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Project “European schools without stereotypes promoting the European inter culturality“ № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675_2 Erasmus+ Programme

TOURIST GUIDE

TURKEY

BULGARIA

ROMANIA

ITALY

COSTESTI-ROMANIA-2018


Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE

Vocational School of Tourism “Mihalaki Georgiev”

ERASMUS+ AK2 PROJECT Strategic Partnership for Schools Only 2016-2018

ISBN 978-973-0-26871-3 BIBLIOTECA NATIONALA A ROMANIEI Bd. Unirii nr. 22, sector 3, Bucureşti Serviciul Depozit legal, demisol, Corp BD 26

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, in any form or any means, without permission in writing from the authors.

,, The European Commission is not responsible for any uploaded or submitted content. The content reflects the views only of the European Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein”

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE

Coordinator

Teacher:

Mrs. Mandzhukova Evlogiya, Vocational School of Tourism “Mihalaki Georgiev”Vidin, Bulgaria Mrs. Drăguț Violeta, Liceul Tehnologic Costești, Romania

COORDINATORS ON CHAPTERS

TeacherS: Mrs. Tsetska Kamenova, Vocational School of Tourism “Mihalaki Georgiev”-Vidin, Bulgaria Mrs. Tania Petrushanova, Vocational School of Tourism “Mihalaki Georgiev”Vidin, Bulgaria Mrs. Biserka Kamenova, Vocational School of Tourism “Mihalaki Georgiev”-Vidin, Bulgaria

Collaborators Teachers: Mrs. Anna Maria Lo Bue, I.I.S.S. "Carlo Maria Carafa" Mazzarino, Italy Mr. Onur Arslan, Sule Muzaffer Buyuk Vocational and Technical Anatolian High School, Manavgat, Turkey

Editor Mrs. Mandzhukova Evlogiya, Vocational School of Tourism “Mihalaki Georgiev”Vidin, Bulgaria

Corrector Mrs. Tsetska Kamenova, Vocational School of Tourism “Mihalaki Georgiev”-Vidin, Bulgaria

ROMANIA COSTESTI, 2018

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE

Collaborators

STUDENTS: Karina Ivanova, Teodor Petkov, Simaa Axmad, Rozalina Ilieva, Serena Mancuso, Ligotti Frederica, Ligotti Martina, Sbirziola Maria, Burcu Ay, Yigit Selda, Avcu Aișe, Grigore Eugen Marius, Tudor Mădălin Alexandru, Căpraru Florinel Ionuț, Ionescu Lorenlai, Turcu Bogdan Nicolae, Radu Valentin, Țărcuș Dumitru, Rădoi Alina Georgiana, Priu Florin and Dobroiu Codruț Daniel.

PROJECT FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE

Content

I.

CULTURAL TOURISM 1. Turkey…………………………………………………………………………………..6 2. Romania……………………………………………………………….........................18 3. Bulgaria………………………………………………………………………………..49 4. Italy…………………………………………………………………………………….77

II.

RELIGIOUS TOURISM 1. Turkey…………………………………………………………………………………..92 2. Romania………………………………………………………………………………108 3. Bulgaria……………………………………………………………………………….133 4. Italy……………………………………………………………………………………148

III.

SEASIDE TOURISM 1. Turkey………………………………………………………………………………...158 2. Romania………………………………………………………………………..……..174 3. Bulgaria………………………………………………………………………….……193 4. Italy…………………………………………………………………………………...205

IV.

MOUNTAIN TOURISM 1. Turkey………………………………………………………………………………...218 2. Romania………………………………………………………………………………227 3. Bulgaria…………………………………………………………………………….…240 4. Italy………………………………………………………………………………..….257

V.

RURAL TOURISM 1. Turkey……………………………………………………………………………….276 2. Romania……………………………………………………………………..………281 3. Bulgaria…………………………………………………………………….………..288 4. Italy…………………………………………………………………………………..293

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 20 OF TURKEY’S MOST IMPRESSIVE HISTORICAL SITES

TURKEY’S location at the meeting point between Europe and Asia has given rise to an incredible history as waves of people, states, eras, and empires have left their mark on the coastline and mountains, the people and culture. Turkey may have more ancient ruins that pretty much anywhere else, but it’s not the sheer number of sites that impresses, but that so many remain near intact. To walk among the graceful columns of a Lycian ruin adjacent to a Mediterranean beach, or to set foot in a Roman amphitheater at sunset, imagining the scenes that must have unfolded here thousands of years ago, couldn’t be more atmospheric. And to stand in the very spots where Alexander the Great, Saint Paul, and Helen of Troy once made history is pretty incredible.

1. GÖBEKLI TEPE

Until the discovery of Göbeklitepe in 1963, Stonehenge (3,000 BC) was believed to be the oldest manmade place of worship on Earth. But at 12,000 years old, Göbeklitepe pre-dates that by about 6,500 years. Göbeklitepe’s Neolithic megaliths are still being excavated (only 5% of the site has so far been unearthed), and you can see the archeologists’ finds—from pillars carved with ancient animal motifs to hieroglyphic inscriptions older even than the Sumerians’—onsite. Göbeklitepe’s findings are also on display at a special chamber in the Şanlıurfa Haleplibahçe Museum, where a replica of the sacred site has been created.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 2. EPHESUS

Ephesus was the Roman capital of Asia Minor, and home to over a quarter of a million people—from slave traders to saints—at its peak between 1 AD and 2 AD. The site of the Temple of the Artemis, which was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, 150 years of excavations at Ephesus have revealed the most complete Greco-Roman classical city on Earth. No wonder it was just added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

3. HATTUSHA

Hattusha is one of Turkey’s great ruins, and was once the capital of the Hittite Empire. A UNESCO World Heritage Site, it was founded in around 1600 BC, then conquered and 7


Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE mostly destroyed after 1200 BC. Since then, the ruins have been well preserved. From ornate gateways, such as the Lion’s Gate, to temples, royal homes, and ancient fortifications complete with underground passageways, it’s hard to be bored wandering around what once was the region's mightiest city. Hattusha is the site of the world's earliest peace treaty, the Treaty of Kadesh. The clay tablet containing the text of this treaty is displayed at the Istanbul Archeology Museum. 4. PERGE

Founded in around 1000 BC, the ancient city of Perge, near present-day Antalya, was captured by the Persians and then, around 333 BC, by the armies of Alexander the Great before becoming part of the Seleucid Kingdom. Then came the Romans in 188 BC. They built most of the sites you can see today, including a theater big enough to fit 15,000, a public square, gymnasium, and necropolis. Also found here are the remains of Roman baths, the city’s imposing gates, and a 2nd-century AD nymphaeum. Recent excavations at Perge have revealed 13 ancient sculptures, including the only complete sculpture of Emperor Caracalla to date, a 6ft rendition of moon goddess Selene, and goddesses Nemesis, Aphrodite, Athena, and Tykhe. 5. ZEUGMA MOSAIC MUSEUM

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Part of the Gaziantep Museum of Archaeology, the Zeugma Mosaic Museum contains a vast collection of restored mosaics from the Ancient Roman town of Zeugma, which is about 27 miles away from the city of Gaziantep. Founded in around 300 BC by Alexander the Great’s general Seleucus I Nicator, Zeugma was a vital military and commercial center with as many as 70,000 residents at its peak, until devastating attack under order of Sassanid king Shapur I in 256 AD led to the town's decline. Today, 25% of Zeugma lies underwater due to the construction of modern dams. The items on display in the mosaic museum were uncovered during excavations in the '90s, and more discoveries of wall paintings, mosaics, and frescoes that once decorated Roman residential villas are still being made. 6. OLYMPOS AND PHASELIS

Phaselis—located near Tahtalı Dağı, which in ancient times was known as Mt. Olympos— was once used as a base by a powerful groups of pirates (including the much-feared Zeniketos). The city was abandoned entirely by the 15th century AD, but much of the original Lycian site remains intact. Visitors should also check out the natural-gas-fueled dancing flames constantly burning on the nearby mountainside of Çakaltepe (above). Legend credits the spectacle to the mythical beast Chimera, depicted in Homer’s Iliad as a fearsome creature of “race divine, made up of lion, dragon and of goat, her jaws emitting dreadful flames.” Today, Olympos is an important center for outdoor tourism in Turkey, with nearby treehouse accommodations catering to outdoorsy travelers. 7. ALANYA CASTLE Alanya Castle is a Seljuk ruin sitting atop a high peninsula overlooking the sea. There's nearly four miles of defensive walls, reinforced by 140 ramparts and 400 cisterns; it was once one of the most well-defended cities on the Mediterranean. On a visit to the castle, you can see the palace of Alaaddin Keykubat, a number of mosques (including the 16th-century 9


Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Suleymaniye Mosque), and a church. Also within the walls is a mansion once owned by a former US ambassador to Turkey, and which now houses Georgetown University's McGhee Center for Eastern Mediterranean Studies. The Castle Citadel, which dates to the 6th century, has a platform where you can get spectacular views of the peninsula.

8. BLUE MOSQUE The Blue Mosque (Sultanahmet Camii) was the ambitious creation of 19-year-old Sultan Ahmed I—he began the project in 1609, and today it's one of Istanbul’s most iconic sites. Ahmed I wanted to build a mosque to rival the Hagia Sophia. When it was finally completed in 1616, the Blue Mosque, with its increasingly large domes, grand minarets, and blue tiles adorning the walls, indeed achieved this. Ahmed I died just one year after his Blue Mosque opened. The mosque's interior is lined with over 20,000 handmade ceramic tiles—they were made in the city of Iznik (Nicaea) according to more than 50 different tulip designs.

9. TOPKAPI PALACE For almost 500 years, Istanbul was the seat of the mighty Ottoman Empire, and for much of that time, the Ottoman sultans resided in Topkapı Palace. Much more than just a single structure, the Topkapı complex comprised a hospital, mint, and multiple mosques, and was home to thousands of people. When the empire came to an end in the early 1920s, the 10


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE palace was transformed into a museum dedicated to the Ottoman era. It also contains important religious relics. You'll find TopkapÄą right at the tip of Istanbul's Historic Peninsula, one of the key sites that make up the UNESCO-listed Historic Areas of Istanbul. 10. NEMRUT

Nemrut, also known as Nemrud, stands at over 7,000 feet and is the site of the 1st-century BC mountain-top tomb of King Antiochus I Epiphanes. It's famous for its 30ft-high statues depicting various mythological figures, all of which have seen their heads topple from their bodies. This UNESCO-listed site is best visited at sunrise or sunset, the ideal time for admiring and photographing the still-life population. BODRUM CASTLE

Bodrum Castle, aka the Castle of St. Peter, was built starting in 1402 by the Order of the Knights of Saint John, who were seeking safety from the invading Seljuks. The urgency of the job is evidenced by the fact that the walls of the castle were strengthened with materials pilfered from the nearby Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. The castle is open to the public, and contains the not-to-be-missed Museum of Underwater Archaeology. 11


Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 11. GÖREME OPEN AIR MUSEUM

Cappadocia's Göreme Open Air Museum has about 30 ancient churches, and it's about as far from a traditional museum as it’s possible to get. Within the haunting landscape of stone pillars, the roughly cut rock churches—particularly those of the Dark Church and the Church of the Buckle—contain some of the best-preserved frescoes in Cappadocia. By the end of the 2nd century AD, the Göreme Valley had been transformed into a hub of Christian activity, with converts fleeing persecution drawn to the area's natural defenses, including entire settlements underground. Yet another underground city has recently been discovered at Cappadocia, and archaeologists believe it could be the largest subterranean city ever known. Dating back 5,000 years, with corridors running as deep as 371 feet, this newfound labyrinth is believed to be the size of 65 soccer pitches. 12. MYRA

According to Greek geographer Strabo, in the 1st and 2nd centuries BC Myra was one of the Lycian League's most important cities. Today in Myra, a collection of mostly Roman ruins remain, including the acropolis, an amphitheater, and Roman baths. Among the more noteworthy structures are two tombs that have been carved into cliff faces (the best known is Lion’s Tomb, where there are 11 life-sized figures in relief on the wall). However, Myra is

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE perhaps most famous for its Church of St. Nicholas (as in St. Nick, as in Santa Claus)—he was actually the bishop of Myra in the 4th century AD. 13. ASPENDOS The Aspendos Roman Theatre was first written about by the Hittites in 800 BC. Able to seat up to 15,000 people, the amphitheatre was once part of the city of Aspendos, founded by Ancient Greeks from Argos. In modern times, it plays host to the annual Aspendos International Opera and Ballet Festival.

14. BASILICA CISTERN

The Basilica Cistern (Yerebatan Sarnıcı) is an eerie underground wonder and one of the biggest surviving Byzantine sites in Istanbul. Tread its raised platforms to view 336 marble columns (two depict the head of Medusa, which you'll remember if you read Dan Brown's Inferno) and take in the spectacularly vaulted ceilings that still drip moisture in this former water storage chamber built by Byzantine Emperor Justinian in around 532 AD. 13


Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 15. KAYAKÖY The deserted town of Kayaköy, perched high on a hill, was largely ignored for most of the 20th century, and has only recently made its mark on the tourist scene thanks to its connection to the novel Birds Without Wings by Louis de Bernières. The novel is set in the fictional village of Eskibahçe, which is based on Kayaköy. The once-bustling settlement is now an open-air museum consisting of almost 500 rundown houses along with the remains of two derelict churches. The atmosphere is surreal.

16. SIMENA

The remains of ancient Simena, now modern Kaleköy (just inland of Kekova Island), form one of the most impressive historical sites in Turkey. Simena sits below the remains of a Crusader castle, and many of the ruins, some dating as far back as the 4th century BC, have been partly submerged in the Mediterranean since a series of coastal earthquakes 1,800 years 14


Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE ago. It's also home to a Lycian burial ground, and huge sarcophagi are scattered along the nearby hillside. Simena is a protected site, but visitors can explore the Lycian tombs and halfsubmerged houses protruding from the water by taking a boat tour, renting a canoe, or even contracting a yacht.

17. SUMELA MONASTERY Take the steep path and staircase through the forest in Altındere National Park and you’ll eventually come to Sumela Monastery, a Byzantine monastery dedicated to the Virgin Mary. It sits atop the extreme edge of a sheer cliff face some 300 meters high. The monastery was founded around the 4th century AD by Barnabas and Sophronius, two Athenian priests who traveled through the region during the reign of Theodosius I. The story goes that they discovered an icon of the Virgin Mary, believed to have been the work of Apostle Luke— legend said it was brought to Trabzon's Pontic Mountains by angels. The monastery ceased operations in 1923 and was subsequently turned into a (very picturesque) museum.

18. Pamuk kale Pamukkale, 18 km (11 miles) north of Denizli (map), is Turkey's foremost mineral-bath spa because of its natural beauty: hot calcium-laden waters spring from the earth and cascade over a cliff. As they cool they form dramatic travertines of hard, 15


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE brilliantly white calcium that form pools. Named the Cotton Fortress (pah-MOOK-kah-leh) in Turkish, it has been a spa since the Romans built the spa city of Hierapolis around a sacred warm-water spring. The Antique Pool is still there, littered with marble columns from the Roman Temple of Apollo. You can swim in it for a fee. You can spend a pleasant day at Pamukkale, exploring the extensive Roman ruins of Hierapolis, climbing the ranks of seats in the great Roman theater, touring the exhibits in the Archeological Museum, splashing along the travertines (where permitted) and even soaking in the Antique Pool littered with fluted marble columns. Near the road, below the theater, is the Temple of Apollo, the principal deity of Hierapolis. While the foundations of this temple go back to late Hellenistic times, the present remains of the upper structure are from the 3rd century AD. Next to it there is a cave (called the Plutonion) from which poisonous gases emerge.

The temple measures 20 by 15 meters and sit on a platform high 2.5 meters. Before the temple there is a monumental fountain. Built during the late 3rd century AD., the walls of this rectangular fountain are very well preserved. There was also a pool located before the fountain and the structure was richly adorned with statues and columns. The water for this fountain was brought here by aqueducts, remains of which may be seen in the vicinity of GĂźzelpinar and between Pamukkale and Karahayit. East of the present museum is a Christian basilica consisting of a nave and two aisles. It dates from the 6th century AD. Walking along the route of the Plateia (which now passes through the modern swimming pool) reminds us that this main street dividing the ancient city was 16


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE once decorated with colonnades, porticos, and important buildings located on either side. The street runs directly toward the city walls passing through a gateway built in Byzantine times atop an earlier fountain. On the way is a basilical structure with two aisles and a nave whose eastern end terminates in an apse. 19. APHRODISIAS During the Hellenistic, and Roman periods, the small city of Aphrodisias, named for the goddess Aphrodite and located in southwestern Turkey, was a major source of marble. The stone was quarried from nearby hills and shipped all over the Ancient World for use in building facades and sculptures. A number of master sculptors consequently made their home in Aphrodisias, and much of their work has been unearthed and is displayed in the onsite museum.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Romania Cultural Tourism

1. Parliament Palace or People's House was registered in Guiness Book of Records as the secand

largest

building

after

administrative Pentagon.

The

building has 9 levels at surface and 9 level underground. In terms of volume, is the third in the world after Kennedy Space Center (space rockets assembling building) in Cape Canaveral and Quetzalcoatl's Pyramid in Mexico. A colossal parliament building known for its ornate interior composed of 23 sections, it houses the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies, three museums and an international conference center. The National Museum of Contemporary Art, the Museum of Communist Totalitarianism (established in 2015) and the Museum of the Palace are hosted inside the Palace. Though named the House of the Republic (Romanian: Casa Republicii), after the Romanian Revolution in 1989 it became widely known as the People's House (Romanian: Casa Poporului). Due to its impressive endowments, conferences, symposiums and other events are organised by state institutions and international bodies, but even so about 70% of the building is empty. The Palace of the Parliament is valued at â‚Ź3 billion ($3.4 billion), making it the most expensive administrative building in the world. The cost of heating and electric lighting alone exceeds $6 million per year, as much as a medium-sized city.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 2. The Triumphal Arch

,,Arcul de Triumf� of Bucharest, was declared a historical monument in 2004. It is one of the most notable landmarks of the capital and, next to the Parliament Palace, it can be deemed a symbol of Bucharest. The structure of the current Triumphal Arch dates back to 1922, whereas the present decorative elements were added only 16 years later, in 1938, the year when the monument, in its final form, was inaugurated. However, the history of the monument dates back to the mid 19th century. Until 1922, previous versions of the arch were hastily and repeatedly built in 1848, 1859, 1878, 1906 and 1918, in order to mark certain military and political achievements of Romania. Yet, given the perishable nature of the construction material (chiefly wood), these versions did not survive. The reinforced concrete structure was inaugurated in 1922, in order to celebrate the victory of Romania in World War One, and the event was attended by the most important political figures of the time, including foreign politicians from Europe, Japan and the USA. The bearing structure of the edifice survived in time, but the decorative elements (bas-reliefs chiefly) were made of plaster, and they decayed rapidly. This is why they were replaced with marble and stone elements, mainly allegorical sculptures realized by sundry artists of the time, under the supervision of Petre Antonescu, the same architect who designed the bearing structure of the 1922 arch. At present, the Triumphal Arch it is one of the emblematic monuments of the capital and a tourist sight just as important as the C.E.C. Palace, the Parliament Palace or the Romanian Athenaeum.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 1. The Romanian Athenaeum

The Romanian Athenaeum (Romanian: Ateneul Român) is a concert hall in the center of Bucharest and is part of the official European Heritage list, being considered a must-see objective. The edifice hosts annually the International George Enescu Music Festival and was built between 18861888, with an amazing architecture that combines neoclassic and eclectic style.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE The building was designed by the French architect Albert Galleron, built on a property that had belonged to the Văcărescu family and inaugurated in 1888, although work continued until 1897. A portion of the construction funds was raised by public subscription in a 28-year- long effort, of which the slogan is still remembered today: "Donate one leu for the Ateneu!" On December 29, 1919, the Atheneum was the site of the conference of leading Romanians who voted to ratify the unification of Bessarabia, Transylvania, and Bukovina with the Romanian Old Kingdom to constitute Greater Romania. Inside, the ground floor hosts an ornate conference hall as large as the auditorium above; the auditorium seats 600 in the stalls and another 52 in loge seating. A 75-sqm long and 3-m wide fresco by Costin Petrescu decorates the inside of the circular wall of the concert hall. Painted using the al fresco technique, the piece depicts the most important moments of Romanian history, starting with the conquest of Dacia by Roman emperor Trajan and ending with the realization of Greater Romania in 1918. Recognized as a symbol of Romanian culture, the building has been inscribed in 2007 on the list of the Label of European Heritage sites.

2. The "Dimitrie Gusti" Village National Museum One of the most valuable ethnographic museums in the world and second largest ethnographic outdoor museum after the one in Stockholm, it has over 70 households, outbuildings, churches, each representing a miniature museum, with traditional items, ranging from towels and pots to water and wind mills or oil press. The Museum studies, collects, manages, preserves and restores ethnological heritage from collections or from the field; what individualises and makes it different from other 21


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE museums is how it communicates and especially how it relates to the community, in terms of supporting and promoting traditional and/or modern cultural values by meeting the various spiritual needs of the community and promoting creativity and intercultural and interethnic dialogue; it promotes both the specific values of the rural side and of the urban, modern community, meeting the needs for identity and education in the respect of its value and opening a

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE way to knowing and respecting the Romanian spirituality in a dialogue with the cultures of the world.

3. Art Collections Museum Art

Collections

Museum holds one of the most valuable Romanian art heritage. The building that currently hosts the museum, was built in 1812 and is important landmark for the beginning

of

modern

architecture in Bucharest. The Museum of Art Collections (Romanian: Muzeului Colecțiilor de Artă) is a branch of the National Museum of Art of Romania and is situated in Bucharest. The museum contains 44 collections donated to the Romanian State beginning with 1927 by the families of: Hurmuz Aznavorian, Dumitru and Maria Ştefănescu, Josefina and Eugen Taru, Emanoil Romulus Anca and Ortansa Dinulescu Anca, Garabet Avakian, Mircea Petrescu and Artemiza Petrescu, Sandu Lieblich, Sică Alexandrescu, Clara and Anatol E. Baconsky… 23


Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE The collection includes various pieces from Asia and the Middle East, and several pieces by Western European artists (including one drawing by Vincent van Gogh, but the heart of the collection consists of work of late 19th- and 20th-century Romanian artists, including Theodor Aman, Nicolae Grigorescu, Ioan Andreescu, Nicolae Tonitza, Gheorghe Petraşcu, Theodor Pallady, Lucian Grigorescu, Iosif Iser, Camil Ressu, Francisc Şirato, Alexandru Ciucurencu, Dimitrie Ghiaţă, and Corneliu Baba. The museum lapidarium hosts stone carved items of old Romanian art, among which a few pieces extracted from Văcărești Monastery, demolished in 1986 at Nicolae Ceausescu's order.

4. Peleș Castle Peleș Castle is a Neo-Renaissance castle in the Carpathian Mountains, near Sinaia. Its inauguration was held in 1883. It was constructed for King Carol I. The castle was declared a museum in 1953. Peleş Castle has a 3,200-square-metre floor plan with over 170 rooms, many with dedicated themes from world cultures. All the rooms are extremely lavishly furnished and decorated to the slightest detail. The establishment hosts one of the finest collections of art in Eastern and Central Europe, consisting of statues, paintings, furniture, arms and armor, gold, silver, stained glass, ivory, fine china, tapestries, and rugs. The collection of arms and armor has over 4,000 pieces, divided between Eastern and Western war pieces and ceremonial or hunting pieces, spreading over four centuries of history. A towering statue of King Carol I by Raffaello Romanelli overlooks the main entrance. Many other statues are present on the seven Italian neo-Renaissance terrace gardens, mostly of Carrara marble executed by the Italian sculptor Romanelli. The gardens also host fountains, urns, stairways, guarding lions, marble paths, and other decorative pieces.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE

5. Corvin Castle Corvin Castle is a castle near the town Transylvanian of Hunedoara in Romania. It is located on the hill of San Pietro , the domain of Zlasti river, up to 1541 fell within the domain of the Kingdom of Hungary , later went to the territories of the Principality of Transylvania. It represents the most outstanding Gothic monument of Transylvania. It is believed to be the place where Vlad the Impaler was imprisoned by Mattia Corvino for the seven years following his capture in 1462. The castle passed to the family Hunyadi as a gift from Emperor Sigismund , was extensively renovated and expanded. Giovanni Hunyadi undertaken the reconstruction in two stages between 1446 and 1453. Hunyad Castle has a massive defensive structure, a drawbridge and a courtyard, all softened by a remarkable plasticity of the surfaces (windows, balconies, gargoyles etc.). It was built over a previous fortification that had taken advantage of the rocky outcrop overhanging the river Zlasti. In the courtyard, next to the chapel built during the reign of Vlad the Impaler, there is a deep well 30 meters. Legend has it that was dug by twelve Turkish prisoners which was promised freedom if they had found water in the stone. After fifteen years of excavations the unlucky they found a source but were not rewarded by their jailers that instead placed next to a tombstone engraved with the well You have water but you do not have a soul . Recent scholars have instead proposed the following translation Hasan, who lived a slave to giaour , wrote this in the fortress near the church. 25


Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE

6. Sculpture of Decebalus The rock sculpture of Decebalus is a 42.9 m in height and 31.6 m in width carving in rock of the face of Decebalus, the last king of Dacia, who fought against the Roman emperors Domitian and Trajan to preserve the independence of his country, which corresponded to modern Romania. The sculpture was made between 1994 and 2004, on a rocky outcrop on the river Danube, at the Iron Gates, which form the border between Romania and Serbia. It is located near the city of Orșova in Romania. It is the tallest rock relief in Europe. It was commissioned by Romanian businessman Iosif Constantin Drăgan and it took 10 years, from 1994 to 2004, for twelve sculptors to finish it. According to Drăgan's website, the businessman purchased the rock in 1993, after which the Italian sculptor Mario Galeotti assessed the location and made an initial model. The first six years involved dynamiting the rock into the basic shape, and the remaining four years were devoted to completing the detail. Under the face of Decebalus there is a Latin inscription which reads "DECEBALUS REX— DRAGAN FECIT" ("King Decebalus—Made by Drăgan"). The carving was placed opposite an ancient memorial plaque, carved in the rock on the Serbian side of the river facing Romania. The plaque, known as the Tabula Traiana, records the completion of Trajan's military road along the Danube and thus commemorates the final defeat of Decebalus by Trajan in 105, and the absorption of the Dacian kingdom into the Roman Empire. Drăgan wanted the Serbs to carve a giant head of a Roman Emperor, as if confronting Decebalus on the opposite side of the river, but the Serbs refused.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 7. Danube Delta - Biosphere Reserve

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE At the end of a road, that surpasses 2.860 km, gathering rivers to an outstanding basin, with a surface that covers more than 80% of the European surface, Danube, the second largest river of the old continent builds at its intersection with the Black Sea, for more than 10.000 years, one of the most beautiful “delta” of Europe and even more, of the entire world, known as one of the most humid areas of the Planet. The stretches of water and lands that were formed here, gives great conditions of life for a large amount of species of plants and animals. From these, the reed makes one of the largest compact areas of the world, and the woods Latea and Caraorman represent the northern limit for two rare species of our country, oak trees, frequently seen in the southern area of the Balkan and Italian Peninsula. Along with the great number of aquatic and terrestrial plants we encounter colonies of pelicans and cormorants that are so proper to the Danube Delta, like the large number of other aquatic birds that live or come to hatch or hibernate. It can be said that with these remarkable diversity of the habitats and life forms that hosts into a relatively small area, Danube Delta represents a true museum of biodiversity, a layer of natural genes, which is invaluable for the universal natural heritage. From September 1990, Danube Delta’s Biosphere Reservation was recognised as a humid area of international importance, especially as a habitat for water birds, been included among the more than 600 of such areas, but located among the largest of these areas.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 8. The House of the Free Press

The House of the Free Press (Casa Presei Libere), formerly called Casa Scânteii, is one of the landmarks of Bucharest reminiscent of the communist regime. The edifice was built during the regime (between 1952 and 1957) and served as headquarters of the party’s publication (Scânteia) being, thus, by design, an institution completely subject to the communist authorities. In reaction to this juncture, subsequently to the 1989 Revolution, the name of the building was changed into the House of the Free Press. The building combines elements promoted by the Russian Soviet architecture with details typical of the religious architecture cultivated in Wallachia and Moldavia. Just like most of the megastructures erected during the communist regime, the building strikes by its dimensions. The horizontal coordinate of the edifice exceeds its vertical line, and the difference is so considerable, that the aesthetic impact can hardly be overlooked.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 9. The Museum of Banat The Museum of Banat is a museum in Timișoara, Romania, headquartered in Huniade Castle. It was founded in 1872 under the name "Societatea de Istorie și Arheologie" (The Society for History and Archaeology). It hosts the largest collection of archaeological objects Banat. The ground floor houses the Parța Neolithic Sanctuary, a unique monument in Europe. The museum includes departments for history, archaeology, ethnography and natural sciences. The museum also has a laboratory for conservation and preservation of objects of cultural heritage and history. The museum is located in a historic monument building. Iancu de Hunedoara built the castle in the early Renaissance style of the first Italian bulwark system type. It was restored during the 18th century. The permanent exhibition presents archaeological material on the Neolithic, DacoRoman periods and the Middle Ages. The museum owns goods listed in the National Cultural Heritage Treasure.

10. The Bridge of Lies Sibiu, the ex-European Capital of Culture, attracts many tourists every year, fascinated by the unique beauty of this place full of history. For those who are coming to Sibiu, among the tourist attractions, not miss is the Bridge of Lies. In fact it is a pedestrian bridge that is located in the historic center of the city. Tourists come to see the Bridge of Lies for its charm, but also to learn more about the fascinating legends and stories that have been created around him. The Bridge of Lies has become the richest place of legends and history of Sibiu, which is why tourists do not hesitate to visit him. Bridge of Lies - a true symbol of the city of Sibiu. Originally, the bridge was made of wood. About 200 years later, in 1859, the Bridge of Lies was rebuilt, being the first cast iron bridge in Romania. The pedestrian bridge built over the street Ocnei connects the Lower Town to the Upper Town. Eleven years ago, the Bridge of Lies

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE has been included on the historical monuments in the county of Sibiu and is a true symbol of the former European Capital of Culture. Currently, the Bridge of Lies is considered a romantic place where lovers meet to swear eternal love and to attack the locks of love. In addition, the name of the bridge binds many fascinating legends. The most famous legend says that the bridge would have ears and unexplained power, so that, at every lie it begins to creak, while at the lies big it collapses. For this reason, most locals avoid saying untrue things on this bridge. Also, another legend says that from this bridge were thrown the liar merchants by the cheated buyers, but also the witches whose predictions not came true.

11. BRAN CASTLE The Bran Castle is sited at the entrance to the Rucăr - Bran passage, on the road connecting Braşov to Câmpulung, overtowered by the peaks of the Bucegi and the Piatra Craiului Mountains. Bran is less than 30 km far from Braşov, when following the national route 73, which leaves Braşov by its West end, through the Bartolomeu district. The distance to Bucharest is of less than 200 km. Due to its lovely landscape and charming people, Bran-Moeciu is one of the most popular touristic areas in Brasov County. The Castle became a favourite residence of Queen Maria, who restored and arranged it to be used as a residence of the royal family.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 12. Grigore Antipa National Museum of Natural History The Museum was established on November 3rd 1834, at the initiative of the brother of the King Alexandru Ghica, the Great Count Mihalache Ghica, who donated important collections, including Greek, Roman and Byzantine coins, rock and mineral, fossils, mollusk, fish, birds and mammals collections, as well as works of art. Although it was first conceived as a natural history cabinet, the museum became a mixed institution, harbouring antiquities, old paintings and natural curiosities. Although it was conceived as natural history cabinet, the museum became a mixed institution, harbouring antiquities, old paintings and natural curiosities. “Grigore Antipa” National Museum of Natural History is one of the oldest research institutions in the field of biodiversity and public education. It is in the same time one of the well known and highly appreciated “databases” due to the Museum’s collections, some of them valuable assets of the worldwide thesaurus.

13. DINO PARC RASNOV

Are you ready to go back 150 million years back? Dino Park is the only dinosaur theme park in Romania and the largest in South East Europe. There are 47 life-size dinosaurs, each scientifically certified and developed according to the latest paleontological discoveries. They are really special because they are created from fiberglass and a special resin, with a guarantee of 50 years. A special place, an area of 1.5 hectares in a natural environment that gives children not only a unique experience. 40


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14. The Palace of Culture Iași The Palace of Culture in Iasi is the main attraction point of the Moldavian capital. We can’t even imagine a touristic folder without the image of the famous building that shelters four museums, The Moldavian Museum of History, The Moldavian Museum of Ethnography, The Museum of Art, “Stefan Procopiu” Museum of Science and Technology, and “Gheorghe Asachi” District Library in the North-East side of the building. In the beginning of the 19th century (1806 – 1812), on the old ruins of the Royal Court of Moldavia, a palace in neo – classic style was built, at the wish of Prince Alexandru Moruzi. At the end of the same century a fire destroyed completely the building. Then, the construction of the present building started in 1906, after the plans of architect I.D. Berindei. In 1926 the Palace of Culture was opened by Ferdinand of Hohenzollern, the second king of modern Romania.

15. Targu-Jiu, made by Constantin Brancusi

The Table of Silence, The Kiss Gate and the Endless Column – these are the three sculptural components from Targu-Jiu, made by Constantin Brancusi, which constitutes an homage to the hero soldiers fallen during the First World War. The initiative of achieving this ensemble belonged to Aretia Tatarascu, in 1937. The three sculptural elements are disposed on an axis 1,275 44


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE meters long, oriented from West to East, in the Central Park.

The Table of Silence (Masa Tacerii) is made in limestone and it has the following dimensions: panel diameter 2, 15 meters, thick 0,43 m and the leg is 2 m in diameter and 0,45 m thick. According to the exegetes of the Brancusian art, the Table of Silence represents the table around which gather the soldiers before confronting their enemy. At the same time, the chairs stand for the time disposed in hourglasses. Some make an analogy with The Last Supper of Leonardo da Vinci. After 1989, the monumental Ensemble from Targu Jiu was enlisted in the European heritage, alongside with the Romanian Athenaeum, the Fortress of Histria and the Cantacuzino Palace.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 16. MaramureČ™-Woodworking People from Maramures have always been faithful to wood, carving it into all kinds of shapes: the plate they ate from, the shelter above their head, the church in which they prayed. Time didn't stand still and many things are made today of more modern materials. The wooden gates from Maramures are elements of architecture that convey an undeniable local identity to this region. Medieval documents attest to the fact that only the nobility, the so-called "nemes", meaning free men, had the right to build gates. These noble people were under the direct rule of the royalty and not of the local authorities and thus, enjoyed different privileges. For example, if a malefactor was to hide in the house of a noble, he would be protected from the local authorities by the sign of the gate.The gate jambs are the expression of the great myths of the Romanian folk culture. The motives sculpted in wood each have their own rich significance: The twisted rope represents the infinite, and the connection between the land and the sky. The Sun is the symbol of God which gives life. He sees everything, knows everything, and, above all, he knows the ultimate TRUTH. The tree of life is a symbol of eternal life, of youth without old age. Today, in Maramures, you still can see old wooden gates, especially in the villages on Cosău Valley and in the Village Museum from Baia Mare and Sighet. The new wooden gates have decorations of recent inspiration, which have lost their initial significance, keeping only the aesthetic side. 17. Cotroceni National Museum

The collection of the National Cotroceni Museum is divided into the following domains: plastic arts (Romanian and international paintings, graphic arts, Romanian and foreign sculpture, religious art), decorative arts (ceramics, glass, metal, textile, furniture), numismatics, medals, history, archaeology. The plastic arts domain is divided into the following collections: religious arts (wood painted icons), which is representative for the late period of Romanian religious arts (18th- 19th century) and Russian workshops. The romanian painting collection gathers paintings by famous Romanian painters of the end of the 19th century up to now. The vast majority of these painters were trained in the renowned Arts school of Bucharest and Iasi while others had the privilege of studying abroad in the famous 46


Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE European schools. After returning, some of them became professors, thus contributing to the improvement of plastic arts and educating a new generation of painters.

Jacopo Bassano - The Allegory of Air, Italian sch., end 16th century

Tête à tête- Rococo style 19th century

Bronze pot, 20th century

Cabinet oriental manufacturer 20th century

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Brass pot, 19th century

Gallé vase 20th century


Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 18. The Seat Fortress of Suceava

The medieval castle was part of the fortification system built in Moldavia in the late 14th century, because of the emergence of the Ottoman danger. It became strong enough to hold off an attack by Ottoman sultan Mehmed II (the conqueror of Constantinople), in 1476. The most significant and the best preserved in time is the Seat Fortress of Suceava (Cetatea de Scaun a Sucevei) or Suceava Citadel, a medieval castle situated on the eastern edge of the contemporary city. The fortress was built during the reign of Petru II of Moldavia (1375- 1391), also known as Petru Mușat, and then expanded and strengthened during the reign ofAlexander I of Moldavia (1400-1432) and Stephen the Great (1457-1504). Suceava was the capital city of the former Principality of Moldavia between 1388 and 1565. During this period, the castle served as princely residence. Alexandru Lăpușneanu moved the capital to Iași in 1565, so the castle lost its status. After this moment, the citadel entered a period of decline. In 1675, during the reign of voivode Dumitrașcu Cantacuzino, the fortress was destroyed. Then, for over two centuries the castle was deserted. In late 19th century and early 20th century, under the patronage of Austrian architect Karl Adolf Romstorfer, it took place rehabilitation works and archaeological researches. Between 1961 and 1970 other restoration and consolidation works were carried out. In 2013 a major reconstruction program was launched, to return the castle to its original architecture and shape.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Bulgaria - Cultural Tourism 1. FORTRESS OF BABA VIDA MEDIEVAL CASTLE The castle is located in the northern part of the town, on the Danube river bank and is known as Babini Vidini Kulu or Baba Vida. According to the legend Vida was the eldest daughter of a Bulgarian boyar, a big land-owner. Vida drew a lesson from the unsuccessful marriages of her sisters - Kula and Gamza, refused all proposals, built up an inaccessible castle and spent all her life here. In fact the legend for the past of the castle is in close connection with the dark age of the feudal Bulgaria. This is one of the well preserved medieval defensive works in Bulgaria, built up on the remnants of the fortress walls of the antique Bononia. The Bulgarian building of the castle started during the second half of the 10th century but the main part of the castle was constructed during the times of the Second Bulgarian Kingdom (the end of the 12th - 14th century).

