STRAIGHT & LEVEL GEOFF ROBISON PRESIDENT, VINTAGE AIRCRAFT ASSOCIATION
Intense, fun, exciting, rewarding, and amazing here did the summer go? It seems as though I just got done with B-17 training a few weeks ago, and that happened in late March! Thirty-plus days on the B-17 tour (so far) took me to tour stops from Washington state to New Jersey. Then I attended multiple work weekends in Oshkosh, the spring board meetings, and multiple Young Eagles events; provided transportation to the Air Academy for some of our chapter-sponsored youth; and spent two weeks in Oshkosh for EAA AirVenture. What a whirlwind of activity in a short few months. It has also been a really interesting year for the Vintage Aircraft Association (VAA). The term intense is appropriate, as well as the terms fun, exciting, rewarding, and amazing. We are now into the fall of the year, and with that comes the planning and execution of the VAA fall board meetings. Later this month we will meet and discuss many aspects of the business of the association, as well as the performance results of the 2010 AirVenture event. It is typical for the VAA board to review and discuss newly proposed capital projects for the future, as well as the areas in which we can develop potential improvements. We also discuss and review the highlights of the many new initiatives you observed at AirVenture this year. One of those new offerings at the 2010 event was the new personal electronics charging facility, which proved to be a big hit with the VAA membership and other EAA guests and members. This enterprise was much more successful than I ever imagined. We are already discussing some improve-
ments to this area that would further enhance this popular member benefit. We had good reviews from the Type Club representatives on the upgraded lighting and the wireless Internet service in the Vintage Hangar. We are also working hard on a resolution to the noise levels in the hangar that are being generated from the workshop area. Many thanks to Paul Poberezny for assisting our volunteers with the gathering of some of his personal artifacts to create an old-time workshop area in the Vintage Hangar. It looks great, Paul. As many of you know, the VAA took on the responsibility of producing our own Awards Program last year. With the new Vintage Hangar being large enough to host the event in the Vintage area, we saw a positive reaction from the membership with a good number of AirVenture attendees and award winners in attendance. Apparently the word got out this year because we experienced a large increase in attendance at this special event. Almost 75 percent of those members whose airplanes won were personally able to accept their reward, a wonderful increase over the past few years when that number hovered around 50 percent. We are already planning a number of enhancements to this program for the 2011 event. It’s an enjoyable program that the members seem to greatly appreciate. You really need to come and experience this event held Saturday evening during AirVenture. Many other committee meetings are on our agenda for the fall board meetings as well, such as Development, Executive Finance, Hall of
Fame, Convention, and Editorial. I will be sure to report any significant results of these many meetings to you in a later edition of Straight & Level. I am particularly excited about these upcoming meetings because it will be the first series of meetings that the VAA board will experience under the leadership of our new EAA president and CEO, Rod Hightower. I had the opportunity to meet Rod just prior to the formal announcement of his selection as the first non-Poberezny to lead this great organization. My immediate impression of Rod was very much positive. He is one of those people who possesses a unique and engaging personality, and he is a genuinely nice guy. One of the unique qualities the EAA board was looking for in a candidate was someone who has the culture of EAA in his blood, and Rod certainly possesses that qualification. Rod also has a background in vintage aircraft restoration (he restored a Stearman PT-17), which will likely make him particularly popular with the membership of the VAA. Welcome aboard, Rod! Be sure to check out the EAA video of Rod’s early days at the helm of the EAA: www.EAAvideo.org/video. aspx?v=605761337001. I may have mentioned earlier that we finally saw the finishing touches completed on the C-120. It was a long road, but we now have a completely refreshed panel; all new interior, including headliner and new skylights; and recertified avionics. She’s sure a pretty girl! Join us and have it all.
A I R P L A N E Vol. 38, No. 10
CONTENTS IFC Straight & Level Intense, fun, exciting, rewarding, and amazing by Geoff Robison
Sparky’s AirVenture Notebook
Conjuring camaraderie while preserving aviation history by Sparky Barnes Sargent
One Classy Rearwin Cloudster Carefully restored with character by Sparky Barnes Sargent
Light Plane Heritage The Sperry Messenger by Jack McRae
Batman: The Prequel French aviation pioneer Clément Ader’s Avion III by Gilles Auliard
My Friend Frank Rezich, Part I Growing up ‘aviation’ by Robert G. Lock
The Vintage Mechanic Elementary weight and balance by Robert G. Lock
The Vintage Instructor A tale of three ‘first’ flights by Steve Krog, CFI
Mystery Plane by H.G. Frautschy
Friends of the Red Barn
FRONT COVER: The rare Rearwin Cloudster (there are 24 of them on the FAA Registry) is an attractive high-wing monoplane that is sometimes called a “Baby Howard.” This wonderful example was restored by Ed McKeown with help from Roger Shadick and Kent McMakin. Read more about it in Sparky Barnes Sargent’s article beginning on page 12. The photo was shot during the annual members’ invitational flyin at the AAA’s Antique Airfield near Blakesburg, Iowa. Photo by Gilles Auliard. BACK COVER: This month’s Mystery Plane answer is the diminutive Sperry Messenger biplane. This example, owned by the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, was restored by the Museum of the United States Air Force. The Air Force included the bracket and hook used to operate a Messenger from U.S. Army blimps during trials with the blimps TC-3 and TC-7 in 1923-24. U.S. Air Force photograph.
EAA Publisher Director of EAA Publications Executive Director/Editor Production/Special Project Photography Copy Editor EAA Chairman of the Board
Rod Hightower Mary Jones H.G. Frautschy Kathleen Witman Jim Koepnick Colleen Walsh Tom Poberezny
Publication Advertising: Manager/Domestic, Sue Anderson Tel: 920-426-6127 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Fax: 920-426-4828 Senior Business Relations Mgr, Trevor Janz Tel: 920-426-6809 Email: email@example.com Manager/European-Asian, Willi Tacke Phone: +49(0)1716980871 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Fax: +49(0)8841 / 496012
Interim Coordinator/Classified, Alicia Canziani Tel: 920-426-6860 Email: email@example.com
VINTAGE AIRPLANE 1
EAA Announces All-Star Fall Webinar Lineup
September 23 marked the 99th anniversary of the first official airmail flight in the United States, and in preparation for the 100th anniversary celebrations next year, the 1911 paint scheme used by Earle L. Ovington has recently been added to EAA’s Type XI Bleriot reproduction. EAA’s chief mechanic John Hopkins reports that the aircraft should fly within the next month. The EAA Bleriot project has been underway for the past four years and includes an original threecylinder Anzani engine acquired from a French museum, dated to 1910. Volunteers are making final mechanical and paperwork preparations for the first flight. This included the recent application of a paint scheme derived from Earle Ovington’s famous Queen’s Bleriot of 1911. Ovington was sworn in as a postal carrier by the postmaster general just before he departed from Grand Estates, New York, on September 23, 1911, with a mailbag containing 650 letters and 1,280 postcards. He then flew the 5-mile route to Mineola, New York, where he made a perfect drop on a predetermined spot outside the post office. However the 500-foot drop split the bag, scattering mail everywhere. Ground handlers were able to gather the letters, and each piece of mail was sent on its way with the “Aeroplane Station
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EAA Bleriot Project Nears First Flight
No. 1 - Garden City Estates, N.Y.” postmark. The mail route was temporary, part of an air show going on in Garden City Estates. Ovington spent the rest of the week delivering at total 37,470 pieces of mail from the show to post office in Mineola. Hopkins said the conditions have to be perfect for the first flight, “We’ll wait for a really, really, really nice day to fly it—probably from Pioneer Airport.” Hopkins said. “In the meantime we hope to have it on display in the AirVenture Museum while we complete the required FAA inspections.” EAA’s Bleriot will help commemorate the 100th anniversary of the first airmail flight during AirVenture 2011, which is planned to include a major gathering of historic airmail aircraft. For more on the EAA Bleriot project, see the article in the July 2009 issue of Sport Aviation and view the videos on the aircraft and its unique original Anzani engine at www.EAAvideo.org.
