the AN/SPS-77 in US Navy service, this threedimensional radar has a ceiling of circa 66,000ft (20,000m), according to open sources. As of January 2014, the AN/SPS77 has been installed on three of the ‘Independence’ class LCSs, notably the USS Independence, USS Colorado and USS Jackson. Additional radars are also on

order and in manufacture for the five additional vessels which will comprise the ‘Independence’ class. One of the leading radars in US Navy service is Lockheed Martin’s AN/SPY-1 series which forms a key component of the Aegis Combat Management System. This S-band radar equips the service’s ‘Ticonderoga’ class cruisers and its ‘Arleigh Burke’ class destroyers. Several AN/SPY-1 variants are in service, but of particular interest to this article is the AN/SPY-1D version which outfits the ‘Arleigh Burke’ class and the Japan Maritime Self Defence Force’s ‘Kongo’ class destroyers, along with the Republic of Korea Navy’s ‘King Sejong the Great’ class destroyers and the Armada Española (Spanish Navy) Cristóbal Colón frigate belonging to its ‘Álvaro de Bazán’ class. In terms of design, the AN/SPY-1D uses the four distributed antennae of the AN/SPY-1 baseline architecture, although

Saab’s Sea Giraffe AMB radar has sold well around the world. It is seen here equipping one of the Royal Swedish Navy’s ‘Visby’ class corvettes. It has also been selected to equip the ‘Independence’ class of Littoral Combat Ship in service with the United States Navy © Saab

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Lockheed Martin’s AN/SPY-1 radar forms the bedrock of the Aegis Combat Management System. The flat panels of the radars’ antenna can be seen here below the bridge on the USS Vella Gulf ‘Ticonderoga’ class cruiser © US Navy

unlike earlier AN/SPY-1 variants, the Delta version has a single transmitter and improved tracking and signal processing. The AN/SPY-1D(V) variant of the radar is an augmentation of the baseline AN/SPY1D which has received a software enhancement to improve its littoral surveillance capabilities. This is the AN/SPY1D variant which equips the Japanese and Korean vessels and also the US Navy’s Flight-IIA ‘Arleigh Burke’ class destroyers namely from the USS Oscar Austin (DDG79), up to and including the as-yetunnamed DDG-122 ship. The AN/SPY1D(V) will also equip the RAN’s ‘Hobart’ class destroyers. A total of three ships equipped with the AN/SPY-1D(V) will comprise this class which will replace the service’s existing ‘Adelaide’ class frigates. The ‘Hobart’ ships are also receiving Northrop Grumman’s X-band AN/SPQ9B radar which has a detection range in the region of ten nautical miles (19km) and a one-degree azimuth beamwidth.

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Regarding larger combatants, the AN/SPY-1D radar will eventually be replaced by Raytheon’s Air and Missile Defence Radar (AMDR). The AMDR programme will deliver S-band and X-band radars to equip the Flight-III ‘Arleigh Burke’ class destroyers, of which the US Navy plans to acquire up to 42 with the first vessels earmarked to enter service from circa 2023, according to a January 2013 article published by the US Naval Institute. Denis Donohue, director of above water sensors at Raytheon, says that the AMDR is “an integrated active phased-

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array radar suite composed of the X-band AN/SPY-3 Multi-Function Radar and the S-band Volume Search Radar.” Although this radar is earmarked for the Flight-III ‘Arleigh Burke’ class vessels, Mr. Donohue adds that it can be “scaled to larger and smaller platforms”. As noted above, the AN/SPY-3 is part of the overall AMDR ensemble. This radar will also equip the US Navy’s ‘Zumwalt’ class destroyers and the ‘Gerald R. Ford’ class aircraft carriers. Using an AESA antenna the radar has narrow beamwidth for accurate target discrimination and wide bandwidth to reduce atmospheric disturbances to signal propagation. According to open sources, it has a detection range of around 172nm (320km). Along with surveillance, it can perform navigation and fire control for surface-to-air missiles. Looking towards other large combatants Exelis was awarded a contract modification by the US Navy in 2012 worth $20.2 million to provide upgrade kits for


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the AN/SPS-48 air search radars produced by the company. The S-band AN/SPS-48 is undergoing an upgrade to take it to the AN/SPS-48G configuration under the ROAR (Radar Obsolescence Availability Programme) which will enhance 29 of the navy’s AN/SPS-48E radars as part of a contract worth $169.3 million. The key element of the ROAR is the installation of open architecture electronics in the radar’s back end to make it easier to upgrade with new software and capabilities through its remaining service life. AN/SPS-48 radars have a range of circa 250nm (460km) and a ceiling of 100,000ft (30,000m). They are in service onboard the US Navy’s ‘Nimitz’ class aircraft carriers, plus its ‘Wasp’, ‘Tarawa’ and ‘San Antonio’ class amphibious support ships.

Hard Material

What are the future directions for naval radar design? Two words that you hear radar engineers mention is Gallium

Exelis is deeply involved in the Radar Obsolescence Availability Programme which is rolling out improvements to the US Navy’s AN/SPS-48E radars built by the same company. This upgrade will take these radars to AN/SPS-48G status © US Navy

Nitride (GaN). At present many radars, particularly those employing an AESA antenna, use Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) in their construction particularly for semiconductors vital for a radar’s amplifiers and switching equipment. GaAs has a number of advantages compared to silicon for semiconductor manufacture as the former material can function at higher frequencies in excess of 250 gigahertz. It has good heat resistance and produces less noise at higher frequencies which has made GaAs particularly attractive as radars have moved into increasingly higher bandwidths. However, scientists are now looking at GaN as the next ‘miracle material’ for radar design. Gallium Nitride has even better heat resistance as an exceptionally hard material and could improve radar perform-

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ance even further. Mr. Donohue says that Raytheon recently “demonstrated the reliability of its GaN technology, resulting in a Manufacturing Readiness Level production capability of ‘Eight’, the highest level obtained by any organization in the defence industry for this technology.” Manufacturing Readiness Level is a US Department of Defence classification system. A score of eight indicates that a particular system is ready for low-rate production. Away from the material side of things, further improvements to the radar’s back end will continue to improve performance, according to the CEA Technologies spokesperson: “The growing availability of higher power RF devices and continued development of powerful processing devices will be key factors in the development of future naval radars.”

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Mirage

FAST MISSILE BOATS FROM RUSSIA QUICK AS LIGHTNING (MOLNIYA) DECEPTIVE AS MIRAGE (MIRAZH) DANGEROUS AS SCORPIO (SCORPION)

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n October 21, 1967, two Egyptian Soviet-built 70-ton Project 183R Komar-class missile boats (hull No. 504 commanded by Lieutenant Commander Shaker Ahmed Abd ElWahed and No. 501 under command of Captain Lutfi Jadallah) sank the Israeli British-built 1710-ton destroyer Eilat in the Mediterranean Sea with four P-15 anti-ship missiles. It was the first-ever successful combat use of high-speed missile boats in the history of naval battles. Since then October 21 has been celebrated as Egyptian Naval Day, while the victory over the more powerful enemy forced to change the attitude to the “mosquito fleet.” There came saw a real boom in the construction and purchase of missile boats around the world. The Soviet Union,

alone, built 112 Project 183R boats in various modifications, 80 units were purchased by a dozen countries in Asia, the Middle East, Africa and Latin America. In the 21st century, Russia remains one of the world’s largest shipbuilding nations. Its national shipbuilding industry can design and build warships and auxiliary vessels of all classes, as well as produce all kinds of naval weapons and equipment. The aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya handed over recently to the Indian Navy is a dramatic proof of that. There are currently over 150 companies in Russia specialized in designing and building warships, civilian vessels and offshore drilling platforms. Among them are not only shipyards, research institutes, and design offices, but also marine engineering,

instrumentation and electronics plants that employ about 200,000 people. Russian developers are traditionally strong in the systems approach to marine equipment design. With its high level of science, design and shipbuilding technologies, strong production capacity, skilled personnel and extensive experience of foreign trade activities, Russia holds its position as the world’s leading exporter of naval equipment and armaments. These competencies of Russian shipbuilders have long been appreciated by Rosoboronexport’s foreign customers. Over the past half-century since the beginning of Russian naval equipment deliveries, more than two thousand surface combatant ships, submarines, missile and patrol boats, supply vessels and naval weapons have been exported. Last year, the Company’s naval exports slightly exceeded the world average level (16 percent) and amounted to over 17 percent. In currency terms, the figure turned out to be quite impressive – more than two billion dollars.


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Molniya

Russia competes favorably with the world’s major naval equipment and arms exporters. This is largely due to Rosoboronexport’s successful activities. However, the main role in the process is played by the domestic shipbuilding enterprises, most of which are part of the United Shipbuilding Corporation (USC), one of the leading manufacturers of hightech ships and vessels in the interests of the international market. Currently, Russia is the largest exporter of combatant and patrol craft. Back in the 1960s-90s, our country delivered abroad approximately twice as many combatant boats as Great Britain, France, Sweden, Norway, Spain and Italy combined. Today, there is growing demand in the world for combatant and patrol boats with a displacement of 20 to 500 tons. The requirement for them is quite high in the Middle East, Southeast Asian, African and Latin American markets. Russian companies have something to offer in this sector to international buyers. Today, the combatant craft is a fast, well-armed, advanced electronictechnical system capable of successfully performing a wide range of missions in wartime and peacetime. Russia pioneered in applying bottom devices to small ships. With lift vector control, the world’s unrivalled Project 14310 Mirazh (Mirage) patrol boat can achieve speeds up to 50 knots, significantly reduce rolling and pitching motions and cut down specific fuel consumption. The Project 12418 Molniya (Lightning) missile boat is designed to

engage enemy surface combatant ships, boats and vessels on the high seas and in coastal waters, both independently and in conjunction with the fleet striking forces. It is equipped with the Uran-E anti-ship missile system capable of penetrating current shipborne air defenses and assuredly engaging any surface target. In terms of firepower, the Molniya is unrivalled among its foreign counterparts. Throughout its history, the boat was repeatedly studied by foreign experts. Designers and military highly praised its combat and speed performance, survivability, and simplicity of design. In its issue of May 26, 1992, New York Times named the Molniya boat of the first modification one of the fastest and deadliest ships of this class in the world. New versions of the Molniya boats significantly outperform their predecessors in fighting capabilities. Among combat missions assigned to

the Molniya are engaging enemy combatant boat and ship detachments, landing detachments and convoys, providing cover for friendly ASW forces, landing detachments and convoys, conducting tactical reconnaissance, and providing surface situation awareness. In peacetime, the boat is used to protect the state border, perform patrolling, ensure safety of navigation, fight piracy and participate in rescue operations. All these capabilities have been appreciated by the sailors of Turkmenistan’s Navy, which recently purchased a batch of such boats. The Project 12150 Mangust (Mongoose) fast planing patrol boat has great export potential. It is capable of achieving speeds up to 50 knots and is designed to intercept virtually all high-speed sea targets. Its armament mix includes a 14.5mm naval pedestal machine gun mount and the Igla-S MANPADS. Project 12150 Mangust