The fortress covers an area of 9.5daa together with the surrounding moats which used to be filled with water from the Danube river and the drawbridge. It is composed of inner fortress belt shaped as an irregular quadrangle with nine towers. The walls and towers are topped by embrasures. The outer fortress belt with the entrance tower was built up later. The residential part of the castle occupied the inner belt facing the central yard. Foundations of a church from the 13th - 14th century have been found. The last Bulgarian mediaeval king Ivan Stratsimir lived in the castle. From the end of the 17th to the beginning of the 19th century it was fitted to fire-arms. For the needs of the Turkish army vaulted stone premises were built up on the place of the destroyed residential part and they served as storehouses for ammunitions and food, watch-rooms and prison. After the Liberation from the Ottomans the castle was submitted to the military authorities and the access to it was limited. From 1956 to 1962 the first archaeological researches took place and cultural strata of the Roman, Byzantine, early and late Bulgarian and Ottoman age were found. The castle has been open for visits since 1958 and a museum has been established here. In 1964 the castle was declared a culture monument of national significance. The open-air theatre of Vidin (350 seats) is located in Baba Vida castle. The preserved through the ages castle gives opportunity for various cultural activities - film shooting, theatrical performances, art exhibition, concerts, recitals, etc. The visit to the castle is an unforgettable experience for every Bulgarian or foreign guest of the old capital city of Vidin. 49


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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 2. KRASTATATA KAZARMA (CROSS-SHAPED BARRACKS) The building is a culture monument of national importance. It was built in 1801 for the needs of the quartered in Vidin Ottoman troops and was connected with the armaments workshop in the neighbourhood. After the liberation from the Ottomans it served as court-martial and barracks of the Bulgarian army.Krastatata Kazarma (the "cross-shaped barracks") is a solidbuilt two- storey structure shaped as a cross and with built-up area of 1260 sq.m. The interior inspires sensation of stateliness, stability and solemnity. During the period from 1965 to 1967 the building was restored and adapted to a museum. An ethnographic lay-out presenting the economic life of Vidin region inhabitants from the late 19th to the early 20th centuries has been displayed since 1969. The main agriculture activities such as ploughing, sowing, harvest, threshing and hay mowing are shown here. Special attention is turned to vine-growing and wineproduction. The Danube river fishing has a special place at the exposition. Folk artistic crafts are represented by the relevant tools and works - goldsmith's, coppersmith's, pottery-making, wood-carving, tailoring, furriery, felting, forgery and cart- wright trade. The fine women's low-cut sleeveless dresses and men's costumes - ritual, formal and everyday, decorated with elegant embroidery reveal the high esthetic culture of the local people. The costumes and town life-style articles illustrate the connections of Vidin with Europe. The captions are written in five languages - Bulgarian, Russian, English, German and French and it helps the visitors.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 3. KONAKA MUSEUM

The building is a unique architectural and cultural monument of local significance. It was built up in the 18th century and served as a police station. Because of the good visibility the central tower part served as a fire-tower. After the Liberation from the Ottomans it was reconstructed and Bulgarian Renaissance architecture elements were introduced. It has been a museum since 1956. The exposition traces back the history of the Vidin region from the remote past to the Liberation. Pre-history department displays rock paintings from the Magura Cave occupied by hunters as early as the early Bronze Age (2000 BC) and during the early Iron Age (1000 BC). The late Bronze Age (1500-1200 BC) is represented by a rich collection of articles that have been found near the present village of Balei - tools of production and jewelry, a great variety of inlaid pottery and cult articles. Antique department is represented by rich and various collections of articles from the big Roman cities Ratiaria (modern village of Archar), Bononia (Vidin) and the Roman castle Kastra martis (the town of Kula). A large collection of stone plastic art is kept here - richly decorated Roman sarcophagi, tomb stones and votive tablets, statues among them is the famous marble statue "The resting Heracles" (2nd century, Archar). The abundance of antique collections of pottery, clay lamps, jewelry, and household articles is complemented by the rich collection of Roman republican and emperor coins. The unique floor mosaic found in a suburban villa near Ratiaria (3rd century). The period of Middle Ages is represented by exhibits illustrating the economic and military life of Bdin. The displayed articles - ceramic material, metal plastic art items, coins, various tools and appliances as well as sgraffito type impressive table ceramics (13th-14th century) were found mainly during the archeological survey of Baba Vida castle. The trade relations of Bdin Feudal Kingdom are shown by the copy of the Diploma of Brashov and numismatic finds and the most significant of them - the silver coins of Tsar Ivan Stratsimir (1352-1397 ). The mediaeval culture centres - Albotinski monastery (village of Gradets, (13th-14th century), the church in the village of Dolna Kamenitsa (now in Serbia), the church of Rakovishki monastery (17th century), as well as the Literary School of Bdin, represented by the facsimiles of Bdinski Sbornik from 1360. From the 15th to 19th century the town renamed Vidin was under the Ottoman rules. It was a centre of a district and of a province. It was the largest port along the lower course of the Danube for the period 15th-17th century and later turned into one of the most important fortresses along the riverside. The first uprising against the Ottomans took place in Vidin region (1408), and a unique correspondence concerning the most popular Bulgarian uprising (1850) is exhibited. The development of the education, the struggles for church and national independence during the times of the Bulgarian Renaissance that led to the idea Bulgaria to be liberated and independent are shown here. Vidin was liberated in 1878.

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4. Town history museum Town history museum is one of the oldest scientific and cultural institutions in Vidin, important society centre engaged in keeping, scientific processing and popularizing the cultural and historic values. The foundations of the museum activity in Vidin region were laid in 1910 when the Archaeological Society was established and the first museum collection was arranged. When the wars from the mid 20-ties of the 20th century were over Bononia Archaeological Society activated its collecting activity and under the guidance of the teacher Vasil Atanasov arranged an exposition of numismatic materials and Bulgarian embroideries in the old Turkish post-office building. Vidin history museum has strengthened its positions in the national museum network by its successfully arranged museum expositions, structuring of the departments and achievements in the science and research domain. The museums boasts a well built-up and complete structure corresponding to its general history profile:  Archaeology (departments Pre-history, Antiquity and Middle Age) - the rich exposition of the department is located in the restored building of Konaka (1977).  Numismatics - over 30 thousand coins.  Ethnography - the exposition has been located in Krastata Kazarma (the "cross-shaped barracks") since 1969.  Bulgarian Lands 15th-19th centuries - the exposition is located in Konaka (Old Turkish Police Station).  Modern History, Recent History, Public Relations The library fond of the museum has over 4600 volumes and serves the museum experts as well as many citizens, students, etc. Highly qualified staff - historians and philologists take care of the museum funds, preserving over 63 thousand exhibits.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 5. THE BELOGRADCHIK FORTRESS AND BELOGRADCHIK ROCKS Cultural monument of national significance and one of the best preserved fortresses in the country, dating back to the I c. B.C. In the XIV century it served as a summer residence of the Bulgarian Tsar Ivan Sratsimir. The Belogradchik rocks form a 3 km wide and 30 kilometer long strip, and the rock formations reach some 200 meters in height. They were formed at the bottom of a sea as the product of compression (they began 230 million years ago as sediment at the bottom of a shallow sea) and then erosion over the last 45 million years. The rocks, made largely of limestone, also hold hundreds of caves, including Magura Cave where the bones of prehistoric species like cave bear or cave hyena have been discovered, as have cave paintings dating from 10,000 BC - 600 BC. Among two of the most famous and most curious legends surrounding the rocks are that of the Madonna and the Schoolgirl. In the legend of the Madonna, a beautiful nun falls in love with a man on a white horse, gets pregnant, is cast out by the monks and as she is leaving the nunnery, day turns to night and all, Madonna, monks, man on the white horse are turned to stone forming the rocks. The schoolgirls legend is remarkably similar. It also concerns a beautiful girl (who seem to be especially prone to being turned to stone) , replace the nuns with a mean schoolmaster, her love interest is a blacksmith, and this time she is being chased by the schoolmaster and runs into a bear, when Kazam!, as before all are turned to stone. Each rock formation bears a name: Adam and Eve, The Schoolgirl, The Bear, The Shepherd boy, The Dervish, The First slabstone, The Camel, The Mushrooms, The Cuckoo, The Red wall, The Madonna, The Horseman, The Monks, The Mental stone, Rebel Velko, The Pine stone and so on, and each one comes with a story.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 6. Cave "Venetsa" Cave "Venetsa" is located in Kraishte locality, about 3 km. away by Gara Oreshets village. It was

discovered in 1970 during blasting a quarry near station of Oreshets. The cave has corridors with a length of 200 meters and 5 falls. "Venetsa" is one of the most unique and beautiful caves in Bulgaria. It is declared a natural monument because of its exceptionally beautiful colorful stone formations and ice crystals, resembling flowers, figures and animals. In 2014 was started a project for developing of the cave. At the end of the spring 2015 the cave was officially open for visitors. Inside the cave was created a walkway, railings and was wired for electricity. There was created also hiking trails above the cave formations, from where they can be seen better by the tourists. It is done and artistic lighting, which further strengthened the impact and beauty of the colorful formations.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 7. Magurata Cave

Magurata Cave is among Bulgaria`s biggest and most famous caves. It is located close to the village of Rabisha in Vidin district. Magourata is 2.5km long and is accommodated for tourists. There are many halls, some of which vast and adorned with beautiful rock formations. Large quantities of bones from different prehistoric species like cave bear or cave hyena have been discovered. There have been found also remnants of prehistoric life, traces of settlements dating back to the early Bronze Age and early Iron Age ceramics, tools and rock drawings. In one of the galleries of Maguarata cave is produced a special wine which closely resembles the wines of Champagne, France due to the unique micro climate of the cave which are similar to that region.

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8. ETHNOGRAPHIC OPEN-AIR MUSEUM ЕTAR

The Ethnographic museum Etar is the first open air museum of this kind opened in Bulgaria. It was 59


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE established on September 7th, 1964. The museum is situated 8 km South of the town of Gabrovo.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE The museum territory covers an area of 7 ha and comprises 50 sites - water technical equipment, houses with craftsman's workshops, places with social importance. The aim of the museum display is showing the architecture, the life style and the economic past of Gabrovo region during the Revival period the second half of 18 and the 19 centuries. More than 26 main crafts were developed in the town and the goods were sold in different parts of the country and in the region - Bucharest, Vienna, Marseille, Anatolia and other. The first secular New Bulgarian school was opened in 1835. The living premises and the workshops are detached in the so called "craftsmen's street ". Sixteen architectural patterns of Gabrovo district depict the talent and skill of the Renaissance builders. Different interiors, homemade weaving, icon painting are shown on the second floors of the houses. On the ground floors numerous crafts are revived: there are workshops for sandals, a furriery, a coppersmithery, cow-bells workshop, pottery making workshop, workshop for silverware and woodcarving, for producing carts, national folk instruments, a cutlery, bakery and confectionery with a coffee shop, as well as a rich collection of medicinal plants and herbs. There the craftsmen are manufacturing different products and selling them directly from the workshops. In this way the visitors enjoy the opportunity to observe the ancient technologies, the original instruments, to have a conversation with the masters. They can bay a handmade hammered knife, wooden bowl, copper coffee pot, patterned earthened jug, silver jewelry, a Gabrovian rug, icon with a wood-carved icon-stand, or a curing medicines from the herbs-selling shop a souvenier to memorize thier trip in Etara. The old-times water-driven machinery is an essential part of Etar ethnographical open-air museum . It's the only one of its kind. It contains ten equipments and is one of the richest and well-organized technical collections among the European museums in the open. They are the first view that visitors can see in our museum.

9. Tryavna

THE CLOCK TOWER AND OLD BRIDGE

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE The unique atmosphere of Tryavna is due to its original architecture. Several generations of masterbuilders constructed churches, bridges, schools and the distinctive Tryavna house. Nowadays the clock tower is one of the symbols of Tryavna. The Clock Tower was built in 1814 and the clock in 1815, still functioning.

THE DASKALOV HOUSE MUSEUM

The Daskalov House is one of the most beautiful early Revival houses preserved to this day. It was built from 1804 to 1808 for two of the sons of chorbadji (master) Hristo Daskalov. The most remarkable things about it are the wood carved ceilings in the two bedrooms. They were made after a wager between the old master and his kalfa (apprentice) during a period of six months. The rooms are lit up by the rays of the calm May and hot July sun.

KAZAKOV GALLERY

This is one of the new museum sites in Tryavna, opened after 2000. The Kazakov Gallery bears the name of the great Bulgarian painter Dimitur Kazakov – Nero, whose life is linked to Tryavna. He donated over 500 of his best paintings to the town. The Gallery houses temporary exhibitions and presents popular and less known talented painters, as well as thematic exhibitions, organized by guest museums and cultural institutions.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 10. PANAGYURISHTE GOLD TREASURE

Panagyurishte region is populated by deep antiquity . Its inhabitants in the Bronze and Iron Age were Thracians . Open at 8 dekemvri 1949 g. Panagyurishte gold treasure , many archaeological finds , as and unique funerary equipment found near Strelcha and Starossel , are proof of the high material and spiritual culture of the local Thracian tribes. Treasure , made of gold at the end of IV or the beginning of III c. BC . Hr . It has a total weight of 6 kg . 164 gr . a religious service , consisting be from 9 court : phial , an amphora and rhytons , on external walls , on which are depicted scenes from Thracian - Greek Pantheon.

Goddess of wisdom AthensTheseus in combat with Marathon bull

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11. REGIONALEN HISTORICAL MUSEUM VRATSA

The "Thracian Treasures" Room Exhibition

The room shows the findings from “Mogilanska” Hill. The golden wreath and the golden earrings are among the masterpieces of the ancient goldsmith's trade. The unique silver knee-protecting piece with gold plating was actually made in the area and bears the characteristics of the Thracian decorative art. The collection also includes a number of gold and silver ornaments. The same collection also exhibits the treasures from Miziya (Bukyovtsi) and Galiche, represented by silver, gilded and gold ritual vessels, ornaments and phalerae depicting the Mother Goddess and the Thracian Equestrian. Samples of the art of jewellery from the Ancient world, the Middle Ages, and the Bulgarian National Revival period are arranged in separate show-cases.

The "Rogozen Treasure" Room Exhibition This room houses the treasure from Rogozen, consisting of 165 vessels, made of silver and decorated with gold. Several generations of local Thracian kings had added to this collection in the period between the end of the 6th and the 4th c. BC, so it represents a family set of one dynasty. The rulers demonstrated their wealth and power through the splendor of the treasure. A big part of the vessels were produced locally - the multifarious and gorgeous decoration bears the characteristics of a unique art. The mythological scenes depicted on it testify to the vastness of the spiritual world of the Thracians.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 12. REGIONAL HISTORY MUSEUM

Regional History Museum - Plovdiv was established in 1951 as a research and cultural organization for investigation, study, preservation and display of cultural assets from the past of the city of Plovdiv and its region in the period 15-20th century. The Museum holdings keep more than 60,000 exhibits, amongst them unique collections of cold steel and firearms, orders and medals, armament, personal belongings, printed publications, apparel and items from town’s everyday life, photos and documents. The History Museum in Plovdiv manages four expositions: „The Bulgarian National Revival”, „Book Publishing in Bulgaria in the second half of 19th and the beginning of 20th century”, „The Unification of Bulgaria of 1885” and the Museum Centre of Modern History. Regional history museum – Plovdiv has collections that are evidences of different periods from the history of the town. Some of them are collections of personal belongings – connected with the life of political and public figures, revolutionaries etc. Others are collections of goods and chattels – seals, weapons, coins, maps, appliances etc.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 13. Panorama “The Epopee of Pleven -1877”

In 1977 on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the liberation of Pleven, on the very place of the former battlefield in Skobelev Park – museum the panorama “The Epopee of Pleven -1877” was built. The inauguration was on 10th December 1977 on the very day of the 100th anniversary of the liberation of Pleven. The building was shaped as a frustum of a cone, supported by four stylized bayonets. Three horizontal rings symbolize the three storms at Pleven. The ring with the bayonets stands for the blockade of the town. Panorama “The Epopee of Pleven -1877” consists of four halls – Introductory Hall, the Panorama, the Diorama and Final Hall.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 14. The unique Thracian sanctuary "Cave Womb"

This amazing structure was discovered and documented in April 2001. It is high in the mountain, in a wild, rocky area above the Borovitsa Chalet, some 14 miles from Kurdzali. Not far away is the largest complex of Thracian rock niches in the Eastern Rhodope. A surprise awaits the visitor at the very entrance as one realises that it is shaped like the opening to a vagina. It leads into a 65 ft cave, and expert analysis has shown that the original karstic cavern had only been 48 ft deep. Undoubtedly, a human hand shaped it into a place of conception constantly washed by water seeping through the walls. At the deep far end of the cave, a carved altar symbolises the womb itself. The real surprise, however, comes at midday: as the sun approaches its highest point in the sky, its light seeps into the cave through a special opening in the ceiling and projects a perfectly recognisable representation of a phallus onto the floor. As the sun progresses further, and the light slants across the interior of the cave, the phallus grows longer, reaching out to the womb altar. Only during some months of the year, however, January and February, when the sun is lowest on the horizon, the phallus becomes long enough to reach the altar and symbolically fecundate the womb.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 15. Kordopulova house

The Kordopulova house and its history through centuries interesting and magica valuable and with eternal architecture,it is one of the most significant constructions in Melnik and has a rich interior.It is situated like a divine and precious pearl in the middle of the carved sandy screes and the beautiful nature of the city. It is the biggest house from the Revival period in the history of Bulgaria and was built by the rich family Kordopul from Melnik in 1754. The place,the excavated basements,the ground floor,speak about the great creation and mind during its construction ,which keeps and fulfils the tradition of producing red wine. The Kordopulova house consists: - a ground floor with excavited basements for wine,with storing capacity 250-300 m of wine. - half-floor for economical purposes and bay floor for residence.Entering the house there is a very strong impression from one of its fabulous room.This is the living room which is very large and there are 12 windows.The lower row of windows is in Bulgarian style and they are tipical for our restoration construction. Wins-cellar. TunnelsThe upper row is decorated with color glasses which release big amount of light and are kind of mixture between Venetian and oriental elements.The north wall of the room in which the wardrobes are built is skillfully decorated with ornaments from the baroque age. The ceiling of this room is made of wood,representing the sun with 12 sharp rectangles in the number of the months in a year.Noticeable in this room will also be that in it marvelous barrels for wine are preserved from which once the guests of the house had drunk from the famous Melnik wine.In it also preserved skillfully made carpets which cover the wooden basis of the room. Drawing-roomOn the ground floor of the Kordopulova house there are true,even fantastic labyrinths and wine basements and each of them has its own history. In them the famous Melnik wine was produced and stored,and today the owners have kept this tradition and they meet with wine every visitor of the house. The knelt baskets,the deep and rich,but old interior speak about style of living and preserved very well even today. One of the rest attractions of the Kordopulova house is the biggest basement,which is 200 m long.there is a tank for water for drinking and a well for industrial purposes. In this basement 250-300 t of wine can be stored. The bedroom is in typical (oriental) style of beauty,also called the Turkish room. A lot of windows are in it and they are made in all the colours of the rainbow. The Kordopul house has a summer and a winter balcony,which are two big attractions for the guests. Built in wardrobesThe summer balcony ,which is opened and bound to the house,can be reached trough a curled wooden stair.Here every guests can sit in sunny weather during summertime and marvel at the beautiful sight of the nature of Melnik. The Kordopul house is a house-museum,situated like a Balkan in the middle of melnik's nature. It is the biggest house on the Balkan Peninsula and is the greatest eternity in the in the history of Melnik.It is a gift from ages.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 16. Koprivshtitsa

Koprivshtitsa - a small town situated in the region of Sushtinska Sredna Gora in the valley of Topolnitsa River - is a remarkable, unparalleled historic reserve. Koprivshtitsa is a captivating mountain town, unique with its cobblestone alleys, houses painted in bright colors with expansive verandahs and picturesque eaves. During the Ottoman rule, Koprivshtitsa withstood many a raid, it was reduced to ashes several times, its inhabitants were frequently robbed and driven away. The wealthier townsfolk managed to “ransom” Koprivshtitsa from the Turkish rulers and win some special privileges, thus keeping the Bulgarian traditions and atmosphere of the town intact. In this way Koprivshtitsa was able to preserve its freedom-loving, patriotic spirit and hand it down to its children. Many Bulgarians who laid down their lives for the liberation of their motherland had been born here. Here you'll find hotels, hostels and private guest houses from all categories. Walking town's cobblestone streets, you can almost hear the sound of galloping horses, in museums you will learn a lot about Bulgarian past - the past of April's uprising, the teachers and educators, wealthy givers and patriotic townsfolk. The scent of pine resin, thyme and wild strawberries will surround you through the spring and summer. The fragrance beech logs will be in the air through the winter. The wind still whispers the voices of the rebel heroes, the echoes of heroic years - telling the story of this magical town.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 17. Perperikon Thousands of years ago, Perperikon was a massive bald rock. Such rocks drew prehistoric humans like a magnet and became an object of worship. The rugged wilderness of the Eastern Rhodope must have cradled a rich megalithic culture long before the Thracian tribes inherited the land. The early inhabitants worshiped the huge undressed stones for their natural splendour. Later generations learned to carve and smooth the rocks and used them for shelter and protection. As their tools became more effective, humans could shape or remove larger areas of the rock surface but that also meant that they obliterated the vestiges of earlier cultures. The earliest traces of human civilisation discovered so far at Perperikon were dated to the late Neolithic Period, 6th-5th millennium BC. At that time, humans had not yet learned to work the face of the rock massif: fragments of Neolithic pottery were found deposited in the natural crevices of the cliff. However, Perperikon was not yet a settled village but a rock of worship. Next came the Eneolithic Period (or the Copper Age). Pits hewn in the rock and fragments of pottery found in them were dated to the late 5th - early 4th millennium B.C. The pottery is similar to that found at other Eneolithic villages, such as the famous Mound of Karanovo. What had gradually become an inhabited rock complex continued to develop during the Bronze Age. There is every reason to believe that during the late Bronze Age in particular, 18th-12th century BC, Perperikon saw its first heyday, which probably coincided with the peak of the Mycenaean and the Minoan civilisations. Notably, the abundance of pottery from that period was found in archaeological strata lying on large areas of finished rock surface. While subsequent carving destroyed most of that cultural layer, it has supplied sufficient evidence to archaeologists to suggest that by the end of the Bronze Age Perperikon had become a major place of worship. Very interesting late Bronze Age pottery was found at Perperikon in 2002, including several well-preserved vessels: small cups and larger beakers with characteristic curved handles. These vary in quality of workmanship from vessels made of rather coarse clay mixed with small pebbles to finely polished black 'luxury' items. Among the finds was unique 18th century BC pottery which must have been imported from the Sea of Marmara coast in what was probably the earliest trade between the regions. One almost fully preserved vessel features an incised lime-filled composition of six human figures around a representation of the Sun. The composition is organised like a floral motif, with the limbs of the humans being depicted as leaves, and their heads, as suns. These must be ancient deities whose names we may never learn. A system of religious beliefs did not emerge until the early Iron Age, 11th-6th century BC, a period represented as well by the pottery found at Perperikon. Unlike the ancient Greek mythology, however, which developed at the same time, Orphism, the Thracian system of religious and philosophical beliefs is virtually unknown. Dionysus and Orpheus undoubtedly stemmed from that tradition but were a much later development. Dionysus High Altar in the Palace/TempleA sacred winepress at PerperikonA sacred winepress at Perperikon

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE The Varna Eneolithic Gold TreasureAncient deities on a late Bronze Age vessel, 15th-16th century BC, Perperikon

18. Nesebar Architectural-Historical Reserve

Nesebar is one of the most ancient towns in Europe, founded 3200 years ago. During Antiquity the town was called Mesembria, in the Middle Ages it was known as Mesemvria, and it was later renamed to Nesebar. Numerous archaeological finds provide evidence of the centuries-old history of Old Nesebar. Many of them can be seen at the Archaeological Museum which is located at the very beginning of the peninsula. The different museum halls provide information about the town’s existence under the control of the Thracians, the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, and the Bulgarian State. The Old Town was declared an architectural-historical reserve of national importance by virtue of Ordinance No 243 of the Council of Ministers of 18 July 1956. In 1983 Old Nesebar was included in the List of World Cultural Heritage Sites of UNESCO.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 19. NATIONAL PARK-MUSEUM SHIPKA-BUZLUDZA

National Park Museum Shipka-Buzludzha is a marvelous historical architectural reserve, which in a unique way combines the beautiful mountain nature and the historical monuments, connected with important events from the Bulgarian history. The defence of the “Shipka Pass” was one of the most heroic and decisive battles during the Russian-Turkish War of Liberation 1877-1878. The combats that took place from 09/21 to 13/26 August 1877 between the pass defenders and the Turkish army, entered the Bulgarian history under the name of the Shipka Epopee. The task of the small-number Russian-Bulgarian detachment under the command of Gen. N.G. Stoletov, about 7,500 people strong, was to deter the Suleiman Pasha army that was overpowering it by its numbers (approx. 27,000 people and a reserve of 10,000), and not allow it to cross the Balkan Mountains and join forces with the Turkish units in North-East Bulgaria, in help of the Osman Pasha army besieged in Pleven. The engagements for Shipka began on 09/21 August 1877. For six days Bulgarians and Russians repulsed by fire and bayonets the incessant attacks of the Turkish battalions. The third day was the hardest and decisive for the defence – 11/23 August – when the Turks were increasingly tightening the belt round the defenders, while the ammunition was dwindling to the end. Suleiman Pashalaunched in the afternoon all his reserves to the field, against the centre of the defence. In that most critical moment, when it looked that Shipka was about to fall, the first reinforcement arrived, sent by Gen. Radetzky from Gabrovo. All the companies making up the 16th infantry battalion arrived there late in the afternoon and, following a fierce fight, the Turks retreated. Shipka was saved! The casualties that the Russian regiments and the Bulgarian volunteers suffered at Shipka and in the Sheynovo field, were approx. 11,000 people killed, wounded or missing, while in excess of 9,000 people were the ones that froze or fell sick during the “Winter Shipka Standing”.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 20. Tsarevets Hill

During the period of the Second Bulgarian Kingdom, from the year 1185 to 1395, Bulgaria was the largest and the most powerful state in Southeastern Europe, and Tsarevets Hill was the main fortress of the medieval capital – Veliko Turnovo. During the first centuries of the Roman rule the ancient settlement was deserted, but had been inhabited even as early as the 2nd millennium B.C. After the abandonment, in once again became populated during the 4th century, and by the 5th century it had already become a strongly fortified early Byzantine town. During the 12th century, the medieval fortress was raised on top of the foundations of this early Byzantine stronghold. Today there is partial restoration, although the entire fort has been well-studied. You can see how this fort was able to withstand many different periods throughout history as it consists of massive stonewalls, gates and towers. The official way to enter Tsaravets was through three huge gates which are located at the central entrance and situated on a narrow rocky isthmus. Here there was a drawbridge, which was where the fortified King’s Palace was. An inner stonewall surrounded this area, and the Throne Hall, the Royal Church, and the royal chambers were situated behind this wall. At the top of the entire hill was the complex of the Patriarch’s Palace, which was restored in 1981 in honour of 1300 years from the creation Bulgaria and was painted in 1985 in honour of 800 years from the liberation of Vizantia.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Cultural Tourism in Italy 1. Assisi Assisi is a town and comune of Italy in the Province of Perugia in the Umbria region, on the western flank of Monte Subasio. Festival Calendimaggio, held on 1–5 May, is a re-enactment of medieval and Renaissance life in the form of a challenge between the upper faction and the lower faction of the town. It includes processions, theatrical presentations, flag-wavers and dances. Assisi Embroidery is a form of counted-thread embroidery which has been practised in Assisi since the 13th century.

2. Cagliari Cagliari is an Italian municipality and the capital of the island of Sardinia, an autonomous region of Italy. Cagliari's Sardinian name Casteddu literally means castle. Cagliari is the 26th largest city in Italy and the largest city on the island of Sardinia. An ancient city with a long history, Cagliari has seen the rule of several civilisations. Under the buildings of the modern city there is a continuous stratification attesting to human settlement over the course of some five thousand years, from the Neolithic to today. Historical sites include the prehistoric Domus de Janas, very damaged by cave activity, a large Carthaginian era necropolis, a Roman era amphitheatre, a Byzantine basilica, three Pisan-era towers and a strong system of fortification that made the town the core of Spanish Habsburg imperial power in the western Mediterranean Sea. Its natural resources have always been its sheltered harbour, the often powerfully fortified hill of Castel di Castro, the modern Casteddu, the salt from its lagoons, and, from the hinterland, wheat from the Campidano plain and silver and other ores from the Iglesiente mines. Today the city is a regional cultural, educational, political and artistic centre, known for its diverse Art Nouveau architecture and several monuments.

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3. Caserta Caserta is the capital of the province of Caserta in the Campania region of Italy. It is an important agricultural, commercial and industrial comune and city. Caserta is located on the edge of the Campanian plain at the foot of the Campanian Subapennine mountain range. The city is best known for the Palace of Caserta. Caserta is located 40 kilometres north of Naples. Casertavecchia is the ancient centre of the comune and former bishopric seat. San Leucio resort, seat of famous Royal silk workshops, also included in the World Heritage List. Caserta's main attraction is its Royal Palace (listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site). The palace was created in the 18th century by the Italian architect Luigi Vanvitelli as a Versailles-like residence ("Reggia") for the Bourbon kings of Naples and Sicily. It is one of the most visited monuments in the country. Inside are more than 1200 rooms, decorated in various styles. The Cathedral (18th century). The Aqueduct of Vanvitelli (18th century).

4. Ferrara Ferrara is a city and comune in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, capital city of the Province of Ferrara. It is situated 50 kilometres north-northeast of Bologna, on the Po di Volano, a branch channel of the main stream of the Po River, located 5 km (3 miles) north. The town has broad streets and numerous palaces dating from the 14th and 15th centuries, when it hosted the court of the House of Este. For its beauty and cultural importance it has been qualified by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Modern times have brought 78


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE a renewal of industrial activity. Ferrara is on the main rail line from Bologna to Padua and Venice, and has branches to Ravenna, Poggio Rusco (for Suzzara) and Codigoro.

5. Florence Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and of the Metropolitan City of Florence. It is the most populous city in Tuscany. Florence was a centre of medieval European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of the time. The Historic Centre of Florence attracts 13 million tourists each year, and Euromonitor International ranked the city as the world's 89th most visited in 2012, with 1.8 million visitors. It was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1982. The city is noted for its culture, Renaissance art and architecture and monuments. The city also contains numerous museums and art galleries, such as the Uffizi Gallery and the Palazzo Pitti, and still exerts an influence in the fields of art, culture and politics. Due to Florence's artistic and architectural heritage, it has been ranked by Forbes as one of the most beautiful cities in the world.

6. Genoa Genoa is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy. Located on the Gulf of Genoa in the Ligurian Sea, Genoa has historically been one of the most important ports on the 79


Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Mediterranean: it is currently the second-busiest in Italy, after the port of Gioia Tauro in Campania, and twelfth-busiest in the European Union. Genoa has been nicknamed la Superba ("the Proud one") due to its glorious past and impressive landmarks. Part of the old town of Genoa was inscribed on the World Heritage List (UNESCO) in 2006. The city's rich cultural history in notably its art, music and cuisine allowed it to become the 2004 European Capital of Culture.

7. Lecce Lecce is a historic city of 94,766 inhabitants (2015) in southern Italy, the capital of the province of Lecce, the third province in the region by population, as well as one of the most important cities of Apulia. It is the main city of the Salentine Peninsula, a sub-peninsula at the heel of the Italian Peninsula and is over 2,000 years old. Because of the rich Baroque architectural monuments found in the city, Lecce is commonly nicknamed "The Florence of the South". In terms of industry, the "Lecce stone"—a particular kind of limestone—is one of the city's main exports, because it is very soft and workable, thus suitable for sculptures. Lecce is also an important agricultural centre, chiefly for its olive oil and wine production, as well as an industrial centre specializing in ceramic production.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 8. Lucca Lucca is a city and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio, in a fertile plain near the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is the capital of the Province of Lucca. It is famous for its intact Renaissance-era city walls. Palazzo Pfanner, garden view Lucca had been the second largest Italian city state (after Venice) with a republican constitution ("comune") to remain independent over the centuries.

9. Naples Naples is the capital of the Italian region Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy, after Rome and Milan. Naples is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. Bronze Age Greek settlements were established in the Naples area in the second millennium BC. A larger colony – initially known as Parthenope, Παρθενόπη – developed on the Island of Megaride around the ninth century BC, at the end of the Greek Dark Ages.The city was refounded as Neápolis in the sixth century BC and became a lynchpin of Magna Graecia, playing a key role in the merging of Greek culture into Roman society and eventually becoming a cultural centre of the Roman Republic. Naples' historic city centre is the largest in Europe,covering 1,700 hectares and enclosing 27 centuries of history,and is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Naples has long been a major cultural centre with a global sphere of influence, particularly during the Renaissance and Enlightenment eras. In the immediate vicinity of Naples are numerous culturally and historically significant sites, including the Palace of Caserta and the Roman ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum.

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Castle D Ovo

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 10. Matera

Matera is a city and a province in the region of Basilicata, in Southern Italy. It is the capital of the province of Matera and the capital of Basilicata from 1663 to 1806. The town lies in a small canyon carved out by the Gravina. Known as "la Città Sotterranea", its historical center "Sassi", along with the Park of the Rupestrian Churches, is considered a World Heritage Site by UNESCO since 1993. On October 17, 2014, Matera was declared Italian host of European Capital of Culture for 2019. The area of what is now Matera has been settled since the Palaeolithic. The city was allegedly founded by the Romans in the 3rd century BC, with the name of Matheola after the consul Lucius Caecilius Metellus. Matera has gained international fame for its ancient town, the "Sassi di Matera". The Sassi originated in a prehistoric troglodyte settlement, and these dwellings are thought to be among the first ever human settlements in what is now Italy. The Sassi are habitations dug into the calcareous rock itself, which is characteristic of Basilicata and Apulia. Matera preserves a large and diverse collection of buildings related to the Christian faith, including a large number of rupestrian churches carved from the soft volcanic rock of the region. These churches, which are also found in the neighboring region of Apulia, were listed in the 1998 World Monuments Watch by the World Monuments Fund. Matera Cathedral (1268–1270) has been dedicated to Santa Maria della Bruna since 1389. Built in an Apulian Romanesque architectural style, the church has a 52 m tall bell tower, and next to the main gate is a statue of the Maria della Bruna, backed by those of Saints Peter and Paul. 11. Orvieto Orvieto is a city and comune in the Province of Terni, southwestern Umbria, Italy situated on the flat summit of a large butte of volcanic tuff. The site of the city is among the most dramatic in Europe, rising above the almost-vertical faces of tuff cliffs that are completed by defensive walls built of the same stone called Tufa. Orvieto was certainly a major centre of Etruscan civilization; the archaeological museum (Museo Claudio Faina e Museo Civico) houses some of the Etruscan artifacts that have been recovered in the immediate neighbourhood. Roman and post-Roman eras: Orvieto was annexed by Rome in the third century BC. Because of its site on a high, steep bluff of tufa, a volcanic rock, the city was virtually impregnable. The city became one of the major cultural centers of its time when Thomas Aquinas taught at the studium there. The monumental Cathedral of Orvieto. On 15 November 1290, Pope Nicholas IV laid the cornerstone for the present building and dedicated it to the Assumption of the Virgin, a feast for which the city had a long history of special devotion. 83


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12. Perugia

Perugia is the capital city of both the region of Umbria in central Italy, crossed by the river Tiber, and of the province of Perugia. The city is located about 164 kilometres (102 miles) north of Rome and 148 km south-east of Florence. It covers a high hilltop and part of the valleys around the area. The region of Umbria is bordered by Tuscany, Lazio, and Marche. The history of Perugia goes back to the Etruscan period; Perugia was one of the main Etruscan cities. The city is also known as the universities town, with the University of Perugia founded in 1308, the University for Foreigners, and some smaller colleges such the Academy of Fine Arts "Pietro Vannucci" (Italian: Accademia di Belle Arti "Pietro Vannucci") public athenaeum founded in 1573, the Perugia University Institute of Linguistic Mediation for translators and interpreters, the Music Conservatory of Perugia, founded in 1788, and other Institutes. Perugia is also a well-known cultural and artistic centre of Italy. The city hosts multiple annual festivals and events, e.g., the Eurochocolate Festival (October), the Umbria Jazz Festival (July), and the International Journalism Festival (in April), and is associated with multiple notable people in the arts. The city's symbol is the griffin, which can be seen in the form of plaques and statues on buildings around the city.