EAA webinars are back for a series of fall seminars. EAA webinars are offered free of charge to EAA members, but space is limited to the fi rst 1,000 registrants for each session. To view the webinars, your computer (Mac or PC) must have audio speakers or headphones, and a broadband connection is recommended. Upcoming webinars, scheduled for 7 p.m., include the following topics and presenters: October 5—Is Your Two-Stroke Engine About to Fail?; Brian Carpenter October 14—The Zodiac CH 650; Sebastien and Mathieu Heintz October 19—Flying Marine One; Lindy Kirkland November 3—Q&A With Kermit Weeks; Kermit Weeks November 9—Just Say No to Useless Maintenance; Mike Busch November 16—AeroVee Engine and AeroInjector; Jeremy Monnett December 2—Owning and Flying a Homebuilt; Joe Norris December 16—Flight Before the Wright Brothers; Adam Smith January 5, 2011—Building a Bleriot XI; Fred Stadler For more information about EAA’s webinars, visit www.EAA.org/ webinars.
Get Your Complimentary AirVenture 2010 Souvenir Program—Digital Edition EAA members can now view the digital edition of the EAA AirVenture Oshkosh 2010 Commemorative Souvenir Program. See 194 pages of exclusive features and stunning photography, including the DC-3, B-17, electric aircraft, the history of AirVenture, and much more, right on your computer screen! To view the AirVenture 2010 program now, visit www. AirVenture.org/program.
EAA Calendar of Aviation Events Is Now Online EAA’s online Calendar of Events is the “go-to” spot on the Web to list and find aviation events in your area. The user-friendly, searchable format makes it the perfect web-based tool for planning your local trips to a fly-in. We invite you to access the EAA online Calendar of Events at http://www. eaa.org/calendar/
Upcom ing M ajor F l y - I ns COPPERSTATE Fly-In Casa Grande Municipal Airport (CGZ), Casa Grande, Arizona October 21-23, 2010 www.COPPERSTATE.org
Accreditation Puts EAA AirVenture Museum in Top Tier EAA’s AirVenture Museum in Oshkosh, Wisconsin, one of the nation’s premier aviation museums, again earned accreditation from the American Association of Museums (AAM), recognizing its commitment to excellence and high professional standards. The latest approval marks the third consecutive time the AirVenture Museum has earned the AAM’s seal of approval. The EAA facility was the first aviation museum in the United States to earn accreditation in 1988, and one of fewer than 10 aviation museums in the nation to hold the rating. The museum was accredited for 15 years, increased from the 10-year terms approved twice previously. The AAM accreditation process took more than a year to complete. It includes substantial documentation of a museum’s current programs and operations, as well as a site visit by a national panel of museum professionals. Among other characteristics reviewed by AAM are governance, collection stewardship, institutional planning, code of ethics, mission, and risk management. Among the publicly visible upgrades made by the AirVenture Museum over the past decade was the effort to make exhibits more interactive and family-friendly. In addition, exciting new exhibits have been introduced in recent years, including such one-of-a-kind displays as SpaceShipOne, the world’s first successful civilian spaceship. The AirVenture Museum also became a major value for EAA members, as a free-admission policy for EAA members was established, and the organization’s 160,000 members could also visit several hundred other science and technology centers nationwide at no charge as part of the Association of Science-Technology Centers’ Passport Program. “EAA members and the Oshkosh community can be very proud of the AirVenture Museum and the standards of quality that are maintained here,” Museum Director Alan Westby said. “This facility is not only the home of EAA’s history and the story of personal flight. It is a resource for all to be used to discover more about aviation, and it’s a showpiece for our community.”
Southeast Regional Fly-In Middleton Field Airport (GZH), Evergreen, Alabama October 22-24, 2010 www.SERFI.org U.S. Sport Aviation Expo Sebring Regional Airport (SEF), Sebring, Florida January 20-23, 2011 www.Sport-Aviation-Expo.com Sun ’n Fun Fly-In Lakeland Linder Regional Airport (LAL), Lakeland, Florida March 29-April 3, 2011 www.Sun-N-Fun.org AERO Friedrichshafen Messe Friedrichshafen, Friedrichshafen, Germany April 13-16, 2011 www.AERO-Friedrichshafen.com/html/ en Virginia Regional Festival of Flight Suffolk Executive Airport (SFQ), Suffolk, Virginia April 30-May 1, 2011 www.VirginiaFlyIn.org Golden West Regional Fly-In and Air Show Yuba County Airport (MYV), Marysville, California June 10-12, 2011 www.GoldenWestFlyIn.org Arlington Fly-In Arlington Municipal Airport (AWO), Arlington, Washington July 6-10, 2011 www.ArlingtonFlyIn.org EAA AirVenture Oshkosh Wittman Regional Airport (OSH), Oshkosh, Wisconsin July 25-31, 2011 www.AirVenture.org Colorado Sport International Air Show and Rocky Mountain Regional Fly-In Rocky Mountain Metropolitan Airport (BJC), Denver, Colorado August 27-28, 2011 www.COSportAviation.org
VINTAGE AIRPLANE 3
Sparky’s AirVenture Notebook Conjuring camaraderie while preserving aviation history ARTICLE AND PHOTOS BY
SPARKY BARNES SARGENT
As you walk toward the entranceway to the Vintage area and glance up toward the sky, you’ll see the Vintage Aircraft Association’s warm welcome, embracing all who venture into the Red Barn and the grassy fields beyond. Pause for a moment to contemplate the message: “Preserving Aviation History for Future Generations.” It’s a mission in which we all play a part—whether pilot, airplane owner and/or restorer, or armchair enthusiast. Without the devotion, talents, and energy of thousands of individuals who passionately treasure vintage airplanes, current and future generations wouldn’t be able to personally appreciate our collective winged roots by seeing and hearing these old airplanes fly or be able to walk right up to them on the flightline and talk with the owners, pilots, and restorers. Perhaps best of all, one of the most enjoyable perks of being involved with old airplanes—besides flying them—is experiencing the camaraderie conjured by gatherings of like-minded aviators. The vintage fields of EAA AirVenture Oshkosh provide a great opportunity for folks to swap flying tales, share restoration tips, ogle airplanes, and enjoy the company of friends new and old. This year, we again strolled through row after row of interesting aircraft—all told, there were 635 vintage airplanes on the grounds. We stopped to chat with aviators by their planes, and we photographed many aircraft we hadn’t previously seen. Some folks were busy cleaning and polishing their airplanes, others had a gaggle of merry folks gathered around, and others were peacefully relaxing beside their cherished flying machines—but everyone we found was friendly and willing to share a bit about themselves and their aircraft. 4 OCTOBER 2010
Jim Clark of Chapman, Kansas, flew his 1939 Waco EGC-8 to Oshkosh, accompanied by his grandson, Brody. N61KS is powered by a supercharged 350-hp hp Wright R-760E-2 and cruises at about 130 mph. When originally owned by the Civil Aeronautics Authority (CAA), the airplane was based in Garden City, New York. “Three or four years ago, I star ted looking for a cabin Waco,” said Jim with a smile, “because I wanted a big flying SUV that could carr y all my stuff! So I star ted going all over the countr y looking and could not find one that I wanted to buy or restore. This airplane was located only 15 miles from my home, and I knew the owner, EAA member Chuck Hall. It hadn’t flown for about 18 years, but it had been stored properly. I bought it, and Raven Aero Ser vice in Junction City, Kansas, did the restoration.”
