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arhitektura slovenije arhitecture of slovenia

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vernakularna arhitektura, alpski del

borut juvanec

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borut juvanec

arhitektura slovenije 1

36,50 â‚Ź

AS1

arhitecture of slovenia 1

vernacular arhitecture, alpine part


124 35 borut juvanec

arhitektura slovenije arhitecture of slovenia vernakularna arhitektura, alpski del vernacular arhitecture, alpine part

Univerza v Ljubljani

Zalo탑ba i2

Ljubljana 2009


vsebina Predgovor Pregledna karta V , Teorija 1 Objekti, predstavitve, ček Kratki angleški slovarček Indeks Izvlečki

contents 7 8 11 13 65 109 129 131 135 139

Preface Introduction Map of Slovenia Vernacular Architecture, Theory 1 Objects, presentation, Alpine Part Glossary (Slovene) Short Glossary (English) Index Bibliography Abstracts


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preface

predgovor prof. dr. Peter Fister kako kvalitetnem, razpoznavnem in znač azmislek o bodočnosti kulturne dediščine v največji me barskimi značilnostmi Te sestavlja tako arhitektura posebnih vrednosti kot še bolj tista arhitektura (=stavbarstvo), ki jo označujemo kot ano . Vse človekovo oblikovanje bivalnega okolja je bilo namreč itev posebne identitete, ki mu je zagotavljala uveljavitev njegovih zahtev po njemu prilagojenem načinu življenja in odnosu do prostora Če torej iščemo eno od osnovnih vrednot stavbne dediščine in s tem bivalnega okolja, je to lahko le vrednost dosežene s , ki jo je človek ustvaril ali ki jo še ustvarja. Ker pa čas danes neusmiljeno pozablja na te vrednosti, ker jih preprosto ne razpozna več, je njihova predsta ih najbolj značilnih sestavin vernakularne arhitekture v izbranih regionalnih okvirih

Recognition of the high-quality, identifiable and characteristic space in which we live and, at the same time, consideration of the future of the cultural heritage of our living environment, appear very largely today precisely in connection with the characteristics of its buildings. This consists of both architecture of special value and, even more, architecture (= building) which is designated anonymous, folk or vernacular architecture. All human shaping of the living environment, in fact, has always been directed at establishing a particular identity, which ensures the possibility of meeting mankind's demands for a particular way of life and a relation to space adapted to man. If, therefore, we seek one of the basic attributes of the building heritage, and thus the living environment, this can only be that of the achieved level of design of space and architecture that man has created or is still creating. Because these attributes are today mercilessly forgotten, because they are simply no longer recognised, presenting them to the public is so much more important. A presentation of the most characteristic elements of vernacular architecture still preserved today, within selected regional frameworks, such as Dr. Juvanec has achieved, offers Slovenia several possibilities. It familiarises today's inhabitants of the country with features because of which they can be proud of their home. It shows that, over the course of many generations, people in this apparently small part of the world have created their own, high quality image of the living environment, from the smallest detail to shaping the landscape as a whole. At the same time, it provides a comparison with the wider European space and presents these attributes as a special contribution to this wider area. Because the presentation has been prepared in such a way that it is understandable to everybody, including to readers outside the borders of Slovenia, it is simultaneously a special form of presentation and promotion of this exceptional part of Europe. It can thus be expected to encourage greater pride that we have such a cultural heritage and to encourage many visitors to go and see these presented pearls of Slovene vernacular architecture for themselves, which should in turn encourage the inhabitants to preserve them as the exceptional attributes that they are.

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a tudi bralcem izven meja Slovenije, je to hkrati posebna oblika predstavitve in promocije tega izjemnega dela Evrope. Pričakujemo lahko, da bo zato spodbudila večji ponos, kulturno dediščino in

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uvod

introduction

Značilnosti slovenske vernakularne arhitekture sledijo predvsem oblikovanju narave: od ostrin kraške pokrajine do ravnin panonskega sveta, od visokih Alp do mehkih, zelenih gričev Dolenjske in Bele krajine. Arhitektura Slovenije odraža obilico gozdov, ki j

The characteristics of Slovene vernacular architecture primarily follow the design of nature: from the sharpness of the Karst landscape to the flatness of the Pannonian plain, from the high Alps to the soft, green hills of Dolenjska and Bela krajina. The vernacular architecture of Slovenia reflects the abundance of forests that we have, and is thus predominantly of wood, though it also uses stone and clay. There is no uniform typical Slovene house. Slovenia has of course been historically divided and partitioned: for example into Kranjska, Štajerska and Dolenjska. A complete division in neither the architectural sphere nor in any other sense has yet occurred. Let me mention only a few solutions: The geographer Anton Melik divided Slovenia into nine regions: Alps, Škofja Loka, Cerkljansko, Primorska, Central Slovenia, Pannonia and the sub-regions: Bovška, Vrhhlevna, Dolenjska, Belokranjska and Kozjanska [Fister 1993:8]. Ivan Sedej was more broad-minded and decided on 17 regions [Fister 1993: 9], whereby he goes in some places into detail and elsewhere leaves huge undivided regions. He clearly valued more those that he knew. East and South are far from Ljubljana. This is of course a division of architecture made by non-architects and is more or less unusable for practical purposes. Peter Fister dealt with the regionalisation of architecture scientifically in 1993 and found 74 regions, but simplified them into 14 characteristic groups [Fister 1993: 247]. With the architectural regions of Slovenia, Professor Fister introduced a fresh attitude “for establishing new criteria of identity, which should set standards and specific forms of control over the protection, design and sensible location of all kinds of building and settlement which help create the identity of the Slovene space” [Fister 1993: 17]. It is a matter of protecting the quality of the space, with the sole purpose of raising the quality of life and preserving identity [Fister 1993: 20]. The architectural landscape is thus a spatial unit in which it is possible to recognise uniform standards of the identity of the space [Fister 1993: 21].

Enotne slovenske značilne hiše ni. Seveda so v zgodovini delili in razkosavali našo deželo; na primer na Kranjsko, Štajersko, Dolenjsko. Do danes do popolne razdelitve ne na arhitekturnem ne na kakem drugem področju nismo prišli. Naj omenim le nekaj rešitev:

Ivan Sedej je bil bolj širokogruden in je določil 17 regij [Fister 1993: 9], pri čemer gre ponekod v podrobnosti, drugod pa pušča ogromne nedeljene pokrajine. Očitno je bolj cenil tisto, kar je poznal. Vzhod in Jug sta daleč od Ljubljane. orabna za resno obdelavo. Znanstveno je regionalizacijo arhitekture leta 1993 obdelal Peter Fister, ki je našel 74 regij, poenostavil pa jih je v 14 značilnih skupin [Fister 1993: 247]. za uveljavitev novih kriterijev identitete, ki naj postavijo merila in specifične oblike nadzora nad varovanjem, oblikovanjem ter smotrnim razpostavljanjem vseh vrst stavb in naselij, ki soustvarjajo identiteto slovenskega prostora

Arhitekturna krajina je torej prostorska enota, v kateri je mogoče prepoznati enotna merila identitete prostora em se naslanja predvsem na Listino iz Granade iz leta 1985, ki govori o ”skupnem spominu Evrope”kot priporočilu o zaščiti in prenovi ruralne

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arhitekturne dediščine

It relies primarily on the Granada Document of 1985, which talks about the 'common memory of Europe' as a recommendation for the protection and renovation of the rural architectural heritage [Grobovšek 2003]. Fister develops eight groups of regions [simplified from a total of 74]: Primorsko Gorenjsko Dolenjsko Štajersko Koroško Podravsko - Pomursko Idrijsko - Notranjsko Ljubljansko. It is certainly a logical and understandable division for architecture, but still too demanding for a general overview. The geographers Žiberna, Natek and Ogrin simplified it further, when they established five macroregions [Žiberna 2004: 85], made up as follows: Alpine Subalpine Dinarid-Karst Central Slovenia Pannonian [Žiberna 2004: 86]. For a review of architecture, and especially vernacular architecture, this division is fairly suitable, since it corresponds both to the design of nature and settlement and the materials that people used there. The names could also be adapted to architecture with minor modification: 1 Alpine part 2 North-eastern part 3 Central Slovenia 4 Dolenjska 5 Mediterranean [and Karst] part It is of course necessary to adapt a number of things here: Pannonian part would be a more logical and narrower title for the North-eastern part, since Pohorje is the final flank of the Central Alps, but in terms of architectural culture, it relies as much on one as the other side. I decided on the less appropriate expression North-eastern Slovenia, which more logically connects typology and materials, although it unfortunately leaves out the smaller, western part of Pohorje, which in terms of typology is closer to Koroška. Posočje is similarly simplified, which is divided by geography into three regions but is sensibly combined into a single vertically changing region between the Mediterranean and the Alps. This is already a special characteristic of this region. Architecture undoubtedly confirms this. The books The Vernacular Architecture of Slovenia will also be published in this order, from the first to the fifth. I would like to stress that is in no sense a reflection of the quality of architecture; merely that Slovenia is unfortunately too small a market to publish all five books simultaneously. A further note on GPS [Global Positioning System] data, which is neither uniform nor the same throughout the world. There exist degrees which

Za arhitekturo je to vsekakor logična in umna razdelitev, a za splošen pregled še vedno prezahtevna.

Pri tem je seveda marsikaj treba prilagoditi. Za Severovzhodni del bi bil bolj logičen in ožji naziv Pomurski del, saj je Pohorje zadnji obronek Centralnih Alp, a se po arhitekturni kulturi naslanja tako na eno kot na drugo stran. Odločil sem se za manj primeren izraz Severovzhodna Slovenija, ki bolj logično povezuje tipiko in materiale, pri čemer žal izstopa manjši, zahodni del Pohorja, ki se po tipiki naslanja na Koroško. Enako je poenostavljeno Posočje, ki ga geografija reže na tri območja, a je smiselna njegova povezava v eno samo, vertikalno spreminjajoče se območje med Sredozemljem in Alpami. Že to je posebna značilnost tega območja. Arhitektura to nedvomno potrjuje. GPS pomeni Global Positioning System ali Splošni umestitveni sistem , ki v svetu niso enotni in ne enaki. Obstajajo stopinje, ki si jih kot dolžinske enote pač ne predstavljamo, metri pa nastopajo v več sistemih. Izbral sem pravokotno mrežo projekcije UTM na elipsoidu WGS 84, ki je pa je mreža vrisana v vijoličasti barvi. Lokacija je izjemnega pomena za prostorsko predstavo, z GPS podatki pa knjiga postane pravi turistični vodnik. Pri tem ne mislim na masovni, pač pa na kulturni turizem. Slovenija je premajhna za množice, ki tekajo od posebnosti do posebnosti, se

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pehajo za številom obiskov, fotografirajo in si zapisujejo, potem pa vse skupaj varno zaklenejo v predal. omoč in vodilo umnemu človeku, ki ga zanima kultura na področju oblikovanja prostora. Namenjena ni arhitektu in ne nearhitektu: posvečena je vsem kulturnim ljudem.

we do not present as a unit of length, and metres appear in a number of systems. I chose a rectangular net projection UTM on ellipsoid WGS 84, which is drawn on the maps in the books, on a of scale 1:50,000 [Geodetic Administration of Slovenia] and the network is drawn in violet. Location is extremely important for a spatial presentation, and with GPS data, a book becomes a real tourist guide. I am not thinking here of mass tourism, but cultural tourism. Slovenia is too small for the crowds which run from feature to feature, scramble after the highest number of visits, photograph and record them and then lock it all safely in a drawer. The Vernacular Architecture of Slovenia is an aid and guide to the intelligent person who is interested in culture in the sphere of spatial design. It is meant neither for the architect nor the non-architect: it is devoted to all people of culture. Not just architecture, in it is concealed the entire culture of the Slovene nation, of which we are too little aware. If they talked in Granada of the common memory of Europe, Slovenia is in an enviably high place. We still have what many preserve only in museums, we still use it, develop it, think about it. The heritage is not something obsolete and unusable, it is the basis of our thought and development for tomorrow. We cannot build or use vernacular architecture today, let alone in the future, but familiarity with it and understanding of it will undoubtedly build a better life for tomorrow. Even better architecture.

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Vernakularna arhitektura, Teorija 1 Vernacular Architecture, Theory 1


Uvod

Introduction

Arhitektura kot oblikovanje prostora ni projekt, ne gradnja in ne realizacija, pač pa funkcija in predvsem delovanje. To funkcioniranje lahko presodijo le uporabniki: ne v enem popoldnevu, pač pa v življenju z objektom in odnosu do drugih objektov skozi čas. Pri tem igrata zelo pomembno vlogo tako celota kot detajl. Preprostost delovanja zagotavlja učinkovitost, konstrukcija pa enostavnost postavitve in delovanje zgradbe z vključevanjem različnih materialov. Pračloveku je bila prvo zatočišče jama [Oliver 2003: 86]. Zaščitila ga je s petih strani. Ko pa se je odpravil ven, po hrano, je moral uporabljati orodje in orožje. Verjetno je bilo najprej orožje, s katerim si je zagotovil več sredstev za preživetje, kot jih je potreboval. Zato je lahko začel razmišljati o drugih stvareh: lačen človek ni narisal slik v Altamiri, ni klesal prvih kipov in ni postavil svojega prvega zatočišča zunaj jame [Juvanec 2005: 14]. Zunaj jame ni začel svojega delovanja z orožjem, pač pa z mislijo. Živalim je nagnal strah v kosti z uporabo ognja. Ogenj postavlja navidezno steno in predstavlja varovanje. Večji kot je, večja je varnost. Ogenj širi vidno polje, toploto in s tem varnost v krožnici okrog centra. Zato je prva zgradba tudi taka z okroglo steno. Ta stena pa je težka za izvedbo, zgradba z zgradbo se ne sestavlja brez ostanka, tako da je izkoriščenost razmeroma majhna. To postane posebej pomembno takrat, ko dobi stena še druge lastnosti: stabilnost, debelino, izolativnost, akumulativnost, odpornost proti sovražnikovemu orožju itn. Razvoj človeka je sledil človekovi misli: posledice so bile tudi v arhitekturi [Egenter 1992: 41]. Hiša je postajala vse bolj udobna, omogočala je še druge dejavnosti, ki do tedaj niso bile mogoče. Človek je uporabil materiale, ki jih je dosegel, pa take, ki jih je sam obdelal in si jih priredil. Ti materiali in te konstrukcije so s časom spremenili svojo funkcijo, razvijali so se in se izpopolnjevali. Človek pa se je razvijal naprej: iskal je nove vire preživljanja, nove materiale in njihovo tehnologijo, nove načine njihove vgradnje. Vsak

Architecture, as the design of space, is not a project, it is not construction and not realisation but function and, above all, operation. This functioning can only be judged by the user: not over the course of an afternoon, but by living with the object and in relation to other objects over time. Both the totality and detail play very important roles in this. Simplicity of operation ensures effectiveness, and the construction provides simplicity of the erection and functioning of the building by the inclusion of different materials. Man's first shelter was a cave [Oliver 2003:86]. It protected him on five sides. When he went out, for food, he had to use tools and weapons. Weapons probably first provided him with surplus means of survival, more than he used. So he could begin to think about other things: a hungry man did not draw the pictures in Altamira, nor carve the first statues, and a hungry man did not erect his first shelter outside a cave [Juvanec 2005:14]. Outside the cave, he did not begin his activities with tools, but with ideas. He drove animals away with fire. Fire became a virtual wall, provided protection. The bigger it is, the greater the protection, fire spreads a visible field of warmth, and thus safety, in a circle around the centre. So the first buildings also had circular walls. Such a wall is difficult to make, and buildings cannot be placed adjacent to each other without a remainder, so that exploitation (of the space, common walls, etc) is relatively inefficient. This becomes particularly important when a wall gains other properties: stability, thickness, quality of insulation, resistance to an enemy's weapons etc. Human development followed human thought, which had an impact on architecture, too [Egenter 1992:41]. A house became increasingly comfortable, it also enabled other activities which had not previously been possible. Man used the materials to hand, but he worked and arranged them. These materials and these constructions changed their function over time; they were developed and supplemented. And man developed further: he sought new sources of subsistence, new

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razvoj prinaša spremembe. Današnji promet ni še nikoli zahteval toliko žrtev kot jih danes. Toda človek se mu preprosto ne more odpovedati, ne more se mu upreti, potrebuje ga. Poti nazaj ni več. Kje pa je razvoj v arhitekturi, kam nas je pripeljala in kaj je spremenila. Mislim - zares spremenila. Hiša ima še vedno temelj spodaj in streho zgoraj, stene so še vedno predelne, pa nosilne, izolativne in akumulativne. Lahko so tanjše, a dražje in debelejše ter cenejše, če ne računamo dosegljivosti na ekstremnih območjih. Dim se še vedno kadi navzgor, ogrevamo s pomočjo ognja, okna zapiramo s stekli, streho pokrivamo z naravnimi in z umetnimi materiali. Voda teče navzdol, s streh jo spuščamo navzven. Logične stvari, ki pa se jih vse premalo zavedamo. To so dejstva [Juvanec 2004a: 17]. Pomemben element pri tem pa je narava sama, ki človeku ne gradi - ponuja le rešitve [Egenter 1992: 161]. Naš prednik, graditelj je bil vedno pameten. Nikoli ni naredil ničesar, kar ne bi bilo premišljeno, kar ne bi bilo koristno in kar ne bi bilo dobro. Kar pa je dobro, je navadno tudi lepo in nihče ne more trditi, da je naša krajina grda. V čem je problem? Vsaka rešitev ima svoj začetek, razvoj in seveda tudi konec. Rešitve v arhitekturi so vezane na materiale naravnega izvora, narava pa je izpričano trdoživa in predvsem zelo trajna. Na vsak način trajnejša od človeka. Kmet ni postavil nobene rešitve, ki se ne bi sama potrjevala. Tega ni naredil zaradi pameti in pa zaradi okoliščin, od katerih je živel.Tega si enostavno ni mogel privoščiti. In vse je videl v naravi. V naravi vlada red in kar je proti redu - to je obsojeno na propad. V naravi se vse dogaja po tradiciji in kar je proti temu - ne funkcionira. Ne funkcionirati pa v naravi enostavno pomeni konec delovanja. Seveda ni nikoli nobena stvar tako črno-bela, da ne bi bila tudi siva. Prednosti napredka so velike, a uporabljati jih je treba tako s pametjo, kot so napredek uporabljali naši predniki. Samo neumni ljudje hočejo živeti drugače od drugih. Sleme nove hiše naj bo obrnjeno drugače kot pri stari; če je stara hiša pritlična, naj bo nova nadstropna; če ima stara hiša slamnato streho, mora imeti nova drugačno; strm naklon, ki dobro odvaja vodo, je treba zamenjati z blagim; na deželi, kjer imamo vsak trenutek stik z naravo, morajo biti balkoni, toda taki, ki ne omogočajo niti poštenega gibanja. To vsekakor niso umne odločitve.

materials and their associated technologies, new ways of installing them. Any development brings change: modern transport has never demanded as many victims as today. But man cannot simply reject it, cannot resist it, he needs it. There's no way back. Where is development in architecture? Where has it brought us? What has changed? I mean, really changed. A house still has foundations below and a roof above, the walls still divide, support, isolate and accumulate. They can be thinner but more expensive, or thicker and cheaper, disregarding viability in extreme regions. Smoke still rises upwards, we heat by means of fire, we close windows with glass, and we cover roofs with natural and artificial materials. Water runs downwards, so we release it from the roof outwards. Logical things, but of which we are too little aware. These are facts [Juvanec 2004a:17]. Nature itself is an important element in this, which does not build for man – it only offers the solution [Egenter 1992:161]. Our forebear, the builder, was always prudent: he never made anything that was unconsidered, that was not functional and that was not good. What is good is also normally beautiful and no-one can say that our landscape is ugly. Therein is the problem: every solution has a beginning, middle and, of course, also an end. Solutions in architecture are bound to materials of natural origin, and nature is testifiably persistent and, above all, very durable. Certainly more durable than man. A farmer adopted no solution that had not proved itself. He did this out of prudence, because of the circumstances in which he lived: he simply could not afford to do otherwise. He saw it all in nature: order reigned in nature and what is against order is condemned to collapse. Everything happens in nature according to tradition. What is against tradition does not function. Not functioning in nature means simply the end of an activity. Nothing, of course, is ever so black and white that it is not also grey. Progress has many advantages but it must be used with prudence, as our forebears used progress. Only stupid people want to live differently from others. Such a person faces the ridge of a new house differently from the old; if the old house was single storey, the new one will be two-storey; if the old house was roofed with thatch, the new one must have something different; a steep slope, from which water runs off well must be replaced with a gentle one; in rural areas, where there is constant contact with nature, he must have balconies, but only such as obstruct honest movement. These are certainly not sensible decisions.

Vsako aktivnost razdelimo na fazo politike, strategije in na fazo taktike [Juvanec 1998: 10]. Politika je usklajevanje interesov. Kdo ima prav, če želijo vsi ljudje graditi na najboljšem travniku? Navsezadnje je to normalno, a nekdo le mora biti pametnejši in usklajevati interese potencialnih graditeljev z interesi narave, z interesi izrabe prostora, z interesi drugih ljudi, s stališča infrastrukture. Strategija je odločanje o celoti in o odnosih z drugimi celotami. Zgradba, ki jo želimo graditi, mora biti taka, da bo sestavljala nek skupni, enotni obraz. Če je navada, da so hiše v vasi postavljene ob

ARHITEKTURA SLOVENIJE, ALPSKI DEL

Any activity can be divided into the phases of policy, strategy and tactics [Juvanec 1998:10]. Policy is harmonising interests. Who has primacy if everyone wants to build on the best meadow? This is perfectly normal but someone must be cleverer and coordinate the interests of potential builders with the interests of nature, with the interests of spatial planning, with the interests of other people, from the aspect of infrastructure.

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ARCHITECTURE OF SLOVENIA, ALPINE PART


cesti in s slemenom vzporedno s plastnicami, je verjetno za to kak vzrok: veter, dolžina hiš, teren, padec terena, zemljine in lega terena, podtalnica ali preprosto pogled na naselje. Vse to je treba upoštevati in to ni svojeglavost neke skupine ljudi ali arhitekta. Taktika je izvedba sama in ta je odvisna od posameznika, mora biti odraz njegove miselnosti, zmožnosti in hotenj. Prav tukaj je ventil, ki ureja uniformiranost, odvečno in lažno enakost. Gre za izvedbo celote, kjer seveda obstajajo neke meje, neki dogovori, ki so obvezni, a možnosti ostaja še vedno nič koliko. Možnosti rešitev so predvsem v prosvetljevanju posameznika in družbe, v pametnem urejanju detajlov in celote v okviru izvajanja normativnih aktov ter nazadnje, a najpomembnejše, je področje smiselnega odločanja urejanja celote, tudi v okviru vse regije. Egenter govori o makro- in mikrooblikah teorije v arhitekturi [Egenter 1992: 35]. Pri tem gre za povezovanje regij, pokrajin, vse do detajla. Le smiselna regionalizacija je lahko efektna, pri tem pa sta lahko efektna le tematska delitev in združevanje. Nek prostor se navezuje na drugega na gospodarskem, na političnem, na kulturnem področju.Taka delitev in tako sodelovanje sta lahko uspešna, saj združujeta hotenja, možnosti in realiziranje z realizacijami. Ni nujno, da se tematske regije prekrivajo, prav nasprotno. Nekatere so bolj uspešne tukaj, druge tam. Najbolj značilen primer je, denimo, “hiška“na Krasu. Na katerem Krasu? Na slovenskem ali na italijanskem? Poudarek je na Krasu in ne na politični razdelitvi. “Hiška“ je doma na obeh straneh meje, celo poimenujejo jo enako, meje pa v Evropski uniji izginjajo. Ali morda kozolec: ta arhitektura je navezana na slovenstvo in jo najdemo na vsem etničnem prostoru Slovencev. Smiselna regionalizacija ne pozna meja, dobesedno. In še ena pomembna reč, ko gre za izgradnjo prostora: županov arhitekt. Ne mislim na arhitekta dobesedno, to je institut, ki lahko deluje v obliki županovega sveta, posvetovalnega organa občine ali regije, je profesionalna oblika dela na področju arhitektovega ustvarjanja v prostoru. Tudi če je kaka rešitev slaba, tudi če je županov arhitekt manj uspešen, še vedno je boljša slaba rešitev kot neurejenost in neusklajenost, ki sta posledica posegov vsakega posameznika. Nekdaj je bil ta institut izjemno pomemben. Spomnim naj le na Vurnika, pa na Plečnika, Ravnikarja, Mihevca, ne nazadnje na Moškona, ki so vsak po svoje označili prostor, da je postal značilen za ljudi, za kulturo. Prosvetljevanje družbe je torej najlažja in najuspešnejša pot, ki pripelje tudi do urejanja ostalih dveh faz [Juvanec 2004a: 21]. Pri tem gre za vzpodbujanje tiste človekove biti, ki temelji na njegovi istovetnosti. Posamezniku je treba dopovedati, da je samo od njega samega odvisno, če bo res le tisti mali, delovni garač ali pa Človek z veliko začetnico. Tisti človek, ki je odgovoren zase, za svoje okolje in za svoje potomce. Ki je odgovoren svojim potomcem za razmere, v katerih jim zapušča okolje. Ki je odgovoren za svoj lastni videz in za videz svoje

Strategy is deciding on the totality and on relations with other totalities. The building that we want to construct must be such that it will compose a common, harmonious appearance: if it is customary for houses in a village to be built beside the road, and with ridges parallel to the contours, there's probably some reason for this: the wind, the length of houses, the contours of the land, the slope, the bedrock and exposure of the terrain, the groundwater or simply the appearance of the settlement. All this must be respected. It is not just the obstinacy of some group of people or architects. Tactics is the execution itself and this depends on the individual, it must be a reflection of his thoughts, capacities and desires. This is the valve that regulates uniformity, an unnecessary and false equality. It is the execution of the entirety, in which some boundaries of course exist, some general agreements that are compulsory, but leaving some possibilities still open. Possible solutions depend mainly on the level of enlightenment of the individual and society, in an intelligent arrangement of details and the totality within the framework of applying regulations and, not least and most important, the sphere of sensibly deciding the arrangement of the whole, also within the context of the whole region. Egenter talks of macro and micro forms of theory in architecture [Egenter 1992:35]. It is a matter of connecting regions, landscapes, right down to details. Only sensible regionalisation can be effective; and only thematic division and combination can be effective. One area is bound to another in economic, political and cultural spheres. Such a division, and such cooperation, can be successful, since it combines will, possibilities and realisation, with realisation. Thematic regions need not necessarily overlap, quite the contrary. Some are more successful here, some there. The most typical case, for example, is the stone hiška('little house') on the Karst. But on which Karst: the Slovene or Italian? The stress is on the Karst and not on the political division: the hiška belongs on both sides of the border, it's even called the same, and borders within the European Union are disappearing. Or perhaps the kozolec: this is archetypically Slovene architecture and can be found in all autochthonous Slovene areas. Sensible regionalisation does not recognise borders, literally. One further important thing concerning the construction of space: the district architect. I don't mean architect literally, it is an institution, which can function in the form of a district council, or an advisory body to the municipality or region. It is a professional form of work in the field of architectural creativity in space. Even if such a solution is bad, even if the district architect is not very successful, a bad solution is still better than lack of regulation and the discordance that results from every individual's personal intervention. This institution used to be extremely important. Prime examples are Vurnik, or Plečnik, Ravnikar, Mihevc, and not least Moškon, who each in their own way marked space, so that it became characteristic of the people, of the culture. An enlightened society is thus the easiest and most successful path to the regulation of the other two phases [Juvanec 2004a:21]. It is a matter of encouraging a person's being, which is based on his

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hiše, svoje vasi, svojega mesta. Ki mu ni vseeno, kako se obnaša, ne do sebe in ne do drugih. Ki mu ni vseeno, kje, kako, za koga ter kaj dela in ki je ponosen na to, kar je dosegel. S svojim delom. Tak človek ne bo le želel imeti dobre arhitekture. Hotel jo bo imeti in zaslužil jo bo. Izvajanje normativnih aktov je pravzaprav najenostavnejša, a hkrati tudi najteže dosegljiva reč: običajno se pri tem vse sesuje. Gre za doslednost, pravičnost in enakost, pri tem pa tako za spremljanje priprave gradnje, za njeno kontrolo in predvsem za sankcioniranje nepravilnosti. Poštenost je tudi na Švedskem plod neštevila odsekanih rok v zgodovini. V urejenih razmerah pa je lahko že ena sama roka poučna za druge, da naslednje niso več potrebne. Tehnično najbolj zahtevna faza je prva faza - politika, ki je istočasno najbolj dosegljiva, tako po času kakor po strokovnih odločitvah. Gre za prostorsko urejanje, za bistvene in najodgovornejše posege v krajino, ki imajo tudi najdalekosežnejše posledice [Juvanec 1998: 11]. Te odločitve lahko spreminjajo ljudi in naravo, njihovo življenje in gospodarstvo, stik s svetom ali odmaknjenost, ki ji mnogokrat povsem upravičeno pravimo tudi zaplankanost. Prva in najpomembnejša naloga je torej vzbujanje zavesti človeka in to vsakega človeka. Za kakšno zavest gre? Ponosni moramo biti na to, kar imamo. Nimamo mnogo, a kar imamo, je naše.To je naša dediščina. Če jo zapravimo, bodo naši zanamci ostali brez nje. To ne pomeni, da tako ne bi mogli živeti, a ... Pračlovek se je začel razlikovati od živali, ko je začel uporabljati orodje in orožje, ko je premagal strah pred ognjem in ga je začel uporabljati za svoje potrebe. Dvignil se je nad žival, začel je živeti bolje, zagotovil si je več sredstev za preživetje in ta kvantiteta mu je omogočila nove kakovosti [Egenter 1992: 59]: slikanje, rezbarjenje, glasbo. Skratka: prišel je do kulture. Kultura pa je tista reč, ki jo najbolj potrebujemo. Ker lahko le z njo preživimo. Samo s kulturo; s ponosom nad tem, kar imamo; z zavestjo, da bomo nadaljevali to, kar smo podedovali; le tako bomo preživeli v družbi z večjimi in močnejšimi.

ARHITEKTURA SLOVENIJE, ALPSKI DEL

identity. The individual must be made to understand that it depends entirely on him whether he is really a small, labouring toiler or Man with a capital letter; a person who is responsible for himself, for his environment and for his descendants; who is responsible to his descendants for the condition in which he leaves the environment; who is responsible for his own appearance and that of his own home, his village, his town; for whom it matters how he behaves, both to himself and to others; for whom it matters where, how, for whom and what he does, and who is proud of what he has achieved. Of his work. Such a person won't just aspire to good architecture: he'll want to have it and will deserve it. Implementing regulations is actually the simplest and, simultaneously, the hardest thing to achieve: it usually all collapses with this. It's a matter of consistency, justice and equality, as much in monitoring the preparations for building, as in checking and, above all, penalising violations. Even in Sweden, honesty is the fruit of countless severed hands in history. In ordered conditions, one severed hand can be instructive to another, so that the next are no longer needed. The first phase, policy, is technically the most demanding, while simultaneously being the most achievable, in terms of both time and professional decisions. It is spatial planning of the essential, most responsible interventions in the landscape, which also have the most farreaching impact (Juvanec 1998:11). These decisions can change people and nature, their lives and the economy, contact with the world or withdrawal, in which even narrow-mindedness is often fully justified. The first and most important task is thus encouraging people's awareness, every person's awareness. Awareness that we must be proud of what we have. We don't have much, but what we have is ours. This is our heritage and if we squander it, our descendants will be left without it. It doesn't mean they couldn't live without it, but ... Prehistoric man began to be differentiated from animals when he began to use tools and weapons, when he overcame his fear of fire and began to use it for his own needs. He raised himself above animals, he began to live better, he provided himself with more resources for survival and this quantity enabled him new quality (Egenter 1992:59): painting, carving, music. In short: he achieved culture. Culture is what we need most; because only thus can we survive. Only with culture, with pride in what we have, an awareness that we will continue what we have inherited, only thus will we survive in a society of the larger and stronger.

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ARCHITECTURE OF SLOVENIA, ALPINE PART


Vernakularna arhitektura

Vernacular Architecture

Vsi napori strokovnjakov s področja ruralne arhitekture so usmerjeni v oblikovanje sistema, ki bi omogočal sestav elementov stare arhitekture z novo. S tisto arhitekturo, ki naj predstavlja okvir našega življenja, bivanja in dela. Arhitektura ni umetniško delo, ki je popolno, nedosegljivo in neponovljivo: arhitektura ni govorjenje o njej, ni planiranje in ne projektiranje, niti gradnja in ne zgrajena stavba. Arhitektura je bivanje v zgradbi, je življenje z njo. Arhitektura ni nikoli dokončana in nikoli dokončna, je plod stroke in uporabe. Estetika je vizualni doživljaj te arhitekture, a le če je ta arhitektura logičen sestav funkcije, konstrukcije in oblike. To je vedel že Vitruvij, rimski mislec izpred nekaj tisoč let. Zato pri današnji arhitekturi ne moremo uporabljati tipike kar tako: analizira jo lahko zgodovinar, strokovnjak posamičnih področij, ki lahko išče izvore, razvoje, variante ... Ta princip so uporabljali veliki arhitekti pri svojih delih, ki so spreminjali svet. Oliver omenja F. L. Wrighta, Loosa in druge [Oliver 2003: 9]. Uporabna tipika vernakularne arhitekture ni recept, pač pa red. Red predstavlja izročilo, pravilo, ki prinaša določen rezultat. Cilj je aktivna enotnost konstrukcije, funkcije in izgleda, skladnosti. Pri tem vsi elementi funkcionirajo, se dopolnjujejo in v končni fazi nadgrajujejo, noben element ni pomembnejši od drugega. Danes imamo drugačne okoliščine, kot so bile nekoč: tehnologija in tehnika omogočata nove možnosti, nove dimenzije. Element starega, element dediščine, izročila, nostalgije ali istovetnosti danes lahko vključujemo v arhitekturo le na enem področju, na področju vizualnosti; ne v vsebini in ne v konstrukciji ali v funkciji, le v obliki.

All the efforts of experts in the field of rural architecture are directed at creating a system that enables the composition of elements of old architecture with new. With architecture that provides the framework of our life, dwelling and work. Architecture is not artistic work that is complete, unachievable and irrepeatable. Architecture is not talking about it, not planning and not projecting, it is not construction and not the constructed building. Architecture is living in the building; it is living with it. Architecture is never complete and never final; it is the fruit of knowledge and use. Aesthetics is the visual experience of architecture; but only if this architecture is a logical composition of function, construction and form. Vitruvius, a Roman thinker, already knew this many hundred years ago. So typical elements can't be used in today's architecture ad hoc: a historian can analyse them, an expert in individual fields, who can seek the origin, development, variants. These principles were used by great architects in works that changed the world. Oliver mentions F.L.Wright, Loos and others [Oliver 2003:9]. The use of typical elements of vernacular architecture is not a recipe but order. Order represents tradition, rule, which brings about a specific result. The aim is the active uniformity of construction, function and appearance, harmony. All elements function in this, they complement each other and, in the final phase, complete each other; no element is more important than another. Conditions today are different than formerly: technology and techniques enable new possibilities, new dimensions. The element of the old, the element of the heritage, tradition, nostalgia or stubbornness can only be included in architecture today in one field, in the visual field; not in content and not in construction or function, only in form.

Arhitektura je sestav zahtev uporabnika, možnosti, ki jih nudi narava in zmožnosti graditelja, da ti dve kategoriji uskladi v največji možni meri. Zahteve uporabnika, ki je običajno tudi investitor, so želje, potrebe tistega, ki ve, kaj hoče, ki ve, kaj bo potreboval in česa ne, ki si lahko

Architecture is the sum of the requirements of the user, the possibilities offered by nature and the capacities of the builder to harmonise these two

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categories to the maximum possible extent. The requirements of the user, who is also normally the investor, are the desires, needs, of a person who knows what he wants, who knows what it will be used for and what not, who can invest in only as large a construction as he needs and that he can maintain. The possibilities of nature are the circumstances that allow the use of materials, their working and technology and, of course, the use of the results, i.e., the architecture itself. It is thus natural material or material which man has processed in such a way that he improves it [Oliver 2003:12] – for example fired clay instead of raw clay, protected timber instead of bare wood etc. The building is the element that enables use of the possibilities and inclusion of all obtained knowledge, the heritage of our forebears and foreign experience, in the composition of a house that serves a specific purpose. Form is not a negligible element in this: and a well-proportioned Koroškan granary or cellar, or a well or a bench, is not set prominently to brag but because it functions better there: today this is called sensible spatial location. And function is a crucial element of the composition of the whole. A well-designed bench gives the viewer an aesthetic experience, adds a dimension in the field of culture. Mere durability is never intended. It is a qualitively higher type, it is culture. This design culture is on an enviably high level in Slovenia, whether of economic facilities, functional products or the framework for human life: a house. The sum of construction knowledge, craftsmanship, art – each element individually and all together - of what is intended for personal use, which a man has built for himself, is vernacular architecture. Vernacular architecture is the fruit of an unschooled but intelligent worker with a great deal of experience, for whom building was not a profession. He gained guidelines and basic ideas as an inheritance. He enriched this with his own knowledge, experience and with his own instincts, identity [Juvanec 2004a:19]. A vernacular house is actually a house that is the result of the user: his desires, needs and possibilities. It was formerly called folk, anonymous, local architecture. The devil of it is that folk architecture is not always merely the fruit of folk and is not always intended only for folk. It is not always anonymous, when the builder is known. It is local, patriotic, but these designations can no longer be used today. Vernacular architecture does not have trends, paths or exemplars. It has no grand aims. It is simply functional. Why then is it good? Because it has survived, because it has existed and continues to exist today. All the bad architecture fell apart centuries ago. What is left is the fruit of experience of centuries, the result of a heritage that it helps to build and is unburdened with rules, recipes and dogmas. It has no recipes, though it has rules [Le Corbusier 1963:16] that enable work and ensure that the result – the architecture – will be functional, durable, practicable, and aesthetic into the bargain. In its original form, aesthetics is only a reflection of the interior, a reflection of function. In this sense,

naloži le tako veliko gradnjo, kot jo potrebuje in kot jo bo lahko vzdrževal. Možnosti narave so tiste okoliščine, ki dovoljujejo izrabo materialov, njihovo obdelavo in tehnologijo ter seveda izrabo rezultata, to je arhitekture same. Gre torej za naravne materiale ali za materiale, ki jih človek obdela tako, da jih izboljša [Oliver 2003: 12] - na primer žgana opeka namesto surove, zaščiten les namesto odkritega itn. Gradnja je tisti element, ki omogoča izrabo možnosti in vključuje vse pridobljeno znanje, dediščino prednikov in tuje izkušnje pri sestavi hiše, ki služi za določene namembnosti. Pri tem oblika ni zanemarljiv sestavni del. In če proporcionirana koroška kašča ali klet, pa vodnjak ali klopotec niso postavljeni na vidna mesta zaradi postavljaštva, pač pa zaradi tega, da bolje delujejo - temu danes rečemo smiselno postavljanje v prostor. Delovanje pa je bistveni del kompozicije celote. Estetsko oblikovan klopotec gledalcu daje estetski doživljaj, ga dopolnjuje na področju kulture in seveda ni namenjen preživetju samemu. Gre za kakovost višje vrste, gre za kulturo. Ta kultura oblikovanja pa je pri nas na zavidljivo visoki ravni, pa naj gre za gospodarske objekte, za uporabne izdelke ali za okvir človekovega bivanja: za hišo. Vsa gradbena znanost, obrtništvo, umetnost - vsak element zase ali vsi skupaj, kar je namenjeno osebni uporabi, ki jo je izgradil človek sam zase, je vernakularna arhitektura. Vernakularna arhitektura je plod nešolanega, a iskrivega delavca z mnogimi izkušnjami, ki mu gradnja ni bila poklic. Usmeritve in temeljne ideje je dobil kot dediščino, to je oplemenitil s svojim znanjem, z izkušnjami in s svojo lastno intuicijo, istovetnostjo [Juvanec 2004a: 19]. Resnično ljudska hiša je tista hiša, ki je rezultat uporabnika: njegovih želja, potreb in možnosti. Nekdaj so rekli ljudska, pa anonimna, domačinska arhitektura. A glej ga šmenta: ljudska arhitektura ni vedno le plod ljudstva in ni vedno namenjena le ljudstvu. Ni vedno anonimna, če poznamo graditelja. Je domačinska, domorodska, ampak danes te oznake ne moremo več uporabiti. Domačinska arhitektura nima nekih trendov, poti in zgledov, ne sledi velikim ciljem, je preprosto uporabna. Zakaj je potem dobra? Ker je preživela, ker je obstala vse do današnjih dni. Vsa slaba arhitektura je strohnela že pred stoletji, obdržala se je le še tista, ki je plod izkušenj stoletij, rezultat dediščine, ki pomaga graditi in ne obremenjuje s pravili, recepti in dogmami. Nima receptov, ima pravila [Le Corbusier 1963: 16], ki delo omogočajo, ki zagotavljajo, da bo rezultat - arhitektura - uporaben, trajen, lahko izvedljiv in povrh še estetski. Estetika je v svoji prvotni obliki le odraz notranjosti, odraz delovanja. V tem smislu je estetika le še plašč tiste notranjosti, ki je nujna, ki kaže resničnost in pravo vsebino. Noben detajl kmečke arhitekture ni narejen "kar tako", brez vzroka. Niti dekoracija. Vsaka zareza ima svoj smisel, vsaka odprtina nečemu služi, dekorativno odrezan špirovec ima zaradi te dekoracije daljšo

ARHITEKTURA SLOVENIJE, ALPSKI DEL

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ARCHITECTURE OF SLOVENIA, ALPINE PART


aethetics is only the cover of the essential interior, which shows the reality, the real content. No detail of farm architecture is »ad hoc«, without reason. Not even the decoration: each incision has its meaning, each opening serves some purpose, a decoratively cut rafter has a longer life span because of this decoration. And just because of that, it has the »right to be«, as the French say. A peasant farmer couldn't afford liberal details unless there was some reason for them. The reason was quality. Aesthetics is in itself quality of a higher level. Farm architecture is rough, simple, but sincere, and thus of higher quality and more durable than that which is the fruit of knowledge and experience obtained in schools, which is the work of professionals. The entire rural space of Slovenia is sprinkled with vernacular architecture, all the way to the transition to Friulia, where here, too, there are typical, large mass construction residential buildings, which are no longer only and exclusively utilitarian. Decorations appear on stone built walls that are no longer essential, and these decorations copy some stylistic marks. Some elements are recorded anew: combinations occur with existing, characteristic local architecture, local materials and working. New, cheap and too cheap executions are introduced, which are expensive to maintain, have a shorter lifespan than the totality, and typically they are actually falling apart in our own time, disintegrating, demonstrating that vernacular architecture, some two hundred years old, is nevertheless right and is better.