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13. Ravenna Ravenna is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy. It was the capital city of the Western Roman Empire from 402 until that empire collapsed in 476. It then served as the capital of the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths until it was re-conquered in 540 by the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire. Afterwards, the city formed the centre of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna until the invasion of the Lombards in 751, after which it became the seat of the Kingdom of the Lombards. Although an inland city, Ravenna is connected to the Adriatic Sea by the Candiano Canal. It is known for its well-preserved late Roman and Byzantine architecture, and has eight UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 14. Reggio di Calabria Reggio di Calabria commonly known as Reggio Calabria is the biggest city and the most populated comune of Calabria, Southern Italy. It is the capital of the Metropolitan City of Reggio Calabria and the seat of the Regional Council of Calabria. Reggio is located on the "toe" of the Italian Peninsula and is separated from the island of Sicily by the Strait of Messina. It is situated on the slopes of the Aspromonte, a long, craggy mountain range that runs up through the center of the region. As a major functional pole in the region, it has strong historical, cultural and economic ties with the city of Messina, which lies across the strait in Sicily, forming a metro city. It is a major economic center for regional services and transport on the southern shores of the Mediterranean. Reggio, with Naples and Taranto, is home to one of the most important archaeological museums, the prestigious National Archaeological Museum of Magna GrĂŚcia, dedicated to Ancient Greece (which houses the Bronzes of Riace, rare example of Greek bronze sculpture, which became one of the symbols of the city).

15. Rome Rome is a special comune and the capital of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City is an independent country geographically located within the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans more than 2,500 years. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at only around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe. Rome has the status of a global city. Rome ranked in 2014 as the

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, and the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Monuments and museums such as the Vatican Museums and the Colosseum are among the world's most visited tourist destinations with both locations receiving millions of tourists a year.

16. Syracuse Syracuse is a historic city in Sicily, the capital of the province of Syracuse. The city is notable for its rich Greek history, culture, amphitheatres, architecture, and as the birthplace of the preeminent mathematician and engineer Archimedes.[3] This 2,700-year-old city played a key role in ancient times, when it was one of the major powers of the Mediterranean world. Syracuse is located in the southeast corner of the island of Sicily, next to the Gulf of Syracuse beside the Ionian Sea. In the modern day, the city is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site along with the Necropolis of Pantalica. Since 2005, the entire city of Syracuse, along with the Necropolis of Pantalica which falls within the province of Syracuse, were listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

17. Turin Turin is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy, capital of the Piedmont region and was the first capital city of Italy. The city is located mainly on the western bank of the Po River, in front of Susa Valley and surrounded by the western Alpine arch and by the Superga Hill. In 1997 a part of the historical center of Torino was inscribed in the World Heritage List under the name 87


Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Residences of the Royal House of Savoy. The city has a rich culture and history, and is known for its numerous art galleries, restaurants, churches, palaces, opera houses, piazzas, parks, gardens, theatres, libraries, museums and other venues. Turin is well known for its Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, Neoclassical, and Art Nouveau architecture. Many of Turin's public squares, castles, gardens and elegant palazzi such as Palazzo Madama, were built between the 16th and 18th centuries. Turin was Italy's first capital city in 1861 and home to the House of Savoy, Italy's royal family. Turin is sometimes called "the cradle of Italian liberty" for having been the birthplace and home of notable politicians and people who contributed to the Risorgimento, such as Cavour. The city currently hosts some of Italy's best universities, colleges, academies, lycea and gymnasia, such as the University of Turin, founded in the 15th century, and the Turin Polytechnic. In addition, the city is home to museums such as the Museo Egizio and the Mole Antonelliana . Turin's attractions make it one of the world's top 250 tourist destinations and the tenth most visited city in Italy in 2008.

18. Trento Trento is a city located in the Adige River valley in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol in Italy. It is the capital of Trentino. In the 16th century, the city was the location of the Council of Trent. Formerly part of Austria and AustriaHungary, it was annexed by Italy in 1919. Trento is an educational, scientific, financial and political centre in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, in Tyrol and Northern Italy in general. The city contains a picturesque Medieval and Renaissance historic centre, with ancient buildings such as Trento Cathedral and the Castello del Buonconsiglio. Trento was awarded the title of Alpine Town of the Year 2004. Trento lies in a wide glacial valley known as the Adige valley, just south of the Dolomite Mountains, where the Fersina River and Avisio rivers join the Adige River (the second longest river in Italy). River Adige is one of the three primary southflowing Alpine rivers.The valley is surrounded by mountains, including Vigolana (2,150 m), Monte Bondone (2,181 m), Paganella (2,124 m), Marzola (1,747 m and Monte Calisio (1,096 m). Nearby lakes include Lake Caldonazzo, Lake Levico, Lake Garda and Lake Toblino.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 19. Urbino

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Urbino is a walled city in the Marche region of Italy, south-west of Pesaro, a World Heritage Site notable for a remarkable historical legacy of independent Renaissance culture. The town, nestled on a high sloping hillside, retains much of its picturesque medieval aspect. It hosts the University of Urbino, founded in 1506, and is the seat of the Archbishop of Urbino. Its best-known architectural piece is the Palazzo Ducale, rebuilt by Luciano Laurana. The city is located in a predominantly hilly area, at the foothills of the Northern Apennines and the Tuscan-Romagnolo Apennines longing to high ecclesiastical hierarchy.

20. Verona

Verona is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, Italy, with approximately 265,000 inhabitants and one of the seven provincial capitals of the region. It is the second largest city municipality in the region and the third largest in northeast Italy. The metropolitan area of Verona covers an area of 1,426 km2 (550.58 sq mi) and has a population of 714,274 inhabitants. It is one of the main tourist destinations in northern Italy, owing to its artistic heritage, several annual fairs, shows, and operas, such as the lyrical season in the Arena, the ancient amphitheatre built by the Romans. Three of Shakespeare's plays are set in Verona: Romeo and Juliet, The Two Gentlemen of Verona, and The Taming of the Shrew. It is unknown if Shakespeare ever visited Verona or Italy at all, but his plays have lured many visitors to Verona and surrounding cities many times over. The city has been awarded World Heritage Site status by UNESCO because of its urban structure and architecture.

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RELIGIOUS TOURISM

Religious tourism (names in English: Religious Tourism, Pilgrimage, Faith Tourism, Faith Travel) is a type of tourism that believers of different religions, individually or in groups, travelling to places and objects, defined as "sacred" for the religion or forming interest for believers because of some connection to the place / site with religious believes.

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Religious sites in Turkey The Anatolian peninsula, spanning on two continents, forms a natural land bridge between Europe and Asia. Due to its unique position, Anatolia has been the destination for numerous immigrants, many of them leaving the indelible mark of their cultural heritage during their settlement in this area, now known as Turkey. Anatolia has been the cradle of numerous civilizations for thousands of years and the birthplace of the three major religions: Christianity, Judaism and Islam. This fact alone, lends Turkey its unique and invaluable cultural and archaeological heritage. Judaism, which was the first monotheistic religion, was widespread in Anatolia. Recent archaeological excavations conducted in the Aegean region indicate Judaism's existence since the early 4th century B.C. Sardis contains the remains of one of the oldest synagogues dating back to 220 B.C. which provides a fine structural and archaeological example of this place of worship. In 1324, when Orhan Gazi conquered Bursa, he permitted the Jewish people to construct EtzHayim Synagogue. In 1394, the Jewish people departed from France on the orders of Charles VI and look refuge in Edirne. Then in 1492, Spain's King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castilla expelled the Jews. The Ottoman Empire of that time, ruled by the sultan Beyazid II, had embraced those Jews who were left homeless as a result of their deportation from Spain due to their conventions and beliefs and settled them in Anatolia. Anatolia is also as significant area for Christians and is considered holy and sacred for many reasons which include: St. Paul, one of the early leaders of the Christian Church who devoted himself to the dissemination and expansion of Christianity, was born in Tarsus, ancient Cilicia. He wrote his Letter to Ephesians in Ephesus. The Seven Churches of the Apocalypse which were mentioned in Revelations and are located in Anatolia; Ephesus (Efes), Smyrna (Izmir), Pergamum (Bergama), Thyatria (Akhisar), Sardis (Sart), Philadelphia (Alasehir), Laodicea (Denizli). Saint John lived and died in Ephesus. His grave and the church is in Selcuk, Izmir, nearby Ephesus. The first eight of the Church Council meetings which have been held 19 times until now, were held in Turkey. Especially, holding of the first and seventh meetings in Iznik (Nicea) established the tradition of holding these meetings regularly.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE The believers of Christ were called "Christian" for the first time in Antakya. The first church of Christianity was carved in a cave in Antioch and called St. Peter's Grotto. Virgin Mary spent the last days of her life in Ephesus. The first church dedicated to her is also in Ephesus. Saint Nicholas was born in Patara and became bishop in Myra. The Apostle St. Philip lived in Hierapolis and was martyred there. The Turks who settled in Anatolia after 1071 constructed many important religious symbols related the to Islamic faith. These examples which reflect the architectural style of the Islamic periods may be classified as follows: Mosques (Cami), Theological Schools of the time (Medrese), Building Complexes adjacent to a Mosque (Külliye), Shrines (Türbe),Tombs with conical roofs (Kümbet) 1.

Hagia Sophia

What is now called Asian Istanbul was probably inhabited by people as early as 3000 BC. Eventually, in the 7th century, Greek colonists led by King Byzas established the colony of Byzantium, the Greek name for a city on the Bosphorus. Byzas chose the spot after consulting an oracle of Delphi who told him to settle across from the "land of the blind ones." Indeed, Byzas concluded, earlier settlers must have been deprived of their sight to have overlooked this superb location at the mouth of the Bosphorus strait. Byzas gave his name to the city: Byzantium.In the early 100's BC, it became part of the Roman Empire and in 306 AD, Emperor Constantine the Great made Byzantium capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. From that point on, the city was known as Constantinople. Hagia Sophia church was built in 6th century. The mid 400's AD was a time of enormous upheaval in the empire. Barbarians conquered the western Roman Empire while the Eastern, also called the Byzantine Empire, kept Constantinople as its capital. In 532 during the reign of Justinian I, antigovernment riots destroyed the city. It was rebuilt, and outstanding structures such as Hagia Sophia stand as monuments to the heights Byzantine culture reached.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE The attribute that made the city so desirable, its incomparable location for trade and transport between three continents, was also its nemesis. For the next several hundred years Persians, Arabs, nomadic peoples, and members of the Fourth Crusade (who for a time governed the city) attacked Constantinople.

Finally, in 1453, when Constantinople was so weakened by almost constant invasions and battles, the Ottoman Turks led by Sultan Mehmet II were able to conquer the city. Renamed Istanbul, it became the third and last capital of the Ottoman Empire. Some of the interesting districts of the city are: Sultanahmet, Haydarpasa, Uskudar, Eyup, Galata, Pera, Ortaköy, Taksim, Eminönü, Fatih, Balat, and The Bosphorus. Princess Islands are a popular summer resort for local people. 2. The Blue Mosque

Sultan Ahmed Mosque in Istanbul is a palette of blue, green and white, but because hundreds of blue tiles used inside the mosque, the temple of Sultan Ahmed is better known by its name "The Blue Mosque". Extremely elegant imperial Mosque with its six minarets, during the summer months impresses with sound and light the visitors.

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3. Syuleyman the Magnificent - the largest imperial mosque

Known for its exquisite minarets, stained glass windows and superb acoustics, Suleyman the Magnificent (SĂźleymaniye Camii) is the largest and considered the most beautiful of all mosques in Istanbul. Crowning a hill with its towering, unmistakable silhouette, it is the most iconic landmark of Istanbul, as was the intention of its builder.

Syuleiman Ist was buried here with his beloved wife. Nearby is the modest tomb of Mimar Sinan, the greatest architect of Turkey, who was responsible for this extraordinary building.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 4. Ryustem Pasha mosque

Ryustem Pasha Mosque was also built by Sinan in 1561 custom Ryustem Pasha, Grand Vizier and son-in-law of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. The small but exclusive interior is lined with fine tiles from Iznik.

5. Imperial Fatih Mosque

The Imerial Fatih Mosque, built between 1463and 1470, named after the conqueror of Constantinople, Sultan Mehmed Fatih (the Conqueror). It is also his mausoleum, situated on

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE another one of Istanbul's hills. Its huge size is impressive and the complex around it includes religious buildings as madrasas, shelters caravanserai and a library. 6. Eyup mosque

The Great Mosque of Eyup is outside the city walls, near the Golden Horn. It was built of at the place where it is believed that Eyup, the standard-bearer of the Prophet Mohamed, died during the Arab siege of Constantinople in 670. It was the first mosque built after the Ottoman conquest of the city and is honored by many worshipers. 7. Yeni Mosque (New Mosque)

Built between 1597 and 166, the mosque Yeni (New) looks over the harbor Eminonu greets the incoming ships and tourists headed to the old town. Today, thousands of pigeons inhabit its elegant arches and domes.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 8. Sokollu Mehmed Pasha Mosque

Sokollu Mehmed Pasha Mosque, built in the XVI century on a typical smoothing hill near Sultanahmet is also a creation of Sinan. It is one of the clearest examples of classical Turkish architecture. Blue, green, violet and red interior tiles of Iznik create its breathtaking elegance.

9. Mihrimah Sultan Mosque

Edirne is a gateway of Turkey opening to western world in Thrace, the first stopover for newcomers from Europe. Situated between the Greek, Bulgarian and Turkish borders, this beautiful city is famed for its many mosques, the elegant domes and minarets which dominate the panoramic appearance of the province. It was the capital of the Ottoman Empire from 1416 until the conquest of Istanbul by Mehmet II in 1453. 98


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Walls of glass fill the four immense arches that support the central dome of the mosque Mihramah Sultan located near the Edirne gate of the old city walls. Light enters the mosque in 161 window. It was built in 1555 by Sinan for Mihramah Sultan, daughter of Suleiman the Magnificent. 10. Mosque "Selimiye" in Edirne One of the most important monuments in this ancient province is the Selimiye Mosque, built in the 16th century by the Turkey's greatest architect, Mimar Sinan. Selimiye Mosque is the largest mosque in Turkey; it is an example of the artistic genius and technological capabilities. Carrying the name of the sultan reigning in that era, this mosque magnificently represents Turkish marble handicrafts and architecture, and it is covered with valuable tiles and fine paintings. The white marble of the portal contrasts with the building walls of brick and stone. The interior is decorated with calligraphy inscribed quotations from the Koran. In June 2011 the Selimiye Mosque Complex has been accepted under the list of UNESCO's World Heritage List.

11. Erzurum Erzurum was the most famous bastion of the Byzantine power and at that time its name was Teodosiopolis. Then it was seized sequentially from Mongolia, Arab and Turks. In 1919 the city was held the famous Erzurum Congress, which put an end to the Ottoman rule in Turkey. The house where revolutionaries resided today is a museum of Ataturk.

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The city has many attractions. Multicolumn "Ulu Cami" is a mosque built in 1179 by Sunnis. Mosque "Lala pasha" and serai inn "Rustem Pasha" were built during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent to celebrate the entry of Erzurum in the Ottoman Empire in 1514. Beautiful madrasa "Chifte Minaret" religious school of the 13th century. Besides the two tiled minarets, the building also boasts its beautiful stone carvings depicting dragon tree of life and the double-headed eagle - the symbol of the city. 12. Kocatepe, Ankara

The city of Ankara lies in the center of Anatolia on the eastern edge of the great, high Anatolian Plateau, at an altitude of 850 meters (2789 feet) above sea level. The name of the city derived from Angora, a very soft fiber produced from the Angora rabbit. The region's history dates back to the Bronze Age; Hatti Civilization, which was succeeded in the 2nd millennium BC by the Hittites, then the Phrygians (10th century BC); Lydians and Persians followed. After these came the Galatians, a Celtic race who were the first to make Ankara their capital (3rd century BC). The town subsequently fell to the Romans, Byzantines, 100


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE and Seljuks under ruler Malik-Shah in 1073, and finally to the Ottomans first in 1356 and then in 1403 since they lost it against Tamerlane in 1402.

Ankara is generally a formal city because of the parliament and heads of the state residing here. But there are many interesting museums and sites to visit in Ankara, a skiing center nearby, and a fine nightlife. Kocatepe mosque is the largest Muslim temple in the Turkish capital Ankara. The mosque was built 1967 - 1987.

Its location in Ankara, as well as its size, make it recognizable and visible from anywhere in the city.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 13. "Yeni Mosque" Opposite the Galata Bridge is located another grand mosque of Istanbul, one the most visited in Istanbul. It was originally called "Yeni Valide Cami" and later it became known only as "Yeni Mosque"

14. Konya Konya boasts a long history; it is considered one of the oldest cities in the world and was inhabited during the Neolithic and the Late Stone Age, about 7000 years BC. The city marked the largest rise during the Seljuk sultans, XI-XIV century, when performed the functions of a capital. Konya is often described as one of the most religiously conservative metropolitan centers in Turkey. He was once known as the "Sanctuary of Islam" and nowadays its residents are still committed to religion.

Some of the major attractions in the city include the mosque "Alaydin" and the tower "Seljuk" which is the tallest building in Konya and the Mevlana's Mausoleum. 102


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE The most important place to visit in Konya is Mevlana's Mausoleum, the mystic poet on the way of sufism and the founder of the Whirling Dervish order. Apart from that there is Karatay Medrese, which was a theological school used as tiles museum today, Alaaddin Keykubat Mosque from 12th century and Ince Minare (Thin Minaret) Mosque. Konya is an important place for Christians as well because St. Paul and St. Barnabas came to the city on one of their journeys in Asia Minor around 50 AD. St. Paul preached in Konya.

15. Van Van is a city located in eastern Turkey, near Lake Van. The population is around 361,000 inhabitants. For the first time the city appears 3000 years ago. At present Van is a modern small town. There are archaeological and ethnographic museums. Moreover, on a desert island Akadamar among wild olive trees is the church "Holy Cross". The church dates back to the Xth century. According to local legends, Akdamar Island got its name from a tragic love story. A man fell in love with a woman named Tamar, who lived on the island. He visited her every night until one night the waves of the lake swallowed him. While he was sinking he cried out "Ah, Tamar" and from there the name Akdamar. According the local folklore tales Lake Van is enchanted and angels regularly come out of it. The church measures are only 15m to 12 m. and it has the shape of a cross with a conical roof. It is built of red tuff, brought to the island from distant quarries. There can be seen still impressive frescoes. It is told that there were drawings on historic topics from the time of Adam and Eve to David and Goliath.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 16. Yesil Mosque in Bursa

Known as "Green Bursa", this province with its 2,7 million people (2013) stands on the lower slopes of Uludag (Mount Olympos of Mysia, 2543 m) in the Marmara region of Anatolia. The title "Green" of Bursa comes from its gardens and parks, and of course from its being in the middle of an important fruit growing region. In Bursa there are things you should not miss. First of all you are in the homeland of the delicious "Iskender Kebap", one of the best dishes of world - famous Turkish Cuisine. The candied chestnuts (Kestane Sekeri) are a specialty of desserts and have an unforgettable taste. The peaches of Bursa are unique. As for something to purchase; Bursa is a center of the silk trade (since first silk cocoons were brought here with the caravans of the Silk Road) and towel manufacturing. It is also the homeland of the very famous Turkish folklore figures, Karagöz and Hacivat shadow puppets. Because of its being the first Ottoman capital, Bursa is very rich in religious monuments, mosques, and tombs (Turbe), baths. One of the places to be seen in Bursa is the Yesil Cami (Green Mosque), with its carved marble doorway which is one of the best in Anatolia. It is an elaborate and significant building in the new Turkish style. Just opposite, is the Yesil Türbe (Green Tomb), set in a green garden with an enchanting exterior decorated with turquoise tiles. Near the tomb, the Medrese complex (old theological school) now houses the Ethnographical Museum which certainly deserves visiting. The Yildirim Beyazit Mosque is important as it is the first one built in the new Ottoman style and is accompanied by the Emir Sultan Mosque which lies in a peaceful setting. The province is decorated with these monuments, each of which is a masterpiece. Here are the Ulu Cami (Grand Mosque) built in the Seljuk style, with impressive calligraphic wall decorations. The Orhan Gazi Mosque; the "Hisar", an attractive part of the province; the Mausoleums of Osman, the founder of the Ottoman Empire, and his son Orhan Gazi are other important sites to visit. The Muradiye Complex has a delightful view with its mosque and tombs of important characters from the Ottoman era, and their tiles and charming decorations appeal to the sightseers. The Ottoman Museum offers a lively exhibit of the traditional life style of Ottomans.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 17. Iznik (Nicaea)

Iznik lies 85 km northeast of Bursa, at the eastern tip of Lake Iznik. The town had a great importance for Christians because of the Ecumenic Councils, and witnessed many civilizations which have left their marks all over the land. This town is famous for its unique tiles and has been the center of tile production in the 16th century. Iznik tiles were the basic decorative element of Seljuk and Ottoman architecture. The turquoise-tiled Yesil Mosque and Nilüfer Hatun Imareti are among the Islamic works in the town. 18. Ulu Mosque – Diyarbaki

Situated on the banks of Tigris (Dicle) river in South-Eastern Anatolia, Diyarbakir still carries a medieval air with its walls encircling the city. Starting from the earliest times, the city was ruled by the Hurri-Mithani, Hittites and Assyrians. It was once the capital city of the Arami Bit-Zamani Kingdom. It was later

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE occupied or ruled by the Medians, Persians, Macedonians, Seleukos, Romans, and the Akkoyunlu Seljuks. These black basalt walls are perfect examples of the military architecture of the Middle Ages. They are also very well known since they are the second largest (5.5 kilometers) and best preserved walls in the world after the famous Great Wall of China. The present walls date back to early Byzantine times. There are sixteen keeps and five gates, each of which deserves seeing along with their inscriptions and relief. There are four main gates along the wall called as Dag Kapi, Urfa Kapi, Mardin Kapi and Yeni Kapi, and they open to four different directions. The walls are 12 meters high, 3-5 meters wide and have 82 watchtowers. In July 2015 the city walls and Hevsel Gardens entered into the UNESCO World Heritage List. A fascinating sight in the city center is the Ulu Mosque, notable for its original architecture and the ancient materials used in the restoration of the building at various times. It is one of the oldest mosques in Turkey. It is known that the Church of Saint Thomas was gradually converted into a mosque. It is a grand and impressive structure, built of cut stone over an area of 80 x 80 meters. The minaret behind the mosque is rectangular. Its fountain (1849), carved marbles and niche are all important artworks. The walls of the mosque are also ornamented with relieves and carvings. The minaret and the gate bear 20 inscriptions dating back to various periods in history. The tombs in the courtyard was destroyed by the Persian King Ismail in 1507. Nearby the Ulu Mosque is the Mesudiye Medrese and Hasan Pasha Han, a caravanserai now being used by carpet and souvenir shops. The Nebii Mosque is a typical example of the Ottoman style. 19. The Temple of Artemis in Ephesus

The Temple of Artemis is one of the places to visit in Ephesus besides the Church of St. John. The Temple, which had been built at first during the Archaic period (8th c. B.C.), was one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world later during the Hellenistic period.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE In 356 B.C., at the night when Alexander the Great was born, the temple was destroyed by a lunatic called Herostatus who always wanted to be remembered in the future (and he succeeded) and was reconstructed by the citizens of Ephesus. It had 127 ionic style columns and its dimensions were 55 x 115 meters (180 x 377 feet). Some of the column bases of the temple are ornamented with raised relief design. Today, two marble statues of the goddess Artemis can be seen in the nearby archaeological museum. Some other friezes are in British Museum in London. 20. The House of Virgin Mary in Ephesus

On Bulbul Dag (Nightingale mountain) there is the House of the Virgin where it's believed that she passed last years of her life and passed away. She came to Ephesus together with St. John and taken up to Panaghia Kapulu mountain to survive the Roman persecutions. The House was destroyed by many earthquakes and not discovered until 1951 thanks to a German nun, Catherine Emmerich, who saw its location in her visions. The site is recognized as a shrine by Vatican and visited by the Popes. Today, the House of Virgin Mary is renovated by George Quatman Foundation from Ohio and serves as a small church which attracts many Christians as well as Muslims coming to pray for Her. The Mass is held here every Sunday. On the 15th August 2000 there was a great ceremony for the Assumption of the Virgin, the year which marked the two thousand years of the birth of Jesus. In July 2015 Ephesus archaeological site with surrounding Virgin Mary's House, Ayasuluk Fortress, and Cukuricihoyuk has entered into the UNESCO World Heritage List.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Romania – Religious Tourism 1.

Putna Monastery

Putna Monastery (Romanian: Mănăstirea Putna) is a Romanian Orthodox monastery, one of the most important cultural, religious and artistic centers established in medieval Moldavia; as with many others, it was built and dedicated by ruling prince Stephen the Great. It is situated about 30 km northwest from the town of Rădăuţi, near the Putna River. A short time after it was built, Putna Monastery became an important center of Romanian medieval art and culture. As early as 1467, scribes, calligraphers and miniature painters who had learned their craft under Gavril Uric came from Neamţ to work at Putna Monastery. Besides skillful calligraphers and miniature painters, many embroiderers, icon makers, weavers, silversmiths, sculptors in wood and book-binders toiled on in the quiet atmosphere of the monks' cells at Putna. Special mention should be made of the sumptuous and elegant Four Gospels created here, adorned with miniatures in which perfect drawing combines with a motley color scheme in which gold prevails, as well as the fine embroideries (epitaphs, iconostasis curtains, coverings of tetra-pods and of graves, stoles, etc.), many of them on show in the museum of the monastery.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 2. Voronet Monastery

Year Built- 1488 Built by Stephen the Great in Voroneţ, Suceava It is known throughout the world for its exterior frescoes of bright and intense colours, and for the hundreds of well-preserved figures placed against the renowned azurite background. The church of Voroneţ that Stephen the Great built included the chancel, the naos with its tower, and the pronaos.

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3. Agapia Monastery Year Built: 1642-1644 Built By: Vasile Lupu Location: Târgu Neamţ Summary: The church was repaired and modified several times during the centuries. At present, the church has two exonarthexes, a pronaos, a naos with its tower, and a chancel, as well as an external diaconicon and prothesis on either side of the chancel. The inscription on the wall of the church dedicated to Archangels Michael and Gabriel says: “In the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, I, slave of God hetman Gavriil and my wife Liliana, made and endowed this Agapia Monastery again, during the days of the right believer and lover of Christ Prince Vasile Lupu. And the construction started in the year 1642, October, the 15th day, and was completed in 1644, September, the 3rd, and was consecrated in 1647, September, the 12th”. After the consecration, many of the monks of Old Agapia moved downhill, and little by little, a real monastery was built around the church. The Church of Archangels Michael and Gabriel was designed by the court architect of Vasile Lupu, a certain Ionasc Ctisi, possibly originating from Constantinople. The Metropolitan of Moldavia, Varlaam, officiated at the consecration ceremony, which Vasile Lupu himself attended. On this occasion, hetman Gavriil, who was the brother of Prince Lupu, donated to the monastery a Gospel book written on parchment and decorated with miniatures of the Evangelists, as well as a silver gilt filigree cross with eight arms.

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4. Ramet Monastery The monastery in Manastirii valley is one of the ancient Orthodox citadels in Transylvania. One of its wall paintings has the year 1377 inscribed on it. The small church has had a turbulent history: cannon balls, fire and water have alternately assaulted its longstanding walls. Due to the flooding of the nearby stream the church was covered in mud and alluvia for four years between 1926- 1930. The situation was worsened by the consistently high level of groundwater. These conditions led to the destruction of the wall paintings up to 1.50-1.60 m height.In 1988 the church was raised 2.08 meters higher. Restaurateurs found 9 layers of wall paintings, the oldest dating back to the XIV century. Life in the monastery wasn't unperturbed either. The monks had participated in the Horia, Closca and Crisan uprising, consequently the Viennese court closed down the monastery for 7 years and forbid the restoration of the church. Monastic life started to revive in 1940 till 1959, when the Communists expelled the nuns.They gathered in Aiud and founded the carpet department. In 1969 they went back to the monastery as civilians and started making carpets. The monastery was granted permission to operate in 1972. Since then new departments have opened, such as the embroidery, knitting, bakery, school, library, doctor's office as well as a museum housing antiquities, paintings, pictures of saints and an ethnographic collection.Today the monastery is the place of counseling, and the reputation of the woven or knit carpets, and that of the golden and silver embroidery of the priests' robes has crossed the borders. In 1973 the school moved into a new building and since 1995 the monastery has taken upon itself the upbringing of 10 remedial school girls. The new church was raised between 19821988.

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5. Brancoveanu Monastery – Sambata de Sus

The “Brancoveanu” Monastery – Sambata de Sus – located on the valley of Sambata river- is famous for being a place of recovery, comfort and spiritual balm for visitors who halt or pray in this sacred dwelling. The history of Brâncoveanu Monastery started in the 17th century, when Preda Brâncoveanu erected on Sambata Valley the first church built in wood. On its place, around the year 1696, Constantin Brâncoveanu, the ruler of Wallachia (1688 – 1714), re-built a monastery in stone, in order to strengthen and save the Romanian Orthodoxy from the danger of Catholicism, which appeared 112


Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE when Transylvania was ruled by the Habsburgs (1683). In 1785 the monastery was partially demolished by the order of general Bukow from Vienna All the cells were completely destroyed, the church became a ruin and the monks were driven away. The architectural style fits entirely Brâncoveanu style, which emerged in Wallachia at the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th century. Stones decorate the windows and the door frames and took real interest in observing the front entrance door, the sculptured pillars and the stone panels of the church which add a special beauty to the monastery. The steeple is octagonal outside and cylindrical inside. The interior is divided into: altar, nave, narthex and porch and it is quite common to the churches built during Brâncoveanu’s time. The painting of the porch is entirely new and includes scenes from the Old Testament. The entrance from the porch to the narthex is through a thick oak door, framed by sculptured stone. The new monastery houses a museum, which exhibits one of the ancient glass painting collections belonging to the 18th-19th century (mostly painted in a naive manner) and very rare and historical valuable documents. Besides the glass-made-icons, one can admire ancient letters, the first edition of some newspapers, clothes worn by monks, ecclesiastical objects, a huge library and so on. 1.

Barsana Church

Year built: 1720 Location: Bârsana, Sighetu Marmaţiei Summary: The church is very dark inside. The very small and low pronaos is without any windows at all. The naos is much more spacious, with a high barrel vault, but also here not much light enters. The name bârsan means a shepherd who keeps sheep with thick long wool, and the word became a surname during medieaval times. The church was built of thick beams of oak on a foundation of massive blocks of stone. It has a rectangular plan, with a polygonal chancel apse, which is slightly narrower than the main body of the building. On top of the pronaos rises the tower, which is not extremely tall, but still gives a graceful air to the whole. In front of the west façade, there is a porch on two levels, each with pillars that form rounded arches. The roof with two eaves covers the main part of the church, while the roof covering the chancel is lower and with only a single eaves. The heavy roof is supported by consoles, the ends of the upper beams of the walls, cut to decorative sh

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Durau Monastery was built on the place where there was a hermitage of nuns, founded in the XVII century by one of prince Vasile Lupu’s daughters. The first documentary mentioning about Durau Monastery is from 1779 when abbot was Nazaria. After that moment the nuns retreated to the place called Poiana Varatec and founded Varatec Monastery. In the year 1802 Durau monastery was brought back to life with the help of monk Peter and few monks from some hermitages nearby. The construction of the present day church from Durau monastery took place where the old wooden church was and it began in the year 1830 with the help of some monks from the monasteries Neamt and Secu on the expense of some wealthy merchants from Piatra Neamt. Right at the entrance in Durau monastery, in 1835, was built the bell-tower. Durau Monastery functioned from 1959 first as a small parish, then as a hermitage of monks. In 1991 this place returns to its origins and is transformed in a monastery of nuns. Here, at Durau Monastery you can see the old traditions from Ceahlau area kept alive and also benefit from a moment of peaceful silence and prayers.

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2.

Durau Monastery

Durau Monastery was built on the place where there was a hermitage of nuns, founded in the XVII century by one of prince Vasile Lupu’s daughters. The first documentary mentioning about Durau Monastery is from 1779 when abbot was Nazaria. After that moment the nuns retreated to the place called Poiana Varatec and founded Varatec Monastery. In the year 1802 Durau monastery was brought back to life with the help of monk Peter and few monks from some hermitages nearby. The construction of the present day church from Durau monastery took place where the old wooden church was and it began in the year 1830 with the help of some monks from the monasteries Neamt and Secu on the expense of some wealthy merchants from Piatra Neamt. Right at the entrance in Durau monastery, in 1835, was built the bell-tower. Durau Monastery functioned from 1959 first as a small parish, then as a hermitage of monks. In 1991 this place returns to its origins and is transformed in a monastery of nuns. Here, at Durau Monastery you can see the old traditions from Ceahlau area kept alive and also benefit from a moment of peaceful silence and prayers.

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Curtea de Arges monastery

Located at the end of a boulevard with hundred of years old linden trees, Curtea de Arges Monastery is the most important pilgrimage and prayer place in the county of Arges, with the “Assumption of the Virgin” as its dedication day. Founded in the time of voivode Neagoe Basarab, between 1512 and 1517, the monastery is a part of the most famous Romanian legend, “The legend of master Manole”. Known also as the Episcopal Church, because it was an Episcopal See between 1739 and 1748, the house of worship is 18 meters length, 10 meters wide and 25 meters high. As a curiosity, the naos and the pronaos are not separated by a door, but by the frame of a door, placed between two columns. Over time, it endured several restoration sessions. The present shape was given by the French architect Andre Lecomte du Nouy and the Romanian architect Nicolae Gabrielescu, in the last half of the 19th century. The restoration works were finished in 1885, and the church was dedicated on 12 October 1886. Inside the church, the visitor’s attention is captured by the mural paintings in oil, made by the French painters F. Nicolle and Ch. Renouard and by the Romanian painter N. Constantinescu from Curtea de Arges, and especially by the group of the 12 columns representing the 12 Apostles. Because of its notoriety and spiritual charge, Curtea de Arges Monastery is to be found on most presentation folders and albums of Romania. According to latest statistics, about 100 000 tourists and pilgrims visit it every year. The most crowded feast days are the “Assumption of the Virgin”, “Izvorul Tamaduirii” (Healing Spring Waters Day) and Saint Filofteea. At this last celebration the relics of the saint are taken out, and the believers pass underneath it, because it is said to protect of illness and bad luck. Legends “The legend of master Manole”, which is directly connected to the name of Curtea de Arges Monastery, says that the ruler hired the greatest masters to build the place of worship. But all that they had built during the day fell apart during the night. So one night Manole had a dream, showing him that the construction would resist only if he built his wife in one of the walls. The next day, when his wife Ana came to bring him the food, Manole built her in the South wall. When all was ready, Neagoe Basarab was impressed by the beauty of the Monastery, and ordered his servants to take the stairs that leaded to the roof so that the masters could not come down and built a more beautiful church. Then Manole manufactured some sieve wings so he could fly, but he crushed. It is said that a spring, representing Manole’s tears, appeared on the spot where he touched the land. The spring actually exists, and it is near the monastery.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Another legend refers to Saint Filofteea’s holy relics, the relics of a 12 year girl that are to be found in the chapel of the monastery. It is said that the girl used to carry food to the workers hired by her father. But one day she gave the food to the beggars encountered in her way. Then her father killed her with one hit of the axe. The corpse of the girl could be lifted only when the name of Curtea de Arges Monastery was mentioned. That is the reason why the priests have decided to put the relics in this monastery.

4.

Snagov Monastery

On a tiny island in a lake just outside of Bucharest stands Snagov Monastery which local tradition states is the burial place of Vlad the Impaler, the inspiration for Bram Stoker’s Dracula. Originally founded in the 14th century and later excavated in 1933, the monastery is a seemingly simple place of worship taking advantage of the calm its water-locked isolation brings. However, the story goes that after his notoriously cruel lifetime, Vlad Tepes III was buried in the church as per his request prior to his death. A number of archeologists and historians have worked to verify whether this tale is fact or simple apocrypha and none have been able to prove that the dictator was ever laid to rest on the island. After having dug up some of the site’s burial stones all that was found were a mix of horse and human bones, but nothing that confirms the possible Dracula’s interment.

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5.

Sinaia Monastery

Between 1690 – 1695, the Romanian boyard Mihail Cantacuzino has built the old wing of the monastery, together with the small church, one of the first built in Brancovan style (Romanian style – late XVIIth c.- early XVIIIthc.). He called it ,,Sinaia Monastery” making reference to his pilgrimage at Jerusalem and Mount Sinai; Between 1842 – 1846 it was built the new wing of the monastery, along with the large church which was rebuilt between 1897 – 1903; This was the first electrified Romanian church (1906); The embroideries made by Anna Roth were exhibited at the universal exhibitions organized at the end of the XIXth c, including the Paris Universal Exhibition of 1900. Anna Roth won a gold medal for these embroideries.