Pilot Tim Cannady has been flying on and off for about 30 years and has been coming to Oshkosh since 1979. He was industriously cleaning N31346’s wood prop as the sun’s beaming rays seemingly spotlighted his already-glowing 1946 Aeronca 7AC Champ. Tim, who hails from Propwash Airport near Justin, Texas, described his flight to Oshkosh: “I made it as far as Watertown, Wisconsin, on Friday night, and nobody knew what was going on in Oshkosh with all the rain, so I spent Saturday at Watertown. I figured if I got out early Sunday morning, some water would have dried up overnight. Even then, we were parked on the taxiway, and I just now [midday TTuesday] moved it into the field—so I want to clean it up before I put a ‘judge me’ sign on it. I’ve only h had this airplane about four months; the previous o owner, Tom Hartman, passed away, and we wanted tto keep the airplane on the airport. When Tom first b brought the Champ to Propwash from Seattle, eve erybody encouraged him to take it to Oshkosh, but [[he never did], so now it’s here for Tom. The airp plane is about as original as you can get—it even h has the non-sensitive altimeter without the Kollsm man window, a non-recording tachometer, and the o original hubcaps and fuel cap. The engine has the fforged rocker box covers instead of the stamped ccovers.” The judges took note of the Champ’s originality and awarded it the Class I (0-80 hp)-Bronze n LLindy in the Classic (September 1945-1955) category. c VINTAGE AIRPLANE 5
John Maxfield of Northville, Michigan, was at AirVenture with a longstanding member of his family. In fact, the 1948 Funk B85C was already part of his family before he was a year old. “This airplane belonged to Joe and Howard Funk for 10 years, and it’s arguably the last serial number that they built. Dad bought it from them when I was 10 months old in 1958. It’s what I grew up around and learned to fly, and I had my first solo in it,” shared John, chuckling and adding, “My diapers were actually changed on a table under the wing in the hangar!” NC1654N was restored in 1994 and was awarded Reserve Grand Champion at Oshkosh in 1995. John joined the Antique/Classic Division of EAA back when Buck Hilbert was president. This year, the judges presented John with the Preservation Small Plaque award in the Classic (Sept (September 1945 through 1955) category. Preservation-Small Bob and Barb Perkins flew N20908, their recently purchased Jacobs-powered 1939 Waco AGC-8, from their home at Long Island Airpark (NC26), North Carolina, to Oshkosh this summer. Bob is an EAA volunteer, and he and Barb were busy polishing the prop as rays from the morning sun continued drying the once-soggy field. Smiling happily, Barb commented, “We got up early this morning to come out and clean her—it was all nice before the rain.” Bob chimed in, “We came to Oshkosh a long time ago, but our friends Margy and Ron Natalie encouraged us to start coming back. This Waco is a 20-yearold restoration, and it was repainted about 10 years ago. It was about a year ago when I decided I wanted a round-engine airplane, and Larry Harmacinski, who owns a Waco UEC, said, ‘You have to have a Waco!’ He found this for me on the Internet, it. Larry taught me how to fly it.” and I went out and checked on it and bought it Terry Bolger of Schaumburg, Illinois, was all smiles as he shared a little bit about NC788V, his Fleet Model 7. He bases the airplane at the Walworth, Wisconsin, airport, and has owned it about 10 years. “The restoration is 5 years old, and after it was completed in 2004, it was on the back cover of Vintage. Budd Davisson wrote a nice article on it,” commented Terry, adding, “I like the Fleet for a couple of reasons. Number one, it’s unique. Number two, I restored the whole thing myself. It took me five years, and that makes it fun! It handles phenomenally, and it really is a neat little plane. It doesn’t go fast—only about 80 mph— but it’s really a hoot to fly. It was the first airplane I restored; I did a Champ Champ, and before that I built a kit Buccanee Buccaneer amphibian. I’ve learned a whole lot, and fortunately there are a whole lot of guys at the airport and I was able to draw from their knowledge; they really helped me out. The best thing about being at AirVenture is savoring the ambience of the vintage era, the history of it all, and the wonderful camaraderie—we always have a great time here!” 6 OCTOBER 2010
EAA Vintage members Phil and DeAnn Riter of Stryker, O Ohio, are regular attendees at AirVenture. They’ve been ccoming since the early 1980s and have only missed a few yyears. Phil explained why they came despite the weather, ““This year was challenging! But if you restore airplanes yyou’ve got to be here and see what the competition’s doiing—and you always pick up tips on how to do better.” He bought his 1948 Cessna 170 (N4182V) in Novemb ber 1987, and DeAnn accompanies him on most of their ccross-countries in the Cessna. “We travel a lot—I’ve llogged about 2,800 hours in that airplane; she’s probably b been in it at least 2,500 hours. We’ve had it to Alaska ttwice and to the Canadian Maritimes a couple of times. IIn fact, this past February we went to the Turks and Caicos Islands with this airplane and two other 170s, which was kind of neat. I’ve also got a Champ, and we do short trips in it, and I’ve got a Waco straight wing that we do really short trips in!” They both enjoy flying to AirVenture and camping with their airplane and reuniting with many friends whom they see only once a year. Seventeen-year-old Zac Weidner grew up with airplanes, and he’s been going to Oshkosh with his family since 2007. He was often seen relaxing by his family’s spiffy cream and red Piper Tri-Pacer during AirVenture and was happy to share a little bit about its restoration. His father, Kevin, purchased the 1958 PA-22-160 as a basket case three and a half years ago. It hadn’t flown since 1968 and had been sitting in a garage for more than 20 years. Father and son hauled it home to Bunker Hill, Illinois, from Carbondale on a hog trailer, and together they restored it to award-winning condition. Members of the Short Wing Piper Club proved most helpful as they answered many of the Weidners’ restoration questions via the club’s website. “Restoration takes a lot of determination—and sometimes ffrustration—but i b iit’s ’ worth h iit. W We used d the h P Polyl Fiber process, with Poly-Tone on the fabric and Aerothane on the aluminum,” explained Zac, adding matter-offactly, “I soloed this airplane about two weeks ago, and I’m going to finish my lessons in it. I’ve got about 20 hours now. We fly out of a farm strip at home, and it’s just neat to be able to go up whenever you feel like it and look around and have a view of everything.” As for the future, Zac said he sees aviation as a hobby. “I’m going to farm and fly out of our strip. This is a great airplane for looking at crops and a pretty decent cross-country airplane as long as the sun’s out and it’s not IFR. The first flight after restoration was June 10. It’s a lot of fun to fly!” And fly it they do. Before the restoration the aircraft had only 354 hours; now it has more than 400. The Tri-Pacer is also fun to behold—the judges awarded it the Class I Single Engine (0-160 hp)-Large Plaque in the Contemporary (1956-1970) category.
Left: Ben Scott of Reno, Nevada, is devoted tto preserving antique and vintage airplanes. He le left his 1930 Stearman 4E Speedmail Junior a and 1944 Howard DGA-15P at home to bring N N663G, his recently restored 1945 Grumman G G-44A Widgeon, to AirVenture for its debut this s summer. Powered by Lycoming GO-480 series e engines, it cruises at 160 mph and lands at 6 60 mph. This exquisitely detailed amphibian recceived the Gold Lindy in the seaplane category.