AMR Marketing Promotion


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The Project 12061E Murena aircushion landing craft is unique in its combat and performance characteristics. It is designed to take on forward landing parties’ military equipment and personnel from a hard beach or a beach, large landing ships and transports; provide their sealift and landing on unequipped coast and shallow water. The Murena can also be used to patrol coastal areas, naval base and seaport areas. The Murena landing craft offers improved design features and seaworthiness through the use of

engage enemy surface ships and combatant boats, landing craft and transports, provide fire support to amphibious landing parties, conduct tactical reconnaissance. In peacetime, the Katran can carry out patrol missions as part of the Coast Guard forces. To reduce radar visibility, Katran’s hull and superstructure are made using stealth technology. The main striking weapon of the boat is the Uran-E anti-ship missile system with 3M-24E anti-ship missiles accommodated in eight transport-launch containers. Air Murena

corrosion-resistant alloys, extruded sections and panels, and a highperformance power plant. The boat and its armaments remain operable at a wave height of up to 1.5 m and wind speed of up to 12 m/s. Its troop capacity is impressive: 2 infantry fighting vehicles, or 2 armored personnel carriers, or 3 armored vehicles, or 2 amphibious tanks, or 1 medium tank, or 130 marines. Its armament corresponds to the assigned missions: two 30mm AK306 lightweight automatic guns controlled by an optical sighting device (ammunition load: 500 rounds per gun) and eight Igla-S MANPADS sets. The Project 20970 Katran patrol boat is designed to counter enemy surface ships and combatant boats, patrol the maritime area in the open coastal waters of the seas and oceans and in inland waters. It can effectively

defense is provided by an AA missile/gun system, the 3M-47 Gibka shipborne turret mount with four Igla-S SAMs, and the 30mm AK-306 lightweight automatic gun mount. The PK-10 decoy dispensing system (four KT-216 launchers, 40 rounds) is used for passive jamming. The Katran patrol boat is capable of achieving a maximum speed of about 40 knots and covering up to 2200 miles at maximum fuel capacity. Its endurance is five days. The Project 12300 Scorpion (Scorpio) is even a more powerful missile/gun boat. It is designed to engage enemy surface combatant ships, boats and transports independently and in conjunction with fleet striking forces. Its full displacement is about 460 tons, hull length – 57 m, beam – 10.3 m. With such dimensions, the Scorpion has a top speed of about 40 knots, cruising range

AMR Marketing Promotion

at maximum fuel capacity is about 2,000 miles, and endurance is 10 days. Like on the Katran, modern radar signature reduction technologies are also effectively used here. Upon customer request, the Uran-E anti-ship missile system may be replaced with the Yakhont anti-ship missile system consisting of two launchers (with two missiles each) and 3R50E-12300 shipborne control system. In addition to striking missile weapons, the Katran carries an AA missile/gun system; the 100mm A-190-5P-10E universal gun system (consisting of the A190 gun and the 5P-10E universal fire control radar), as well as the PK-10 decoy dispensing system (two or four KT-216 launchers) for passive jamming. Depending on customer’s requests, economic and technological possibilities, Rosoboronexport offers co-production of high-speed missile boats both at Russian production facilities and at buyers’ shipyards. Licensed boat construction by partner states is also possible. Such a policy has enabled Rosoboronexport to significantly expand its sales geography. Moreover, the Russian special exporter constantly seeks to assist customers in military expenditure optimization by tying in its recommendations for choosing Russian arms with the cost-effectiveness criterion. “Currently, Rosoboronexport is pursuing an active marketing policy, which is based on analysis of the interests and needs of our potential customers throughout the entire life cycle of the supplied weapons, military equipment and machinery, - says Oleg Azizov, Head of the Company’s Navy Equipment Export Department. – We keep on improving the quality of aftersales service, level of training, expanding the export of spare parts, and offering to establish the technical infrastructure, training and retraining centers on the territory of the importing countries. I‘m sure that Russian missile boats will be in demand on all continents for use in the most challenging climatic conditions and combat situations.”


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ELECTRONIC WARFARE

EVADING THE ELECTRONS

Airborne Integrated Self-Protection Systems (ISPS) combine all the necessary mechanisms to protect a combat aircraft, freighter or helicopter from a multitude of Radio Frequency (RF)- and Infra-Red (IR) guided threats. This they achieve by combining radar and missile warning functions, with chaff and flare dispensers and jamming equipment.

by Thomas Withington

everal companies provide ISPSs which are increasingly modular and scalable in design, with open architecture software standards. Modular designs allow ISPSs to be scaled up or down as regards the size of aircraft that they are to equip, or the coverage that they are to provide. The use of open architecture has a similarly versatile application as it allows the software controlling the ISPS to be upgraded with relative ease enabling the ensemble to counter emergent threats. This can include newly-discovered waveforms from potentially hostile radars or software modifications to enable an ISPS’s integral Directional Infra-Red Countermeasure (DIRCM) to spoof an IRguided Surface-to-Air or Air-to-Air Missile (SAM/AAM) more effectively. Exelis of the United States announced in March 2014 the award of a contract worth $91 million from the United States Navy to commence the Lot-11 production run of the firm’s AN/ALQ-214(V)4/5 Integrated Defensive Electronic Countermeasure (IDECM) for Boeing F/A-18C/D Hornet and F/A-18E/F Super Hornet Multi-Role Combat Aircraft (MRCA) operated by the force. The AN/ALQ-214(V)4 outfits the F/A-18C/D while the AN/ALQ-214(V)5 equips the F/A-18E/F. The architecture of the AN/ALQ-214 combines an RF generator and a towed decoy; the generator produces an RF signal designed to spoof or disrupt potentially hostile radar and radar-guided SAMs and AAMs. It also has a modular and programmable design to counter emerging RF threats. Joining the AN/ALQ-214(V)4/5 IDECM is Exelis’ AN/ALQ-211 SIRFC (Suite of Integrated RF Countermeasures).

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The NH Industries NH-90TTH medium-lift utility helicopter is outfitted with a comprehensive selfprotection system which includes missile and laser warning systems, chaff and flare launchers and radar warning receivers © Thomas Withington

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Exelis is one of the leading North American companies providing integrated selfprotection systems. Its products in this regard including the AN/ALQ-214(V)5 and AN/ALQ-211 systems equipping fast jets and rotorcraft © Exelis

This can detect, classify and counter a wide range of ground- and air-based RF threats including Pulse Doppler and Continuous Wave radars. In addition to its RF capabilities, the AN/ALQ-211 can provide IR- and laser warning. Like other products surveyed in this article, one of the attractions of the AN/ALQ-211 is its ability to be scaled to an aircraft’s requirements, according to Andrew Dunn, Exelis’ vice president of international business development for electronic systems: “For example, the system on the Bell-Boeing CV-22B Osprey tilt-rotor provides full geo-location radar warning receiver accuracy, comprehensive RF jamming, multispectral sensor integration of laser warning, missile warning and IR jamming, and chaff and flare dispensing. Other variants of the ALQ-211 system utilise only the RWR (Radar Warning Receiver) function for RF situational awareness.” Since it commenced production in the early-2000s, the AN/ALQ-211 in various configurations has outfitted a number of aircraft including General Dynamics/Lockheed Martin F-16 variant MRCA operated by Chile, Oman, Pakistan, Poland and Turkey; NH Industries NH-90NFH medium-lift maritime support helicopters operated by the Luftforsvaret (Royal Norwegian Air Force) and a Boeing 737 airliner for a government customer.

Israeli Expertise

Decades of combat experience which has necessitated the evasion of the groundbased air defences of its adversaries, most notably during the air dimension of Israel’s 1982 Operation Peace for Galilee and, more recently, the officially-unconfirmed air interdiction operations conducted over Syria and Lebanon to reduce the supply of weapons to equip Palestinian insurgents operating from the Gaza Strip, has given the Israeli defence industry world-class expertise in the development of ISPSs for military aircraft. Elbit Systems is one of the country’s suppliers of ISPSs. The firm has two flagship products, All-In-One and All-In-Small. The latter combines RF, laser and missile warning functions with an Electronic Warfare Suite Controller and a chaff and flare dispenser. The RWS covers an RF range ranging from low band emitters to 18 gigahertz, encompassing a wide array of ground-

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based and airborne RF emitters, including Pulse Doppler, Continuous Wave, Low Probability of Intercept and Low Effective Radiated Power radars. Shlomo Livne, Elbit Systems’ vice president for its airborne electronic warfare business line, stresses that the advantages of the All-InSmall architecture are “its small size and low weight, plus its open architecture and modular construction. When you are talking about helicopters, weight is a very important factor.” True to form, the All-InSmall weighs-in at under 35 pounds (16 kilograms). Much of the architecture for the All-In-Small is leveraged from the firm’s SPS-65 Spectrolite ISPS. Dubbed the ‘All-In-One’ by the company, the product covers a similar RF range to the All-InSmall and includes multi-band laser threats, although it does not contain an IRbased MAWS (Missile Approach Warning System). Space is insufficient here to detail all of the aircraft outfitted with these ISPSs, although they have been installed on a number of fixed- and rotary-wing platforms around the world. Elbit Systems’ Israeli counterpart Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) Elta Systems division is also involved in ISPS provision. Its products include the EL/L-8260/2 which provides rotary and fixed-wing aircraft with protection against RF and laserguided threats. In addition, it has a record-

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ing facility allowing new threats to be recorded and then analysed after a mission to allow new countermeasure techniques to be devised to counter them. The sibling of the EL/L-8260/2 is the EL/L-8427/8 which has a compact construction to provide RF and missile warning on space-constrained platforms such as helicopters and MRCAs. Finally, one particularly interesting product from the company is the EL/M-2160F Flight Guard designed to equip civilian airliners. Combining a Doppler radar-based MAW with a flare dispenser it provides 360-degree coverage around an aircraft. Israeli airliners have been the target in the past of attack by Man-Portable Air Defence Systems (MANPADS), notably on 28 November 2002 when a Boeing 757 airliner belonging to Israeli charter carrier Arkia Airlines was attacked by two 9K32 Strela-2 IR-guided MANPADS missiles as it left Moi International Airport in Mombasa, Kenya, although the aircraft was able to complete its journey to Ben Gurion International Airport in Tel Aviv.