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Black Church in Brasov

The Black Church is the heart of Brasov Over 500 years old, Biserica Neagra (the Black Church) is the most representative historic monument in Brasov, the greatest Gothic church in Transylvania and, in some historians’ point of view, the greatest religious edifice from Vienna to Istanbul. More than that, inside the church there is one of the greatest organs in Europe, and also the largest collection of old carpets from Asia Minor. The construction of this Gothic Evangelic church began around 1380, in the time of Vicar Thomas Sander, and initially it was named Saint Mary’s Church. In 1421 an important part of the construction was destroyed during the Turkish invasion, and that is why the church was completely built in 1477. Nowadays it is considered the greatest place of worship in Romania, with impressive dimensions: 90 meters in length, between 25 and 37 meters wide, 65 meters from the floor level to the highest point of its Cross tower, while it can house about 5000 people. More than that, the biggest bell in the country, weighting 6.3 tones, is to be found in its tower as well. Then, after almost 200 years, a fire partially destroyed it in 1689, and the smoke blackened the walls, and for a long period of time the façade couldn’t be renovated. The restoration lasted about 100 years, but the place of worship was called Biserica Neagra (the Black Church) because of its black smoked walls (Die Schwarze Kirche in German and Fekete Templom in Hungarian). The present roof, 20 meters in height, was also built after this fire.

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Monastery of the Three Hierarchs (Iasi)

It was built by Prince Vasile Lupu between 1637 and 1639, as a regency necropolis, dedicated to three saints: Basil of Caesarea, Gregory of Nazianzus, and John Chrysostom, the defenders of the Nicene dogmas. The relics of Saint Parascheva, sent by the Patriarchate of Constantinople have been brought into the church in June 1641. The church was repeatedly looted, burnt and hit by earthquakes, so it was rebuilt in the period 1882-1887 under the direction of architect AndrĂŠ Lecomte du Nouy and repainted in 1898. It was reconsecrated in 1904. The building has a triconc plan, with an additional tower above the pronaos. The vault consists of two overlapping registers respectively four and eight vaulted arches in oblique arrangement, with pendants above them, which reduces the diameter of bell tower. Carved decorations cover all over the four facades, including the buttresses and archivolts on the sides and bottom of the bell tower. We can observe oriental, typically Armenian and Georgian motives. The painting was made by Sidov Pospeev, Jacob Gavrilov, Nicolae Zugravul cel Batran and Stefan. The building is a historical monument

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Manastirea Cosuna - Bucovatul Vechi

Manastirea Cosuna - Bucovul Vechi dateaza din anul 1483, dupa o informatie intarita de Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu si Nicolae lorga, primul egumen fiind Eftimie (1571-1575). Manastirea Cosuna a fost zidita din piatra si caramida de la vechiul castru roman Pelendava - Mofleni. Biserica este singura cladire care se mai pastreaza din vechea manastire si este construita in doar 75 de zile (20 iulie - 3 octombrie 1572), de marele ban Stefan si de fiul sau, Parvu. Pe langa numele de Cosuna l-a primit si pe cel de Bucovat, de la mosia din satul cu acelasi nume. In chiliile ei functioneaza Seminarul Teologic "Sfantul Grigorie Teologul". Pictura din Manastirea Cosuna - Bucovul Vechi dateaza din anul 1574. In anul 2002 a fost construit in curtea seminarului un paraclis cu hramul Sfantul Grigorie Teologul.

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This monastery is built close to the Danube on the hill Deala Mosului. Pamfil Seicare has written about it, who was a journalist between the wars, as a soldier being transported in Orsova during the I World War. In the fall of the year 1916. The Dealul Mosului was overloaded with soil, as a consequence of a previous explosion in the area. Seicaru managed to survive the explosion and thus he promised himself that he was going to build here a chapel as a sign of remembrance for this tragedy and as a commemoration something for the ones who died during the war. This monastery got its name Saint Ann after the name of the mother of the builder. In 1990 this monastery finally got its sanctity, by the Mitroploiei Olteniei. Here still functions a museum of Pamfil Seicaru and another place where women can sew.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 9. Orsova, Saint Ann monastery

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10.

Horezu Monastery

Located in Valcea County, Hotels in Horezu at the foot of Capatanii Mountains, Horezu Monastery is considered to be the most representative construction in the Brâncovenesc style. The place of worship, with Saints Constantine and Helena as its dedication day, was built between 1693 and 1697, during Constantin Brancoveanu’s reign. Since 1993 it has been included in the UNESCO patrimony. The entire monastic complex covers more than 3 hectare, and includes the monastery, the Bolnitei church, founded by lady Mary (Constantin Brancoveanu’s wife), built in 1696 and painted by Preda Nicolae and Ianache, then the Holy Apostles’ Hermitage, located 50 meters to the North, founded by the great archimandrite Ioan in 1698 and painted by Iosif and Ioan in 1700, and also the Saint Stephan Hermitage, named after the ruler’s oldest son, built in 1703 and painted by Ianache, Istrate and Harinte. The name of the monastery comes from “huhurezi” (eagle owls), a species of night birds with coloured plumage. According to the legend, the workers hired to build it, out of the Turks fear, were forced to work only by night, when the eagle owls were singing. The monastic complex is formed of two precinctses. The first precincts is delimited by brick walls. The second precincts has buildings on three of its sides, and a wall at East. The entrance in the main precincts has a wide vault, with a massive, wooden gate. In the belfry tower there are four bells, weighing between 300 and 1000 kilos. The name of ruler Brancoveanu is written on three of them. The church of the monastery is 32 meters long and 14 meters high, and can be considered an approximate replica of the Curtea de Arges Monastery.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE In the pronaos there is a gallery of portraits presenting Prince Constantin Brancoveanu and his family. The interior paintings also present scenes from the Old and New Testament, moments from the dedication of the monastery and, of course, Holy Saints Constantine and his mother Helena. Towards the end of the 17th century, the Hurez Monastery sheltered a sculpture and painting school. Constantin Brancoveanu’s family is to be found in the pronaos, because this monastery was designed as the necropolis of the Brancoveanu family. Unfortunately, the relics of the ruler, beheaded by Turks in 1714, have not been brought yet In the beginning, the monastery was for monks, but in 1872 it became a nun monastery. Over 60 000 tourists visit it every year, but the greatest pilgrimage is on Easter.

11.

Cozia Monastery

Known as the oldest and most complex historical and art monuments from Romania, Cozia Monastery is situated on the right bank of the river Olt, 22 km away from Ramnicu Valcea and 75 km away from Sibiu. It was built between 1386-1388, being one of the most important foundations of the ruler Mircea cel Batran (Mircea the Ancient). Initially, it was known under the name of Nucet Monastery, because it was built in an area proper for walnut trees to grow. The name of “Cozia” was given to it later, after the name of the mountain in its vicinity. In the Great Church, namely in the nave, that has “The Holy Trinity” as its celebration day, one can see the original paintings. There, on the Western wall, there are paintings that present Mircea and his son Mihail wearing knight outfits and on the left, one can see the portrait of Serban Cantacuzino. In the pronaos you can see the tombs of Mircea and of the nun Teofana, Michael the Brave’s mother, who became a nun after her son’s death. She eventually died in 1605. The monastery has two chapels, one of them dating from 1583 and having “The Assumption of the Virgin” as the celebration day and the other one, which is situated in the North-Western side and built of bricks. The latter includes two vaulted houses and a tower that date from 1710-1711. The infirmary is situated on the other side of the road, with “The Holy Apostles” as its celebration day. It was built between 1542-1543 during Petre Voievod’s reign. On the Eastern side of this building is there a museum where coins, old printings, cult items and ornaments are exposed. 126


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12.

Arbore Monastery

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE The only church in the region with no belfry towers, because it was not built by a prince, the monastery was founded in 1503 by Luca Arbore, the advisor of Stephen the Great (Stefan cel Mare). It was painted four decades later by Dragos Coman, one of the greatest 16th century mural painters of Romania.

13.

Churches from Barsana, Maramures

Bârsana is one of Hotels in Maramures the bigger communes in Maramureş, and one of the most important villages in the valley of the Iza River. The church, which now stands on a small hill surrounded by an orchard, is one of the eight churches on the UNESCO World Heritage List. The name bârsan means a shepherd who keeps sheep with thick long wool, and the word became a surname during medieaval times. The village of Bârsana is referred to as the property of kneaz Stanislau, son of Stan Bârsan in documents of 1326 and 1346. The monastery had by that time existed for some centuries, for a document of 6 November 1405 mentions a field of the monastery. The church was used for monastic purposes until 1791, when the 128


Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE monastery was abolished. In 1802, the villagers decided to move the unused church to the middle of the community. The church was built of thick beams of oak on a foundation of massive blocks of stone. It has a rectangular plan, with a polygonal chancel apse, which is slightly narrower than the main body of the building. On top of the pronaos rises the tower, which is not extremely tall, but still gives a graceful air to the whole. In front of the west façade, there is a porch on two levels, each with pillars that form rounded arches. The porch was added in 1900. The roof with two eaves covers the main part of the church, while the roof covering the chancel is lower and with only a single eaves. The heavy roof is supported by consoles, the ends of the upper beams of the walls, cut to decorative shapes. A carved twisted rope goes around the church just under the small windows. Scenes from the side of the vault of the naos. In the middle is St. Elijah and the Chariot of Fire, where the saint is shown ascending to heaven. The naos is much more spacious, with a high barrel vault, but also here not much light enters. There is one bigger window low down on the south and north walls, and two smaller ones on each wall, high up between the two eaves of the roof. The chancel is again a lower space with three small windows, one to the north, east and south each. Even though the windows are still very small, they were enlarged in 1900, at the same time than the porch was added. Due to this, the mural paintings around the windows were destroyed. An inscription in the naos says that Hodor Toader painted the walls in 1806. The paintings were done on pieces of textile fixed on the walls and covered with a preparatory layer of limewash, as was usual during that period. Archangel Michael Saves a Child from Drowning, a scene on the north wall of the chancel. The scenes, especially in the naos and the chancel, have been influenced by baroque and rococo styles, which started spreading in Transylvania during the last quarter of the 18th century. The painter has used medallions for the scenes on the walls, but the vault of the naos is treated without any constraints. The luminous feeling is created by the dominating colours of white, blue, red and golden ochre. It was especially the quality of the paintings that concluded the inclusion of this church in the World Heritage List.

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Monastery Feleacu

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE "Sfanta Troita" (Holy Cross) Monastery Of Feleacu Feleacu In the hillside of Feleacu village, located at about 8 km from Cluj-Napoca, lies the Monastery of the “Holy Cross”. In 1488, the voivode of Moldavia, Stephen the Great (1433-1504) built here the church of St. Paraskeva of Feleacu. It is a church with a polygonal altar above which it can be identified the broken arch, specific element of Gothic style, the painting on the vault seperating the altar from the nave dates from the 18th century. In 1993, it has laid the foundation stone of the church dedicated to the Holy Cross, a monumental church realized in the Moldavian Byzantine style. In the courtyard of the monastery is a museum which represents a reconstitution of house from the area of Feleacu in the 19th century, rebuilt between 2008-2010. This museum includes a few icons on glass, of Nicula, and a number of old prints including the Gospel from 1682 of Stephen Cantacuzino.

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CETATUIA NEGRU VODA MONASTERY

Cetatuia Negru Voda Monastery is built on top of a mountain at a height of 881 m from sea level between Valea lui Coman, Valea Chiliilor and Dambovita water, 25 km to the SE of Campulung on the highway that starts from the old city, the city of Targoviste, ancestral way of strengthening the Romanian carriers.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Religious tourism in Bulgaria Religion has always played a major role in the life of Bulgarians. Ever since 865 AD when Khan Boris I, a medieval Bulgarian ruler, decided to abandon paganism and adopt Christianity, religion has been the driving force which has been keeping Bulgarians going through all the joys and hardships of history. Orthodox Christianity is the traditional religion in Bulgaria, but due to the country’s geographical location and eventful past some other major religions are well represented on its territory, too. The most prominent ones are Islam, Protestantism, Catholicism and Judaism. Their temples are scattered all across the country and thanks to their cultural importance and the fact that they serve as mediators between man and God today they are regarded as some of the most visited places of interest in the country.

1. Rila Monastery

The “St. Ivan Rilski” monastery is the biggest monastery complex in Bulgaria. It is situated at 117 km away from Sofia at 1147 m above the sea level in Rila Mountain. Rila Monastery was declared as national historical monument and was listed in UNESCO book. The monastery was founded by the hermit St. Ivan Rilski in the 10th century. Ivan Rilski is one the greatest Bulgarian saints. The Rila monk became popular and soon and even the Bulgarian king Petar I came in Rila to see him. But Ivan Rilski just bowed to the king from a distance. He didn’t accept the gold that king Petar I send him as well. People started to respect him even more and other monks and hermits came to him to be his disciples. They built hovels around and thus the foundation of the most famous Bulgarian monastery was laid. The local lord Stefan Dragolov (Hrelio) built the monastery at the place where it is now, but only the monument “Hreliova Tower” left from the middle aged building. The most precious wealth of the monastery is the unique wall paintings. The oldest are in the chapel of “Hreliova Tower”. The paintings date back from the 14th century. The oldest icon preserved in the monastery is from the same period as well. It is devoted to St. Ivan Rilski. Most of the other wall paintings are made by the great icon - painter Zhari Zograf. During the 19th century he painted most of the churches and monasteries in Bulgaria.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 2. Rozhen Monastery

The monastery is located in the Pirin Mountain, about a kilometer from peak Rozhen, 6 km from the town of Melnik and 16 km from the town of Sandanski. According to the records kept at Mount Athos, Greece, it was created back in 890, the church of the monastery - Nativity of Mary, later gave its name to the nearby village of Rozhen. From 1912 it is a Bulgarian monastery again, but the dispute over ownership is resolved definitively in 1921 by the tribunal in The Hague in favour of Bulgaria. Today the monastery is permanently active throughout the year. The monastery holiday is on September 8th, when people from across the region gather to participate in the festivities. The monastery has a miraculous icon, protectress of the Virgin Mary, which is kept in an ark in the chapel "St. St. Cosmas and Damian. " According to the legend, the icon is one of the few copies of the sacred iron owned by the widow of Nicaea (Greece). In the monastery is arranged a remarkable museum collection of objects of religious cult. The Ethnographic Department at the monastery has a unique collection of costumes and embroideries from Southwestern Bulgaria.

3. Klisurski Monastery

Klisura monastery stands besides the Vreshtitza River under peak Todorini kukli at the northern foot of the mountain Koznitsa in Western Stara Planina. It is about 9 km from Berkovitsa, 28 km. from Vratsa and 54 km from Sofia. The Klisura monastery "St. St. Cyril and Methodius" is an acting nunnery. It is the fourth largest monastery in Bulgaria. It was a center of spiritual life even during the Second Bulgarian State (1240) In the 19th century the monastery is fully 134


Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE restored and gathered numerous monasticism. Klisura monastery functions as a male monastery until 2008 when with the blessing of Metropolitan of Vidin Dometian the monastery is inhabited by Nuns. In the monastery there is an icon workshop in which sisterhood paint icons in the tradition of the ancient Ohrid School. 4. Bachkovo Monastery

The “Assumption” monastery is the second large monastery in Bulgaria. It is situated in the western part of Rodope Mountain 10 km away from Asenovgrad. It was founded by Grigoriy Bukuriani – Georgian military commander who was at the service of the Byzantine Emperor. After the Ottomans conquered Bulgaria in the end of 14 century the heroic patriarch St. Evtimiy Tarnovski was send into exile in the monastery, were he stayed until the end of the life. He was buried here. At first the monastery survived after the ottomans attacks but later it was burned down and plundered. During the 15th century it was renovated, and the main monastery church was built in 1604. The wall paintings in the refectory date back from 1643 and they are of great art value. There are stages of “the Doomsday”, figures of holly monks, stages from the Orthodox Church history and many other mural paintings. The icon of Virgin Mary is very attractive too. It is said that the icon is miraculous. 103 manuscripts and 252 old printed books were found in the monastery in the beginning of 20 century and were called “a real literature depository”.

5. TROYANSKI MONASTERY

The third large monastery in Bulgaria is the “Assumption”. It is situated in Stara Planina Mountain 10 km away from town of Troyan on the bank of Cherni Osum river. The monastery is believed to be founded around 1600 by Abbot Callistratus of Aphidnae. The legend tells of two monks from Mount Athos and third monk from Aton peninsula, who brought holiness of the monastery, the miraculous icon of the Bogoroditsa Troeruchitsa /three handed icon of Virgin Mother/. Later the local people built a church in honor of Virgin Mary at the same place. The monastery was burned down many times, since it was built and the monks were killed by the Turks. In 1830 the priests procured some privileges for the monastery successfully and the prosperity of the temple started. The most significant monument of culture in the Troyan monastery is the “Assumption” church. Troyan monastery like other monasteries in Bulgaria was centre of revolutionary in the 19th century. In the middle of the 18th century, a cell school was found in the monastery. Many important revival persons got their education here. The famous icon painter Zahari Zograf left the traces of his mastership in the monastery. 135


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Many people seek solutions to their problems through it and hundreds of believers a day pass through the monastery to bow and pray. Every year on the patron day of Our Lady - 15th August, the icon is exported for worshipping out of the temple.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 6. CHEREPISHKI MONASTERY "ASSUMPTION of VIRGIL MARY"

Cherepishki monastery "Assumption of Virgil Mary" is located in the Iskar Gorge. The monastery is located 25 km south of the town of Vratsa. The foundation of Cherepishki monastery is linked to the history of a medieval town, which existed nearby. Nowadays Cherepishki monastery is inhabited by monks. One of the oldest preserved Bulgarian manuscripts had been created in the Cherepishki monastery – it was a monastery statute written in 1390-1396. The Cherepishki monastery offers accommodation and traditional local dishes.

7.

Chiprovski monastery "St. Ivan Rilski"

Chiprovski monastery is located 30 km west of Montana. It was built by the Bulgarian Catholics in the 10th century. During the period of its existence it had been destroyed and rebuilt many times. During the uprisings

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE in north-western Bulgaria, Chiprovtsi monastery was home to several thousand rebels. Currently Chiprovski monastery consists of a complex of a church, two chapels, three-storey bell tower, residential and farm buildings. Interesna building in Chiprovtsi Monastery is a 3-storey tower ossuary. On the second floor of the tower has a small chapel - "St. Athanasius. Chiprovtsi monastery does not offer accommodation and food. Places of interest nearby: 6 km from Chiprovtsi monastery is the town of Chiprovtsi, known for its beautiful carpets, goldsmiths and nature. 8. Albotinski

rock monastery

Albotin Monastery is located in the area Albotin in the gorge of the hilly part of the Vidin region along the river Rabrovska. The monastery is 25 km from Vidin. The rock monastery was built into the rock on the north side of the river using the natural caves and extra rooms were carved and upgraded in the exterior facades and walls. Albotin monastery premises were located in a chain and each of them had an exit to the porch hanging over the river. The monastery church is carved into the innermost part of the curve of the cliff and is oriented to the requirements of orthodox canon from west to east. It is not known who was the church dedicated to the monastery temple, but it is supposed to be dedicated to Jesus Resurrection because of the continuing tradition on the second day of Easter people gather at the foot of the monastery and celebrate together Easter.

9.

Ivanovski monasteries

The Rock-hewn Churches of Ivanovo (Ivanovskite Skalni Tsarkvi) is a medieval monastic complex cut in the mountain rocks 22 km south of Ruse near the village of Ivanovo. About 20 churches, chapels and cells have survived more or less intact through the ages while traces of over 300 rooms have been found in total. Monks and literary men occupied the cells in medieval times. The rock-hewn churches are pretty small, about 20-30 sq m each. Church walls are covered with unique murals from different ages. They are highly expressive and display in a deeply dramatic way the sufferings of Christ. In 1979 the Rock-hewn Churches of Ivanovo and their unique murals were added to UNSECO's Heritage Lists. Only one church is open for visitors, there is an entrance fee and a minimal fare for an information talk. The Rock-hewn Churches of Ivanovo (Ivanovskite Skalni Tsarkvi) is a medieval monastic complex cut in the mountain rocks 22 km south of Ruse near the village of Ivanovo. About 20 churches, 138


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE chapels and cells have survived more or less intact through the ages while traces of over 300 rooms have been found in total. Monks and literary men occupied the cells in medieval times. The rock-hewn churches are pretty small, about 20-30 sq m each. Church walls are covered with unique murals from different ages. They are highly expressive and display in a deeply dramatic way the sufferings of Christ. In 1979 the Rock-hewn Churches of Ivanovo and their unique murals were added to UNSECO's Heritage Lists. Only one church is open for visitors, there is an entrance fee and a minimal fare for an information talk. The Rock-hewn Churches of Ivanovo lie in the Rusenski Park Nature reserve, which offers a variety of picturesque trails and guided tours. From Ivanovskite Skalni Tsarkvi you can take the Gramovets trail, which is a beautiful path, about 12 km long, that will take you through a thick forest to the place where Beli and Cherni Lom rivers merge and the Rusenski Lom river begins. A charming dirt road, hanging cliffs and a shelter with a fireplace are only few of the attractions along the trail. The Rock-hewn Churches of Ivanovo is not an active monastic complex and does not provide food and shelter. You maybe able to find rooms in the nearby villages but it would be better to go to Ruse, which is only 22 km away and offers a big choice of hotels, restaurants and tourist attractions.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 10. Patriarchal Monastery of the Holy Trinity near Veliko Tarnovo

"St. Trinity "is among the oldest monasteries in the vicinity of Veliko Tarnovo. It was named Patriarchal in 1375, when monk Evtimiy who lived in the monastery became Bulgarian Patriarch.Here worked the hesychasts Gregory and Kalinik. "St. Trinity " became the center of Tarnovo literary school. Evtimiy created a school for training of theologians, liturgists, copyists of liturgical books, connoisseurs of Greek and Church Slavonic spoken Bulgarian language. It was renovated in the 20th century. The monastery is active, female monastery, with a healing spring. Pentecost is the monastery celebr ation.

11.

SHIPKA MONASTERY In the Shipka Pass in the Stara Planina mountain happened some of the most dramatic battles of the RussianTurkish War (1877-1878). After the war Count Ignatiev and the mother of General Skobelev - Olga Skobeleva created an initiative committee for building a monastery in memory the victims. Construction began in 1885 on a project of prof.

Tomishko under the guidance of prof. Pomerantzev. The construction site was donated by the residents of Shipka village. The complex was completed in 1902. In honor of the 25th anniversary of the Shipka epic monastery was illuminated. In 1967 the monastery was declared a memorial, and later a part of the architectural and historical reserve "Shipka-Buzludzha". Shipka monastery "Nativity" is a male monastery with a temple celebration on December 25th, it is proclaimed a cultural monument. 140


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 12. Monasteries in Arbanassi

The monastery "St. Nikolay Chudotvorets" in Arbanassi and the other, named after the Virgin Mary are also a preferred destination not only for worship but also for religious rites. One of the reasons people are attracted to Arbanassi is not only it is a tourist destination that offers peaceful scenery and fresh air, but also the pilgrim tourism. Two miraculous icons are kept in Arbanassi. One is of Virgin Mary. Miracles are happening to believers and the news spreads around and more and more sick and childless people are attracted from all over the country to pray for health and a child in front of the image of Virgin Mary three handed/Troeruchitsa. People stick coins to the icon of the Virgin Mary in the monastery "St. Nikolay Chudotvorets". If the coin stays, then God has heard your request. The village can be used as a starting point for visiting the nearby medieval capital of Veliko Tarnovo and in particular the Tsarevets Hill.

13. Temple Alexander Nevsky

Patriarchal Cathedral "Alexander Nevski" is dedicated to the Russian saint Alexander Nevsky. Its main stone was laid in 1882 , it was designed by the architect Prof. Aleksandar Pomerantsev and his assistants Alexander Smirnov and Alexander Yakovlev. The temple was built during the period 1904 – 1912 as one of the symbols of Sofia that creates its spiritual and cultural outlook. At present the cathedral "St. Alexander Nevsky "is the second largest church on the Balkans and serves as the cathedral church of the Bulgarian Patriarch. It has exclusive interior decoration of Italian marble, onyx from Brazil, alabaster etc. The main dome has a height of 45 meters. Around the circle of the dome with thin gold letters is written the prayer "Our Father." The bell tower of the temple is near 53 m. high and has 12 bells with a total weight of 23 tons, which are made in Moscow.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE In the basement of the temple lies "Crypt" where chronologically are arranged about 300 exhibits from IXth to the end of the XIXth century. The temple was declared a cultural monument in 1924. 14. Glozhene monastery

Glozhene monastery is located in the Balkan mountains near Glojene village, 15 km from Teteven. The monastery was founded in 1224. According to unconfirmed written tale it was built by the Prince of Kiev George Glozh. The residential buildings conclude closed from everywhere yard around the church. Cliffs descend of three sides and turn the monastery in an unapproachable castle in a very picturesque way.In the cookhouse one can taste the famous monastery beans, Yablanski delight and Turkish delight. Glozhene monastery was declared a cultural monument. 15. The Church "St. Dimitar" in Vidin St.Dimitar Cathedral Temple Âť

The church "St. Dimitar" in Vidin is said to be the second largest in Bulgaria after the Memorial Temple St. Aleksandar Nevski in Sofia. It was built at the end of the XVIIth century and during its existence has always been a center of cultural life of Bulgarians in the region. The original building was made of wood, and over time had to be demolished and rebuilt. Construction began in 1885 and in 1926 it was fully completed. The current building has a cruciform plan with three longitudinal and one cross ship. The central dome is 33 meters high and rests on four free-standing supports. The Church of St. Dimitar in Vidin was declared a cultural monument of national importance. 16. Varna Cathedral

The cathedral of Varna is one of the symbols of the city. The first stone in the construction of the temple put Prince

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Alexander I Battenberg (1857-1893g) in 1880. The chosen name, "The Assumption of Holy Mother" was in honor of the Russian Empress Maria Alexandrovna. The foundations were laid under the project of the architect of Odessa Maas and the building itself was designed by the municipal architect P. Kupka. The construction of the temple was completed in early October 1885. The complete paintings of the walls in the temple began in 1949, and then in the 60s of the XX c. were made large mural windows overlooking the square. The entire roof is enriched with materials on gold and silver basis.

17. St George church

The Church of St George (“ Rotonda "Sveti Georgi") is an Early Christian red brick rotunda that is considered the oldest building in Sofia. Built by the Romans in the 4th century, it is a cylindrical domed structure built on a square base. It is believed that it was built on the site of a pagan temple, though the original purpose of the building was for public use. The building is famous for the 12th-, 13th- and 14th-century frescoes inside the central dome. Painted over during the Ottoman period, when the building was used as a mosque, these frescoes were only uncovered and restored in the 20th century. The church is part of a larger archaeological complex. Behind the apse, there are ancient ruins: a section of a Roman street with preserved drainage, foundations of a large basilica, probably a public building, and some smaller buildings. One of the buildings had been equipped with hypocaust and the tiles lifting the floor can be seen today. Experts define it as one of the most beautiful buildings in the so-called 143


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"Constantine district" of Serdika-Sredets, where the palace of Emperor Constantine the Great, and later of Sevastokrator Kaloyan were situated. Having survived the trials of time and having kept its appearance almost untouched, it is assumed that some of the most important meetings of the Serdica Ecumenical Council had taken place in the church. Outstanding among all the murals is the one from the 10th century, created most probably during the reign of Tsar Simeon I the Great, Tsar Peter I and Tsar Samuil. In exceptional occasions, the church is used as a setting for solemn military ceremonies and concerts with Orthodox and classical music.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 18. Boyana Church

Located on the outskirts of Sofia, Boyana Church consists of three buildings. The eastern church was built in the 10th century, then enlarged at the beginning of the 13th century by Sebastocrator Kaloyan, who ordered a second two storey building to be erected next to it. The frescoes in this second church, painted in 1259, make it one of the most important collections of medieval paintings. The ensemble is completed by a third church, built at the beginning of the 19th century. This site is one of the most complete and perfectly preserved monuments of east European medieval art. There are several layers of wall paintings in the interior from the 11th, 13th, 15-17th and 19th centuries which testify to the high level of wall painting during the different periods. The paintings with the most outstanding artistic value are those from 13th century. Whilst they interpret the Byzantine canon, the images have a special spiritual expressiveness and vitality and are painted in harmonious proportions

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 19. Sokolski monastery “Holy Mother’s Assumption”

The Sokolski monastery “Holy Mother’s Assumption” is situated 15km to the southeast of Gabrovo in an area called Sokolova Peshtera (Falcon’s Cave). Its location together with its founder and first father Arhimandrit Yosif Sokolski have given the name of the monastery. The monastery was established in 1833 after in the autumn of 1832, Yosif Sokolski arrives to his home region, accompanied by another monk, Agapii. The two chose the stone terrace in front of the Sokolova Peshtera (Falcon’s Cave) for the place of the new monastery and dug its first church in the limestone rock.

20. Dobridol monastery "St. Trinity"

Dobridol monastery "St. Trinity" is located about 3 km south of. Dobri Dol. The monastery is situated in a picturesque area of deep dol a lush and varied vegetation and inhabited by abundant wildlife . The monastery complex is a combination of Catholic church, chapel and residential and commercial buildings . The monastery "St.. Trinity" is a rare phenomenon in the Bulgarian Revival religious architecture and art. It belongs to krastotovidniya type churches and a square one-nave building with a dome built on octahedral drum .

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Italy Religious Tourism 1. Milan cathedral

Milan cathedral or Duomo is the cathedral in Milan , Italy , erected in the central square Piazza del Duomo. It is dedicated to the Virgin Mary and is the seat of the Archbishop of Milan, currently Cardinal Andzhelo Skola . Its construction took nearly six centuries and is the second largest cathedral in Italy after the Basilica of St. Peter in Rome , and the third in the world, with a maximum height of 108.50 meters. Until a few years ago is the tallest building in Milan. The Duomo, besides being an artistic monument, is a privileged place of prayer. The Cathedral is strongly linked to memory and to the Magisterium of the Bishops who have succeeded to the Throne of St. Ambrose and to the history of the millions of faithful who collect their thoughts there each year to celebrate the Sacred Mysteries. The Cathedral is the Mother Church of the Diocese, which has a symbolic exemplary function both with regard to the life of religion in the city, and with regard to diocesan activity. Liturgical activity is the true essence of the Cathedral: the Duomo is the heart of liturgical tradition which, referring to the figure of St. Ambrose, is an expression of the tangible form with which the apostolic tradition is deeply rooted and has developed over the centuries in the Church of Milan. In the Duomo, daily liturgical worship is practiced in many different forms: not only celebrations of the Eucharist, but also, because of the constant presence of the Metropolitan Chapter, the Liturgy of the Hours, as preparation for and prolongation of the Eucharist. Particular attention is paid to Eucharistic Adoration, the Liturgy of the Word, celebration of the Sacrament of Reconciliation and to the most genuine and sincere forms of “popular piety”, such as reciting of the Rosary and, during Lent, the practice of the Stations of the Cross. Liturgical worship by the faithful is the essence of the Cathedral which, in all of its expressions, above all through the countless works of art that it has preserved for centuries, is required to live and give testimony in the very heart of the city to faithfulness to Christ's Gospel. 148


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 2. St Mark's Basilica

The Patriarchal Cathedral Basilica of Saint Mark, commonly known as Saint Mark's Basilica, is the cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Venice, northern Italy. It is the most famous of the city's churches and one of the best known examples of Italo-Byzantine architecture. It lies at the eastern end of the Piazza San Marco, adjacent and connected to the Doge's Palace. Originally it was the chapel of the Doge, and has only been the city's cathedral since 1807, when it became the seat of the Patriarch of Venice, archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Venice, formerly at San Pietro di Castello. For its opulent design, gold ground mosaics, and its status as a symbol of Venetian wealth and power, from the 11th century on the building has been known by the nickname Chiesa d'Oro (Church of gold).

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 3. Basilica "Bogoroditsa Velika" – Rome

This is the most beautiful early Christian basilica in Rome, built in 420, the gaze steals from opulent ceiling covered with a mosaic made of Jacopo Turin. Basilica "Bogoroditsa Velika" is considered the peak in the medieval tradition of mosaic in Rome . Interesting to see it is the Sistine Chapel built by Domenico Fontana for Pope Sixtus V. On the other side is located Paul chapel ordered by - Pope Paul V and Clement VIII.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 4. Verona Cathedral Verona Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Verona, northern Italy, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary under the designation Santa Maria Matricolare. It is the episcopal seat of the Diocese of Verona. It was erected after two Palaeo-Christian churches on the same site had been destroyed by an earthquake in 1117. Built in Romanesque style, the cathedral was consecrated on September 13, 1187. The structure was later modified by several renovation interventions, although the plan has remained unchanged. The façade is divided into three parts, with a pediment and a two storied projecting porch or protiro embellished with sculpture, which is the work of the twelfth-century sculptor Nicholaus, who also executed and signed the entranceway at the abbey church of San Zeno, also in Verona, and Ferrara Cathedral. The portico is supported on the backs of two griffins, similar to those from the dismantled Porta dei Mesi at Ferrara. The lunette depicts the Virgin holding the Christ child in high relief, centered between two low relief scenes, the Annunciation to the Shepherds (left) and the Adoration of the Magi (right). On the lintel in medallions are the three theological virtues, Faith, Charity and Hope. Ten figures of prophets are set in the doorposts and jambs; the four symbols of the Evangelists and the Hand of God are set above in the barrel vault of the first story of the porch. Set into the walls on either side of the portal are figures of Roland and Oliver, who as holy warriors, remind one of the constant need to provide protection to the church. The Gothic windows in the facade provide evidence of the renovation that took place in the 14th century. The Baroque addition at the upper part of the facade is part of 17th-century additions. On the south side of the church is a second portal executed in the so-called Lombard or Como style. The main apse has retained its integrity and as such is an example of mid-12th-century architecture. The bell tower, begun in the 16th century by Michele Sanmicheli and left unfinished, has two orders of columns with highly decorated capitals, bas-reliefs and traces of 14th-century frescoes. The current appearance of the interior dates from the 15th-century renovations. It has a nave and two aisles divided by tall pilasters in red Verona marble, which support Gothic arcades. The first three chapels on each side are in the same style, and house mostly Renaissance artworks by Veronese artists. The nave ends with the main Chapel (Cappella Maggiore), also by Sanmicheli.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 5. Florence Cathedral The Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore is the main church of Florence, Italy. Il Duomo di Firenze, as it is ordinarily called, was begun in 1296 in the Gothic style with the design of Arnolfo di Cambio and completed structurally in 1436 with the dome engineered by Filippo Brunelleschi. The exterior of the basilica is faced with polychrome marble panels in various shades of green and pink bordered by white and has an elaborate 19th-century Gothic Revival façade by Emilio De Fabris. The cathedral complex, located in Piazza del Duomo, includes the Baptistery and Giotto's Campanile. These three buildings are part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site covering the historic centre of Florence and are a major attraction to tourists visiting Tuscany. The basilica is one of Italy's largest churches, and until development of new structural materials in the modern era, the dome was the largest in the world. It remains the largest brick dome ever constructed.

6. Amalfi Cathedral Amalfi Cathedral is a 9th-century Roman Catholic cathedral in the Piazza del Duomo, Amalfi, Italy. It is dedicated to the Apostle Saint Andrew whose relics are kept here. Formerly the episcopal seat of the Diocese of Amalfi, it has been since 1986 that of the Diocese of Amalfi-Cava de' Tirreni. Predominantly

of

Arab-Norman

Romanesque[citation

needed]

architectural style, it has been remodeled several times, adding Romanesque, Byzantine, Gothic, and Baroque elements. The cathedral includes the adjoining 9th-century Basilica of the Crucifix. Leading from the basilica are steps into the Crypt of St. Andrew.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 7. Assisi Cathedral Assisi Cathedral, dedicated to San Rufino is a major church in Assisi, Italy. This stately church in Umbrian Romanesque style was the third church built on the same site to contain the remains of bishop Rufinus of Assisi, martyred in the 3rd century. The construction was started in 1140 to the designs by Giovanni da Gubbio, as attested by the wall inscription visible inside the apse. He may be the same Giovanni who designed the rose-window on the façade of Santa Maria Maggiore in 1163. 8. Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi The Papal Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi is the mother church of the Roman Catholic Order of Friars Minor Conventual in Assisi, a town of Umbria region in central Italy, where Saint Francis was born and died. The basilica is one of the most important places of Christian pilgrimage in Italy. With its accompanying friary, Sacro Convento, the basilica is a distinctive landmark to those approaching Assisi. It has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2000.

9. Bitonto Cathedral Bitonto Cathedral (Italian: Duomo di Bitonto, Concattedrale di Maria SS. Assunta)[1] is a Roman Catholic cathedral in the city of Bitonto in the Province of Bari, Italy.Griffin tile from previous church, in the present crypt The cathedral, dedicated to Saint Mary, was the seat of the small Bishopric of Bitonto from the bishopric's foundation, believed to be in the 8th century, until 1818, when it was combined with the neighbouring Diocese of Ruvo to form the Diocese of Ruvo e Bitonto. This was separated again in 1982, and the Diocese of Bitonto, with Bitonto Cathedral as its seat, was briefly revived, but was combined with the Archdiocese of Bari in 1986 to form the Archdiocese of Bari-Bitonto, in which Bitonto Cathedral is now a co-cathedral. 153


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 10. Basilica di Santa Croce The Basilica di Santa Croce is the principal Franciscan church in Florence, Italy, and a minor basilica of the Roman Catholic Church. It is situated on the Piazza di Santa Croce, about 800 metres south-east of the Duomo. The site, when first chosen, was in marshland outside the city walls.