VINTAGE AIRPLANE 7
A pilot since 1976, Jim Graham of Hilliard, Ohio, was happily camping with his Ercoupe 415-C in the “south 40.” A semi-retired U.S. District judge, he’s been going to AirVenture on and off for a long time. Now that he has a bit more time on his hands and is flying as a sport pilot, he’s attended the show for five years in a row. “This is the second time I’ve flown into Oshkosh, and it was a great flight! It was a real thrill flying through the VFR corridor around the lakefront at Chicago—just a spectacular view. I made good time, cruising about 105 mph and burning about 5 gph. AirVenture is the only reason I’d ever camp,” remarked Jim, laughing heartily and adding, “but I somehow got myself in that little tent, and I also somehow went to sleep! I like the camaraderie with the other airplane here in fact, fact I had breakfast this morning with a whole group of folks that just invited me in; I’d never met people here—in them before! Of course, we all have something in common that we can talk about, and that’s fun, too. There are also marvelous airplanes you see here, and the air show’s great. I guess the thing that I get really excited about, in addition to all these other things, is all of the vendors who are here. They choose AirVenture for announcing new products, so I’m always spending time in those big hangars looking at all the fabulous stuff.” Left: This 220-hp Continental-powered 1929 Curtiss Robin is owned and flown by David Mars of Jackson, Mississippi. N3277G was the “leading aircraft” in the recently released and award-winning movie Pearl. The movie was produced by the Chickasaw Nation and Media 13. Pearl Carter Scott, “a daredevil who dared to dream,” grew up in the 1920s in Marlow, Oklahoma. As a young Chickasaw, she started learning to fly in a Robin when she was just 12 years old, and the next year, she became the youngest licensed pilot in the United States. A free screening of Pearl was held on Friday night during AirVenture.
Left: NC15244 is an eye-catching, Jacobs-powered 1935 ccabin Waco YOC, emblazoned with the Phillips 66 logo. It’s owned by Jeff Skiles of Oregon, Wisconsin—the first offio ccer during the Miracle on the Hudson US Airways flight and EAA’s current co-chair of the Young Eagles program.
Right: This pretty 1946 Stinson 108 8 (NC97607) is registered to Ross Sea-brooke of Clarksville, Michigan.
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NX15429 is owned by H. “Cam” Blazer of Leawood, Kansas. Powered by a 165-hp Warner (hence the “X” in the registration number), this 1936 Monocoupe 90A received the Silver Age (1928-1936) Champion–Bronze Lindy in the Antique (1903 through August 1945) category.
NC16522 is a 1939 cabin Waco YKS-6. Bearing the Socony-Vacuum Oil Company logo on its fuselage, the Waco is registered to John Thomason of Sonoma, California.
Talk about standing out in a crowd—this 1947 Consolidated Vultee L-13, N2538B, stimulated many conversations. Powered by a 300-hp Lycoming R680, its nose art depicts a redheaded nurse and the words Intensive Care Unit. Owned by Clu Colvin of Big Cabin, Oklahoma, it received the Outstanding Limited Production–Small Plaque.
Left: NC84149, a handsome 1946 Aeronca 7BCM, was selected as Best Custom Runner-Up–Large Plaque. It’s owned by Kevin Bower of Oldenburg, Indiana.
Left: This 1957 Piper PA-23 Apache is registered to N2287P Inc. of Hudson, Wisconsin.
VINTAGE AIRPLANE 9
Brett Lovett of Liberty, Missouri, had his 1948 Piper PA-17 Vagabond, N4821H, looking pretty. Powered by 65 horses, this Vagabond cruises at 87 mph. It received the Custom Class A (0 - 80 hp)–Small Plaque in the Classic (September 1945 through 1955) category.
Here’s the Mister Mulligan n replica built by Jim Younkin of Springdale, Arkansas. NR273Y is powered by a Pratt & Whitney R-1340.
NC9277K is a good-looking 1947 Stinson 108-2, registered to Lee Lane of Valparaiso, Indiana. According to EAA volunteer Tim Fox, 54 Stinsons were originally signed up for the camping area, but only 28 arrived on the grounds due to the challenging weather-related conditions.
Leon Whelchel of Vinton, Vinton Iowa, Iowa brought his 1942 de Havilland Tiger Moth DH.82A to the convention.
The 1929 Hamilton Metalplane H-47 (N879H) is registered to Mr. Wright’s Pole Pass Airways of SeBill’s Dream, a 1938 Beech F17D Staggerwing (NC18781), attle, Washington. Restored by the late Jack Lysdale is owned, flown, and maintained by the late Bill Morrison’s back in the 1970s, it was last in Oshkosh in 1975! sons, Mark and Ron. Powered by a fuel-injected Jacobs 330, It was awarded the Antique Transport Category the biplane has quite a history, having been in the Morrison Champion–Bronze Lindy and was on display in front family for 35 years. It won a Bronze Lindy in 1991. of the Red Barn.
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The Candler Field Express from Georgia and the Flabob Express from California were on hand to help celebrate the 75th anniversary of the DC-3 this year.
Past award winner N2988T, a 1966 Meyers 200D, was looking sharp despite a few raindrops. The airplane is owned by Ross Warner of Benton Harbor, Michigan.
This outstanding Lycoming R680-powered Stinson Model O replica (NC12817) of the only open-cockpit aircraft built by Stinson is based largely upon photographs of the original 1933 airplane. The replica was painstakingly engineered and built by Evergreen Aviation Services and Restoration at the Scappoose Airport near Portland, Oregon. This unique two-place parasol airplane received the Antique Replica Aircraft Championâ€“Bronze Lindy.
N6874W is one highly polished 1965 Cherokee PA28-140. Its shiny status attracted many a passerby. Powered by a Lycoming O-320, the airplane is regisp of Chicago, g , Illinois. tered to Claene Corp.
N7557B is a perky 1957 Champion 7FC Tri-Traveler, registered to Joe Wiegand of San Francisco, California.
Right: N77661, a 1947 Fairchild 24-R46 was featured on the cover of Sport Aviation in November 1974. Itâ€™s a former Antique Grand Champion winner.
VINTAGE AIRPLANE 11
One Classy Rearwin Cloudster Carefully restored with character article and photos by Sparky Barnes Sargent
n the early summer of 1940, Rearwin test pilot Billy Miller gave NC25552 (s/n 828) a thorough preflight, as sunlight glinted from its lustrous, hand-rubbed vermilion and indigo-trimmed finish. Climbing into the elegantly appointed cabin, the clean scent of new wool upholstery enveloped him, and the gracefully curved, chrome-plated control stick felt cool to his touch. He engaged the electric starter, and the seven-cylinder, 120-hp Ken-Royce radial rumbled to life. Then he taxied the three-place airplane out for takeoff, and the Cloudster quickly climbed away from the runway. Miller gained sufficient altitude above the Fairfax Airport in Kansas City, Kansas, to put the airplane through the prescribed series of test maneuvers and recorded the data from his findings in a detailed report. A copy of that report, along with the build sheet from the factory, filtered down through seven decades and now rests in the hands of the airplane’s current caretaker, Ed McKeown of Village of Lakewood, Illinois. So when Rearwin Aircraft & Engines Incorporated advertised that “the Cloudster is built to last,” its statement was a bit more prophetic than it might have imagined. A brief glance at Rearwin history reveals that, in 1937, Rearwin Aircraft acquired LeBlond Aircraft Engine Company and renamed it Ken-Royce Motors, after owner Raymond Andrew Rearwin’s two sons, Ken and Royce. In 1939, Rearwin’s companies came together as Rearwin Aircraft & Engines. By then Rearwin was already known for several of its airplanes, including the Speedster and Sportster—in fact, it advertised the popular Sportster model in
12 OCTOBER 2010
the first issue of Trade-A-Plane Service in 1937. Rearwin manufactured around 125 Cloudsters under Approved Type Certificate No. 711, and today, serial number 828 is one of only 24 Rearwin Model 8135s listed on the FAA Registry. By 1942, the company was sold to Empire Ordinance, which continued manufacturing operations as Commonwealth Aircraft.