European Providers

Like Israel, Italy is home to two ISPSs specialists, namely Elettronica and Selex. Elettronica is currently in the process of developing a new ISPS, according to Raffaele Liberati and Vittorio Rossi both EW specialists at the firm, who say that it is “completing the final development phase and the preliminary in-house testing of the

main units of a very advanced ISPS which the company plans to deliver to the Aeronautica Militaire (Italian Air Force) in the 2015-2018 timeframe.” They add that this will utilise much architecture from the firm’s Virgilius ISPS designed to counter air-to-air and air-to-ground RF threats which can perform simultaneous electronic support measure (threat detection, geolocation and identification) and electronic countermeasure (electronic disruption of RF threats) tasks, along with laser and missile warning, DIRCM and chaff and flare dispensing. For its part, the company says that its Virgilius suite is scheduled to be installed on the AgustaWestland AW-101 mediumlift utility helicopters operated by the Italian Air Force, and is already furnishing the Mirage-2000 MRCAs of an undisclosed Middle Eastern country which, although not confirmed by Elettronica, is thought to be Qatar which operates the Mirage-20005DA variant of this MRCA. According to Messrs. Liberti and Rossi the firm is “currently involved in extending (Virgilius’)

Elettronica is supplying its Virgilius integrated self protection system for the AgustaWestland AW-101 medium-lift utility helicopter

Elettronica’s Virgilius integrated self-protection system outfits a wide range of airframes. These include Mirage-2000 family aircraft and it will be outfitting the AgustaWestland AW-101 medium-lift utility helicopters of the Aeronautica Militaire (Italian Air Force) © Elettronica

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Although inhabited fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft have traditionally been the intended users for integrated self-protection systems, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles are increasingly being outfitted with such equipment, with Israel’s Elbit Systems launching its SPS-65(V)5 product accordingly © Elbit Systems

upper frequency limit to beyond the K-band (above 24 gigahertz), where many more lethal threats are expected in the future.” Radars above K-band are in the so-called ‘millimetre wave’ domain which provide high resolution imagery using a compact antenna at long ranges, along with good adverse weather penetration. As noted above, Elettronica is joined by fellow Italian company Selex which has three main ISPS products. These include the Common Defensive Aids System (CDAS) which is descended from the firm’s HIDAS (Helicopter Integrated Defensive Aids System) combining RF, laser and MAWS functions for the British Army’s AgustaWestland AH Mk.1 Apache attack helicopters and the Royal Air Force’s (RAF) Airbus Helicopter Puma HC.1 and Boeing Chinook HC.2/2A/3 heavy-lift rotorcraft. A sister product of the HIDAS is Selex’s Sky Shadow electron-


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Saab’s ESTL (Enhanced Survivability Technology) integrated self-protection system is available in two configurations; the ESTL-300 and ESTL-400 which provide different levels of protection according to the number of Missile Approach Warning Systems they accommodate © Saab

ic countermeasures pod which facilitates high-power jamming for the Panavia Tornado GR4/A and Tornado IDS ground attack aircraft operated by the RAF and the Royal Saudi Air Force. Airbus Defence and Space (formerly Cassidian) provides military aircraft operators with the AN/AAR-60(V)2 MILDS (Missile Launch Detection System). The AN/AAR-60 MILDS family was designed to provide MRCAs, helicopters and widebodied aircraft with a warning system to protect the aircraft against IR-guided missiles, particularly MANPADS. According to a statement provided to AMR by the company, the firm currently has the AN/AAR-60(V)2 configuration in production. Commencing manufacture in 2010, this product was “specifically designed to meet the requirements for fighter aircraft”. To this end, it equips a number of European F-16C/D Block50/52 MRCA operators. Although the AN/AAR-60(V)2 is primarily concerned with protecting an aircraft against IR-guided missiles, Saab’s ESTL (Enhanced Survivability Technology) is a podded self-protection system which counters both RF and IR threats and can be used on “any fixed-wing aircraft”, a company statement provided to AMR states. The pod can be mounted on any aircraft hardpoint capable of accommodating either Raytheon AIM-9 Sidewinder or AIM-120 Advanced

Medium-Range AAMs. Overall, the ESTL includes a MAWS, Saab BOP and BOL chaff and flare launchers and an Electronic Warfare Controller (EWC). Saab provides the ESTL product in the ESTL-300 and -400 variants with the former containing the MAWS, BOP, EWC and BOL, while the ESTL-400 adds a second MAWS. Full lower hemispherical missile approach

warning coverage for an aircraft can be performed with two ESTL-300s or a single ESTL-400, while two ESTL-400s will provide complete coverage around the entirety of an aircraft. Given the recent introduction of the ESTL family in the marketplace, Saab say that they hope to commence flight testing by the middle of 2014, according to the company’s statement. Other ISPS products in the Saab stable include the BOZ-EC which integrates a MAWS and flare dispenser and furnishes the Panavia Tornado IDS/ECR MRCA operated by the Luftwaffe (German Air Force) and the Italian Air Force. Meanwhile a MAWS, RWR and Saab’s BOP/L countermeasure dispenser, together with a laser warning system, are integrated into Saab’s IDAS (Integrated Defensive Aids Suite), the latest version of this product being the IDAS-3 which incorporates the Compact IDAS specifically configured for helicopters or other aircraft where weight is a significant factor. Once in service, customers are provided with the wherewithal to ensure that their aircraft self-protection systems remain current as they are “provided with all of the software tools to maintain totally

An element of the self-protection system for an Airbus Helicopter EC-665HAP Tiger attack helicopter belonging to the Aviation Légère de l’Armée de Terre (French Army Light Aviation) is seen here in this image © Thomas Withington

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Many of the Dassault Mirage-2000 family multi-role combat aircraft in service around the world use Thales’ ICMS integrated self-protection system, part of which is seen here topping the tail of a French Air Force Mirage-2000D aircraft © Thomas Withington

autonomous EW libraries, programming and software capabilities.” Available space prevents the author listing all of the military aircraft which are outfitted with members of the IDAS family; suffice to say it is used by a wide range of fixed- and rotary-wing military aircraft, and also some airliners for self-protection. Two of the flagship products from French defence electronics house Thales include the ICMS and SPECTRA ISPSs. The former outfits the Dassault Mirage 2000 family of MRCA with the latter furnishing the Dassault Rafale-B/C/M fast jet. According to Bruno Carrara, Thales’ director of combat aircraft activities, SPECTRA provides “detection in the electromagnetic, laser and IR domains”. It achieves its RF jamming by utilising Digital Radio Frequency Memory (DRFM) technology, which digitally captures an RF signal and then retransmits the signal in such a fashion as to spoof the transmitting radar. For example, this could include altering the retransmitted signal to change its Doppler Shift: this is a phenomena by which the frequency of an RF signal changes slightly as it is reflected by an object. This change in frequency allows a radar to determine an object’s speed. By changing the frequency of a reflected signal, the DRFM technique can thus change the calculation of the radar regarding an object’s velocity. In addition to DRFM, SPECTRA uses Active Electronically

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Scanned Array (AESA) antenna technology which allows several of the transmit/receive elements embedded on the antenna’s surface to perform different tasks simultaneously, therefore enabling the SPECTRA to detect, disrupt and degrade a number of diverse threats at the same time. Mr. Carrera says that the firm is currently manufacturing the ICMS for installation onboard the Mirage 2000H/TH

In the future, the EW mission could include a cyber dimension, via the use of a specific platform, or via an aircraft’s selfprotection measure

MRCA operated by the Indian Air Force (IAF) along with the SPECTRA for the Rafales equipping the Armée de l’Air (French Air Force) and Aeronavale (French Naval Aviation). He adds that he expects deliveries of the ICMS for installation on the IAF’s Mirages to conclude by 2017.

Next Steps

In terms of future design evolutions, Saab believes that the move towards open architecture and modular design as discussed in this article’s introduction will remain: “There is a clear trend towards

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easy-to-integrate-and-upgrade systems using open architecture,” the company says in its statement. “We think we have come a long way in this respect with our integrated systems. Saab is moving towards new product generations using common platform building blocks and modular architecture. These will add flexibility for future threat scenarios, decrease costs for customer adaptations and add multi-functionality.” A similar trend is being observed by Exelis, with Andrew Dunn noting that “multifunctional capabilities” are becoming increasingly important, “meaning that a particular payload installed on an aircraft must be able to perform multiple roles. As such, we are focused on providing hardware ‘platforms‘ which are software defined,” allowing them to be easily reconfigurable. Thales foresees a similar trend, although with all of an aircraft’s RF systems being integrated: “The trend is to develop multifunction sensors that can facilitate merging of EW (Electronic Warfare), communications and radar systems into a compact package,” Mr. Carerra says. Other trends being observed by industry include the coalescence of missions. For example, today the electronic self-protection mission and the EW, or electronic attack, missions are arguably rather separate. The former is used to ensure the protection of an aircraft as it flies through hostile territory; the latter is performed by dedicated aircraft such as the Northrop Grumman EA-6B Growler jet of the US Navy and is designed to disrupt, degrade and destroy RF threats. While these missions will continue to be essential for air forces and navies in the future, the cyber warfare threat is now emerging (see Neil Robinson’s article ‘Down to the Wire’ in this issue). In the future, the EW mission could also include a cyber dimension, either via the use of a specific platform, or by using an aircraft’s self-protection measures. This is a trend anticipated by Mr. Dunn at Exelis: “The cyber, and the EW component of that domain, is very fragmented.” He believes that the closer fusion of these domains could see the use of “EW as part of a wider cyber attack against an adversary”.