11. Santa Maria Novella Santa Maria Novella is a church in Florence, Italy, situated just across from the main railway station named after it. Chronologically, it is the first great basilica in Florence, and is the city's principal Dominican church. The church, the adjoining cloister, and chapter house contain a multiplicity of art treasures and funerary monuments. Especially famous are frescoes by masters of Gothic and early Renaissance. They were financed by the most important Florentine families, who ensured themselves funerary chapels on consecrated ground. 12. Genoa Cathedral Genoa Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral in the Italian city of Genoa. It is dedicated to Saint Lawrence, and is the seat of the Archbishop of Genoa. The cathedral was consecrated by Pope Gelasius II in 1118 and was built between the twelfth century and the fourteenth century as fundamentally a medieval building, with some later additions. Secondary naves and side covers are of Romanesque style and the main facade is Gothic from the early thirteenth century, while capitals and columns with interior corridors date from the early fourteenth century. The bell tower and dome were built in the sixteenth century. 154


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 13. Lecce Cathedral Lecce Cathedral is the cathedral of the city of Lecce in Apulia, Italy, dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Lecce. The cathedral was first built in 1144, but underwent repairs in 1230. It was rebuilt in 1659 by the architect Giuseppe Zimbalo by order of bishop Luigi Pappacoda, whose remains are kept in the altar dedicated to Saint Orontius of Lecce, the patron saint of the city. 14. Palermo Cathedral

Palermo Cathedral is the cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Palermo, located in Palermo, Sicily, southern Italy. It is dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary. As an architectural complex, it is characterized by the presence of different styles, due to a long history of additions, alterations and restorations, the last of which occurred in the 18th century.

15. Santuario della Consolata The Santuario della Consolata or Sanctuary of the Virgin of the Consolation is a prominent Marian sanctuary and minor basilica in central Turin, Piedmont, Italy. Colloquially, the sanctuary is known as La Consla. It is located on the intersection of Via Consolata and Via Carlo Ignazio Giulio. The church was originally built in the style of a basilica. Over the years the church and the icon were rebuilt and restored by various orders of monks. In 1448 the prior of Sant'Andrea expanded the church building one bay to the west. With the increased popularity of devotion to Our Lady of Consolation, the church changed from a parish to a shrine 155


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 16. Trani Cathedral

Trani Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral dedicated to Saint Nicholas the Pilgrim in Trani, Apulia, Italy. Formerly the seat of the archbishop of Trani, it is now that of the archbishop of Trani-Barletta-Bisceglie. It is a great example of Apulian Romanesque architecture. Construction began in 1099, over the earlier church of Santa Maria della Scala, going back to the 4th century. The relics of Saint Leucius were kept here until the 8th century, when they were translated to Brindisi. The new church was intended to house the relics of Saint Nicholas the Pilgrim. The cathedral was dedicated as soon as they were installed, without waiting for the building to be completed. It was built using the local stone of Trani, a typical building stone of the region: a calcareous tuff, obtained from the caves of the city, characterised by its colour, an extremely light pink, almost white. The cathedral is distinguished by its showy transept and by its use of the high pointed arch in the passage beneath the bell tower, which is unusual in Romanesque architecture. 17. Padua Cathedral Padua Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral and minor basilica in Padua, northern Italy. The cathedral, dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, is the seat of the bishop of Padua. The Cathedral Basilica of Santa Maria Assunta is the main place of Catholic worship in Padua and the seat of a bishop of the diocese since the fourth century. The cathedral, dedicated to the Assumption of Mary, has the dignity of minor basilica. It is also a parish center and allows for veneration of the bodies of San Daniele, San Leonino and San Gregorio Barbarigo. The current building dates from the sixteenth century and its construction involved Michelangelo Buonarroti. It is located on the east side of the Piazza Duomo next to the Bishop's Palace. 18. Cathedral of Syracuse The Cathedral of Syracuse (Duomo di Siracusa), formally the Cattedrale metropolitana della NativitĂ di Maria Santissima, is an ancient Catholic church in Syracuse, Sicily, the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Siracusa, and is included in a UNESCO World Heritage Site designated in 2005. The cathedral stands in the city's historic core on Ortygia Island. 156


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 19. Otranto Cathedral Otranto Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral in the Italian city of Otranto, dedicated to the Annunciation of the Virgin Mary. It is the archiepiscopal seat of the Archdiocese of Otranto. The cathedral was consecrated in 1088. It is 54 metres long by 25 metres wide and is built on 42 monolithic granite and marble columns from unknown quarries. Its plan is a three-aisled nave with an apsidal east end. On either side of the west facade are two lancet windows.

20. Noto Cathedral

Noto Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Noto in Sicily, Italy. Its construction, in the style of the Sicilian Baroque, began in the early 18th century and was completed in 1776. It is dedicated to Saint Nicholas of Myra, and has been the cathedral of the Diocese of Noto since the diocese's establishment in 1844.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Seaside tourism Turkey Turkey offers a wide variety of beach holidays for families, those seeking relaxation, and more adventurous holiday makers. Tourist can choose from destinations along the Black sea, Aegean and Mediterranean coastline. 1. Patara, Turkey’s longest beach

This broad strip of gently shelving white sand is not only Turkey’s longest beach, but also its most beautiful. Kids love its warm shallows, the legions of body-surfable waves and the serried ranks of dunes backing it. Development at its stunning south-eastern end has been confined to one very reasonably priced beach café with umbrellas and sunbeds for hire, reached through the romantic remains of a Roman city preserved in the shifting sands. The low-key Patara Viewpoint hotel, run by Muzaffer and Anne-Louise, is set around a pool on a quiet, leafy hillside behind the ruins. They have been providing a friendly service for visitors to this unique spot in south-west Turkey for over 20 years – a service that includes free rides to and from the beach and an optional weekly barbecue.

2. The Bodrum Peninsula

Studded with olive groves and domed white Ottoman-era cisterns, the beautiful rocky finger of the Bodrum Peninsula has long been a favourite with Turkey’s well-heeled elite. The downside of this popularity has been the inevitable tourist development, the upside is that it has been (for the most part) done with taste. The peninsula’s main town, all-white Bodrum town, clustered around the splendid castle of St Peter, is extremely attractive. There are plenty 158


Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE of pretty beaches out on the peninsula, including Bitez and Türbükü, and windsurfing opportunities aplenty. The exclusive Mandarin Oriental, Bodrum, is set on the lusher northern shore of the peninsula. With two beaches of its own, a pool complex, a cutting-edge spa, chic restaurants and sounds provided by Istanbul’s hip Babylon club, this is the perfect sophisticated holiday hideaway.

3. Ölüdeniz lagoon The lagoon of Ölüdeniz (Dead Sea) is exactly an unspoilt paradise. Yet despite the rampant development, the lagoon and its environs are still spectacular. There’s plenty to do, too, apart from swim in the azure waters of the lagoon or off the more prosaic adjacent beach) or take a boat to the pretty beach at Butterfly Valley Oludeniz lagoon is a beautiful, pine-fringed and mountain-backed lagoon. 4. Kalkan Until the 1920s Kalkan was a tiny Greek fishing village; by the 1980s it had morphed into a bohemian resort for arty Turks fleeing big city life. Some of its past has clung on despite its transformation into a sophisticated resort favoured by Brits. They are drawn by its beguiling setting, dropping down a hillside to a small yacht harbour fronting a picturesque bay, pretty fishermen’s cottages, cosy restaurants and chic café-bars. Kalkan is also appreciated for what isn’t here – no rowdy bars, no clubs, no full English breakfasts. The village beach is small, but the sands of Patara are very close, as is stunning Kaputas.Kalkan has the charm of an old fishing village 159


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 5. Antalya For visitors looking to enjoy a traditional Mediterranean beach and pool-side holiday while also having easy access to the nightlife and shopping opportunities of a bustling city of over a million souls, Antalya is ideal. Its old walled quarter is packed with bars, clubs and restaurants, its suburbs peppered with shiny new malls with cinemas and great shops. Antalya is also home to renowned annual film and piano festivals, as well as having a great venue for classical music, opera and ballet.

For visitors looking to enjoy a traditional Mediterranean beach and pool-side holiday while also having easy access to the nightlife and shopping opportunities of a bustling city of over a million souls, Antalya is ideal. Its old walled quarter is packed with bars, clubs and restaurants, its suburbs peppered with shiny new malls with cinemas and great shops. Antalya is also home to renowned annual film and piano festivals, as well as having a great venue for classical music, opera and ballet. The great curve of Konyaalti beach is near Antalya. 6. Side

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Superbly located on a low, rocky peninsula pointing out into the Med from a belt of fine, white-sand beaches, Side (pronounced See-day) is one of the most attractive resort towns on Turkey’s Mediterranean coast. Within the old walled quarter are ancient Greek-Roman temples and fishermen’s cottages, just outside dune-engulfed ruins and a stunning Roman theatre still used for concerts to this day. There are plenty of places to eat, drink, club and shop here too. You can explore the ancient ruins and perhaps take a moonlight stroll to the romantic temples of Apollo and Athena at the tip of the peninsula. You’ll be following in the footsteps of a famous couple who trysted here – Antony and Cleopatra. 7. Alanya

Alanya town is located about 100 kilometers (65 miles) to the east of Antalya, on a peninsula between the Mediterranean Sea in the south and the Taurus Mountains in the north. It's one of the most popular holiday destinations of Turkey today especially for Sun - Sea - Sand lovers. Historicaly, the town stood between Cilicia and Pamphylia regions in the south. The first foundations are not quite known but during the excavations in several caves nearby, it's discovered that the area was inhabited since the Paleolitic ages. Around the 4th century BC, the city was known as Coracesium. The Seleucids tried to capture it but failed. Later on it became the center of piracy in the Mediterranean especially during the reign of the rebel Diodotus Tryphon. Roman general Pompey the Great captured the city in 65 BC, putting an end to the pirates' rule. During the Roman period, the city prospered and minted its own coins in the 2nd century AD, which was a sign of richness and prosperity at that time. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, the Byzantines ruled the city. There aren't much details from the Byzantine period but it must have been a Christian city like the rest of Cilicia and Pamphylia.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 8. Alaçati

The former Greek village of Alaçati is famed for the attractiveness of its old houses and cobbled lanes. Located on the beautiful Çesme Peninsula, Alaçati is a favourite of moneyed Istanbulites. The downside of this is that prices are a little high, the upside that restaurants and cafes serve up the very best fare to their Turkish-food-savvy clientele. It also gives visitors a more authentic holiday experience than in resorts dominated by Brits, Germans, Russians et al. Browsing the village’s galleries and boutiques apart, there’s not much to do except head for the sandy beach a mile away.

9. Dalyan

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE One of the most unusual resort destinations in Turkey, small-town Dalyan nuzzles up to a languid, reed-fringed river, backed by cliffs peppered with the rock-cut tombs of ancient Kaunos. Yet it’s only a peaceful half-hour boat-ride downriver to the white sands of Iztuzu beach, famed for its nesting turtles. The seasonal presence of these marine repitles has saved Iztuzu from the beach-front development that has marred so many Mediterranean resorts, making the daily return river trip well worth it. Located in the province of Mugla and possessing one of the most special gifts of nature and history, Köycegiz stands beside the same named lake at the tip of which touches the Mediterranean. Now a nature and wild life preserve, this site is home to many species of birds and is a real paradise with its rare and beautiful setting, and with a history going back to 3500 BC. It is possible to cruise over the natural labyrinth-like channel walled with reeds, that link the sea and the Lake of Köycegiz, which is described as "smooth as glass" till noon and suitable for wind-surfing in the afternoon. The lake contains almost every kind of seafood including carp and crab. Dalyan can be reached at the end of a road decorated with scented frankincense trees. The Dalyan Delta is a unique site, lying peacefully with its 4 kilometerslong golden beach. Sea turtles of Loggerhead Caretta Caretta and blue crabs live here making the area more attractive.

10. Cirali Backed by pine-clad mountains, fronted by a sea of the deepest blue and wreathed in a green haze of citrus groves, low-key Cirali is a gem. And so it should remain, as development is strictly controlled – its beautiful oneand-a-half mile-long beach is a major nesting site for the endangered loggerhead turtle, and the romantically vegetated ruins of ancient Olympos haunt its southern extremity. It’s little wonder that those in search of tranquillity have found the place irresistible. Cirali beach is protected as a nesting ground for loggerhead turtlesCirali beach is protected as a nesting ground for loggerhead turtles

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 11. DIDIM ALTINKUM

Didim has been popular holiday destination for Turkish people for many years but it’s now reaching out to more international tourists and promoting its beautiful and very long sandy beach. It’s a largely flat landscape here and the coast is the real attraction along with some interesting local cuisine and friendly hospitality. You’ll find plenty of ancient temples here, most of which are open to the public and well worth exploring. Didim enjoys its very own microclimate thanks to its location and landscape, with far more sunny and dry days than some other regions of Turkey. Didim has become a popular out-of-season destination too with mild temperatures in winter and some great water-sport activities including scuba diving and wind surfing. Think of Didim as the quieter, less extravagant neighbour of Bodrum.

12. GULLUK If you want an even more peaceful and serene setting then Gulluk is definitely for you. Not too far from Bodrum again but a much more laid back vibe here. Once a fishing village, they’re very proud to of their history and have done a great job of preserving the appeal of this area.You’ll find a number of bays and beaches to explore here and the locals here are wonderfully friendly. Its one of those destinations that you can’t quite 164


Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE figure out why everyone doesn’t go there, but be thankful they don’t as it’s peace and quiet is its charm. 13. Marmaris

Known as Green Marmaris (Yeşil Marmaris) because of its pine-and olive-clad mountains, the resort city of Marmaris is set on a broad mountain-ringed bay 3 hours by road east of Bodrum, 2 hours by road west of Dalyan and just across the water from the Greek island of Rhodes. Marmaris is also the hub for an ever-expanding resort area which includes the separate town of İçmeler across the bay, and smaller vacation getaway villages on the Bozburun Peninsula and Reşadiye Peninsula which jut into the Mediterranean to the west and southwest. English admiral Lord Nelson readied his fleet in this perfect natural Mediterranean bay in 1798, then sailed out to defeat the Napoleon's navy at the Battle of Abukir. Since then, the beautiful natural harbor of Marmaris has been pretty quiet. Until the tourism boom of the 1990s made it Turkey's premier yachting port for Blue Voyage yacht cruises. Sleek boats now crowd its modern full-service marina, and jostle for space along the waterfront promenades. Ferries cruise to and from the Greek island of Rhodes several times daily during the summer.

14. Kusadasi The name comes from 'kuş' (bird) and 'ada' (island), as the island has the shape of a bird's head (as seen from the sea). It was known as Ephesus Neopolis, and later as Scala Nova or Scala Nuova under the Genovese and Venetians. Kuş Adası was adopted in its place at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, citizens of Kuşadası often shorten the name to Ada.

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The area has been a centre of art and culture since some of the earliest recorded history, and has been settled by many civilizations since being founded by the Leleges people in 3000 BC. Later settlers include the Aeolians in the 11th century BC and Ionians in the 9th. Originally, seamen and traders built a number of settlements along the coastline, including Neopolis. The area features several well-known local beaches, including Ladies Beach, the beach at the centrum, the beaches between the Batıhan Hotel and the Nazilli Site, the beach at Güzelçamlı, and the Dilek Peninsula National Park beach, referred to by locals as simply Milli Park. Relatively old houses near the seafront, some of them converted to bars and cafes, are the remnants of old Kuşadası, which has with time become a modern, European-like town in appearance. The hills behind have been settled with large hotels and blocks of holiday flats.

15. Sinop Founded by colonists from the Aegean port of Miletus in the 800s BC, Sinop became a major port because of its fine natural harbor. Today it's still a port, and the capital of the province of the same name.Besides its medieval city walls, Sinop offers the Alaettin Mosque (1267) and its medrese (seminary); the ruined Balatlar Kilisesi, a Roman temple converted into a Byzantine church; and the Cezayirli Ali Pasha Mosque (1297). A few remains of an ancient Temple of Serapis stand beside the Sinop Museum.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Medieval Sinop is a walled city perched on a promontory overlooking the dark, chill waters of the Black Sea. Sinope, daughter of the river god Asopus, outwitted Zeus. He wanted to marry her, and promised she could have "anything she wanted." She requested eternal virginity, and Zeus, outwitted, allowed her to enjoy it here on this promontory—or so the legend says— giving the town its name. 16. Trabzon Once known as Trebizond, this historic port city near the eastern end of Turkey's Black Sea coast provides interesting contrasts to the normal Turkish town. Its old walled quarter contains numerous Byzantine churches, though most are not easily accessible. Several kilometers to the west of the center, the well-preserved Hagia Sophia (Aya Sofya, 1263) stands on a hill overlooking the Black Sea. Trabzon is also a good base for visiting surrounding sites such as Sumela Monastery, the alpine village of Ayder, and the tea-growing towns such as Rize to the east. Trabzon's historic harbor (liman) is downhill to the north of Atatürk Alanı. Built on a mountainside falling into the sea, it may take its name from the trapeza (table) of land on which part of the ancient city was perched. The modern city has sprawled far beyond the ancient city walls. Even so, Trabzon's quarter-million inhabitants—and their cars and trucks—pack its narrow, twisting streets often to the point of stasis.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 16. Manavgat Holidays to Manavgat take you to an authentically Turkish city with a riverfront setting. And beyond, you’ve got sandy beaches, majestic mountains and spectacular Roman sights. Manavgat is an inland city in the popular Antalaya region of Turkey. It’s pretty famous for the river that runs through it, not to mention its waterfalls – and it’s all nicely set in the protected forests of the Taurus Mountains. As well as that, Manavgat makes a great base for beach trips to Side and exploring the ancient cities of Perge and Aspendos. Manavgat’s major tourist draw is the river, with its cascading waterfall and crystal clear pools.

There’s a beautifully landscaped riverside park which is great for evening strolls, and it comes with lots of restaurants, tavernas, cafés and bars. And there are plenty of toe-dipping opportunities along the riverbanks.

17. Pamuk kale Pamukkale, 18 km (11 miles) north of Denizli, is Turkey's foremost mineral-bath spa because of its natural beauty: hot calcium-laden waters spring from the earth and cascade over a cliff. As they cool they form dramatic travertines of hard, brilliantly white calcium that form pools. Named the Cotton Fortress (pah-MOOK-kah-leh) in Turkish, it has been a spa since the Romans built the spa city of Hierapolis around a sacred warm-water spring. The Antique Pool is still there, littered with marble columns from the Roman Temple of Apollo. You can swim in it.

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You can spend a pleasant day at Pamukkale, exploring the extensive Roman ruins of Hierapolis, climbing the ranks of seats in the great Roman theater, touring the exhibits in the Archeological Museum, splashing along the travertines (where permitted) and even soaking in the Antique Pool littered with fluted marble columns. Coming from, or going to the Aegean coast, you may be able to combine a visit to Pamukkale and Laodicea with a visit to Aphrodisias, the ancient City of Aphrodite, goddess of love.

17. Pamphila

The rich plain of Pamphylia, curving around the top of the Gulf of Antalya between Antalya (ancient Adalia or Attaleia) in the west and Alanya (ancient Coracesium) in the east, against the impressive backdrop of the Bey Daglari mountain (over 2000m/6564ft) in the west and the Central Taurus in the north, nestles almost like a piece of North Africa between its mountains and the Mediterranean. The white chalk faces of the low foothills of Pisidia in the north are covered with pines, their lower slopes dotted with the ruins of ancient castles and classical cities and the many villages crowding the well-watered valley floors. The Pamphylian plain itself is rich alluvial farmland, given over to the intensive cultivation of vegetables, cotton, citrus fruits, and bananas. Towards Lycia in the west, however, the subsoil is of limestone tufa, and here the cultivated travertine terraces start right at the foot of the mountains, falling steeply to the sea and the ancient harbor of Antalya.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 18. Izmir Izmir’s history goes back to 3000 BC according to the results of historical knowledge and archaeological excavations. Today Izmir is the third largest city in Turkey with a population of around 3.7 million, the second biggest port after Istanbul, and a very good transport hub. It is a rapidly growing city on the Central Aegean coast of Turkey. It is set around a huge bay and surrounded by mountains. This was the birthplace of Homer, who was thought to have lived here around the 8th century BC. The broad boulevards, glass-fronted buildings and modern shopping centers are dotted with traditional red-tiled roofs, the 18th century market, and old mosques and churches, although the city has an atmosphere more of Mediterranean Europe than traditional Turkey. There are several interesting small towns and holiday resorts around Izmir such as Foca, Cesme, Seferihisar, Teos, Urla, Gumuldur, Selcuk and so on.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 19. Ayvalık Ayvalık is a seaside town on the northwestern Aegean coast of Turkey. The town faces the nearby Greek island of Lesbos. It is situated on a narrow coastal plain surrounded by low hills to the east which are covered with pine and olive trees. Ayvalık is also surrounded by the archipelago of the Ayvalık Islands.

The ruins of three important ancient cities are within a short driving distance away from Ayvalık: Assos and Troy are to the north, while Pergamon is to the east. Mount Ida which plays an important role in ancient Greek mythology and folk tales (such as the cult of Cybele; the Sibylline books; the Trojan War and the epic poem Iliad of Homer; the nymph Idaea (wife of the river god Scamander); Ganymede (the son of Tros); Paris (the son of Priam); Aeneas (the son of Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite) who is the protagonist of the ancient Roman epic poem Aeneid of Virgil) is also near Ayvalık (to the north) and can be seen from numerous areas in and around the town center.

With its rich architectural heritage, Ayvalık is a member of the Norwich-based European Association of Historic Towns and Regions. 171


Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 20. FETHIYE Modern Fethiye is located on the site of the ancient city of Telmessos, the ruins of which can be seen in the city, e.g. the Hellenistic theatre by the main quay. A Lycian legend explains the source of the name Telmessos as follows:The god Apollo falls in love with the youngest daughter of the King of Phoenicia, Agenor. He disguises himself as a small dog and thus gains the love of the shy, withdrawn daughter. After he reappears as a handsome man, they have a son, whom they name 'Telmessos'. The city became part of the Persian Empire after the invasion of the Persian general Harpagos in 547 BC, along with other Lycian and Carian cities. Telmessos then joined the Attic-Delos Union established in mid-5th century BC. and, although it later left the union and became an independent city, continued its relations with the union until the 4th century BC. Very little is known of the city during Byzantine times. Surviving buildings attest to considerable prosperity during late Antiquity, but most were abandoned in the 7th–8th centuries due to the Arab-Byzantine Wars. The city was fortified in the 8th century, and appears as "Telmissos or Anastasioupolis" ca. 800. By the 10th century, the ancient name was forgotten and it became known as Makre or Makri (Μάκρη, "long one"), from the name of the island at the entrance to the harbour. In the 12th–13th centuries there were signs of renewed prosperity: the city walls were enlarged, a report from 1106 names Makre a centre for perfume production, and geographical works from the 13th century describe the city as a commercial centre. The area fell to the Turks in the late 12th or early 13th century. 172


Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE The town grew considerably in the 19th century, and had a large Greek population at this time. Following the population exchange between Greece and Turkey, the Greeks of Makri were sent to Greece where they founded the town of Nea Makri (New Makri) in Greece.The town was resettled with Turks from Greece. Fethiye is one of Turkey's well-known tourist centers and is especially popular during the summer. The Fethiye Museum, which is very rich in ancient and more recent artifacts, displays and testifies to the successive chain of civilizations that existed in the area, starting with the ancient Lycians. Fethiye is also home to the Tomb of Amyntas, a large tomb built in 350 BC by the Lycians. Some of the other historical sites worth visiting are: Kadyanda Ancient City, Kayakoy- old Greek town, Afkule, Gemiler and Aya Nikola. Most popular touristic towns of Fethiye are: Ölüdeniz, Calis Beach area, Hisaronu and Ovacik. Butterfly Valley is in the Fethiye district.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Seaside Tourism in Romania 1. Mamaia

Mamaia is a resort on the Romanian Black Sea shore and a district of Constanța. Considered to be Romania's most popular resort, Mamaia is situated immediately north-east of Constanța's city center. It has almost no full-time residents, being populated mostly during the summer. Mamaia lies on a strip of land 8 km in length and only 300 m in width, between the Black Sea and Lake Siutghiol.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 2. Mangalia

Mangalia is a city and a port on the coast of the Black Sea in the south-east of Constanța County, Romania. The municipality of Mangalia also administers several summer time seaside resorts: Cap Aurora, Jupiter, Neptun, Olimp, Saturn, Venus. The Greek town Callatis existed until mid 7th century under this name. Life in the town resumed from 10th century. In the 13th century Callatis came to be known as Pangalia. The Vlachs called it Tomisovara and the Greeks Panglicara. From 16th c. the town had acquired its present name Mangalia. A Greek colony named Callatis was founded in the 6th century BC by the city of Heraclea Pontica. Its first silver coinage was minted approximately 350 BC. In 72 BC, Callatis was conquered by the Roman general Lucullus and was assigned to the Roman province of Moesia Inferior. Throughout the 2nd century AD, the city built defensive fortifications and the minting of coinage under the Roman emperors Septimius Severus and Caracalla continued. Callatis suffered multiple invasions in the 3rd century AD but recovered in the 4th century AD to regain its status as an important trade hub and port city. From 7th to 11th century the city was under the rule of the First Bulgarian Empire.  The city has been well known in recent years as the place where one of the largest summer festivals in Romania takes place: Callatis Festival;  The Scythian tomb discovered in 1959 where archaeologists unearthed fragments of a papyrus in Greek, the first document of this kind in Romania;  The incineration tombs (the necropolis of the Callatis citadel, dating back to the 4th-2nd centuries BC);  The ruins of the Callatis citadel (6th century BC);  The Turkish Mangalia Mosque(Esmehan Sultan Mosque) (16th century);  The Archaeology Museum which shelters a rich collection of amphorae and sculptures from the Hellenistic epoch, fragments of stone sarcophagi;  Mangalia Marina.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 3. Cap Aurora Cap Aurora is the youngest resort on the Romanian seaside. When opened, the resort was considered the "Queen of Seaside" because modern architecture and the special conditions we offer, is frequented mainly foreign tourists. A secluded resort but modern, with a particular aspect, in contrast to other seaside resorts. Cap Aurora resort is distinguished primarily by its unique style, both in the hotel and surrounding green spaces and beach related. Hotels have a pyramidal aspect, inspired by Mediterranean architecture. Seen from the beach hotels give you the impression that you are in front of grand lecture - especially since they are located on a cliff several meters high. Seen from above, they look octopus hotels. The green areas around hotels with abundant vegetation and geometric paths gives you the feeling you are in a maze. The beach also has a unique seaside. Divided into several bays bounded by stabilopozi and vegetation, the beach has a lacy impressive, especially in top view. It turns coves beach somewhere exotic and intimate - in contrast to other large beach resorts. The resort is spread over a stretch of about 1 km long and 250 m wide, between sea and forest Comorova. Along this strip are ten hotels with names of precious stones. Cap Aurora Jupiter borders (in the north) and Venus (in the South).

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 4. Jupiter

Jupiter is located at a distance of 40 km from Constanta and 5 km north from Mangalia. The beach in this resort has a length of 1 km and is placed in a bay. Jupiter’s coastline is fragmented by many creeks and dams giving this place a charming appearance. This resort is the smallest resort on the Romanian Coast. Its placement it’s ideal for relaxing and enjoying a peaceful time away from the crowded noisy city.

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5. Neptun Neptun is a summer resort on the Romanian seacoast, on the Black Sea, 6 km north of Mangalia. He hosts the summer residence of the president, Nufărul (English: The Water Lily).

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6. Olimp

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Olimp is a summer resort on the Romanian seacoast, on the Black Sea, 7 km north of Mangalia and next door close to Neptun. It is in fact so close to it that could actually seem that Neptun and Olimp form a single resort. The Comorova forest is near the summer resort. It has a tall waterfront between beach and many hotels. During communism, Olimp was a very expensive resort as it was considered a luxurious seaside place reserved only for the guests of honor that Ceausescu would invite. This very small Black Coast Sea resort attracts many visitors during the summer. Olimp is best for people looking to enjoy peaceful, relaxing time.

7. Saturn

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Saturn, Romania is a lovely beach resort where you can enjoy the hot summer weather, the warmth of the sea and a cool breeze. Saturn beach resort is located 43 km from Constanta, but very close to Mangalia. Saturn beach stretches over a length of about 2 km, between Venus Beach (in the north) and Mangalia Beach (in the south).

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 8. Venus

Venus, Romania is a beach resort named after the Goddess of love and beauty. It is 41 km south of Constanta between Jupiter and Saturn Beach Resorts. The resort is lovely in the summer when the temperatures are above 22 °C and the sea is just perfect for a nice refreshing swim. Due to eastern exposure (like all the other resorts on the Black Sea Coast), you can enjoy the warmth of the sun longer (10 to 12 hours a day). It is known that this particular climate is rich in saline aerosols and solar radiation that are a good for the human body. Venus is a genuine attraction for tourists eager to relax and enjoy beautiful moments while enjoying the sunshine accompanied by the refreshing sea breeze.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 9. Constanta Constanța , is the oldest continuously inhabited city in Romania. It was founded around 600 BC. The city is located in the Dobruja region of Romania, on the Black Sea coast. It is the capital of Constanța County and the largest city in the region.The Port of Constanța it is the largest port on the Black Sea, and one of the largest ports in Europe. Situated at the crossroads of several commercial routes, Constanța lies on the western coast of the Black Sea, 185 miles (298 km) from the Bosphorus Strait. An ancient metropolis and Romania's largest sea port, Constanța traces its history some 2,500 years.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 10. Costinesti

Costinești is a commune and resort in Constanța County, Romania, located on the shore of the Black Sea, about 30 kilometres south of the county seat, Constanța. It consists of two villages: Costinești

and

Schitu. Costinești is mostly frequented by youngsters, the atmosphere tends to be livelier than in the other Black Sea resorts. The town is connected to the main E87 road which runs north to Constanța and south to the Bulga

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12. Navodari The name of the town means "trawlers" in Romanian. The settlement was mentioned for the first time in 1421 under the name Kara Koyun ("Black Sheep"), to be renamed later on Karaköy or Carachioi ("The Black Village"). In 1927, the locality was again renamed to Năvodari and after five years, on 15 August 1932, it was granted commune status. Today Năvodari is an important chemical and industrial town containing a car repairs factory and a Petromidia

factory

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 13. Techirghiol

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Techirghiol is a town in Constanța County, Romania. The name is derived from the Turkish Tekirgöl which means "the lake of Tekir". According to a legend, a blind and crippled old man named Tekir and his old donkey reached the shore of the lake by mistake. Trying to pull his stubborn animal out of the mud, Tekir was miraculously healed so he could see and walk normally again. Since then the lake has become famous for its healing properties. Tekir and his donkey are featured in a statue located in the center of the town. The name also means (in Turkish) "Striped Lake" (tekir - striped, and göl - lake). This is because of the salinity of the lake; when the wind blows, white salt stripes appear on the surface of the lake. Town is in the south east extremity of Romania (Constanța County), situated on the north west shore of Lake Techirghiol (11.6 km2), elevation 15–20 m, 18 km south of the municipality of Constanța and very close to the Black Sea (3 km). In Techirghiol the winters are mild and the summers are warm, dominant being the clear skies (the sun shines for more than 2,400 hours every year). Techirghiol was first marked on the country's map in 1893 but developed steadily after 1912, establishing itself as a spa town. After World War I, in 1920, Techirghiol started to become a very popular tourist attraction due to its famous therapeutic mud. The sapropelic mud from the Techirghiol Lake is the jewel of the resort. In 1924, at the Universal Exposition from Paris, the Techirghiol mud received the golden medal. Alphons Saligny was the first to study the therapeutic use of the mud; after this the Romanian Institute of Balneology approved it and during the 1930s the studies realized by Alphons Saligny and the Institute were the base for solid scientific proof regarding the therapeutic actions of the sapropelic mud of Techirghiol and the methodology of those treatments.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 14. Eforie Nord

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Located at 14 km from Constanta, Eforie Nord has been known locally as a Spa Resort for a long time. Eforie is a more isolated peaceful place compared to Mamaia and is situated between The Black Sea and Lake Techirghiol at 6-20 m above sea level. Road between Eforie Nord & Eforie Sud, Romania

15. Eforie Sud Eforie Sud is situated at a distance of 19 km from Constanta and just 5 km south from its twin, Eforie Nord. Unlike Eforie Nord, here the place is quieter with narrow streets that are parallel, heading mostly towards the Sea. The cliff, in Eforie Sud is 35 meters high because of a strip of chalk headland, this making the resort higher than all the others. In Eforie Sud you can find one of the most beautiful beaches: “Splendid Beach”. On this particular beach there is a stage for show performances, tables and chairs placed right at the shore line and lovely terraces where you can enjoy a nice refreshing drink. 16. 2 Mai

2 Mai is a village in Limanu commune, Constanţa County, Romania, and a small resort on the shore of the Black Sea, between Mangalia and Vama Veche. The village was founded by Mihail Kogălniceanu in 1887 under the name Două Mai. Its first inhabitants were Russians from Bucharest, Iaşi and Galaţi. Later Lipovans from Tulcea County and Romanians from Argeş County settled here. The main occupation of the villagers is the agritourism, fishing, tourism and agriculture. 17. Gura Portitei Originally a fishing village, Gura Portiţei (port) is known today as one of the most remote (and quiet) Romanian tourist destinations on the coast, an alternative to Vama Veche , which became very popular and busy in recent years. Access is usually by boat from Jurilovca, Tulcea ; with special vehicles can be reached on the coastal road or from Vadu, Constanta , on the Periboina or from Saint George, Tulcea . The name was initially linked to existing communication between the lake and the Black Sea Goloviţa closed in the 70s, which turned into a lake Goloviţa closed water under desalination. Lake communicate at North Lake Razim (free) and south of Lake Sinoe, through a system of locks. The area is part of the biosphere reserve Danube Delta .

18. Siutghiol lake Siutghiol is a lagoon in Northern Dobruja, Romania. It extends over 20 km² and has a maximum depth of 18 m. 191


Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE In winter, up to 90% of its surface may be covered by ice. The name of the lake comes from the Turkish Sütgöl, meaning "the milk lake".

19. Ovidiu Island Ovidiu is a town situated a few kilometres north of Constanța in Constanța County, south-eastern Romania. Ovidiu is quite small, with a population of around 12,000, and many wealthy inhabitants of Constanța retire there. In 1930, the town was renamed Ovidiu after the Roman poet Ovid (Latin: Ovidius). He was supposedly buried on a nearby small island (also called Ovidiu) in the Siutghiol Lake

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Bulgaria Seaside Tourism 1. Balchik The town's name comes from the Greek word "springs" as there are many karst healing waters. Later it was renamed Dionisopolis, named after the god of wine and joy Dionysus. After the Balkan War in 1913 is included within Romania. Struck by the beauty of nature here, Queen Maria built a palace and a botanical garden, a chapel and a whole complex of villas for Romanian aristocrats. Balchik gradually developed into the most modern resort of its time. After 1940 the city is part Bulgarian territory again. Besides the palace, the palace complex and the botanical garden - the biggest and most diverse on the Balkans. The palace complex consists of a central palace with a high tower, many buildings in a modern contemporary style, park and sea views and throne, where Queen Maria loved to sit. In the botanical garden there are more than 3,000 rare and exotic plants, as it is part of the facilities of Sofia University. The entire complex with the palace and the garden was called Tenha Yuva (Quiet Nest). Very interesting is the art gallery in the city, also there is located the local museum. There is also small ethnographic museum and a wonderful old church - "St. Nicholas". Very well-preserved is the Renaissance complex is the city with the old school. Touzlata area is located 4 km east of the city and is known for its healing mud. Here is built spa and wellness center.

2. Albena Albena is a popular Black Sea resort, located 32 km. north of Varna and only 12 km. southwest of Balchik on a long sand stretch in the open northern part of Varna Bay. The architecture of Albena represents one of the urban models of Walter Gropius, most hotels have a terraced structure designed to provide as many sunlight as it possible for visitors during the summer months. Near Albena is Obrochishte village with its well-preserved fortress dating back to Ottoman times. The coast between Albena and Kranevo is high and extremely picturesque with its steep rock formations.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 3. Kranevo Kranevo is a resort on the seaside, located in a sheltered bay 25 km. north of Varna. Great beach, clean sea, gradual sloped sea bottom and healing mineral water driven rapid growth of the village into a competitive tourist destination. The name of the resort comes from the ancient Roman fortress known as Ekrene or port Kraneia. Remains of Roman fortress that was used in the Middle Ages were found on the southern plateaus above the village. Relatively close to Kranevo is situated Aladzha Monastery. In the other direction is a town of Balchik with its beautiful palace and a botanical garden and river Kamchia.

4. Golden sands Golden Sands is the largest resort whit an area over 1800 hectares on the North Coast. Above Golden Sands is Frangensko plateau. This place is known as the area with the cleanest and smallest sand on the Black Sea The constant temperature and microclimate of Golden Sands - about 27 ° C throughout the season make it a wonderful place for recreation and entertainment. The complex has a mini golf course, carriages and car entertainment, water slides and an opportunity to practice all water sports with qualified instructors and relevant equipment. Golden Sands resort is surrounded on every side by lush vegetation, with numerous shrubs and trees in it, because of that resort looks like a real park. The mineral water that flows from several big pipes onto the beach and wonderful deciduous forest bordering Frangensko plateau, make Golden Sands one of the pearls of the Bulgarian coast.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 5. St. Constantine and St. Helen St. Constantine and St. Elena is the oldest resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea coast within a landscaped park 10 km north of downtown Varna. Landmarks

include

the

16th-century

Eastern

Orthodox monastery of Sts. Constantine and Helena, the Euxinograd royal summer palace, park and winery, and the Sofia University Botanical Garden, also known as Ecopark Varna. One of the best preserved medieval settlements in the country, Kastritzi, also mentioned by the Crusaders in 1444 as Macropolis, was unearthed in archaeological excavations inside Euxinograd. In the mid-14th century, Kastritzi was a bustling port of the Second Bulgarian Empire frequented by Venetian, Genoese, Ragusan, and Byzantine merchant ships. Constantine and Helena also comprises the Grand Hotel Varna and Sunny Day luxury resorts and several villa communities. There are sandy beaches, punctured by rocky promontories, hot mineral springs, modern hotels, and sports and health facilities, including spa centres and yacht marinas.