‘Cloudster Is Tops!’ The Cloudster has sometimes been affectionately dubbed a “baby Howard,” since its round engine and tall vertical stabilizer are similar to the larger Howard DGA of the same era. Rearwin had its own creative promotional slogans, and one was “by any yardstick you choose, the Cloudster ‘measures up.’” One such “yardstick” was that of performance: “The Cloudster is powered with the timetested, dependable Ken-Royce motor, which assures plenty of power and pep for top-notch performance under all conditions. . . . Just tap the throttle and the Cloudster is off with full load in 700 feet—up like a rocket, off like a bullet!” Another was economy: “ . . . sky-high in value, yet down to earth in price . . . . And the Ken-Royce motor, with its new automatic overhead rocker box oiling system . . . eliminates hand greasing . . . .” Yet another measure was beauty: “ . . . see the flashing, streamlined styling of the Cloudster. . . . Outside and in, the Cloudster has a personality of its own, for its looks are as distinctive as its performance.” Another ad touted the Rearwin’s features by describing: “Thrills for Three—A real three-place airplane, with room
The 1940 Rearwin Model 8135 Cloudster taxies out for takeoff. to spare and power to burn… Cloudsters Go to Iran—. . . the Iranian Government picked Rearwin 120 hp Cloudsters – twenty-five of them – for its Aero Club. . . . These airplanes are being used half way around the world on fields a mile or more above sea level and over high, mountainous country. They have to be good . . . Service With a Smile— . . . The Cloudster’s newly designed two-piece engine cowling … can be raised in three minutes for quick and easy engine servicing. There’s a special opening which saves additional time in checking the oil level. . . . Appointment with Beauty— . . . Placement of sticks well forward enables women fliers to wear conventional dresses with perfect freedom . . . Inside and out, the Cloudster is tops!”
Owner Ed McKeown and Roger Shadick of Noble Aviation.
Washington, D.C., in March 1943. The Defense Plant Corporation was created by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation pursuant to Section 5(d) of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation Act, as amended, to aid the government of the United States in its National Defense Program. During the brief period of time it owned the Rearwin, it was badly damaged during a forced landing. The Civil Aeronautics Administration (CAA) Inspector’s Report stated that the accident occurred at South Coffeyville, Oklahoma, on July 6, 1943, at 4:45 p.m. The pilot, Jack Howard Graham of Sioux City, Iowa, was an instructor who was associated with the Coffeyville Airway
Construction and Specs The Model 8135 measured 21 feet 6 inches from nose to tail, and its fuselage was composed of welded steel tubing with spruce fairing strips. Its wings had a span of 34 feet 1-3/4 inches and were built of spruce spars and truss-type ribs with plywood gussets, with duralumin leading and trailing edges. The ailerons were of metal construction, and the tail group was composed of welded tubular steel spars with steel channel ribs. Ball bearing control pulleys were used throughout the flight control system, which provided the pilot with smooth, fluid control. Its main gear incorporated hydraulic shocks, and its tail wheel was a combination full swivel/steerable with a hydraulic pneumatic shock absorber. A 17-gallon fuel tank in each wing provided a 600-mile range, since the seven-cylinder, 120-hp Ken-Royce engine burned about 7 gph at a 120-mph cruise. The Cloudster weighed 1,140 pounds empty and had a useful load of 760 pounds and a gross weight of 1,900 pounds. Its maximum speed was 135 mph; its landing/stall speed was 50 mph. The price at the factory started at $4,495.
Cloudster Chronicle Serial number 828 went through a long chain of ownership, enduring a few mishaps through the years. Following are just a few highlights gleaned from its aircraft records. The Coffeyville Airway Corporation of Coffeyville, Kansas, sold NC25552 to the Defense Plant Corporation of
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VINTAGE AIRPLANE 13
Serial number 828 came from the factory with a wind generator.
The original glove box neatly conceals a modern transponder, radio, and engine analyzer.
company. “The engine quit on the takeoff, necessitating a forced landing. Damage to aircraft: propeller broken; motor mount bent; right side landing gear buckled; right lift struts bent; vertical fin and rudder demolished.” The inspector further reported: “After intensive investigation, it was determined that a cotter key was missing from the throttle arm on the carburetor and the retaining nut was loose. This would allow the butterfly to operate independent of the throttle if the nut were loose enough. The spring on the butterfly would then shut the butterfly valve, causing the engine to drop back to idling speed and be thought to be ‘windmilling.’ The reason the butterfly would close is because the spring is hooked up to work in this manner. The spring should be arranged in such a way as to open the butterfly instead of closing it. Since the manufacturer overhauled the complete engine and it’s [sic] accessories the last time, it is assumed that they attached the spring in this manner.” The Cloudster was repaired, and the Defense Plant Corporation sold NC25552 to James Emmett Combs of Kansas City, Missouri, in April 1944. Omar Midyett of East St. Louis, Illinois, purchased the Rearwin in June 1949 and sold it in September 1950. Interestingly, Midyett was well-known for operating a flight-training school and establishing Lakeside Airport near Granite City in southwestern Illinois. Those in the antique community may well remember NC25552 (now N4404W) as Noel and Mary Gouldsmith’s airplane. Noel, of Independence, Missouri, owned the airplane in the early 1960s and restored it. He also replaced the original Goodyear 3LNBM wheels by installing 800x4 wheels and Hayes brake assemblies from a PA-12. Painted in an unmistakable Daytona white and forest green scheme, the airplane was a regular visitor to the flyins at Ottumwa, Iowa, where it won several awards. William Kloek of St. Paul, Minnesota, purchased the Cloudster in May 1971, and Ed McKeown recalled, “He landed it in a tree after running out of fuel. Then Frank Hay [of Nisswa, Minnesota] bought the airplane in April 1992.” Ed first learned about the availability of the airplane from Roger Shadick, owner of Noble Aviation in Eagle River, Wisconsin. “Roger heard about this plane down in Racine, Wisconsin, and I knew what it was, so I called
Frank Hay. He had it stored in a garage on his property, and all the parts scattered around there, along with the engine,” said Ed. “He was just plain tired of the project, and it needed a lot of work. He also had another Cloudster, N25451, minus its prop and engine. I purchased both airplanes from him in May 2002.”
14 OCTOBER 2010
Restoration Serial number 828’s restoration began in earnest when Ed and Roger moved both Rearwins to Eagle River, Wisconsin, in September 2002. Roger acquired NC2551 from Ed, and Ed and Roger started a slow-but-sure restoration on N4404W. As sometimes happens with dormant airplanes, Ed discovered that his Cloudster’s original CAA identification mark, NC25552, had been forfeited when the registration wasn’t kept current. Frank Hay registered the airplane after he bought it in 1992, and thus it received N4404W as its new registration number. When Ed acquired the project, he recalled with a chuckle, “I found the original number on a Piper Cherokee in Michigan, so I called the owner, and he was willing to give me the N number—if I bought the airplane for $35,000!” Roger fabricated all new sheet metal, which was a bit of a challenge. “The skins look relatively simple, but in fact they’re really not, because one skin tucks into another one to hold it together,” he described, “and the parts that Ed had were wrinkled-up masses of junk. I rolled them out flat to see if I could determine where the bend started and ended, and the general shape of them, and then we went from there.” Ed recalled, “The cowl was unbelievably destroyed. Roger reworked the original, because it was either do that or try to get a new one. I thought that if he got it as good as he could, it would look like it was original for the plane, rather than a brand new piece—and that was good; we wanted that kind of character in it. We did the same thing with the wheelpants. We wanted to maintain some authenticity and the character of the plane.” The tail wheel assembly also offered a challenge. “It’s ‘original,’ except I made it all new, because it was corroded and rotted,” declared Roger. “That’s the most complex tail
wheel system I’ve ever seen in my life. There are cables going everywhere, an oil spring, and steel tubing.” Roger progressed steadily on the project for a while… or so they thought. “Frank had covered the fuselage and the wings while he owned it, and they looked okay, so we assumed they were. We did all the finish coats and sanding, wired in the lights, and were all set to go,” Roger explained, adding, “and then we opened up the inspection holes on the wing and started seeing some really scary stuff in there. So then the wings had to be redone, and my shop didn’t allow the time for us to really tear into it.” That’s when they enlisted the services of Kent McMakin of Rockton, Illinois, who repaired both wings by fabricating new components. He replaced a total of 11 cracked ribs, as well as the left and right rear spars. Roger re-covered the fuselage with Poly-Fiber and used a high-volume, low-pressure system to apply the finish coat of Poly-Tone to the entire airframe. One of his employees, Randy Block, completed the new wool headliner and upholstery, and the control sticks, rudder pedals, door handles, and other cabin hardware were freshly chromed. Roger made a new instrument panel by forming metal around a block of wood and welding it as needed; then it was sent to a company in California to receive its walnut veneer. The panel neatly conceals a transponder, radio, and engine analyzer inside the original glove box. The electric fuel gauges, Ford ashtray, and Carwil T61 wet compass also help retain the originality of the panel.