življenjsko dobo. In že zaradi tega ima "pravico biti", kot pravijo Francozi. Kmet si ni mogel privoščiti velikopoteznega detajla, če zanj ni imel vzroka. Ta vzrok pa je bila kakovost. Estetika sama zase je kakovost višjega nivoja. In kmetska arhitektura je robata, preprosta, a iskrena in zato bolj kakovostna in trajnejša od tiste, ki je plod znanja in izkušenj, pridobljenih v šolah, ki je delo profesionalcev. Pri nas je ves podeželski prostor posejan z vernakularno arhitekturo vse do prihoda Furlanov, ko dobimo tudi tukaj značilne, večje, zidane stanovanjske zgradbe, ki niso več samo in izključno utilitarne. Pojavijo se okraski, ki na zidanem zidu niso več nujno potrebni, ti okraski posnemajo nekatere stilne oznake. Nekateri elementi so vneseni na novo. Vnašajo kombinacije obstoječe, značilne krajevne arhitekture, domače materiale in obdelave. Mnogokrat pa prinašajo nove, cenene in prepoceni izvedbe, ki so drage za vzdrževanje, imajo krajšo življenjsko dobo od celote in zanje je značilno, da prav v današnjem času razpadajo, propadajo in dokazujejo, da je imela vernakularna arhitektura, stara kakih dvesto let več, vendarle prav, in da je boljša. Kamen je najstarejši gradbeni material. Najprej so ga klesali, ko so večali naravna zatočišča - jame, kasneje pa so z njim ustvarjali zgradbe tudi tam, kjer jih narava ni: sredi plodnih polj, bogatih gozdov in med živalmi. To so bila zatočišča v pravem pomenu besede. Profesor Oliver pri kamnu vidi največji problem pri razvoju oglate oblike v okroglo; iz kvadrata v krog [Oliver 2003: 93]. Kamnite zgradbe so sestavljene iz velikih naravno oblikovanih kamnov, kasneje pa si jih je človek oblikoval tako, da je z njimi najbolj uspešno sestavljal stene, strope, strehe. Les je v naravni obliki kot deblo najuspešnejši material, ki ga je razmeroma lahko oblikovati z ročnim orodjem. Najbolj preproste konstrukcije so kladne zveze, s prekladami pa je mogoče premostiti tudi razmeroma velike razpetine. Tudi strehe. Tudi za krovni material, ne le za konstrukcijo. Zanje so uporabljali tanke skodle (kalane deščice: Koroška) ali debele in daljše skodle (Gorenjska). Slamnata streha je sestav žitnih slam, mnogokrat ržene, ki je po Sloveniji razmeroma redka. Slama je fiksirana z gibkim protjem, redko z letvami, razen v slemenu. Robovi čel so včasih pleteni, bolj pogosto pa so v kite spletena le slemena. Izvedba čopa je pri tem skoraj pravilo. Slama kot armatura nastopa tudi pri vseh glinastih nabojih in pri oblogah; v butani gradnji in pri lesenih, cimpranih zgradbah. Les kot osnovni material je temelj najbolj pogosti konstrukciji: "cimpru". To so zidovi, sestavljeni iz bolj ali manj tesanih brun, s tesarskimi zvezami v vogalih. Za gospodarske objekte nepomembne narave so bruna, gola in nezaščitena, a bolj so v uporabi konstrukcije, zaščitene z ometom iz s slamo armirane gline. Ta je včasih gola, včasih pa še dodatno zaščitena s plastjo apnenega beleža. Ko je beleža več, predstavlja kak centimeter debelo plast in dejansko ščiti pred zunanjimi vplivi. Posebej zanimiv detajl je barvanje podstavka. Teoretično predstavlja višino zaščite pred vlago, temelj in vizualno bazo zgradbe. V praksi pa

Stone is the oldest building material. It was first dressed when natural shelters, caves, were enlarged. Buildings were subsequently erected with it where nature had not done so: in the middle of fertile fields, rich forests and among animals. These were shelters in the real sense of the word. Professor Oliver sees the major problem with stone in the development of angular forms into circular: from a square to a circle [Oliver 2003:93]. Stone buildings were made from large naturally shaped stones. Man later also shaped them, in order to make walls, ceilings and roofs more successfully. Wood in the natural form of a trunk is the most successful material, being relatively easily shaped with hand tools. The simplest constructions were log constructions, and lintels can bridge relatively large spans, including roofs, for the covering material as well, not just the construction. They used for this thin shingles (cleaved shingles: Koroška) or thicker, longer shingles (Gorenjska) A thatched roof is made of straw, often rye, which is relatively scarce throughout Slovenia. The straw is fixed with flexible wands, occasionally with battens, except at the ridge. A hip construction was almost the rule. Straw is used as an armature with all clay infills and with linings; in wattle constructions and for wooden, log buildings. Wood as a basic material is most often used as a log construction, where the walls consist of more or less dressed logs, with timber joints at the corners. On unimportant, ancillary buildings the logs are bare and unprotected. Constructions that are more used are protected with a daub of straw

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reinforced clay. This was sometimes bare, and sometimes additionally protected with a layer of lime whitewash. When it has been whitewashed several times, this becomes a layer about a centimeter thick and actually protects against external influences. The colouring of the base is a particularly interesting detail: theoretically this is the height of the protection against damp, the foundations, and the visual base of the building. It is always coloured in practice dark grey, sometimes even black, because of hens, which collected lime for egg shells. Lime is white, and the chickens generally don't touch a dark wall. Light thatch coverings do not need demanding, large spans, so battens are very often replaced by branches. The constructions are elementary: the tie beam carries two joists as support for the ridge purlin, the rafters rest on the inferior purlins on tie beams, and the battens are crossways. The spans do not require intermediate purlins, and hips rest on 'fractured' rafters. Wood is also sometimes used as a filler in plastering. When there is a lot of plaster (which also covers all the timber joints), the “half-timbered” wall needs to be lined diagonally with battens, so that the plaster or clay no longer needs a straw armature, although sometimes it is used nevertheless. Although the materials determine the external image of the construction, even these do not give a uniform appearance. So there is no uniform, characteristic, folk, anonymous architecture on the territory of Slovenia. Architecture is always the fruit of the users’ needs and natural possibilities. This is enriched by human skill in harmonising these two requirements to the utmost, so that with the best possible use of the terrain, materials and external influences, with the least possible work, he instills the most knowledge and understanding, and thus also the maximum aesthetics, order and – culture.

je vedno pobarvan temno sivo, včasih celo črno zaradi kokoši, ki si na ta način nabirajo apnenec za jajčne lupine. Apnenec je bel, temnega zidu pa se kokoši praviloma ne dotaknejo. Lahke slamnate kritine ne potrebujejo zahtevnih, velikih razponov, tako da so namesto letev mnogokje nameščene kar veje. Konstrukcije so prvinske: poveznik nosi dva nosilca kot podpori slemenske lege, špirovci slonijo na kapnih legah na poveznikih, letve so povprek. Vmesnih leg razponi ne zahtevajo, čopi slonijo na lomljenih špirovcih. Les je včasih uporabljen tudi kot vmesni material pri ometavanju. Kadar je ometa več (ki zakrije tudi vse tesarske zveze), je treba "cimprano" steno po diagonali obiti z letvami, tako je tudi ometa oziroma gline več, slamnate armature ni več treba, čeprav včasih nastopa tudi tukaj. Materiali sicer določajo zunanji izgled konstrukcije, a enotnega videza tudi ti ne dajejo. Zato enotne, značilne, ljudske, anonimne arhitekture na ozemlju Slovenije ni. Arhitektura je vedno plod potreb uporabnika ter možnosti narave. To je oplemeniteno z zmožnostjo človeka, da ti dve zahtevi uskladi v največji možni meri, a tako, da pri največji možni izkoriščenosti terena, materialov in zunanjih vplivov s čim manj dela vgradi čim več znanja in razuma, s tem pa tudi čim več estetike, reda in - kulture.

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Arhitektura v prostoru

Positioning in space

Hiša je bivalna hiša ali hlev, domačija pa je sklop vseh objektov v organizirano celoto. Ta sklop je lahko enoten ali v več objektih, ki so lahko tudi nekaj kilometrov vsaksebi, odvisno pač od potreb [Juvanec 1998: 15]. Teren - ravnina: Redkokje pri nas je prostor, ki bi dovoljeval postavitev domačije v ravnini, povsem prosto v teren. Taka postavitev je vedno pogojevana: predvsem z uporabo zemljišča, predvsem za polja. Zato se je treba tem kakovostnejšim kulturam umikati na rob. Kadar so te postavitve možne, so tlorisi bodisi razloženi bodisi sestavljeni. Redko nastopajo vzdolžne, preproste oblike tlorisov, pa še takrat so dopolnjevani z nadstreški, podaljški, vkopi, da je arhitektura v terenu razgibana in da ne nastopa v ravnini kot povsem tuj element.

A building can be a residential house or stable, a farmstead is the complex of all objects in an organised entity. This complex can be a single unit or a number of objects, which can even be several kilometres apart, depending on need [Juvanec 1998:5]. Terrain - plain: There are few places in Slovenia that allow the location of a farmstead on a plain entirely in the open. Such a location is always conditioned by other aspects: mainly the use of land, for the most part arable land. So it is necessary to shift to the edge of this better quality cultivated land. When such locations are possible, the groundplan is either dispersed or condensed: occasionally longitudinal, simple forms of groundplan appear, and these are then supplemented with roof spaces and extensions, so that the architecture is 'broken' in the terrain and does not appear as an entirely foreign element on the plain.

Nagnjen teren, strmina: Najbolj uporabljan teren za postavitev je strmina. Večji ali manjši padec dovoljuje umno izrabo za dostope v različne nivoje. Postavitev v padcu dokazuje umik arhitekture z osrednjih, plodnih delov na obrobje, kar je uporabno in koristno hkrati: večja izraba površin in pogled nanje, kar predstavlja tudi kontrolo.

Inclined terrain, steep slope: The most frequently used terrain for a building is a steep slope: the greater or lesser fall allows sensible access to the different levels. Positioning on a slope highlights the shift of architecture from central, fertile parts to the edges, which is functional and simultaneously beneficial: a greater use of surface area and the view from it, which also provides control.

Skica 1 / Figure 1

Ridge: On hilly terrain, too, settlements are constructed in a dispersed manner, so that they do not appear particularly contiguous, but individual. Buildings are usually immediately below a ridge, beside a road which carries traffic along the ridge.

Sleme: Tudi na gričevnatem terenu so naselja postavljena razloženo, tako da ne nastopajo izrazito strnjeno, pač pa posamično. Zgradbe so praviloma tik pod slemenom, ob cesti, ki se spušča s slemenske prometnice.

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Skica 2 / Figure 2

A condensed settlement (usually around the church) is also characteristic on ridges, often at the conjunction of a number of ridges. The buildings here are erected in a uniform veduta, none of them standing out. Insofar as there is a functional need for higher objects (high barn, silo), they are located on falling land below the height of the whole village. Gorge, ravine: There are not normally condensed settlements in gorges or narrow valleys, only individual farms, which are located immediately above the floor because of damp and floods, and are condensed, never dispersed. Positioning in wider valleys is more normal, where settlements are built in the same way: condensed, slightly above the floor and around some object of social importance, which normally provides the dominant.

Strnjena poselitev (najbolj običajno okrog cerkva) je značilna tudi na slemenih, mnogokrat na spoju več slemen. Tukaj so zgradbe postavljene v enotni veduti, nobena ne izstopa. V kolikor gre za funkcionalno potreben višji objekt (visok hlev, silos), je postavljen v padec terena pod gabarit celote vasi. Korito, jarek: V jarku ali v ozki dolini praviloma ni strnjenih naselij, pač pa le posamične domačije, ki so zaradi zamakanja in poplav postavljene tik nad dnom, strnjeno in nikoli razloženo. Bolj običajna postavitev je v širših dolinah, kjer so na isti način postavljena naselja: strnjeno, nekoliko nad dnom in okrog nekega objekta družbenega pomena, ki navadno predstavlja dominanto. Plastnice - vzporednost: V ravninah so zgradbe postavljene praviloma ob prometnicah, v navezavi z vodotoki, na smeri neba in tako, da odpirajo možnost formiranja funkcionalnega dvorišča. Pri tem vzporednost in pravokotnost na te elemente ne igrata posebne vloge: nastopata oba primera, z rahlo prednostjo v vzporedni postavitvi.

Skica 3 / Figure 3

Contours - parallelism: Buildings on plains are generally located beside traffic routes, bound to water, oriented to the sun or so that they provide the possibility of forming a functional courtyard. Parallelism and rectangularism do not play a special role in these elements: both types appear, with a slight prevalence of parallel positioning.

When a complex of residential house and outbuildings occurs, they are normally set at right angles to each other: the residential house is usually parallel and the outbuildings at right angles to the contour, which enables greater use of different levels (accesses).

Skica 4 / Figure 4

Kadar nastopa sklop bivalne hiše in gospodarskega poslopja, sta praviloma postavljena pravokotno drug na drugega. Pri tem je bivalna hiša največkrat vzporedna, gospodarski del pa pravokoten na plastnice, kar omogoča večjo izkoriščenost ravni (dostopi).

Perpendicularity: Only objects for workers are ever set at right angles to the contour, never the owner's house. Anciliary buildings, both for food and for fodder, are oriented at right angles: the building thus obtains two entrances onto the terrain, basement and upper storey, or ground floor front and rear.

Pravokotnost: Pravokotno na plastnice so postavljeni le objekti delavcev in nikoli hiša lastnika. Gospodarski objekti, tako za hrano kakor za krmo, so orientirani pravokotno. Tako zgradba dobi dva vhoda v terenu: v klet in nadstropju oziroma v pritličju, spredaj in zadaj.

ARHITEKTURA SLOVENIJE, ALPSKI DEL

Orientation to the sun: Orientation to the sun influences the logic of the location because of the use of the interior premises: front facades as far as

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possible face south, although this is not an absolute rule. Other parameters of linkage predominate, although cases also exist when the main entrance faces south, and the northern »back door« is used. This positioning is entirely according to the judgement of the user.

Smeri neba: Smeri neba vplivajo na logično postavitev zaradi izrabe prostorov v notranjosti. Čelna pročelja so obrnjena čim bolj proti jugu, čeprav to ni pravilo. Prevladujejo drugi parametri navezav, čeprav obstajajo tudi primeri, ko je glavni vhod obrnjen proti jugu, uporabljajo pa severnega, gospodarskega. Ta postavitev je povsem po presoji uporabnika.

Appearance, vedute, dominants: The appearance of a farm, individual house or of a settlement is crucial; although not the only reason for the mode of settlement [Juvanec 1998:17]. Settlements are subordinate to nature and there can be only one object in a settlement that stands out, and gives the settlement stress. All other objects are entirely subordinated, in terms of positioning, height, shape and mass and colour. A farm is exactly the same: the owner's house is larger and positioned parallel to the contour, other residential buildings and outbuildings are normally crosswise. A logical but not boring composition is thus obtained, which enables the creation of a functionally rounded courtyard. Only outstanding buildings of particular importance have special status: these are mainly churches, castles, mansions and manor houses; but these are especially sensitively designed buildings, which set in nature all the elements that settlements and farms have around them, except that all these are combined into a (single) stress.

Pogledi, vedute, dominante: Pogledi na domačijo, posamično hišo ali naselje so ključni, čeprav ne edini razlog za način poselitve [Juvanec 1998: 17]. Naselje se podreja naravi in v naselju je lahko le en objekt, ki izstopa in mu daje poudarek. Vsi drugi objekti se v celoti podrejajo tako v postavitvah, višinah, oblikah in v masah ter barvah. Domačija se ravna enako. Hiša lastnika je večja in postavljena vzporedno na plastnice, hiše drugih in gospodarska poslopja pa na vadno pov prek. Tako dobimo logično in ne dolgočasno kompozicijo, ki omogoča formiranje funkcionalno zaključenega dvorišča. Poseben status imajo le izstopajoči objekti posebnega pomena. Predvsem so to cerkve, pa gradovi, gradiči in dvorci, vendar gre pri tem za posebno občutljivo oblikovane zgradbe, ki v naravo vnašajo vse tiste elemente, ki jih imajo tudi naselja in domačije naokrog, le da je vse to združeno v poudarek.

Postavitev v sklop

Positioning in a complex

Stik z naravnimi elementi - gozd: Zaradi naravne aglomeracije so zgradbe vedno postavljene na rob gozda. Izseki so redki, saj je izraba gozda vse preveč dragocena za gospodarske namene.

Contact with natural elements – forest: Because of the natural agglomeration, buildings are always located on the edge of forests, rarely in clearings, since forest in general is too valuable for such a purpose.

Skica 5 / Figure 5

Arable land, orchards, vineyards: The positioning of architecture in space already gives priority to the economic aspect: thus possibilities and then elements of secondary importance (first possibilities for survival, then houses for work on these possibilities). Positioning is always at the edge, when buildings of whatever character are set back from the basic purpose and, at the same time, thus closer to trafficways and therefore access. The same applies both to objects of permanent use (dwellings, barns) and those for occasional use (vineyard cottages, drying houses, cellars). Rivers, streams: Architecture is set back from rivers and steams unless

Polje, sadovnjak, vinograd: Že sama postavitev arhitekture v prostor na prvo mesto postavlja gospodarski vidik, torej najprej možnosti in potem elemente drugotnega pomena (najprej možnosti za preživetje, potem hiše za delo na teh možnostih). Postavitev je vedno na robu, ko se zgradbe kakršnega koli značaja umikajo osnovnemu namenu, istočasno pa se tako približujejo prometnicam in s tem dostopom. Enako velja tako za objekte stalne uporabe (bivalne hiše, hlevi) kakor za tiste občasne (zidanice, sušilnice, kleti). Reka, potok: Rekam in potokom se arhitektura umika, razen v primeru,

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Skica 6 / Figure 6

Skica 7 / Figure 7

ko gre za izrabo v gospodarske namene (mlin, žaga), pa še tukaj gre največkrat za umetno speljane, kontrolirane poti vode. Zgradbe, ki so odvisne od vode ali jo uporabljajo, so postavljene vzporedno k njej, tiste, ki pa niso v odvisnosti od nje, so praviloma pravokotne.

these are used for economic purposes (mills, sawmills), and even in such cases there is usually an artificial, controlled watercourse. Buildings which depend on water or use it are positioned parallel to the water, those that do not depend on it are generally at right angles.

Stik z infrastrukturo - cesta, križišče: Starejša arhitektura niza objekte blizu ceste, kjer so te lokalnega značaja, prometnejšim se izogiba in tam je odmik od ceste večji. Enako so postavljene zgradbe iz prejšnjega stoletja: odmaknjeno, praviloma vzporedno s cesto, s poudarjenim vhodnim delom proti njej. Kasneje se te hiše približajo cesti, so vzporedne, vhode imajo še vedno na cesto, a jih redkokje uporabljajo, saj se odpirajo tudi na notranjo stran, v gospodarski del, kjer stojijo gospodarski objekti pravokotno, da formirajo dvorišče.

Contact with infrastructure – roads, crossroads: Older architecture strings objects close to roads where these are of a local character, although busier trafficways are avoided and the positioning is further from the road. Buildings from the last century were located in the same way: set back, generally parallel to the road, with a stress on the entrance part facing it. These houses later came closer to the road, are parallel, and still have entrances towards the road but these are rarely used, since the buildings also open onto the inner side, onto the working parts, where ancillary objects stand at right angles so as to form a yard.

Stik z drugimi objekti - posamična postavitev: Posamična postavitev hiše nastopa razmeroma redko. Tudi če je samostojna, je zgradba del razložene vasi in se ji podreja v njenih pravilih. V kolikor je arhitektura povsem samostojna (zidanica, klet, grad), zaradi svoje funkcije namenoma izstopa in je tako tudi oblikovana, toda vedno v okviru vzroka, zaradi katerega stoji izjemno postavljena.

Contact with other objects – individual locations: An isolated location of a house is relatively rare; even if it is freestanding, the building is part of a dispersed village and is subject to its rules. Insofar as architecture is completely independent (vineyard cottage, cellar, castle), it stands out deliberately in terms of its function and so is also designed thus, but always within the framework of the reasons because of which it stands very exposed.

Naselje: V naselju so objekti - razen dominante - postavljeni v podrejanju skupnim interesom, tako organizacijsko, prometno, pa tudi vizualno.

Settlements: In settlements, objects – except for the dominant – are positioned subject to the common interest: thus in terms of organisation, traffic, and also visually.

Naselje kot celota, organizacija: Pravilo oblikovanja vasi ni nikoli podrto, zgradbe so nanizane funkcionalno druga z drugo, vendar tako, da lahko funkcionirajo tako posamične kakor celota.

Settlements as a totality, organisation: The layout of villages is never haphazard. The buildings are ranged functionally one after another, but so that they can operate both individually and as a whole. Ownership: Owners' rights are always subordinate to the common interest: architecture never threatens or obstructs other property. On the contrary, it supplements it and helps other property to function. Even in past times, mainly in the countryside, function had precedence over ownership interests. The landscape is a complex of natural features, thus a composition of a series of elements that mutally reinforce each other and enable coexistence. Architecture is only the external and functional framework of such co-existence among man, animals and nature. Ownership interests cannot undermine this; coexistence and a better quality of life are in everybody's interest.

Skica 8 / Figure 8

Lastnina: Pravice lastnikov se vedno podrejajo skupnim interesom. Arhitektura nikoli ne ogroža ali ne onemogoča druge lastnine, več dopolnjuje jo in pomaga, da lahko funkcionira tudi sosednja. Že od nekdaj je bila, predvsem na podeželju, funkcija pred lastninskimi interesi.

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Other objects of special importance: The term »object of special importance« is reserved for a building which is different from most of the others. It therefore has the right also to be different visually, or this is even its purpose. These are facilities for social, functional and economic activities, whereby the last category is the most sensitive. The more recent functional architecture of high silos has changed the appearance, the veduta, the line of height or dominant of villages. Fortunately, today's solutions for the same purpose are in a horizontal direction, whereby as far as possible they must be within the complex of existing objects and should not stand out. An analogous solution and a sort of replacement for the kozolec (for drying and storing fodder) is when a combine simply wraps the feed in impermeable plastic and leaves it in the open for use. These should at least approximate to a colour that is acceptable and be closer to nature than the existing wild colours. Some order at least is needed: even though these packages must be stored somewhere. They should not be allowed to remain in the meadow like abandoned rolls of toilet paper.

Krajina je sklop naravnih danosti, torej kompozicija niza elementov, ki se med sabo dopolnjujejo in omogočajo sožitje. Arhitektura je le zunanji in funkcionalni okvir takega sožitja med človekom, živaljo in naravo. Lastninski interesi tega ne smejo podirati, sožitje in kakovostnejše življenje sta v dobro vseh. Drugi objekti posebnega pomena: Ime "objekt posebnega pomena" predstavlja zgradbo, ki je drugačna od večine drugih. Zato ima pravico biti drugačna tudi vizualno ali pa je to njen namen. Gre za objekte družbenih, uporabnih in gospodarskih dejavnosti, pri čemer je prav slednja kategorija najbolj občutljiva. Novejša funkcionalna arhitektura visokih silosov je spremenila vizure, vedute, gabarite in dominante vasi. K sreči so današnje rešitve iste namembnosti v horizontalni smeri, pri čemer morajo biti čim bolj v sklopu obstoječih objektov in ne smejo izstopati. Podobno rešitev in nekakšno zamenjavo za kozolec (sušenje in spravilo krme), ko kombajn enostavno zavije zvitek krme v nepredušno plastiko in jo pusti do uporabe v naravi, je treba le-tej približati vsaj v barvi, ki bi bila sprejemljiva in naravi bližja kot obstoječe divje barve. Pri tem bi bil potreben vsaj red: tudi te zavoje je treba kam spraviti. Na travniku ne morejo ostati kot zapuščeni zvitki toaletnega papirja.

Skica 9 / Figure 9

Objects beside and on water are especially important when existing lakes are used for tourist or sporting purposes. This is the same princple as for other economic architecture. Subordination to nature and the frameworks that man has set.

Posebnega pomena so tudi objekti ob vodi in na njej, ko so obstoječa jezera izkoriščana v turistične ali v športne namene. Pri tem gre za enake principe kot pri ostali gospodarski arhitekturi; podrejanje naravi in okvirom, ki jih je postavil človek.

Surface areas Površine Ground plan - shape: The groundplan is the plan of the object seen from above. By general agreement, it is sectioned at a height of one metre. The shape of the groundplan is the product of use and need: the shape only restricts some activities and separates them or links them into a whole. The groundplan in the visual sense determines only the external dimensions, which have an impact on the external appearance, depending on the number of storeys or the height of the building.

Tloris - oblika: Tloris je načrt objekta, kot ga vidimo od zgoraj. Dogovor je, da ga režemo na višini enega metra. Oblika tlorisa je plod uporabe in potreb. Oblika le omejuje neke dejavnosti in jih ločuje ali povezuje v skupne. Tloris v vizualnem smislu določa le zunanje dimenzije, ki na zunaj vplivajo na pogled v odvisnosti od števila etaž oziroma višine zgradbe.

Regular simple geometric shape: There are a few simple geometric shapes in architecture: a circle is the simplest and thus the most complete, but circles cannot be joined without a remainder. So it generally appears only as a part (apse of a church) and only exceptionally in entirety.

Pravilni preprosti geometrični liki: Preprostih geometričnih likov je v arhitekturi malo. Krog je sicer najbolj preprost in zato najbolj popoln, a ga ne sestavljamo brez ostanka. Zato nastopa le kot del (apsida v

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A square is, of course, used more and is also found in vernacular architecture: barns and cellars are sometimes square, although even these tend to be more rectangular for the sake of greater functionality. A triangular groundplan is almost never found in architecture.

cerkvah), v celoti pa samo izjemoma (kostnice, rotunde). Kvadrat je seveda bolj uporaben in ga najdemo tudi v ljudski arhitekturi: kašče in kleti so včasih take, čeprav tudi te dobivajo vzdolžno obliko zaradi večje uporabnosti. Trikotnika v arhitekturnem tlorisu praktično ni najti.

Geometric shapes: Simple shapes of the groundplan of residential houses and ancillary objects are never exactly defined and are in no constant relation, except that they are always rectangular and never in more than a 1:2 ratio. The reason for this is that ratio is not recognised in a groundplan: with the exception of circular, oval and square forms, which are only suitable for particular occasions. Functionality changes such a shape by lengthening it, but always as a rectangle. The pure groundplans of log constructions are particularly elongated, when the residential part is followed by an ancillary, economic part, mainly in northeastern Slovenia.

Geometrični liki: Preproste oblike tlorisa bivalnih hiš in gospodarskih objektov niso nikoli točno določene in v nobenem stalnem razmerju, razen da so vedno pravokotne oblike, podolžne, a nikoli daljše kakor 1:2. Vzrok za to je neprepoznavnost razmerja v tlorisu: z izjemo okroglih, ovalnih in kvadratnih oblik, ki so primerne le za posebne priložnosti. Uporabnost take oblike spreminja v vzdolžne, a vedno pravokotne. Posebno dolgi so čisti tlorisi cimpranih zgradb, ko bivalnemu delu sledi gospodarski, predvsem v severovzhodni Sloveniji.

Composite forms: Composite groundplans are commonest with older, wooden buildings, where the original simplicity of the groundplan is supplemented with additional rooms that lie at rightangles to the basic groundplan, with additions under an overhanging roof, or as a continuation.

Skica 10 / Figure 10

Sestavljene oblike: Sestavljeni tlorisi so najpogostejši pri starejših, lesenih zgradbah, kjer je prvotni preprost tloris dopolnjevan z dodatnimi sobami, ki ležijo pravokotno na osnovni tloris, z dodatki pod napušči ali v nadaljevanju. Prostori: Pri hišah v dolinah, starih do dvesto let, so prostori oblikovani po svoji funkciji. Črna kuhinja je vedno vzdolžen prostor zaradi banjastega oboka, v zgradbo je postavljena prečno. Pri tem ni nikoli širša od slabih treh metrov. Predprostor je praviloma sestavljen iz dveh kvadratov, ki sta omejena z zidovi. "Hiša" je glavni prostor, redko je kvadratast, bolj običajno v razmerju 5:6 ali v približku ena proti kvadratnemu korenu iz pet polovic, vzdolžnega tlorisa praktično ni. Ostale sobe so sestavi v okviru celote in nimajo pravila. Zanimiva podrobnost pri opremi "hiše" je miza, ki stoji diagonalno na peč in je v tlorisu enakega razmerja kot prostor sam - če potegnemo diagonalo iz kota s pečjo do tistega z mizo, bo ta diagonala tekla tudi od enega vogala mize do drugega. Gre torej za isto razmerje. Ostali gospodarski prostori temu sledijo brez določenega reda: določa jo uporabnost. Hlev se ravna po velikosti živine, gumno po vozu.

Rooms: In the case of houses up to two hundred years old located in valleys, rooms are shaped by their function. The »black kitchen« is always a rectangular room because of the barrel vault. It is always set transversely in the building, and is never wider than just under three metres. The hall generally consists of two squares, bounded by walls. The "house", in the old Yorkshire sense, is the main room, occasionally square, more usually in a ratio of 5:6 or roughly one to the square root of five halves, and it almost never has a rectangular groundplan. Other rooms are composed within the framework of the whole and do not have rules. The table is an interesting detail in the fittings of the “house”. It stands diagonally to the stove and has the same proportions in the groundplan as the room itself – if a diagonal is drawn from the corner with the stove to that with the table, this diagonal will also run from one corner of the table to the other. It is thus in the same ratio. Other ancillary spaces follow this without specific order; they are determined by function. The size of the stockshed corresponds to the size of the livestock, the threshing floor to that of carts.

Druge namembnosti: Prostori drugih namembnosti, ki nastopajo posebej, se ravnajo po funkciji in po okoliščinah, tako da pravila ni mogoče postavljati, razen za samostojno stoječe zgradbe.

Other functions: Spaces for other purposes that appear individually correspond to the function and circumstances, so rules cannot be set, except for a free standing building.

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Mase

Mass

Izraba prostora, višine: Mase so odvisne predvsem od dimenzij gabarita zgradbe. Ne toliko tlorisne dimenzije kakor predvsem višine so za to bistvene: in pri tem ne izraba spodnjih nivojev, pač pa zgornjih. Zato vpliva na maso le tisti del, ki dejansko maso tudi tehnično predstavlja.

Exploitation of space, height: Volumes depend on the dimensions of the building. Not so much the ground plan dimensions as above all the height are crucial here, and upper rather than lower levels are used. So only parts that also technically represent volume actually affect the volume. Spatial relations of objects: These relations are the visible ratios of the dimensions: the exterior width, length and height, although the inclination of the roofs is not unimportant. Viewed theoretically, these ratios are better if they are simple, plain, observable and memorable [Le Corbusier 1963:17].

Prostorski odnosi objekta: Ti odnosi so vidni odnosi dimenzij, pri tem gre za zunanje dimenzije: širino, dolžino in višino, čeprav tudi naklon strešin ni zanemarljiv. Teoretično gledano so ti odnosi boljši, če so čim bolj preprosti, enostavni, opazni in zapomnljivi [Le Corbusier 1963: 17].

In valleys, (above all larger, more recent houses) large cubes with simple ratios predominate, at the sides of valleys and in hilly terrain they consist of rectangular cubes.

Skica 11 / Figure 11

V dolinah (predvsem mlajše hiše večjih dimenzij) prevladujejo veliki kubusi preprostih razmerij, na obrobju dolin in na gričevnatem terenu pa sestavljeni kubusi vzdolžnih oblik.

Appearances: These differ mainly in terms of length within the framework of volume: while in hilly terrain the mass of the house is generally seen only from below, or at most from in front, those in a valley are visible from two aspects: from the level or from above. The view from above depends mainly on the slope of the roofs, which embrace the groundplan and height dimensions. This applies mainly to individual locations, since such volumes are to some extent lost in settlements: they are subordinate to the objects among which they stand and above all to the details (individual facades or even parts of articulated facades).

Pogledi: Ti se v okviru mase zgradbe razlikujejo predvsem pri dolinskih. Medtem ko v hribovitem terenu vidimo maso hiše praviloma le od spodaj ali kvečjemu od spredaj, so dolinske vidne z dveh strani, z ravnine ali pa z višine. Pogled z višine je odvisen predvsem od naklona strešin, ki objemajo tlorisne in višinske dimenzije. Tukaj gre predvsem za posamične postavitve, v naselju se te mase nekoliko izgubijo: podrejajo se objektom, med katerimi stojijo in to predvsem v detajlih (posamična pročelja ali celo deli členjenih fasad). Odnosi do drugih in do celote - prilagajanje okolju: V naselju so odnosi mas podrejeni sosednjim objektom, predvsem v detajlih: v pročeljih ali v njihovih delih oziroma v arhitekturnih elementih (na primer vhod, portal, okna, zatrep).

Relations to others and to the totality – adapting to the environment: In settlements, the volumetric relations are subordinate to neighbouring objects mainly in details: in facades or in parts of these facades, or in architectural elements (for example entrances, portals, windows, gables).

Kontrast okolju: Kontrast okolju arhitektura lahko predstavlja le, če izstopa, predvsem vsebinsko. Pogled na zgradbo izraža vedno le vsebino samo. In če je vsebina drugačna, je lahko tudi pogled nanjo

Contrast to the environment: Architecture can only represent a contrast to the environment if above all the content stands out. The appearance of a building always expresses only the content itself: if the

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content is different, the appearance can also be different. The content can differ under the same conditions of volume, appearance or the architecture itself. Diversity of architecture in the cultural landscape does not mean the insertion of foreign types, other materials or materials worked differently, out of harmony with existing ones or not subordinate to them, at least in the visual sense.

drugačen. Vsebina pa je lahko drugačna pod istimi pogoji kakor mase, pogledi ali arhitektura sama. Drugačnost v arhitekturi kulturne krajine ne pomeni vnosa tuje tipike, drugih materialov ali obdelav, ki ne koordinirajo z obstoječimi ali se jim ne podrejajo vsaj v vizualnem smislu.

Pogledi

Appearance

Čelo - členitev, ritem, red: Členitev čela oziroma kompozicija stranskega pogleda na tipično zgradbo je zaradi naklona strešine v razmerju 1:1 vedno sestav pravokotnika in polovice kvadrata: panonski način v sestavu treh kvadratov, v dolinskem delu vsega območja pa je zgornji del večji, vse do polovice višine spodnjega. Ritem elementov ni točno določen. Kadar okna niso potrebna (vsebina), so mnogokrat tudi slepa ali celo narisana. Narisani stebri ali klasicistični elementi v globokem reliefu sledijo odprtinam. Okraski se prav tako podrejajo istemu ritmu in ponavljanju. Okraskov v vernakularni arhitekturi ni. Vse je rezultat funkcije, tudi dekorativni izžagani vzorci desk.

Gable – articulation, rhythm, order: The articulation of the gable or the side view of a typical building, because of the 1:1 inclination of the roof, is always composed of a rectangle and half a square: the Pannonian method is a composition of three squares, in valley parts of all regions the upper part is always larger, by at least half the height of the lower part. The rhythm of the elements is not specified. When windows are unnecessary (for function) they are often blind, or even merely outlined. The openings are traced by drawn columns or classical elements in deep relief. Ornaments are similarly subject to the same rhythm and repetition. There is no ornamentation in vernacular architecture: everything is a result of function, even decorative fretwork on boards.

Skica 12 / Figure 12

Execution, material: In the original, wooden execution, the gable is timber clad, the cladding generally shifted outwards. The wooden boards are always vertical, with fretwork apertures, which do not have typical shapes. Openings in the gable are rare and untypical, and there are no balconies except in Gorenjska, where they are composed into the totality. A mass construction gable is always fully executed, with window openings following the lower part in terms of both rhythm and execution of details, or a marked raster: so that there are fewer in the upper part (in the gable) or they are less elaborated. Ventilation openings are individual elements and are rare, although they exist, and they do not have typical constant shapes. They are made in a brickwork pattern, occasionally from shingles. The lower part in a wooden construction is sometimes bare, but generally plastered and whitewashed. The construction is generally visible (halved joints at the corners), although concealed joints are also used (occasionally). The lower parts of the gable in a mass construction always have at least a

Izvedba, material: Čelo je v prvi, leseni izvedbi sestav lesenega oboja, ki je praviloma pomaknjen navzven. Lesene deske so vedno v vertikalni smeri, imajo izrezljane odprtine, ki nimajo tipičnih oblik. Odprtine v zatrepu so redke in netipične, balkonov ni, razen na Gorenjskem, kjer so vkomponirani v celoto. Zidana postavitev čel je vedno v polni izvedbi, okenske odprtine sledijo spodnjemu delu tako po ritmu kakor po izvedbi detajlov ali označenega rastra, s tem, da jih je zgoraj (v zatrepu) manj ali so manj izdelani. Posamični elementi so zračniki, ki so dokaj redki, čeprav obstajajo, nimajo pa tipičnih stalnih oblik. Izvedeni so v prečnih zidakih, redkeje s strešniki. Spodnji del je v leseni izvedbi včasih gol, praviloma pa ometan in prebeljen. Konstrukcija je praviloma vidna (vogalne tesarske zveze na preklop), čeprav nastopajo (redkeje) tudi zakrite zveze. Zidani spodnji deli čela imajo vedno vsaj naznačen podstavek, praviloma v kamnu, mnogokrat je prebarvan v temnejši barvi in ni reliefno izbočen.