6. Varna Varna is the third largest city in Bulgaria, known as the sea capital of Bulgaria. The city is located in Varna Bay. The city's structure resembles an amphitheater as it follows the curve of Varna Bay. There is an airport in Varna.Varna is the age of about 1,000 years. Seaside Park is favorite place for visitors to Varna houses an amphitheater, observatory with planetarium tower, and numerous playgrounds. Dolphinarium is one of fravourite attractions for guests of the city, especially for children. Asparuhov bridge connects the city center with residential neighborhoods Asparuhovo and Galata. It is the longest bridge in Bulgaria and the fans of extreme experiences can try bungee jump from it.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 7. Burgas Burgas is the second largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. It is located in the deepest and most westerly part of the Burgas bay. Due to the low coast here, three lakes lagoons has been formed - Atanasovsko, Burgasko and Mandrensko. Burgas is located between the sea and the first two lakes, but today because of its expansion city nearly approaches and Mandrensko Lake. Historical Museum and Hall "Archeology" has got a large collection from old seaside colonies, artifacts and replicas of The Art Gallery was established in 1945 with facilities for foreign art, for masterpieces of Bulgarian artists and icons of Renaissance painters. Ethnographic museum contains an interesting collection of traditional kukers' masks. Natural History Museum contains many exhibits. Philharmonic, Opera, Drama Theater and the Puppet Theater give cultural image of the city. An interesting sight of Burgas is the Armenian Church, that was built in 1855 Atanasovsko Lake is 10 km long and it nesting ground for many marsh and sea birds, migrating from Gibraltar and the Bosphorus. Part of the lake is a biosphere reserve. There are overgrown with cattail and reed areas, places for fishing, bathing and recreation. Burgasko Lake is nesting ground for pelicans, ibises and herons. Mandrensko Lake located 10 km south of the city is also an important ornithological reserve. St. Anastasia Island is three nautical miles east of the city. There is well-preserved old church. Salt mines of Burgas, are bordering Burgasko Lake and Atanasovsko Lake. Burgas Mineral Baths are located 13 kilometers northwest of the city, in the ruins of the old Roman city Aetos built around mineral springs.There is a healing mud and SPA resort.

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8. Pomorie Pomorie is situated on a narrow and rocky peninsula, bordered by the sea on one side and by the Pomorie Lake on the other. The town is located 18 km. north of Burgas and about the same distance south of Nessebar. The city remains known as a salt-mining center, also developed in grownig fruits and vegetables, that hence the tradition of Pomorie in winemaking and production of canned foods. The city attracts tourists with its sanatorium for mud healing, built about two kilometers from the town on the Pomorie lake shore. The healing properties of the mud of the lake was found in the 3-4 th c. BC. The mud eases bone and muscular disorders, radiculitis, rheumatism, sciatica, lumbago, herniated disc, etc. Pomorie monastery "St. Georgi Pobedonosetz", located in the center of the city, that was build in the 17th century, keeps a stone bas-relief of St. George.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 9. Aheloy Aheloy is a village, it is situated about 7 km. southwest of Nessebar, near the main road to Burgas, at the mouth of the Aheloy River. Near Aheloy is the village Ravda, which in recent years has grown as a resort.

10. Lozenets

Lozenets is located south of Cape Ambelitz (Lozenets), 65 km. south of Burgas at the foot of gradually increasing mountains of Strandzha. Strandja has a specific climate formed under the influence of three seas: Black, Marmara and Aegean and under the influence of the Mediterranean. Mountains and the sea gradually gave heat. Regular development, plan as a square, reminiscent of the villa zones of contemporary European suburbs: 2-3-storied private houses, many hotels, restaurants and entertainment venues. One kilometer north of Lozenets, on the outskirts of the nature reserve “Swamp snowdrop” is located Oasis camp and 3 km. West from there, in the village of Velika, opened a beautiful botanical garden.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 11. Rusalka The Black Sea resort Rusalka is located in the unique natural reserve "Bird Bay" north of the cape Kaliakra. Holiday Village "Rusalka" was founded in 1968

on

the

French

model

of

the

"Club

Mediterraneo".The resort is known for exotic beauty of its coastline. Extremely beautiful curved rocky coast, small secluded sandy beaches, centuries old oaks and other plant species attract millions of birds and become "Bird Bay" an oasis of untouched nature for centuries. On the outskirts of the resort has mineral springs with temperatures 32 degrees. Numerous archaeological monuments, the oldest of which date back 8000 years, becoming the coast of "Rusalka" in a unique archaeological reserve. The resort provides opportunities to practice different sports. Fifteen tennis courts attract amateurs and professionals. Sports facilities include volleyball and mini football pitches, gym, table tennis. The complex offers horse riding and diving school.

12. Chernomorets Chernomorets is located about 25 km. south of Burgas and 5 km. north of Sozopol. The city was built in a small bay between cape Accra and cape TALASAKRA. The rocky coast provides good opportunities for swimming, sunbathing and fishing. One of the things that make a nice impression in Chernomorets is the presence of many flowers and shrubs. Oldest church in town, stone formations in the north represent serious interest. Further south along the coast is the picturesque ancient town of Sozopol, in which more than 45 old houses have been declared cultural monuments. For camping fans accommodations are available in nearby ”Garden” and “Goldfish” campgrounds located south on the road to Sozopol. 200


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 13. Sozopol Sozopol is situated 31 km southeast of Burgas, situated on a small rocky peninsula in the southern part of the Burgas Bay. Hundred-meter long strip of land connects the mainland with the old part of town. It`s just wooden houses built in, and the oldest specimens of which can be seen today in its unique old streets. Tucked among the rocks south of the city is Paradise Beach, and further south - Kavatsite. Harmanite Beach is immediately south of the "new" city. In 1993 there was discovered an ancient necropolis and excavations continue nowadays. Interesting place to visit is the archaeological museum and the art gallery. There at the beginning of September each year is held the largest international arts festival "Apollonia".

14. Primorsko Primorsko is a climate resort and a center of youth tourism that is located 52 km south of Burgas. It is situated on a cape promontory jutting out between Stomoplo Bay and Devil's Bay. Old Turkish village was called Chenger. At about 3 km. north of Primorsko is situated the ancient Thracian sanctuary Beglik Tash. Popular attractions nearby is the nature reserve Ropotamo, known for its dense forests and tropical vegetation.

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16. Kiten Kiten it is situated on the small Urdoviza peninsula, near the mouth of the Kiten River, and has two beaches: Atliman and Urdoviza. Kiten was founded in 1931 by 30 families of Bulgarian refugees from Eastern Thrace who resettled there from the newly founded refugee village of Fazanovo. However, the area has roots from Antiquity, as amphoras from the 6th century BC were found on the south beach (Urdoviza). Kiten was declared a national resort in 1962, and since 1981 it had been administratively a quarter of nearby Primorsko.

17. Nesebar Nesebar is an ancient town and one of the major seaside resorts on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, located in Burgas Province. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous Nesebar Municipality. Often referred to as the "Pearl of the Black Sea", Nesebar is a rich city-museum defined by more than three millennia of ever-changing history. 202


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Nesebar has on several occasions found itself on the frontier of a threatened empire, and as such it is a town with a rich history. The ancient part of the town is situated on a peninsula (previously an island) connected to the mainland by a narrow man-made isthmus, and it bears evidence of occupation by a variety of different civilisations over the course of its existence. Its abundance of historic buildings prompted UNESCO to include Nesebar in its list of World Heritage Sites in 1983. 18. Slanchev bryag Slanchev Bryag is a major seaside resort on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, located approximately 35 km north of Burgas in Nessebar municipality, Burgas Province. The resort's construction began back in Communist times, in 1958. Construction work began at a site where there were two old wells that supplied Nessebar with water in ancient times and during the Middle Ages. Attractions for tourists include the beach, water sports, and the nearby historic site of Nessebar. There are two water parks near the resort. The Decade of Symphonic Music, part of the International Folklore Festival, fashion shows, and various beach competitions are held in Sunny Beach.

19. Kamchiya Kamchia river estuary is one of the most beautiful places on the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. The resort situated there, is located 34 km south of Varna. The area is characterized by its endless beaches. Nowadays built complex is divided into two parts by the river mouth - Kamchia north and Kamchia south. Descending from the mountain, it winds 203


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE through the wooded area Longosa. There is over 40 species of beautiful trees and many shrubs in the woods, ferns, reeds and yellow water lilies is growing. On the left bank Romans built a fort Erite. Today Kamchia`s spill is reserve protected by UNESCO. In the reserve can met roes, deer, sea hawks and eagles, wild boars, wild cats and so on. Further south there is a wide bay with the masonry fountain anchored by Cape Black and across the bay the limestone cliffs of the Cape White can be seen.

16. Sinemorets Sinemorets is a fast growing resort, situated 6 km. south of the town of Ahtopol. There are two beautiful beaches in the territory of the village. The north is a narrow strip of sand bordering the mouth of the river Veleka. The south beach of the village is wider, located to the sharp rocks and is known as a Butamiata. The village is part of the border area due to its proximity to the Bulgarian-Turkish border. Gradually, the village developed into a modern resort. Sinemorets lies at the foot of Mount Strandzha, in the middle of a nature reserve and protected area, which in itself makes it attractive for environmentalists. A few kilometers to the south on the road to Rezovo lays beautiful beach Silistar. The beach is preferred by families because it`s quiet, with excellent sand, crystal clear waters. The waters near the rocks along the edges of the beach offer amateur and professional divers great views of the marine fauna.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Italy Seaside Tourism 1. Rimini Rimini is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy and capital city of the Province of Rimini. It is located on the Adriatic Sea, on the coast between the rivers Marecchia and Ausa. It is one of the most famous seaside resorts in Europe, thanks to its 15kilometre-long sandy beach, over 1,000 hotels, and thousands of bars, restaurants and discos. An art city with ancient Roman and Renaissance monuments. Founded by the Romans in 268 BC, throughout their period of rule Rimini was a key communications link between the north and south of the peninsula, and on its soil Roman emperors erected monuments like the Arch of Augustus and the Tiberius Bridge.

2. Amalfi Amalfi is a town and comune in the province of Salerno, in the region of Campania, Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno. It lies at the mouth of a deep ravine, at the foot of Monte Cerreto (1,315 metres, 4,314 feet), surrounded by dramatic cliffs and coastal scenery. The town of Amalfi was the capital of the maritime republic known as the Duchy of Amalfi, an important trading power in the Mediterranean between 839 and around 1200. In the 1920s and 1930s, Amalfi was a popular holiday destination for the British upper class and aristocracy. Amalfi is the main town of the coast on which it is located, named Costiera Amalfitana (Amalfi Coast), and is today an important tourist destination together with other towns on the same coast, such as Positano, Ravello and others. Amalfi is included in the UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

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3. Bari

Bari is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Bari and of the Apulia region, on the Adriatic Sea, in Italy. It is the second most important economic centre of mainland Southern Italy after Naples, and is well known as a port and university city, as well as the city of Saint Nicholas. Bari is made up of four different urban sections. To the north is the closely built old town on the peninsula between two modern harbours, with the Basilica of Saint Nicholas, the Cathedral of San Sabino (1035–1171) and the Hohenstaufen Castle built for Frederick II, which is now also a major nightlife district. To the south is the Murat quarter (erected by Joachim Murat), the modern heart of the city, which is laid out on a rectangular grid-plan with a promenade on the sea and the major shopping district (the via Sparano and via Argiro).

4. Bibione Bibione ( Bibion in Veneto and Friuli ) is a fraction of the municipality of San Michele al Tagliamento . Its territory includes the second beach in Italy for number of appearances after Rimini. In 1956 they began the first work to transform Bibione in tourist area. The creation of the first hotels and shops will bring the island to the right of the Tagliamento, over 50 years, becoming an excellent family resort.

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5. Cagliari Cagliari is an Italian municipality and the capital of the island of Sardinia, an autonomous region of Italy. Cagliari's Sardinian name Casteddu literally means castle. Cagliari is the 26th largest city in Italy and the largest city on the island of Sardinia. An ancient city with a long history, Cagliari has seen the rule of several civilisations. Historical sites include the prehistoric Domus de Janas, very damaged by cave activity, a large Carthaginian era necropolis, a Roman era amphitheatre, a Byzantine basilica, three Pisan-era towers and a strong system of fortification that made the town the core of Spanish Habsburg imperial power in the western Mediterranean Sea. Its natural resources have always been its sheltered harbour, the often powerfully fortified hill of Castel di Castro, the modern Casteddu, the salt from its lagoons, and, from the hinterland, wheat from the Campidano plain and silver and other ores from the Iglesiente mines. Cagliari was the capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia from 1324 to 1848, when Turin became the formal capital of the kingdom (which in 1861 became the Kingdom of Italy). Today the city is a regional cultural, educational, political and artistic centre, known for its diverse Art Nouveau architecture and several monuments.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 6. Gallipoli

Gallipoli (Greek: Kallipolis (Καλλίπολις), meaning "Beautiful City"; Sicilian: Caḍḍìpuli) is a southern Italian town and comune in the province of Lecce, in Apulia. The Civic Museum of the Messapi, inaugurated in 1982, is a national monument of Italy. It houses remains from Messapic necropolises outside Alezio (4th-3rd centuries BC).

The Sanctuary of Santa Maria della Lizza, usually considered to be built in the 12th-13th centuries, although remains of a Byzantine-style fresco could date its foundation to some two centuries before. The remains of the frescoes, which once covered the whole interior, spaJump up.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 7. Aeolian Islands The Aeolian Islands are a volcanic archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea north of Sicily, named after the demigod of the winds Aeolus. The islands' inhabitants are known as Aeolians (Italian: Eoliani). The Aeolian Islands are a popular tourist destination in the summer and attract up to 200,000 visitors annually. The largest island is Lipari and the islands are sometimes referred to as the Lipari Islands or Lipari group. The other islands include Vulcano, Salina, Stromboli, Filicudi, Alicudi, Panarea and Basiluzzo. The present shape of the Aeolian Islands is the result of volcanic activity over a period of 260,000 years. There are two active volcanoes – Stromboli and Vulcano.The volcanic activity of steaming fumaroles and thermal waters are on most of the islands. The volcanic activity has also left the islands with very fertile soil that is conductive to the growth of natural flora.

8. Jesolo Jesolo (or Iesolo) is a seaside resort town and comune in the province of Venice, Italy. The town lies north of Venice, between Eraclea and CavallinoTreporti. Jesolo gives its name to a lagoon of 22 square kilometres on the Adriatic Sea between the rivers Sile and Piave. The urbanized area lies on an island of sorts, delimited by the rivers Piave (on the east) and Sile (on the west), and an artificial canal called Cavetta. In Roman times the lagoon extended over the area now occupied by the town. There were several islands in the lagoon, the biggest of which was known as Equilium, the place of horses. It is thought that Jesolo represents a corruption of this name. Jesolo is a seaside resort with abundant holiday facilities and its 15-kilometre beach called Lido di Jesolo.

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9. Lignano Sabbiadoro Lignano Sabbiadoro is a town and comune within the province of Udine, in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of north-eastern Italy. It is one of the main summer resorts in northern Italy and on the Adriatic Sea coast. The name Sabbiadoro ("Golden Sand") was added in 1935 for promotional reasons. Formerly known as simply Lignano, it is divided into three zones, each with its own particular traits: the historic centre, rife with shops and restaurants (Lignano Sabbiadoro itself); the greener area of Lignano Pineta, with lovely gardens and lanes for strolling; and Lignano Riviera, the waterfront, rich in salty sea air and coastal pines.

10. Positano Positano is a village and comune on the Amalfi Coast (Costiera Amalfitana), in Campania, Italy, mainly in an enclave in the hills leading down to the coast. The beach of Positano. The church of Santa Maria Assunta features a dome made of majolica tiles as well as a thirteenth-century Byzantine icon of a black Madonna.

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11. Riccione Riccione is a comune in the Province of Rimini, Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy. The oldest archaeological findings in Riccione's area date to the 2nd century BC, although it was most likely settled in advance. Since the 1930s Riccione gained the status of a main destination of summer tourism on the Adriatic riviera of Romagna, and, together with Rimini, is one of the best known seaside resorts in Northern Italy. Every two years, a festival called the Festival Del Sol takes place.

12. San Vito Lo Capo San Vito Lo Capo is a town and comune in North-Western Sicily, Italy, administratively part of the province of Trapani. The small town is located in a valley between spectacular mountains, and is home to a public beach popular with local vacationers. The town's primary industries are tourism and agriculture, particularly olive groves owned by small farmers. The town's eastern border is provided by a small range of mountains, the northernmost of which is peaked by a large cross visible from the public beach below. The mountain is popular with 211


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE local climbers, and a logbook is provided at the cross for climbers to record their adventures. The mountain is also home to numerous caves, most of which are inaccessible without professional climbing gear.

13. Santa Teresa Gallura

Santa Teresa Gallura is a town on the northern tip of Sardinia, on the Strait of Bonifacio, in the province of Sassari, Italy. The southern coast of Corsica can be seen from the beach. The main town square has various tourist shops and restaurants. Immediately to the north of the town is Rena Bianca, Santa Teresa's beach. In the summer this beach is almost always crowded, and the water is generally warm.

14. Sant'Agata di Militello Sant'Agata di Militello (Sicilian: Sant'Ă€ita di Militieddu) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Messina in the Italian region Sicily, located about 120 kilometres (75 mi) east of Palermo and about 80 kilometres Sant'Agata di Militello borders the following municipalities: Acquedolci, Militello Rosmarino, San Fratello, Torrenova.

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15. Sorrento

Sorrento is a town overlooking the Bay of Naples in Southern Italy. A popular tourist destination, it can be reached easily from Naples and Pompeii as it is at the south-eastern end of the Circumvesuviana rail line. The Sorrentine Peninsula has views of Naples, Vesuvius and the Isle of Capri. The Amalfi Drive, connecting Sorrento and Amalfi, is a narrow road that threads along the high cliffs above the Tyrrhenian Sea. Ferries and hydrofoils connect the town to Naples, Amalfi, Positano, Capri and Ischia. Sorrento's sea cliffs and luxury hotels have attracted celebrities including Enrico Caruso and Luciano Pavarotti.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 16. Sottomarina Sottomarina is an Italian town of Roman origin. It is a frazione, and nowadays quarter, of the comune of Chioggia, which is part of the province of Venice in the Veneto region of northern Italy. Like Venice and along with the rest of Chioggia, it is an island intersected by canals, and it has bridges to bring the island together. The island is 5 km by 300 meters in size. Sottomarina was known as Clodia minor in the 7th century AD. The hamlet was governed by a tribune, and was connected to Chioggia by a stone bridge.

17. Sperlonga Sperlonga is a coastal town in the province of Latina, Italy, about halfway between Rome and Naples. Located near the Via Appia, but also on the edge of the Pontine Marshes, Roman "Spelunca" (Latin for cave or grotto) was only known for the grotto on the coast, after which it was named. A later Republican villa was probably later owned by the emperor Tiberius, including the grotto. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, in the 6th century, the ruins of the imperial residence served as refuge for local people. Later the population began to move to the nearby promontory of St. Magnus, in order to escape the unhealthy marshes and the Saracen attacks. In the 18th and 19th centuries Sperlonga recovered and acquired some noble residences, and agriculture flourished. However, the touristic expansion occurred only after the opening of the TerracinaGaeta coastal road (also known as the Via Flacca) in 1957, the building of which led to the discovery of the sculptures in the grotto. Sperlonga's main cultural attraction is the museum erected in the grounds of the former Villa of Tiberius showing the groups of sculpture found in the grotto celebrating the deeds of Odysseus. The most ancient church is that of Santa Maria (early 12th century), currently used for cultural events and spectacles: it is home to some mediaeval mosaics discovered during the last restorations. Sperlonga is mostly a tourist town thanks to its beaches, a long beach on its west side going all the way to Terracina, and a series of short beaches and rocky cliffs on its east side towards Gaeta.

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18. Taormina Taormina is a small city and comune in the Metropolitan City of Messina on the east coast of the island of Sicily, Italy, midway between Messina and Catania. Taormina has been a tourist destination since the 19th century. Its beaches, the most famous being 'Isola Bella' are accessible via an aerial tramway built in 1992 on the Ionian sea and via highways from Messina in the north and Catania in the south.

19. Villaputzu Villaputzu, Bidda de Putzi or Biddeputzi in Sardinian language is a municipality in the Province of South Sardinia in the Italian region and island of Sardinia, located about 45 kilometres (28 mi) northeast of the Sardinian capital Cagliari. It is located in a short plain at the mouth of the Flumendosa river, next to the Sarrabus hill. The village of Villaputzu is a part of the historic region of Sarrabus, whose municipalities are Villaputzu, Muravera, San Vito and Castiadas.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 20. Villasimius Villasimius, Crabonaxa in Sardinian language, is a comune (municipality) in the Province of South Sardinia in the Italian region Sardinia, located about 35 kilometres (22 mi) east of Cagliari. In 1998 the Capo Carbonara National Marine Park was created. It encompasses all the waters surrounding the headlands in the eastern Gulf of Cagliari, from Villasimius' western border with Solanas, to its northern border with Castiadas.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE MOUNTAIN TOURISM IN TURKEY A glance at a topographical map of Turkey reveals that this is a country of mountains. Rising from all four directions, mountains encircle the peninsula of Anatolia. A part of the AlpineHimalayan Mountain range, Turkey has mountainous regions with different geological formations. The North Anatolian range skirts the Mediterranean shore. Turkey's mountains and forests are mostly undeveloped, existing as wonderful natural preserves for an extraordinary variety of wild life, flora and fauna. Two of Turkey's most famous peaks are volcanoes, both inactive, Mt. Erciyes in Kayseri in Central Anatolia (3917 m) and Mt. Agri; (Mt. Ararat 5137 m) in the east. Other mountain ranges are the Rize Kackar (3932 m) in the eastern Black Sea region, Nigde Aladag; (3756 m) in the central Taurus range and the Cilo and Sat mountains (4136 m) near Hakkari in the eastern Taurus. The mountainous nature of the country has influenced its cultural evolution. For centuries, nomads and semi nomadic peoples have moved yearly to the fresh pastures of the higher elevations in the summer. These alpine meadows, called "yayla", house nomadic people whose traditional culture is still preserved. For climbers and those interested in the geography of mountains, Turkey offers a wealth of exploration. Glaciers, volcanoes, and peculiar geological formations such as karst prove irresistible to researchers and students of the geology. The challenging terrain offers opportunities to aficionados of outdoor sports, who find 1. The Great Mount of Agri

(Ararat, 5137m)

Mount Ararat is standing the near the cities of Agri and Igdir, at the borders of Turkey and Iran, Mount Agri is an inactive volcano capped year round with ice and snow and rises to 5137 meters. The Old Testament records that it was on this mountain that Noah's Ark came to rest after the great flood. Southwest of the mountain, the Little Mount Agri (Ararat) reaches up to 3896 meters; the Serdarbulak lava plateau (2600 m) stretches out between the two pinnacles. Climbing the spectacular Agri is a challenging and rewarding experience. In the summer, the weather in the area and on Mount Agri is sunny, warm and dry. However, in the winter and spring, cold and harsh conditions prevail, and mountain climbers occasionally face blizzards and turbulent weather. July, August, and September are the

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE months when most world mountain climbers come to the area. Climbing up Agri is most enjoyable during this period. However, despite the usual sunny and clear weather at that time of year, high altitude mountain weather swirls around above 3000 meters. The southern side of the mountain offers the easiest and safest climb to the summit. With this route one has access to the best route communication and transportation facilities and it is safe. It is not recommended nor permitted to climb Mount Agri alone and without a guide. The Trabzon - Erzurum - Iran International Transit Highway, an asphalt road skirts the western and southern flanks of Agri before leading into Iran. Dogubeyazit, 270 km from Erzurum and nearby Igdir, the two closest towns to the mountain, are located on this route. Planes, trains, and buses connect Erzurum with Ankara. The area surrounding Mount Agri has retained its natural beauty. The local population still engages in a traditional life styles. In the summer months the villagers move to the "yayla", the summer pastures, to find fresh grazing for their herds of sheep, goats, cattle and horses. Women continue to weave carpets and kilims in time honored designs; Village of Ortulu is particularly renowned as a center of beautiful handicrafts. Other nearby tourist attractions include the Ishakpasha Palace, a fabulous 18th century castle of a local ruler, and the meteor hole near the Iranian border. Mount Agri (Ararat) became 35th National Park of Turkey with the decision of the Parliament on 1st of November, 2004. 2. The Cilo-Sat Mountain Range (4136m)

The

Cilo-Sat

southeastern

mountains,

Hakkari

within

province

are

the the

eastern extension of the Toros (Taurus) mountain chain which stretches from west to east along Turkey's southern boundaries. The mountain range forms the western section of the Himalayan mountain belt. At 4136 meters, the Uludoruk summit is the highest in the Cilo mountains; Catalkaya (Samdi), which rises to 3794 meters crowns the Sat mountains. Resembling the Alps both in general appearance and glacier topography, the Cilo-Sat mountains are the areas in Turkey most affected by glaciers. The high altitudes of the mountains testify to the effects of glacial formation and water erosion. Of the ten differently

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE shaped glaciers, the largest, Izbirak, measures five kilometers in length, 500-600 meters in width. It reaches up to 100 meters in depth. A wide arid expanse stretches across the southern base of the mountain range. The highlands, in contrast, receive plentiful precipitation during the winter months. In between crests and summits, fertile green valleys dotted with rural settlements, enjoy a temperate climate that makes them ideal for wine and fruit agriculture. Above the low valleys, alpine meadows blanket the mountain slopes at altitudes between 2000 and 3100 meters. Herds of domestic animals, the raising of which makes up the primary economic activity of the region, graze on these pastures. Arduous and elevated summits, high glaciers, glacial rivers and fast moving streams combine to make the Cilo-Sat mountains both a fascinating geographic and geological site of worldwide importance and a national park of spectacular beauty. The best time for summer excursions is during June, July, August and September. For winter climbing February and March are the most suitable months. To reach the Cilo-Sat mountains, travel to Van from Ankara by road, rail, or air and then follow the 245 km long highway to Hakkari. Serpil village offers one route for an ascent of Uludoruk.

A vast plateau, "yayla" culture has evolved on the Cilo and Sat mountains, and the summer migration of the colorfully clad local population to the high grazing pastures is a memorable event. Mountain glaciers and swiftly running rivers alive with fish and beautiful glacier lakes are a few of the area's natural wonders.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 3. The Kackar Mountains In the rainy and lush landscapes of northeastern Turkey, the Kackar mountains form the northern section of the Anatolian mountain chain. The Kackar - Kavron summit, at an altitude of 3932 meters, is the highest point in the range. Extensive glacier and water erosion have given these mountains their craggy, rugged look, and they are known for the complexity and power of the streams and rivers which rush down to the lower altitudes. In fact, this range is the third most important glacial region in Turkey following the Agri (Ararat) and Cilo-Sat mountains. The geological and mountaineering aspects of the Kackars contribute to their importance in Turkey's economy and tourism. The region enjoys an almost sub-tropical climate of temperate yet rainy weather with an average temperature of 14 Celcius. The lowest temperature, 7 Celcius, fall in the month of January while August sees the hottest days reaching a maximum recorded temperature of 22.6 Celcius. The Kackars rise in between the shores of the Black Sea to the north and the River Coruh valley to the south. On the northern flank, a good variety of vegetation flourishes in the rainy climate. Up to 500 meters above sea level, tea plantations and citrus orchards cover the hillsides. Chestnut, hornbeam, beech and other large leafed trees forest the slopes to 750 meters. Between 750-1500 meters of elevation, pines mix in with the large leafed trees forest the slopes to 750 meters. Between 750-1500 meters of elevation, pines mix in with the large leafed trees until gradually they remain the only species of tree from 1500-2000 meters. Alpine meadows and other grassy vegetation covers the ground above 2100 meters. On the southern faces of the Kackars, which receive strong sunshine and less precipitation, the agriculture is based on the cultivation of fruits and vines. As on the north side in the higher elevations, meadows of wild flowers and grass blanket the slopes up to 2300 meters. The Altiparmak, Kavron, Varsamba mountains are the principal peaks of the Kackars. Both the north and south faces of the Altiparmak and Kavron can be scaled but Varsamba should only be attempted from the north face. It is imperative to use a local guide when climbing the Kackars.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 4. The Toros (Taurus) Mountains

The Toros Mountains are the western most branch of the great mountain chain that stretches across all of Asia - the Himalayan mountain belt. The Turkish section of this massive mountain range follows the southern border of Anatolia and it is made up of four major sections, the Western, Central, Southern and Southeastern Toros ranges. The highest peaks rises out of the Central and Southeastern branches, a stretch of mountains which are rugged, magnificent and arduous to climb. Forming part of the Central Toros range, the Aladaglar range runs from the southwest to the northeast for approximately 50 kilometers. It is between 25 and 30 kilometers wide and boasts the region's highest peak, Demirkazik which stretches to 3756 meters. Other high summits include Kizilkaya in the center (3725 m), a peak that reaches 3688 meters in the south and Mount Vayvay in the East (3565m). The long range is situated in the provinces of Nigde and Adana and rises between Lake Ecemis and the Zamanti river. The geological formation of the area is responsible for the interesting rock formations and waterfalls. The erosion of limestone has created a fascinating karstic topography and hydrography, especially in the Yedigoller valley, where karstic underground rivers and caverns collect the surface water. Both the Mediterranean and Anatolian weather systems influence the climate of the Aladaglar bringing warm summers and cool winters to the mountains. The best season to climb the mountains is during June, July and August when the alpine meadows of higher elevations are rich in vegetation. Researchers and mountaineers ascending the Aladaglar usually begin their climb from either Camardi or Cukurbag villages. Those attempting to climb the Demirkazik summit depart from Demirkazik village. Both of these village lie 65 km from Nigde and can be reached by an asphalt road. The plateau, "yayla" of the Toros Aladag are the summer homes of entire villages and the summer grazing of herds of animals. Be sure to see the gathering in of all the animals for 222


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE milking. Traditionally women of these encampment have produced some of Turkey's most beautiful carpets and kilims, and it is often possible to see a carpet still in progress.

5. Mount Erciyes (3917m) One of Turkey's most important mountaineering and winter sports centers, Mount Erciyes, rises from the south of the Kayseri valley. The Sultan Marshes lie to its west and to the south falls the Develi valley. Its summit always covered with snow and ice, Mt. Erciyes ranks as central Anatolia's tallest volcano. Approximately 18 kilometers in diameter and covering an area of 1000 square kilometers, the mountain's stratification and geology make it a fascinating geographical formation. The region's climate, influenced by that of the Anatolian plateau is typical steppe. Winter brings considerable snowfall to higher elevations. The northern side of the mountain enjoys a more temperate climate encouraging the cultivation of vast areas of vine and fruit orchards between 1100 and 1600 meters. Above that altitude, expanses of meadows stretch far into the distance. The higher elevations display typical alpine vegetation. Herds of animals graze year round on the east, north and west slopes of the mountain. Mountaineers attempt Mt. Erciyes either on the northwestern flank or from the south and find the best climbing in June, July, August and September. Tourists visiting the area should also see the fantastic rock formations, underground cities and fabulous frescoes in rock carved churches in neighboring Cappadocia. The Sultan Marshes, a habitat for many different species of birds, has been fortunately designated a national park and wildlife preserve.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 6. Mount Nemrut (3050m) In fact, Turkey can boast of two peaks called Nemrut. The one near Adiyaman in the southeast is primarily of historical and archaeological interest, home for over 2000 years to the colossal stone heads of King Antiochus I and classical deities. The other mount Nemrut in in eastern Anatolia, the more interesting of the two peaks, is well known for its geological formation and for mountaineering purposes. An inactive volcano, Mt. Nemrut nearby Tatvan ascends to 3050 m. It is located within the process of Bitlis, rising from the southwestern shore of Lake Van, and entering the district of Ahlat to the north. Mt. Nemrut is the most southern and youngest of the chain of volcanoes in the eastern Anatolia. A strato type volcano, Mt. Nemrut began erupting during the fourth geological era and continued to be active until 1441 A.D. As a result of the volcanic eruptions of Mt. Nemrut, the single Van - Mus rivers basin was divided into two separate basins. Treks up Mt. Nemrut begin on the mountain's southeastern flank at Tatvan. Climbers reach the south or southeastern side of the crater after an easy hike for 4-5 hours. Those who reach this point have the rare chance to see the wondrous crater of this inactive volcano. For those who find the climb to the crater too strenuous, four-wheel drive vehicles can reach the summit from either Ahlat or Tatvan. Mt. Nemrut is bare of vegetation, except in the south which has oak groves and birch trees. Summer (June - September) is the best season for expeditions in Mt. Nemrut. Hikers who climb to the crater and summit from the southeast or eastern face of the mountain are rewarded with wonderful views of Lake Van. 7. Mount Suphan (4058m) Mount Suphan, a magnificent dormant volcano rises from the north-west shores of Lake Van. Throughout the winter, snow falls on Suphan reaching three to four meters. The mountain's steep slopes and snow blanket combine to 224


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE make it a good location for "Heli-skiing", using helicopters to drop you off on the slopes for an adventure of high mountain skiing. The easily accessible southern and eastern flanks of Suphan are the preferred faces for ascending the mountain; they both offer spectacular views. To climb from the eastern flank take the coast road that circles Lake Van. In the stretch between Adilcevaz and Ercis, turn north to Aydinlar village. From there you continue on to Kicgilli, village where you engage a guide to lead you in your ascent. The climb from the south begins at the village of Harmantepe.