Ken-Royce The Ken-Royce radial was overhauled by Dick Weeden of Brodhead, Wisconsin. It has a few modifications, according to Roger, including an oil recapture system in the lower rockers, which was added by a previous owner. “That works really well, and we also installed an Airwolf filter. Plus we did the conversion to use Continental valve springs, because there was a real issue with breaking valve springs,” explained Roger. “This engine has an ignition booster, which is operable, but really not necessary because the engine starts really nice without it.” Another mod was the installation of a J.P. Instruments EDM-700 EGT-701 engine monitor scanner, to simultaneously display exhaust gas temperature and cylinder head temperature for all seven cylinders, as well as displaying oil temperature and system voltage. The wind generator, which was a factory option, is now in good operating condition, and is used to power the wing’s retractable landing light. Roger is pleased so far with the Ken-Royce engine’s performance. “I flew down from Eagle River to Poplar Grove to Blakesburg,” he said, “which was about 330 miles, and it probably
used a quart of oil—so it does really well.”
Flying the Cloudster The Cloudster’s initial test flight was flown by Joe Norris of Oshkosh, and it was quickly evident that the airplane wasn’t rigged correctly. Then Ed and Roger received checkouts from Mike Weinfurter of Rhinelander, Wisconsin. Ed, a Stearman pilot who is no stranger to tailwheel flying, recalled his turn in the left seat: “I would say for me, during the first hour of flight, I found it to be the most squirrelly airplane I have flown. The takeoffs were every bit as exciting as the landings, without a doubt! It has minimal rudder authority at low speeds,” he shared, adding with a chuckle, “so it was certainly fun to acquire the necessary skills to get more confident. Now we know that some of it was that its rigging just wasn’t tweaked yet.” Roger explained, “We got a hold of Gary Van Farowe, who was the Cloudster guru, and I asked him if he had any kind of setting [for the angle of incidence] on these wings, because the build manual that I have says nothing on that. We had set it up fairly neutral, and then started adjusting the wings a little bit, trying to make the airplane climb better. Gary couldn’t find any information either, but he measured a whole bunch of rear struts, and they ranged in length from 100-3/4 inches to 101 inches. At that point we felt we had a good number to go by, and we were at the high end of that length, so I adjusted it by 1/4 inch less in the back of the strut—and the airplane really flies nicely now!” Ed said, “I fly 80 mph on downwind and 70 mph on final and across the threshold to a full three-point landing. It’s really behaving beautifully now that ‘all the bugs’ have been worked out. At first, it was a learning experience, and right now I think we’re both very comfortable with where we are and the performance of the airplane. The control pressure is as smooth as you could hope for, and you get almost 1 mile for horsepower out of this engine. I think those are two of the more impressive things for me.” Congratulations to Ed and Roger for a job well done in preserving a bit of Rearwin history for others, as well as themselves, to enjoy.
VINTAGE AIRPLANE 15
Light Plane Heritage published in EAA Experimenter May 1990
THE SPERRY MESSENGER BY JACK
JIM MORROW/AMERICAN MODELER, JUNE 1962
he Sperry Messenger was the best known of a number of light airplanes procured by the U.S. Army Air Services and the U.S. Navy in the 1920s. The Messenger was designed by Alfred Verville of the Engineering Division of the U.S. Army Air Services at McCook Field. It was reportedly designed in response to a suggestion by Gen.
Billy Mitchel to substitute small airplanes for motorcycles for messenger duties and for training purposes. Lawrence Sperry Aircraft Company of Farmingdale, Long Island, New York, was contracted to build the airplane. Lawrence Sperry was the son of inventor Elmer Sperry of Sperry Gyroscope fame. James Fahey, in his book U.S. Army Aircraft
1908-1946, states that six of the M-1 model were purchased, 20 of the M-1A, and six of the MAT, a modified M-1, aerial torpedo, during the 192123 period. The Messenger was a single-seat biplane of 20-foot span, powered with a three-cylinder Lawrance 60to 65-hp engine. Wood was constructed throughout the airplane.
Editor’s Note: The Light Plane Heritage series in EAA’s Experimenter magazine often touched on aircraft and concepts related to vintage aircraft and their history. Since many of our members have not had the opportunity to read this series, we plan on publishing those LPH articles that would be of interest to VAA members. Enjoy!—HGF
16 OCTOBER 2010
The two-seat Sperry Messenger.
Sperry Messenger P-152 on which performance tests were conducted. The fuselage had four longerons and was covered with mahogany plywood. The wings, which were the same upper and lower, were braced by two lift struts of round steel tubing on each side with wood fairings and N-type interplane struts of wood. The USA 5 airfoil was used. The wing spars were of spruce with mahogany plywood webs and spruce caps. The whole wing truss was intended for ease of assembly, and a minimum of rigging was required. Originally there was a single diagonal wire on each side running from the lower front spar root to the upper rear spar at the N-strut. These seem to have been omitted on later models. It was reported that the wings were static tested
by the Army for a load factor of 7.0 positive and 4.0 negative. Lt. J.A. Macready at McCook Field did the test flying with the following observations: “The flying qualities of the Messenger airplane are very good. It is an exceptionally smooth and easily handled airplane. Although remarkably small, there is a feeling of solidity and strength in the appearance and the handling in flight of the airplane that lends confidence to the pilot. “The airplane is easily taxied even in a strong wing, is steady and easily controlled for so small an airplane, and has a quick getaway and good climb, considering the comparatively low horsepower of the engine. The controls are re-
sponsive and normal in action. Little effort is required to maneuver quickly, smoothly and effectively. The airplane is well balanced. It side slips and stalls normally both with and without power. The pilot sits very comfortably with excellent visibility. Instruments and engine controls are within easy reach. “A number of maintenance troubles were encountered on both the engine and the airplane, the experimental three-cylinder Lawrance engine causing the majority of the difficulties. The bolt in the master bearing, weakened by drilling out to lessen weight, broke, with a resultant breaking of the master bearing and all connecting rods. “Vibration of the engine cracked the engine mounting bracket. A stronger mounting of new design effectively replaced the one, which failed. “The Philbrin ignition system did not function satisfactorily, causing constant trouble throughout the test. With the exception of the present ignition system, all parts of the airplane are accessible and easily repaired. The maintenance is simple on both engine and airplane. The engine mounting gives easy access to plugs, carburetor, etc. “Some trouble was experienced with cracked fi ttings. A tendency for the center section and landing gear to weave because of looseness of the strut sockets could be corrected by cross brace wires in the center section and landing gear, instead of the present diagonal tubes, or by some other means that would compress the struts into the sockets.” The landing gear and centersection diagonal struts were subsequently replaced by wires to prevent the looseness mentioned. In 1921, Lt. C.C. Moseley, winner of the 1920 Pulitzer Trophy Race, reported on a trip he made in a Messenger from Washington to Langley Field and back. The distance was 138 miles each way, and two forced landings were made in small fields due to cracked spark