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marked base, generally in stone, often painted a darker colour, but there is no relief protrusion.

Obdelava: Lesena čela so zgoraj vedno v nezaščitenem lesu temno rjave barve, spodaj pa navadno v belem beležu. Zadnje, severne in zahodne strani so v severovzhodnem in vzhodnem delu Slovenije obarvane v močnih barvah. Zidane stene so vedno ometane v gladkem, finem ometu in obdelane v barvah, posebno kadar nastopajo dekorativni elementi, stebri ali okraski [Juvanec 1998: 23]. Grobih površin, dekoriranih ali izoblikovanih kakršnih koli oblik ni, prav tako ne oblog v kamnu, ploščicah ali celo v strešnih materialih.

Working: Wooden gables are always in unprotected dark-coloured wood above and normally whitewashed below: the rear northern and western sides are coloured in a strong colour in north-eastern and eastern parts of Slovenia. Mass construction walls always have a smooth, fine plaster and are worked in colours, especially when there are decorative elements, pillars or ornaments [Juvanec 1998:23]. There are no rough surfaces, or decorative or in any way designed shapes; and similarly no lining in stone, tiles or even roof materials.

Barve: Te so odvisne od vsebine. Bivalni deli so praviloma prebeljeni, gospodarski pa ne. V kolikor so lesene zgradbe zaščitene z opleskom, so praviloma bele v apnenem beležu, s podstavkom v sivi ali temno sivi barvi. Panonski svet pozna tudi izjemno močne barve, praviloma na zadnjem pročelju in proti cesti. V osrednji Sloveniji skoraj ne najdemo močnih barv, močnejših od bledo rumene. Na Gorenjskem je značilen zeleni kamen tuf (klesani okviri odprtin), ki daje pogledom na fasado poseben čar.

Colours: These depend on the use: residential parts are normally whitewashed, ancillary parts not. Insofar as wooden buildings are protected with a coat of paint, this is generally whitewash, with the base in grey or dark grey. Extremely strong colours can be found in the Pannonian world: generally on the rear facade and towards the road. Stronger colours than pale yellow are almost never found in central Slovenia. The green stone tuff (hewn frames of openings) is typical of Gorenjska, giving the facade a special charm.

Stik z drugimi površinami: Čela se praviloma ne dotikajo drugih površin. Tudi tiste, ki se v pogledu dotikajo, so zamaknjene in so že zaradi tega na pogled drugačne (odtenek barve, obdelava), kljub temu, da so dejansko iste.

Contact with other surfaces: Gables are not as a rule in contact with other surfaces: even those that are in contact seen face on, are set back and thus already distinct in full view (shade of colour, working), despite being actually the same.

Vzdolžni pogled - členitev, ritem, red: Členitev vzdolžnih pogledov je bolj razgibana kakor členitev čel: razdeljena so na vhodni del in na odprtine. Zadnje stene so enake po ritmu, včasih ni značilnega vhoda ali pa je bolj preprost, tako da se vključuje v členitev oken tako po ritmu kakor po obliki. Členitev lesenih hiš vključuje vrata le na eni strani (na drugi je v črni kuhinji le majhna lina) v velikostnem razredu oken, tako da ritem ni prekinjen. Ritem predstavlja delitev oziroma sestavo konstrukcije, saj se tesarske zveze jasno rišejo na pročelju. Zidane zgradbe so vedno postavljene simetrično: vrata s stopniščem ali brez njega, vhodni del, ki ima nadstrešek ali pa ga nima, je vedno na sredini. Obe strani se simetrično dopolnjujeta, včasih je drugotna stran (kamra ali tazadnja hiša) oblikovana bolj stisnjeno, redko ima celo okno manj. Spodnji del: klet nikoli nima okraskov in ni dekorirana v ploskvi, le v detajlu (vhod, okno, vrata, križi, prečke) preprostih rešitev.

Longitudinal view – articulation, rhythm, order: The articulation of the longitudinal view is more broken than that of the gable: it is divided into entrance part and openings. Rear walls are the same in terms of rhythm, although the entrance is sometimes untypical or is simpler, so that it is included in the articulation of the windows in terms of both rhythm and shape. The articulation of timber houses includes doors only on one side (there is only a small window aperture in the 'black kitchen' on the other side) in the same order of size as the windows, so that the rhythm is not broken. The rhythm shows the division or composition of the construction, since the timber joints are clearly visible on the facade. Mass construction buildings are always erected symetrically: doors, with or without a staircase, the entrance part, which may or may not have a projecting roof, is always in the centre. The two sides are symmetrically completed, although the secondary side (the chamber) is sometimes more compressed, occasionally even having one less window. Lower part: the cellar never has any ornamentation and is not decorated on the surface, only in the details (entrance, window, door, crucifixes, and transoms) of simple solutions.

Izvedba, material: Vzdolžni zidovi so enaki kot prečni. Obdelava: Vzdolžna pročelja imajo iste obdelave kot prečna, nikoli niso obdelana drugače. Izvedba - ploskev: Vhod ima vedno ploskovne razsežnosti. Če je razmeroma preprost, gre za ploskev vrat, če pa je sestavljen, je ploskev več (centralni pogled, pogledi od strani, perspektivni pogledi – v kolikor ima padajoče strehe, ploskev vrat samih).

Execution, material: Longitudinal walls are the same as transverse ones. Working: Longitudinal facades are worked in the same way as transverse

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ones, they are never worked differently.

Prostor, tla: Vhod v cimpranih konstrukcijah preprosto predstavlja vrata v črno kuhinjo, pri zidanih pa ima več elementov: stopnišče (mnogokrat dvojno), nastopno ploščad in vhodni del znotraj hiše.

Execution - surface: The entrance always has various planes: if it is relatively simple, there is the plane of the door, if it is composite, there are a number of planes (central view, views from the sides, perspective view – insofar as it has a sloping roof, the plane of the door itself).

Poudarki - obroba: Pri cimpranih zgradbah okrog vrat ni obrobe. Zidane hiše imajo mnogokrat obrobe, ki so praviloma v ometu, centimeter ali dva v globini, ne posebno bogato oblikovanih oblik: posnema pa portal v vseh njegovih elementih. Osrednja Slovenija, Gorenjska in Kras poznajo izrazite obrobe v kamnu, na vseh odprtinah in pri napuščih streh.

Space, floor: The entrance in log constructions is a simple door into the 'black kitchen', but with mass construction buildings it has a number of elements: staircase (often double), entrance platform and entrance hall inside the house.

Portal: To je konstrukcijski element, ki ščiti vratne robove in robove sten, nosi preklado in steno nad njo ter daje poudarek vratom samim. Cimprane hiše imajo redko portal. Često so povsem brez in so celo stene obdelane le z ometom in z apnom, včasih pa imajo lesen portal povsem ravnih oblik. Tudi zidane zgradbe imajo odprtine ojačane z masivnim kamnom: prek razpetine se pne ravna preklada ali sestavljen lok. Dekorativni elementi niso okras, le poudarjajo svojo funkcijo (temelj, stik oboka s stojko, sklepnik).

Stresses – borders/trimmings: There is no moulding to the door in log buildings. Mass construction houses often have moulding, which is normally in plaster, a centimetre or two in depth, not particularly richly designed forms: it imitates a portal in all its elements. In Central Slovenia, Gorenjska and the Karst, there are pronounced mouldings in stone on all openings, together with projecting roofs. Portal: This is a construction element that protects the edges of the door and the edges of the wall, supports the lintel and the wall above it and gives stress to the door itself. Log houses rarely have a portal. They are often completely without and even the walls are only plastered and limed, wooden portals sometimes have a completely flat shape. Mass construction buildings, too, have openings reinforced by solid stone: they are spanned with a flat lintel or a composite arch. Decorative elements are not ornaments, they only stress the function (foundations, contact of the arch with the uprights, keystone).

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Elementi

Elements

Vhod - postavitev v prostor (tloris): Vhod je navadno postavljen v prečno os tlorisa, le v Karavankah je s čela. Za razliko od centralne Slovenije, kjer ima glavni vhod vedno stranskega, gospodarskega na drugi strani črne kuhinje, je vhod drugje navadno en sam. Zadnji vhod odpira kuhinjo ali predprostor na gospodarsko dvorišče. Kadar tloris ni simetričen, je vhod blizu osi; nikoli ni izrazito na eni strani pročelja. Vhod v klet je postavljen kontrastno: vedno je v vzdolžni osi, kadar je to res "vhod", kadar pa je le odprtina za v klet, je lahko kakor koli in kjer koli: v notranjosti bolj redko, zunaj pa v vzdolžni osi (kadar je v čelu), a vedno simetrično in na sredini, sicer pa vhod, ki ga pokrivajo horizontalne lopute, nima pravila. Kadar je vhod v klet v vzdolžnem pročelju, ni nikoli v sredini, redko je pokrit s podaljškom strehe [Juvanec 1998: 24].

Entrance – positioning in space (groundplan): The entrance is normally positioned in the transverse axis of the groundplan, only in the Karavanke is there a gable. In contrast to central Slovenia, where in addition to the main entrance there is always a side, working entrance on the other side of the 'black kitchen', elsewhere there is normally only a single entrance. The rear entrance opens from the farmyard into the kitchen or the entrance hall. Whenever the groundplan is asymmetrical, the entrance is closer to the axis; it is never explicitly on one side of the facade. The entrance to the cellar is positioned contrastingly: it is always in the longitudinal axis whenever this is really the »entrance«, but when it is only an opening to the cellar, it can be anywhere and have any form; it is more rarely in the interior, or outside in the longitudinal axis (when it is in the gable end) but always symmetrical and in the centre. An entrance which is covered by a horizontal trapdoor, though, does not have rules. When the entrance to the cellar is in the longitudinal facade, it is never in the centre. It is occasionally covered with an extension of the roof [Juvanec 1998:24].

Postavitev vhoda v prostor (fasado): Vhod v vzdolžnem pročelju je nameščen centralno, tako v vertikalni kakor v horizontalni smeri. V kolikor ima nadstrešek, je ta nameščen čim bolj simetrično in skladno z ostalimi sestavinami pročelja.

Positioning of the entrance spatially (facade): An entrance in the longitudinal facade is placed centrally, in both vertical and horizontal directions. Insofar as it has a projecting roof, this is positioned as symmetrically as possible and in accordance with other facade elements.

Skica 13 / Figure 13

Mass construction houses almost as a rule have a stone portal. Wooden ones or plaster moulding are rare. A stone portal is normally rounded, with a keystone in the centre on older buildings, but with later ones it is rectangular with elements that are typical of a portal. The pedestal is normally protruding and larger, the jamb is slender, smooth, with the seat of the rounded arch being normally larger and shaped; the arch is simple, as is normally the keystone, although it is larger and protruding. It normally has initials and the year of completion.

Zidane hiše imajo skoraj praviloma kamnit portal. Leseni ali z obrobami v ometu so redki. Kamnit portal je običajno zaokrožen, s sklepnikom v sredini pri starejših postavitvah, pri mlajših pa je pravokoten, z elementi, ki so za portal značilni. Podstavek je navadno izbočen in večji, stojka je vitka, gladka, sedež zaokroženega loka je navadno večji in izoblikovan, lok preprost, sklepnik navadno tudi, čeprav je večji in izbočen. Navadno ima začetnice in letnico nastanka.

Skica 14 / Figure 14

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Kadar so portali pravokotni, preklada navadno previseva stojke, letnica in inicialke so mnogokrat razpotegnjene v širino.

When portals are rectangular, the lintel normally extends beyond the uprights, and the year and initials often cover the entire width.

Okno - namembnost: Okno je vedno postavljeno iz treh razlogov. Za prezračevanje, za dovod svetlobe v notranjost in zaradi pogledov iz prostora. V kmetski arhitekturi sta bila vedno prisotna le prva dva razloga: zaradi ekonomičnosti so bile odprtine vedno manjše od potreb.

Window - purpose: A window is always installed for one or all of three reasons: for ventilation, to let light into the interior and to provide a view from the room. In farm architecture, only the first two reasons are always present: for the sake of economy, openings were always smaller than they might have been.

Postavitev v ploskev: Kletno okno je praviloma brez okvirov, kadar pa jih ima, so bolj ali manj fiksni. So pri tleh, redko z jaški, mnogokrat pa imajo obrobe iz gline, ki segajo že v podstavek. Nadstropje: okna so večja, bolj funkcionalno oblikovana in obdelana. Tudi dekoracija je tukaj bolj bogata. Podstrešje: tukaj gre za dvoje, za prava okna z elementi prejšnjih ali pa za prezračevalne line, ki so praviloma odprte, brez okvirov ali polnil. Grajene so iz opeke, včasih iz kritine. Oblikovanje je pri tem ključnega pomena, včasih predstavljajo bistveni del estetskih dodatkov ali pa so sploh edini dodatek.

Installation in the wall: A cellar window is generally without a frame. When there is a frame, it is more or less fixed. They are at ground level, occasionally with a shaft, and often have a moulding of clay, which already extends into the base. Upper storey: The windows are larger, more functionally designed and constructed, and the decoration here is also richer. Roof spaces: there are two forms here, a real window with elements of the above, or ventilation openings, which are generally open, without frames or fillers. They are made of brick, sometimes of roof tiles. The design of them is of crucial importance, they are sometimes the essential element of aesthetic additions – or are the only addition.

Namestitev v zid: V zidu so okna lahko postavljena na zunanji rob, na notranji rob ali v sredino. Včasih gre za kombinacije, posebno pri dvojnih oknih. Ponavadi imajo okna naoknice, včasih jih pozimi zamenjajo z zasteklenimi krili. Cimprače so dobile današnja okna v prelomu prejšnjih dveh stoletij, prej so bila za polovico manjša in brez naoknic. Današnje naoknice posnemajo tiste izvedbe v zidanih zgradbah.

Positioning in the wall: Windows can be positioned in walls at the outer edge, inner edge or in the centre: there is sometimes a combination, especially with double windows. Windows normally have window shutters, which are sometimes replaced in winter with glazed casements. Log houses were given modern windows at the turn of the 20th century; they were formerly half the size and without shutters. Today's shutters copy those installed in mass construction buildings.

Postavitev v površino pročelja: V fasadi so okna postavljena, kamor pač spadajo. Funkcionalno se navezujejo na tloris in na višine notranjih prostorov. Ta postavitev je logična in zato tudi estetska, saj na zunaj kaže merilo človeka.

Positioning on the surface of the facade: Windows are placed on the facade where they belong: they are functionally bound to the groundplan and to the height of the interior rooms. This positioning is logical and thus also aesthetic, since they are to human scale.

Skica 15 / Figure 15

Execution: Windows are normally simple wooden frames made with timber joints. Even the glass is held in by carpentry, without the use of putty, which was expensive, while carpentry work at home was cheap and available. All the details of metal parts were made at local smithies, so they do not have any demanding mechanical constructions, only simple, essential elements.

Izvedba: Navadno so okna lesena, preprosta in v mizarskih zvezah narejeni okviri. Mnogokrat so celo stekla vdelana na mizarski način brez steklarskega kita.Ta je bil drag, mizarsko delo pa doma, ceneno in dosegljivo. Vsi kovani detajli okovov so bili izdelani pri domačih kovačih, zato nimajo kakih zahtevnih mehanskih konstrukcij, pač pa le preproste, najbolj nujne elemente.

ARHITEKTURA SLOVENIJE, ALPSKI DEL

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ARCHITECTURE OF SLOVENIA, ALPINE PART


Stresses - moulding: The moulding is independent or part of the external window. Independent moulding is rarer; log buildings normally have double casements, with external shutters or glazed casements. Stone houses can also have plaster moulding, decorative as with other additions to the façade. Such moulding has a smooth edge, and is raised from the surface. There can also be a composite frame that is reminiscent of a stone contruction and shows the construction elements, which do not otherwise appear around such a window (lintel, keystone).

Poudarki - obroba: Obroba je samostojna ali pa je to del zunanjega okna. Samostojna je redka, navadno so v cimpranih zgradbah dvojna okna, zunaj naoknice ali steklena krila. Pri zidanih hišah je obroba lahko tudi v ometu, dekorativna kakor drugi dodatki pročelja. Taka obroba je gladek rob, dvignjen s ploskve, lahko pa je tudi sestavljen okvir, ki spominja na sestav iz kamna in kaže na konstrukcijske elemente, ki sicer okrog tega okna ne nastopajo (preklada, sklepnik).

Skica 16 / Figure 16

Zaščita: Zaščita pri oknu so kovane mreže, ki so lahko raznih izvedb, od preprostih k rižev do kovanih rogovil, včasih tudi tridimenzionalnih. Najbolj preprost je trn, lahko sta dva, dekorativne kovane mreže so doma na Gorenjskem. A tudi ta dekorativnost je plod funkcije. Prav tako zavit kvadratni profil je bistveno trdnejši od ravnega. Ravna mreža zapira manj prostora od zavitih in zaokroženih prečk.

Protection: Windows are protected by an iron grill, which can be of various design: from simple crosses to metal forks, sometimes even threedimensional. The simplest is a spine, of which there can be two. Decorative iron grills are found in Gorenjska. However, even such ornamentation is the fruit of function: a curved square profile is essentially stronger than a flat one. A flat grill also encloses less space than curved and rounded crosspieces.

Vizualni poudarki: Estetski element oken je členitev pročelja, ki je narisana ali izoblikovana na njem, redko pa okenska obroba. Možne variante so tudi izvedbe naoknic, kjer pa so srčki le delna odprtina za prezračevanje, torej bolj funkcionalna kot zgolj estetska postavitev.

Visual stresses: Aesthetic elements of windows provide the articulation of the façade, and are outlined or moulded on the facade. There is occasionally window moulding. Possible variants include the construction of the shutters, in which hearts are partial openings for ventilation, thus more functional than merely aesthetic.

Streha - oblika: Ta je vedno dvokapna, simetrična, ki ima lahko tudi funkcionalno izoblikovane nadstreške kot podaljške (cimprače) ali konstrukcijske elemente vhoda (zidane zgradbe, vendar vedno simetrično, navadno v sredini).

Roof - shape: The roof is always a pitched roof, symmetrical, which can also have a functionally designed projecting roof as an extension, or the construction elements of the entrance (mass construction building, but always symmetrical, normally in the centre).

Skica 17 / Figure 17

Naklon: Naklon strehe je vedno v razmerju višine proti širini ena proti ena ali petinštirideset stopinj. Naklon 45 stopinj izhaja iz prvobitne strehe pri nas.V tem naklonu sta tako izvedba kot delovanje najboljša.

Inclination: The slope of the roof is always in a one to one ratio of height to width, or 45 degrees. The inclination of 45 degrees derives from the original roofs in Slovenia. Such a slope has been adopted as working the best in original materials.

Material: Material za strehe je izbran po možnostih. Te predstavljata predvsem dosegljivost in pa možnost obdelave. Najpreprostejši material je kamen. Pri nas imamo dvojnega - debelejšega vse do devetih centimetrov na Krasu in tankega na Gorenjskem, vsega nekaj milimetrov. Skrilj, ki ga imenujejo 'škalce', je najbolj razširjen v Selški in Poljanski dolini, sicer pa ga najdemo skoraj povsod po Gorenjskem.

Material: The material of a roof is chosen according to possibilities, mainly availability and the possibility of processing. The simplest material is stone. There are two types of roofing stone in Slovenia – thick, up to nine centimetres, on the Karst; and thin in Gorenjska, at least some millimetres. Slate is most widespread in Selška dolina and Poljanska dolina, although it is also found throughout Gorenska.

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There is only one type of thatched roof here, and straw is used. Reed has not traditionally been used in Slovenia, as in Britain, although it has recently been imported from Hungary where only reed is used for roofing. A straw thatched roof always has a hip. There are two types of wooden roof: using boards or shingles. Boards are sawn longitudinally along the grain and therefore have a shorter life period; shingles are cleaved and last significantly longer. And there are two types of shingle: those from Gorenjska and those from Koroška. Those from Gorenjska have larger dimensions (about a centimetre thick and a metre and a half long) and are cleaved gradually by tapping, but in Koroška they are very thin (a few millimetres), and no longer than about half a metre. Gorenjska shingles and boards are placed parallel, flat, with an overlap and in Koroška in two layers at an angle. There is a mixed form in Jezersko, Gorenjska shingles are laid as in Koroška, at an angle. A tile roof is made from flat tiles (bobrovci), industrially produced pantiles were invented later, barrel tiles are semi-circular, deriving from Roman tiles. These may only be laid, or nailed or set in mortar. The inclination of a barrel tile roof is essentially less than for the other two, which are always at 45 degrees.

Slamnata streha je pri nas le ena: s slamo. Zanimivo je, da imajo na primer Angleži izraz 'tatched roof', ki mu dodajo material 'straw' ali 'reed' (slamo ali trsje). Pri nas trsja ne poznamo, ga pa zadnje čase uvažamo z bližnje Madžarske, kjer poznajo le to kritino. Slamnata streha ima vedno čop. Lesena streha je dvojna: z deskami ali s skodlami. Deske so žagane, imajo vzdolžno rezane žile in so zato krajše življenjske dobe, skodle pa so kalane in žive bistveno dlje. Pa še skodle so dvojne: gorenjske in koroške. Gorenjske so večjih dimenzij (debeline kak centimeter in dolge do metra in pol) in so kalane postopno z nabijanjem, koroške pa so zelo tanke (nekaj milimetrov), kratke ne več kot dobrega pol metra. Gorenjske skodle, pa tudi deske, so postavljene vzporedno v ravnino s preklopom, koroške pa v dveh plasteh pod kotom. Na Jezerskem poznajo vmesno stopnjo: gorenjske skodle so zlagane kot koroške, pod kotom. Opečna streha je sestavljena iz ravnih strešnikov (bobrovci), kasneje so iznašli industrijsko proizvodnjo zareznikov, polkrožno pa so zaviti korci, ki izhajajo iz latinske kritine. Ti so lahko na planete le položeni, zabijani ali vloženi v malto. Seveda je naklon korcev bistveno manjši od prvih dveh, ki je še vedno 45 stopinj.

Roof terminations: Thatched roofs are plaited and sometimes terminated with slips, but also with branches. The plaiting is rhythmic and visible, and has a very decorative effect. Such thatching is seen in Pannonia. Verges are open, normally protected with a board in Pomurje, on Pohorje only the plaited edge defies the wind. The eaves are open, with the rafters visible, dressed, sometimes decoratively, in order to reduce the external, threatened area of the gable. There is no typical decoration. A tile roof has the characteristics of the tile. Ridge tiles are mass produced, and a cock is customary mainly in the central part of Slovenski gorice, although they do not have a typical manufacture or design. The roof under the eaves is open although it can be protected by a board or a plastered edge, which the tiles overhang by a few centimetres.

Zaključki strehe: Sleme slamnate strehe je pleteno in včasih zaključeno z letvami, pa tudi z vejami. Pletenje je ritmično in je vidno, deluje izjemno dekorativno.Tako je doma v panonskem svetu. Robovi so odprti, navadno so zaščiteni z desko v Pomurju, na Pohorju pa le pleten rob kljubuje vetru. Kap je odprta, špirovci so vidni, prirezani, včasih dekorativno, da zmanjšajo zunanjo, ogroženo površino čela.Tipike pri dekoracijah ni. Opečna streha ima značilnosti opeke: slemenjaki so serijski, predvsem v osrednjem delu Slovenskih goric so v navadi petdelni, ki pa nimajo tipične izvedbe in ne oblike. Spodnji rob strehe je odprt, lahko je zaščiten z desko ali pa z ometanim robom, ki ga strešnik previseva za nekaj centimetrov. Napušči: Lesene hiše imajo lahko izjemne napušče. Dobre tri metre široka hiša ima napušče tudi po meter in pol, kar je skoraj toliko kot pol širine (vzhodni del Slovenije), na Gorenjskem in na Koroškem napušč omogoča spravilo in sušenje drv, pa tudi kopno pot okrog hiše, ko z nje pade sneg. Napušč v zatrepu je navadno deljen na zatrep, ki je obit v lesu in manjši del za strešino samo. Zidane zgradbe imajo včasih izjemno majhne napušče naokrog, na vhodni strani pa je nekaj širši.

Projecting roofs: Wooden houses can exceptionally have overhanging roofs: the roof of a three and a half metre wide house can overhang by up to a metre and a half, which is almost half its width (eastern part of Slovenia). In Gorenjska and Koroška, the overhanging roofs enable the storage and drying of wood, as well as a clear path around the house when it has been snowing. An overhanging roof in the gable is normally divided: into the gable which is clad with wood and a smaller part for the overhang itself. Mass construction buildings sometimes have an exceptionally small overhang all round, slightly wider on the eastern side.

Čop: Čopi so skoraj obvezen del slovenske vernakularne arhitekture, vsaj v bivalnem delu, v gospodarskem jih včasih tudi ni. Čopi so postavljeni tudi v zidane konstrukcije iz prejšnjega stoletja, brez njih so bolj ali manj le obnove, kjer pa se konstrukcija čopa jasno vidi na zatrepu po položaju prečnih letev.

ARHITEKTURA SLOVENIJE, ALPSKI DEL

Hip: A hip is an almost essential element of Slovene vernacular architecture, at least for the residential part, although sometimes not also for the ancillary structures.

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ARCHITECTURE OF SLOVENIA, ALPINE PART


Hips are also made in stone constructions from the last century, more or less only renovations are without one, but in such cases, the construction of the hip is clearly visible on the gable from the position of the crossways battens. A century or two in the past, a hip was prescribed by law (even at the turn of the twentieth century, Austro-Hungarian rules still applied, so that transformer stations here, too, for example, had to have a hipped roof). However, a hip is the remnant of a broach roof, when the problem of the gable (wind, open thick straw covering) was solved by reducing the size of the gable as much as possible.

Stoletje ali dve nazaj so bili čopi predpisani z zakonom (še v prelomu devetnajstega z dvajsetim stoletjem je veljalo avstro-ogrsko pravilo, da so pri nas tudi transformatorske postaje obvezno s strehami na čop). Sicer pa je čop ostanek štirikapne strehe, ko so probleme zatrepa (veter, odprta slamnata debelina kritine) reševali s tem, da so zatrep zmanjšali, kolikor je bilo mogoče.

Skica 18 / Figure 18

Gable: A triangular gable is an essential part of a wooden construction: its solidity and dimensions overshadow all other relations. In the northeastern part of Slovenia, it is more pronounced because of the overhanging roof and the material, in the west in terms of size. The cladding is always wooden, the surface roughcut, with vertically attached boards, without ventilation openings but occasionally with fretwork ventilaton holes. Simple symmetrical openings are possible. The construction is also visible externally, with the beams peeking through the cladding itself. The horizontal beams are visible in entirety from below, from in front half visible. Less attention is devoted to the gable of a stone house. There are occasionally ventilation apertures in brickwork. These normally have a regular shape: a screen, semicircle, circle or star. Particular attention is paid to the brickwork in the gable of outbuildings, where the execution is individual. They generally open the entire roof space, and sometimes the bricks are coloured, although this is not an absolute rule. There are most such brickwork ventilation openings in eastern and central parts of Slovenia.

Zatrep: Trikotni zatrep je bistveni del lesene konstrukcije. S svojo maso in dimenzijami previseva vse ostale odnose. V severnovzhodnem delu Slovenije je bolj izrazit z napuščem in v materialu, na zahodu v velikosti. Oboj je vedno lesen, površinsko neobdelan, z vertikalno nabitimi deskami, brez zračnih odprtin in redko z izrezljanimi zračniki. Preproste odprtine v simetrični postavitvi so možne. Konstrukcija je vidna tudi navzven, ko gledajo tramovi preprosto skozi oboj sam, spodaj pa so horizontalni tramovi vidni v celoti, od spredaj pa na pol. Zidane zgradbe zatrepu posvečajo manj pozornosti. Redko so na njem prezračevalne line, sestavljene iz opek. Te so navadno pravilnih oblik: mreže, polkroga, kroga ali zvezde. Posebne postavitve so čela oziroma zatrepi gospodarskih poslopij v opečnih mrežah, kjer pa so te izvedbe individualne. Praviloma odpirajo vse podstrešje, včasih so opeke pobarvane, kar pa ni pravilo. Največ opečnih mrež je v vzhodnem in v osrednjem delu Slovenije.

Naselja v okolju - ekonomika vernakularne arhitekture

Settlements in the environment - the economics of vernacular architecture

Ekonomika vernakularne arhitekture: zunanji sovražnik, ogenj, poplave in plazovi. Domačije, pasivno zavarovane s hrbtom navzven, so uskoške hiše, kjer so prišleki prinesli s sabo strah pred napadi (zato so tudi prišli). Zgradbe imajo navzven le vhod, vse odprtine se odpirajo na notranje dvorišče; primeri so v Beli krajini. Ogenj je nevarna reč, posebej zgradbam s slamnato streho, zato so objekti razmaknjeni, da morebitna nesreča ne uniči vseh hkrati. Najbolj pomembna reč je seveda hrana, zato so kašče vedno zunaj

The economics of vernacular architecture: external enemy, fire, flood and landslip Farms that passively provided protection by showing their back were dwellings of “Uskoki”, Romanians who fought against the Ottoman Turks, where the immigrants brought with them the fear of attack (which was why they had come). The buildings have only one entrance, all openings open onto the inner courtyard. There are examples in Bela krajina. Fire is dangerous, especially to buildings with straw roofs, so objects are

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kept separate so that any accident does not destroy everything at the same time. Food, of course, is the most important thing: so barns are always out of the reach of fire, but within a safe framework of control (visible from the house). Floods and landslides have their own paths: an intelligent person knows them and moves out of their way; he cannot oppose them. A local council formerly allowed building only on unproblematic locations, common services (watercourses, roads) were supervised by the watch. The authorities have forgotten this today, except at times of natural disasters, when funds are collected to cover their incompetence (a less intelligent politician attracts votes by proclaiming that it is necessary to »legalise everything possible«. This concerns »unauthorised buildings« of course, which are mostly located on problematic terrain). Today, unfortunately, there is no longer awareness of this – so-called professional services allow building practically anywhere, mainly on the principle of ownership. The individual thus decides himself on the choice of location, but at a time of danger or disaster he expects the solidarity of all. Why am I talking about economics? A prudent owner will not decide to build something based on current needs but after serious consideration, based on experience, after discussion with neighbours. A prudent owner does not put up a building for a few years only and without thought to the future. It is an uneconomic investment to put up a house and then lose it to water or landslip after a few years. Such an investment is economically justifiable when water and landslip are avoided in advance and when the building functions.

dosega ognja, a v varnem okviru kontrole (pogledov iz hiše). Poplave in plazovi imajo svoje poti. Pameten človek jih pozna in se jim umika, ubraniti se jim ne more. Nekdaj je župan reguliral izgradnjo le na neproblematičnih lokacijah, skupne službe (vodotoki, ceste) so nadzorovale straže. Danes je uprava na to pozabila, razen ob naravnih nesrečah, ko zbira sredstva za svojo nesposobnost (manj umni politik zbira politične glasove zase z izjavami, da je treba 'legalizirati vse, kar je mogoče': gre seveda za črne gradnje, ki v glavnem ležijo na problematičnih terenih). Danes žal zavesti o tem ni več - tako imenovane strokovne službe omogočajo izgradnjo malodane povsod, predvsem po načelu lastništva. Posameznik se tako sam odloča o izboru lokacije, ob morebitni ogroženosti ali v katastrofi pričakuje solidarnost vseh. Zakaj govorim o ekonomiki? Gospodaren lastnik ne bo odločal o postavitvi zgradbe po trenutnih potrebah, pač pa po treznem premisleku, po izkušnjah, po dogovoru s sosedi. Gospodaren lastnik ne postavlja zgradbe le za nekaj let in ne brez misli na prihodnost. Negospodarna investicija je postaviti hišo in jo čez nekaj let izgubiti v vodi ali v plazu. Ekonomsko upravičena je takrat, ko se vodi in plazu vnaprej izogne ter kar funkcionira. Naselja v ravnini: Današnja poselitev je razmeroma gosta in hiše ležijo kjer koli, še včeraj pa so bile racionalno potisnjene "vkraj", na obronke, ob njive in ne nanje, nad cesto, nad vodo in na hrbte hribovja.

Settlements on plains: A settlement today is relatively dense, and houses are situated wherever the owner chooses, though only yesterday they were still rationally pressed »away«, to the edge, beside arable land not on it, above the road, above water, with the hills behind them.

Skica 20 / Figure 20 Skica 19 / Figure 19

Naselja v koritu, v jarku: Drugi tip vasi je v jarku med dvema hriboma. Postavitev je vzdolžna, širi pa se kasneje na vse strani, predvsem v lažjo, vzdolžno stran.

Settlements in a gorge, ravine: Another type of village is in a ravine between two hills: it is laid out longitudinally, and later extends in all directions, mainly to gentler slopes at the side.

Naselje na slemenu: Najbolj tipična postavitev je na hrbtu, ko se bivalne hiše nizajo ob cesti vzdolžno po slemenu. Gre seveda za manj premožne kmete, saj polja in gozdovi, ki so navezani na te domačije, praviloma niso kdo ve kako kakovostni - bolj donosna polja so bolj

Settlements on a ridge: The most typical location is on a ridge, when the residential houses are strung along the road longitudinally to the ridge. They tend to be less prosperous farms, of course, since the fields and forests attached to such a farm are of dubious quality; the better fields are

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more distant, and transport is also made more difficult because of the hill. These are the most prominent villages, which can be seen from afar, and they have a fine view, so they are also a target of townsfolk, who put their holiday homes there. Few belong in such a place.

oddaljena, zaradi hriba pa je dovoz tudi otežkočen. To so najbolj poudarjene vasi, ki jih vidimo od daleč, z njih je lep razgled, zato pa so tudi tarča mestnih ljudi, ki tod postavljajo počitniške hiše. Redke so, ki v prostor tudi sodijo.

Skica 21 / Figure 21

Skica 22 / Figure 22

Vas na griču: Postavitev na griču, tako rekoč na piramidi ali na stožcu, onemogoča slaba povezava s polji, zato je takih naselij malo. Običajno so kombinirana s postavitvijo na slemenu, saj so hiše nizane ob prometnicah, ki na ta grič vodijo.

Villages on a hill: Positioning on a hill, so to speak on a pyramid or a cone, does not allow good links with arable land, so there are few such settlements. They are normally combined with positioning on a ridge, since the houses are strung along the trafficways leading to the hill.

Naselje na križišču: Zelo pomembne prometne točke (prehod prek slemena, reke, križišče cest) so poseljene zaradi potreb. Te potrebe so varnostne, prometne, gostinske, nočitvene, obrtniške, upravne (mitnina). Taka naselja stojijo v ravnini ali na sklopu več grebenov, kjer združujejo možnosti narave, gospodarstva, uprave. Značilna so srednjeveška naselja okrog upravnega centra. Lastnik, upravljavec, vojščak je na grič postavil grad - zaradi varnosti, kontrole in vizualne potrebe po razkazovanju moči. Naselje okrog gradu se razvije iz potreb vseh. Na gradu potrebujejo obrtnike, trgovce, delavce - ti pa potrebujejo delo ali prodajajo znanje ali pridelke. Tako se razvije mesto.

Settlements at a crossroads: Very important traffic hubs (crossings over a ridge or a river, crossroads) are settled on the basis of need. These needs are security, traffic, catering, overnight accommodation, trade, administration (tolls). Such settlements stand on the level or at the confluence of a number or ridges, where natural possibilities, the economy, administration are combined. Medieval settlements were characteristically around an administrative centre: an owner, administrator or soldier set a castle on a hill, for the sake of security, control and the visual need to display his power. A settlement developed around the castle to cater for all needs: craftsmen, tradesmen, workers are needed in the castle – these need work or sell knowledge or products. So towns developed.

Skica 23 / Figure 23

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Postavitev domačije

Positioning of a farmstead

Pri domačiji imamo bivalno hišo, gospodarski del in druge objekte [Juvanec 1998: 31]. Bivalna hiša je v teren postavljena racionalno, ker pač ni druge možnosti. Izkorišča padec za direktne dostope, sama postavitev pa se umika uporabnim površinam, ki so izkoriščane za njive, polja, vrtove ali za gospodarsko dvorišče.

Farmsteads have a residential house, ancilliary buildings and other facilities [Juvanec 1998:31]. A residential house is placed in the terrain rationally, because it has to be. It uses the slope for direct access; the location itself, though, is set back from usable areas, which are exploited for meadows, fields, gardens, or for the farmyard.

Skica 24 / Figure 24

A residential house can stand independently and other necessary buildings are then distributed on the terrain where possible, sometimes even far from the house (stockpens in pasturages can be some hours away). The residential house may have the ancillary buildings as an extension, with places for storing food coming first, followed by space for tools and livestock, and fodder or wagons at the end. Such an extended building can be long and set in a straight line, or formed into an »L«shape, or turned back to form a “U” and thus encircling the farmyard. This is a result of the most logical and most rational need: the house in the corner provides protection to the working yard; protection from the wind, against undesirable eyes and allows supervision of operations: work in the yard, entries, movement of livestock. Where there is too little level space to allow such a variant, the residential quarters are often joined to the ancillary buildings, whereby a wider overhanging roof also enables dry access to these premises. A residential house parallel to the farm buildings allows a farmyard which has a through passage. Such a location is only possible with large buildings on a large site, mainly in Gorenjska and Koroška.

Pri tem je lahko bivalna hiša samostojna in so drugi, nujni objekti nanizani v teren, kjer se pač da, včasih tudi daleč od hiše (staje pri planšarstvu so nekaj ur oddaljene). Bivalna hiša ima lahko gospodarski del v podaljšku. Pri tem ji sledijo prostori za hrambo hrane, orodja, živine, na koncu pa je krma oziroma voz. Taka podaljšana zgradba je lahko dolga in je postavljena v ravni črti, lomljena v ”L” ali pa se zaključuje nazaj v ”U” in s tem zaokrožuje gospodarsko dvorišče. To je najbolj logična in najbolj racionalna potreba - hiša v vogal tvori zaščito delovnemu dvorišču. To je zaščita pred vetrom, proti nezaželenim pogledom in omogoča kontrolo delovanja: delo na dvorišču, dostopi, gibanje živine. Premalo je ravnega prostora, da bi lahko imeli slednjo varianto, pogosto je bivalni del spojen z gospodarskim, pri čemer omogoča širši napušč tudi suh dostop do teh prostorov. Vzporednost bivalne hiše in gospodarskega objekta omogoča dvorišče, ki ima vzdolžni prehod. Taka postavitev je možna le pri velikih objektih na velikem prostoru, predvsem na Gorenjskem in na Koroškem.

Skica 25 / Figure 25

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Location of the building: The simplest location is on the level, although this can cause problems with entrance to the cellar. Access is possible from the interior, but it then occupies valuable space, which is otherwise very sparsely distributed, so the entrance is normally by means of a horizontal shed beneath an overhanging roof. Access is also of course possible from outside but the problems are even greater because the opening needs to be protected. Insofar as it is next to the house itself, it is protected by the overhanging roof, but if it is set at a distance, it can also be unprotected.

Postavitev zgradbe: Najenostavnejša postavitev je v ravnini, a pri tem so težave s kletjo. Dostop je možen iz notranjosti, kjer pa zaseda dragocen prostor, ki je sicer zelo varčno razporejen. To je običajno izvedeno s horizontalno loputo pod napuščem, ki je pohodna. Možen je seveda tudi vhod od zunaj, a so problemi še večji, ker je treba odprtino zaščititi. V kolikor je ta ob sami hiši, jo ščiti podaljšan napušč, če pa je odmaknjena, je lahko tudi nezaščitena.