8. The Beydaglari Mountains The western branch of the Toros (Taurus) mountains, the Beydaglari range, is located in the province of Antalya. The crest of the range parallels the northsouth line of the western shore of the Gulf of Antalya. The crest of the range parallels the northsouth line of the western shore of the Gulf of Antalya. With altitudes ranging between 600 and 3086 meters, these mountains offer geologists and geographers many peculiar morphological characteristics. Tekedorugu, Bakirlidag, Tahtalidag and Kizlarsivrisi summits are particularly remarkable. The highest peak in the mountains is Mt. Kizlarsivrisi (3086 m). Climbers reach the peak through the cedar forested Camcukuru valley. The best way to get to the valley is by road inland from Antalya to Elmali. Antalya, of course, can be reached from Izmir, Istanbul and Ankara by land, air and sea routes. Mount Tahtali, west of Kemer, offers another interesting ascent. Rising to an elevation of 2360 meters, pine and deciduous forests cover the slopes up to an altitude of 2000 meters. Bare meadows stretch to the summit. The climb up Mt. Tahtali begins at Sogukpinar, a short drive from Kemer. From there both walking and climbing bring you to a place for camping. The final ascent is carried out on the flank facing the coast and offers a spectacular and everchanging view. There is also a newly-built long cable car bringing people directly to the summit in about 12 minutes. It's planned to build a ski track on Mt. Tahtali in the near future. Although it is possible to organize trips to Beydaglari all year round, April, May and June offer both a temperate climate and a chance to experience the rich vegetation in the region.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 9. The Bolkar Mountains (3524m) Continuing the line of summits in a southeastern direction, the Bolkar Mountains are bounded by the River Goksu to the west and the River Pozanti to the east. The northern part of the mountains lies in Nigde province, while the southern peaks rise in Mersin province. These mountains exhibit interesting geological characteristics. Made of sedimentary material such as limestone and dolomites, the range reveals excellent examples of nappies, or folds in the layers of rocks. There are vast formations of karst as well as landscapes that reveal the effects of glacier and water erosion. Despite this erosion, no water network has developed on the mountains. Because of the sedimentary nature of rocks, water is absorbed underground creating large areas of karst, such as Pozanti and Sekerpinari. The highest peaks of the Bolkar are: Medetsiz (3524 m), Kesifdagi (3475 m), Koyunasagi (3426 m), Tahtakaya (3372 m) and Egerkaya (3347 m). The north flank receives the most exposure to snow and glacier formation; it is nevertheless the best route for an ascent to the highest summits of the Bolkar. 10. The Munzur Mountains The northeastern extension of the central Toros (Taurus) range, the Munzur range straddles both the Tunceli and Erzincan provinces. Mt. Akbaba, at 3462 meters, is the highest summit in the Mercandagi range. The limestone geological formation of these mountains creates a rugged profile. Erzincan, a major city north of the mountain range and accessible by air, rail and road, is the base from which an ascent on the northern face can be attempted. Those wishing to climb the mountain from the south begin their trek at Ovacik in the middle of the Munzur mountains. Climbers entering from this point can reach the highest summits of the Munzur. Ovacik lies 70 kilometers away from Erzincan and is accessible by a road which follows the banks of the Munzur valley. The River Munzur which rushes through a national park tempts tourists with fresh fish and beautiful mountain scenery. 226


Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Mountain Tourism In Romania 1. Red Lake

Located in a picturesque area and surrounded by tall mountains, Lacul Rosu ("the Red Lake") is the only natural accumulation alpine lake in Romania, as well as one of the most beautiful. The Red lake is also known as “the Killer Lake”, partly because of the reddish, blood-like color lent by the sediments carried by the river supplying it with water, and partly due to the legend saying that, at the time the mountain collapsed and formed the dam, a shepherd, and his sheep were caught underneath. The forest caught at the bottom of the lake remained standing and became petrified over time so that today the black spruce trunks jutting out of the water look like tombstones.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 2. Saint Anne Lake

Saint Anne Lake is located in the Carpathian Mountains in the East-central part of Romania. It is the only volcanic lake in the country. Its charm for tourists has the roots into the legends surrounding this place, the beautiful landscape, the healing properties and into the fact that it is also a great place to get in touch with nature and relax. This lake formed in a volcano crater at a 946 meters hight and it is around 7 meters deep. The Carpathian volcano erupted about 32.000 years ago. In this area, there were two craters of lava. After the last eruption, one became the Saint Anne Lake and the other become some sort of volcanic swamp. The Lake has no link to any other source of water. All the water in the lake comes from rain. All the water from the mountains around accumulated into this crater hole and created this impressive lake. The water is really pure, only 0.0029 ml minerals, which is close to the values of distilled water. This phenomenon can be explained by the presence of gasses that rise from under the lake as a still going effect of the last eruption. There is no oxygen in the water of the lake, which is why there are no living creatures in the lake.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 3. Bâlea Lake

Balea Lake is a glacier lake situated at 2,034 meters of altitude in the Fagaras Mountains, in central area of Romania. The lake is only about 11 meters deep and 360 meters long.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 4. Transfăgărășan The Transfăgărășan is a paved mountain road crossing the southern section of the Carpathian Mountains of Romania. It has national-road ranking and is the second-highest paved road in the country after the Transalpina. It starts near the village of Bascov, near Pitești, and stretches 90 kilometres to the crossroad between the DN1 and Sibiu, between the highest peaks in the country, Moldoveanu and Negoiu. The road, built in the early 1970s as a strategic military route, connects the historic regions of Transylvania and Wallachia. The road climbs to an altitude of 2,042 metres, making it the second highest mountain pass in Romania after the Transalpina. It is a winding road, dotted with steep hairpin turns, long S-curves, and sharp descents. The road also provides access to Bâlea Lake and Bâlea Waterfall.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 5. Sfinxul and Babele Babele (meaning The old women) is a name for an area on the Bucegi Mountains plateau in Romania, within the Southern Carpathians. Babele is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the country. The name comes from some mushroom shaped rock formations, the result of erosion and varying hardness of the rock layers. The Bucegi Sphinx is another rock formation in the same area, named for its sphinx-like appearance. It is located at an altitude of 2,216 metres within the Babele complex of rock formations. The Babele chalet is accessible either by cable car from Buşteni or by road. It can also be reached by foot, coming from Buşteni through Valea Jepilor (Juniper Valley), or from the crest of Bucegi Mountains, from the Piatra Arsă (The Burned Rock) challet. Babele

The Sphinx

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 6. Dâmbovicioara Cave The most known is Cave "Dambovicioara". Situated in the Northern part of the village with the same name - at about 1 km with 250 m long.The cave is known since 1579 year. Even is not very important from speleogical point of view (many of the stalactites and stalagmites being destroyed by some visitors), the cave is an important touristic objective, by its localisation, at the bottom of Piatra Craiului, with many natural beauties, with chamois and vultures, ozonized air, clear waters.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 7. Vântului Cave Peștera Vântului (Wind Cave) is the largest cave in Romania, with a length of almost 52 km (total length of passages). It is situated in the Pădurea Craiului Mountains on the left bank of Crișul Repede Riverin the vicinity of Șuncuiuș village, Bihor County. This cave is closed and only accessible to cavers, but there are works going on to develop it as a show cave.

8. Muierii Cave Peștera Muierilor, or Peștera Muierii (Romanian for "The Women's Cave", or "The Woman's Cave"), is an elaborate cave system located in the Baia de Fier commune, Gorj County, Romania. It contains abundant cave-bear remains, as well as a human skull. It was uncovered in 1952. Alongside similar remains found in Cioclovina Cave, they are among the most ancient early modern humans in Romanian prehistory.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 9. Scărișoara Cave Scărișoara Cave is one of the biggest ice caves in the Apuseni Mountains of Romania, in a part of Carpathian chain. It is considered a show cave and one of the natural wonders of Romania. The ice cave was formed 3500 years ago, during the glaciations, when these mountains were covered by snow and ice, although the exact date when the cave was discovered is still unknown.

10. Băile Herculane Băile Herculane is a town in Romanian Banat, in Caraș-Severin County, situated in the valley of the Cerna River, between the Mehedinţi Mountains to the east and the Cerna Mountains to the west. The spa town of Băile Herculane has a long history of human habitation. Numerous archaeological discoveries show that the area has been inhabited since the Paleolithic era. The Peștera Hoților (Cave of the Thieves), contains multiple levels, including one from the Mousterian period, one from the Mesolithic period (late Epigravettian) and several from the later Neolithic periods. In modern times, the spa town has been visited for its supposedly natural healing properties: hot springs with sulfur, chlorine, sodium, calcium, magnesium and other minerals, as well as negatively ionized air.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 11. Bușteni Bușteni is a small mountain town in the north of Prahova County, in central Romania. It is located in the Prahova Valley, at the bottom of the Bucegi Mountains, that have a maximum altitude of 2505 m. Its name literally means tree-logs in Romanian. Bușteni's average altitude is 900 m. It is one of the most popular mountain resorts, offering spectacular views, with lots of year-round tourism opportunities, ranging from skiing to mountain climbing.

12. Vatra Dornei Vatra Dornei is a city in Suceava County, north-eastern Romania. It is situated in the historical region of Bukovina. Vatra Dornei is the fifth largest urban settlement in the county. It was declared a municipality in 2000, being the newest and smallest municipality in the county. The city administers three villages: Argestru, Roșu and Todireni. Vatra Dornei is a well known spa and ski resort in the Carpathian Mountains.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 13. Moieciu Moieciu is a commune in Brașov County, Romania. It is located 29 km south of Brașov, within theBran Pass. The commune is composed of six villages: Cheia (Kheja), Drumul Carului, Măgura (Magura), Moieciu de Jos (the commune center), Moieciu de Sus (Felsőmoécs) and Peștera (Pestera). Măgura and Peștera are on the eastern side of the Piatra Craiului Mountains.

14. Căciulata Căciulata is a township in Călimăneşti in Valcea , Oltenia , Romania . City has stable population, but staff accommodation and catering facilities available here. Căciulata has sulphurous springs ideal for treating conditions and starting point for hiking in the mountains skull and tails.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 15. Prahova Valley

Prahova Valley is the valley where the Prahova river makes its way between the Bucegi and the Baiu Mountains, in the Carpathian Mountains, Romania. It is a tourist region, situated about 100 km north of the capital city of Bucharest.

16. Poiana Brașov

Poiana Brașov is a neighborhood of Brasov and one of the most popular Romanian ski resort. It's an important tourist centre preferred by many tourists not only from Romania, but also from Italy, France, Germany, Switzerland and other European states. After the 2010s modernization, the ski area has expanded from 50 hectares to 80 hectares and the slopes length was increased from 13.8 km to 23.9 km. most slopes now have snow cannons installed.

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17. Sinaia Sinaia is a town and a mountain resort in Prahova County, Romania. It is situated in the historical region of Muntenia. The town was named after Sinaia Monastery of 1695, around which it was built. The monastery in turn is named after the Biblical Mount Sinai. King Carol I of Romania built his summer home, Peleș Castle, near the town in the late nineteenth century. Sinaia is about 65 kilometres (40 miles) northwest of Ploiești and 48 kilometres (30 miles)south of Brașov, in a mountainous area on the Prahova River valley, just east of the Bucegi Mountains. The altitude varies from 767 to 860 metres above sea level. The city is a popular destination for hiking and winter sports, especially downhill skiing. Among the tourist landmarks, the most important are Peleș Castle, Pelișor Castle, Sinaia Monastery, Sinaia Casino, Sinaia train station, and the Franz Joseph and Saint Anne Cliffs.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 18. Mogoşa Mogoşa is a tourist area located in Gutai Mountains near the town of Baia Sprie , county of Maramures, frequented by tourists all year round, in summer, hiking and swimming, and in winter for skiing.

19. Borsec

Borsec is a town in Harghita County, Romania. The town and the surrounding areas are well known for their spas and mineral waters. Borsec owes its fame to its mineral waters, known for their curing properties. Natural cures (the healing properties of the microclimate, surrounding air, soil and water) and physiotherapeutic properties are reputedly able to improve nutrition and heal a host of metabolic disorders. Borsec is a favorable place for rest and recreation: it is a real paradise for those who enjoy excursions (known destinations include Poiana Zânelor, the ice cave, the bears' cave, Izvorul Strǎvechi, Cetatea Bufnițelor), those who like winter sports (on Făget and Fagetel for beginners and those more advanced) as well as those who like to fish, who can try their luck in the waters of Bistricioara or the Bicaz lake, which are near the resort.

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Mountain Tourism in Bulgaria 1. Razlog

Razlog is a town in southwestern Bulgaria, district Blagoevgrad. Razlog is located in Razlog valley between Pirin, Rila and Rhodope Mountains. From Razlog tourists can visit each of the three mountains. In Pirin at about 14 km from Razlog, is located "P. K. Yavorov " lodge. A narrow railway that connects the town Septemvri with the town Dobrinishte passes through Razlog.

The old town has a typical Renaissance architecture and more of them are cultural monuments - churches "St. Annunciation" and "St. George", the town museum in “Parapunova house” and the “Kipremaksevata house”. Attraction is the New Year eve carnival, which involves the entire city.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 2. Bansko

Bansko is situated in Southwestern Bulgaria. The town rises 927 m. above the sea level in the Pirin Mountain, 145 km. from Plovdiv and 150 km. from Sofia. Its unique location, favorable climate, fresh air, famous hotels and the perfect conditions to practice ski sports, made of Bansko an elite ski resort. The ski slopes are located between 2000 and 2600 m. above the sea level and have different levels of difficulty. The total length of all ski trails is 78 km. The ski trails are located on the northern slopes of the mountain, and it’s easy and quickly to get there with the new lift "Gondola", which departs from the town.At Bansko was build a large snowboard park, which is unique in the Balkans providing incredible opportunities for entertainment and lifting the adrenaline of snowboard fans.

Velianovata house

House Museum "Neofit Rilski"

House Museum “Nikola Vaptzarov”. 241


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 3. Pamporovo

Pamporovo is a famous Bulgarian ski resort in the Rhodope Mountains surrounded by beautiful nature, silence and crystal clear air. It rises 1650 m. above the sea level, and above it Snejanka peak (1926 m.) majestically rises. The resort is situated 260 km. from Sofia, 85 km. south of Plovdiv and 15 km. north of Chepelare. Pamporovo is characterized by favorable climate, with an average annual temperature of -3 degrees. The ski season runs from mid-December to late April.

The main and more difficult ski tracks descend from Snezhanka peak, with altitude on the slopes ranging between 1926 and 1400 meters. The length of all trails is 37 km. and they are suitable for skiing and snowboarding.

At Pamporovo was built first in Bulgaria half-pipe track, which is a real challenge for all snowboarders. Also the resort offers night skiing at ski slope "The Wall 2". Constructed facilities that reach different tracks have a capacity of 11,600 people per hour. Pamporovo is a modern ski resort, which offers excellent opportunities for spending unforgettable winter vacation. 242


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 4. Devin

Devin is located in Southern Bulgaria, district Smolyan. The city's altitude is 715 meters. The istance from Sofia is 188 km. Plovdiv - Devin - 75 km. In the area are found various Paleolithic deposits dated 30,000 years ago, the region was inhabited by Thracian tribes, there can be seen numerous well preserved Thracian mounds, settlements and fortress. Devin is extremely rich in natural sites and landmarks - gorges, caves, rock formations, protected areas and nature reserves.

Along the river Devinska in the Western Rhodopes an attractive eco-track was build, soon became favorite place for tourists and residents of the town of Devin - Struilitsa-KaleLakata. Interesting sights includes: Lesichevo area, Struilitsa area, Fountain area, Kemerov bridge and The elephant rock phenomenon.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 5. Chepelare

Chepelare is a mountain town extended upstream of the Chepelare river. The village rises to 1150 m. altitude and the alpine terrain of the area is a prerequisite for development of the town as a modern and contemporary ski resort, with excellent conditions for winter sports. It is located 220 km. from Sofia and 72 km. south of Plovdiv. The town has beautiful scenery, which makes it a suitable place for recreation all year round. There was build the longest ski run in Bulgaria. Skiing routes are concentrated in Mechi Chal area and can be reached easily with comfortable double-chair lift, which has a length of 2471 meters. The routes are suitable for alpine skiing and cross-country skiingMechi Chal 1 is the most extreme and it is suitable for professionals. Mechi Chal 2 is suitable for tourist and has a length of 5250 m. There is also a route for cross -country and biathlon.The resort offers rental ski equipment and professional ski instructors. 6. Zlatograd Zlatograd is the most southern city in Bulgaria. Tourist flow strengthened significantly. Nowadays Zlatograd and its surroundings offer good opportunities for practicing hiking throughout the year. The mild climate and minimum amounts of snow in the winter are also a prerequisite for the preference of the city as a destination, especially by those who do not like skiing. Tourist package “To the southern city of Bulgaria” is a guarantee for a memorable stay in Zlatograd and its surroundings. The program allows observation of the city, climb to the most southern geographical point of the country - Veikata peak located in Gyumyurdzhinski Snezhnik. Connoisseurs of biodiversity have the chance to see unique species, and from the top, in clear weather, magnificent views of the bay of Porto Lagos in Greece can be seen. Suprises continue in the village Yagnevo, where is located a fishing complex with small lake and accommodation. Here in pleasant company you can enjoy traditional local dishes at the lake shore on the background of already climbed Veikata peak. In the vicinity of Zlatograd, is located “TheWhite Stones” sanctuary near the 244


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE village Startsevo. "Zlatograd barbecue in the town of Delyo Haydutin" is a natural addition to everything offered so far. The feast of barbecue is the latest attraction in Zlatograd. More than a hundred barbecues simultaneously was rotated and doog mood is complemented by many songs, good humor and new acquaintances in the center of the cozy Rhodope town.

Mosque Zlatograd

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 7. Borovets

Borovets is one of the most famous and reputable mountain resorts in Bulgaria. Located at 1350 meters above the sea level and was situated at the foot of Rila. Surrounded by lush pine forests and picturesque hills and above it rises the majestic Musala peak (2925 m.). Borovets is located at 73 km. from Sofia and 10 km. from Samokov. The runs in the resort are suitable for practicing various ski sports like alpine skiing, jumping and biathlon. The installed modern snow cannons take care for the good snow cover, which lasts from November to May. The runs have different levels of difficulty, which means that there can participate beginners as well as professional skiers. There are excellent conditions for night skiing. The total length of ski runs is 58 km., and the longest among them is 12 kilometers. Some of the more popular routes are Yastrebetz, Markudjitsite, Sitnyakovo and Martinovi shacks. In the higher parts of the Rila, where the ski center Markudzhik is lokated snow cover lasts thicker than 2 meters and provides extreme experiences for professional skiers. 8. Yundola / Belmeken National Sports Base "Belmeken" is distanced 140 km. southeast of Sofia and rises 2050 m. above the sea level. This place attracts winter sports fans as well as environmentalist, and families with children. Belmeken is name for a several sites in Rila - a peak, a lodge,a lake and sport facilities. Today at Belmeken there are perfect conditions for contemporary training for athletes. There was build a gym for wrestling, boxing, heavy athletics, running track, fitness center, etc. It also has a modern and well-maintained ski slope which is suitable for beginners and advanced. Near the sports complex lays the picturesque Belmeken lake. The area is ideal for walks and picnics in the nature. In the village Sestrimo interest raises the chapel of St. Petka, which is located in a rocky area above the village. Although the chapel is located at high and quite dangerous place, people today continue to visit it 246


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 9. Troyan

Troyan is comfortably nestled in the foothills of the Balkan Mountains. If you have not yet seen incredible Troyan pottery or not you enjoyed the majestic curves of the Balkan Mountains near Trojan, here are some sites to start which: Museum of Traditional Crafts and Applied arts, Art Gallery "Seryakova house", church "St. Paraskeva" - built back in 1835. Today, the church continues to function as a temple and monument of culture and architecture. Troyan Balkan offers mountain routes in Steneto, Goat wall or North Djendem if you're a fan of the views from the ridge. Beklemeto area rises 1360 meters above the sea level and is well known for its ski runs and the monument Arch of freedom. 10. Vitosha

Vitosha Mountain is located close to Sofia. Vitosha spreads over an area of over 300 sq. Km. It is a wonderful place for recreation and has excellent conditions for practicing various types of tourism and winter sports. The runs Wall, Blue, Green, The tulip, The rabbit and Vetrovala are ideal for skiing, snowboarding and sledding. Ski routes in Vitosha are with different level of difficulty and are suitable for beginners and professionals. Their total length amounts to 29 km., The longest of run is 5 km long. There are two ski centers in the resort - "Aleko" and "Konyarnika Vetrovala." Vitosha park is the first park in Bulgaria and on the Balkan Peninsula. As the beginning of modern and organized tourism can be considered the first trip to the Black Peak on August 28, 1895 made by writer Aleko Konstantinov.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 11. Dobrinishte

Dobrinishte is situated among beautiful hills, meadows and magnificent views. Dobrinishte is located very close to Bansko, about 156 km. from Sofia. There is excellent conditions for skiing. There is a ski slope with a length of 5 km. and displacement of 826 m. There is chair lift built to the ski run. The beginning of the run is marked by Bezbog lodge and ends at Gotse Delchev lodge. The track is divided into three parts: brood, an intermediate part and the wall.

The route is suitable for beginners and advanced. The run is suitable for snowboarding as well. Besides being a ski resort Dobrinishte is known as a spa center. The mineral waters have unique healing qualities and is used for medical purposes as well as spa treatments and therapies. Interesting sights in the town are unique edelweiss garden in Bulgaria, St. Nicholas waterfall and "St. Peter and Paul" church. Not far away is the beautiful monastery "St. Panteleimon ".

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 12. Semkovo

Resort "Semkovo" is / about 1600-1750 meters above the sea level /, about 17 km from Belica. The complex is located on the wide meadows, surrounded by spruce and pine forests. Northwest and north of the resort series of beautiful peaks are rising.

Average temperature in the resort is between 7,5 ° C and 9,5 ° C. Snow cover in the higher parts is kept about 130 days a year. Natural wealth and the existing ski runs and equipment automatically converted Semkovo resort in mass ski tourism. Dancing bears park, etc; visiting the monuments of ancient cultures and civilizations .: "Babyashka chuka" area, Tevnitsko area, " Belishka chuka " area, " sarcophagus the rider ", etc . 13. Peshtera Peshtera is a city located in southern Bulgaria, on 460 meters altitude at Batashka Mountain, about 125 km from Sofia. The first traces of human presence in the area date from the Neolithic. The Thracian tribe Bessi inhabited the area in Antiquity and the settlement in the Peshtera Valley emerged in the fourth century BC. The sights that visitors of the town can see are: Old kavak, Tsarvkata "Sv. Petka" church "St. Dimitar" church "St. Mary" church and biosphere reserve "Kupena" - created to protect the centuries-old mixed pine-spruce forest. Clock Tower "Sahata" The exact year when the tower was build is unknown, but it is assumed that it began in the XVIII century. Mountain summer camp "Sv. Konstantin" is located about 12 km west from the town of Peshtera. Located 900 meters above the sea level and offers good conditions for recreation, walking and tourism.

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14.

Velingrad

Velingrad is located on the border between Rila and Rhodopa Mountains. The distance between Sofia and the resort is 133 kilometers. Beautiful nature is completed by the mild and pleasant climate. In abundance and diversity of its mineral water Velingrad ranks first in Bulgaria. The total flow of eighty mineral springs is One hundred and seventy l per second. At Velingrad are built 7 SPA facilities: Hotel Rome, Radonova bath, Velyova bath, Flint bath, Mud bath, Sulfuric bath. Kleptuza lake is the largest karst spring in Bulgaria and is located in the town of Velingrad.

"St. George "chapel was built in the 30`s of the last century on the foundations of an ancient monastery that was destroyed during the Ottoman invasion. The area was named "Gergevana."

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE "St. Nicholas" chapel has been a holy place for several centuries, at which caravans stopped. The building, however, was completely destroyed in 1666, but the local decided to raise it again in 2003 with own funds. Natural History Museum “Pliocene park” was opened in the village Dorkovo. It represents findings from the Pliocene.

Beglika Dam

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 15. Berkovitza

Berkovitsa is located 90 km. north from Sofia, just below Kom peak in the foothills of the Balkan Mountains. There are excellent conditions for winter sports. The resort runs are not crowded. The area allows practicing winter sports. The snow cover is stable throughout the winter, and the average annual temperature is 11 degrees. This provides excellent conditions for practicing winter hiking, skiing, slalom and running. Kom-Berkovitza has a well maintained alpine run with length of 1.5 km. It began at Small Kom peak, rising nearly 1960 meters above the sea level. The "Com" complex is a starting point for a number of hiking routes where man can get closely touch with the mountains and can feel close to nature. There are excellent conditions for a number of extreme adventures such as paragliding and rock climbing. Accommodation is available in Kom lodge located at 1640 m. above the sea level. In the lodge can accommodate up to 120 people, there is a restaurant, kitchen and dining room. 16. Malyovitsa

Malyovitsa is the name of a peak in the northwestern part of Rila Mountain, 2729 meters high.

The area has a ski run, equipped with a lift. The outskirt areas offers very good conditions for climbing.

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Malyovitsa lodge is part of European route E4. Rila monastery route through Scary lake – eight hours.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 17. Tevnoto lake

The Lake is one of the Little Rocks - a group of lakes in Pirin in the valley of the Bistritsa River. They are called by the name of Malka Kamenitsa peak. Around them are several famous peaks - Kamenitsa, Little Kamenitsa, Kralev court, Momin court, Valyavishki chukar. There are about 20 lakes, but only 8 are permanent and the rest are small and shallow and dry in the summer. The largest and highest is Tevnoto Lake, which is located to the north of the group in close proximity to Momin yard and Valyavishki chukar. It has an elongated, curved shape that is slightly like a kidney. With its area of 60 decares (450 x 175 m) it is the largest lake over 2500 m in Bulgaria. It is nearly 4 meters deep. Water volume: 116,000 cubic meters The Tevno Lake Shelter shelter runs along the stream flowing to the other lakes to the south. 18. Rila lakes Seven Rila Lakes is undoubtedly the most visited by tourists lake group. Wonderful place to visit is winter as well as summer. Seven Rila lakes had glacial origin, and are located staggered at altitude between 2095 and 2535 meters. They were formed during the last glacial period, about one million years ago.

All seven lakes can be seen from Lake peak. Fish Lake is only 2.5 meters deep and on its northeast coast is located Seven Lakes lodge. Twin Lake depth is 27.5 meters. It is the largest in size of the group of lakes. During the drought, the lake is divided into two smaller ponds and takes the shape of an hourglass.

The Kidney Lake depth is 28 meters but the deepest is The Eye lake with depth of 37.7 m. 254


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 19. Ribaritza Ribaritsa is a picturesque village famous for its fabulous scenery and excellent conditions for skiing and snowboarding. Ribaritza is one of the fastest growing mountain resorts in Bulgaria, with the possibility of practicing tourism throughout the year. The village is located 12 km. from Teteven and 138 km. from Sofia. Part of inspiring landscapes are picturesque cottages perched on the slopes of the mountain, majestic hills covered with lush vegetation and vast fields, part of the charm of the Teteven Balkan. During the winter season Ribaritza becomes especially attractive for ski fans and professional skiers. In the "Berkina hill" is located ski run with length of 1 km. Tea room is added to the run, which accommodates up to 80 people and supplying them with breathtaking views of the countryside. There are many accommodation options in Ribaritsa. In the village you will find a variety of large complexes, small family hotels and guest houses. There are interesting places to visit in Ribaritza that will reveal more about life and culture of the inhabitants of the village

20. Teteven

Teteven is a town located betwin Petrahilyapeak, Red peak, Treskavets peak and Vezhen peak in the Central Balkan. The town is situated 412 meters above the sea level. Here is some of the sights that can be seen at Teteven town: Museum of History; Bobevska house museum, Art gallery,The "Sveti Iliya" monastery (XIV century); The church "All Saints"; Sueva dupka Cave; Morovitsa cave, Bayovitsa cave and others. The biosphere reserve "Tsarichina". Located on the northern slopes of Vezhen peak, alongside White Vit river.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE The "Tsarichina" comprises more than 600 plant species, 23 of them are listed in the Red Book of Bulgaria. A true master of "Tsarichina" is the brown bear. Permanent residents are deer, wild cats, foxes, martens, weasels, otters, but lynx and chamois are long gone.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Italy – Mountain Tourism 1. Mount Etna

Mount Etna is an active stratovolcano on the east coast of Sicily, Italy, in the Metropolitan City of Catania, between the cities of Messina and Catania. It lies above the convergent plate margin between the African Plate and the Eurasian Plate. It is the tallest active volcano in Europe,currently 3,329 m high, though this varies with summit eruptions. It is the highest peak in Italy south of the Alps. Etna covers an area of 1,190 km2 with a basal circumference of 140 km. The fertile volcanic soils support extensive agriculture, with vineyards and orchards spread across the lower slopes of the mountain and the broad Plain of Catania to the south. Due to its history of recent activity and nearby population, Mount Etna has been designated a Decade Volcano by the United Nations. In June 2013, it was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 2. Aosta

Aosta is the principal city of Aosta Valley, a bilingual region in the Italian Alps, 110 km north-northwest of Turin. It is situated near the Italian entrance of the Mont Blanc Tunnel, at the confluence of the Buthier and the Doire baltĂŠe, and at the junction of the Great and Little St. Bernard routes. Aosta is not the capital of the province, because Aosta Valley is the only Italian region not divided into provinces.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 3.

Asiago

Asiago is the name of both a major Italian PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) cheese and a minor township in the surrounding plateau region in the Province of Vicenza in the Veneto region of Northeastern Italy. It is near the border between the Veneto and Trentino-Alto Adige/SĂźdtirol regions in the foothills of the Alps, and about equidistant (60 km) from the major cities of Trento to the west and Vicenza to the south. The Asiago region is the origin of Asiago cheese.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 4. Bormio Bormio is located at about 1225 m high, has 4100 residents and a particularly favorable climate. The large and important center of Bormio reveals a long history that binds to that of the neighboring municipalities of Valdidentro, Valdisotto and Valfurva, as that of the Stelvio pass. Today's notoriety Bormio and its valleys, called the Magnificent Earth, is primarily due to Ski, Cycling and Spa, which have impressed a strong tourist development, but there are many other exceptional resources throughout all the year Who discovers Bormio never forget the charm that emanates. Charm given him by history, by the industriousness of its people and the happy position: a cauldron kissed by the sun. Thermal water and the ski slopes of all degrees of difficulty, to a height of 3000, make it known throughout the world. Bormio is nestled in the Stelvio National Park, where even in summer capture fascinating excursions or sports.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 5. Brixen

Brixen is a town in South Tyrol in northern Italy. First mentioned in 901, Brixen is the third largest city and oldest town in the province, and the artistic and cultural capital of the valley. It is located at the confluence of the Eisack and Rienz rivers, 40 kilometres north of Bolzano and 45 kilometres south of the Brenner Pass, on the Italy-Austrian border. It is flanked on the eastern side by the Plose and Telegraph (Monte Telegrafo) mountains (2,504 m) and on the western side by the KĂśnigsanger (Monte Pascolo) (2,436 m) mountain. Brixen is especially known as a major skiing resort.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 6. Cortina d'Ampezzo Cortina d'Ampezzo, commonly referred to as Cortina, is a town and comune in the heart of the southern (Dolomitic) Alps in the Veneto region of Northern Italy. Situated on the Boite river, in an alpine valley, it is a popular winter sport resort known for its skiing trails, scenery, accommodation, shops and après-ski scene, and for its jet set and aristocratic European crowd.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 7. Courmayeur Courmayeur is a town and comune in northern Italy, in the autonomous region of Aosta Valley. At an elevation of 1,224 m above sea level, it is located at the foot of the southern side of Mont Blanc, at 4,810 m the highest point in the Alps and western Europe, and is crossed by the Dora Baltea river. Courmayeur shares administration of Mont Blanc with its neighboring commune of Saint-Gervais-les-Bains in France, and is consequently able to claim the title of highest commune in Italy. Courmayeur also shares access to the glacial ski run of the Vallée Blanche with another French town, Chamonix, which sits at the opposite, northern, side of the Mont Blanc massif. The ancient Curia Maior was always a popular tourist destination, thanks to its spa and the MontBlanc landscapes. Courmayeur’s picturesque mountain scenery make it an attractive year-round destination. It is cited as "Italy's best all-round ski resort", and contains the Giardino Botanico Alpino Saussurea, which describes itself as Europe's highest botanical garden. The Church of Saint-Pantaléon dates to the 18th century. In the summer months Courmayeur is a popular destination for hikers. The nearby village of La Palud is the base station of the Skyway Monte Bianco, the cable car to the Pointe Helbronner. This links to the Vallée Blanche Aerial Tramway going to the Aiguille du Midi, which connects to the Téléphérique de l'Aiguille du Midi, the cable car from Chamonix.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 8. Cogne

Cogne is a town and comune in Aosta Valley, northern Italy. Cogne is located in the valley with the same name along a stream known as the Torrent Grand Eyvia. It is the largest municipality in the Aosta Valley. The town center of Cogne, called "Veulla" (meaning "town center" in the local Arpitan language), is surrounded by four valleys:  South: the Valnontey valley, which leads to the slopes of Gran Paradiso;  North: the Grauson valley;  South-east, the Urtier valley and Valleille;  East, the Gimillan valley. Until the 1970s, Cogne was an important mining center for the extraction of iron ore. The main mineral veins were exploited in the mines of Colonne, Licony e Larsinaz. The ore (mainly magnetite) was transported for processing to the Cogne steel plant in Aosta using a narrow gauge railway. Cogne is an international center of cross country skiing with 70 kilometres of trails. There are also 9 kilometres of downhill runs, many walks on the snow and more than 140 icefalls. During the summer, hiking and mountain biking are popular.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 9. La Thuile La Thuile is a town and comune in the Aosta Valley of northwest Italy. La Thuile is situated in the Alps at the extreme north-west of the country, close to the French alpine town of La Rosière. La Thuile is situated along a road going from Pré-Saint-Didier in the north-west up to the Little St Bernard Pass in the south-east linking Italy to Bourg-Saint-Maurice and the Isère Valley in France. Coal mining (anthracite) was important in the area before World War II, many diggings and old mining structures can be seen around the village. Nowadays, La Thuile depends on tourism, in winter as one of the main Italian Alpine ski resorts linked with La Rosière, as well as in summer (hiking).

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 10. Livigno Livigno is a town and comune in the province of Sondrio, in the region of Lombardy, Italy, located in the Italian Alps, near the Swiss border. Other buildings of note are the Caravaggio church, with some ex voto paintings and a picture which is traditionally attributed to Caravaggio, and Saint Rocco church, built at the beginning of the 16th century as an offering for protecting the village against plague. Other sights are represented by the breathtaking panorama, with high peaked mountains and marvellous valleys. Only three roads lead to the town. Two link to Switzerland, one through the Forcola di Livigno, elevation 2,315 metres and open in summer only, and the second through the Munt la Schera Tunnel. The third road connects to other parts of Italy through the Foscagno Pass, elevation 2,291 metres. Nowadays Livigno is a rich area, and the main activities are linked to tourism, especially as a ski resort.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 11. Madonna di Campiglio

Madonna di Campiglio is a village and a ski resort in northeast Italy. It is a frazione of the comune of Pinzolo. The village lies in the Val Rendena at an elevation of 1,522 m above sea level. The ski area around Madonna has 57 lifts and 150 km of ski runs, with a capacity of more than 31,000 people per hour, rises to 2,600 m, has 50,000 m2 (12 acres) of snow park, 40 km for Nordic skiing and links to the pistes in Pinzolo, Folgarida, and Marilleva. Madonna is the main point of access to the Brenta Dolomites, with its famous via ferrata, with the ski lift to the Passo Groste taking one directly to the northern end of the via ferrata network. The village regularly hosts World Cup alpine skiing and snowboarding races.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 12. Merano

Merano is a town and comune in South Tyrol, northern Italy. Generally best known for its spa resorts, it is located within a basin, surrounded by mountains standing up to 3,335 metres above sea level, at the entrance to the Passeier Valley and the Vinschgau. The town saw further development as it became increasingly popular as a spa resort.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 13. Stelvio Pass

The Stelvio Pass is a mountain pass in northern Italy, at an elevation of 2,757 m above sea level. It is the highest paved mountain pass in the Eastern Alps, and the second highest in the Alps, just 13 m below France's Col de l'Iseran (2,770). The pass is located in the Ortler Alps in Italy between Stilfs ("Stelvio" in Italian) in South Tyrol and Bormio in the province of Sondrio. It is about 75 km from Bolzano and a mere 200 m from the Swiss border. The Umbrail Pass runs northwards from the Stelvio's western ramp, and the "Three Languages Peak" (Dreisprachenspitze) above the pass is so named because this is where the Italian, German, and Romansh languages meet. The road connects the Valtellina with the mid Venosta valley (the Vinschgau) and Meran. Adjacent to the pass road there is a large summer skiing area. Important mountains nearby include Ortler, Thurwieserspitze, Trafoier Eiswand, de:Monte Scorluzzo, Piz Umbrail, and Piz Cotschen/Rötlspitz/Punta Rosa. The original road was built in 1820–25 by the Austrian Empire to connect the former Austrian province of Lombardy with the rest of Austria, covering a climb of 1,871 m.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 14. Saint-Vincent Saint-Vincent is probably one of the most famous places in Valle d’Aosta, thanks also to the “Casino de la Vallée”, one of the most renowned and largest casinos in Europe. Gently lying on the hillside, in a welcoming valley protected from the wind, with an extraordinary microclimate, to the extent that it is known as the Alps Riviera, with mild winters and cool summers at an altitude of 575 metres. Centrally located with respect to the valley axis and close to the Valtournenche entrance, SaintVincent boasts archaeological findings from pre-Roman times. The Romanesque church of San Vincenzo is worth mentioning. Built by Benedictine monks in the XI century, it has a museum of sacred art, where rare, valuable items are on display. The expansion of tourism in the town is linked to the discovery of the Fons Salutis in 1770 by a naturalist abbot: a valuable spring whose therapeutic virtues instantly made it a very famous, popular mineral water. Some famous guests to the Spa resort include, Giosuè Carducci and Silvio Pellico, as well as the socialite aristocracy from that period. The opening of the casino further contributed to the growth of tourism in the town that boasts top class accommodation and luxuryshops. The tourist movement generated by the conference activities circling around the modern, well equipped conference centre is also of some interest. The “Grolle d’Oro” film awards are held here at the end of October, and have seen some of Italian cinema’s best actors and directors picking up awards. Still in the conference centre, amidst the other numerous, excellent exhibitions, the “Saint-Vincent Award” for journalism is organised on an annual basis and brings together the most important names in newspaper and TV journalism. For ski lovers, just a few kilometres from Saint-Vincent at 1640 metres, is the Col de Joux ski resort located between Val d’Ayas and the central valley of the Dora. Vast, flat, covered in pine forests, it offers approximately 7km of downhill slopes. The Col de Joux is the ideal winter resort both for ski lovers and those wishing to spend a pleasant few days with their family, or take some sun walking through beautiful scenery. The particularly favourable climate and rich natural heritage, invite us to explore the endless number of country paths, the spectacular nature of the mountains and surrounding valleys. A short walk through the villages perched on nearby slopes is enough to uncover Alpine civilisation: an authentic dip into history, century old traditions and popular culture, in search of its characteristic community elements including old fashioned wooden and stone houses, chapels, ovens and mills.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 15. San Martino di Castrozza

San Martino di Castrozza is a mountain resort in the Primiero valley in the Trentino province in Italy. The first buildings on the site of San Martino were a religious institution, the hospice of saints Martino and Giuliano, which welcomed travelers crossing the Alps by the Rolle Pass between the valleys of Primiero and Fiemme. All that remains of the hospice is the church of San Martino, which has a romanesque bell-tower. The first alpine hotel in San Martino was built by the Irish traveller, John Ball in 1873. By the first decade of the 20th century San Martino di Castrozza was already established as a tourist destination for the wealthy of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, of which Trentino then formed part. The resort was rebuilt after the devastation of the First World War, and grew rapidly thereafter. San Martino is situated in a valley of green meadows, in the Natural Park of Paneveggio-Pale di San Martino. It is surrounded by peaks of the Dolomites, including the Pale di San Martino, of which the highest peaks are Vezzana and the Cimon della Pala.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 16. Sestriere

Sestriere is an alpine village in Italy, a comune (municipality) of the Province of Turin. It is situated in Val Susa, 17 km from the French border. Its name derives from Latin: ad petram sistrariam, that is at sixty Roman miles from Turin. Sestriere is located on the pass that links Val Chisone and Val Susa, at 2,035 metres above mean sea level The village is completely surrounded by mountains, which have been exploited to build one of the biggest ski resorts in Italy. The main mountains around Sestriere are: Monte Fraiteve 2,701 m in the northeast, Monte Sises 2,658 m, Punta Rognosa di Sestriere 3,280 m and Monte Motta 2,850 m in the south-east. Sestriere is divided into several smaller hamlets: Sestriere Colle, on the pass top, Sestriere Borgata, in Val Chisone, Champlas du Col and Champlas Janvier, in Val Susa.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 17. Fassa Valley

The Fassa Valley is a valley in the Dolomites in Trentino, northern Italy. As an administrative valley„ community of Trentino, it is called Region Comun General de Fascia.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 18. Valfurva

Valfurva is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Sondrio in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 150 kilometres northeast of Milan and about 50 kilometres northeast of Sondrio, in the Alps. The municipality of Valfurva contains the frazioni (subdivisions, mainly villages and hamlets) Uzza, San Nicolò, Sant'Antonio, San Gottardo, Madonna dei Monti, and Santa Caterina. Valfurva borders the following municipalities: Bormio, Martell, Peio, Ponte di Legno, Sondalo, Stilfs, Valdisotto.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 19. Gherdëina

Gherdëina is a valley in Northern Italy, in the Dolomites of South Tyrol. It is best known as a skiing, rock climbing, and woodcarving area. Gherdëina is one of five valleys with a majority of Ladin speakers (two of these valleys are in South Tyrol). The form of the Ladin language spoken in this valley is called Gardenese in Italian, Grödnerisch in German and Gherdëina in Ladin. The woodcarving industry has flourished in Gherdëina since the 17th century. Since the 19th century, statues and altars carved in the area have been shipped to Catholic churches throughout the world. In the 18th century, besides religious statuettes, the production of woodcarved figurines of genre art was widespread in the valley. Among them statuettes of beggars generally in pairs (female and male), four seasons, watchstands were very popular. In the 19th and 20th century, carving of wooden toys was such a widespread occupation in all Gardenese families that Amelia Edwards called Urtijëi the "capital of Toyland."One of the valley's best-known products is the peg wooden doll which was popular all over Europe and America in the 19th century.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE RURAL TOURISM TURKEY

Thirty-three villages in the Beypazari region of Turkey are part of a huge tourism initiative by the Turkish government.The aim is to promote the region for its natural beauty and the targeted market is anyone who does not want a beach holiday. Examples include culture seekers, photography enthusiasts and people who love walking and trekking. One of the villages is Dudas. 1. Dudas The tourism facilities in village are basic and those who like being pampered 24/7 need to look elsewhere. Restoration has begun on an old village house and when ready, it will be a five-room hotel. No other tourism facilities exist in the village. It has just traditional wooden houses, dusty roads, wide-open fields, and locals who still practice age-old traditions. The Mediterranean and Aegean coasts are favorite destinations for beach loving tourists so Beypazari is focusing on the countryside, culture, photography, and nature lovers. People can stop in Beypazari when on the typical tours of Istanbul to Cappadocia. Thirtythree villages, the Inozu valley and the town centre of Beypazari will keep people occupied for at least a week. The close location to the capital also means that people can include Beypazari while on a city break in Ankara. Assos: Both hilltop and waterfront, Assos (known interchangeably by the name of the modern village on-site, Behramkale) is a picturesque slice of the Turkish Aegean that is fast fading into oblivion. The ancient ruins and village life intermingle, while the fishing port below welcomes weary travelers with lovely little quay-front hotels and a fabulously tiny stretch of sand. 2. Alaçati A hilltop mound of windmills and 800-year-old Selçuk barrelhouses guard the entrance to the tiny Aegean village of Alaçati. So close to the sea, and yet so far .