VINTAGE AIRPLANE 17
plugs. Moseley said he flew at approximately 500 feet altitude, made several other landings in good fields, and examined the fishing boats in the Potomac at close range. The return flight took one hour and 45 minutes, using 7 gallons of gas and 1 quart of oil. Bert Acosta, winner of the 1921 Pulitzer Trophy Race, survived a spectacular crash in a Messenger on June 28, 1922. He made a dive on Mitchel Field followed by a roll at an altitude of about 50 feet. The engine and its gravity-fed fuel supply stopped in the inverted position. Acosta, barely able to complete the roll, hit the ground hard enough to completely wreck the airplane. He spent the next several weeks in the hospital. In April 1923, a fatal accident occurred in a Messenger at Langley Field, which was officially attributed to a failure of the control stick support, which made it impossible to pull the airplane out of a dive. The pilot’s seat, which acted as a support for the control system, was redesigned for greater strength. Flight tests were made on a Messenger with several different wing sections, and also with various high lift devices. Lawrence Sperry—an experienced pilot—saw the possibilities of promoting the Messenger as a sport airplane. He obtained permission from the Air Service to use the basic design for a commercial airplane, and took every opportunity to publicize its use. One of his exploits was to use the Messenger as transportation from his Garden City home to the factory in Farmingdale, a distance of about 11 miles. One publicity shot shows Sperry receiving a ticket for landing on a street in Garden City. He also built a two-seater Messenger with tandem seating. This version had a length 9 inches longer and a span 4 inches greater than the single-seater. A slightly wider fuselage caused the increase in span. The April 10, 1922, issue of Aviation magazine carried a new item
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Reproduction Sperry Messenger at the Cradle of Aviation Museum, Mitchel Field, Long Island, New York. describing a “Remarkable demonstration of the maneuverability of the Messenger,” in which Sperry flew the airplane from New York to Washington, D.C. He “performed short distance takeoffs and landings near the Munitions and Navy Buildings, landing with only a 50or 60-foot run, and taking off again after a run of about 75 feet with a climbing turn.” He then landed in the long basin of the Reflecting Pool of the Lincoln Memorial, which was dry at the time. After disconnecting the ignition wires on one of the three cylinders, he took off to demonstrate that the engine would run satisfactorily on two cylinders. The following day he landed on the Capitol Plaza and paid a visit to Congress, taxiing the
Messenger part way up the steps of the Capitol to show that it was capable of overcoming rough roads, curbs, stones, etc. Sperry flew a Messenger to the St. Louis Air Races in October 1923, placing fourth in the “On to St. Louis Race,” and flying 900 miles from Garden City, New York. He evidently did considerable demonstration at the races as he was credited a total mileage of 2,500 miles, the greatest of any of the 102 civilian contestants listed. In November 1923, Sperry took a Messenger to England for the purpose of promoting the airplane as a sport plane in Europe. On December 23, 1923, he took off from Croydon Airport for a flight across the English Channel. A few miles off
3-cylinder Lawrance, 64 hp at 1880 rpm
17 feet 9 inches
152 square feet
11 square feet
2.75 square feet
5.75 square feet
96.7 mph at sea level
Rate of climb
the English coast, a successful water landing was made after engine failure. Although the landing was visible from shore and a rescue was being organized, Sperry attempted to swim to shore and drowned as a result. The airplane suffered only slight damage, was salvaged, and was used by Clarence Chamberlin for a lecture tour in 1928 after being sent back to the United States. As early as 1921, Sperry had suggested to the Air Service the idea of hooking a Messenger on to an airship for the purpose of using the airplane for scouting. It was not until October 1924, after his death, that a Messenger was carried aloft and released from a blimp. In December 1924, a Messenger was hooked on to the TC-3 blimp in flight. In order to accomplish this, a special hook and support structure was added to the forward fuselage, which engaged a trapeze extending below the blimp. At the present time there is only one known original Messenger. It was previously on display at the Museum of the United States Air Force in Dayton, Ohio, and is now back with the Smithsonian. The Museum of the United States Air Force completed a restoration/conversion of the aircraft to the singleseat M-1 version with a skyhook after it was donated to the Smithsonian by WWI ace Eddie Rickenbacker. It is now on display in the Pre-1920 Aviation exhibition station at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center of the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. During recent years, there was considerable interest in building reproduction Sperry Messengers. The December 1974 issue of Sport Aviation described a somewhat modified Messenger built by Ray Parker of Denver, based on general arrangement drawings published in Air Progress magazine. This ship had a steel tube fuselage, an M-12 airfoil, a split-axle landing gear, and a 150-hp Lycoming O-320 engine. It was described as a satisfactory personal airplane with a cruising speed of 115 mph.
Another homebuilt example is that of Graham Hansen of Alberta, Canada, whose 65-hp Continental-powered Messenger was completed and flown in 1985. This airplane was built from drawings published in American Modeler magazine in June 1962. [We’ve included that drawing by Jim Morrow in this article.—HGF] Credit for making available complete construction information on the Messenger must go to Lloyd S. Gates of Norway, Maine. He wrote a page on the Messenger fairly regularly in WW I Aero magazine from 1984 to 1988. Gates received two rolls of microfilm of the original Air Service Engineering Division detail drawings of the Messenger from Harry Owen of Omaha. And after a huge amount of work, he reconstructed the 340 drawings into readable shape and a usable size, and made them available to Sperry Messenger enthusiasts. He is in the process of building a Messenger himself from the drawings.
The Messenger built by Paul Kotze and helpers at the Cradle of Aviation Museum at Mitchel Field, Long Island, New York, is most likely the first reproduction to be completed from these drawings. This example is equipped with a Lenape Papoose engine and would be flyable except for the restrictions imposed by the museum. The photo shows it on exhibition recently before the engine cowling was installed. The Museum has a Lawrance L-4 engine that, unfortunately, is not complete.
“Stop worrying, Fred! I had the map printed on Poly-Fiber. What could possibly go wrong?”
References: Air Service Information Circular, Performance Test Report No. 61, (1921). F a h e y, U . S . A r m y A i r c r a f t , 1908-1946 Aircraft Yearbook 1923, 1924 Aviation, November 15, 1920, April 20, 1922 World War I Aero, Issues No. 96-117.