Skica 26 / Figure 26

Residential architecture is generally set parallel to the contour, only rarely does it stand at right angles to it. There is then a specific reason, such as the use of falling terrain for access to spaces at various levels. It is otherwise with ancillary objects: cellars, barns, stables, vineyard cottages, granaries are set at right angles to the residential house and are thus also at right angles to the contour. When the road falls along a contour, the house aligns first with the road and only then with the contour: access to various levels is therefore easier. The longitudinal axis of the house is parallel to the contour: a rear working entrance is thus made possible, and the main entrance must therefore sometimes have stairs: this is exploited to stress the importance and monumentality with design details and with special stresses. In Gorenjska, one sometimes finds a number of storeys with direct access from the terrain: a hay wagon can even be driven into the roof space.

Bivalna arhitektura je praviloma postavljena vzporedno na plastnice, le redkokdaj stoji pravokotno nanje. Takrat ima svoje povsem specifične zahteve: uporabo padajočega terena za dostope v prostore različnih nivojev. Drugače je z gospodarskimi objekti. Klet, skedenj, hlev, klečaja, zidanica, kašča so postavljene pravokotno na bivalno hišo in so tako tudi pravokotne na plastnice. Kadar cesta pada po plastnicah, se hiša drži predvsem ceste in šele potem plastnic. Dostop v razne nivoje je tako lažji. Vzdolžna os hiše je vzporedna plastnicam. Tako je omogočen zadnji gospodinjski vhod, včasih pa mora imeti zaradi tega glavni vhod stopnišče. Tega izkorišča za stopnjo pomembnosti in monumentalnosti z oblikovanjem detajlov ter s posebnimi poudarki. Na Gorenjskem ponekod pridemo v več etaž s terena; celo na podstrešje lahko pripelje voz sena.

Groundplan of the building: The groundplan developed theoretically from a single cell building and from two-cell houses: a house for the elderly is still today thus, with only two rooms (when there are no longer children).

Tloris zgradbe: Tloris se je razvil teoretično iz enocelične zgradbe in iz dvocelične hiše. Hiša za ostarele je še danes taka, le iz dveh prostorov (otrok ni več).

Skica 27 / Figure 27

The development of the groundplan at first took place completely logically: a chamber is set symetrically at the entrance. All three spaces open onto the entrance hall, which serves as a windbreak. There is no longer a genuine 'black kitchen'. The chimney is led as 'cold smoke' to the roof space (in the mass construction part) and onwards into a wooden

Razvoj tlorisa je tekel naprej povsem logično. Simetrično na vhod je postavljena kamra. Vsi trije prostori se odpirajo v predprostor, ki služi kot vetrnik. Prave črne kuhinje ni več. Odvod dima je speljan kot ”hladni dim”na podstrešje (zidani del) in naprej v lesen dimnik. Kadar sestavlja hišo gospodarski del, so ti prostori enostavno nanizani

40


chimney. When ancillary premises form part of the house, these premises are simply strung onto the living part. The order is important: human food, tools, small animals, large animals, wagons and fodder, firewood. A well, which is always beside the house, stands on its own and only rarely forms part of any building in Slovenia.

od bivalnega dela naprej. Vrstni red je pomembnost: hrana človeka, orodje, male živali, velike živali, voz in krma, drva. Vodnjak, ki je vedno pri hiši, stoji sam zase in je v Sloveniji le redko v sklopu kakega objekta.

Red

Order

Pojav estetike teče vzporedno z razvojem elementov, ki so za človeka bistvenega pomena. Najprej si je moral zagotoviti preživetje, potem se je lahko ukvarjal z drugimi deli [Juvanec 2004a: 20]. Najbolj preprost je razvoj na primeru arhitekture [Le Corbusier 1963: 20]. Pretežno isti material, ki je na voljo, v začetku kamen, bolj ali manj obdelan, pa človekova misel in predvsem njegovo znanje omogočajo vedno večje razpone, vedno večje prostore z vedno manj materiala in nove zasnove, te pa razvijajo tudi obliko. Razvoj gre naprej toliko časa, dokler obstaja sorazmerje človekovih potreb po prostoru in njegovega znanja [Le Corbusier 1963: 17]. Ko je znanje večje od potreb, konstrukcija postane drugotnega pomena, človek išče naprej. Teoretična konstrukcija se nadaljuje v dekoracijo in to toliko časa, dokler ne postane ta nekonstruktivna in se samo obtežuje konstrukcijo (na primer barok, ampak tega v vernakularni arhitekturi ne najdemo). Pri tem gre za razmerje elementov, ki so tako v arhitekturi kakor v družbi še kako pomembni in ki jih ne opazimo, dokler so kontrolirani in urejeni, ker so takrat razumljivi, sami sebi umevni. Vse se vrti v krogu. Razmerij je več vrst, v isti kompoziciji jih lahko nastopa več različnih, pomembno pa je, da so tudi razmerja med seboj v sorazmerju, da so skladna. Seveda je najbolje, če gre za eno samo razmerje, ki je v kompoziciji vodilno. Najbolj preprosto razložimo razmerje kot odnos. Odnos dveh dolžin, dveh površin, prostorov; običajno je teh elementov več. Tudi na drugih področjih obstajajo razmerja in njihova pomembnost je prav tako pomembna kakor v arhitekturi: odnos glasov v glasbi, odnos moči v mehaniki, odnos idej v družbi ... Vendar ta razmerja niso tako merljiva kakor v kompoziciji arhitekture, kjer jih lahko izračunamo in grafično predstavimo. Razvoj razmerij in njihova uporaba sta seveda sledila razvoju človekove misli. Fister navaja, da so Rimljani “gradili povsem drugače kot domačini”[Fister 1986: 32], s pomočjo reda. Egipčani so ugotavljali pravi kot s pomočjo trikotnika s stranicami tri, štiri in pet. Rekli so mu sveti trikotnik. Prvotni uporabi (razmejevanju parcel) so sledile tudi grafične upodobitve, sestavljene v istem sistemu. Na tem načelu je Pitagora gradil svoj izrek. Teoretično ga je razvil in dokazal on, praktično pa je obstajal že tisočletja. Izračun: Pri tem je treba posebej poudariti, da so uporabna le tista razmerja, ki so enostavna in istočasno razpoznavna s prostim očesom. Razmerje, ki ga je treba računati z računalnikom, so teoretično sicer možna, a neuporabna, še posebej, če upoštevamo, da prosto oko ne

ARHITEKTURA SLOVENIJE, ALPSKI DEL

The concept of aesthetics runs in parallel with the development of elements that are of essential importance for people. Subsistence had first to be ensured, then other parts could be dealt with [Juvanec 2004a:20]. Development in the case of architecture is very simple [Le Corbusier 1963:20]. Predominately the same material that is available, initially stone, more or less worked, and human imagination and above all his knowledge, enable ever greater spans, ever larger spaces with ever less material and new designs, and these also develop form. Development continues as long as a balance exists between man's needs for space and his knowledge [Le Corbusier 1963:17]. When knowledge exceeds need, construction takes on a different significance, man seeks onwards. Theoretical construction continues in decoration until this becomes unconstructive and merely makes the construction more difficult (the Baroque for example, but this is not found in vernacular architecture). It is a matter of the relation of elements, which are so important in both architecture and society and which remain unnoticed as long as they are controlled and regulated, because they are then understandable, selfevident. Everything turns in a circle: there are a number of types of ratio, a number of variants can appear in the same composition, but it is important that the ratios, too, are in mutual balance, that they are harmonious. It is, of course, best if there is a single ratio which is guiding in the composition. Relations are explained most simply as ratios. The ratio of two lengths, two areas, volumes; there are normally a number of such elements. Ratios exist in other fields, too, and they are just as important as in architecture: the ratio of voices in music, the ratio of power in mechanics, the ratio of ideas in society etc. However, these ratios are not as measurable as in an architectural composition, where we can calculate them and present them graphically. The development of ratios and their use followed the development of human thought, of course, Fister says that the Romans “built completely differently than locals” [Fister 1986:32]: with the aid of order. The Egyptians found a right angle with the aid of a triangle with sides three, four and five. They said a triangle lights them. The original uses (measuring land parcels) also followed graphic depiction composed in the same system. Pythagoras constructed his theorem on this principle: he developed and

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proved it theoretically, but it had already existed in practice for millennia.

zaznava napak, ki so večje od petih odstotkov. Najpreprostejši lik, z najmanj podatki (ena sama mera), a najpopolnejši, je krog. Toda ta ni sestavljiv brez ostanka, zatorej v kompoziciji ni posebno uporaben. Kvadrat je pravokotnik z enako dolgimi stranicami, kar pa je najpomembnejše, je to, da ima kvadrat s stranicami 'ena' diagonalo, dolgo natanko kvadratni koren iz dve [Juvanec 2004a: 20]. Pravokotniki s stranicami v razmerju kvadratnega korena predstavljajo najbolj uporabljan niz odnosov (naše norme za rezanje papirja), koren iz tri, dva kvadrata in koren iz pet, katerega polovična vrednost je pravzaprav še bolj uporabljana, nastopa pa tudi v zlatem rezu. Egipčanski trikotnik nastopa v malone vseh egipčanskih kompozicijah, danes pa ga poznamo predvsem s starih TV zaslonov in računalnika. Zlati rez izhaja iz človeka in mu je zato tudi najbližji. Nastopa v naravi, človek pa ga vgrajuje tudi v večino svojih kompozicij. Lep primer je palača Združenih narodov ob East Riverju v New Yorku, avtorja Le Corbusierja. Njegova značilnost je nenehna delitev, ko neko razdaljo razdelimo na dva dela tako, da je manjši del proti večjemu v istem razmerju kakor večji del proti seštevku obeh, se pravi proti celotni dolžini, ki smo jo delili.

Calculation: It must be particularly stressed that only ratios that are simple and, at the same time, recognisable by the naked eye are useful. Ratios that have to be calculated with a computer are theoretically possible, but unuseable, especially bearing in mind that the naked eye does not note mistakes smaller than five percent. The simplest image, with the least data (one measurement only) but most complete is a circle. However, circles cannot be put together without a remainder, so it is not particularly useable in compositions. A square is a rectangle with equal sides and, what is most important, a square with sides equal to 'one' has a diagonal which is exactly the square root of two [Juvanec 2004a:20]. Rectangles with sides in a ratio of the square root represent the most used series of ratios: (our standards for cutting paper), the root of three, two squares and the root of five, of which half the value is actually even more used, also appearing in the golden section. The Egyptian triangle appears in almost all Egyptian compositions, today it can mainly be seen in old TV screens and in computers. The golden section derives from man and is also therefore closest to him. It appears in nature, and man has also inserted it into most of his compositions. The United Nations building by East River in New York, by Le Corbusier, is a fine example. It is characterised by constant division, in such a way that a particular distance is divided into two parts so that the smaller part to the larger part is in the same ratio as the larger part to the sum of the two parts, i.e., to the entire width that was divided.

Skica 28 / Figure 28

Man was initially entirely subordinate to nature, and his creations were in accordance with it [Egenter 1992:161]. He adapted, in terms of both micro and macro location, to the possibilities of nature and human needs. It is clear that the ratio of measurements only occurs in elements that are visible, and visible as orthogonally as possible. A roof, which we see at a different angle at any moment, is almost never proportioned. It is otherwise with parts of the building in which the composition is not merely constructed in precisely chosen proportions, but this composition is also often traced in it. The groundplan is not generally proportioned, except in high buildings (a church for example), where the groundplan can be reflected in the ceiling. Ratios advanced with man's mastery (of technique, technology, thus the fruit of intelligence). Universal and at a glance inexpensive technology often brings repetitive and applied solutions without linkage, tension and

Človek se je v začetkih povsem podrejal naravi, njegove stvaritve so bile v skladu z njo [Egenter 1992: 161]. To se je skladalo tako z mikrokakor z makrolokacijo, z možnostmi narave in s potrebami človeka. Jasno je, da nastopa odnos mer le na tistih elementih, ki so vidni in to vidni čim bolj ortogonalno. Streha, ki jo pod kotom vsak trenutek vidimo drugače, ni praktično nikoli proporcionirana, nasprotno pa je z delom zgradbe, kjer kompozicija ni le grajena v točno izbranih proporcih, pač pa je na njem mnogokrat tudi vrisana. Tloris praviloma ni nikoli proporcioniran, razen v visokih zgradbah (cerkev na primer), kjer se tloris lahko odslikuje v stropu. Razmerja pa se podirajo s človekovo premočjo (s tehniko, tehnologijo, torej s plodom pameti). Univerzalna in na pogled cenena tehnologija mnogokrat prinaša ponovljene in uporabljane rešitve brez navezav, napetosti in reda.

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order. Proportional analysis of a house indicates the strict proportionality. A wood construction not only confirms this but develops and displays the analysis with its own construction, primarily of the roof. All the essential points in the analysis also have a graphic stress with functional elements (lower edge of the gable, vertical standard in the centre, ventilation openings, visible location, timber joints in the walls, separation of the wooden part from the mass construction – base etc.). Strict proportion was maintained right up to the introduction of the metric system. This ended an unstable period of a variety of measurements, which changed according to countries, rulers, custom and models. By then, respecting some agreed standards was the only possibility. Anthropomorphic measurements were established on the basis of man [Fister 1986:32], such as inch (thumb, rule of thumb), foot, cubit, yard (pace), reach. Unfortunately, people are different: in the first place, people in the Middle Ages were significantly smaller than today, and we each have individual characteristics: we're large or small, thin or fat.

Proporcijska analiza hiše kaže strogo proporcioniranje. Lesna gradnja tega ne le potrjuje, temveč razvija in dokazuje analizo s svojo lastno konstrukcijo - predvsem strehe. Vse bistvene točke v analizi imajo tudi grafični poudarek s funkcionalnimi elementi (spodnji rob zatrepa, vertikalna stojka v centru, line za zračenje, vidne lege, tesarske lesne zveze v zidu, ločitev lesenega dela od zidanega - podstavek itd.). Strogo proporcioniranje teče vse do uvedbe metrskega sistema. Ta je končal nestalna obdobja različnih mer, ki so se spreminjale po deželah, z vladarji, z navezavami in z vzori. Do takrat je bilo upoštevanje nekih dogovorjenih norm edino možno. Antropomorfne mere, take, ki so postavljene po človeku [Fister 1986: 32], so na primer: palec, čevelj, komolec, korak, doseg. Žal pa smo ljudje različni. Prvič so bili ljudje v srednjem veku bistveno manjši od nas danes, pa še mi imamo vsak svoje značilnosti. Smo veliki in majhni, suhi in debeli.

Skica 29 / Figure 29

As a point of interest: a “cubit” has 230 registered variants, there are several dozen 'feet' (including a Ljubljana one). Anthropomorphic measurements were replaced by the metre, which has been in use in lands of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire for about a century and a half. Proportion to human measure thus ceased, calculating measurements became much simpler with the use of the decimal system. One is good and the other bad, but we can't have everything. Analysis also indicates a duality of grasp: visual and constructive. Sometimes an essential difference appears in an analysis depending on whether we are studying the construction or the final, visible face. Right here is the nub of the problem. At first sight, we find that construction analysis links the roof construction (without covering) and (normally) the wall foundations. Visual analysis takes into account the general height, the thickness of the covering, mutatis mutandis.

Le zanimivost: “cubit” ali komolec je registriran v 230 inačicah, poznamo nekaj deset čevljev (med drugim tudi ljubljanskega). Antropomorfne mere je zamenjal meter, ki ga uporabljamo kako stoletje in pol. S tem se je končalo proporcioniranje po človeku, računanje mer pa je postalo mnogo preprostejše z uporabo decimalnega sistema. Eno je dobro in drugo slabo, ampak vsega tudi ne moremo imeti. Analiza kaže še na dvojnost prijema: vizualni in konstruktivni. Včasih se pokaže bistvena razlika v analiziranju, če preučujemo konstrukcijo na eni strani in končno, vidno lice na drugi. Ali pa je prav tu bistvo problema. Na prvi pogled ugotovimo, da konstrukcijska analiza povezuje strešno konstrukcijo (brez kritine) in (običajno) stene osnov. Vizualna analiza pa smiselno upošteva gabarit, debelino kritine.

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Skica 30 / Figure 30

Skica 31 / Figure 31

Lesena hiša v severovzhodni Sloveniji je običajno krita s slamo, njena debelina za strešine okrog pet metrov je približno štirideset centimetrov.

A wooden house in northeast Slovenia is normally straw thatched, with a thickness of approximately forty centimetres for a roof of about five metres.

Nedvomno je zlati rez najbolj razširjeno in najbolj uporabljano razmerje, a njegova konstrukcija je izjemno zahtevna operacija [Le Corbusier 1963: 25]. Eden možnih odgovorov na vprašanje, kako so lahko nekdaj proporcionirali brez znanja o proporcijah, je v tem: če je bila hiša grajena z eno samo mero (in z njeno dvojno razdaljo) tako v širino kakor v višino, sega drugi kvadrat v dve tretjini špirovca, kar je nedvomno lahko izmerljivo in določljivo. Če zdaj tako streho pokrijemo s slamo debeline skoraj pol metra, dobimo novo proporcijsko shemo v zlatem rezu. Proporcijski sistem treh tretjin omogoča rekonstrukcijo sestavljanja in rasti zgradbe. Bistveno je, da lesenih elementov istih dolžin ne moremo zamenjati med sabo. Stropnik in lega, ki sta enakih dolžin, sta povsem različnih prerezov, višina spodnjega dela, stojka do vmesne lege, horizontalna povezava pa so lahko tako enakih dolžin kakor enakega prereza. Zakaj zlati rez? Ker je človekovo delo, grajen po človeku [Le Corbusier 1963: 51], za človeka.

The golden section is undoubtedly the most widespread and most widely used ratio, but its construction is an extremely demanding operation [Le Corbusier 1963:25]. One possible answer to the question of how people could have used proportion without knowledge of proportion is in this: if a house was built with a single measurement (and twice its distance) in terms of both width and height, the second rectangle extends to two thirds of the rafters, which could certainly be measured and determined. If the roof is now covered with thatch almost a metre thick, the result is a proportional scheme in the golden section. A system of proportion of three thirds enables reconstruction of components and growth of the building. It is essential that wooden elements of the same length are not interchangeable: ceiling joists and purlins are exactly the same length but completely different cross section, but the height of the lower part, standard to intermediate purlin and horizontal links can be the same length, as well as the same cross-section. Why golden section? Because it is man's work, built by man [Le Corbusier 1963:51], for man.

The growth of a house can be divided into programme part and execution. The person placing the commission determines the programme part with the dimensions (length and width of the house). Everything else is the joiner's work: he divides the width of the house in half and obtains a construction module by which he determines the height of the residential part. In the center he puts a square module (the lower part is two squares). The roof is at an angle of 45% and touches the upper square at two thirds of the length of its rafters.

Skica 32 / Figure 32

Rast hiše lahko razdelimo na programski del in na izvedbo. Programski del je podal naročnik z velikostjo (širina in dolžina hiše). Vse drugo je delo tesarja. Širino hiše je razdelil na pol in dobil modul gradnje, s katerim je določil višino bivalnega dela. V center je postavil kvadrat modula (spodnji del sta dva kvadrata). Streha je pod kotom 45 stopinj in se dotika zgornjega kvadrata v dveh tretjinah svoje dolžine špirovca.

Buildings and accesses

Zgradbe in dostopi

A normal house is built on the flat, with the same levels: falling terrain offers a number of possibilities of using other spaces and the residential part is raised and thus protected from ground damp. The cellar is always beneath the living part, beneath the 'living room'.

Običajna hiša je grajena v ravnini z istimi nivoji: padajoč teren ponuja več možnosti uporabe drugih prostorov in dviga bivalni del ter ga tako

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The cross section shows sensible and prudent building, when the amount excavated is the same as the infill and there is no excess or unnecessary material. Accesses to the spaces on falling terrain are always optimal: on the level. When stairs are needed, there are few of them and they require only a small jutting roof or they are sunk into the building. Livestock, of course, also have direct entrance, the residential part sometimes has two flights of stairs in order to avoid possible damp.

ščiti pred vlago iz tal. Klet je vedno pod bivalnim delom, pod "hišo".

Skica 33 / Figure 33

Prerez dokazuje smiselno in smotrno gradnjo, ko je izkop enak vkopu in ni odvečnega ali potrebnega materiala. Dostopi v prostore so pri padajočem terenu vedno optimalni - v ravnini. Kadar so potrebne stopnice, jih je malo in zahtevajo le male nadstreške ali pa so poglobljene v zgradbo. Živina ima seveda vedno vhod direktno, bivalni del včasih prek dveh višin stopnic, da se izognejo morebitni vlagi.

Skica 34 / Figure 34

In northeastern Slovenia, in particular, houses are rectangular. The most similar to a square are still two cell buildings, which approximate to a ratio of one by the square root of two, whereby the living room is normally a square, and the remainder the black kitchen. Immediately a house is enlarged by a chamber or small bedroom, and additionally with ancillary parts, it becomes so long that the ratio in the groundplan is no longer obvious. In Pannonia, the rear wall is often coloured darker and even contrasting: this is not seen elsewhere but the stress is on the residential part, which is distinguished from the ancillary part by the material – the residential part is plastered and whitewashed, and the ancillary part is unprotected wood. So the white paint is essentially distinguished from the brown wood.

Predvsem v severovzhodnem delu Slovenije so hiše podolgovate. Najbolj slične kvadratu so še dvocelične zgradbe, ki se približujejo razmerju ena proti korenu iz dve, pri čemer je "hiša" običajno kvadrat, ostanek pa "kifna" s "prikltjo". Takoj ko se hiša podaljša s kamro, pa še z gospodarskim delom, postane tako dolga, da razmerje v tlorisu ni več očitno. V panonskem svetu mnogokrat najdemo zadnje stene obarvane temneje in celo kontrastno. Tega drugje ni, pač pa je poudarek na bivalni hiši, od katere se gospodarski program loči po materialu bivalna hiša je ometana in prebeljena, gospodarski del pa je v nezaščitenem lesu.Tako se bela barva bistveno loči od rjavega lesa.

In relation to a low building, a roof with a one in one slope is relatively large – it is softened by a hip, which is often not used in the ancillary part. So the content, too, is externally distinguished

Materials Skica 35 / Figure 35

Wood Forest is more widespread in the world than we think. Most of the world is covered by it: from rainforest to coniferous scrub [Oliver 2003:111]. It is very important what sort it is, where it grows, when it grows and how and when it is felled and dried. It has long been known that a tree should be felled when there is least sap in it if the timber is to be used for construction. Confucious (551 - 479 BC) reports that “wood is cut when the day is shortest” [Fellner 2001:49], and the question is addressed by other theoreticians (Aristotle, Vitruvius). Corners are the major problem with a wooden construction. Corners are usually made with a halved joint, with or without an extension.

Z ozirom na nizke zgradbe je streha v padcu ena proti ena razmeroma velika - mehčajo jo čopi, ki jih na gospodarskem delu mnogokrat ni. Tudi tako se vsebina loči še na zunaj.

Materiali Les Gozd je na svetu bolj razširjen, kot mislimo. Pretežni del sveta je pokrit z njim: od deževnega gozda do igličastega grmičevja [Oliver 2003: 111].

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Squared logs are usually used, and planks with a rectangular profile, as also in the case of a frame construction with a board cladding, for the ancillary parts of course. Such a method is also used for the facing of the gable, but only in the residential part. When the ancillary part is mass construction, there is no wooden gable. It is simply a mass construction to the top and ventilation is provided with brick gridwork which is only marked on older buildings. The timber is only protected with clay, either as a coarse rendering or, when there is a larger area of plaster, plastered with clay reinforced by straw fibres, which perform their function extremely well. This protection is lead over corner joints without an extension and over those with an extension, so that the timber construction is detectable under a wrapping coat. Unprotected timber, both in the gable and in the ancillary part clad with vertically aligned boards, is an explicitly brown colour; horizontal constructions of hardwood logs are grey. Juniper in rammed earth (Bogojina) is an interesting use of wood, where resinous branches have provided strengthening for clay walls for a century or more.

Pri tem je najpomembnejše, kakšen je, kje raste, kdaj raste in kako ter kdaj ga podiramo in sušimo. Že včasih so vedeli, da je treba za konstrukcije podirati drevje takrat, ko je v njem čim manj tekočin. Že Konfucij (551–479 pred štetjem) poroča, da 'se les seka, ko je najdaljši dan' [Fellner 2oo1: 49], problematiko pa poznajo tudi drugi teoretiki (Aristotel,Vitruvij). Največji problem lesene konstrukcije je vogal. Kotni spoji so najpogosteje odprti, včasih s preklopom, včasih brez. Običajna je uporaba kvadratnih klad, pa plohov podolgastega profila, prav tako okvirne konstrukcije z obojem iz desk, seveda za gospodarski del. Tak način je uporabljen tudi za oboj zatrepa, ki je tak le v bivalnem delu človeka. Kadar je gospodarski del zidan, lesenega zatrepa ni. Zidano je enostavno do vrha, zračenje pa je izvedeno z opečnimi mrežami, ki so pri starejših rešitvah le točkovne. Zaščita lesa je izvedena le z glino. Lahko je le ometan ali pa, kadar je ometa več, ometan z armirano glino. Armiranje v tem primeru predstavljajo vlakna slame, ki svojo funkcijo prav dobro opravljajo. Ta zaščita je speljana prek vogalnih zvez brez preklopa in pa prek tistih s preklopom, tako da leseno konstrukcijo čutimo pod plaščem ovoja. Nezaščiten les, tako v zatrepu kakor v gospodarskem delu z deskami v vertikalni smeri, je izrazito rjave barve, horizontalne konstrukcije klad trdega lesa so sivkaste. Zanimiva uporaba lesa je brin v “blatnjači” (Bogojina), kjer smolnate veje učvrščujejo ilovnato steno po sto let in več.

Trimmed logs with a halved joint with extension: This is the commonest joint using previously prepared timber material [Juvanec 2007a:54]. The corner joint is external and extremely solid. It is clearly visible on the facade and very eye catching. The trimmed logs are unprotected, so the whole thing can be coated with a protective clay render.

Kladna zveza tesanih brun s preklopom: To je najbolj običajna zveza že prej pripravljenega tesarskega materiala [Juvanec 2007a: 54]. Vogalni spoj je zunanji in izjemno soliden. Na pročelju se jasno nakazuje in močno senči pogled, prirezi brun so nezaščiteni, zato je izvedba lahko obdana z zaščitnim materialom, z glinastim ovojem. Zaščitena kladna zveza: Kladna zveza tesanih brun s preklopom je navadno obdana in izravnana s plastjo gline, ki je včasih tako debela, da potrebuje svojo armaturo. To je slama. Prek te obloge običajno teče še apnen belež.

Skica 36 / Figure 36

Protected halved joints: The halved jointing of trimmed logs is normally coated and levelled with a layer of clay, which is sometimes so thick that it in turn needs reinforcement. Straw is used, and a lime whitewash is normally applied over this rendering. Skica 37 / Figure 37

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Protected dovetail joint with boards: When boards are jointed, corner contacts can be open or closed, the straw reinforced clay rendering removes all possible unevenness. A dovetail can be a three-dimensional joint, when all the faces of the joint are at different angles, and the outer face is always larger than the internal cross-section of the joint.

Zaščitena zveza plohov v lastovičji rep: Kadar je zveza iz plohov, so vogalni stiki odprtega ali zaprtega tipa, oboj iz gline s slamnato armaturo izravnava vse morebitne neravnine. Lastovičji rep je lahko že tridimenzionalni spoj, ko vse naležne ploskve v prostoru tečejo pod različnimi koti, zaključna ploskev pa je vedno večja od prereza znotraj spoja.

Skica 38 / Figure 38

Tramovi med sabo seveda ne nasedajo povsem in ne vedno, treba jih je tesniti. Idealen material za to je glina, ki je prevlečena v tankem sloju tudi na zunanjosti. Prek tega navadno teče še apnen belež. Bistvo tega je, da je struktura zidu vidna.

The timbers do not of course sit tightly all the time or along their whole length, so they must be sealed. The ideal material for this is clay, which is also spread in a thin layer on the exterior. It is normally whitewashed. The essence of this is that the structure of the wall remains visible.

Konstrukcije z lesenim obojem iz desk: To so najbolj običajne konstrukcije gospodarskega dela hiše. Deske vedno tečejo vertikalno, nabijane so na prečke vertikalnih stojk konstrukcije.

Constructions with timber cladding from boards: These are the most usual constructions of the ancillary parts of the farmhouse. The boards are always attached vertically, nailed to the transoms of the vertical standards of the construction.

Skica 39 / Figure 39

Slama Najbolj domač material je seveda slama. Ljudska arhitektura jo s pridom uporablja. Gre za slamnate strehe, katerih sleme je zavarovano s palicami in šivano s šibami. Šivanje je lahko izrazito in močnejši snopi izstopajo (panonski svet) ali pa je sleme enakomerno prekrito (ostala Slovenija). Robovi zatrepov so prepleteni na Pohorju, drugje je tam navadna deska. Slama kot armatura nastopa v glinastih tesnjenjih kladnih zvez (les), v ometih in v butani gradnji.

Straw Straw is of course the most »domestic« material: vernacular architecture exploits it to advantage. It is used for thatched roofs, the ridge of which is protected by battens and fixed with sways. The sways can be prominent and stronger sheaves stand out (Pannonian world) or the ridge is uniformly covered (other parts of Slovenia). The edges of gables are woven on Pohorje, elsewhere there is normally a barge board. Straw is used as a reinforcement in the clay rendering of halved joints (timber), in plaster and rammed earth technique.

Ilovica Ilovica je zmes gline (vezivo), peska (agregat) in vode. Lahko jo gnetemo, že na soncu zatrdi do krhkosti (”čerpič'”, na soncu sušeni zidak, angl. “adobe”). Še trša, a še vedno krhka, postane ilovica, ko jo

Daub Daub is a mixture of clay (binding), sand (aggregate) and water. It can be kneaded, and achieves a brittle hardness just in the sun (”adobe” are sundried brick). Clay becomes even harder, but still brittle, when it is baked in

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an oven (brick). Clay appears in Slovenia as a building material in all forms. The simplest is a system of kneaded clay, where the wall has been rough trimmed (with an ax). It is reinforced with juniper branches. A rammed earth technique is pounding clay in a wooden mould, when it is 'struck' with the feet. Straw fibres a few centimetres long provide reinforcement. Air-dried clay bricks with straw reinforcement are fairly rarely in Slovenia (some examples in the vicinity of Ljutomer) but they are very common in the undeveloped world [Oliver 2003:99]. A brick is clay fired in a kiln. Double-fired clay is more resistant, and fired with salt it has a glittering covering which is water impermeable and is an exceptionally strong stress in a composition. Such bricks are fairly rare here. Drying and firing bricks are two completely distinct procedures: while drying is a physical process, firing at high temperature is a chemical process.

pečemo na ognju (opeka). Ilovica kot gradbeni material v Sloveniji nastopa v vseh oblikah. Najbolj preprost je sistem gnetene ilovice, kjer stene poravnamo z obsekovanjem (s sekiro). Učvrstimo jo z brinovimi vejami. Butanje je phanje ilovice v lesene kalupe, ko jo 'butamo' z nogami. Armatura so slamnata vlakna, dolga nekaj centimetrov. Na zraku sušeni zidaki ilovice s slamnato armaturo so pri nas dokaj redki (nekaj primerov je v okolici Ljutomera), v nerazvitem svetu pa so še zelo pogosti [Oliver 2003: 99]. Opeka je ilovnat zidak brez armature, pečen na ognju. Dvakrat pečena ilovica je bolj obstojna, pečena s solmi pa ima bleščečo prevleko, ki ne prepušča vode in je v kompoziciji izjemno močen poudarek. Slednja je pri nas bolj redka. Sušenje in pečenje zidakov sta dva povsem ločena postopka. Medtem ko je sušenje fizikalni proces, je ogrevanje na visokem ognju kemijski proces.

Skica 40 / Figure 40

Brick latticework is used to provide ventilation in drying and storing hay, on the principle of a kozolec, or hay loft. The picture shows the transformation of a kozolec into a more classical farm building, when the openings become ever smaller, but still remain sufficient for drying. The interior of the loft, ventilated with brick latticework demonstrates the functionality of the roof space. The loft is empty in summer, when there is most sun. The wind is drawn through the loft and cools the lower part. In autumn, the roof space is filled, ventilation is moderate, there is maximum insulation of the lower part, which is needed in winter and which the drying hay provides. The hay is taken from the centre, so the lattice ventilation remains closed for a long time. In spring, warm winds again provide ventilation, there is no more hay, and the latticework is open. There is thus no longer insulation and the sun is not yet too strong.

Opečne mreže izhajajo iz naprave za sušenje in za spravilo sena - iz principa kozolca. Slika kaže transformacijo kozolca v gospodarsko poslopje, ko postajajo odprtine vse manjše, a vendar ostajajo zadostne za sušenje. Notranjost podstrešja, prezračevanega z opečnimi mrežami, kaže funkcionalnost podstrešja. Poleti je podstrešje prazno, ko je največ sonca. Veter vleče skozi podstreho in hladi tudi spodnji del. V jeseni se podstrešje napolni, zračenje je zmerno, izolacija spodnjega dela največja. Pozimi je potrebna največja izolacija spodnjega dela, ki jo osuvanje sena omogoča. Seno jemljemo iz sredine, opečne mreže ostanejo še dolgo zaprte. Spomladi topli vetrovi spet skrbijo za prezračevanje, sena ni več, mreže so odprte. Izolacije tako ni več, saj sonce še ni premočno.

Skica 41 / Figure 41

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Surova glina kot omet žganih zidakov se ne obnese, zato tega pri nas praktično ni, pač pa nastopa kot varovalni oklep lesenih zidov. Tukaj imamo dva načina. Prvi je tenak slog gline, ki teče enakomerno po neravni leseni steni, da se na zunaj vidi struktura zidu iz neenakomerno tesanih brun.Tudi odprte kotne zveze so vedno vidne. Drugi način pa je, ko debel sloj gline izravnava neravnine lesenega zidu, zato pa je seveda debelina različna in potrebuje ojačitev. To je izvedeno kakor pri butanju s slamnatimi vlakni. Obnavljanje glinastega oboja mora biti redno. Običajno so to delali vsaj enkrat letno, tako da popolne obnove praktično sploh ni bilo. Tako so bili izravnani in zaščiteni tudi kamniti temelji in - kar je še bolj opazno - kamniti zidovi, ki kažejo na prisotnost peči v notranjosti. Ti zidovi mnogokrat niso stekli do vse višine hiše. Ostali so tam, kjer so bili najbolj nujno potrebni - ščitili so hrbet peči. Vsi zidovi, tako leseni kakor kamniti, so vedno zaščiteni še z apneno oblogo, praviloma bele, redkokje rjave barve, kadar gre za gospodarski objekt.

Raw clay does not grip as a rendering on fired bricks, so there is practically none of this here, although it is used as a protective daub on wooden walls. There are two methods used in Slovenia: a thin layer of clay which is spread uniformly over uneven wooden walls, so that the structure of the wall made from unevenly trimmed logs is seen externally. Even the open corner joints are still visible. The second method is when a thick layer of clay levels the uneven wooden wall. The thickness varies, of course, and it thus needs strengthening. This is done in the same way as in the rammed earth technique, with straw fibres. The clay coating must be regularly patched: this was normally done at least once a year, so that complete renovation was almost never required. Stone foundations were also levelled and protected in the same way and, what is more noticeable, stone walls, which show the presence of a stove in the interior. These walls often do not extend to the full height of the house. They were confined to where they were most urgently needed, protecting the back of the stove. All walls, both wooden and stone, are always protected with whitewash: generally white, occasionally brown when it was an ancillary object.

Apno Apnen obrizg je pravilo lesene stene, ki je izravnana, zaščitena in zatesnjena z glino. Barva je bela. Ponekod nastopa tudi belež prek lesa direktno, da je vidna konstrukcija.

Lime A lime wash is normally given to a wooden wall which has been levelled, protected and sealed with clay. The colour is white. In some places whitewash is applied to wood directly, so that the construction is visible.

Kamen Običajno je v Sloveniji, predvsem v severovzhodnem delu, uporabljen mehak kamen peščenjak, ki ga lahko obdelujemo, a ima seveda tudi kratko življenjsko dobo. Uporabljan je le za zidavo kleti in temeljev, je lepo klesan in zidan po načelih zidanja z enakimi elementi. Danes je praktično ves gol, zaščiten je bil z glinastim ometom, zato taki zidovi propadajo. Osrednja Slovenija uporablja trši in obstojnejši kamen, a le za temelj, ki se kaže kot podstavek, saj je kamnita stena debelejša od zidane ali lesene. Na Krasu je kamen klesan (razen pri kamnitih zatočiščih, imenovanih 'hiška') in je uporabljen kot temelj, stena in streha.

Stone It is customary in Slovenia, mainly in the northeastern part, to use soft sandstone, which can be worked but, of course, also has a short life span. It is only used for the masonry of cellars and foundations; it is finely worked and built on the principle of using uniform elements. Today, it is almost always bare, but it was formerly protected with clay rendering, so that such walls are now disintegrating. Harder and more resistant stone is used in central Slovenia but only for the foundations, which appear as a pedestal, since the stone wall is thicker than brick or wood. On the Karst, the stone is hewn (except with stone shelters called a hiška or 'little house') and is used as foundations, walls and roofs.

Detajli Osnovni detajli so streha, čelo, stene, odprtine, podstavek, temelj, dimnik.

Details The basic details are the roof, gable, walls, openings, base, foundations and chimneys.

Streha Tipična streha je dvokapna, simetrična, v bivalnem delu je mnogokrat čop, ki pa ni pravilo. Gospodarski del ga običajno nima. V kombinaciji bivalne zgradbe z gospodarskim delom je običajna rešitev, da ga bivalni del ima, gospodarski pa je brez njega. Na Krasu in v Primorju je streha blažjega naklona, krita s korci, a šele zadnjih sto let. Še v začetku dvajsetega stoletja je bil pretežni del Sežane krit s slamo v naklonu ena proti ena, kakršne so bile tudi strehe s kamnito kritino.

ARHITEKTURA SLOVENIJE, ALPSKI DEL

Roof A typical roof is a symmetrical gable roof, in the residential part there is often a hip, but this not a rule. The ancillary part does not generally have one. In a combination farmhouse with outbuildings, the normal solution is for the living part to have one, but the ancillary part to be without. On the Karst and in Primorje, the roof has a gentler slope and is covered with under and over barrel tiles, although only for the last hundred years.

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Even at the beginning of the 20th century, most of Sežana was thatched, with a one in one slope. Stone covered roofs had a similar inclination.

Skica 42 / Figure 42

The slope of the covering is normally in a one to one ratio, that is to say, an angle of 45%. The height of the hip is determined by the purlins, which are positioned at the height of the lower, living part. The construction of the cross section of the house is based on the use of a 1:2 ratio, or three squares, which enables the roof to be positioned so that, together with the thickness of the straw, this creates a composition in the golden section.

Naklon strešine je običajno v razmerju ena proti ena, se pravi pod kotom petinštirideset stopinj. Višino čopa določajo vmesne lege, ki so nanj postavljene v isti višini kakor spodnji, bivalni del. Konstrukcija prereza hiše je grajena na uporabi razmerja 1:2 oziroma s tremi kvadrati, ki omogočajo namestitev strehe tako, da ta z debelino slame tvori kompozicijo v zlatem rezu. Bistveno pri tem je, da je lahko po tem načinu neuk mojster (neuk matematike in teorije razmerij) sestavil zahtevno kompozicijo v zlatem rezu le s pomočjo treh kvadratov, z eno samo mero. Kapne lege so mnogokrat potisnjene navzven, daleč pod napušč in ležijo na prečnih tramovih, ki tvorijo tudi strop v zgradbi. Nemalokrat obstaja pomožna konstrukcija, ki nosi slemensko lego in se opira na razpirače vse do kapnih leg. Tako so špirovci razbremenjeni, sredinska obremenitev pa se prenaša direktno na obodne zidove. Vsi detajli strehe so izvedeni z zarezovanjem, s klinci in z detajlom peresa na utor.