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3. Sirince Originally a sanctuary for Greeks in the dying days of Ephesus, this dense hillside of preserved houses enclosed within a landscape of grape orchards is the perfect antidote to an overdose of archaeological sites. A bottle of local wine enjoyed amid the atmosphere of a former schoolhouse helps the medicine go down, too.

4. Gümüslük The chance to walk on water -- or nearly so -- thanks to the sunken city walls of ancient Myndos -- what more could one want? How about an undiscovered enclosed bay, a beach, and waterfront fish shacks.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 5. Karmylassos/Kayaköy Haunting panoramas of lives interrupted blanket the hillside of this once-thriving Greek settlement, abandoned during the 1924 population exchange between Turkey and Greece. Rather than reinhabit the houses -- now crumbling and roofless -- local Turkish residents have settled in the rolling and fertile plains of the surrounding valley.

6. Kaleköy This seaside village clings to the side of the rock more efficiently than its sunken neighbors. With only 300 inhabitants living practically on top of one another, the town is too small to even have a street; a haphazard nonsystem of paths weaves around the village houses. There's no such thing as trespassing -- it's just blissfully simple.

7. Ayvali The smell of apricots permeates the village as the harvest blankets the roofs of the flat-topped houses. Down in the valley is an almost eerie grouping of cave facades that retain the curvy lines of the smooth cave surfaces. At sunset, the sound of drums in the distance and the image of village women baking the evening meal's bread in ancient rock ovens create an unforgettable vision of rural life.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 8. Dogubayazit Dogubayazit is a town settlement with a long history. It is located 15 km southwest of Mount Ararat, 93 km east of AÄ&#x;rÄą and 35 km from the border with Iran. The town is surrounded by some of the highest peaks, including Ararat (5137 m). The area has a rich history, with monuments dating back to the Kingdom of Urartu. It had been in possession of the Persians, Romans, Arabs, and Byzantines. Turkish tribes settled here only in 1064. During the First World War and the Turkish War of Independence the city was ruined to the ground. Today Dogubayazit is a small town with a predominantly Kurdish population. There are huge high altitude grassland on both slopes of the mountain; cereals and rice are grown in the plane. Mountain areas here are not densely populated, and the few people who earn their living in this part of the province live in adobe houses.

9. Mardin The city is situated on the rugged mountains towering over the Syrian plains and is famous for its typical Arab architecture. There is no accurate data when it was founded, but the researchers suggest that this happened around 4000 years BC. BC. Mardin has a huge historical, cultural and architectural heritage. Besides the numerous mosques, there are churches and one of the oldest Christian communities - Syria. Other attractions that can be found in the city are 10 madrassas - muslim schools preparing students for the clergy; remains of 15 castles of different periods; 5 tombs, including that of Sultan Musa; numerous fountains, markets, Turkish baths and caravanserais - large buildings served as sleeping and eating caravan. Near the town are the many caves that were inhabited in the earliest periods of human history. The caves are filled with rock paintings left by their

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE inhabitants. Currently, the city applied for inclusion in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Total city and province has 665 establishments registered and protected as cultural heritage. Besides its cultural and historical wealth Madryn offers other attractions. One of them is hunting tourism. At various places around the city there are conditions for hunting of foxes, hares, partridges, cormorants, woodcocks and wild geese. The area is also suitable for rock climbing.

10. Yuvacali Yuvacalı, near Hilvan, is a traditional Kurdish village in eastern Turkey. It is close to the vast Atatürk lake, has been inhabited since about 9000 BC and is credited as an important outpost of the Roman Empire. It has become just as significant in breaking new ground as a homestay for the more adventurous holidaymaker looking to experience rural life firsthand with a local family. The village, which has about 100 households, exists on the proceeds of farming, but although in opening up to the tourism boom, it has not conceded to outside demands – it is utterly authentic and women visitors are advised to wear long skirts. What you get on a homestay in Yuvacalı is famous hospitality, a quilt, maybe a mosquito net, and an outside loo. But the warmth of the family you lodge with will help you overcome the cries for anonymous 5star luxury. Eating is a communal affair where you can dip into dishes of delights, while you will be able to see how their food is prepared and cooked as the day unfolds. The offered options: to try the farm’s every day chores; simply chill out; venture out to see local ruins or head to Şanlıurfa. Nearby is the Ataturk Dam, regarded as the largest in the Middle East and in the vicinity can be visited the local market and the nomads that inhabit the vast expanse of north east Turkey. During the summers, guests and families sleep outside, while in winter, the houses are well-heated with dung burning fires and guests sleep under thick, handmade quilts.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Rural Tourism in Romania 1. Hotel Plutitor Pelican Tour Hotel Plutitor Pelican Tour is a hotel boat moored in the Crisan channel of the Danube Delta, in one of the most remote parts of the region, between the Sulina and Sfantu Gheorghe branches, and offers en-suite cabins, local cuisine and trips anywhere in the delta and the Black Sea. The town of Tulcea is 54 km away. Each cabin has air conditioning and central heating, a private bathroom with a shower, a toilet and free toiletries. You can enjoy river views from all the rooms. Traditional, local fish dishes can be ordered in the restaurant, and guests can also make use of the kitchen and the barbecue facilities. They have the option to rent motorboats at the property, with or without a pilot. This property also has one of the top-rated locations in Caraorman! Guests are happier about it compared to other properties in the area. This property is also rated for the best value in Caraorman! Guests are getting more for their money when compared to other properties in this city.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE

2. Conacul Boieresc Pensiuni agroturistice Fundata - pensiuni in natura Situated in Bran-Simon, on the hill Balaban, Bran Castle 5 km and 1 km from Bran Hermitage mansion guesthouse offers accommodation in 10 rooms with double beds, bathroom in each room, satellite TV, balcony, instead of playground, garden 300 with 3 towers, parking with video surveillance, rustic terrace, barbecue, table tennis, sauna, massage.

3. Vila Ianis Bran Ianis Vila Bran valley situated between Bucegi and Piatra Craiului, only 900 m from the Castle, a great mountain scenery, offering a panoramic view. Generous space and exceptional amenities make Villa Ianis ideal place to spend a pleasant holiday, birthday parties, entertainment. Recreational opportunities through forests, meadows and edges Carpathian Mountain Biking Trails all-mountain and cross-country, Parc Aventure, Mountaineering, Ski Resort. You can visit nearby tourist attractions, National Park Bucegi, Piatra Craiului, keys, which became Bran Castle Bran Village Museum, Rasnov, the Black Church in Brasov County and many others. 282


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE

4. Pensiunea Valea Pension valley with trees is where the modern blends rustic, managing to offer the best services for vacation. Leisure possibilities are numerous, from ATV rides, admiring the landscape from the terrace, to visit many tourist attractions.

5. Villa Anna Villa Anna is located in a wooded area, beautiful landscape. Here you will find comfort, a unique natural environment, elegant, clean, respect!

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 6. Complex Turistic Aqua-Alpin Touristic Complex Aqua-Alpin is located in a natural setting, at the entrance in mountain resort Campulung Moldovenesc. You can spend moments of pampering and relaxation in our spa center with swimming pool, jacuzzi, wet sauna, dry sauna, herbal baths and massage. The complex is situated in a natural setting and you can enjoy trekking, trips to the sheepfold, ATV rides, fishing in your own pond and mountain waters, visiting the tourist attractions in Bukovina. Other recreational opportunities: fitness, table tennis, billiards, professional football and tennis, chess board, rummy.

7. Borsec Resort Borsec is a town in Harghita County, Romania. The town and the surrounding areas are well known for their spas and mineral waters. Its name is derived from Hungarian "borvizszĂŠk" meaning "Seat of Mineral Water". Borsec owes its fame to its mineral waters, known for their curing properties. Natural cures (the healing properties of the microclimate, surrounding air, soil and water) and physiotherapeutic properties are reputedly able to improve nutrition and heal a host of metabolic disorders. Borsec is a favorable place for rest and recreation: it is a real paradise for those who enjoy excursions, those who like winter sports as well as those who like to fish, who can try their luck in the waters of Bistricioara or the Bicaz lake, which are near the resort.

Skyline of Borsec

Borsec ski slope in spring

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 8. Pension Villa Hermani in Măgura The "Villa Hermani" is located at an altitude of 1020 m above sealevel in the village of Măgura, right in the middle of Piatra Craiului national park in the Carpathians, close to Dracula's Castle in Bran. The guesthouse was opened in 2004 and certified by the Eco-tourism association AER in 2006. From the balconies and the garden you can enjoy the scenery and the mountains.

9. Marefalvi Kulcsoshaz Guesthouse

Situated in Izvoare in the Harghita Region, 37 km from Sovata, Marefalvi Kulcsoshaz boasts a barbecue and sun terrace. Featuring a terrace, all units include a seating and dining area. Some units have a balcony and/or patio with mountain or garden views. There is also a kitchen, equipped with an oven, toaster and fridge. Guests can enjoy various activities in the surroundings, including cycling, fishing and hiking.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 10. Cristalina&Dumy Guesthouse

Casa Cristalina&Dumy is situated in Albac, 15 km from Arieşeni. Vartop is 23 km away. Guests can enjoy various activities in the surroundings, including cycling and hiking.

11. Mamului Boarding Guesthouse Set in Lungeşti, 42 km from Craiova, Pensiunea Codrii Mamului boasts air-conditioned rooms with free WiFi throughout the property. Rooms are equipped with a flatscreen TV with cable channels. Certain rooms have a seating area to relax in after a busy day. You can engage in various activities, such as cycling and hiking. The guest house also offers bike hire.

12. Pomi Guesthouse Surrounded by Lotrului Mountains, Casa cu Pomi enjoys a peaceful location and provides rooms with free WiFi and a Romanian restaurant. Each of the units is equipped with flat-screen TV, a small refrigerator and a bathroom with free toiletries, a shower and a hairdryer. Some also have a balcony. Guests at Casa cu Pomi can taste the national specialties and meals prepared by following traditional recipes. The Vidra Lake and Ski Area can be reached within 35 km, while the Natural Reserve Park Iezer Lotorita is 30 km away. The Transalpina mountain road is 50 km from the property. 286


Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 13. Țară Guesthouse Set on the edge of a forest in Gilău, a 30-minute drive from the Cluj-Napoca International Airport, Casa de la Țară offers free WiFi, a garden with a terrace, barbecue facilities and a restaurant. On request, breakfast can be enjoyed every morning at the property and dinner is served at the in-house restaurant. Further popular activities include fishing at the onsite pond, cycling and hiking. A dart board can also be found on the premises. 14. Alpina Guesthouse Located in Malaia, 20 metres from the Bradisor Lake, Pensiunea Alpina features a restaurant, a garden and free WiFi access. On request, guided hiking tours, as well as fishing and boat trips can be organized. Each room at Pensiunea Alpina provides a flat-screen cable TV and a bathroom with shower or bath tub, hairdryer and free toiletries. Guests can use the barbecue facilities and the shared kitchen on site. Facilities offered on site include a terrace, a shared lounge, a ski storage room, a games room and a children's playground. The Lotru Train Station is 15 km away, the Transalpina Ski Resort is 45 km away and Sibiu International Airport is 90 km away.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Rural Tourism Bulgaria 1.

Dobrinitse Dobrinitse is located in southwestern Bulgaria. It is known with the pool of mineral water known as Roman bath located along the Dobrinishtka river where are many springs. Dobrinishte dates back to the Stone Age. In the settlement were discovered rich deposits of Thracian and Roman pottery, coins from the reign of the Roman emperor Nero. In VII - XIV c. Dobrinishte was a village - fortress. History shows that numerous attempts to pass the river and direct to the hinterland launched by Byzantine emperors were made here unsuccessfully. In 1846 patriotic residents built their own school, organized revolutionary groups, that actively participated in the national liberation struggles of the Bulgarian people. All these facts show Dobrinishte was an active participant in the Bulgarian history.Interesting attractions in the area include: Waterfall St. Nicholas Church St. Peter Paul Monastery St. Panteleimon. Distance: Sofia - Dobrinishte - 158 km. Plovdiv - Dobrinishte - 141 km. Varna - Dobrinishte - 525 km. Bansko - Dobrinishte - 9 km. Nowadays its more

attractive as a place to go back to nature and rural lifestyle. 2. Borovitsa Village of Borovitsa (Vidin District) is located in North-West Bulgaria and is part of Belogradchik Municipality. It is located 10.05 kilometers south from Belogradchik. For fishing fans – there flows Stakevska River. Landmarks: The only remnant of the old village church was built in 1866, located 2.5 km from the village to the west. The frescoes, icons and wooden altar reserved. The high bell tower rises above the picturesque valley among the rocks and forests. 288


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Ognyanovo Ognyanovo is a Bulgarian village situated in southwestern Bulgaria, close to the border with Greece. It is located 12 km southwest of Gotse Delchev, which is the nearest major city in the area. Lying in a rich in vegetation hilly region, the village is surrounded by four mountains -Pirin, the Rhodope, Slavyanka and Stargach, which are among the most attractive hiking mountains in Bulgaria. The clean mountain air combined with mild weather typical of southwest make Ognyanovo an excellent place for rest and relaxation weekend. Mineral springs in Ognyanovo were used in antiquity and today Ognyanovo is famous spa center 3.

with excellent facilities.Ognyanovo hot mineral baths consist of 24 thermal sources for a total flow rate of 102 l / sec and avg. temperature of 39 -40 degrees Celsius. 4. Leshten Leshten is located in southwestern Bulgaria, on the southern slope of the Western Rhodopes. It is an ancient village with preserved old Bulgarian houses. Much of the oldest houses in the village have been restored by keeping their authentic architecture and the houses are rented by tourists. Leshten is a perfect place to relax in quiet surroundings. In four seasons hosts offer different ways of entertainment and recreation - hunting, fishing, hiking in the mountains, swimming and spa resort in nearby Ognyanovo, picking mushrooms and herbs. Nearby are ethnographic complexes Kovachevitsa, Dolen and Delchevo, Rozhen Monastery, Bansko. 5. Eco Farm Kehayovi Here at 1125 meters altitude, which lies seven kilometers from the town of Devin, in Plovdiv direction, 40km from the resort Pamporovo is Eco Farm Kehayovi - a place where the silence is broken by the melody of birds, clean air combined with the smell of fresh pine reigns peace for which everyone dreams. The farm is quiet, peaceful and isolated location, with majestic views of the Rhodope peaks. Here are raised 250 sheep, 70 goats and Rhodope 9 cows. All animals are grazing 289


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE on the slopes and meadows of central Rhodopes. The farm also has a guest house where you can spend a weekend in nature and animals. There are 7 bedrooms, a restaurant for 20 people with fireplace, garden barbecue grill, kitchen, wide veranda, find unique views of the beautiful scenery, a place for tents in the summer. 6. Yagodina Jagodina village is located in a mountainous area in the Western Rhodopes. The village is famous with the Yagodinska cave, which is located nearby. 700 meters above the village rises the wooded peak Durdaga Tourists can enjoy the wildlife on the four trails leading to various landmarks: Devil's

Throat cave peak "St. Elias," "Devil's Bridge" and waterfall "Haidushki dollars." Below the peak "St. Elias" is "Eagle Eye" - the only of its kind in Bulgaria platform. Folklore contest is held annually. The Bagpipe festival takes place near the village to the cave niche that provides additional acoustics, so the program of the festival is heard in the neighboring villages. 7. Chala The magical village Chala offers accommodation in a rural guest house. A walk to "Buynovsko Gorge" and visit to the natural phenomenon "Yagodinska" - the most beautiful cave in the Rhodope Mountains, are some of the attractions. Possibility of climbing the peak "Videnitsa", introduction to agricultural activities in local farms and enjoing a folklore night with dinner with homemade typical Rhodope dishes. 290


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 8. Buynovo

The charm of the Rhodope Mountains is in meetings with local people - weary but welcoming. In the villages, which have preserved their originality, the hosts will meet you with homemade traditional dishes - patatnik, klin, tea and berries jam. According to the season, if you wish you can be involved in traditional activities such as mowing the grass, chopping wood, herbs and mushrooms gathering and others. 9. Erendgikov house in Krastatitsa village

Krastatitsa is a village in southern Bulgaria, in the heart of the mountains. It is located near Banite, Smolyan region. "Erendgikov house" is a beautiful and peaceful place for rural tourism, with preserved comfort and artistry of the old rural life. You will feel how time seems to stop with night bonfires in silence, interrupted only by the song of crickets, hear the scent of herbs and baked in the embers fresh potatoes; numerous stars that are almost at hand from you - here you will discover the magic of rural life and mentality of Bulgarian nature. 10. Smilian Smilyan is one of the oldest settlements in the Rhodope Mountains. Located 15km southeast of the regional center Smolyan. It is situated on both banks of the Arda River at 820850m above sea level. The name of the village Smilyan comes from its creators - Slavic tribes. Real name of the village was Smolen. 291


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE After the conquest of Bulgaria by the Ottomans occur hard times for the villagers. History remembers the heroic defense of the Christian faith of the villagers and their spiritual leader - Bishop Visarion Smolenski. Each year marks the feast of beans, which ends with choosing king and queen of beans.Guests in Smilian can visit the ethnographic collection "beans and Rhodope hand-knitted slippers', which is located in cultural center " Asen Zlatarov-1927 ". In guesthouses one can taste the famous patatnik, cakes, pancakes, hominy, barbecue, Rhodope sheep yogurt, trout on a brick( tikla) and many other dishes typical for the Rhodope . 11. Gyovren Gyovren village is located in South Rhodopes, 14 km from Devin and 52 km from Smolyan. The village has a wonderful southern exposure and is located about one of the largest karst regions in the Rhodopes. It overlooks many known Rodopian peaks. The picturesque scenery along Gyovren makes it attractive for tourism. In summer gathering wild mushrooms, herbs and fruits - raspberries, blackberries, wild strawberries are popular activities. The local tradition of hand weaving, making of colored slippers with beautiful ornaments are still jealously guarded and arise the admiration of foreign guests. In the vicinity of the village is created a nature reserve "Kazanite" that covers a particularly steep terrain with about 1000 meters altitude. The plantations are mainly of white fir, white and black pine, spruce. The reserve is inhabited by wild goats, deer and wild pigs. 12. Truhchevata house

The "Truhchevata House" is located in the picturesque village Valchovtsi. It is situated seven kilometers east of the Renaissance Elena, along the Stara Planina and 500m. from "Yovkovtsi" dam. Here the Truhchevi decided to renovate their grandfather's house, built in 1880. The complex comprises three separate houses located in big filled with greenery yard. Complete peace and quiet, combined with traditional home delicacies make the holiday unforgettable. Everywhere inside smells of wood, and the feeling of comfort is enhanced by home-woven rugs and ancient wooden beams, preserved from the old house. Very often at holidays like Christmas, New Year, St. George and others here are organized celebrations. Elena Balkan is famous for its herbs and wild fruits - strawberries, blackberries, herbs.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Italy Rural Tourism 1. Atrani (Campania) Tucked between two cliffs overlooking the Tyrrhenian Sea, the tiny, picturesque village of Atrani is the Amalfi Coast’s best-kept secret. It’s often bypassed en route to the larger and more famous towns of Amalfi, Positano, and Sorrento, and this is a good thing—you’ll almost always have its beautiful churches, piazzas and charming trattorias (we love A’Paranza for its fresh seafood and smoked mozzarella) all to yourself. Added bonus: it’s an easy 30-minute stroll from Amalfi.

2. Amatrice Amatrice is a town and comune in the province of Rieti, in northern Lazio (central Italy), and the center of the food-agricultural area of Gran Sasso e Monti della Laga National Park. The town was devastated by a powerful earthquakeon 24 August 2016. Archaeological discoveries show a human presence in the area of Amatrice since prehistoric times, and the remains of Roman buildings and tombs have also been found. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the area became part of the Lombard Duchy of Spoleto, included in the comitatus of Ascoli. In 1265, during the reign of Manfred of Sicily, Amatrice became part of the Kingdom of Naples. After the capture of Naples by the Angevins, Amatrice rebelled but was vanquished by Charles I of Anjou in 1274, although it maintained some sort of autonomy as an universitas. In the 14th and 15th century, Amatrice was frequently in conflict with the neighbouring cities of Norcia, Arquata and L'Aquila, and its troops took part in the siege of l’Aquila under Braccio da Montone. In the course of the conflict between Angevins and theAragonese for the possession of the Kingdom of Naples, Amatrice sided with Naples.

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The Church of Sant'Agostino was built in 1428. Later, Amatrice was held by the Orsini and the Medici of Florence, who kept it until 1737.After the unification of Italy in the 19th century, Amatrice became part of the province of L'Aquila in the region ofAbruzzo, eventually being annexed to Lazio in 1927.

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Arezzo

About 80 kilometres southeast of Florence there is a city called Arezzo, capital of the province of the same name. Arezzo is a rich in art and dates to Etruscan times, when it was part of the Dodecapolis, i.e. one of the twelve most important Etruscan cities. Situated along via Cassia, during Roman times it played a crucial role and was well known for its pottery products. Arezzo is surrounded by four valleys: Val Tiberina, Casentino, Valdarno and Valdichiana. The historic centre can be reached on foot: stroll up the pedestrian street called Corso Italia towards the main square, Piazza Grande.

Piazza Grande shows different styles, from medieval towers to the Renaissance Loggiato Vasariano, from the Gothic-Renaissance Palazzo della Fraternita dei Laici to Palazzo del le Logge designed by Vasari. Every first weekend of the month, Piazza Grande hosts the famous antiques fair and it is also the location of the Joust of the Saracens, a medieval tournament 294


Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE held on the third Sunday in June and the first Sunday in September. The square was also the set of the movie Life is beautiful by Roberto Benigni. One of the most important religious buildings in Arezzo is the Basilica of San Francesco (13th-14th century), with the astonishing Cappella Bacci (Bacci chapel) with the frescoes of Piero della Francesca depicting the Legend of the True Cross and dating to the second part of the 15th century. In Arezzo there is also a cathedral named after Saint Donatus, which dominates the city from the hill-top. Inside there are treasures such as the medieval stained glass by Frenchman Guillaume de Marcillat, the fresco by Piero della Francesca portraying the Mary Madeleine, a wooden choir designed by Vasari, a baptismal font with a relief by Donatello, and terracottas by Andrea della Robbia.

Visit the Medicean Fortress and its gardens, which provides 360-degree stunning views of the city. In Arezzo you will find also a Roman amphitheatre and many other churches. 4. Saluzzo (Piedmont) Just an hour’s drive south of Turin, you’ll find the sleepy medieval town of Saluzzo—a pretty sweep of red-tiled rooftops, bell towers, and ancient spires backed by the snow-capped Cottian Alps. Highlights include La Castiglia, a 14th Century castle, and the Casa Cavassa, a Renaissance palazzo-turned-museum that’s home to some spectacular gold-leaf paintings and frescoes.

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5. Collodi (Tuscany) Carved into the side of a hill in Tuscany between Florence and Pisa, you’ll find Collodi: a gorgeous medieval village famous for being the home of Pinocchio (or more accurately, its creator, Carlo Collodi). Don’t leave without stopping by Pinocchio Park, which boasts the tallest wooden Pinocchio statue in the world, and nearby Garzoni Gardens, filled with Renaissance statues, ornate fountains, and lush bamboo groves.

6. Caltanissetta History, folklore and gastronomy blend together perfectly in Caltanissetta, a splendid province in the heart of Sicily. The city's roots are sowed deep in history, showcasing archaeological finds and splendid castles scattered all over its territory. Its history has undergone numerous transitions between the Greek, Roman, Norman, Swabian, Anjou, Aragonese and Castilian rules – all having left their imprint. 296


Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE The peak of the Province's grandeur is linked to exploitation of the local sulphur mines, part of Caltanissetta’s historical-natural legacy. The landscape still speaks of the ancient mines, with their wells and tunnels engraved into the mountain's profile. Dry, yellow-colored hills trace the profile of this area, but in spring the panorama changes, taking on an intense green hue.

Gentle hills slope down towards the coastline reaching the Provincial outlet to the sea. The vibrant colors of olive groves, vineyards and citrus orchards paint the entire province in an unequivocal contrast to the sea.

In fact, Caltanisetta's northern zone is mountainous, with hills and broad valleys, and offers an excellent environment for the cultivation of nut trees, vineyards and olives. An open-air museum, Caltanisetta's cultural offerings can be divided into Medieval and archaeological itineraries. One of the most amazing castles is that of Mussomeli, dating back to the 14th Century, but later modified with crenellated walls and a square tower. The legend here is that three sisters were buried alive in one of the halls, now known as the “Hall of the Three Sisters.” Not to miss in Caltanissetta are the Castle of Pietrarossa; the beautiful Cathedral with its two tall bell towers; the Abbey of Santo Spirito, once a fortified country house transformed into a church by the Normans; and the Church of St. Agatha, its interior richly embellished with 297


Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE polychromatic marble and a Greek-cross floor plan. Finally, three museums take the cake in Caltanissetta: the Diocesan Museum, the Minerology Museum, and the new Regional Archaeological Museum. 7. Castelluccio (Umbria) Located atop a steep hill 5,000 feet above sea level, Castellucio is the highest village in the Appenine Mountain Range—and arguably the most beautiful. On one side, the village is backed by snow-capped mountains, and on the other, lush, fertile plains that blossom with red poppies, violets, and rapeseed in the spring (time your visit to the “Flowering,” from late May to early June). The town itself is charming, with many picturesque piazzas and a simple but lovely church.

8. Monte Isola (Lombardy) Located on an island of the same name, the town of Monte Isola sits in the middle of one of Italy’s prettiest lakes, Lake Iseo. To get there, you’ll need to drive an hour and a half from Milan, then take a 20-minute ferry ride across the lake from the town of Iseo, but it’s well worth the effort. The quaint town boasts many excellent trattorias, lakeside cafés, cozy B&Bs, and the beautiful Madonna della Ceriola chapel, nestled at the summit of the island.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 9. Alberobello (Puglia) The main draw of Alberobello, a picturesque small town near Bari in Puglia, is its characteristic trulli: cone-shaped, white-tipped houses that look as if they’ve been perpetually dusted by snow. Thanks to this distinctive feature, the town was deemed so unique that it was made a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1996. For the best view over Alberobello and its trulli, head up to Piazza del Popolo, where the Belvedere Trulli lookout offers spectacular views of the entire town.

10. Belluno (Veneto) Perched on high bluffs above the Piave River and backed by the snowcapped Dolomites, Belluno is without question one of Northern Italy’s most scenic small towns. Besides its stunning 360 degree views, you’ll find a charming historical town center packed with Renaissance-era buildings, palazzi, and Romanesque churches. Added bonus: it’s just a little over an hour’s drive from mainland Venice.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 11. Pietrapertosa (Basilicata) Pietrapertosa is one of the most dramatic towns in all of Italy: it’s carved into bare rock on the side of a mountain, and boasts an elevation of 3,500 feet above sea level. The town itself is beautiful, filled with ancient ruins and a ninth century Saracen castle—but the highlight of any visit is a ride on Il Volo dell'Angelo. It’s said to be the world’s highest zipline, and gives you an unbeatable aerial view over the entire town and its surroundings.

12. Cefalù (Sicily) Located just an hour’s drive from Palermo, the medieval town of Cefalù is so postcard-pretty that many movies have been filmed here, including the much-loved Cinema Paradiso. Highlights include exploring the town’s many mosaic-adorned cathedrals, walking along its picturesque lungomare (seafront promenade), and catching the sunset from the towering La Rocca.

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Project Erasmus № 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE 13. Sperlonga (Lazio) Sperlonga was the former hideaway of many Roman emperors and it’s no wonder: the tiny town’s pristine beaches, lush greenery, and proximity to Rome—just an hour by train—makes it the perfect weekend escape. The town also has an excellent museum, Museo Archeologico di Sperlonga, which is set amongst the ancient ruins of Emperor Tiberius’ old villa. The Torre Truglia, located at the tip of the promontory on which Sperlonga is built, boasts the best views in town.

14. Positano Seen from the sea, Positano is set in a dramatic vertical panorama of colors; the green of the Monti Lattari, the white, pink and yellow of the Mediterranean houses, the silvery grey of its pebble beaches and the blue of the sea.The Ancient Romans built a number of sumptuous villas on the coast of Positano, the ruins of which can be seen in the vicinity of the Church dell'Assunta.

It is believed that the town, the original nucleus of which developed around a Benedictine abbey, was founded in the 9th century.After it was pillaged by Pisa in 1268, Positano increased its defenses, becoming similar to its powerful neighbor, Amalfi: with steep narrow roads, massive fortified walls, and a series of all-important watch towers. 301


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The majolica tiled dome of the Collegiate Church of Santa Maria Assunta can be seen from every corner of the town. A Byzantine inspired Icon of a black Madonna, dating back to the 18th century, is conserved inside the church. The fortunes of Positano, like its roads, have continually risen and fallen: in 1343 the town was destroyed by a terrible tsunami and in the 15th century it was the victim of continual attacks by Ottoman pirates. In the 18th century, Positano enjoyed a period of prosperity as a major port and trading hub. Following the unification of Italy and the opening of a number of new commercial routes, the town's importance began to decline, so much so that, in just a few decades, it was reduced to little more than a humble fishing village, many of the inhabitants of which decided to emigrate to the United States. 15. Manarola (Liguria, Italy ) Manarola is one of the famous scenic villages of the scenic 'Cinque Terre' coast in eastern Liguria. This lovely village is huddled on and down the sides of a rocky outcrop, with the tall colourful houses leading down to a small harbour and piazza below. Some of the houses on the water side of the village look as if they might slip into the sea at any moment, but have probably looked the same for the last 500 years! The main historic monument of importance in Manarola is the 14th century Church of Saint Lorenzo, with an ancient watchtower and the Oratorio dei Disciplinati close by on this principal square in Manarola. It is the ensemble of ancient houses, the harbour cafes and the scenery that are the main attractions rather than any particular historic monument. You can enjoy lunch at one of the fish restaurants in the small square next to the harbour. There was also once a castle here that was built to defend the village against pirates. The castle is still here and you will see parts of it although it is now converted into private homes.

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The footpath between Manarola and Riomaggiore (the next village to the east), is known as Lover's Lane (Via dell Amore) and is the most popular and easiest part of the path that travels along the coast between the five villages. 16. Vernazza

This jewel of the Cinque Terre—a group of five villages designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site-is rebuilt in a sustainable and eco-friendly fashion. Vernazza’s essential appeals are as they’ve always been—wandering the pedestrian-only streets out to its medieval castle with panoramic vistas; lounging on the little sandy beach with locals; poking into shops along Via Visconti. There are no big luxury hotels but smart minimalist rooms with stunning views can be found, as well as restaurants that dish up justcaught anchovies, whole-grilled fish, and trofie, the preferred Ligurian short pasta, with pesto.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE Breathtaking hiking trails wend along the surrounding cliffs, with an especially unforgettable stretch between Vernazza and Corniglia. For those more inclined toward an excursion by boat, there are many compelling side trips. One of the most memorable is the village of San Fruttuoso, home to a magnificent 13th-century Benedictine abbey and wonderful, simple trattorias like Da Laura, which serves spectacular fritto misto right on the beach. 17. Tellaro The village of Tellaro is considered a real gem on the Gulf of Poets. It is off the beaten track but definitely worth a visit. It has remained very peaceful and laid back, despite listing among the 100 most beautiful villages in Italy.

Its origins date to Etruscan times and its typical houses hurled together are spilling down the hillside toward the tiny, secluded harbour. As typical for the villages in the area, it was built with strong fortifications which role was to protect the village from any potential invaders coming from the sea. Coming down the main road leading into town, it opens up into the main piazza where you can find a number of bars and places to eat. As with other places in Liguria, food is an important part of life in Tellaro and it is home to several outstanding restaurants. You can taste hot "farinata"- a delicious tart made with chickpea flour - every night from the bakery on the main square. As well as there are small grocery stores dotted around the village which are very well stocked and some of them sell local delicacies including "testaroli", which is a pasta-like dish typically dressed with pesto. Passing the main piazza, you enter the real treat of the village - its narrow alleyways and passages - a magnificent labyrinth.

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Walking up through the narrow alleyways , called “carrugi”, you will end up at the Oratory of San Maria in Selaa. It was initially built in 1660 and following a recent renovation it currently hosts local exhibitions and art events. Taking a descent from there, you will reach the sea and on the most extreme point of the village, you will discover the ancient Church of San Giorgio built during the second part of the XVI century. 18. Camogly

Camogli, situated in the north-west Italian region of Liguria, between Genoa and Portofino, is a fishing settlement rather than a beach resort. Camogli's rather ordinary shopping street a block or so inland from the coast, with the railway station, main bus stop and information office at one end, provides no clue to what is just round the corner. Step out onto the promenade and take a sharp breath. This is as much a hallucination as a view. In one direction, beyond a tottering cliff, the vast wooded cape of the promontory reaches out, crowned at the halfway point by a domed church, looking almost inaccessibly high. During 305


Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE poor weather the upper slopes may be lost in cloud. In the other direction Camogli's own church stands above a stony beach, backed by a ruined fortification, on a short peninsula. The more distant curve of the Ligurian coast behind it sweeps away to Genoa and far beyond, a visual summary of the Italian Riviera. Camogli's little headland is a hill village in miniature, with a few houses as well as the church clustered around a couple of narrow lanes, steps and a vaulted passageway, with the remains of the stone fort guarding them at the back. From here, the landward view is filled by several tiers of pastel-painted tenements six or seven storeys high and very old. West of the church is the real centre of Camogli, its harbour. There are a few pleasure craft, but fishing boats comprise by far the majority moored here, most of them small and some no larger than rowing skiffs, reflecting a concentration on inshore fishing.

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Project Erasmus â„– 2016-1-RO01-KA219-024675 TOURIST GUIDE BIBLIOGRAPHY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sinemorets https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pomorie https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sinaia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zlatograd https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Velingrad https://ceb.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malyovitsa#/media/File:Maliovitsa_5407 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ribaritsa,_L

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TOURISM IN ROMANIA-TURKEY-BULGARIA-ITALY MARITIME TOURISM MONTAN TOURISM CULTURAL TOURISM RELIGIOUS TOURISM RURAL TOURISM

Tourist guide for Turkey Romania Bulgaria Italy  

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