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TWENTY THOUSAND LEAGUES UNDER THE SEA It is arguably the submarine which is the true capital ship of modern navies. Little wonder, then, that a market survey published by Frost and Sullivan in 2013 concluded that by the end of the decade expenditure in the Asia-Pacific on submarines will total about $45 billion.

by Edward Hooton

A ‘Scorpène’ class conventional submarine built by French shipbuilder DCNS belonging to the Royal Malaysian Navy. The company is building similar boats for the Indian Navy © DCNS

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espite its technical sophistication the submarine is arguably the most versatile weapon system available to the world’s armed forces. It is capable of influencing the maritime situation in times of war through a variety of weapons including surface-to-air/surfaceto-surface missiles and torpedoes, while also providing the capability for a wide variety of covert operations in peacetime. The submarine’s wartime roles include area denial and battlespace dominance. The former role was demonstrated during the Falklands War of 1982 when a single Royal Navy nuclear-powered attack submarine (SSN), HMS Conqueror, effectively bottled-up the surface fleet of the Armada de la República Argentina (Argentine Navy) too fearful of venturing outside port after the sinking of the ARA General Belgrano ‘Brooklyn’ class light cruiser by HMS Conqueror on 2 May 1982. Almost a decade later a new capability was demonstrated when Raytheon BGM-109 Tomahawk Land Attack Missiles were launched by Royal Navy and United States Navy submarines against land targets in Iraq during the West’s military confrontations with the regime of the late Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein.

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A more potent threat is the ability of submarines to interdict maritime lines of communication destroying mercantile fleets as in the Second World War when US Navy boats strangled the Japanese Empire. This continues to be a very serious threat for economies in the Asia-Pacific which are dependent upon maritime trade over great distances both to import raw materials and to export manufactured goods. In fact no nation in the region possesses sufficient anti-submarine warfare capabilities to protect the lines of communication to its major markets while most modern navies appear to focus submarine operations upon the original Fleet Attack role.

Weaponry

For conventional roles the submarine relies upon three weapons: the torpedo, the AntiShip Missile (AShM) and the mine. All three have become more sophisticated with improvements in computer processor technology over the past two decades. The torpedo can be controlled through wires with the aid of passive sonars into the target’s vicinity and then use its own active sonar for homing during the terminal phase. It can explode by striking the target or detonating beneath it, which happened with the Republic of Korea Navy (RoKN)

Along with the Anti-Ship Missile, the prime weapon of the submarine, be it conventional or nuclear, is the torpedo. This picture shows a torpedo being loaded into a firing tube © DCNS

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A Sonar 2076 system equipping a Thales Flank Array. Although this is for a nuclear-powered boat it is typical of this type of submarine sensor, which can also be used by conventional vessels © Thales Underwater Systems

South Korea corvette RoKS Cheonan on 26 March 2010, while other torpedo guidance systems allow them to analyse disturbances in the water which follow a ship’s wake. The AShM is now capable of striking targets in high radar ‘clutter’ conditions such as close to the coast or even in harbours while the latest AShM weapons also possess a limited land-attack capability. The mine remains an extremely sophisticated weapon system capable of ‘hunting’ specific targets, lying inert for long periods or even of concealing itself in sand or mud.

Sensors

Submarines remain as formidable in ‘cold’ wars as in ‘hot’ ones with modern technology enhancing their ability to provide covert reconnaissance, a legacy capability enhanced by modern technology. High magnification rate optical periscopes provide an excellent means of conducting visual and photographic reconnaissance; indeed submarines in their berths are capable of looking into high rise apartments several nautical miles away and seeing what the inhabitants are eating or watching. Image intensifiers and thermal imaging

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cameras can enhance this capability which is being augmented through the introduction of mast-mounted optronic systems, such as the Thales CM 10 in Japan’s ‘Souryu’ class conventional submarines. Within ten seconds these can be raised and rotated at up to 360 degrees capturing and recording an image with a television camera and then lowered allowing the images to be studied at leisure upon a console. Both periscopes and masts are also used to host Electronic Support Measures (ESM) to gather electronic and communications intelligence. Augmented by sonar these sensors can build up technical details of aircraft and of ships and organisation of command and control assets. With the prolifer-

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ation of ballistic and cruise land-attack missiles it seems likely that navies in the AsiaPacific region will follow the Cold War experience of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation’s naval surface and submarine forces and begin covertly tracking submarines which might strike their country. Submarines have long had a tradition of delivering special forces, originally by acting as a ‘diving board’ for swimmers or providing the base for small inflatable boats. This role is becoming so important that new submarines are being built with airlock facilities allowing special forces personnel with their equipment, such as swimmer delivery vehicles, to leave and re-enter the submarine while it is submerged. Nuclear-powered submarine can augment these facilities by carrying in a special cradle a miniature submarine to deliver the personnel from longer ranges.

Propulsion

The vast majority of submarines in the Asia-Pacific are conventional boats which have been designed with the best hydrodynamic shape to provide higher underwater speeds than those on the surface.

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Typically the RoKN’s new ‘Sohn WonIl/KSS-2’ class based upon the German ‘Type 214’ class boats have an underwater speed of 20 knots (37 kilometres-per-hour) and a surface speed of twelve knots (22 kilometres-per-hour). The shape also helps to reduce cavitation, the movement of streams of bubbles of displaced air, along the hull and from the propeller. The reduction of cavitation helps to reduce the boat’s acoustic signature which is further reduced by placing machinery on antivibration mountings. In conventional submarines, batteries are charged by the vessel’s diesel engines, but these engines require a constant supply of air to operate, and to overcome the need to surface most diesel-electric boats have schnorkels, tubes which stick above the surface and suck in fresh air. To reduce this problem and to extend underwater endurance times there is a trend towards Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) or the use of electro-chemical devices to transform chemical energy into electrical power. The Pakistan Navy’s ‘Khalid/Agosta 90B’ class

is outfitted with the Module d’Energie SousMarine Autonome (MESMA/Autonomous Submarine Energy Module) AIP system from French shipbuilder DCNS which is also available for future installation in the Indian Navy’s ‘Scorpène’ class. The RoKN’s ‘Sohn Won-il’ class of conventional submarines will use Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell technology, while the Japanese Maritime Self Defence Force ‘Souryu’ and Republic of Singapore Navy’s ‘Archer’ class boats use the Swedish Kockums Stirling Mk 3 AIP engine system to which the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) has shown an interest for the successor to its ‘Collins’ class conventional submarines. One requirement essential for submarines operating in the Asia-Pacific, but sometimes overlooked, is air conditioning. The Russians recently revealed that towards the end of the Cold War they deployed five ‘Victor’ class SSNs into the North Atlantic to see whether or not it was possible to station ballistic missile submarines around Bermuda. The lack of air conditioning meant that the crews

A Republic of Korea Navy (RoKN) ‘Type 214’ class conventional submarine. The acquisition of these submarines will play a major role in protecting the Republic of Korea’s sea lines of communications and the RoKN’s surface fleet © HDW

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recorded temperatures of 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit) which left them exhausted. The lack of air conditioning, certainly in older boats, also affected Chinese operations, with humidity causing food to deteriorate to such a degree some of the crew suffered from scurvy while hunger caused missions to be abandoned.

Sonar

To carry out any mission the submarine requires a wide variety of active and passive sonars. Active sonar provides precise bearings to a target, and sometimes the range, but betrays the submarine’s presence and is used very rarely and very briefly. Passive sonars detect the target’s acoustic signature, both from machine and water flow noise, at quite long ranges. Because of interference from the hull, bowmounted sensors can detect targets for some 270 degrees around the boat, flank arrays at about 160 degrees, while towed arrays can see all around the boat. The broadband detection of the target is quick-


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Along with building naval vessels, French shipbuilder DCNS also manufactures the Subtics Integrated Combat System which is used on a number of conventional boats including the ‘Scorpène’ class conventional submarine of India and Malaysia © DCNS

ly augmented through the employment of the Fast Fourier Transformation technique narrowband frequency analysis to obtain more detailed information on a target which is compared with an onboard intelligence database to identify the target. Its range, course and speed can then be determined through Target Motion Analysis and continually updated through monitoring the target and comparing data with the ship’s own movement. A typical sonar suite is Thales’ S-Cube, selected for India’s ‘Scorpène’ class boats which uses a large, cylindrical, bowmounted, medium frequency active-passive search sensor, a modular passive flank array with very thin (70 millimetre/three-inch) panels for long-range lowfrequency detection, classification and localisation and a high-frequency, active, Mine and Obstacle Avoidance Sonar

(MOAS) which also has a navigational function. Sonars are improved incrementally and in 2014 Thales will start upgrading the sonars used by the RAN’s ‘Collins’ class boats. Atlas Elektronik has long incorporated sonars into their command and weapon control Integrated Sensor Underwater System (ISUS) with the ISUS83 configuration being used by the ‘Chang Bogo’ class and the ISUS 90 used by the ‘Sohn Won-il’ class submarines of the RoKN. These command and control systems receive data from all the sensors and process it to provide a picture of the tactical situation not only beneath the waves but also on the surface and, through the sonars, can even detect the presence of hovering helicopters. It is also used to control wire-guided torpedoes and to launch AShMs while modified versions can assist the delivery of land-attack cruise missiles.

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In Russian-built and designed submarines the command and control system is integrated with the ship control system.