Skica 43 / Figure 43

It was crucial that an unschooled master (unschooled in mathematics and the theory of ratios) could put together the required composition in the golden section merely with the aid of three squares, with a single measurement. Inferior purlins are often extended outwards, far below the overhanging roof and lie on transverse beams which also form the ceiling of the building. An auxiliary construction not infrequently exists, which carries the ridge purlin and rests on collar beams right up to the inferior purlins. The weight is thus taken off the rafters, and the centre of gravity is transferred directly to the circumference walls. All details of the roof are executed with notches, with wedges and with details drawn in grooves.

Čelo Ne glede na izvedbo s čopom ali brez njega, je zatrep navadno obit z vertikalno ležečimi deskami in pomaknjen navzven (severovzhodna Slovenija), v kolikor seveda ni zidu do strehe (ostala Slovenija). Detajl za zračenje je navadno v izžagovanju desk (pol na pol, da je prezračevalna reža simetrična in enostavneje izvedena) ali pa s preprostim nameščanjem svežih desk. Tesno zabite sveže deske se sčasoma osušijo, zmanjšajo, s tem pa se večajo reže med njimi, ki omogočajo prezračevanje (tok zraka vzdolžno skozi podstrešje).

Gable Irrespective of whether there is or is not a hip, the gable is normally clad with vertical boards, and shifted outwards (northeast Slovenia), insofar of course as there is no wall to the roof (other parts of Slovenia). A ventilation detail is normally cut in the boards (half and half, so that the ventilation cut is symmetrical and simply executed), or simply using fresh boards. Tightly nailed fresh boards gradually dry, shrink, so that there is an ever greater gap between them, enabled ventilation (a current of air longitudinally through the roof space).

A ventilated loft is also used for drying cereals, in Prekmurje, for example. The wood is unprotected, but in time obtains a reddish-brown colour, which is grey at the edges. Skica 44 / Figure 44

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Zračeno podstrešje služi tudi za sušenje žita, v Prekmurju na primer. Les je nezaščiten, s časom dobi rdečkastorjavo barvo, ki na robovih sivi.

Walls The residential part is mainly timber, protected and sealed with clay rendering, which is sometimes reinforced with straw. This is unnecessary with a thin layer, when the structure of the wall is visible. The colour of such a wall is normally white, except the base, which is grey, and the ancillary part, which is bare. When a newer building is concerned, up to about two hundred years old, the walls are made of brick, the base protrudes and is stone, but always rendered. There is no particular ornamentation on the walls. The ancillary part is wooden, normally a frame construction, clad with vertical boards, or consisting on the inner side of horizontal logs or boards, which are visible.

Stene Bivalni del je v glavnem lesen, zaščiten in zatesnjen z glinastim obojem, ki je včasih armiran s slamo. Pri tankem sloju, ko je struktura zidu vidna, to ni potrebno. Barva takega zidu je navadno bela, razen podstavka, ki je siv in gospodarskega dela, ki je gol. Kadar gre za novejše zgradbe, stare nekako do dvesto let, so stene iz opeke, podstavek izstopa je kamnit, a vedno ometan. Na stenah ni kakih posebnih okraskov. Gospodarski del je lesen, običajno v okvirni konstrukciji, obit z deskami v vertikalni smeri ali pa na notranji strani sestavljen v horizontalni smeri iz brun ali plohov, ki se vidijo.

Openings The oldest openings are chimney holes, of which there are few in Slovenia. Openings are small, horizontal in shape, with wooden, sliding shutters. The commonest here date at most to the beginning of the eighteenth century. Windows were already larger, although they do not exceed thirty by forty centimetres. They are normally glazed on the inside, on the outside they often have shutters, which allow in some light through fissures at an angle. The shutters are normally painted, always in a single colour. The internal division is generally into two wings, with three panes each. Material is always chosen for availibility: so that in Kropa, with its welldeveloped foundry work, shutters are made of iron.

Odprtine Najstarejše odprtine so line dimnic, ki jih je v Sloveniji malo. Line so majhne odprtine horizontalne oblike z lesenimi, drsnimi zapirali. Najbolj pogostne pri nas datirajo največ v začetek osemnajstega stoletja, tam so okna že večja, čeprav ne presegajo trideset krat štirideset centimetrov. Običajno so zastekljena na notranji strani, zunaj imajo mnogokrat naoknice, ki s špranjami pod kotom prepuščajo nekaj svetlobe. Naoknice so praviloma barvane, vedno v eni sami barvi. Notranja razdelitev je praviloma na dve krili s po tremi stekli. Material je vedno izbran po dosegljivosti. Tako so naoknice v Kropi, z razvitim kovaštvom, železne.

Glass is often set in the frame directly, without putty, by means of carpentry. It is even necessary to dismantle the wing to replace the glass. This is probably because every farm had a workshop for hand carpentry. Doors are both single and double wing, normally with a frame and filler, which is profiled. Stable doors are always smooth. Base The foundation is generally made of stone: from local sandstone, which is soft and easy to work, although it quickly decays if unprotected. So bases (the above-ground parts of the foundations) are coated in the Pannonian world with a layer of clay, elsewhere with roughcast plaster. With houses in eastern Slovenia, which do not have real foundations, this is normally outlined or coloured with a darker colour to a height of thirty to sixty centimetres. The colour is normally grey, so that the chickens don't peck at the lime.

Skica 45 / Figure 45

Mnogokrat je steklo vdelano direktno v okvir, brez kita in z mizarskim detajlom. Ob zamenjavi je treba celo krilo razdreti. Verjetno gre pri tem za dejstvo, da je bila pri vsaki domačiji tudi priročna mizarska delavnica. Vrata so tako enokrilna kakor dvokrilna, običajno z okvirom in polnili, ki so profilirana. Hlevska vrata so vedno gladka.

Chimney The oldest are wooden chimneys, since genuine 'black kitchens' with the smoke exiting through an opening – window or door – are almost nonexistent now. A wooden chimney was placed on the opposite wall of the exit from the stove. It has a mass construction mouth and is mass construction to about a metre above the ceiling, when it changes to wood, which opens to

Podstavek Temelj je praviloma grajen iz kamna, iz domačega peščenjaka, ki je sicer mehek in enostaven za obdelavo, a nezaščiten kaj hitro propada.

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Zato so podstavki (zunanji deli temeljev) v panonskem svetu površinsko obdani s plastjo gline, drugje z ometom. Pri hišah v vzhodni Sloveniji, ki pravega temelja nimajo, je ta običajno narisan oziroma obarvan s temnejšo barvo v višini kakih trideset do šestdeset centimetrov. Običajno je ta barva siva, da kokoši ne kljuvajo za apnencem.

the air through the thatched roof. It normally terminates in a 'gable roof', similarly from wood. The essence of a wooden chimney is “cold smoke”, i.e., smoke that cools on the long path – which is why the smoke exit is on the opposite side from the stove – and is no longer hot. Sparks coming from the stove are extinguished on the stone shelf above the entrance to the stove and fall to the floor of trampled clay. Masonry chimneys – also with black kitchens – are commonest in Gorenjska, where the “black kitchen'” is a special space, which was also used for smoking. On the Karst, chimneys are above a spahnjenca (projecting part of the groundplan, which is actually entirely filled by the hearth), and have a required detail of a termination at the top because of the “burja” – the cold north wind from the mountains. The large mass of the chimney heads in places with strong wind is so that the sun does not heat it too quickly – before the master gets up and lights the fire.

Dimnik Najstarejši so leseni dimniki, saj pravih črnih kuhinj z izvodom dima skozi odprtine - okna ali vrata - skorajda ni več. Lesen dimnik je postavljen na nasprotno steno izhoda iz peči, ima obzidano ustje in je zidan vse do slabega metra nad stropom, ko se spremeni v lesenega, ki pogleda na svetlobo skozi slamnato streho. Konča se običajno z dvokapno streho, prav tako iz lesa. Bistvo lesenega dimnika je "hladen dim", to je dim, ki se na dolgi poti zato je izvod dima na nasprotni strani izhoda iz peči - ohladi in ni več vroč. Iskre, ki pridejo iz peči, ugasnejo na izbočeni kamniti polici nad vhodom v peč in padejo na tla iz zbite gline. Zidani dimniki - tudi pri črnih kuhinjah - so najbolj znani na Gorenjskem, kjer imajo črno kuhinjo kot poseben prostor, tudi za prekajevanje. Na Krasu so dimniki nad 'spahnjenco' (izbočenim delom tlorisa, kjer je ognjišče pravzaprav ves prostor) in imajo zahtevne detajle zaključka na vrhu zaradi burje. Velika masa v glavi dimnika je v krajih z močnim vetrom, zato da ga sonce ne pregreje prehitro - preden vstane gospodar in zakuri.

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Objekti po namembnosti

Objects by purpose

Domačija Domačija je sestav bivalne hiše gospodarja, delavcev, hleva in drugih pripadajočih objektov kmečkega gospodarstva. Medtem ko sta predvsem hlev in senik čim bliže bivalni hiši zaradi varnosti in kontrole, so nekateri objekti od hiše oddaljeni. V primeru požara ostane oddaljena kašča cela, kozolec stoji blizu polj in senožeti, sušilnica ter peč sta odmaknjeni zaradi ognja, ki ga uporabljata, mlin navadno stoji ob vodi. Domačija je funkcionalna celota, ko bivalna hiša in hlev omejujeta delovno dvorišče. To je omejeno zaradi vetra in pogledov, zaradi varnosti in zaradi kontrole. Na Gorenjskem poznamo domačije samostojnih objektov, pa tudi take, kjer je bivalna hiša vezana na gospodarski del ali pa je vanj povsem vklopljena. Uskoška domačija v Beli krajini je zaprta, navznoter obrnjen sklop, ki navzven sploh nima oken, vhod pa je le en, zaradi varnosti in strahu, ki so ga Uskoki prinesli s sabo. V panonskem svetu so domačije praviloma lomljene, v obliki črke L, po kolonizaciji v petnajstem in kasneje v sedemnajstem stoletju pa še stegnjene, kjer je v sprednjem delu prostor za človeka, v nadaljevanju za hrano, za male živali, za orodje, za velike živali, pa za krmo in končno za kurjavo. Materiali so povsem različni. Na Krasu je kamen, v gorskem delu Slovenije kamen z lesom, v osrednjem delu les ali opeka, v Panonski nižini les in ilovica s slamo.

Farmstead A farmstead, or farm, is a composition of residences for the master and for workers, stable and cowhouse and other ancillary objects of a farm economy. While the cowhouse and haybarn are as close to the house as possible, for security and control, some objects are distant from the house; in the case of fire a distant granary remains unharmed, a kozolec, or drying rack, stands close to the fields and hay meadows, drying kilns and ovens are set apart because of the hazard from the fire that they use and a mill normally stands by water. A farm is a functional totality, in which the dwelling and the cowhouse or stable bound the working yard, the farmyard. This provides protection from the wind and unwelcome eyes, for the sake of security and for control. In Gorenjska, there are farms consisting of independent objects, as well as those in which the dwelling is attached to the working part, or the two are entirely combined. An 'Uskoki' farm in Bela krajina is enclosed, an inward turned complex which is entirely without external windows, and only one entrance: for the sake of security and because of the fear that the Uskoki brought with them. In Pannonia, farmsteads are generally angled, in the form of the letter L, and after colonisation in the 15th and later in the 17th century further elongated so there is space for people in the first part, for food in the continuation, for small animals, for tools, for large animals amd for fodder and, finally, for fuel. Materials vary considerably: on the Karst it is stone, in the mountainous parts of Slovenia stone with wood, in the central part wood or brick and on the Pannonian plain wood and straw reinforced clay.

Skica 46 : Ostrožno, razložena domačija z bivalno hišo, kletjo, gospodarskim poslopjem. Figure 46: Spurred, dispersed farm with dwelling, cellar and working buildings.

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Residential house with ancillary part A house, of which the central part is a dwelling for people, and which continues into a working part, and fodder in the upper stories and roof space, is common mainly in the central part of Slovenia, as well as on the Pannonian plain. While in the Tolmin area, in Cerkljansko and towards the east, a farmhouse is usually a high, completely solidly constructed house, in Gorenjska it is characteristic for houses to have a mass construction of the part for people, with ancillary parts in wood. Some buildings are extremely long. Another interesting form, found mainly in Gorenjska and on steep slopes, is where each storey is entered from ground level, even the roof space. Even on flatland a ramp to the upper storey is normal: because of the weight of a wagon, it is usually made of stone with an arch. The external appearance of a dwelling combining an ancillary part is always stressed; the entrance door has a stone frame, with a lintel and at least a date. The windows also have frames, and houses with shutters are particularly interesting. The central part of Slovenia is sprinkled predominantly with houses by Friulian masters, characterised by a symetrical groundplan with an entrance via a twin flight of stairs, and always with a hip. In eastern Slovenia, where the construction is mainly of clay, in combination with wood, it is coloured. To the front and towards the south it is a light colour, but the rear and the side towards the road is sometimes a very dark red colour. The ancillary part is unworked, always wooden.

Bivalna hiša z gospodarskim delom Hiša, katere osrednji del predstavlja bivanje človeka, v nadaljevanju pa ima gospodarski del, v nadstropju in podstrešju pa je krma, je pogosta predvsem v osrednjem delu Slovenije, pa tudi v panonskih ravnicah. Medtem ko je na Tolminskem, na Cerkljanskem ter proti vzhodu doma predvsem visoka, tudi povsem zidana hiša, je na Gorenjskem značilno, da stojijo tam hiše z zidanimi deli za človeka in z gospodarskim delom v lesu. Nekatere izvedbe so izjemno dolge. Zanimive izvedbe pa so, predvsem na Gorenjskem in v strmih pobočjih take, kjer vstopamo v vsako etažo s terena, celo na podstrešje. Tudi v ravninah je klančina do nadstropja običajna. Zaradi teže voza je največkrat kar kamnita z obokom. Zunanji videz bivalne hiše v kombinaciji z gospodarskim delom je vedno izrazit: vhodna vrata imajo okvir v kamnu, s preklado in vsaj z letnico. Tudi okna imajo okvire, posebej pa so zanimive hiše, ki imajo naoknice. Osrednji del Slovenije je pretežno posejan s hišami furlanskih mojstrov, kjer je značilen simetrični tloris z vhodom prek dveh stopnišč in vedno s čopi. Vzhodni del, ki je grajen pretežno z ilovico, v kombinaciji z lesom, je pobarvan in to spredaj in proti jugu svetlo, zadnja stran in tista proti cesti pa včasih s povsem temno rjavo ali temno rdečo barvo. Gospodarski del je pri tem neobdelan, vedno lesen.

Residential house A house intended as a dwelling originated from a single cell unit around a hearth. Theoretically this meant a circular groundplan, of which there are no longer any in existence here. For the sake of practicality – people with various needs for warmth, animals in the house, children, different work – a square and later a rectangular groundplan developed. The fire is still in the centre, but is shifted according to need, towards the wall. The space with the hearth, with an open hearth, is the “hearth room”, and when the fire is covered but the smoke winds through the space, this is the “smokeroom”. The key moment appeared when an intelligent builder rotated the hearth and began to load it from the outside. The living room, the residential part, thus became clean, and outside there was the “black kitchen”, which the Germans also call the “shed” because of the first development stage. The building became bi-cellular and sleeping quarters soon developed symmetrically around the “black kitchen”. A Slovene house (there is no uniform characteristic Slovene house!) usually has a simple symmetrical groundplan with a transverse “black

Skica 47 : Muljava, Jurčičeva rojstna hiša. Figure 47: Muljava, Jurčič's birthplace.

Bivalna hiša Hiša, namenjena bivanju, je nastala iz enocelične enote okrog ognja. Teoretično so to okrogli tlorisi, ki jih pri nas ni več. Zaradi praktičnosti ljudje z različnimi potrebami po toploti, živali v hiši, otroci, razna dela se razvije kvadratast in kasneje pravokoten tloris. Ogenj je še vedno v sredini, a se umika potrebam, proti steni. Prostor z ognjiščem, z odprtim ognjiščem, je ognjiščnica, ko pa se ognjišče pokrije, a se dim še vedno vije po prostoru, je to dimnica. Ključni trenutek nastopi, ko umni graditelj zavrti ognjišče in ga začne polniti od zunaj. Tako dobimo čisto “hišo”, zunaj pa “črno kuhinjo”, ki ji zaradi prve razvojne faze Nemci pravijo tudi “lopa”. Zgradba je postala dvocelična, kmalu

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pa se simetrično okrog črne kuhinje razvije še spalni prostor. Slovenska hiša (enotne značilne slovenske hiše ni!) ima največkrat preprost simetričen tloris s prečno črno kuhinjo (ki kasneje dobi dimnik - v nasprotnem vogalu, da se dim ohladi), z glavnim in 'zadnjim' izhodom, praviloma je levo “hiša” (bivalni prostor), desno pa izba, cimr, skratka spalni prostor. To se odraža tudi na zunaj, postavitev v prostor pa je taka, da okna ”hiše” gledajo čim bolj proti jugu in na dvorišče.

kitchen” (which was later given a chimney, in the opposite corner so that the smoke cools), with a main and a back entrance, generally the living quarters to the left and a chamber or closet, the sleeping quarters, to the right. This is also reflected externally; the spatial positioning is such that the windows of the living room face as far as possible to the south and into the yard.

Skedenj, hlev Osnovna gospodarska arhitektura je kombinirana zgradba, v kateri sta predvsem hlev, prostor za spravilo sena, krme, ob tem pa še drugi prostori po potrebi (gumno za mlačev, mlekarnica, klavnica, sušilnica, prekajevalnica, včasih tudi kašča ali shramba). Hlev je skoraj vedno zidan, pretežno s kamnom, razen v panonskem svetu, kjer je lesen. Drugi prostori so navadno leseni, lahko so samostojni (po konstrukciji) ali pa vezani med sabo. Medtem ko je hlev zaradi dostopa vedno v ravnini, je spravilo krme vedno nad hlevom. Drugi prostori so umeščeni med oba, na kateri koli višini. Velikost skednja določajo potrebe (kubatura potrebne krme), običajno ne presega trikratnika bivalne hiše (tako da je bivalna hiša nekako četrtina vse hiše, kadar imamo kombinirano zgradbo). Le na Koroškem so zaradi nedosegljivosti pozimi skednji izjemnih dimenzij, prav ogromni so.

Skica 48 : Smrečno na Pohorju, ogromna lesena, s slamo krita bivalna hiša. Figure 48: Smrečno na Pohorju, massive wooden, straw thatched dwelling.

Skica 49: Škocjan, zidan hlev s slamnato streho na Krasu. Figure 49: Škocjan, mass construction cowhouse/stable with thatched roof on the Karst.

Barn, stockshed The basic working architecture of a farm is a combined building containing above all a stockshed, which houses all the farm animals, a space for storing hay and fodder, and other spaces as required (threshing floor, dairy, abattoir, drying kiln, smokeroom, sometimes also a granary or store). The stockshed is almost always mass construction, usually stone, except in Pannonia, where it is wood. Other buildings are normally wooden, and they may be free standing (in terms of construction) or interconnected. While the stockshed is always at ground level for the sake of access, fodder is always stored above the stable. Other spaces are placed between the two, at any level. The size of a barn is determined by need (cubic capacity for the necessary feed), but does not normally exceed three times the size of the farmhouse (so that the residential part is about a quarter of the entire building when there is a combined building). Only in Koroška, because of inaccessibility in winter, are stocksheds of exceptional dimensions; they are really huge.

Kozolec Kozolec je samostojna, stalna, vertikalna, pretežno lesena in odprta, pokrita naprava za spravilo. Nekdaj je bilo to žito, danes je pretežno seno. Kozolec stoji na vsem etničnem območju Slovencev, razen v panonskem svetu in na Krasu. Poznamo več vrst: najpreprostejši je stegnjeni, ki je lahko z lesenimi stebri, z zidanimi, lahko ima štirikapno streho ali pa bolj pogosto dvokapno. Lahko ima predpasnik ali plašč, a

Kozolec – drying rack A kozolec is a freestanding, permanent, vertical, predominantly wooden, open, covered device for drying and storage. It was formerly for cereals, but today it is mainly used for hay. The kozolec is found in all Slovene ethnic lands, except in Pannonia and on the Karst. There are a number of different types: the simplest is elongated, with wooden or concrete uprights and a saddleback roof, which can be hipped. It can have an apron or cover, but only in one bay,

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le v enem polju, ki mu pravijo“okno”. Stegnjeni je lahko dvojni, kadar si morata dva pomagati v vertikalo, recimo na barju, največ jih je na obrobju Ljubljanskega barja. Na kozla ali na psa je lep ljudski izraz za konstrukcijo, ki to držo posnema, najdemo jih v Selški dolini, pa na Dolenjskem. Nizki kozolec je pritlična izvedba, je najmlajši med vsemi in stoji najbolj običajno ob Ljubljanici, Savi in Savinji. Visoka izvedba je dvojni vezani, ki je najbolj znan. Ima spodnji del, namenjen spravilu voz, osrednji del za vsebino in podstrešje. Izvedbi sta“v eno drev”ali ”v dve drevesi”, kar pomeni, da ima eno ali dve ploski vzdolžni zavetrovanji v sredini. Na Dolenjskem ima vhodni del nadstropja nakladalno ploščad, neke vrste balkon, prek katerega vmetavajo vsebino v notranjost. Kadar balkona ni, ima v sredini odprtino, nekakšen 'vhod'. Streha je vedno dvokapna, simetrična (razen pri kozolcu na psa) in v naklonu ena proti ena. Običajno ima dva čopa. Najboljša je postavitev 'na poudne', proti soncu, da izkoristi njegovo moč. Najzanimivejša je njegova kompozicija. Uporablja principe narave, krog, kvadrat in njegovo diagonalo, teoretično povedano: kvadratni koren iz dve. Ne zaradi teorije, za poenostavitev. Dokaz so vsi starejši kozolci, ki so grajeni po tem načelu. Danes odnosa do teorije in tega znanja žal ni več.

which is called a 'window'. An elongated kozolec can be double, when two help each other maintain the vertical, for instance on moorland. There are most of them on the edges of Ljubljanska Barja. They can be found in Selška dolina and in Dolenjska. A low double kozolec is a single storey structure, it is the most recent of them all and is usually found beside the Ljubljanica, Sava or Savinja rivers. A high structure is connected at two places, and is the best known. It has a lower part, meant for storing a wagon, a central part for the content and a loft. They are made “in one tree” or “in two trees”; which means that it has a single or double level, transverse, wind-sheltered area in the centre. In Dolenjska, the entrance part to the upper storey has a loading platform, a sort of balcony via which the content is tossed inside. When there is no balcony, there is a central opening, a sort of 'entrance'. The roof is always saddlebacked, symmetrical (except in the case of a kozolec na psa, where the basic kozolec has a lean-to shed on one side) with a one-in-one incline. It normally has two hips. It is best erected facing south, to make use of the sun's power. However, its composition is the most interesting. It uses natural principles; a circle, a square and its diagonal, expressed theoretically: the square root of two. Not because of theory, but for simplification. Evidence is provided by all the old kozolec that are constructed to this principle. Unfortunately, today there is no longer this attitude to theory and knowledge.

Skica 50: Kozolec v Studorju, Bohinj. Figure 50: Double kozolec, or linhay, in Studor, Bohinj.

Hay barn A hay barn is a building beside a meadow, generally far from the farm, for storing hay. Where there was not enough grass for feed nearby, it had to be produced elsewhere, far from home. Where stone foundations were laid, which protruded some half a metre above ground, a frame was placed on them for the roof construction. The commonest and most widespread Gorenjska hay barn is a small building of single cell design. The lower part is the stone foundations; the upper is a log construction from round or partially trimmed logs. It has a gable roof, unhipped, covered by wooden shingles or boards. A hay barn can have a covered area in front, which provides shelter for people during haymaking. There are most such hay barns in Tolminska. Cerkljansko has hay barns with huge solid pillars, which are connected by

Senik Senik je zgradba ob senožeti, praviloma daleč od domačije, za spravljanje sena. Kjer ni bilo zadosti trave za krmo, so jo morali pridelati drugje, daleč od doma. Tam so postavili kamnit temelj, ki je gledal kakega pol metra nad teren, potem pa so nanj postavili ogrodje s strešno konstrukcijo. Najobičajnejši in najbolj razširjen gorenjski senik je majhna zgradba enocelične zasnove. Spodnji del je kamnit temelj, zgoraj tvori konstrukcijo kladna zveza iz okroglih ali iz delno tesanih brun. Streha je dvokapna, brez čopov, lesena, iz skodel ali iz desk. Senik ima lahko predprostor, ki je pokrit in služi ljudem ob košnji. Takih je največ naTolminskem. Cerkljansko ima senike z ogromnimi zidanimi stebri, ki jih povezuje

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slamnata streha. Zaradi postavitve v izjemno strm teren imajo dve celici, katerih ena je dosegljiva od spodaj in druga z zgornje strani. Zaradi svoje višine v sprednjem delu so to skoraj monumentalne konstrukcije. Drugje po Sloveniji senikov skoraj ni.

a thatched roof. Because of their location on extremely steep terrain, they have two cells, one of which can be reached from below and the other from the upper side. Because of their height at the front, they are almost monumental constructions. There are almost no hay barns elsewhere in Slovenia. Drying house A drying is an object in which fruit, flax or millet was formerly dried. Drying houses are such that drying is done by the warmth of the sun alone, or with the aid of fire, like a drying kiln. Drying kilns are divided by the path of the smoke: an open hearth also smokes the fruit, but if the smoke is led via a bypass it dries only by means of heat. The latter are found in central Slovenia, but in general there are more of the former. A drying house can have a chimney, or the smoke filters through the straw roof, which is the most suitable precisely because of this. It is obvious that because of the fire and the danger of a conflagration, drying houses are always stone, at least in the lower part and are more or less enclosed. A dera in Dolenjsko is a special kind of drier. It is part of a kozolec, a sort of chest on two columns, which can be pulled out. Millet was dried in them, which was thus spread out and dried from all sides, but out of the reach of animals. In a double hayrack, the dera is placed in the gable but could also be accessed from the side – the latter are often found in a kozolec na psa, a rack with an attached lean-to. A koruznjak, a device for drying and storing corn, is a special type of drier. Such an object is familiar from Portugal (espigueiro), Spain (horreo) to Croatia and Kosovo. The oldest here are woven from switches or made from laths. They are found mainly in northeast Slovenia.

Skica 51: Senik na Cerkljanskem. Figure 51: Hay barn in Cerkljansko.

Sušilnica Sušilnica je objekt, kjer so včasih sušili sadje, lan ali proso. Sušilnice so take, ki suše le s sončno toploto ali pa z ognjem. Te z ognjem se ločijo po poti dima: odprto ognjišče sadje tudi prekadi, če pa je dim speljan po obvodih, suši le s toploto. Slednji so doma v osrednji Sloveniji, prvih je več. Sušilnica ima lahko dimnik ali pa se dim vali kar skozi slamnato streho, ki je prav zaradi tega najprimernejša. Jasno je, da so zaradi ognja in nevarnosti požara sušilnice vedno kamnite vsaj v spodnjem delu ter so bolj ali manj zaprte. Posebna sušilnica je dera na Dolenjskem. Je del kozolca, nekakšen predal na dveh stebrih, ki ga izvlečemo. Na njem so sušili proso, ki je bilo tako razprostrto in zračno od vseh strani, pa nedosegljivo za živali, ki bi ga lahko pozobale. Dera je v dvojnem vezanem kozolcu nameščena v zatrepu, lahko pa tudi od strani - take mnogokrat najdemo pri kozolcih na psa. Posebne vrste sušilnica je naprava za sušenje in spravilo koruze: koruznjak. Objekt poznamo od Portugalske (espigueiro), Španije (horreo) do Hrvaške in Kosova. Pri nas imamo najstarejše, pletene iz šibja, pa take, sestavljene iz letev. Stojijo predvsem v severovzhodni Sloveniji.

Skica 52: Sušilnica za koruzo, koruznjak na Ptujskem polju. Figure 52: Drying house for corn on Ptujsko polje.

Granary A granary is a small building in which food used to be stored: mainly cereals and meat products. With the change in the technology of wheat, when it is milled in large mills and we buy fresh flour, the farm granary has also lost its significance. Today, only smoked products are still stored in them, and even these mainly in the part below ground level, in the cellar, which enables a constant temperature and control of humidity. A granary normally has stone foundations or lower part, although not

Kašča Kašča je majhen objekt, kamor so nekdaj spravljali hrano, predvsem žito in mesnine. Ob spremembi tehnologije žita, ki ga meljejo v velikih mlinih in kupujemo svežo moko, je svoj smisel izgubila tudi kašča. Danes so v njej le še prekajeni izdelki, pa še ti v glavnem v delu, ki je pod terenom, v kleti, ki omogoča stalno temperaturo in kontrolirano vlago.

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Seveda ima tudi kašča navadno kamnite temelje ali spodnji del, čeprav ne vedno. Na Dolenjskem so bile kašče povsem lesene in nikoli vpisane v kataster, v zemljiško knjigo, da so jih lahko premikali, prodajali in premeščali iz kraja v kraj. V panonskem svetu zrnje hranijo na podstrešju v tankih plasteh. Na deskah stropa je vsako leto obnovljena plast ilovice. Spodnji del je kamnit, zgoraj lesen. Različna je tako tudi vsebina. Kadar je kašča povsem kamnita, je sestavljena enako, navadno na pol vkopana “klet”, prek prečnega stopnišča pridemo na podest in skozi lepo oblikovan vhod v osrednji prostor s skrinjami. V Savinjski dolini so lesene kašče posebej umno sestavljene. Lahko so samonosne konstrukcije in nimajo ostrešja, ko sede streha direktno nanjo. Telo kašče je lahko ločeno od strehe, da deluje kot prava termosteklenica, s tokovi svežega zraka. Te kašče so tudi najbolj skladne in najlepše pri nas.

always: in Dolenjska, granaries were mainly wooden and were never entered in the land register, so that they could be moved, sold or shifted from place to place. In Pannonia, grain was kept in the loft in thin layers. In Pannonia, too, the layer of clay on ceiling boards was renewed annually. The lower part is stone, the upper wood and there is also a difference in content. When a granary is completely stone, it is made in the same way, normally a half-buried cellar, through a transverse staircase to a landing with a finely designed entrance to the central area containing chests. The wooden granaries in the Savinja valley are particularly intelligently designed: they can be a self-supporting construction and do not have a roof truss, so the roof sits directly on the rafters. The body of the granary can be separated from the roof so that it operates as a real thermos flask, with a flow of fresh air. These granaries are also the most harmonious and attractive here.

Skica 53: Potoki, Žirovnica, dvonadstropna zidana kašča. Figure 53: Potoki, Žirovnica, two-storey mass construction granary.

Wine cellar, vineyard cottage The simplest cellar is an earthen, half-buried structure, covered with a longitudinal gable roof. The entrance is also in the gable. The natural walls and beaten clay on the floor ensure a relatively even temperature and humidity. Storage in a house is normally in the cellar, sometimes also on the level. The most interesting is storage in Pannonia, where it is located in the corner of the house, in the 'L' and, together with a stone floor, has a fenced area for potatoes, where the beaten clay provides the best conditions for them. A wine cellar can be simply a cellar in the house, in an annex, or it can be a free-standing object. As a cellar, it is normally vaulted (in stone or brick) and with clay floors provides uniform conditions throughout the year. The entrance is normally by steep steps in clay, which are covered with a horizontal trapdoor. Conditions are not so good in a house extension. It is the same with free-

Vinska klet, zidanica Najbolj preprosta klet je zemljanka, napol vkopana arhitektura, krita z dvokapno streho, vzdolžno. V čelu je tudi vhod. Naravne stene in zbita ilovica na tleh zagotavljajo razmeroma enakomerno temperaturo in vlago. Shramba v hiši je običajno v kleti, včasih tudi v nivoju. Najbolj zanimiva je shramba v panonskem svetu, kjer je locirana v vogal hiše 'na l' in ima ob kamnitem tlaku ograjen prostor za krompir, kjer zbita ilovica zanj zagotavlja najboljše pogoje. Vinska klet je lahko dobesedno klet v hiši, v podaljšku, lahko je poseben objekt. Kot klet je navadno obokana (v kamnu ali z opeko) ter z ilovnatimi tlemi zagotavlja enake pogoje skozi vse leto. Vhod je navadno po strmih stopnicah v ilovici, ki so pokrite s horizontalno loputo. V podaljšku hiše so pogoji slabši. Enako je s samostojnim objektom, kjer je v nivoju prostor za občasno bivanje in za orodje, v kleti pa je klasična vinska klet s sodi, ki jo zračijo z majhnimi odprtinami pod

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stropom, ki pa so navzven pri tleh. V Pomurju, predvsem na Goričkem, so kleti cimprane (iz lesa) ali butane (ilovica). Posebej značilni so majhni objekti na Dolenjskem - zidanice. Stojijo ob vinski gorici, z dvokapno streho, pravokotno na plastnice. So lesene ali zidane. Posebej zanimive so skupne zidanice v Beli krajini,“soseske zidanice”, v lasti več lastnikov.

standing object, where the ground level space provides occasional accommodation and a room for tools, and underground there is a classical wine cellar with barrels, which is ventilated by small openings below the ceiling, which are above ground. In Pomurje, mainly in Gorička, cellars are made from timber or compacted clay. Small buildings in Dolenjska are especially characteristic. They stand on vineyard slopes, with gable roofs at right angles to the contour. They can be timber or mass construction. Groups of “vineyard cottages” in Bela krajina are particularly interesting, real “vineyard cottage hamlets”, with individual owners. Staja The term staja normally represents a shelter for livestock within the framework of occasional pasturage. When an animal is close to the farmstead, it lives in the stable or cowshed. Alpine dairying, or transhumance, is seasonal pasturage at a distant location. An Alpine dairy farm is normally a high altitude pasture, in the Alps more or less enclosed, in which the staja stands. This is both a pen for the animals and shelter for the herdsman. There is little space in the Julian Alps, so staja are in two floors, access to each being directly from the ground; below for the animals, above for the herdsman, so they don't disturb each other and the herdsman can keep an eye on the herd (Bohinjska planina). Velika planina is the best known pasturage in the Kamnik Alps, on which stand oval stajas with a central space for the herdsman, around which the cattle sleep. Unfortunately, the occupying forces torched the planina during the Second World War and burnt it: only one staja has been preserved, Preskarjeva bajta. The others were built after the war. There are stone stajas on the Karst, called a hiška, which are stone and built on a corbelling construction system (in plates), the result of which is a false cupola. Such a construction is not found elsewhere in Slovenia.

Skica 54: Zidanica, Šmaver, Dolenjska. Figure 54: Vineyard cottage, Šmaver, Dolenjska.

Staja Pod besedo staja si navadno predstavljamo zatočišče za živino v okviru občasnega pašništva. Kadar je živina blizu domačije, biva v hlevu. Planšarstvo je pašništvo, vezano na letni čas in na dislocirano lokacijo. Planšarija je navadno pašnik na višini, v Alpah, bolj ali manj omejen, na njem pa stoji staja. To je hlev za živino in zatočišče za pastirja. V Julijcih je malo prostora in zato so staje v dveh etažah, v obeh dosegljive s terena: spodaj za živino in zgoraj za pastirja. Tako se med sabo ne motita, pastir pa ima pogled, kontrolo nad čredo (bohinjske planine). V Kamniških Alpah je najbolj znana Velika planina, na kateri stojijo ovalne staje s centralno nameščenim prostorom za pastirja, okrog katerega prenočuje govedo. Žal je v drugi svetovni vojni okupator planino požgal in je pogorela. Ohranjena je le ena staja, Preskarjeva bajta. Druge so postavljene po vojni. Na Krasu imamo kamnite staje, imenovane “hiška”, ki so kamnite in grajene v konstrukcijskem sistemu, imenovanem korbeling ali “preklapljanje” (v ploskvi), katerega rezultat je neprava kupola. Drugje po Sloveniji takih zgradb ne najdemo.

taja na Veliki planini - Preskarjeva bajta Staja on Velika planina - Preskarjeva bajta.

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Apiary Bees are very diligent animals, the result of whose work is honey, which man also uses with care, though he doesn't know how to make it himself. Bees actually swarm anywhere, but they prefer to do it in enclosed spaces: normally in hollow trees. In order to use their honey, man has subjugated bees by providing them with the best conditions for life, and thus also obtains most of their product. The simplest beehive (for a single colony) imitates a tree, or even simply uses one (cork hives in Spain, clay in the Yemen or in Malta). Janša was the royal beekeeper at the court in Vienna and he introduced a wooden hive which above all allowed control and which consisted of groups. The more modern A.Ž. hives develop this to the full and are still in use today. An apiary is thus a building in which hives are stored, and which also allows the beekeeper to work on them. In southern places, the hives are merely dispersed in the open, sometimes covered. In Spain, the corks are in caverns hollowed out in soft stone slopes. The Slovene apiary is fully developed. It is tripartite, with an asymmetrical roof, but with sensibly disposed elements, for both bees and beekeepers. The most important is the frontage, which contains the entrance to the hives (beehive panels, which are supposedly painted for the bees, although bees see a very limited range of colours!), facing the sun, a sloping board board in order to force lift and help the bees into the right openings, and a curved underside of the overhanging roof, which also provides lift. The exceptional design of these frontispanels is both functional and aesthetic. Even the construction itself is executed with much thought and with the least possible material, but ensuring complete functionality.

Čebelnjak Čebele so najbolj pridne živali, rezultat njihovega dela je med, ki ga tudi človek s pridom uporablja, a ga sam ne zna pridobivati. Čebele sicer rojijo kjer koli, a najraje v zaprtih prostorih, običajno v drevesnih dupljah. Za uporabo medu si je človek čebele podredil tako, da jim omogoča najboljše pogoje življenja - tako dobi tudi največ njihovega rezultata. Najpreprostejši panj (za eno družino) posnema drevo ali ga tudi dobesedno uporablja (plutovinast panj v Španiji, glinast v Jemnu ali na Malti). Janša je bil kraljevi čebelar na dunajskem dvoru in je uvedel lesene panje, ki omogočajo predvsem kontrolo in so sestavljivi v sklope. Modernejši AŽ panji ga razvijejo do skrajnosti. Take uporabljamo še danes. Objekt čebelnjak je torej zgradba, v kateri so spravljeni panji, čebelarju pa omogoča tudi delo ob njih. V južnih krajih so panji razprostrti kar na prostem, včasih pokriti. V Španiji so plutasti v jamah pod ježami, ki jih izdolbejo v mehak kamen. Slovenski čebelnjak je razvit do popolnosti. Je tridelen, z nesimetrično streho, a s smiselno razporejenimi elementi za čebele in za človeka. Najpomembnejša je sprednja ploskev, ki ima vhode v panje (panjske končnice, ki so pobarvane menda za čebele, čeprav čebele vidijo zelo omejen nabor barv!), na sonce obrnjeno, nagnjeno talno desko, da vzpodbuja vzgon in pomaga čebelam v prave odprtine ter zaokrožen zgornji del napušča, ki omogoča vzgon. Izjemno oblikovanje te čelne plošče je prav tako funkcionalno, kot je estetsko. Tudi konstrukcija sama je izvedena z mnogo premisleka in z najmanj materiala, a zagotavlja popolno delovanje.

Skica 56: Čebelnjak na Dolenjskem (danes je v sklopu Jurčičeve domačije na Muljavi). Figure 56: Apiary in Dolenjsko (today part of Jurčič farm in Muljana).