Concept of Operations

Yet before a navy can begin to make its equipment choices it must consider the platform’s operational requirements. A number of navies, notably that of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, have miniature submarines and, while these are usually designed for special operations and have very limited ranges (about 50 nautical miles/90 kilometres underwater) and endurances, they can carry heavyweight torpedoes but have to be covertly towed into the operational zone by a surface ship such as a trawler. Seagoing vessels have better ranges, 400-500 nautical miles (740-925 kilometres) underwater, and many navies select this type of vessel because they have either limited waters to cover or extensive waters with numerous bases. They are capable of travelling several thousand nautical miles

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on the surface but for some navies their operational zones may be far from their bases. This calls for ocean-going vessels such as the ‘Collins’, ‘Sohn Won-Il’ and ‘Souryu’ class submarines discussed above which have surface ranges in excess of 10,000 nautical miles (18,500 kilometres). For a true oceanic submarine capability the only solution is the use of nuclear power, a path increasingly pursued by India in China’s wake. Nuclear submarines are as versatile as their conventionallypowered cousins but have the advantage that they can be deployed rapidly anywhere in the world with top underwater speeds of 30-40 knots (56-74 kilometresper-hour). They are self-sufficient, even producing their own fresh water, allowing them to be deployed for months on end with the only limitation being the amount of food carried. They are also extremely quiet, although not as quiet as conventional boats partly due to the need to pump cooling water around their reactor. Nevertheless, the Royal Navy nuclearpowered ballistic missile submarine (SSBN) HMS Vanguard was in an under-

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An ISUS-90 operator’s console. Atlas Elektronik’s Integrated Sensor Underwater System (ISUS) is available in both the ISUS-83 and ISUS-90 configurations © Atlas Elektronik

water accidental collision with its Marine Nationale (French Navy) SSBN counterpart FS Le Triomphant in February 2009 with neither vessel aware of the other’s presence, the French ship believing it had struck a submerged cargo container! However, the capital and infrastructure costs of possessing nuclear-powered submarines are extremely high and are a major reason why many navies, including the RAN, have balked at sailing this course. China has both ballistic missile and attack submarines and these are begin-

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ning to operate in the central Pacific and probably the Indian Ocean while India has produced the INS Arihant with dualuse missile cells capable of launching conventional and nuclear-tipped weapons. Two planned sister ships may operate cruise missiles and also planned are three SSNs with similar hull forms. India has already begun to lease a Russian ‘Akula/Project 971‘ class SSN and may lease a second to train crews and to provide an interim operating capability. However, most Asian navies are content to retain conventional boats and Singapore has recently ordered German-built ‘Type 210’ class vessels, probably with AIP, while China will meet the requirements of both Bangladesh and Pakistan, and yards in the Republic of Korea are providing Indonesia with two boats. Both Taiwan and Thailand seek new submarine forces while Vietnam is slowly building up its force and even the Philippines is considering acquiring submarines.


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WHEELS OF FORTUNE

The worldwide Mine-Resistant Ambush-Protected (MRAP) market is in the midst of great change. With the forthcoming completion of North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) operations in Afghanistan nations are assessing their wheeled vehicle fleets. The question remains how relevant will the MRAP be post-Afghanistan?

by Claire Apthorp

The MaxxPro Dash DXM is a lighter, smaller and more mobile variant of the MaxxPro Mine-Resistant Ambush-Protected vehicle family. It has a V-shaped hull to reduce the effect of blast underneath the vehicle Š Navistar Defense

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he United Kingdom has decided to bring their primary MRAP vehicle, the Force Protection Mastiff, into the British Army’s core equipment programme. The US, however, is looking to dispose excess stock of its MRAP fleet, with between 1,000-5,000 vehicles earmarked for demolition or sale to new customers, now that the Afghan theatre for which it was developed is winding down.

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According to some players in the international MRAP sector, this over-supply of vehicles is causing a softening of the traditional MRAP markets and an opening up of new opportunities. ”Some armies are taking a step back to re-evaluate things and work out where the MRAP-cum-wheeled Armoured Personnel Carrier fits into their 21st century doctrine,“ Paul Harris, director of strategy, marketing and business development in Thales Australia’s protected vehicles business told Asian Military Review. ”In low intensity conflicts and moderate insurgencies where you are not fighting conventional forces, the applicability of a vehicle that can move troops around economically and safely and has a light weapon system to provide some suppressive fire proves quite useful – and we certainly see that need in South East Asia, namely in Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia and the Philippines.” Certainly, these nations, along with countries such as India, Pakistan, China and Vietnam, continue to have many security challenges of their own. Borders in the region have a history of tension and internal insurgency persists in a number of these countries. For internal security and paramilitary forces there remains a need for an MRAP-type vehicle as distinct from the wheeled APC – while the wheeled APC typically swims as opposed to fords, and has a fully protected engine bay where the MRAP does not, the MRAP generally provides superior mine blast protection.

MaxxPro

There has been much speculation as to where the US could potentially offload its excess MRAP fleet, and there are a few possibilities. In late March 2014, the United States Forces-Afghanistan, the US command in the Afghan Theatre, officially refuted claims that it would provide excess defence articles – including MRAPs – to Pakistan, although speculation continues that a sale will go ahead. Navistar told AMR that although it had received an initial indication that Republic of Korea (RoK) was interested in excess MaxxPro MRAP vehicles, it has not heard any further details on whether the US government was pursuing this.

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RoK already operates ten MaxxPro Dash vehicles, and was the first user to receive the modern Dash DMX vehicle with a Hendrickson independent suspension system for use in Afghanistan. The country was one of a number of coalition partners supplied – or ‘gifted’ - with the vehicles through a US foreign military sale-type arrangement for deployment to Afghanistan as part of the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF). The Dash is a smaller, lighter and more mobile variant of the MaxxPro family, which is well suited to conditions in Afghanistan. The vehicle retains the Vshaped hull of the original MRAP, and has been built to withstand small arms fire, mines and bombs by deflecting blast out and away from the crew. Singapore also operates the MaxxPro Dash as part of its ISAF mission, having ordered 15 vehicles in 2009; however, Navistar told AMR that it has not seen a strong demand for its vehicles from the Asia-Pacific as of yet, although it is currently working on a development that could change that. ”Terrain-wise South Korea is where an MRAP would operate most effectively, but there is no insurgent threat in South Korea,” says Meg Kulungowski, director of government relations for Navistar, said. “However we are developing a smaller, lighter vehicle that might be more useful in the Philippines, Thailand or Indonesia where there is more of an insurgent threat. It has less protection but is very mobile and it can travel quickly. It also has a narrower wheel base so it can operate on jungle trails more easily, and then within an urban environment travel on a normal road without impeding traffic.”

Bushmaster

Thales Australia is also looking to capitalise on potential opportunities within the Asian market with its highly successful Bushmaster vehicle, which has come to be known as one of the most highly regarded MRAP vehicles worldwide. On 7 April 2014 the company announced that the Japanese Ministry of Defence had ordered four Bushmaster vehicles in troop carrier configuration for deployment by

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The British Army has elected to bring its Mastiff vehicle, into its Core Equipment Programme, rather than dispose off the vehicles following the end of UK involvement there © UK MoD image

the Japan Ground Self-Defence Force. The vehicles will be delivered in late 2014. The government of Indonesia is also understood to have expressed interest in the vehicle. Although yet to be confirmed by the Australian government, the possible sale of Bushmaster to Indonesia under a government-to-government agreement was certainly a topic of discussion between the Australian Minister for Defence, Senator David Johnston, and his Indonesian counterpart, Professor Purnomo Yusgiantoro, at the Jakarta International Defence Dialogue on 23-25 March 2014. A statement released by the Australian Department of Defence (DoD) on 21 March 2014 said that discussions at the dialogue “covered a range of bilateral defence issues and ongoing military cooperation ... personnel exchanges and Bushmaster armoured vehicle sales.” Bushmaster’s greatest success remains its continued acquisition by the Australian government. In July 2012, DoD announced that a new batch of Bushmaster Protected

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Mobility Vehicles (PMVs) would be ordered for the Australian Army from Thales Australia. The additional vehicles will provide ongoing protected mobility in a variety of roles including command and control for the Army’s many headquarter units from brigade level and down to the various artillery, engineer and infantry units and assignment to Army Reserve armoured corps units. The Australian Army has acquired the vehicle in its seven variants in a number of successive orders under LAND 116 Project Bushranger Phase 3, bringing protected land mobility capabilities to Army combat units and Air Force Airfield Defence Guards. The 2012 order was for 214 Bushmaster

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vehicles, bringing the total number of vehicles ordered by the Australian government to 1,052 vehicles in troop, command, mortar, assault pioneer, direct fire weapon, ambulance and air defence variants. Deliveries under this 2012 order are still underway, having commenced in 2013 and they will continue until mid 2016.

Built to spec

With over 1,000 vehicles now delivered to the Australian Defence Force (ADF), the Bushmaster has earned its reputation through almost ten years of operational service in Afghanistan and Iraq, where, despite the high bomb and mine threat, there has been no loss of life to soldiers travelling within them. ”It’s a story that started in the late 1990s for us, so while today the Bushmaster is an iconic product with very high operational regard, it has been a long journey that has taken a lot of effort to achieve that,” adds Mr. Harris. ”The success is founded on the genesis of the vehicle, in that it was designed around a Vshaped hull from the beginning, unlike the early generation US MRAPs which


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were effectively a box on a truck chassis; that was OK on the highways of Iraq but became a problem when it came to deploying off road in Afghanistan.“ From a structural perspective the Bushmaster has been developed more like an armoured fighting vehicle. Based from the outset around the V-shaped monocoque armoured hull to deflect the blast away from the vehicle and its occupants, it has been designed around a balancing act of protection, mobility and performance. ”That’s what we got right over ten years ago, and since it has been in service Thales has worked hand-in-glove with the ADF and the Australian Defence Material Organisation to progressively improve and develop the product as operational demands evolved through additional mine blast testing, hull and seat enhance-

ments,” Mr. Harris continued. “The result of this collaboration is an end product that specifically meets the operational needs of the ADF, and we roll those enhancements through the production line so that other customers can inherit those performance advantages as well.” Bushmaster provides protection against a range of threats, including the ability to withstand multiple hits from ballistic projectiles and shell fragments, mine blast protection anywhere under the vehicle including the wheel stations, and side blasts from bombs. Protection levels can be increased with upgrade kits and can be configured with various weapon systems, sighting and vision systems. The vehicle can be fitted with a remote weapon station, and comes with a range of accessories to suit customer requirements,

including an explosive rummage arm, mine rollers, ballistic armour upgrades to meet varying protection requirements and an electronic warfare self-protection system. Different seating configurations can also be delivered as per customer needs, including an option for two crew and ten passengers in the rear as compared to the standard two plus eight. The Bushmaster has demonstrated a number of surveillance and optronics suites, including night vision and thermal cameras mounted on an elevated mast. The vehicle features a four coil independent suspension system, allowing it to move quickly over long distances by road and manoeuvre at speed off-road. It has a kerb mass (unladen weight) of 11,400 kilograms (25,080lb) and a payload of 4,000kg (8818lbs). The Bushmaster has

A Bushmaster protected mobility vehicle used by the Australian Army’s 2nd Cavalry Regiment Task Force at Multi National Base Tarin Kot, Uruzgan province, during their 2013 deployment to the Central Asian country © Australian Department of Defence

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The Thai First Win mine-protected vehicle is being procured by the Thailand Ministry of Defence. The Royal Thai Army will acquire three of the vehicles with a further 18 being procured by the country’s Ministry of Justice © Chaiseri

a high efficiency to mass ratio (i.e., it can accommodate and protect a large personnel and equipment load with a relatively low kerb mass). This allows for the transport of a fully-equipped infantry section and its stores.

Plug and Play

Meanwhile, Thales is looking to maximise the potential of Bushmaster in the AsiaPacific market as much as possible by tapping into requirements for vehicle architectures that offer high degrees of ‘plugand-play’ capability. “From a command and control perspective, many customers already have their own product fleet, and it really becomes a question of how well our vehicle can accommodate their systems, such as the integration of radios and battle management systems, by maximising electronic harmonisation,” Mr. Harris said. “We are continually developing our vehicle architecture and we are focused on supporting the UK defence standard for Generic Vehicle Architecture (GVA).” Led by the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD), GVA seeks to provide a universal standard to allow users to realise the benefits of an open architecture approach to land platform design and integration, especially in regard to platform infrastructure and the associated Human Machine

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Interface (HMI). This aims to improve operational effectiveness, reduce integration risks and costs, by mandating and applying appropriate interface standards. “The other standard out there is the US Vehicular Integration for Command and Control/Electronic Warfare Interoperability (VICTORY) standard, but for our markets we are looking to develop products that are GVA compliant, such that we promote that

Doosan unveiled its KMRAP prototype in 2013. It hopes to supply this vehicle to the Republic of Korea Army

our platform is product-agnostic respecting the customer’s preferences, it could be a Kongsberg or Rafael Remote Weapons Station (RWS), or a Harris or Thales radio, to be as plug-and-play as possible,” Mr. Harris said. “There will always be an element of integration, but it allows us to conduct that integration with less cost, complexity and risk to the customer.”

Local developments

Although Thales Australia dominates the region when it comes to locally-developed

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MRAP technology, there are a number of indigenous projects underway, most notably in Thailand and South Korea. At the Defence and Security Exhibition (ADEX 2013) in Bangkok in November 2013, Thailand’s Chaiseri displayed the First Win mine-protected MRAP vehicle. Developed between 2009 and 2010, the nine tonne vehicle was designed to meet the requirements of the Royal Thai Army, to operate in urban areas and the difficult terrain of the country’s southern highland region. In May 2011 the Thai MoD placed an order for 21, three of which went to the Royal Thai Army, and 18 of which went to the Ministry of Justice. The vehicle is also being touted as a replacement for the Malaysian Army’s Rheinmetall Condor four-wheel drive vehicle. The First Win vehicle is built around a V-shaped monocoque hull with add-on composite armour providing protection up to NATO Standardisation Agreement (STANAG) 4569 levels one-to-three. It can be fitted with pintle-mounted weapons, a protected weapon station or a 12.7 millimetre RWS. It is available in a number of variants, including command, reconnaissance, ambulance and logistics transport vehicles. Also in 2013, the RoK’s Doosan displayed its KMRAP prototype at ADEX 2013 which it hopes to supply to the Republic of Korea Army. The vehicle has been developed to fill gaps within the army’s wheeled vehicle fleet, with one prototype already having undergone testing by the country’s Defence Acquisition Programme Administration (DAPA), and a second currently in the process of testing. With the MRAP style vehicle developed to meet the harsh and demanding conditions seen in Afghanistan in the past decade, it is likely that demand for the vehicles from the NATO-led coalition customer base will continue to diminish as withdrawal from that theatre concludes. As manufacturers seek new markets, it is possible that the Asian region, with its ongoing border protection and internal insurgency threats, could be one of a number of future growth hotspots; both for Western exports and local development efforts.


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Many countries now rely upon cyberspace for a variety of social and economic benefits and it has been deemed the ‘fifth domain’ alongside air, land and sea and the electro-magnetic spectrum by military professionals in the United States and Europe. However, a number of security challenges serve to jeopardise this dependence.

by Neil Robinson

hese security challenges include cybercrime, the misuse of information and communication technologies, the spread of illegal material and increasingly the use of cyberspace as a domain for states to aggressively advance policy or political interests. In March 2014 the Malaysian capital Kuala Lumpur hosted an Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) Regional Forum workshop on Cyber Confidence Building

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Measures. This event presented the opportunity to consider what role regional organisations have in addressing the relatively new security challenges emanating from these uses of cyberspace. Such considerations are, of course, tempered by an unusually complex set of geopolitical issues that pervade the region, with both the military superpowers in Asia, the People’s Republic of China and the United States, possessing considerable clout in cyberspace.

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United States Military cyber cadets undergo training. The US armed forces see cyber warfare as a key ‘domain’ alongside the air, land, sea and electromagnetic spectrum © US DoD

The cyber-superpowers of China and the United States have been engaged, along with others such as the Russia and the European Union (EU), in something of a diplomatic tussle over what might be summarised as a debate on a ‘state-level acceptable use policy’ for cyberspace.


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Non-military institutions such as Rose State College in Oklahoma are heavily involved in the provision of cyber security training to individuals who will assist public and private sector institutions in protecting their computer networks �� Rose State College

Regional organisations like the Asia Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC) forum, ASEAN and the Shanghai Co-operation Organisation (SCO), as mid-level players aiming to further common interests of their membership, also play a role in this debate.

Cyberspace Control

The year 2011 marked something of a watershed for the discourse on cyber-security on the diplomatic agenda. There is an important debate in the international sphere about what the right tools are to manage the growing interest in cyberspace by nation-states. On the one side the US and the European Union in particular argue that existing rules and norms governing international relations are sufficiently robust to be able to cope with the new challenges that cyberspace poses. In order to advance this agenda, the United Kingdom initiated in London during November 2011, a major state-level International Conference on Cybersecurity and Cyberspace. Subsequent events occurred in Budapest (2012) and Seoul

(2013) under what has now become known informally as the “London Process”. On 12 September 2011, two months before the first of these International Conferences in London, China and Russia, supported by Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, submitted a joint proposal for an International Code of Conduct for Information Security to the United Nations (UN). This proposal discussed the rights and responsibilities of states in protecting information networks and argued that states should respect domestic laws and sovereignty. It argued that the UN was the best platform to establish international

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norms and arbitrate between disputes. The Chinese-Russian rationale was to launch an open and transparent process for the development (within the UN) of international norms and rules for information and cyberspace security but it was largely viewed as an attempt to destabilise Western efforts to establish international norms and ‘rules of the road’ for state behaviour in cyberspace whilst respecting the open and free nature of this new domain. It was seen by many as a thinly-veiled attempt to assert the principle of state sovereignty in cyberspace, giving a platform for countries to control information in order to suppress dissent or stifle opposition. This debate rumbled on (despite 2013 being the year of disclosures about state surveillance capabilities via the leaks to the press of former National Security Agency spook Edward Snowden) in the 68th Session of the UN General Assembly in November 2013. A subsequent resolution entitled “Developments in the field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security”

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W A R F A R E region, one of the key points to note here is how the diversity in membership of the regional organisations mentioned above affects what particular treatment is given to cyber-security. For example, the SCO is primarily an organisation orientated toward the ‘control of cyberspace’ argument identified above, since it has as its members Russia, China and former Soviet Union republics. ASEAN, by contrast, represents a group of more or less non-aligned nations that has a relatively coherent agenda and has been able to make progress on a wide range of fronts including declarations on tackling cybercrime and network security. Finally, APEC, which includes in its membership two great ‘cyber-superpowers’, China and the United States, has a narrower and economically driven output. Below the author will summarise what each of these organisations has been pursuing in the cyber-security agenda.

ASEAN Throughout the Asia-Pacific region, numerous efforts are ongoing to enact transnational cooperation to devise mechanisms to protect computer networks, while continuing to ensure that the internet helps to contribute to national commerce © DARPA

passed at this session built upon a succession of proposals initiated by Russia (of which the last was aforementioned in 2011) warning about the potential for Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to be used for purposes “inconsistent with the objectives of maintaining international peace, stability and security”, according to the resolution. It also took forward consensus reports released in 2010 and 2013 from a UN Group of Government Experts (GGE). The GGE reports may be seen in some sense as a crystallisation of the struggle between a hard and soft regulatory approach regarding state-to-state behaviour. The 2013 GGE Report concluded that existing international law (specifically the Charter of the UN) was applicable in cyberspace, rebutting the claims from some countries that entirely new legal instruments were required. A revised GGE with a broader mandate was asked to report its findings back in 2015 to the next 70th session of the UN General Assembly. In the context of this international debate

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about acceptable behaviour for states in cyberspace, there are also growing admissions by many countries (the United States, Republic of Korea and the Netherlands for example) that they are developing cyberweapons as well as attribution by victims of the capabilities of others.

Regional Activities

With an uncertain geopolitical landscape and clear statements from some countries about their cyber defence capabilities, it is instructive to consider the role that regional organisations currently play in this context. Focusing upon the Asia-Pacific

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The ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) is perhaps of most interest in the context of international and regional security. In 2006 the ARF issued a statement on fighting cyber-attack and terrorist misuse of cyberspace which articulated several key points concerning cyber-security capacity building. These included encouragement that: every ASEAN nation should aim to enact and implement cybercrime and cyber-security laws, acknowledge the importance of a national framework for co-operation and collaboration in cyberspace, and agree to work together to improve capabilities to address cybercrime and improving confidence and capabilities of Computer Security Incident Response Teams (CSIRTs). Following from this, in 2012 a statement on improving cyber-security was released after the ARF meeting in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. This statement set out goals to intensify regional cooperation in cyberspace, including the promotion of further strategies to address threats in cyberspace, and promotion of dialogue on confidence building, stability and risk reduction measures to address consequences of ARF members use of ICT (including an exchange of views on the potential use of


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The revelations of Edward Snowden, a former contractor to the United States National Security Agency (NSA) in 2013, regarding the scope of the NSA’s eavesdropping activities caused considerable embarrassment to the US and several other countries around the world © Wikimedia Commons

APEC

ICTs in conflict). The 2012 statement also articulated the need to encourage and enhance cooperation in bringing about cyber-security; development of a Work Plan on cyber-security (focusing on practical cooperation and confidence building measures, setting out corresponding goals and time-frames for implementation) and consideration of the possibility to review common terms and definitions. ASEAN’s Telecommunications Regulators Council (ATRC) has been one of the mechanisms through which cyber-security has been discussed alongside declarations relating to tackling cybercrime. These began in 1997. By 2013 the ASEAN working-level Senior Officials Meeting on Transnational Crime created a new Working Group on tackling cybercrime. This working group (one of eight covering different crime areas) includes information exchange, legal matters, law enforcement matters, training and capacity building, and extra regional cooperation. ASEAN’s Telecommunications and Information Technology ministers have also been considering cyber-security. The 2003 Singapore declaration indicated that all ASEAN Member States should develop and activate Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) by 2005 according to minimum performance criteria. In 2005 a framework for cooperation on network security was released by the ARTC along with an action plan. This was updat-

ed in 2013 to broaden the scope of network security issues and include cooperation across a broader range of actors such as those in the private sector. Subsequent to this, a Network Security Action Council was established as a multi-stakeholder initiative to promote CERT cooperation and sharing of expertise.