Mill There were once many mills in Slovenia. Today, there are practically none left. Insofar as they exist, they are occasional reconstructions, and certainly without real function. New technologies have overtaken mills, so that today those that operate do so only as an attraction. The technology of a mill is stone mill wheels turning on a vertical axis; the

Mlin Mlinov je bilo na Slovenskem včasih mnogo, danes jih praktično ni več. V kolikor še obstajajo, so redke rekonstrukcije, a definitivno brez dela. Nove tehnologije so mline povozile, tako da lahko danes delujoči proizvajajo le še za ogled. Tehnika mlina je kamnito mlinsko kolo, ki se vrti okrog vertikalne osi,

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zrnje pada v luknjo na sredini, moka pa se sipa spodaj naokrog. Seveda je treba moko sejati in jo po potrebi večkrat mleti. Najprej je narejen grobi zdrob, prav na koncu fina moka. Mlinov, ki bi imeli gonilna kolesa na vertikalni osi direktno na mlinskem kolesu, pri nas praktično ni. Včasih so bili taki na Plivi pri Jajcu. Gonilno kolo je navadno leseno in ima horizontalno os, ko prek lesenih zobatih koles obrača smer vrtenja do vertikalne osi mlinskih koles. S tem reducira tudi število obratov, ki je pri kolesu odvisno predvsem od padca in od količine vode. Gonilna kolesa so lahko gnana z manj vode in s hitrejšim pretokom zgoraj, če pa je vode več in je počasnejša, teče pod kolesom. Zgradba je kamnita hiša, k mlinu pa spadajo še rake, ki vodo pripeljejo h kolesu, pa zapornice, ki regulirajo dotok, včasih tudi jez, če je količina vode premajhna.

grains are dropped into a hole in the centre and flour is sprinkled below. The flour must, of course, be seived and milled several times, as necessary; a coarse grits is first produced and fine flour at the end. There are practically no mills in Slovenia with a drive wheel on a vertical access directly to the mill wheel. There used to be such mills in Pliva pri Jajcu. The drive wheel is normally wooden, with a horizontal axis, whereby wooden cogs are used to change the direction of rotation to the vertical axis of the mill wheels; the number of revolutions required is thus also reduced, which depends mainly on the drop and the quantity of water. The drive wheel can be driven with less water and a faster flow above, and if there is more water and it is slower, the water flows beneath the wheel. The building is stone, and the headrace which leads the water to the wheel and the barriers which regulate the flow, sometimes also a dam if there is too little water, are also part of a mill.

Peč Peči za kruh v Sloveniji skorajda ne poznamo. Ne nastopajo kot samostojni objekt na primer v Istri (kjer so individualne in spadajo k hiši) ali v Alpah (tam so peči skupne za vso vas in so pekli kruh enkrat mesečno, tanke, trde hlebce, skoraj kolute pa so obešali visoko, da jih niso dosegle tuje roke). Bolj pogoste so peči za sušenje, a to so že sušilnice. Stalne peči za apno so pri nas redke, tudi drugod jih skoraj ni (Francija, Hrvaška), saj so največkrat take izvedbe, da jih na koncu postopka zrušijo v pečeno gmoto ali pa so priložnostne jame, v katerih apnenec kuhajo. Posebne peči so oglarske kope, ki jih po uporabi prav tako razdrejo. Oglje kuhajo iz drv in z drvmi. Peči za ilovnate izdelke, opeko in posodo, so tudi redke. Medtem ko pečenje opeke zahteva predvsem velike količine in zato vsaj obrtniški obrat, skoraj tovarno, da se sploh izplača, so kopaste peči za glinasto posodo bolj pogoste, predvsem v vzhodnih krajih. Kopasta peč je sestavljena iz opek in zamazana (zatesnjena) z ilovico, vanjo naložijo posodo, v sredino pa drva. Kopo zakurijo in od zunaj zaprejo (zazidajo in zamažejo, zatesnijo), potem pa z odpiranjem kontrolirajo temperaturo. Notranji del po uporabi razdrejo, zunanji ostane.

Kiln Free-standing bread ovens are almost unknown in Slovenia. They do not, for example, appear as independent structures in Istria (where they are individual but part of a house) or in the Alps (where ovens are shared by the whole village and bread was baked monthly; thin, hard round loaves, almost discs, which were hung high to be out of reach of foreign hands). Drying kilns are more common, but these are already drying houses. Permanent lime kilns are rare here, as indeed elsewhere (France, Croatia) since they are usually made to be destroyed at the end of the procedure into a baked mass, or they are occasional caves in which lime was fired. Charcoal piles are a special form of kiln, which are similarly dismantled after use. The charcoal is made from logs and twigs. Kilns for clay products such as bricks and pottery are also rare. Although firing bricks requires above all large quantities and thus at least a small plant, almost a factory, to be worthwhile, earthen kilns for clay pots are more common, mainly in eastern parts of the country. An earthenware kiln is made of bricks and coated (sealed) with clay, the vessel is placed within it, and wood piled around. The heap is fired and closed from the outside (built round and coated, sealed), and the temperature controlled by openings. The inner part is dismantled after use, the outer part remains.

Vodnjak Voda je bistvo življenja, na srečo je imamo v Sloveniji zadosti. Voda priteka iz zemlje na razne načine: kot talna voda, v obliki jezera, izvirka. Najbolj pogost način pridobivanja vode je talna voda, ko z vrtanjem dosežemo raven vode in jo na kakršen koli način potegnemo na površino. Najbolj preprost način je na protiutež, ko z dolgo palico na osi in s protiutežjo dvigamo vedro iz globin. Najbolj pogosti so leseni vodnjaki v Slovenskih goricah, kjer imajo telo, ki se nadaljuje v vrtino do nivoja vode, nadgradnjo s streho in s kolesom, s pomočjo katerega vedro dvigamo z vrvjo. Na Krasu poznajo okrogle, zidane vodnjake z vertikalnimi stenami, ki

Well Water is the essence of life and, fortunately, there is enough in Slovenia. Water flows from the ground in various ways: as groundwater, in the form of lakes, springs. The commonest method of obtaining water is groundwater, when drilling reaches the water table and it is drawn by some means to the surface. The simplest method is on a counterweight, when a bucket is raised from the depths with a long pole on an axis, with a counterweight. In Slovenski gorice, wooden wells are most usual, the body of which continues into the well to water level, with a roof over the top and a wheel by means of which the bucket is raised on a rope.

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imajo dostop po spiralnih stopnicah. Stopnice so praviloma leve, da se človek s polnim vedrom v desni roki (med nami je največ desničarjev) vzpenja po njih. Če je talna voda blizu terena, dobimo barje. To je plitva voda, zaradi tega zelo obraščena, in ker nima močnih tokov, tudi pretežno kalna. Za to, če voda izvira v jezeru in potem iz njega odteka kot potok, so najlepši primer Zelenci v Dolini, kjer izvira Sava Dolinka. To je sistem jezerc, kjer voda preprosto pride na dan in odteče kot reka. Sava Bohinjka pa izvira v obliki slapa, ki se pne nad skalne stene v globini Bohinja. Tudi izvir Ljubljanice je zanimiv. Več jih je, saj reka izvira in ponikne, večkrat. Zadnji izvir je Močilnik pri Vrhniki, kjer voda pribrbota na površino v jezercih, ki potem odtekajo do izliva v Savo. Aktivni izvir (in včasih tudi glasen) je izvir Soče iz globin ali pa Krke, ki izvira v kraški jami. Poseben fenomen je ponikanje voda, kjer ponekod na kraškem svetu voda izvira in ponika v isti luknji (seveda ne istočasno: primer sta Cerkniško jezero, pa Dobrepoljska dolina). Občasno pojavljanje vode je običajna reč, pri Igli v Zgornji Savinjski dolini pa se to dogaja kar vsakih nekaj minut.

On the Karst there are circular, stone built wells with vertical walls, which are accessible by means of a spiral staircase. The stairs are normally on the left going upwards, so that a man with a full bucket in his right hand (they were mostly right-handed) could climb them. If the ground water is close to ground level, it produces a marsh. This is shallow water, because of which it is very overgrown and, because there is no great flow is also predominantly dirty. If water emerges in a lake, it then flows from it as a stream. The best example of this is Zelenci in Dolina, where the Sava Dolinka emerges. This is a system of small lakes, in which the water simply rises to the surface and flows off as a river. The Sava Bohinjka flows out in the form of a waterfall, which falls over a rocky cliff in the depths of Bohinj. The source of the Ljubljanica is also interesting: there are several of them, since the river rises and disappears several times. The last spring is Močilnik by Vrhnika, where the water bubbles to the surface in a small lake, which then flows out to the confluence with the Sava. The Soča emerges from the depths as an active (and sometimes loud) spring, as does the Krka, which disgorges in a Karst cave. Water disappearing underground is a special phenomenon. Sometimes in the karst world the water emerges from and disappears into the same hole (not of course at the same time! Cerkniško jezero is an example, Dobrepolska dolina another). The occasional emergence of water is common, and this happens every few minutes at Igla in the Upper Savinja valley.

Skica 57: Vodnjak v Slovenskih goricah, Brengova. Figure 57: Well in Slovenski gorice, Brengova.

Gumno Gumno je prostor za mlačev, kjer mlatijo žito ali druge pridelke, da jih očistijo strokov, plev, ogrodja in izluščijo “zrno od plevela”. Gre za odprt, poravnan prostor z nizkim zidcem kot ograjo, ki je lahko tudi dvignjen (da ujame veter za “vejanje”). Zaradi morebitne izgube žita tla navadno prekrijejo z rjuhami. Taka gumna z istim imenom najdemo tudi v Črni gori, na Hrvaškem, v Italiji (kjer jim pravijo “aia”) in na Pirenejskem polotoku. Tehnika dela je udarjanje s cepcem, da se uporabna vsebina (pri žitu je to zrno) loči od neuporabnih ali manj uporabnih delov rastlin. Na grobo, fizično ločen material potem vejejo, dvigajo v zrak, da veter odnese lažje dele, težji pa padejo na tla. Pri nas ljudje uporabljajo cepce (tukaj cepec ni neumen človek, pač pa orodje), v drugih krajih predvsem živino, zato so gumna okrogla, da lahko živina (vol, osel) hodi v krogu in tepta. Posebej zanimivi detajli so na otoku Krku, kjer se žival “navija” okrog dveh kolov v sredini in s tem

Threshing floor A threshing floor is a space for threshing wheat or other produce in order to clean the shell, weeds and husk and sift the “grain from the weeds”. It is an open, level space surrounded by a low wall, which can also be raised (to capture the wind for winnowing). In order to prevent the loss of grain, the floor was normally covered with blankets. Threshing floors can also be found in Montenegro, Croatia, Italy and on the Pyrenean peninsular. The technique of work is to strike with a flail, so that the useful content (with cereals this is the grain) is separated from the unusable or less useful parts of the plants. The coarse, physically separated material is then winnowed, raised into the air so that the wind carries away the lighter parts, and the heavier parts fall back to the ground. Flails were used in Slovenia, elsewhere animals were mainly used, and the threshing floor is circular so that livestock (oxen, donkeys) walk round in a circle treading it. There are particularly interesting details on the island of

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spiralno pride do centra, ko jo obrnejo in postopek se ponovi. Pri nas takih odprtih gumn praktično ne poznamo, na barju, kjer ni mogoče delo na tleh, pa je gumno v nadstropju kozolca, ograjen prostor brez stropa, kjer se ljudje drže za letev v steni in z nogami teptajo žito.Tak primer je pri Bistri, blizuTehniškega muzeja Slovenije.

Krk, where the animals 'wind' round two stakes in the centre and thus spirally reach the middle, when they are turned and the procedure repeated. Such open threshing floors are practically unknown in Slovenia, but on the barje, where it is not possible to work on the ground, the threshing floor is the upper storey of a “kozolec”, an enclosed space without a ceiling, where people hold onto slats on the walls and trample the wheat with their feet. There is such an example at Bistra, near the Technical Museum of Slovenia.

Ledenice Ledene jame poznajo povsod, kjer imajo ob sredozemski obali hribovit teren, v katerega lahko skopljejo vertikalne jame, ki jih pokrijejo z leseno konstrukcijo strehe (španske ali italijanske “nevere”) ali kar s smrekovimi vejami. V notranjosti led ali sneg ostane še daleč v poletje. S Krasa so vozili led v Trst s konjsko vprego ponoči, da so do jutra dostavili led v mesto. Na vozu je bil led pred toploto zaščiten s smrekovimi vejami.

Icehouse Ice caves are familiar throughout the Mediterranean coast where there is hilly terrain in which a vertical shaft can be dug, which is covered with a wooden construction for the roof (Spanish or Italian “nevera”) or simply covered by spruce branches. Ice or snow remains inside long into the summer. Ice was carted from the Karst to Trieste at night by teams of horses, so that the ice was in place by morning. The ice was protected from the heat on the wagon by spruce branches.

Gnojišče, stranišče Gnojišče ni tako zelo nepomemben del domačije. Je nujen in bolj ko je urejen, boljši je. Navadno gre za ograjen odprt pravokotnik (nikoli kvadrat ali krog), kamor se stekajo tekočine iz hleva in kamor odlagajo zamenjano steljo z živalskimi odpadki. Te potem uporabijo kot gnojilo na polju. Ob gnojni jami je navadno tudi stranišče“na štrbunk”, lesena hišica, ki ima iz kaj vem kakih razlogov navadno srček na vratih. To stranišče je naprednejše in bolj higiensko od katerega koli. Ne nazadnje so Erazma Predjamskega ubili prav pri tem opravku, ko si je svetil v naravi. Danes takih stranišč ni več.

Midden, privy A midden is a not unimportant part of a farm; it is essential and the better it is arranged, the better it is. It is normally an enclosed open rectangle (never a square or circle) into which liquids from the stable/cowhouse flow and animal bedding and waste is deposited. This is then used as fertiliser on the fields. The privy was also normally beside the midden, a wooden hut which, for some unknown reason, usually has a heart on the door. Such a toilet is more advanced and more hygienic than none: not least Erazmus Predjama was killed precisely when performing this function in nature. There are no longer such toilets today.

Seveda je posebnih objektov, značilnih za to ali ono dejavnost, za to ali ono lokacijo ali za tehniko in tehnologijo še mnogo. Od časa do časa se bom ustavil tudi ob njih, a ključne so vendarle naštete v tem kratkem pregledu.

ARHITEKTURA SLOVENIJE, ALPSKI DEL

There are, of course, special objects characteristic of a particular activity, or location and many more characteristic of a technique or technology. I will also comment on these from time to time, although they have deliberately not been included in this short review.

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Objekti, predstavitev Alpski del Objects, presentation Alpine Part


Doma ija

Farmstead

Domačija v severnem delu Slovenije, predvsem na Gorenjskem, je specifična zaradi svoje lokacije. Gre za alpski svet z ozkimi dolinami ali s tamarji, ki so bili v preteklosti dobršen del leta nedostopni zaradi snega. Zato so morale domačije obsegati vse: od bivalnega dela do vseh gospodarskih poslopij, ki so nujni za življenje. Pri tem ni nujno, da je gospodarski del ali del njega neposredno povezan z bivalno hišo ali da je celo del hiše, čeprav so povezave, tudi pokrite, mogoče in predvsem praktične. Medtem ko imamo v osrednji Sloveniji značilni razvoj tlorisa z osrednjo črno kuhinjo (ki se je razvil iz “hiše”), okrog katere se potem simetrično nanizajo drugi prostori, predvsem spalni, je na Gorenjskem črna kuhinja mnogokrat dvojna: kot značilni prečni prostor v hiši in kot posebni, majhen, praviloma kvadratast prostor z odvodom dima. Ta prostor služi za prekajevanje in za kuho ob večjih potrebah. Dimnik take črne kuhinje je izjemnih dimenzij, tudi do dva metra v stranici, in skoraj vedno pokrit vsaj s pločevinasto strešico. Zunanje stene so mnogokrat nagnjene navznoter. Tudi višina je na Gorenjskem značilna. Medtem ko v Sloveniji prevladuje pritlična hiša, je tukaj zaradi potreb mnogokje nadstropna, včasih ima spalne prostore tudi na podstrešju. Streha je vedno simetrična, dvokapna, navadno ima čopa. Naklon je ena proti ena, redko je naklon bolj strm, blažji nikoli. Mnogokrat bivalna hiša nastopa v kombinaciji z gospodarskim delom, ko ima v kleti hleve za svinje in za kokoši ter zajce, za večjo živino v podaljšku, nad katerim so tudi svisli za krmo: tam so tudi drugi prostori, shrambe in včasih kašča. Domačija severnega dela Slovenije, od Cerkljanskega, Gorenjskega do Koroške, je postavljena v teren, ki je pač dosegljiv. Polja, njive in sadovnjak so v ravninah, hiša pa je umaknjena v breg. Zato so dostopi vedno s terena, včasih celo s petih ravni, s klančino tudi na podstrešje, kjer hranijo krmo. Domačija je postavljena tako, da ima bivalna hiša vhod in vsaj stranico “hiše” proti jugu, kar seveda vpliva na druge objekte, ki so tako z vhodi usmerjeni proti severu, na delovno dvorišče. Redko so domačije zaključene, zaprte, ko imajo kamnito ograjo. Navadno so odprte in z glavnim vhodom vabijo mimoidoče, medtem ko zadnji vhod domači uporabljajo vsak dan. Slovenska vernakularna arhitektura ne pozna ograj, razen v Beli krajini. Tako so tudi domačije na Gorenjskem omejene le z lesenimi ogradami za živino, včasih pa jih definira tudi stegnjen kozolec. Domačija ima nekatere objekte vedno dlje od hiše. Blizu zaradi varnosti in dlje zaradi ognja.

A farmstead in the northern part of Slovenia, above all in Gorenjska, is specific in terms of its location. This is an Alpine world with narrow valleys, or with stockpens that were inaccessible for a good part of the year in the past because of snow. Farmsteads had therefore to include everything: from living quarters to all the ancillary buildings necessary for life. It is not important whether the ancillary part, or some of it, is directly connected with the dwelling or is even part of the house, although they are linked, perhaps also covered, and above all practical. While in central Slovenia there is a characteristic development of a ground plan with a central “black kitchen” (which developed from the “house”, or living room) around which were then symmetrically ranged the other rooms, mainly bedrooms, in Gorenjska the “black kitchen” often had two meanings: the characteristic transverse space in the house or a special, small, generally square space with an outlet for smoke. This room served for smoking produce and for cooking at times of greater need. The chimney of such a black kitchen is of exceptional dimensions, even up to two metres at the sides and is almost always covered with a chimney pot. The external walls are often inclined inwards. The height, too, is characteristic in Gorenjska: while single storey houses predominate in Slovenia as a whole, need gives rise to an upper storey in many places, sometimes also with sleeping quarters in the attic. The roof is always symmetrical, gable, normally with a hip. The slope is one to one, occasionally steeper, but never less steep. The residential house is often combined with the working part of the farm. There may be space in the cellar for pigs, chickens and rabbits, and for larger animals in an extension, above which there is a hayloft. It can also include other spaces, such as storerooms and sometimes a granary. A farmstead in the northern part of Slovenia, from Cerkljansko through Gorenjska to Koroška, is located in such terrain as is available: fields, arable land and orchards are on the level, and the house must make do with slopes. Each storey is thus always accessible from the ground, sometimes even on five levels, with a ramp to the the roof space where the fodder is kept. A farmstead is arranged in such a way that the residential house has the entrance and at least one side of the living room facing south, which of course has an impact on other objects, which are thus oriented with their entrances facing north, towards the working yard. Occasionally, farmsteads are enclosed within a stone wall. Normally, they are open, with their main entrance inviting passers-by, and the back door used by the family everyday. Walls are not a feature of Slovene vernacular architecture, except in Bela krajina. So farmsteads in Gorenjska, too, are only bounded by wooden stock fences, and sometimes also defined by an elongated kozolec. Some buildings are always at a distance from the house: closer for security and more distant because of the risk of fire.

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<< 1 Zgornje Jezersko, Šenk farm An extended, large house with a longitudinally placed entrance and exit is rare in Slovene vernacular architecture: it can be found only in the Karavanke, on the border with Koroška and at the start of the Kamnik Alps. On the left is the house for dependents, in wood, as a contrast to the owner's stone house; behind are stables. Šenk farm has been dated, with some doubt, to 1617.

<< Razsežna, velika hiša z vzdolžno postavljenima vhodom in izhodom je v slovenski vernakularni arhitekturi redka; najdemo jo le v Karavankah, na meji s Koroško in v začetku Kamniških Alp. Levo je preužitkarska hiša v lesu, kot nasprotje lastnikovi hiši v kamnu, zadaj so hlevi. Šenkovo domačijo datirajo - z nekaj dvoma - v leto 1617. 5 139 510 463 150

2 Podkoren, Pri Šrofu The connected farm, consisting of residence with ancillary buildings under the same roof, above the village of Podkoren, has exceptional roofs, which are further extended as necessary: for example the final hip and the stable part, which extends almost to the ground, a catslide roof. It is one of the few farms that still retains the original covering. Today's boards were certainly once shingles.

2 Podkoren, Pri Šrofu Vezana domačija bivalne hiše z gospodarskim delom pod isto streho nad vasjo Podkoren ima izjemne strešine, ki so po potrebi še podaljšane: na primer zadnji čop in hlevski del, ki sega skoraj do tal. Je ena redkih domačij, ki še vedno vztraja pri prvotni kritini. Današnje deske so bile včasih prav gotovo skodle. 5 149 910 404 647

3 Robanov kot The farm consists of a residence with outbuildings. To the left of the house stands an adapted granary, and such houses were still being built at the beginning of last century.

3 Robanov kot Domačija je sestav bivalne hiše z gospodarskimi poslopji. Levo od hiše stoji preurejena kašča, sicer pa so take hiše postavljali še v začetku prejšnjega stoletja. 5 138 130 477 740

4 Strojna na Koroškem, Janež farm Janež farm is certainly one of the most important items of Slovene vernacular architecture. The original house, vaulted and with a black kitchen, is built partially in stone, and the remainder in wood. Space was later added under the corner and in an extension, so that the house today has three completely different frontages. The farm includes a house for dependents, a granary and barn with stable. The farm is particularly attractive because of the shingle roofs, which gleam like metal when new and give Prežihov “gorge” a special stress.

4 Janeževa domačija je nedvomno ena najpomembnejših slovenskih arhitektur. Prvotna hiša, obokana in s črno kuhinjo, je delno zidana v kamnu, ostalo je leseno. Kasneje so dodajali prostore pod kotom in v podaljšku, tako da ima danes zgradba tri popolnoma različna čela. V sklopu domačije so še preužitkarska hiša, kašča in skedenj s hlevom. Domačija je posebno privlačna zaradi skodlastih streh (skodlam rečejo “šintlni”), ki se nove prav kovinsko bleščijo in Prežihovim“globačam” dajejo poseben poudarek. 5 160 640 493 562

5 Zgornja Radovna The farm in Zgornja Radovna is skilfully withdrawn to the edge of the plain between swallow holes in front of one of Slovenia's most attractive valleys, Krma. It consists of farmhouse, auxiliary buildings, well and kozolec. The groundplans are arranged in parallel, and the house unusually opens towards the northeast.

5 Zgornja Radovna Domačija v Zgornji Radovni je spretno umaknjena na rob ravnine med vršaci pred enim naših najlepših tamarjev, Krmo. Je sestav bivalne hiše, gospodarskega poslopja, vodnjaka in kozolca. Tlorisi so urejeni vzporedno, hiša pa se neobičajno odpira proti severovzhodu. 5 141 860 418 810

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Bivalna hi a

Residential House

Hiša, namenjena bivanju gospodarja in njegove družine, je lahko samostojni, prosto stoječ objekt v okviru domačije ali pa tudi ne. Tloris hiše se je razvil iz ognjiščnice, dimnice v “hišo” in črno kuhinjo, na drugi strani kuhinje pa še v kamro in morda shrambo. Predvsem na severu so doma velike hiše, nadstropne in z mnogimi sobami. Domači živijo skoraj praviloma čez dan v pritličju, spalni prostori so zgoraj. Podstrešje navadno ni izkoriščeno, je prostor za krmo in za spravilo nekaterih jestvin. V zatrepu je navadno večja, horizontalna odprtina, ki tvori nekakšen balkon. Rože na njem so ponos gospodinje in značilnost hiše tega dela Slovenije. Bivalna hiša je lahko le bivalna, lahko pa ima tudi del gospodarskega programa. Materiali za hišo so tisti, ki so dosegljivi: praviloma kamen za osnovni in za bivalni del, gospodarski del - kolikor obstaja - je vedno lesen. Kamen je praviloma ometan, saj je kakovostnega, na zunaj trajnega kamna razmeroma malo. Leseni deli so okvirne konstrukcije s polnili na notranji strani, pri čemer ročice tečejo skoraj praviloma v celoti kot križi od vogala do vogala. Ker so enote navadno kvadratne, je naklon ročic petinštirideset stopinj. Leseni tramovi so spojeni z zarezovanjem in dodatno zavarovani z lesenimi klinci, ki so - zaradi črpanja vlage iz zraka - vedno vidni. Streha je iz domačega materiala: les in kamen, kasneje opeka. Kot les nastopajo gorenjske skodle in deske, ki so izmenično položene na letve, razen na Jezerskem, kjer so gorenjske skodle (večjih dimenzij) postavljene pod kotom v dveh višinah - kakor na Koroškem izza prelaza. Pri zidanih konstrukcijah so odprtine izvedene v kamnu z okvirji. Najbolj znan je peračiški zeleni kamen, ki ni posebno trajen. Je zelene barve, zato so tudi narisani okvirji pobarvani tako. Šivani robovi, kjer so v vogalu zgradbe narisani veliki kamni, so pri domačijah redki, pojavijo pa se pri kaščah. Streha je vedno vzdolžna, dvokapna v naklonu petinštirideset stopinj in v materialu, ki je na razpolago: kamen, les ali v zadnjem času opeka. Kamen je običajno tanek skrilj, ki mu v zaledju Škofje Loke pravijo “škalce”, les so gorenjske skodle, dolge kak meter in pol ter široke deset do dvanajst centimetrov, debeline do centimetra. Gorenjska skodla je kalana s sekiro z več udarci in je praviloma sestavljena izmenično druga na drugo, v dveh plasteh s preklopom. Le na Jezerskem je vpliv Koroške, ko gorenjsko skodlo postavljajo pod kotom v dveh plasteh, drugo proti drugi. To predstavlja dokaj debelo plast, ki je istočasno tudi toplotna izolacija. Streha je nasploh zelo pomemben del hiše, tudi vidno.

The house intended for residence of the farmer and his family can be an independent, free-standing object within the context of the farmstead, or not. The groundplan of the house developed from the hearth room, the smoke bay, into the “living room” and “black kitchen” and on the other side of the kitchen into the chamber and perhaps a storeroom. Mainly in the north there are large houses, with upper storeys and many rooms. Generally speaking, the family live during the day on the groundfloor, and the sleeping quarters are above. The roof space is not normally used for accommodation; it is a space for fodder and for storing certain provisions. There is normally a large, horizontal opening in the gable, which has a balcony. The flowers on them are the pride of the housewife and are characteristic of this part of Slovenia. The residential house may be only residential, but it can also contain part of the working facilities. The materials for the house are what are available: generally stone for the foundations and for the residential part, but the working part, insofar as it exists, is always wooden. The stone is generally plastered, since there is relatively little high quality, externally durable stone. The wooden parts are frame construction with infill on the inside, whereby the braces almost as a rule run entirely as a cross from corner to corner; because the units are normally square, the inclination of the braces is forty-five degrees. The wooden beams are scarf jointed and pegged with wooden pegs, which, because of drawing moisture from the atmosphere, are always visible. The roof is from local material: wood or stone, later tiles. Wood is used as 'Gorenjska' shingles and as boards, which were laid alternately on battens, except in Jezersko, where the Gorenjska shingles (of larger dimensions) are laid in a herring bone pattern of two thicknesses – as over the pass in Carinthia. In mass constructions, the openings are made in stone with a frame. The best known is green stone, which is not particularly durable. Because of its distinctive colour, frames that are only outlined are also coloured green. Knitwork edges, in which large stones at the corners of the building are stressed, are rare with farmsteads although they occur with granaries. The roof is always longitudinal, gable, with a forty-five degree slope and in the available material: stone, wood or recently tile. The stone is normally thin slate, called in the vicinity of Škofja Loka “škalce”, wood is used as Gorenjska shingles: about a metre and a half long and ten to twelve centimetres wide, up to a centimetre thick. The Gorenjska shingle is split with an ax with a number of blows and they are generally laid alternately, one on top of another, in two layers. There is a variant in Jezersko with a Carinthian influence, where Gorenjska shingles are laid in a double layer, at an angle in a herring bone pattern. This provides a fairly thick layer, which simultaneously provides heat insulation. The roof is in general a very important part of a house, also visually.

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<< 1 Čadovlje by Tržič, Jamenšnik farm The farmhouse stands on a hill, because the auxiliary buildings have been erected on the contour, so at right angles to the house. Below are successive rooms and on the “gospodar” of the living room is the date 1766. The last auxiliary part is accessible from outside by a wooden staircase. The balcony in the gable is open to the ground: the parapet is fretwork and very airy.

<< Bivalna hiša stoji v hrib, ker ima gospodarske objekte postavljene na plastnice, torej pravokotno na hišo. Spodaj so vzporedni prostori, na “gospodarj” v “hiši” je letnica 1766. Zadnji, gospodarski del je dosegljiv od zunaj, po lesenem stopnišču. Balkon v zatrepu je odprt pravzaprav do tal: parapet je čipkasto izrezljan in zelo zračen. 5 136 410 447 808

2 Srednji vrh above Gozd Martuljek, Pri Vahu The large two storey house stands in a village on a shelf above the Upper Sava valley. It has a black kitchen below, which is still used today for smoking produce, a living room with a wooden ceiling which is supported by the “gospodar”, and some smaller rooms, including a kind of granary. The roof is from boards, as was the balcony over the entrance until recently; there is also a solid stone chimney above the black kitchen. The mighty house was formerly a fully self-sufficient farm, which was under snow all winter.

Srednji Vrh nad Gozdom Martuljkom, Pri Vahu Velika, nadstropna hiša stoji v vasi, na polici nad Zgornjesavsko dolino. Spodaj ima črno kuhinjo, ki jo še danes uporabljajo za prekajevanje, ”hišo” z lesenim stropom, ki ga nosi “gospodar” in nekaj manjših sob, tudi neke vrste kaščo. Streha je iz desk, enak je bil še do nedavna balkon nad vhodom, tam je nad črno kuhinjo tudi masiven kamnit dimnik. Mogočna hiša je nekdaj predstavljala samooskrbno kmetijo, ki je bila vso zimo pod snegom. 5 149 120, 410 960

3 Zgornja Trenta The typical Trenta two storey house opens towards the south: the main entrance is reached by a stone staircase, below are stables and storehouses. The roof is steep, because of the abundance of snow, wooden, with a hip, the gables are equal. The upper storey is accessible by ramps from behind and from the side. The house is exceptionally harmonious and still lived in.

Zgornja Trenta Značilna trentarska nadstropna hiša se odpira proti jugu: po kamnitem stopnišču pridemo do glavnega vhoda, spodaj so hlevi in shrambe. Streha je strma zaradi obilice snega, lesena, s čopi, enaka sta zatrepa. Zadaj in od strani je po mostovžu dostop v nadstropje. Hiša je izjemno skladna in še vedno obljudena. 5 140 120, 401 647

4 Zgornja Trenta The ground floor house actually has two stories, but both are accessible from ground level. Precisely in order to use the terrain, it is set on the contour and looks east. The wooden roof is hipped, and also steep, like other Trenta farms. All the spaces are in the house itself and it has no additionally buildings.

4 Zgornja Trenta Pritlična hiša ima sicer dve nadstropji, a sta obe dosegljivi s terena. Prav zaradi izrabe terena je postavljena na plastnice in gleda proti vzhodu. Lesena streha ima čopa, tudi strma je kot ostale trentarske domačije. Vsi prostori so v hiši sami in nima dodanih objektov. 5 140 210, 401 890

5 Zgornja Radovna, Pocar farm The farmhouse in an isolated settlement has auxiliary buildings across the courtyard: barn, stable, well and drying rack. The house has a typical ground plan, with a central entrance and divided into living room and chamber. The roof is wooden and hipped, as is the gable. Its special distinction is the harmoniousness of the mass constructed body with a wooden roof.

5 Bivalna hiša v samotnem zaselku ima prek dvorišča gospodarske objekte: skedenj, hlev, vodnjak in kozolec. Hiša ima značilen tloris s sredinskim vhodom ter delitvijo na “hišo” in “kamro”. Streha je lesena s čopi, enak je zatrep. Njena posebna odlika je skladnost zidanega telesa z leseno streho. 5 141 190, 417 890

6 Češnjica by Podnart (drawing) The characteristic longitudinal house has visibly separated parts for living and for work: even the roof is set back. A feature of the residential part is the “granary”, which is a room forming part of the building itself.

(risba) Značilna vzdolžna hiša ima vidno ločena dela za bivanje in gospodarstvo: celo streha je zamaknjena. Zanimivost bivalnega dela je “kašča”, ki je kakor soba del zgradbe same. 5 126 720, 441 022

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Strojna na Koroškem, Janež Tri lica ene same hiše - in pri tem tako različna lica, je največja značilnost hiše, ki je zrasla iz majhne, tipične zgradbe, ki jo datirajo v sedemnajsto stoletje. Nad kletjo ima obokano črno kuhinjo in prostorno “hišo”, ki jo še vedno uporabljajo. Severozahodno pročelje je vzdolžno in ima viden zidan del za kuriščem, a samo do višine peči. Novejši, severovzhodni del je povsem lesen. 5 160 640 493 562

7 Strojna na Koroškem, Janež farm Three faces of a single house – and such different faces that this is the major characteristic of the house, which grew from a small, typical building dated to the 17th century. Above the cellar it has a vaulted black kitchen and a spatial “house”, which is still used. The north-western facade is longitudinal and has a visible mass construction part for the hearth room, but only to the height of the stove. The more recent, northeastern part is entirely wooden.

Jugovzhodn ima spodaj le podstavek - vse kleti se odpirajo z notranje strani. V obeh nadstropjih ima balkone, ki niso kičasto izrezljani, pač pa so iz letev in polni značilnih rož. Izjemne so razsežnosti strehe, posebej napuščev, ki kot krila ščitijo vzdolžne hodnike.

8 The south-eastern facade has only a plinth below – all the cellars open from the inner side. Both upper stories have a balcony, which are not gaudily carved but are from battens and are full of typical flowers. The roofs are exceptional large, especially the overhangs, which provide cover for the longitudinal passageway.

Zadnj lesene “hiše” je prebeljeno z apnom: tudi zidani del za pečjo in ob črni kuhinji. Vidni so previsni tramovi, ki nosijo streho: so stopničeni, da imajo ob čim manjši masi čim večjo nosilnost. To je izreden tehniški, gradbeni dosežek.

9 The rear facade of the wooden “house” (”hiša” as living room) is whitewashed with lime: even the mass construction part for the stove and along the black kitchen. The overhanging beams that support the roof are visible: they are graduated so that they have the maximum bearing capacity with the minimum mass. This is an exceptional technical construction achievement.

najstarejše, prvotne hiše, ki se pod kotom nadaljuje. To lice ščiti “hišo”, najpomembnejši del kmečkega doma, zato je na njem tudi nabožno znamenje. Novejši del se logično nadaljuje, a je fizično ločen z zamikom balkona, da ohranja vidne kakovosti osnovne zgradbe.

10 The face of the oldest, original house, which continues under the corner. This face protects the “house”, the most important part of the farmhouse, so it also contains a devotional shrine. The most recent part continues logically but is physically separated with a balcony set back, so that the visible quality of the original building is preserved.

(risba ) Tloris kaže obokano črno kuhinjo in “hišo”, pa levo manjši podaljšek in desno večjega, ki se dviga nad imenitno kaščo. Vhod, tako za človeka kot v kleti, je ukleščen med oba kraka zgradbe.

11 Strojna na Koroškem, Janež farm ( drawing) The ground plan shows a vaulted black kitchen and living room, and to the left a smaller extension and to the right a larger one which rise above the elegant granary. The entrance both for people and to the cellar is set between the two arms of the building.

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Skedenj

Barn

Skedenj, navadno imenovan tudi “pod” - čeprav je ta izraz na Gorenjskem pravzaprav bolj ozko namenjen le spravilu krme - nastopa v obliki kombiniranega objekta hleva s prostori za krmo, s posebnimi prostori za hrambo ali za obdelavo in dodelavo nekaterih pridelkov. Ti prostori so svinjska kuhinja, mlekarnica, klavnica, prekajevalnica, odvisno pač od potreb in od možnosti. Najbolj običajno je skedenj kar podaljšek bivalne hiše in navadno sega prek nje - ko je bivalna hiša pritlična v delu zgradbe, ki gleda na cesto ali proti jugu. Kadar je skedenj samostojna zgradba, stoji navadno nasproti hiše in z njo tvori vsaj od dveh strani zaščiteno delovno dvorišče. Skedenj ima praviloma kamnito podnožje, pritličje, v katerem je hlev z nekaterimi pripadajočimi prostori, včasih je tukaj tudi shramba ali kašča. Zidovi so kamniti, sestavljeni iz večjih ali iz manjših, bolj ali manj obdelanih kamnov, včasih so stene ometane, vsaj v notranjem delu, ko se z ometom izognemo špranjam, ki bi jih lahko zasedli zajedavci in insekti (fuge med kamni). Zgornji del, nadstropje je vedno leseno, z okvirno konstrukcijo kvadratnih tramov, ki so povezani z zarezovanjem in zavetrovani z ročicami, ki tečejo od vogala okvirja do vogala, tako tvorijo križe pod petinštiridesetimi stopinjami. Polnilo so plohi na notranji strani, vedno horizontalno postavljeni, z majhnimi odprtinami, ki so zarezane med dva ploha. Če je treba zaščititi vsebino ali preprečiti prihod večjim nepovabljenim gostom, imajo odprtine tudi “mreže”: vertikalne, grobo obrezane palice, ki so vložene v konstrukcijo pred sestavo (kar pomeni, da jih kasneje ni mogoče nadomestiti, ne da bi konstrukcijo samo razdrli). Zgornji del je mnogokrat večji od temeljnega, da omogoča napušč in pokrit prehod med spodnjimi prostori. Streha je vedno dvokapna, navadno s čopi, krita pa z deskami ali redkeje s skodlami na gorenjski način. Podstrešje je navadno izkoriščeno za spravilo krme, kar predstavlja imenitno toplotno zaščito; pozimi bolj efektno (mnogo krme, velika izolacija), spomladi manj (manj krme in v toplih pomladnih dneh manjša potreba), poleti ni krme, ni izolacije in ni potrebe po osamitvi pred mrazom.

A barn appears in the form of a combined stockshed with space for fodder, with individual facilities for storing, processing or after-treating particular products. Such facilities include a “pork kitchen”, dairy, abattoir and smokehouse, depending on need and possibilities. The barn is usually an extension of the farmhouse and normally cuts across it – when the residence is the groundfloor of the part of the building which faces the road or the south. When the barn is an independent building, it normally stands opposite the house and with it forms at least two sides of the protected working yard. A barn generally has a stone base, a groundfloor in which there is the stockshed with ancillary premises, sometimes also a store or granary. The walls are stone, consisting of larger or smaller, more or less worked stones, sometimes the walls are plastered, at least on the inside, so that the plaster prevents cracks which could be occupied by parasites or insects (pointing between the stones). The upper part, the upper storey, is always wooden, with a frame construction of square beams which are scarf jointed and strengthened against the wind by braces, which run from corner to corner of the frame, so that they form a forty-five degree cross. They are filled by boards on the inside, always horizontally placed with small openings cut between two boards. If it is necessary to protect the content and prevented larger uninvited guests, the openings also have a “net” consisting of vertical, roughcut battens inserted in the construction before assembly (which means that they cannot later be replaced without taking apart the construction itself). The upper part is often larger than the foundations, in order to enable an overhanging roof and covered access between the lower spaces. The roof is always gable, usually hipped, and covered with boards or, more rarely, Gorenjska style shingles. The roof space is normally used for storing fodder, which also provides excellent heat protection, more effective in winter (a lot of fodder, plenty of insulation) and less in spring (less fodder and less need for insulation in the warm spring days). In summer there is no fodder, no insulation and no need for it after the last of the frosts.

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<< Š ž The typical barn in the upper Savinja Valley has both faces stone built, with a wooden insertion between. Below are stables, above is a hayloft and fodder store. There are hatches in the floors of these stores with trapdoors for the direct distribution of feed. The most important element of the stone built part is the brickwork net, which ventilate the openings, protect against falling out and from direct sunlight, as well as from view.

gornji Savinjski dolini ima

, ki odpirajo odprtine, varujejo pred izpadan

Zgornja Radovna, Pocar farm The barn has a stone built lower part for livestock and upper storey for feed. The most important part is the ramp to the upper story so that access is possible for a cart. The construction of the central body and roof is wooden, as is the covering.

Skedenj ima zidan spodnji del za živino in nadstropja za krmo. Najpomembnejši del je mostovž do nadstropja, da lahko z vozom dosežemo prostore. Lesena je konstrukcija osrednjega telesa in strehe, pa še kritina je taka.

Gozd Martuljek, Kotnik farm The barn is corner wrapped and limits, concludes and protects the working yard. The lower and rear parts are stone built, the remainder is wood. Below of course are stables, above storage. The barn is threatened today by the road, which passes too close and too high. , pa še previsoko. 4 Robanov kot The exceptional barn in the upper Savinja valley is entirely stone built, since it stands in a narrow valley, on which the sun rarely shines. The stables are accessible from the ground at the front, and the upper storey storage from the rear. Brick network provides ventilation, access to the loft is in the longitudinal facade with “frčada”, at the top of the hip is a wooden figure of a man. At the side is still inserted a “gepl”, equipment for threshing, driven from the ground. In front of the barn stands a shrine covered with wooden shingles.

Izjemen skedenj v Zgornji Savinjski dolini je ves zidan, saj stoji v ozki dolini, kamor sonce ne posije prav pogosto. Spredaj so hlevi, dosegljivi s terena, stop na podstrešje je v vzdolžnem nabožno znamenje, krito s skodlami.

5 Strojna na Koroškem, Janež farm Koroškan barns generally consist of a relatively small mass constructed part with stables and a much larger upper, wooden part which overhangs the lower on the longitudinal side by as much as several metres. The stable has an interesting entrance with wooden pillars, which has classical elements (base, body, capital) and lintel which, because of access for animals is made soft and rounded. Above is access from the ground to the 'barn', hay is stored in the loft. , na podstrešju hranijo seno. Š ž (drawing ) The large barn has stables below and storage above: both the stables and the upper part are divided functionally by purpose and with trapdoors for use. The most attractive aspect is the harmony of the mass constructed part (stone and brick) with the central (wooden) part and with the roof.

(risba)

N (les) in streho.

zidanega dela (kamen in opeka) z osrednjim

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Hlev

Stockshed

>> 1 Zgornje Jezersko Hlev v Alpah je navadno sestavni del skednja in redko nastopa samostojno, redko je majhen. Spodaj je zidan, ima hleve, zgornji del je lesen in ima dostop po stopnišču na balkon, “gank”, ki ščiti spodnje dohode in zgornje vhode v hrambo krme. Hlev - za razliko od kašče - nima nikoli okrasja. Nima niti običajnih detajlov - daljšanja življenjske dobe s prirezovanjem vertikalnih desk in letev. Streha je lesena s čopi. GPS N 5 139 110, E 463 747

>> 1 Zgornje Jezersko A stable in the Alps is normally an integral part of a barn and rarely appears independently. The lower part is mass construction, the upper part is wooden and has access by stairs to the balcony, which protects the lower access and provides access to the fodder storage. A stable – in contrast to a granary – never has any decoration. It doesn't even have the usual details – extending the life period with trimmed vertical boards and slats. The roof is wooden with a hip.

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Kozolec

Kozolec

Kozolec na Gorenjskem je najbolj znan izpod Studorja v Bohinju. Definicija kozolca je: to je stalna, samostojno stoječa, pretežno lesena, odprta in pokrita naprava za sušenje in spravilo. Včasih so poznali le “žitni kozolec”, danes služi pretežno za spravilo sena. Zato tudi prevod v angleščino ni najbolj ustrezen:“hayrack”, stojalo za seno. Studorski kozolci so stari skoraj stoletje in pol, le en je preživel ogenj v drugi polovici devetnajstega stoletja. Zanje je značilna štirikapna streha, ki je bila krita z gorenjskimi skodlami, danes so tam v glavnem le še deske. Kadar je streha dvokapna, navadno nima čopov. V Selški dolini so značilni kozolci z masivnimi zidanimi stebri, med katerimi so vmesni, tanki, leseni. Streha je kamnita, iz tankega skrilja, ki je rombasto pritrjen na letve in omogoča značilne čope. Sorško polje ima preštevilne stegnjene kozolce, med katerimi jih je kar nekaj, ki štejejo po petnajst in več oken (polj med stebri). Kadar je kozolec daleč od doma, ima navadno “birtah”, predpasnik ali plašč za zaščito pred nenadno ploho. Med Bledom in gradom Kamen so kozolci tudi v eno okno, zavetrovani pa so tudi prečno z dvema tramičema, ki se stikata pri zemlji v eni sami točki, ko sta naslonjena na v zemljo zabit kol. Kozolec je tesarska konstrukcija, a pod Kamniškimi Alpami najdemo tudi take, ki jih je naredila mizarska roka, z izrezanimi deskami kot dekoracijo. Kozolec najdemo še na italijanski strani meje proti Trbižu, pa skoraj vse do Čedada, v Dolini so mnogi v stegnjeni obliki, kjer so prav lepo ohranjeni v občini Kranjska Gora, najdemo pa ga še na Jezerskem, kjer stoji na nadmorski višini devetsto metrov.

The best known kozolci in Gorenjska are those below Studor in Bohinj. The definition of a kozolec is a permanent, free-standing object, mainly wooden, open-sided but covered device for drying and storage. They were formerly used for cereals in general, but today are mainly used for storing hay, thus more closely conforming to the English term “hayrack”. The Studor kozolci are almost a century and a half old, only one was destroyed by fire in the second half of the nineteenth century. They are typified by a broach roof which was covered by Gorenjska shingles, although mostly boards are still in use today. When the roof is a gable roof, it is not normally hipped. In Selška dolina, kozolci are typically constructed with stone pillars, with thin, wooden intermediate pillars. The roof is made of stone, a thin slate which is fixed in a rhomboid form to the batons, which enables the characteristic hip. Sorško polje has numerous elongated kozolci, including many that have fifteen or more bays, known locally as “windows”. When a kozolec is far from the farmhouse, it normally has an apron or lean-to for protection against sudden cloudbursts. Between Bled and Kamen castle, there are also kozolci with a single “window”, and they are also strengthened transversely with two beams, which are pressed into the ground at a single point, where they rest against a stake hammered into the ground. A kozolec is normally a rough carpentry construction, but below the Kamnik Alps there are also some made by master joiners, with fretwork boards as decoration. Such kozolci are found on the Italian side of the border towards Tarvisio and almost all the way to Čedad, in Dolina there are many in elongated form, where they have been very well preserved in the municipality of Kranjska gora, and can also be found in Jezersko, standing at an altitude of nine hundred metres.

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<< 1 Zali Log, Selška dolina Pred vasjo Zali Log stoji gruča kozolcev z zidanimi stebri. Notranja konstrukcija je lesena, enako strešna konstrukcija, medtem ko je kritina kamnita, skrilasta, “škalce” jim pravijo tam. Streha je v naklonu ena proti ena in ima čope, kozolec pa je grajen “v tri okna”, s tremi polji. GPS N 5 117 450, E 430 950

<< 1 Zali log, Selška dolina In front of the village of Zali log stands a clustered kozolec with solid pillars. The internal construction is wooden, as is the roof construction, while the covering is slate. The roof has a one to one incline and has a hip, and the kozolec is constructed with three “windows”, bays.

2 Rateče Stegnjen, lesen kozolec ima šest polj, torej je grajen “v šest oken”. Stoji ob cesti v Tamar, v ozadju so Ponce. GPS N 5 111 890, E 451 380

2 Rateče The extended, wooden kozolec has six bays, so is built “in six windows”. It stands by the road in Tamar, in the background are Ponce peaks

3 Žabnica The long extended kozolec is one of many in the fields between Škofja Loka and Kranj. It has six sections and each of the seven pillars has a support. Today, these kozolci are normally covered with tiles. In the background are the Kamnik Alps, Kočna and Grintovec.

3 Žabnica Dolg stegnjen kozolec je eden mnogih na polju med Škofjo Loko in Kranjem. Ima šest polj in vsak od sedmih stebrov ima podporo. Danes so ti kozolci navadno kriti z opečnimi strešniki. V ozadju so Kamniške Alpe, Kočna in Grintovec. GPS N 5 116 490, E 448 645

4 Zgornje Jezersko, Makek A rare execution of a kozolec with mass construction at both ends: such 'corner pillars' are only found in Cerkljansko, and even there they only support the construction of the hayloft. This is probably the highest location of a kozolec, at an altitude of 960 metres.

4 Zgornje Jezersko, Makek Redka izvedba kozolca z zidano konstrukcijo na obeh konceh: take “vogalne stebre” najdemo le še na Cerkljanskem, pa še tam nosijo le konstrukcijo senika. Verjetno bo to kar najvišje ležeči kozolec, saj stoji na višini 960 metrov. GPS N 5 137 120, E 462 090

5 Šmiklavž, Slovenj Gradec Koroškan kozolci are always double, linked and of exceptional dimensions: both as a whole and in details. Even the pillars are mighty, and the internal construction of connectors and longitudinal supports in general. It is not surprising that some elements are designed very subtly, almost softly: the lacelike conclusions of the slats, the ventilation openings, the ventilators on the balconies.

5 Šmiklavž, Slovenj Gradec Koroški kozolci so vedno dvojni, vezani in izjemnih dimenzij: tako v celoti kot v detajlu. Že stebri so močni, notranja konstrukcija poveznikov in vzdolžnih bran pa sploh. Ob tem ni čudno, da so nekateri elementi oblikovani izredno subtilno, skoraj nežno: čipkasti zaključki letev, prezračevalne odprtine, zračniki na balkonu. GPS N 5 144 580, E 509 010

6 Process of Drying (drawing) Drying on the Sun, with warm air. 6 Delovanje kozolca (risba) Sušenje na soncu: vzgon in topli zrak.

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7 Polhograjsko hribovje Ko postane kozolec v naklonu nestabilen, ga moramo podpreti: jasno proti hribu. Tako dobimo konstrukcijo, ki jo je umni graditelj izkoristil za osnovo dodatne strehe, ki ji pravijo plašč, predpasnik, “birtah” in še kako drugače. Teoretično gledano je to začetek kozolca na kozla ali na psa, ki tako dobi več prostora, tudi za voz in za orodje.

7 Polhov gradec hills When a kozolec on a slope becomes unstable it has to be supported: clearly towards the hill, so that a construction is obtained which an intelligent builder used as the basis of an additional roof, called a “cloak”, an “apron”, or “biretta”, among other names. Viewed theoretically, this is the start of a drying rack “na kozla” or “na psa”, which thus gives more space, for either a wagon or tools.

8 Begunje na Gorenjskem Redek kozolec v eno drevo ima dve podpori, ki se združujeta v enem samem kolu. To je v navadi pri kozolcih vse do Žirovnice: podporni tram ni bistveno daljši, problematičnih kolov v zemlji, ki radi trohnijo, pa je za polovico manj. GPS N 5 135 895, E 438 050

8 Begunje na Gorenjskem A rare kozolec with the supports of both pillars coming together at a single point. This customary in kozolci as far as Žirovnica: the support beam is not essentially longer, the problem of supports in the ground, which tend to rot, is halved.

9 Zali log, Selška dolina In Selška Sora valley, as well as in Sorica, kozolci can have either wooden or mass construction pillars, and are slate covered. More rarely they have roofs, but only those with stone pillars.

9 Zali Log, Selška dolina V dolini Selške Sore, pa tudi na Sorici, so kozolci z lesenimi in z zidanimi stebri, ki so kriti s skriljem. Redkejši imajo streho na štiri vode, le tisti s kamnitimi stebri. GPS N 5 117 390, E 430 220

10 Podblica Between Besnica by Kranj and Jamnik stand double connected kozolci which, because of the falling terrain have access from the upper side with steps or galleries. They therefore need a roof window. The roofs have no hip and all have stone roof coverings.

10 Podblica Med Besnico pri Kranju in Jamnikom stojijo dvojni vezani kozolci, ki imajo zaradi padajočega terena dostop z zgornje strani kar s stopnicami ali z mostovžem. Zato rabijo strešno okno. Strehe so brez čopov, vse pa so v kamnitih ploščah. GPS N 5 123 290, E 439 310

11 From Cube to Kozolec (drawing) Baseline, equal to one; diagonal of the square and diagonal of the cube. One, square root of two and square root of three.

11 Od kocke do kozolca (risba) Osnovnica dolžine “ena”, diagonala kvadrata in telesna diagonala kocke. Ena, kvadratni koren iz dve, kvadratni koren iz tri.

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Senik

Hay Barn

Senik je preprosta zgradba, postavljena na senožetih, praviloma daleč od domačije, povsod tam, kjer doma ni zadosti krme. Objekt hrani seno kot krmo za živino. Na Gorenjskem so seniki razmeroma majhne zgradbe, tloris ne preseže nekaj kvadratnih metrov. Gre seveda za hribovit teren in za zahtevno ter naporno košnjo, tako da je velikost kar primerna. Zgradba ima vsega eno samo celico, s podstrešjem vred. Majhnost namreč zagotavlja konstrukcijo brez osrednjega poveznika, ki bi povezoval ostrešje. Streha je lesena, skodlasta ali danes iz desak, dvokapna, z naklonom ena proti ena ali petinštirideset stopinj. Čopa ni, saj gre za najpreprostejšo konstrukcijo. V Radovni in predvsem na Tolminskem ima senik v sprednjem delu nekak trem, pokrit predprostor. Streha je potegnjena naprej in je podprta z dvema stebroma. Prostor trema služi ljudem pred delom in po njem, pa za nakladanje med delom. Posebni so seniki na Cerkljanskem, kjer imajo le nekaj kvadratnih metrov veliki tlorisi masivne zidane kamnite stebre. Ti so včasih le vizualno povečani, saj so v obliki črke “L”, da je notranji prostor vseeno malo večji. Ker stojijo v strmem naklonu, imajo dve celici, drugo pod drugo. V spodnjo je dostop spredaj, v zgornjo z zadnje, zgornje strani s terena. Mnogokrat nimajo zadnjih vrat in je zgornja celica dosegljiva kar skozi odprt zatrep.

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<< 1 Planina Javornik, Pokljuka In contrast to Alpine dairying, where the stock spend the summer on the mountain pastures and the herdsman lives there, hay barns are objects in which hay is stored more or less temporarily if the hayfield is far from the farm. A hay barn is generally stone built to half way and then wooden. Because of drying, which is essential for fodder â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a hay barn must be ventilated. On Planina Javornik, they are mainly also stables, where the herdsmen live, too, and to which the stock is returned, but sometimes they are also really individual hay barns. A particularity is the selfsupporting construction, in which the object does not have the supporting elements of a roof but sits directly on the body of the building. Although it thus uses more material, this is to hand and practically free, since the owners of the hay barns and the livestock also own the forests.

<< 1 Planina Javornik, Pokljuka

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Su ilnica

Drying kiln

To so objekti za sušenje, predvsem sadja in lanu. Gre za sušenje s pomočjo ognja, ki je lahko odprt ali pa je dim odvajan po posebnih kanalih okrog prostora za sadje proti dimniku. Slednji so najštevilčnejši na obronkih Kranjskega polja, pod Kamniškimi Alpami. Sušilnice z odprtim dimom so bolj običajne. Ob pazljivem delu je rezultat boljši, saj ima sadje ob sušenju še duh in okus po dimu. Tehnično so sušilnice sestavljene iz ognjišča v spodnjem delu, ki je razumljivo kamnit, ter iz zgornjega dela, navadno lesenega, ki ima horizontalna vodila za predale, palete, ki so zgrajeni iz lesenega okvirja in iz rešetkaste površine iz letev, kar je mnogokrat tudi preplet iz vej. Strešna konstrukcija je lesena, zaradi majhnosti preprosta. Najboljša kritina je slama, ki prepušča dim in samodejno uravnava vlek.Vlažna slama dim zadržuje, ko pa je potrebna višja temperatura, je streha suha in dim prav vleče s kurišča. Navadno so sušilnice v strmem terenu, da imamo čepe dostop do ognja, stoje do sadja (za delo in za kontrolo), z zgornje strani pa v primeru požara takoj pridemo do strehe. Sušilnice za žito z ognjem, kot jih imajo v Rusiji in tam nadomeščajo naš kozolec, pri nas ne poznamo.

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<< 1 Kneške Ravne above Baška grapa The drying house at the Pri Francu farm stands at a bend in the road to the farm. It is open and has a thatched roof. The hearth is open, and at the side is a space for preparation, which other drying houses do not usually have.

<< 1 Kneške Ravne nad Baško grapo Sušilnica v domačiji Pri Francu stoji v zavoju ceste do domačije, je odprta in ima slamnato streho. Kurišče je odprto, ob strani pa je prostor za pripravo, česar druge sušilnice navadno nimajo. GPS N 5 118 890, E 409 380

2 Kneške Ravne View of the drying house from the rear shows the well maintained thatched roof and opening (window) of the working space.

2 Kneške Ravne Pogled na sušilnico z zadnje strani kaže lepo vzdrževano slamnato streho in odprtino (okno) delovnega prostora. GPS N 5 118 890, E 409 380

3 Sv. Lenart below Krvavec The drying house is no longer in use today: actually it is, but by goats seeking shade from the heat of the sun. The drying house has a hearth at the side, and through a small hole it releases among the fruit heat for drying and smoke for fragrance.

3 Sv. Lenart pod Krvavcem Sušilnica danes ni več v uporabi: pravzaprav je - uporabljajo jo koze, ki iščejo senco pred premočnim soncem. Sušilnica ima kurišče ob strani, skozi manjše luknje pa med sadje spušča toploto za sušenje in dim za vonj. GPS N 5 123 710, E 467 980

4 Kneške Ravne The thatched roof of the drying house is reinforced by two battens, which protrude decoratively.

4 Kneške Ravne Sleme strehe sušilnice je učvrščeno z dvema letvama, ki se prav dekorativno kažeta navzven. GPS N 5 118 890, E 409 380

5 Čadovlje by Tržič The renovated drying house in the settlement that also contains Jamenšnik house is of the closed type. It has a hearth at the side and a supported porch for work at the front. The size indicates that it would have been used by several farms.

5 Čadovlje priTržiču Obnovljena sušilnica v zaselku, kjer je tudi Jamenšnikova hiša, je zaprtega tipa. Ob strani ima kurišče, spredaj pa podprto preddverje za delo. Velikost govori o tem, da je bila v skupni uporabi več kmetov GPS N 5 136 410, E 447 808

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Ka a

Granary

Kašča je na Gorenjskem sestavni del hiše (kot shramba), lahko pa je - kot v ostali Sloveniji - samostojni objekt nedaleč od hiše. Od hiše je ločena zato, da pri morebitnem požaru ne pogori tudi hrana, čim bliže pa, da je čim bolj nadzorovana. No, v Dolini pravijo “kašča” ali ”kašta” tudi bazenu ali zajetju za vodo. Kašča je navadno dvocelična, po višini. Spodaj je 'klet' in zgoraj značilna kašča kot taka. Spodnji del drži stalno vlago, zgornji konstantno temperaturo. Na Gorenjskem je največ takih, ki so povsem zidane, ki torej ohranjajo toploto. Gre za majhne tlorise, velike največ nekaj kvadratov. Odprtine so majhne: zaradi varnosti so še dodatno zamrežene, vsaj s kovano rešetko (Srednja vas). Vhod je, zanimivo, lahko tudi z juga, čeprav je to povsem nepraktično (sonce, spremembe toplote, insekti). Kašča je pomemben del kmečkega gospodarstva in je zato tudi krašena, kar drugi objekti niso. Gre za lepo izrezljana vrata ali za pobarvane vogale zidanih sten, da bi pokazali statično vrednost zgradbe. Tudi če je zgrajena iz drobirja, vezanega z malto, je v vogalu narisan “šivani rob” velikih kamnov (Potoki). Bolj proti vzhodu so kašče vedno bolj lesene, dvocelične tudi v nadstropju. Lahko stojijo v smeri vzhod - zahod, če je to ob poti in v bregu (Zgornje Jezersko). Notranjost kašče je izdelana zaradi majhnosti po meri: lesene skrinje za žita raznih vrst imajo zgoraj večje lopute za vmetavanje in spodaj manjše izlive za uporabo.Ti izlivi imajo navadno drsna zapirala (Potoki). Kašča je pravzaprav prva gospodarska arhitektura, ki je z novimi tehnologijami začela odmirati.

The granary is a composite part of the house (as storehouse) in Gorenjska but, as elsewhere in Slovenia, it can be a freestanding building in the vicinity of the house. It is separated from the house so that both are not destroyed in the event of fire, but as close as possible so as to have it better under surveillance. In Dolina, the same word is also used for a pool or reservoir for water. A granary is normally two-unit, one on top of the other. Below is the cellar and above the typical granary as such. The lower part maintains constant humidity and the upper constant temperature. In Gorenjska, most are fully mass construction, and therefore retain heat. They have a small groundplan, a few square metres at most. Openings are small: for the sake of security they are also fitted with an iron grill (Srednja vas). Interestingly, the entrance can also be to the south, although this is entirely unpractical (sun, change of temperature, insects). A granary is an important part of the farm economy and is thus also decorated – which other buildings are not. They have finely carved doors or coloured corners to the solid walls, in order to stress the static value of the building. Even if it is made from gravel bound with mortar, an edge of large stones is outlined at the corners (Potoki). Further east, granaries are always wooden, also two-cell in the upper floor. They can also stand in an east-west direction if they are beside a track or on a bank (Zgornje Jezersko). The interior of a granary, because of their smallness, is made to size: wooden chests for various cereals have a large ladle above for shifting it and a small discharge below for use. These discharges normally have a sliding shutter (Potoki). The granary was actually the first economic architecture which began to disappear with new technologies.

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<< 1 Hum med Knežo inTolminom Kašča ima zidano klet z ožjim lesenim telesom, pa spet z razširjeno konstrukcijo strehe. Na polico kleti ob telesu zgradbe spravljajo palice z njive. Streha je slamnata, z značilnima palicama v slemenu. Vhod v klet je s sprednje strani, v leseni del kašče zadaj s terena in ima spredaj le prezračevalne odprtine. GPS N 5 118 390, E 406 980

<< 1 Hum between Kneža and Tolmin The granary has a mass construction cellar with a narrower wooden body, and then an extended roof construction. Poles for field crops are stored on the shelf of the cellar beside the body of the building. The roof is thatched with typical battens at the ridge. The entrance to the cellar is at the front, and to the wooden part of the granary from the ground at the back with only ventilation holes at the front.

2 Kneške Ravne Lesena kašča stoji v hribu pod dovozno cesto, ki je istočasno dvorišče domačije Pri Francu. Skodle za streho pripravljajo doma. Zadaj je dimnik, prvotno lesen, pa potem zaščiten z ilovico in obdan s prepletom, ki še deluje. GPS N 5 118 428, E 409 290

2 Kneške Ravne The wooden granary stands on a hillside below the access road, which is at the same time the yard of Pri Francu farm. The roof shingles are made on the farm. At the back is a chimney, originally wooden, and then protected by clay and wrapped with withies. It still functions.

3 Kneške Ravne Zidana kašča Pri Francu ima štiri etaže: spodaj je od spredaj dosegljiva klet, od strani mizarska delavnica in kovačija, po stopnišču in čez balkon pridemo v kaščo samo, po lestvah pa na podstrešje. Kašča deluje v celoti: leta 2008 oča še vedno skujejo, kar je na domačiji potrebno.Tega drugje ne najdemo. GPS N 5 118 421, E 409 298

3 Kneške Ravne The mass construction granary at Pri Francu farm has four storeys: at the bottom, the cellar is accessible from the front, a carpentry workshop and smithy from the side, the granary itself is reached below the stairs and through a balcony and there is a ladder to the roof space. The granary still functions in entirety: in 2008 they were still forging forge what is needed on the farm. This is not found elsewhere.

4Tolminske Ravne Obnovljena kašča v nekdaj veliki vasi med Tolminom in planino Razor, na drugi strani Vogla in bohinjskih vršacev, je zidana v dve etaži in pokrita s strmo slamnato streho. GPS N 5 119 870, E 395 750

4Tolminske Ravne The renovated granary in the formerly large village between Tolmin and Razor planina, with Vogel and Bohinj peaks on the other side, is built in two storeys and covered with a steep thatched roof.

5Vrsno Kašča stoji v vasi, nedaleč od rojstne hiše pesnika Simona Gregorčiča. Ima tri etaže in podstrešje ter streho iz korcev v blagem naklonu z izjemnimi napušči, ki varujejo predvsem pred soncem in s tem vzdržujejo čim bolj stalno temperaturo. Uporabna kvadratura je ob majhnem tlorisu izjemno velika. GPS N 5 119 860 , E 395 420

5Vrsno The granary stands in a village not far from the birthplace of the poet Simon Gregorčič. It has three storeys and an attic and a roof, made from under and over barrel tiles, with exceptional overhangs providing protection mainly from the sun and thus retaining as constant a temperature as possible. The useful area is extremely large from a small ground plan.

6Vrsno (risba) Še pred leti je imela kašča balkon tudi spredaj. Kazalo bi ga obnoviti, tako bi dokaj ohranjena vas pridobila na svoji istovetnosti. Žal je lepa kašča izjemno nefotogenična: zato več povedo tehnične risbe objekta.

6Vrsno (drawing) A few years ago, the granary also had a balcony at the front. It would be worth renovating, so that the fairly well-preserved village would regain its identity. Unfortunately, the beautiful granary is extremely unphotogenic: so technical drawings of the object are more eloquent.

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7 Makekova kašča na Jezerskem Kašča je obrnjena proti popoldanskemu soncu, vhod pa ima z zadnje strani. Enocelična konstrukcija v vsaki etaži je preprosta in funkcionalna, dekorativni pa izgledajo konstrukcijski zaključki desk in letev, ki s svojim prirezovanjem daljšajo življenjsko dobo lesenim oblogam. GPS N 5 137 250, E 462 285

8 Mačkin kot, Šmiklavž pri Gornjem Gradu Še pred leti je imela kašča novo, betonsko kritino, ki so jo danes zamenjali v izvirno slamo. Dodali so stranski balkon, kjer je bilo njega dni le stopnišče. Zidana klet je še v uporabi, prav tako zgornji del za sušenje mesa. Žita seveda ni več. GPS N 5 126 620, E 479 710

9 Logarjevi kašči v Logarski dolini Kašči stojita pred domačijo in ju od nje loči le stara cesta, ki je danes na srečo speljana okrog. Obrnjeni sta proti zahodu, zato je nanju najlepši pogled, ko sta proti večeru obsijani s soncem. GPS N 5 140 090, E 472 190

10 Graufova kašča, Podkraj pri Mežici Kašča je del stare lesene domačije z imenitno skodlasto streho. Kašča ima vidno ločen spodnji del, ki je zidan in belo prebeljen ter zgornji del, ki je lesen in nosi streho. Tudi zgornji del ima dve etaži in balkon, dosegljiv z obeh strani obokanega vhoda v klet. Izjemni napušči krijejo stranske stene, pod enim je danes spravljena še stiskalnica za sadje. GPS N 5 151 280, E 487 710

11Logarjeva kašča, Logarska dolina (risba) Običajna hiša ima temelj, telo zgradbe, strešno konstrukcijo in kritino. Pomembnost savinjskih kašč je v poenostavljanju konstrukcije in dela, pa v manj uporabljenem materialu. Temelja nima, ker je lahka; telo je tudi strešna konstrukcija, na katero kar nalagamo elemente strehe. To je vrhunec zdrave kmečke pameti: ne le gradbeno, tudi vidno. Ta tip kašče je pravi dragulj vernakularne arhitekture.

7 Makek granary in Jezersko The granary is turned towards the afternoon sun and the entrance is from the rear. The single cell construction on each storey is simple and functional. The construction termination of the boards and battens appear decorative, but the trimming extends the lifespan of the wooden cladding.

8 Mačkin kot, Šmiklavž by Gornji grad Just a few years ago, the granary had a new, concrete tile cover, which has been replaced today with the original thatch. A side balcony has been added, where in its day there were only stairs. The mass construction cellar is still in use, as is the upper part for drying meat. There is, of course, no longer grain.

9 Logar granaries in Logarska dolina The two granaries stand in front of the farmhouse, separated from it by the old road, which fortunately today is led around. They are turned towards the west, so the finest view of them is when they are lit up by the sun towards evening.

10 Grauf granary, Podkraj by Mežica The granary is part of an old wooden farmstead with an excellent shingle roof. The granary has visibly separated lower part, which is mass construction and whitewashed, and upper part, which is wooden and carried the roof. The upper part also has two storeys and a balcony, accessible from both sides in the cellar. The exceptional overhang covers the side walls, under one of which a fruit press is today stored.

11 Logar granary, Logarska dolina (drawing) A house normally has foundations, the body of the building, roof construction and covering. The importance of the Savinja granaries is in the simplified construction rather than the materials used. It has no foundations because it is light; the body is also the roof construction, on which the roof elements are laid. This is the height of healthy peasant intelligence: not just in constructional terms, but also visibly. This type of granary is a real jewel of vernacular architecture.

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Staja

Staja

Staja je občasno zatočišče za živino in za pastirja, ko je pašnik daleč od doma. Pašništvo se odvija od junija do septembra, ko iz doline ženejo živino na planine. Princip planšarstva poznamo povsod v Alpah, pa tudi drugje v visokogorskih krajih, kjer je mogoča paša. Ta je namreč boljša in preprostejša kot v dolini. Prostora je več, manj je omejitev, krma je bolj zdrava in več je je. Pastir ali planšar oskrbuje živino več lastnikov in iz mleka izdeluje sir ter druge pridelke. Najbolj znane so planšarije v Julijskih Alpah, kjer so staje zaradi terena umaknjene na rob in stojijo v strmem naklonu. Deljene so na dve ravni: spodaj so živali in zgoraj pastir. Staje v Julijcih imajo tako vhod za človeka zadaj, s terena, spredaj pa je lahko tudi balkon ali vsaj okno za kontrolo živali. Najbolj znane so planšarije v bohinjskih planinah. Velika planina v Kamniških Alpah je edina planina, kjer so še ohranjene ovalne staje, teoretično kot ostanki najstarejših znanih bivališč človeka pri nas.V sredini je kvadraten prostor za pastirja, nekoliko dvignjen od ravni za živino okrog. Streha je lesena, skodlasta z vzdolžnim slemenom, z vhodom z vzdolžne strani in brez odprtin. Svetloba vstopa skozi vhod, dim pa izhaja med skodlami v slemenu. Žal so v drugi vojni planino požgali, ostala je le Preskarjeva bajta, druge pa je imenitno prenovil arhitektVlasto Kopač, ki je za potrebe počitniške hiše odprl okno in zaradi varnosti namestil dimnik. Velika planina je na tem področju nedvomno eden najpomembnejših spomenikov vernakularne arhitekture pri nas in v svetu. “Hiška” je kamnito zatočišče za pastirja na Krasu. Grajena je iz kamna, v korbelingu, ko s previsevanjem konstruiramo nepravo kupolo. Hiška je pomembna, ker ne priznava političnih meja. Stoji na obeh straneh slovensko-italijanske meje, a na slovenskem etničnem ozemlju.

A staja is a temporary shelter for both livestock and the herdsman when the pasture is far from home. Pasturage, known as transhumance, takes place from June to September, when animals are driven from the valleys to the mountain pastures. The principle of transhumance is known throughout the Alps, as well as in other high mountain regions where pasture is possible. It is in fact better and simpler than in the valley; there is more space, fewer restrictions, the feed is healthier and there is more of it. The Alpine herdsman looks after the animals of a number of owners and makes cheese and other products from the milk. The Alpine dairies in the Julian Alps are best known, where, because of the terrain, they are set back to the edges or stand on steep slopes. They are divided into two levels: below are the animals and above the herdsman. Stajas in the Julian Alps thus have an entrance for the herdsman at the back, from the slope, and in front there can also be a balcony, or at least a window for watching the animals. The best known are the stajas on Bohinj mountain pastures. Velika planina in the Kamnik Alps is the only mountain pasture on which an oval staja has been retained, at least in theory a remnant of the oldest human dwelling here. There is a square space for the herdsman in the centre, slightly raised above the level of the animals round about. The roof is wooden, shingled, with a longitudinal ridge, with an entrance from the longitudinal side and without apertures: light enters through the entrance and smoke exits between the shingles on the roof. Unfortunately, the pasture was fired by the occupying forces during the Second World War and only Preskarjeva bajta remains. Others have been excellently renovated by the architect Vlasto Kopač, who inserted windows for the needs of holiday homes and for safety's sake added chimneys. Velika planina is undoubtedly one of the most important monuments to vernacular architecture not only in Slovenia but in the world. A hiška or “little house” is a stone shelter for herdsmen on the Karst. It is made from stone, in a corbelling technique whereby a false cupola is constructed by overlapping the stones. The hiška is important because it does not recognise political borders: it stands on both sides of the Slovene-Italian border, and on Slovene ethnic territory.

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<< 1Velika planina Bohinjske planine in predvsem Pokljuka so posejane s predeli, kjer je še danes razvito planšarstvo, ko pozno spomladi ženejo živino v planino in jo vrnejo zgodaj v jeseni. Na planini je planšar, ki skrbi za živino in sir, kmetje, ki mu oddajo živino, pa mu plačajo ali oddelajo določeno število dni na planini. Najbolj zanimiva - v arhitekturnem smislu - je Velika planina z ovalnimi stanovi, ki predstavljajo izvorne, najstarejše arhitekturne oblike hiše. 5 127 152 473 210

<< 1 Velika planina Bohinjske planine in and above all Pokljuka are scattered with mountain pastures, where alpine pasturage, or transhumance, is still developed today, when the cattle are taken to the mountain pasture in late spring and return in the early autumn. There is a herdsman on the mountain pasture, who looks after the animals and cheese, and the farms who hand the animals over to him either pay him or work a certain number of days on the mountain pasture. The most interesting – in the architectural sense – is Velika planina, with oval buildings, which represent the original, oldest architectural form of house.

2 Podkoren Staja v Podkorenu, na desni strani Save pod gozdom, je zidana do preklade in je lesena nad njo. Spodaj je bila živina, zgoraj krma. Preprosta, neproblematična konstrukcija enocelične staje zagotavlja uporabo, ki jo kmet - nedaleč od domačije - potrebuje. 5 149 155 403 220

2 Podkoren The pen in Podkorn, on the right side of the Sava below the forest is mass constructed to the lintel and wooden above it. Below were animals, above fodder. The simple, uncomplicated construction of the single cell staja provides the functionality that a farmer needs not far from the farm.

3 Podkoren Nekoliko večja od sosednje (prejšnja staja je na sliki levo zgoraj) in z odprtim, pokritim sprednjim delom je staja, ki stoji pod prvo. Preddverje stoji na dveh lesenih stebrih, streha pa je spredaj čopasta. 5 149 290 403 330

3 Podkoren Slightly larger than its neighbour (the previous staja is upper left in the picture) and with open, covered front part is a staja which stands below the first. The porch is supported on two wooden pillars, and the roof is hipped only at the front.

4 Korensko sedlo Ob velikem travniku na Korenu je staja postavljena proti zahodu. Pokrit vhodni del je velik, hlevski del je zidan. Zgoraj je prostor za krmo, streha je čopasta. 5 152 190 404 100

4 Korensko sedlo Beside the large meadow on Koren the staja faces west. It has a large covered entrance part, the stable part is mass construction. Above is space for fodder, the roof is hipped.

5 Korensko sedlo Zgornja staja na istem travniku je nekoliko manjša od prve in pretežno lesena, preddverje je skoraj zaprto. Strehe so danes iz desk, s čopi. 5 152 310 404 120

5 Korensko sedlo The above staja on the same meadow is slightly smaller than the first and predominantly wooden, the porch is almost enclosed. The roof is from boards, with a hip.

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6Velika planina Staje na Veliki planini stojijo na platoju, visoko v kamniških gorah. Množica objektov govori o njihovi pomembnosti za nekdanje gospodarstvo, ki ga v manjšem obsegu nadaljujejo tudi danes. Staje na Veliki planini je - razen ene edine, Preskarjeve - okupator v zadnji vojni požgal. Po vojni so jih obnovili, pri tem pa je pomembno, da jih je posodobil in prilagodil sodobnemu življenju arhitekt Vlasto Kopač, ki je zaprt tloris (brez oken in dimnika) odprl in s tem omogočil njihovo udobnejšo uporabo. GPS N 5 127 260, E 473 121

6 Velika planina The pens on Velika planina stand on a plateau high in the Kamnik mountains. The large number of objects testifies to their importance in the former economy, which continues to a lesser extent today. The German occupier burned the stajas on Velika planina during WW2, with the exception of one, Preskarjeva bajta. They were renovated after the war, in which it is important that they were modernised and adapted to contemporary life by the architect Vlasto Kopač, who opened the closed ground plan (without windows and chimney) and thus enabled their more comfortable use.

7 PlaninaV Lazu To je nedvomno ena naših najlepših planin, ujeta med strme vršace, kakor odrezana od ostalega sveta. Zato je ostala arhitektura dokaj istovetna, sprememb in dodatkov je malo. GPS N 5 131 210, E 409 705

7 Planina V Lazu This is undoubtedly one of the most beautiful Slovene mountain pastures, caught between the steep peaks as though cut off from the rest of the world. The architecture therefore remains fairly much the same, there have been few changes or additions.

8 Planina Dedno polje Majhna planina ima le nekaj staj, ki so grajene prav posebno: na eni strani stojijo na tleh, na drugi na “kobilah”, med katerimi se stiskajo živali. Zgoraj je pastir, ki vstopa s terena skozi vrata, skozi okno kontrolira žival. Gre za izjemen izkoristek terena in za odnos do materiala, ko je z malo lesa doseženo največ. GPS N 5 129 765, E 408 490

8 Planina Dedno polje The small mountain pasture has only a few pens which are built very individually: one side stands on the ground, the other on “trestles” among which the cattle are squeezed. Above is the herdsman, who enters from the ground through a door and keeps watch on the stock through a window. It is exceptional exploitation of the terrain and attitude to materials, when the most is achieved with a little wood.

9 Planina Krstenica Krstenica je najvišja med bohinjskimi planinami. Na njej so značilne, razmeroma velike staje s strehami, ki segajo do tal, da čim bolj ščitijo pastirja in žival. Velikost je pogojena z višino in oddaljenostjo od domačih vasi, saj je Krstenica - za razliko od planine Laz - postavljena na sončne grbine v težaven teren. GPS N 5 130 792, E 411 510

9 Planina Krstenica Krstenica is the highest Bohinj mountain pasture. On it are characteristic, relatively large stajas with roofs that extend to the ground in order to protect the herdsman and animals as much as possible. The size is conditioned by the altitude and the distance from the home villages, since Krstenica, in contrast to Planina Laz, is located on a sunny ridge in difficult terrain.