APEC’s effort in the cyber-security domain stem from its Telecommunications and Information Working Group (TEL). TEL works in turn through three groups: Liberalisation Steering Group, ICT Development Steering Group, and the Security and Prosperity Steering Group (SPSG). In 2005 the APEC strategy to ensure Trusted Safe and Sustainable Online Environment (TSSOE) was adopted. This sought to build upon work in the area of cyber-security following APEC commitments made in Los Cabos, Mexico in 2002 with regard to enacting domestic cybersecurity laws, development of CSIRTs, and promotion of international cooperation to strengthen cyber-security and

Recognisable by their characteristic ‘Guy Fawkes’ masks, the Anonymous collective has been accused of performing a number of Distributed Denial of Service cyber attacks against government, corporate and religious websites and computer networks around the world © Wikimedia Commons

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Admiral Michael Rogers, commander of the United States Cyber Command, is seen here addressing service personnel. The United States military is taking an increasingly muscular approach to cyber defence and security © US DoD

combat cybercrime. An APEC CyberSecurity Strategy was subsequently published later in 2005. In the TSSOE, APEC Member Economies were encouraged to take action on a number of items including through strategy development, addressing misuse of online environment, partnership building, development of watch and warning capabilities and the support of cooperative efforts. In 2011 the SPSG held a workshop on cyber-security policy development. This looked at policy and technical trends regarding cyber-security between 2005 and 2010 and gathered perspectives on the implementation of the TSSOE. The workshop heard contributions from a variety of its members as well as receiving contributions from industry. Undoubtedly, the scope of the SPSG and the nature of the TSSOE might be considered a relatively non-controversial agenda (especially given the different cyber-diplomatic stances of its members) as it stems from the remit of APEC as being primarily concerned with economic cooperation. In late September 2013, APEC and the Paris-

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based worldwide Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) held a joint meeting called the ‘APEC-OECD Symposium on Security Risk Management in the Internet Economy’ as part of the 48th meeting of the APEC-TEL in Hawaii. The objective of the meeting was threefold: to raise awareness about cybersecurity and add value to the upcoming reviews of both the OECD Security Guidelines and the TSSOE; to provide a platform for discussion from a range of sectors (government, industry and the technical community); and finally to add a milestone to cooperation between APEC-TEL and the OECD Working Party on Information Security and Privacy (WPISP).

SCO

The final regional organisation worthy of note is the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO). The SCO is an organisation whose members include Russia, China, and many former USSR republics. The SCO has noted cybercrime and information security as part of its Shanghai Convention on Combating Terrorism,

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Separatism and Extremism. For example, the 2009 Yekaterinburg Declaration stressed the significance of ensuring international information security as one of the key elements of the common system of international security. The SCO’s Heads of State Council meeting in 2012 in Beijing stated that the SCO will also tackle international cybercrime in the context of its work on the fight against terrorism, separatism and extremism.

Conclusion

As we have seen the international dynamic for cyber-security is rapidly evolving and there seems no easy resolution for the discussion about whether states can selfregulate with regard to their behaviour in cyberspace. Regional organisations like ASEAN, APEC and the SCO have a very practical part to play in helping to build confidence and implement many capacity building initiatives. However, with the varying members of these groups, there is a risk that they could become unwitting or active proxies for more complex diplomatic positioning by larger global powers.


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ASIA PACIFIC PROCUREMENT UPDATE by Pierre Delrieu

be capable of being towed or mounted on a high-mobility vehicle and capable of operating on any type of terrain. They are intended to protect tactically important areas in plains, mountains, desert and semi-desert. Among other requirements, the new guns will need to be linked to ground-based air defence command and control and have the ability to engage air

targets at a minimum range of four kilometres (2.5 miles) and fire 1,000 rounds-perminute (rpm). The IA currently operates about 2,000 L/70 guns, acquired from Sweden in the 1960s. The guns were upgraded in 1995 by Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), a local state-owned electronics company, and fitted with digital fire-control systems. The firing rate of the IA’s guns was also increased from 240 to 300 rpm. The New Delhibased Defence Research and Development Organisation, India’s agency responsible for the development of militaryused technology, conducted the upgrade. The Bofors L/70 gun was initially developed in the late 1940s as a successor for the earlier L/60 weapon, offering a greater effective range and a higher firing rate, making it more efficient against combat aircraft, although heavier and larger than its predecessor.

PAC’s Super Mushak is a more advanced, upgraded version of the same manufacturer’s MFI-17 Mushak, a licencebuilt basic trainer version of Saab’s Safari/Supporter aircraft. The Super Mushak features a more powerful engine than the MFI-17, as well as dual flight controls and a fuel injection system. Introduced in 1996, 20 Super Mushak aircraft are in service with the Pakistani Air Force and 20 with the Royal Saudi Air Force. The aircraft has been exported to Egypt,

Iran, Oman and Syria and is a contender for Turkey’s basic training programme. The Super Mushak is primarily used for basic flight and instrument training, although it is capable of light attack missions. The PAF has trained Iraqi pilots in the past, and this collaboration may lead to more deals between the two countries, covering the provision of command and control capabilities and possibly Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Keen on developing its international defence exports, Pakistan has also been promoting the Chengdu JF-17 Thunder Multi-Role Combat Aircraft jointly developed the China which was showcased to the Iraqi officials.

INDIA TO SELECT HOME-BUILT SUBSTITUTE FOR AIR DEFENCE ARTILLERY

 The Indian Army (IA) has decided to tap domestic companies to acquire a replacement for its aging Swedish-built 40 millimetre Bofors L/70 air defence guns, according to a Indian Ministry of Defence (MoD) announcement made in early March 2014, following the cancellation of a global tender issued in 2013. The Indian MoD is proposing a $400 million domestic acquisition of 430 towed, antiaircraft guns to replace the 50year-old L/70 weapons. The initial international bid, launched in 2013, had received responses from Thales of France, Bumar of Poland, Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI), Russia’s Rosoboronexport and BAE Systems of the United Kingdom. The newly-drafted local

PAKISTAN TO SUPPLY TRAINER AIRCRAFT TO IRAQ

 Pakistan on 10 February 2014 agreed to supply the Iraqi Air Force (IQAF) with PAC (Pakistan Aeronautical Complex) Super Mushak basic trainer aircraft along with pilot training, paving the way towards further deals with the Middle Eastern country, currently rebuilding its armed forces, as reported by Pakistan’s Associated Press. A defence ministry official in Pakistan declined to comment on the quantity of aircraft or the overall value of the deal, but the agreement could reach as much as $94 million and provide IQAF with training and development assistance, along with some 20

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tender, expected to be issued in June 2014, will be proposed to state-owned Bharat Electronics Ltd. (BEL) and the Ordnance Factory Board, part of the Department of Defence Production of the Indian MoD, as well as to privatesector companies Tata Power SED, Larsen and Toubro Limited, Punj Lloyd and Bharat Forge. The new guns will need to planes, training and spare parts. The deal was signed by General Anwer Hamad Amen Ahmed, commander of IQAF, and Air Chief Marshal Tahir Rafique Butt, head of Pakistan’s Air Force (PAF). Ahead of the signature, in early February 2014, a delegation of the Iraqi defence ministry had visited local installations such as PAF Academy in western Pakistan and the PAC facility, commonly known as Aviation City, the centre of aircraft manufacturing and overhauling in Pakistan. According to a Pakistan government statement issued following the delegation’s visit, the Iraqi representatives also met with Tanveer Hussain, Pakistan’s minister for defence production.

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SINGAPORE SEEKING TO ACQUIRE LARGER AMPHIBIOUS SHIPS

 The Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN) is considering the procurement of new amphibious support ships capable of accommodating the country’s Sikorsky SH70B maritime support helicopters. The country’s defence minister, Ng Eng Hen, made the announcement during a parliament session discussing the country’s 2014 defence budget on 6 March 2014. The RSN currently operates four ‘Endurance’ class amphibious support ships, designed and built by Singapore Technologies (ST) Marine. The four ships, commissioned between March 2000 and April 2001, form the 191 Squadron of the RSN and are each 40 percent larger than the country’s ‘County’ class tank landing ships (LSTs) they replaced. The city-state’s current amphibious support fleet has proved its worth in sup-

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ing up to 14 tons. Based on a design owned by the Dutch Damen Shipyards, Vietnam’s OPVs are being manufactured at the state-owned Z189 shipbuilding factory in Haiphong in northern Vietnam. All four patrol ships will be equipped with helicopters. Hanoi has reportedly narrowed its maritime support

helicopter requirements down to two models: the Russian Kamov Ka-27 and the Airbus Helicopter AS-565 Panther; two aircraft that fulfil the tonnage limits of Vietnam’s OPV’s flight decks. However, the Russian aircraft has been widely seen as the most likely choice for the Vietnamese Ministry of National Defence,

due to its lower purchase and operating costs (see Andrew Drweiga’s article ‘The Rotary Club Expands’ in this issue). The Kamov Ka-27 is currently in service in various countries, including Russia, China, the Republic of Korea (RoK) and India. Variants of the Ka-27 include the Ka-29 assault transport helicopter, the Ka-28 export version and the Ka-32 developed for civilian use. Vietnam’s Navy currently operates two models: the Ka-27 and a Ka-28. Apart from the procurement of naval helicopters, the CG has also reportedly shown interest in purchasing an undisclosed number of Airbus Military C-212 turboprop freighters along with mobile mission planning systems to assist maritime surveillance missions. Vietnam already operated three C-212-400 aircraft.

porting Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) missions over the past decade. Each of the ships displace 8,636 tonnes and can house two Airbus Helicopters EC-562 Super Puma helicopters on deck and up to 18 Main Battle Tanks (MBTs), as well as up to 20 land vehicles and bulk cargo. However, the capacity of these ships would not be sufficient to carry the RSN’s helicopter fleet, especially after its 2013 order of two additional Sikorsky SH-70Bs, which are due to be delivered in 2016. The new aircraft will join the navy’s existing fleet of six SH-70Bs, which are designed for anti-submarine warfare and equipped with a long-range active sonar and torpedoes, entering service in January 2011. Although Mr. Ng did not disclose the RSN’s choice for its new ship, the most likely option would be a variant of ST Marine’s ‘Endurance-160’

class multirole support ship displayed in model form as an amphibious support vessel at the Singapore Air Show in February 2014. The ‘Endurance 160’ class was presented by ST Marine as “a multi-role support ship with versatile capability”. The ship is equipped with a well deck, allowing the operation of small vessels, lodging up to four Landing

Craft Utility platforms. The vessel also offers a large flight deck equipped for day and night operations for up to five medium-lift or two heavy-lift helicopters. A hangar located below the flight deck can also allow the ship to house multiple helicopters, reportedly up to seven medium-lift rotor craft, according to the company.

VIETNAM’S COAST GUARD LOOKING TO ACQUIRE MARITIME HELICOPTERS

 Vietnam’s Coast Guard (CG), is seeking to purchase new shipborne maritime support helicopters – possibly Russian Kamov Ka-27s - to widen the operational range of its ‘DN 2000’ class Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs). The CG currently operates one ‘DN 2000’ class OPV, the CSB-8001, while three more are currently in different stages of construction. These 2,500-ton, 90-metre (295-feet) vessels, powered by four Caterpillar C3516C engines, are capable of attaining a top speed of 21 knots (39 kilometres-per-hour). With a range of 5,000 nautical miles (9,260 kilometres), Vietnam’s ‘DN 2000’ class ships are equipped with a flight deck capable of supporting an aircraft weigh-

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RoK CONFIRMS F-35 AND GLOBAL HAWK PURCHASE

 The Republic of Korea’s (RoK) Defence Acquisition Programme Administration (DAPA) announced on 24 March 2014 that it had decided to move ahead with the purchase of 40 Lockheed Martin F-35A Lightning-II Multi-Role Combat Aircraft (MRCA) through the US Foreign Military Sales programme; a deal that is expected to be worth around $6.8 billion, with an expected first delivery by 2018.

If an agreement is reached, Lockheed Martin will invest in Korea Aerospace Industries’ (KAI) KF/X programme, which aims to develop an advanced MRCA for the Republic of Korea Air Force (RoKAF) as well as for the Indonesian Air Force (TNI-AU). The RoK and the Indonesian governments have started ‘two-track negotiations‘ with Lockheed Martin on the price and offset package deals, in the hopes that an agreement on the final price will be reached by the middle of 2014.

The Republic of Korea (RoK) had been forced to redraw the terms of a $7.8 billion bid to buy 60 Boeing’s F15SE Silent Eagle MRCAs in 2013, after the decision was made to favour a fighter with stealth capabilities. Due to the price difference between the two aircraft, Seoul subsequently had to reduce the purchase to 40 units. Local media sources suggest that the RoK will be asking Lockheed Martin to take on as much as 20 percent of the KF-X development costs, according to military sources. Although no decision has yet been made on Lockheed Martin’s investment in the programme, the company has offered to supply over 300 man-years’ worth of engineering expertise to assist the RoK with designing its aircraft, along with more than 500,000 pages of technical documentation regarding the company’s F-16 and F-35 families of MRCAs and its F-22A air superiority fighters. In addition to the F-35, the RoK announced it would be buying four Northrop

Grumman RQ-4 Block-30 Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), a deal valued at about $814 million, with an initial delivery date scheduled for 2018. The RoKAF intends to use the high-altitude surveillance aircraft to monitor key targets in the neighbouring Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). This surveillance will be performed as part of South Korea’s “Kill Chain” anti-weapons of mass destructions defence system, designed to detect signs of imminent missile attacks to facilitate the launching of preemptive strikes. Using high-resolution synthetic aperture radar and optronics, the RQ-4 can survey up to 100,000 square kilometres (40,000 square miles), according to publicly-available figures from the US Air Force. With a ceiling of circa 60,000 feet (18,000 metres) and an operational range of over 8,000 nautical miles (15,000 kilometres), the RQ-4 can easily cover not only all of DPRK, but also parts of China and Japan.

Russian manufacturers. The BTR-4 was initially designed as a private venture by the Ukraine-based Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau and was first unveiled at the Aviasvit 2006 defence exhibition, held near Kiev, Ukraine, in June 2006. The Ukrainian BTR-4’s layout is closer to Western APC

designs such as the German Rheinmetall TPz Fuchs than to that of the older BTR60/70 designed in the Soviet Union or even the BTR-80, still in service with the Russian Army. Like the TPz, the BTR-4’s driver’s and commander’s compartment are located at the front part of the hull, while the engine and transmission section located in the middle, and the troop compartment at the rear of the vehicle. The BTR-4 APC is in service with the Ukrainian Army, with ten units having entered service in 2009. In 2012, the Iraqi Ministry of Defence placed an order for 420 vehicles and the Republic of Kazakhstan armed forces for 100 units.

INDONESIA TO ACQUIRE AT LEAST 5 BTR-4 APCS

 The Indonesian Navy will be acquiring five amphibious BTR-4 eight-wheel drive Armoured Personnel Carriers (APCs) from the Kiev-based Ukrspetsexport, the foreign sales subsidiary of the Ukrainian state-owned defence giant Ukroboronprom. The deal, valued at about $50 million and concluded at the end of February 2014, was made public by Ukroboronprom’s website on 13 March 2014. The Indonesian Marine Corps will operate the new vehicles and, if the first batch of APCs meets the country’s needs, Indonesia has

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announced it could be expanding the programme for its Army and placing an order for an additional 50 units from Ukraine, the statement said. Ukrspetsexport won a tender placed by the Indonesian Ministry of Defence and was awarded the deal in the face of what it qualified as a “hard competition”, topping bids by

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REGIONAL NEWS

a u s t r a l a s i a A N D

D E V E L O P M E N T S

AUSTRALIA GOES FORTH WITH UAV ACQUISITION, SELECTS NORTHROP GRUMMAN MQ-4C

 Australia’s defence minister, David Johnston issued a news release on 13 March 2014 announcing that the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) will be going forward with the acquisition of the USdeveloped Northrop Grumman MQ-4C Triton Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), as outlined in the Australian Ministry of Defence’s (MoD) 2012 Defence Capability Plan (DCP). The DCP stipulates the purchase of up to seven HighAltitude Long-Endurance (HALE) UAVs along with the associated systems at a total cost of between $1.8 to $2.7 billion. The exact number of aircraft to be acquired and when they will be introduced into service will depend on a 2016 government decision expected to be based on conclusions drawn from a Defence White Paper to be published in early 2015. The MQ-4C Triton is a maritime version of America’s largest UAV, the Northrop Grumman RQ-4

Global Hawk, capable of providing real-time intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance over wide ocean and coastal regions. According to Northrop Grumman the aircraft is a “high-altitude (UAV) equipped with a sensor suite that provides a 360degree view of its surroundings at a radius of over 2,000 nautical miles (3700 kilometres) and is capable of “supporting missions up to 24 hours” in duration. Australia, which had been looking to acquire a HALE UAV for over a decade, started showing interest in the MQ-4C in 2013, when it issued a request to the US Navy (USN) to gain access to detailed cost and capability

information regarding the aircraft. The country’s MQ-4Cs will reportedly operate in tandem with eight Boeing P-8A Poseidon maritime patrol aircraft, which are expected for delivery from 2017, with all eight aircraft fully operational by 2021. The P-8As are intended to replace the Australian Navy’s aging fleet 19 Lockheed Martin AP-3C Orion maritime patrol aircraft, in service since the mid-1980s. Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott announced the acquisition of the P-8As, valued at about $3.8 million, on 21 February 2014. According to the defence minister, the acquisition of the MQ-4C UAVs “will require approximately $130 million of

new facilities and infrastructures.” Mr. Johnston revealed basing arrangements for the aircraft, explaining that “the Triton will be based in Adelaide”, in southern Australia and will bring ”significant economic benefits” to the region, with about $93 million of local investments. These investments will potentially be used to expand and enhance existing facilities and infrastructures at the RAAF Base Edinburgh, north of Adelaide, added Mr. Johnston, while support requirements for the MQ-4C Triton UAVs based there are expected to generate about $18 million annually in commercial deals with local companies.

2013 to include other Boeing organisations to act as subcontractors for the RAAF. Mr. Johnson said in the statement announcing the deal that nearly $400 million of the $813 million deal will be spent locally. According to Boeing, the contract will cover the E-7A Wedgetail programme and supply chain management, maintenance and engineering support at

least for another five years, and could be once again extended in 2019, depending on performance and continuous improvement. Boeing’s 737 AEW&C was initially designed and developed for the RAAF in the early 2000 under ‘Project Wedgetail’ initiative and designated as the E-7A Wedgetail. Introduced in 2009, the E-7A was also selected by the Turkish Air Force, under the designation “Project Peace Eagle”, the Republic of Korea Air Force (“Project Peace Eye”) and is currently under consideration by the Italian and United Arab Emirates Air Forces.

 United Kingdom-based weapons of mass destruction expert, and Asian Military Review, contributor Andy Oppenheimer has released a new album as a band member of Oppenheimer Mk.II. Famed for their innovative electronic music, Oppenheimer Mk.II, which also includes fellow band member Mahk Rumbae, recently released their new album ‘The Presence of the Abnormal’ which can be heard online at https://soundcloud.com/op penheimermkii/sets/reviews tream or purchased on the itunes website.

AUSTRALIA SIGNS E-7A WEDGETAIL SUPPORT CONTRACT WITH BOEING

 Boeing was selected to provide the ongoing sustainment Royal Australian Air Force’s (RAAF’s) fleet of six E-7A Wedgetail Airborne Early Warning (AEW) aircraft under a five-year, $813 million contract. Announced on 17 March 2014 by Australia’s defence minister, David Johnston, the contract is an extension of the five-year, $553 million, logistics support agreement signed with Boeing in 2010. This 2010 agreement with the company had been modified in July

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AMR June 2014