10Velika planina (risba) Bolj kot na zunaj, ko spominja na šotor, sta vidna pomen in razvoj najstarejše gradbene oblike, kar jih poznamo: ovala. Kvadraten bivalni del za pastirja obkroža oval, v katerem živi žival, ki je tako varna, da je pod kontrolo, pastirja pa še greje. Vse zunanje površine so mehke, zaokrožene in so se spretno izognile vsem problematičnim vogalom. Dobra arhitektura navzven vedno izgleda manjša kot je.

10 Velika planina (drawing) More than on the outside, which is reminiscent of a tent, is the evident importance and development of the oldest building form that we know: oval. The square living space of the herdsman is surrounded by an oval in which the animals live, which are thus safe and under control, and the herdsman is kept warm. All the external surfaces are soft, rounded and skilfully avoid all the problems of corners. Good architecture always looks smaller from the outside than it is.

6 8

7 9 10

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Glossary (Slovene)

a (glej: čerpič)

beseda arhitektura je smiselni prevod iz grščine: arhi tektura = trdno stati (glej: klasična, vernakularna arhitektura)

omejen prostor z enakimi značilnostmi od perspektivnega pogleda se loči, ker vse linije tečejo vzporedno in ne v očišča, je na latinski izraz “arpha“ uporabljajo tudi v Graubuendnu, za naš kozolec pa ga je našel Pirkovič, pojavi

švedski izraz za stožčasto stojalo za obdevanje snopov (Laid s, ki ga gledamo kot klasični tloris, a vidimo sestavne elemente v ogledalu navzgor: da čim

b zgornji rob pa predstavlja računsko izhodišče za proporcioniranje arhitektura je oblikovanje prostora, pri čemer je prostor vse okrog nas, rezultati pa so gradbeni

110


umetni kamen: pred naravnim ima to prednost, da ga lahko armiramo, učvrstimo - takrat prenaša tudi natege, ki jih

temelj specifične oblike

plašč, predpasnik pri kozolcu, ko sta eno ali dve polji prekriti kot zaščita pred nenadnim dežjem (po Koširju, Zgornja Dolina) “ “

zgradba za bivanje človeka

ojačana s slamo

c narečno “predpasnik“: pri kozolcu je to nadstrešek, navadno “ “

strešnik ploske oblike, ki ga sestavljamo s preklopom (v dveh ravninah, dvojno kritje): ime je dobil po polkrožnem zaključku, ki pos

jša zaključena (in popolna) enota: v biologiji ima jedro, maso in obod; teoretično - krogla

v retoromanščini (“Rumantsch“), po Simonettu osrednja točka, okrog katere se vrtijo sestavni deli lika

lesena palica iz dveh neenakih delov z zglobom: s cepcem mlatimo žito in s tem ločujemo zrno od plev

navzkriž “prepleteni“ tramovi, ki s križanjem tvorijo čelno ploskev kozolca: zavetruje, nosi in zapira; “prepletenost“ je izvedena z zarezovanjem

ARHITEKTURA SLOVENIJE, ALPSKI DEL

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ARCHITECTURE OF SLOVENIA, ALPINE PART


sekira s kratkim ročajem (po Koširju, Zgornja Dolina)

č

lokalizem: soba; iz nemščine dve enakovredni čeli (na krajših straneh pravokotnega tlorisa), kmečka daj pa je čelo navadno leseno, saj je manj pomembno, če

angleški čevelj meri 30.479 cm

čokatost v kompoziciji

širino: čoka

mehčanje strehe s kratko

kuhinja, v katero se odpira peč: “črna“ je zaradi

v prerezu stopničenje, previsevanje; v tlorisu krog; v prostoru neprava kupola

d

izvedba besede kozolec iz leta 1659, po Pirkoviču

osnovni, vertikalni del drevesa, ki ga najbolj uporabljamo v tesarstvu in v mizarstvu; teoretično je deblo okroglega prereza

kjer je večja enota razdeljena na deset manjših

dekor je posamični element, detajl okrasja

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okrasje: ponavljajoči se detajli, ki predstavljajo krašenje

domačo hišo iz nemščine: doerren

: na streho

nkcionalnimi površinami (dvorišče, gumno itn), ki delujejo v sklopu

jo nameščajo drugo zraven druge, s preklopom pa

del celote; lahko je zaključen detajl ali pa sestavni del večjega sklopa lesena konstrukcija za spuščanje lesa v naklonu (gorenjsko, po Koširju) diagonala je prečna povezava dveh nasprotnih točk

določa razme in s tem lika, ki ga stranici oklepata (trikotnik: s pomočjo simetrije tudi drugi liki) , tako kritje je debelejše in težje od enojnega, zahteva močnejšo strešno konstrukcijo

“ “

e

“ “

, da pride v dimnik (ali dimnično odprtino) že ohlajen (prvi dimniki so leseni)

določena dolžina, razdalja med dvema točkama , dve dimenziji določata ploskev, tri dimenzije pa telo

iz gorišča v zrak: najbolj viden je zunanji del dimnika; najbolj značilni zunanji deli so na Krasu (ker morajo zagotavljati odvod dima tudi v neugodnih vremenskih okoliščinah - v vetru)

ARHITEKTURA SLOVENIJE, ALPSKI DEL

upravljanje z vsemi viri na način, ki ustreza kulturnim vrednotam, sociološki razvitosti posameznika in družbe, zgodovinski preddoločenosti, znanju posameznika in zavedanju preživetja (po Zupančiču, doktorska disertacija)

trikotnik s tremi enako dolgimi stranicami in s tremi enakimi koti (60 stopinj); kolikor je stranica enaka dolžini “1“, je višina enakostraničnega trikotnika kvadratni koren iz tri polovic

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ortogonalna, pravokotna mreža je le teoretični približek dejanskega stanja točke, ki leži pravokotno na os skozi cent je označevana

f

pogonska naprava (za mlačev), z zunanjim pogonom

g

vodja kmečkega gospodarstva, navadno najstarejši lastnik

“,

a (grafično: črta) med naravno ali v arhitekturi: skrajne mere kompozicije; teoretično so stalne, v praksi pa se

objekt, ki je namenjen gospodarstvu na podeželju, združuje več namembnosti: hlev, senik, kašča, delavnica itn

umno ravnanje v okviru danih pogojev, upoštevanje zdrave pameti glej tudi izraz ekonomika

“,

kmečko posestvo, “

gospodarsko enoto

114


umeščanja v pro

čk

bivalni prostor kmečke hiše

fizični delavec, pomočnik pri kmetskih delih

premična, priročna, konzolna naprava, nameščena na letve kozolca, da kmet na njem stoji in obdeva, ponekod imenovan tudi stolček

aradi premočnih tresljajev ne uporabljajo cepcev, pač

objekt, namenjen bivanju domači

pa

gumno kakor v Sloveniji, navadno na odprtem: utrjen, tlakovan prostor za mlačev “ “

vodoravna črta, ki loči Z

h ; Melik ga je pri nas našel tudi na Kočevskem

I sklop skupnih značilnosti, temeljna značilnost

ARHITEKTURA SLOVENIJE, ALPSKI DEL

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k a pomočnika pri kmetskih delih, mnogokrat so vanjo nameščali ostarele

sklop skupnih značilnosti, temeljna značilnost je kalana postopoma v več udarcih (ker je daljša) ločevanje dveh ali več elementov: zunanje od notranjega, toplo od hladnega itn

j

(ponekod se ločita “skodla“ in “šinkeljn“

bistvo kalanja je ohranjanje žil v lesu, pri čemer lesa ne ranimo (kot pri žaganju), s tem pa je življenjska doba bistveno daljša

sklop enega ali več elementov

preprosto zatočišče za pastirja ali za živino, v kamnu, konstrukcija je korbeling ali previsevanje

“ primitivno, prvo zatočišče pračloveka: ščiti hrbet, medtem ko sprednji, odprti del varuje človek sam

prva grafična izpoved pračloveka,

trd les, iglavec (najbolj značilen kot bela, ribana mizna površina v kmečki “hiši“)

116


matematično

v zgodovini poznamo nekaj sto različnih komolcev: egipčanski na primer meri kakih 52 cm

celota, sestavljena iz posamičnih detajlov, ki med seboj fizično delujejo

lesena skodla, po Mušiču

določene kulture

lesen čep za povezovanje klin ima spredaj/zgoraj širši del (da ne izpade) in zadaj/spodaj koničasto ožino, da lahko najdemo odprtino spodnjega dela konstrukcije; deluje le, če je od vlage napet - izsušen izpade

zagozda, ki razpira in omogoča žaganje (gorenjsko, po Koširju)

to je naprava za proizvodnjo glasu, ki izkorišča veter: s tem v sadovnjaku ali v vinogradu aktivno odgan slično dejavnost opravlja strašilo, ki z likom (človeka) pasivno plaši in s tem odganja ptice

kilometer, tisoč metrov

previsevanje, gradnja s pomočjo horizontalnih gradbenih plasti, kjer vsaka naslednja previseva spodnjo; značilni tloris je krog, v prerezu pa nastopa enakostranični trikotnik, stopničenje; rezultat korbelinga v treh

opečna kritina enega samega elementa (korca), kjer so spodnji elementi obrnjeni navzgor (da lovijo in odvajajo vodo), enaki zgornji pa prekrivajo spoj spodnjih dveh (kot pri prekrivanju): izhaja iz latinske kritine, čemer so imeli oni spodnjega oglatega in zgornjega polkroglega

beseda, ki označuje kozolec na Tirolskem

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lesena posoda za vodo, katere ročaj je podaljšan

Janez Žiga Popovič

je s streho v blagem naklonu, podprta konstrukcija govori o začasni uporabi (Laid)

zasilno bivališče, krito z lubjem (gorenjsko,

omejen prostor z enakimi značilnostmi ar

o“

oznaka za stegnjeni kozolec v Ziljski dolini, poroča Melik

območje s kraškimi pojavi, ko voda razjeda mehak apnenec

(množinska oblika) stojalo, podstavek v obliki črke “A“

, pečena v ognju: oblike so lahko ravne, valovite ali s preklopom

geometrijsko mesto točk, enako oddaljenih od centra, ima le eno dimenzijo: radij

118


spuščanje hlodov v dolino (po Koširju, Zgornja Dolina) princip oboka v prostoru, v treh dimenzijah; prva in najbolj popolna kupola je Pantheon v Rimu (v prelomu tisočletja)

pokrov odprtine, ki se odpira na horizontalnih tečajih v vertikalni smeri, navzgor geometrični lik, ki

kvadratni koren iz dve je dolžina diagonale kvadrata s stranico ena (prečna pov

m mehak les, iglavec: med mehkimi lesovi najtrši, ker počasi raste v neugodnih razmerah, je značilne rdečkaste barve

to je višina enakostraničnega trikotnika, če je osnovnica dolga dve: pri stranici “ena” (1) je višina kvadratni koren iz tri polovic ( 3/2 )

l širina repa večja

vzdolž na zidu in nosi špirovce, s tem pa streho samo; legi sta navadno povezani s poveznikom, ki teče pravokotno nanju in s špirovcema tvori trikotno strešno konstrukcijo. lega je lahko kapna (ob kapi, na spodnjem robu), slemens

mlatenje žita za ločevanje zrna od plev

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podaljšan, izbočen del strehe, ki ščiti pred padavinami na Muri imajo mline na vodi, tudi na čolnu

z vetrnico izrablja moč vetra za vrtenje (mletje)

rezultat korbelinga (lažnega oboka) v prostoru, previsevanja horizontalnih plasti (kamna, opeke, čerpiča) to je navadno leseno kolo z lopaticami, ki izkoriščajo moč vodnega padca ali toka sa s horizontalno osjo: gnana so z malo vode in z večjim padcem nad kolesom in z več (počasnejše) vode pod njim

rezultat korbelinga, stopničenja v ravnini (v dveh dimenzijah)

o zunanji dostop v zgradbo, navadno v višji nivo (najbolj so uporabni mostovži pri dostopih z vozom v skedenj, včasih celo na podstrešje)

z opekami zapolnjena okenska odprtina za zračenje, ki regulira zračenje in senco dajanje oblike; v arhitekturi obstajajo grafično oblikovanj mlačev (po Koši

n

grafično oblikovanje je dvodimenzionalno oblikovanje na raznih medijih

opisno: “proti jugu“ (orientirana strešina) po Mušiču

opisno: postavljeno na vetrovni lokaciji, v smeri vetra; po Mušiču

načrt je tehniška osnovni načrti so: tloris, prere

zaradi sestavljanja morajo biti njegove stranice pravokotne in v določenih razmerjih (najbolj uporabno razmerje oblikovnika je 1 : 2 : 4, ker omogoča prečnike in vzdolžnike, prekrivanje zidu v dveh in v treh debelinah, ses

) z deskami, da zaščitimo vsebino pred zunanjimi vplivi (dežjem, vetrom) in da preprečimo izpadanje vsebine

120


jegova značilnost je, da ima elemente, ki so simetrični na os, ki se seka v sred bok ima dve oprijemališči, lok in sklepnik (ključni kamen, večji in težji, ki zaključuje in definira obok sam)

razmerje dveh ali več količin, proporcija

ogenj je pojav oksidacije: teoretični elementi ognja so center, radialnost; praktični pa vročina, svetloba, toplota, strah sušilnica za žito: dvoceličen objekt, kjer je v enem delu (v zemlji) ognjišče in stalen, največ jih je na robu moskovske gubernije (Aleksandrova)

okno je v hiši kontrolirana odprtina za zračenje,

začasna sušilna naprava v Belor

p stara dolžinska mera, cola ali inča (angl. inch): 2.539 cm z opekami zapolnjena okenska odprtina za zračenje, ki regulira zračenje in senco

dak iz gline, pečene na visoki temperaturi

izvedba, ki omogoča najboljše delovanje vseh elementov v sklopu, najuspešnejši kompromis

resnični, pravi pogled (kjer je vertikala res navpična in horizontalna res vodoravna) - v fotografiji so te linije žal popačene (teoretično: pogled iz neskončnosti)

očevanje dveh ali več elementov: zunanje od notr

ARHITEKTURA SLOVENIJE, ALPSKI DEL

uhanje in za pečenje krušna ali kmečka peč definira čisti bivalni prostor, ko se odpira v “črno kuhinjo” (tako za polnjenje kot za odvod dima)

121

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grafični prikaz prostora, globine, kjer se oddaljenost izgublja v bežišče; v konstrukciji navidezna globina, v ideji misel v bodočnost

stojalo, držalo za ročno obdelavo (nem.: bock = kozel), (po Koširju, Zgornja Dolina)

regija, območje s skupnimi značilnostmi svinčnica (po Koširju, Zgornja Dolina)

načrt, risba arhitekture leseno krilo za pokrivanje horizontalnih odprtin na 'gankču' (po Koširju, Zgornja Dolina) načrtovanje, snovanje kmečko gospodarstvo, zaključena gospodarska enota lgim ročajem

plašč je pri kozolcu enostranski, nesimetrični nadstrešek, navadno nad enim oknom “ ”

in riše četrtino kroga

tehnična risba: objekt ali detajl je

človek po tehnična risba: pogled ali fasada; tehnična risba prikazuje ortogonalni pogled (kjer je vertikala res navpična in horizontalna res vodoravna)

122


posebna vrsta risbe, ki jo omogoča računalnik

tehnično premoščanje dveh višin s stopniščem

prečni prerez konstrukcijskega elementa (stebra, trama, stojke); navadno ga izražamo z odnosom dimenzij (na primer: letev

odnos, razmerje dveh ali več količin

ga lahko matematično izrazimo rimer: največji možni kvadrat, ki ga iztešemo iz okroglega debla, je definiran s kvadratnim korenom iz dve, ki je diagonala kvadrata, če je njegova osnovnica enaka ena - proporcijski sistem raste in pada z

oddaljenost med dvema točkama

črta, ki ločuje

“ “

, kakor tloris, a na streho objekta (kakor ga vidi ptič), tudi “pogled od zgoraj“ pokrajina, prostorska enota s skupnimi značilnostmi

ra regije ali večjega dela krajine

r

eoretično so vsi elementi

ARHITEKTURA SLOVENIJE, ALPSKI DEL

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lesena drča za spravilo hlodov v dolino (Pohorje

rečka v brani (V

stožčasta konstrukcija,

ročica je prečka, ki zavetruje konstrukcijo, da se ne zloži; praviloma je nameščena v vogal okvirne konstrukcije in teče diagonalno

kombiniran objekt več dejavnosti: hle

prostoročna risba; “

usklajen razvoj več elementov, ki delujejo med sabo, ki omogočajo delovanje celote,

(v arhitekturi: fizično, tehnično, estetsko)

s

: dolga je kakih šestdeset centimetrov ali nekaj več, š a streho so položene v dveh, včasih v treh plasteh, v prerezu rišejo sistem ribje kosti (prince de galles)

sestavljena konstrukcija več plasti, iz več materialov (kjer vsaka služi svojemu namenu učvrščuje,

Mušič navaja tudi izraz 'klanica'

primerne za kritino

124

opušča oblikovanje plošč, ki so zelo “ “


značilnost nekega obdobja (na p bolj problematičen “ “,

“ “

značilnost nekega obdo

bohinjski izraz za kozolec, včasih ga izgovarjajo skoraj kot “stoh“ (temni, grleni “ “)

načrtovanje, planiranje

navpična konstrukcija enega samega trama ali nosilca

arhitekturna regija Primorja, Krasa in Posočja

objekt za občasno bivanje domačih živali

tehnični element postopnega dviganja z ene višine na drugo ročna slamoreznica (po Koširju, Zgornja Dolina) stopničasti piramidi): obraten način kot pri previsevanju, korbelingu

steber je navpični nosilni

ARHITEKTURA SLOVENIJE, ALPSKI DEL

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a več oken; švedsko (Laid) sveti kraj kot vmesnik med človekom in bož zgodovini arhitekture imamo ohranjenih mnogo svetišč: ne zaradi njihove pogostnosti temveč zato, la svetišča grajena v trajnejših (od domačih hiš)

zaradi velikosti, mase in moči živali je svinjak navadno predimenzionirana okvirna

lahko tudi del večjega objekta za

suho stranišče

lik (človeka), ki na polju ali v sadovnjaku, vinogradu

š

je značilnost klopotca, ki za to dejavnost izrablja veter in vrtenje: rezultat je ritmičn

streha je zaščita arhitekture pr

treha s čopi rešuje probleme odprtega zatrepa, čop je praviloma visok četrtino ali tretjino višine zatrepa, včasih je višina določena tudi z zlatim rezom (slamnata streha)

sekira s kratkim ročajem (po Koširju, Zgornja Dolina) ečje strehe h soh, ki premoščajo večje

mesna lega navadno definira čop

lesen tramič, ki teče vzporedno s padcem strehe; špirovci ležijo na legah; razstoj špirovcev je pogojen z dimenzijo letev, ki tečejo pravokotno nanje

steza (za vlačenje hlodovine), (po Koširju, Zgornja Dolina)

ovezovalni tramič (včasih sta dva vzporedna, na vsaki strani špirovcev), ki povezuje špirovca

126


tram ali tramič s štirioglatim prerezom (nem.: ostrorobi), (po Koširju, Zgornja Dolina)

obrt lesenih konstrukcij večjih dimenzij (tramov) (bolj zračen) prostor od skednja, za spravilo stelje in krme (po Koširju, Zgornja Dolina) ip (hiše) je sklop znač

tehnična risba, ki reže objekt v vodoravni smeri in gleda od zgoraj; praviloma je to prikaz meter na tlemi, razen če ni drugače dogovorjeno in označeno

“ “

padec (v povezavi s “straniščem na štrbunk“)

trikotnik je geometrijski lik, ki ima tri stranice; njegove značilnosti

t

(iz nemščine)

u anje mestnega (pre)dela, da ta omogoča delovanje, vplivanje in vnaša v prostor

risba z določenimi pravili, ki prikazuje

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ARCHITECTURE OF SLOVENIA, ALPINE PART


v

oblič (po Koširju, Zgornja Dolina)

vlaka, neke vrste jarek za usmerjanje spuščanja hlodovine v dolino (po Koširju, Zgornja Dolina)

“ ako je prostor bolje izkoriščen, vsebine tudi ni treba obdevati, pač pa jo v notranjost kar natlačimo

e“

z

otranjega uporabnega prostora tako nima, je pa bolj zračen

domačij, ki zaradi skupnih interes istvo vasi je sklop posamičnih heterogenih enot (vsaka enota ima vsaj bivalni in gospodarski del)

ploščat krovni element, ki ga sestavljamo z naslednjim z zarezo: omogoča enojno kritje

eh domačij, ki tvorijo zaključeno celoto (v organizacijskem smislu, ko imajo skupne interese) pogled; navadno je v veduto vključena razmejnica z nebom, horizont trikotni del ostrešja v čelu zgradbe pri mlačvi: ločevanje zrn od plev z “vetrom“, s tokom zraka zaščita ali varnost je efekt varovanja pred zunanjimi vplivi: lahko je aktivno ali vernakularna arhitektura je arhitektura, ki je plod neukih (nešolanih) mojstrov, ki so svoje znanje gradili na tradiciji, na dediščini prednikov in na svojih izkušnjah (neformaln

zavetrovanje je sistem prečnih opor, ki preprečuje, zavetrovanje pa je ročica

navpičnica,

je navpično zaviti dom je domačija, ki ima tri krake

elovno dvorišče

po domače “na akel“ (SV Slovenija), domačija je zapognjena v obliki črke “L“

principi delovanja: urejen dotok tekoče vode, zbi

zaključenih tlorisov domačij v slovenski kulturi praktično ni (vse so odprte), obstajajo pa domačije pribežnikov ( ina), ki

128


Short Glossary (English) imajo zaprta celo dvorišča, nekatere domačije pa so celo sklop le treh krakov

z sušene gline: čerpič; iz žgane gline: ope

ž manjša sekira s kratkim ročajem (po Koširju, Zgornja Dolina)

viloma koničen od glave do konice

žičnik je enake

najnižji, vzdolžni, padajoči stik dveh strešin,

vrv (vrvica za označevanje ravnin;

označevanje ravnin s pomočjo barve, ki jo nanašamo na osnovo z vrvico

ročni mlin za žito

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ARCHITECTURE OF SLOVENIA, ALPINE PART


Indeks Index


Čadovlje priTržiču, Jemenšnikova domačija Tržič Čadovlje, Jemenšnikova domačija Jemenšnikova domačija, Čadovlje priTržiču Čadovlje priTržiču, sušilnica Tržič, Čadovlje, sušilnica sušilnica, Čadovlje priTržiču Češnjica pri Podnartu, domačija Podnart, Češnjica, domačija domačija, Češnjica pri Podnartu

ikova domačija, skedenj Kotnikova domačija, Gozd Martuljek, skedenj skedenj, Gozd Martuljek, Kotnikova domačija

, domačija pri Šrofu, Podkoren, domačija domačija,

Hum med Knežo inTolminom, kašča kašča, Hum med Knežo inTolminom Kneža, Hum, kašča Tolmin, Hum, kašča

Podkraj pri Mežici, Podkraj, kašča kašča kašča, Podkraj pri Mežici

Kneške Ravne nad Baško grapo, kašča Baška grapa, Kneške Ravne, kašča kašča, Kneške Ravne nad Baško grapo

Rateče, kozolec Rateče mačija domačija,

Logarska dolina, Logarjevi kašči Logarjevi kašči, Logarska dolina Mačkin kot, Šmiklavž pri Gornjem Gradu, kašča Mačkin kot, kašča kašča, Mačkin

Strojna na Koroškem, Janeževa domačija Janeževa domačija, Strojna na Koroškem domačija, kašča, oroškem, Janeževa domačija Strojna na Koroškem, Janeževa domačija, kašča

132


Strojna na Koroškem, Janeževa domačija, ske roškem, Janeževa domačija

Tolminske Ravne, kašča kašča,Tolminske Ravne

Vrsno, kašča kašča,Vrsno

Zgornja Radovna, domačija domačija, Zgornja, domačija Zgornja Radovna, Pocarjeva domačija Pocarjeva domačija, Zgornja Radovna adovna, Pocarjeva domačija, skedenj Pocarjeva domačija, Zgornja Radovna, denj, Zgornja Radovna, Pocarjeva domačija

ersko, Makekova kašča Makekova kašča, Zgornje Jezersko, Šenkova domačija Šenkova domačija,

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Viri Bibliography


136


Cevc,T Cevc,T Cevc,T ed Egenter,N Egenter,N Egenter,N Fellner,J Fister,P Fister,P Fletcher,B Frattari,A Gabrijelčič,P Grobovšek,J Juvanec,B Juvanec,B Juvanec,B Juvanec,B Juvanec,B Juvanec,B Juvanec,B Juvanec,B Juvanec,B Juvanec,B Juvanec,B Juvanec,B Juvanec,B Juvanec,B Juvanec,B Juvanec,B Juvanec,B Kajzelj, M. Kaltenbach,F Košir,S Košir,S Lah,L Langhein,J Lassure,C Lassure,C Lassure,C Le Corbusier Melik,A Music,M Oliver,P Oliver,P ed Oliver,P Oliver &Vellinga Potokar,R Pseiner,J Rohlfs,G Rucli,E Vellinga,M ed Zaccaria, ed Zaccaria,C Zaragoza,C Zupančič,D Žiberna,I, et al

1991 1993 1997 2003 1992 1994 2001 1986 1993 1996 2000 2002 2003 1996 1998 2001 a 2001 b 2002 a 2002 b 2003 2004 a 2004 b 2004 c 2005 2006 a 2006 b 2007 a 2007 b 2008a 2008b 1997 2004 2004 2008 2004 2003 2004 2001 2008 1963 1931 1963 2003 1997 2006 2007 2002 1822 1963 1998 2008 1990 1999 2000 2003 2004

KMEČKE HIŠEV KARAVANKAH SLOVENSKI KOZOLEC PASTIRSKE STAJE, ZBORNIK IMPLOSION, CDROM ARCHITECTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY SEMANTIC AND SYMBOLIC ARCHITECTURE ALTE HOLZREGELN UMETNOST STAVBARSTVA NA SLOVENSKEM ARHITEKTURNE KRAJINE IN REGIJE SLOVENIJE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE EDIFICI RURALI DELTRENTINO RURIZEM IN RURALNA ARHITEKTURA DOKTRINA 1, ICOMOS INT. CHARTERS ISTARSKI KAŽUN ARHITEKTURA PRI LENARTU REINVENTER LES ABRIS EN PIERRE VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE ŠUPLJA GROMILA, ŠIBENIK SIXTHOUSANDSYEARS AND MORE EL BOMBO, LA MANCHA VERNAKULARNA ARHITEKTURA, KOMPLEKSNOST PREPROSTOSTI DESENVOLUMPAMENT DE CONSTRUCCIO THE STONE KAMEN NA KAMEN HORREO, ESPIGUEIRO, KORUZNJAK,V: PIEDRAS CON RAICES CHISCHNER, NEPRAVI SORODNIK KOZOLCA KOZOLEC KOZOLEC KOTTEHNIČNI SPOMENIK HVALNICA LESU CHOZO DE EXTREMADURA, JOYA EN PIEDRA BOVŠKA HIŠA KOZOLEC-HARFE POHN KUFR GA MAM V COKLAH NA POT KRAŠKA HIŠA IN ARHITEKTURA KRASA ALLGEMEINE PROPORTIONTHEORIE CABANE EN PIERRE SECHE DE FRANCE LA MACONNERIE A PIERRE:VOCABULAIRE LAPIERRE SECHE, MODE D'EMPLOI MODULOR KOZOLEC NA SLOVENSKEM ARHITEKTURA SLOVENSKEGA KOZOLCA DWELLINGS,THEVERNACULAR HOUSEWORLDWIDE ENCYCLOPEDIA OFVERNACULAR ARCHIT BUILTTO MEET NEEDS:VERNACULAR ARCH ATLAS OFVERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE GORENJSKA, ARHITEKTURNIVODNIK DIE GETREIDEHARFE PRIMITIVE COSTRUZIONI A CUPOLA KOZOLEC, MONUMENTO/SPOMENIK VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE INTHE 21ST ARCHITETTURA IN PIETRA A SECCO LA CATALOGAZIONE DEL PATRIMONIO ARQUITECTURA RURAL PRIMITIVA EN SECA SARDINIJA, ARHITEKTURA KAMNA TEORIJA IN PRAKSA REGIONALIZACIJE SLOV.

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Didakta, Ljubljana AGENS, Žirovnica SAZU, Ljubljana DOFSBT, Zuerich Structura Mundi,Lausanne Structura Mundi,Lausanne OKK,Wien Cankarjeva založba, Ljubljana MOP RS, Ljubljana Butterworths Universita diTrento,Trento Fakulteta za arhitekturo, Ljubljana ICOMOS, Ljubljana Prostor, znanstveni časopis, Zagreb Jasama, Lenart UNESCO/ICOMOS Canada, Montreal http://www.thezaurus Inst. for Slovenian Studies,Victoria Prostor, znanstveni časopis, Zagreb UNESCO / ICOMOS, Paris Prostor 2003/2, Zagreb AR Arhitektura raziskave, Ljubljana Pedra seca 8/2004 p 10-14, Barcelona www.stoneshelter.org, Ljubljana University, Ljubljana I2, Ljubljana ARTE, Caceres LES 7 06, ZLS, Ljubljana I2, Ljubljana University, Ljubljana v: ŽIT 1/07,TZS, Ljubljana v: LES 7–8 2008 p 290 in 9 2008, ZLS, Ljubljana ARTE, Caceres Debora, Ljubljana DETAIL 1/2 (5-10), Muenchen samozaložba, Gozd Martuljek samozaložba, Žirovnica Libris, Koper Ordo et Mensura viii, Berlin Edisud, Aix en Provence Pierre seche 13, CERAV, Paris Eyroles, Paris L'architecture d'aujourd'hui, Boulogne Razprave znanstvenega drustva, Ljubljana Zalozba Obzorja, Maribor Phaidon, NewYork Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Saving, Ljubljana Lechner Univers.Verlag,Wien Olschi Editori, Firenze Lipa, Špeter Taylor and Francis, London SCHENA Editore, Fasano Adriatica, Bari Col leccio Politecnica 10,Valencia UL Fakulteta za arhitekturo, Ljubljana Pedagoška fakulteta UM, Maribor

ARCHITECTURE OF SLOVENIA, ALPINE PART


IzvleÄ?ki Abstracts


Izvleček

Abstract

Serija Arhitektura Slovenije je načrtovana v obsegu petih delov z delovnimi naslovi: 1, Alpski del; 2, Severovzhod; 3, Osrednja Slovenija; 4, Južna hribovja; 5, Kraško - mediteranski del Slovenije. Arhitektura je oblikovanje prostora: sestavni deli po Vitruviju so konstrukcija, funkcija in estetika. Vernakularna arhitektura ni tista za kralje, za mrtve ali za bogove, pač pa za vsakodnevno življenje in delo malega človeka.Vernakularna arhitektura ni plod šolanih ljudi: zamislili so si jo, jo izvedli in jo uporabljajo tisti, ki so znanje dobili od prednikov kot dediščino, s kulturo. Njihova naloga pa je, da to znanje, oplemeniteno z izkušnjami, nadaljujejo in razvijajo v obliki kulture. Vernakularna arhitektura je neponovljiva: danes še obstaja, nova ne nastaja več. Danes je arhitektura plod strokovnjakov, arhitektov in drugih. Dobra arhitektura danes pa je boljša, če upošteva in kaže tisto kulturo naših dedov, ki se je ohranila do danes. Ne v detajlu, ne v materialu: v misli. Vernakularna arhitektura alpskega dela Slovenije pokriva dobršen del gorate Slovenije: Julijske Alpe, Karavanke, Kamniške in Savinjske Alpe, vse do Pohorja (Centralne Alpe). V uvodnem delu prinaša teoretična izhodišča od teorije do prakse, osnove vernakularne arhitekture in poenostavljen opis objektov, ki to arhitekturo predstavljajo. Drugi del prinaša grafično gradivo o objektih samih: kratek opis in nekaj primerov na fotografijah (celote, pa tudi nekaj značilnih detajlov). Objekti, predstavljeni v tem delu, so: kot sklop

The series Vernacular Architecture of Slovenia is planned in five parts, with the working titles: 1. Alpine; 2. North-Eastern part; 3. Central Slovenia; 4. Southern Hills; 5. Karst – Mediterranean Slovenia. Architecture is the design of space. According to Vitruvius, the constituent parts are construction, function and aesthetics. Vernacular architecture is not for kings, for the dead or for the gods, but for the daily life and work of little people. Vernacular architecture is not the fruit of trained persons: it is conceived, built and used by those who have gained their knowledge from their forebears, as their heritage, culture. Their task is to perpetuate this knowledge, enriched with experience, to continue and develop it in the form of culture. Vernacular architecture is unrepeatable: it still exists today, but is no longer being created anew. Architecture today is the product of experts, architects and others. Good architecture today is better if it respects and exhibits the culture of our forebears, which is still preserved today. Not in detail, not in materials, but in conception. The vernacular architecture of Alpine Slovenia covers a part of the mountains of Slovenia: the Julian Alps, Karavanke, Kamnik and Savinja Alps, as far as Pohorje (Central Alps). The introduction presents some theoretical starting points, from theory to practice, the elements of vernacular architecture and a simplified description of objects that represent this architecture. Section two provides graphic material about the objects themselves: a short description and some examples in photographs (as a whole and some typical details). The objects presented in this part are: - a complex of

kot kombiniran objekt kmetskega gospodarstva; kot objekt za bivanje živali; kot edina etnična arhitektura, objekt za spravilo in za sušenje; kot objekt za spravilo sena daleč od doma; kot objekt za sušenje, predvsem z ognjem; kot zgradba za spravilo hrane; kot občasni objekt daleč od domače hiše, za človeka in za živino. Vsaka slika je opremljena z opisom lokacije, da lahko objekt tudi najdemo. Na koncu je slovarček, kot ga razume arhitekt in seznam virov, ki so za tematiko najpomembnejši.

a combination farm building; , a structure for keeping animals; an uniquely Slovene element of vernacular architecture, a rack or combination of racks for drying and storing produce, today usually hay; an object for storing hay far from home; a facility for drying, usually using heat from a fire; a building for storing food; a temporary facility at a distance from the farm, used by both the herdsman and animals. Each picture is accompanied by a description of the location, in order to be able to find the objects. At the end is a glossary (short version in English), as understood by an architect, and a list of the most important sources on this theme.

140


Auszug

Résumé

Eine Serie der Architektur Sloweniens ist in einem Fünfteiler geplant, mit den Arbeitstiteln: Alpen-Teil; Nordosten; Mittel Slowenien; Südgebirge; Kraško – MittelmeerTeil Sloweniens. Architektur ist die Gestalltung vom Raum: Der Hauptbestandteil nach Vitruviju sind die Kostruktion, Funktion und Ästhetik. Die Vernaculare ist nicht die der Könige, für dieToten oder die Götter, sondern für das tägliche Leben und die Arbeit eines kleinen Mannes. Die Vernaculare-Architektur ist nicht die Frucht der gebildeten Menschen: sie wurde erdacht, ausgeübt, und von jenen benutzt, die Ihre Kenntnisse mit der Kultur von IhrenVorfahren als Erbgut erhielten. Ihre Aufgabe ist es, dieses Wissen, reich an Erfahrungen weiter zu prägen und in Form von Kultur zu entwickeln. Die Vernaculare-Architektur ist einzigartig: heute gibt es sie noch, eine Neue entsteht leider nicht. Heute, ist die Architektur das Ergebnis von Sachverständigen, Architekten und anderer. Gute Architektur heutige ist besser, wenn sie die Kultur unserer Großväter respektiert und diese wiederspiegelt, die bis heute beibehalten wurde. Nicht im Detail, nicht im Material: im Gedanken. Die Vernaculare Architektur des Alpen-Teils Sloweniens, erstreckt sich über ein großen Teil des Slowenischen Gebirges: Julischen Alpen, Karawanken, Kamniške und Savinjske Alpen bis hin zu Pohorje (ZentralAlpen). Im einleitenden Teil werden theoretische Ausgangspunke erbracht, von der Theorie zur Praxis, die Basis der Vernacularen-Architektur und eine vereinfachte Beschreibung der Objekte, die diese Architektur vertreten. Der zweite Teil beinhaltet grafisches Material von den Objekten selbst: eine kurze Beschreibung und einige Beispiele in Fotos (insgesamt, sowie einige wichtige Details). Die Objekte, die in diesem Teil dargestellt werden, sind: mit Wohnhaus und anderen wirtschaftlichen Anlagen;

La série de l'architecture de la Slovénie est conçue en cinq parties portant les titres de travail suivants : 1) La région des Alpes ; 2) Le Nord-est ; 3) La Slovénie centrale ; 4) Les collines du sud ; 5) Le Karst – la Slovénie méditerranéenne. L'architecture est la conception d'un espace. Selon Vitruvius, ses composantes sont la construction, la fonction et l'esthétique. L'architecture vernaculaire n'est pas destinée aux rois, aux morts ou aux dieux, mais à la vie et au travail quotidiens des petites gens. L'architecture vernaculaire n'est pas le fruit d'érudits : elle a été conçue, développée et utilisée par des personnes qui ont hérité ces connaissances de leurs aïeux, avec leur culture. Leur tâche est de perpétuer ces connaissances enrichies par l'expérience, de les poursuivre et de les développer dans une forme de culture. L'architecture vernaculaire ne peut pas être répétée : elle existe encore à ce jour, mais elle n'est plus créée à neuf. Aujourd'hui, l'architecture est le produit d'experts, d'architectes et d'autres personnes spécialisées. La bonne architecture est meilleure encore quand elle respecte et démontre la culture de nos aïeux qui est préservée jusqu'à ce jour. Pas dans les détails, pas dans les matériaux, mais dans la conception. L'architecture vernaculaire de la Slovénie alpine traite une partie des montagnes slovènes : les Alpes juliennes, le massif des Karavankes, les Alpes de Kamnik-Savinja et le massif du Pohorje (Alpes centrales). L'introduction présente quelques points de départ théoriques, la théorie et la pratique, les éléments de l'architecture vernaculaire et une description simplifiée de sujets représentant cette architecture. La deuxième section fournit du matériel graphique des sujets en question : une brève description et quelques exemples avec des photographies (montrant le tout ainsi que quelques détails typiques). Les sujets présentés dans cette partie sont : une – comme complexe de bâtiments d'habitation et d'exploitation; , comme bâtiment destiné à l'exploitation agricole ; , comme bâtiment destiné au bétail ; , un séchoir à foin et un unique élément d'architecture ethnique slovène ; , lieu où le foin est conservé loin de la maison ; , comme lieu pour sécher les vivres, avant tout en utilisant du feu ; , comme endroit pour stocker les vivres ; – une sorte d' enclos, comme lieu éloigné de la maison, conçu pour les bergers et leurs troupeaux. Chaque image est accompagnée d'une description du lieu, afin de pouvoir trouver l'endroit mentionné. À la fin figure un glossaire avec des expressions importantes à l'architecte ainsi qu'une liste des sources les plus importantes en cette matière.

als Einrichtung für den Aufenthalt von Tieren; als die einzige ethnische Architektur, eine Anlage für die Ernte und Trocknung; als Anlage zur HeuAufbewahrung weit weg von Zuhause; als Anlage zur Trocknung, insbesondere mit Feuer; als Anlage zur Einbringung der Ernte; als gelegentliche Anlage für den Mensch und Tier weit von Zuhause. Jedes Bild hat eine Beschreibung der Lage, sodaß man die Anlage auch finden kann. Am Ende ist ein Wörterbuch, wie es der Architekt versteht und einer Liste der Ressourcen, für die wichtigstenThematiken.

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13 2 54

1 ALPSKI DEL 2 SEVEROVZHODNI DEL 3 OSREDNJI DEL 4 JUŽNA HRIBOVJA 5 KRAŠKO - MEDITERANSKI DEL

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Arhitektura slovenije 1, alpski del  

Arhitektura slovenije 1, alpski del  

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