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800-362-3490 VINTAGE AIRPLANE 19
The Prequel French aviation pioneer Clément Ader’s Avion III ARTICLE AND PHOTOS BY
G ILLES A ULLARD
20 OCTOBER 2010
he Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (CNAM)—National Conservatory for Arts and Trades— is an establishment of higher learning and of fundamental and applied research. Located in the heart of Paris, the CNAM and the “École Polytechnique” are two creations of the French Revolution designed to teach and promote engineering sciences. Standing on the grounds of the Priory of Saint-Martin-des-Champs, a religious school built in 1060 by decree of Henri the First, it is the longest continually operating educational institution in Paris. First proposed in 1794 by Abbot Henri Gregoire as a “depositary for machines, models, tools, drawings, descriptions and books in all the areas of Arts and Trades,” the Musée des Arts et Métiers (museum of arts and trades) displays the collections of the CNAM. Since it opened in 1802, it has housed the collection in the deserted priory. The museum underwent a major renovation starting in 1990 and reopened in April 2000, adding a new building adjacent to the abbey, while the larger artifacts stayed in the former church itself. The museum has more than 80,000 objects and 15,000 drawings in its collection, of which 40,000 are displayed at the Paris site. Amongst its most noteworthy artifacts is an original version of the Foucault pendulum, made famous in Umberto Eco’s eponymous novel. Most fascinating is the “Fardier de Cugnot,” the first automobile ever, designed by Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, which, in 1770, propelled itself into history at a whopping 3
mph under the power generated by its own steam engine. Amongst the marvels exposed, four unique machines are of the utmost interest to the aviation enthusiast. Covering the pioneer era of aviation, each one is authentic and paints a much different picture of this period than generally depicted. The most intriguing exhibit is Clément Ader’s bat-like “Avion III,” displayed atop of the main staircase of the museum. Born in Muret, in the south of France in 1841, Clément Ader was the son of a carpenter and showed great technical abilities at a young age. Fas-
VINTAGE AIRPLANE 21
cinated with flight, he spent countless hours observing insects, birds, and bats. Bats made the deepest impact, as he designed a flying machine he named “Eole”—from Eolus, the Greek god of winds—using the structure and shape of the bat wing. On October 9, 1890, Ader achieved a flying hop at GretzArmainvilliers. The machine, powered by a surprisingly light steam engine of Ader’s design, lifted off the ground over a distance of 165 feet. Apparently the Eole never flew again, but this early success was enough for Ader to land government funding for a military airplane. As the project was classified, little fact is known, and most of the information circulating on the Eole II is, at best, contradictory. However, one thing is certain: the design was abandoned in favor of the Avion III, a twin-engine version of the Eole. The Avion III had a rudimentary rudder system that could be controlled by pedals attached on both sides of the flying machine. Each of the four-bladed feather propellers was powered by one steam engine weighing 37 pounds and generating 20 hp. The visibility was absolutely horrible, and its pilot had to lean sideways out of the cabin to see ahead. The maiden flight of the Eole III was scheduled to take place on October 12, 1897, at the army camp of Satory, near Versailles, in front of representatives from the French war ministry. Despite unfavorable conditions, Ader decided to attempt to get his flying machine airborne. The Avion III crashed, and was almost entirely destroyed. After this accident, the French government with-
22 OCTOBER 2010
The Breguet RU.1, is a military version of the CU.1. This is serial number 40, built in 1911, and was donated to the CNAM Museum in 1912. It is believed to be the oldest military aircraft on display in the world. drew its support for Ader’s research. Clemént Ader never asserted that he actually flew. The polemic surrounding his experiments started when the Wright Brothers’ flight was announced. A small group of overpatriotic French individuals made the claim that Ader flew some 13 years before the Wright brothers. Their position was later discredited, as it was obvious that Ader’s machine was a dead end, and his initial success most likely a fluke. In any case, it could not fit the notion of sustained, controlled flight. Nonetheless, Ader’s achievements cannot be ignored, as even his worse detractor, an Englishman named Charles H. Gibbs Smith, conceded in his 1968 book Clément Ader: His Flight-Claims and His Place in History that he succeeded in taking off with a motorized machine for the first time in recorded human history on October 9, 1890. In 1902, the Avion III was donated to the Musée des Arts et Métiers, where it is now displayed after being restored during the 1980s by a team of the “Musée de l’Air et de l’Espace,” under the watchful eye of General Pierre Lissarague, its director. In 1911, in honor of Ader’s work,
the term “avion” became the official French word for airplane, replacing the earlier aeroplane form dating back to the 1850s. Ader died in 1925 at the age of 84. Dubbed “the father of French aviation,” another honor was posthumously bestowed upon him when the gigantic assembly hall of Airbus Industrie, in Toulouse, was named after him. Another amazing flying machine can be found in the nave of the church: the 1906 REP.1 (or R.E.P.1), an experimental airplane designed by Robert Esnault-Pelterie, another fascinating pioneer. Built during the winter of 19061907, the REP.1 was ahead of its time, as, in a biplane—or worse— era, it was an internally wire-braced monoplane. Its single-wheel, oleopneumatic landing gear was supplemented by outriggers at the wingtips. It is also significant that it was the first airplane to use a multi-axis control stick, invented by Pelterie in 1905. The REP made its first powered flight on October 10, 1907, over a distance of 350 feet and was donated to the CNAM on June 20, 1920. Another unique airframe hanging from the ceiling of the Abbey
of Saint-Martin-des-Champs is the 1911 Breguet RU.1 (c/n 40). Breguet Aviation was created in 1911 by aviation Pioneer Louis Charles Breguet. In 1971, it merged with Dassault Aviation to become the Avions Marcel Dassault-Breguet Aviation (AMD-BA) group, which still produces airplanes. The first biplane designed and built by Louis Breguet was featured at the 1909 Reims International Air Meet. Originally named model III, the biplane became the CU.1 when equipped with a 120hp 9-cylinder Canton-Unné engine. As such, Louis Breguet used it in a 1910 daring nonstop flight from Casablanca to Fès, Morocco, crossing the Atlas Mountains. The Breguet RU.1, a “military” version of the CU.1, was produced in small numbers starting in 1911 and delivered to several air arms before the outbreak of World War I (WWI). Number 40, built in 1911, was donated to the CNAM Museum in 1912, and is, to our knowledge, the oldest military airplane on display in the world. Most amazing of all is the actual Blériot XI flown by Louis Blériot during his July 25, 1909, English Channel crossing that forever changed the face of history. Blériot left Les Barraques, on the French coastline, in the early morning in his Anzanipowered model XI, and he landed in Dover, England, 36 minutes later. Following this record-breaking flight, the model XI became the first commercial success in aviation, as 101 orders were passed in 1909 alone. Well into WWI, Blériot XIs were produced in France and under license around the world, and the design was copied more or less legally by countless fledgling manufacturers. The original Blériot was donated to the CNAM Museum in 1909 and has not been restored since. It stands high in the nave, in its original state, with all its imperfections. Seeing it in such a setting, so simple and yet so significant, is almost a religious experience. This would, in itself, justify a trip to Paris. For more information on the lo-
cation of the museum, visit its website at www.arts-et-metiers.net. The website does have an English language button on the upperright corner of the home page. We found it to be a bit variable in its effectiveness, and it never did successfully navigate to images of the
aircraft in the museum. At http://www.bleriot.arts-et-metiers.net/, a block of photos of the original Blériot can be viewed. Click on the En coulisses link on the left side of the home page for access to photos and a French-language video.
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Billy Thompson Heath, Texas 2,100 hours of flight time 75% in tail wheel aircraft
My dad taught me how to fly in a Luscombe. From that date, I have owned three airplanes; two Champs and a Stinson 108-2. All three were basket cases when I got them and I completely restored them to flying condition. I have talked to Pam at AUA many times and she, as always, is helpful and not just trying to sell me something. When our grand kids tell us they are ready to take the controls, I will call on AUA to get coverage for the new aviators in our family. AUA will get my business for years to come. — Billy Thompson
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800-727-3823 Fly with the pros… fly with AUA Inc. 24 OCTOBER 2010
My Friend Frank Rezich, Part I Growing up “aviation” BY
ROBERT G. LOCK
PHOTOS COURTESY FRANK REZICH
n early 1980 I was collecting needed parts for the restoration of my 1929 CommandAire 5C3 biplane. I purchased a Wright R-760-8 engine for $50 that included all accessories except the starter, generator, and fuel pump. My search was on for a Romec engine-driven fuel pump, and I was having no success. A local FAA representative gave me the phone number of a fellow in nearby San Miguel, so I called and asked if he had any. He replied with an enthusiastic, “How many do you need?” I told him just one, and he countered with, “New, military, overhauled, or used?” I felt like I’d discovered a gold mine, and he was only a two-hour drive away. When the box arrived there was a business card inside (see it above). Naturally, my curiosity was aroused when I read “OX-5 to Mach 3 Jets.” How could that be?
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That was the first meeting with my now longtime pal Frank Rezich. As of this writing, Frank is recuperating from a lung illness in Templeton, a small city near where he lives, just inland from the central California coast. I flew west to visit Frank and spent 13 days in the area. I have always been fascinated with Frank’s background and had gleaned a few stories from him that were both interesting and funny. Frank’s older brothers Mike and Nick have been profiled in print, but to my knowledge, Frank has remained in the background. I wanted to change this, so with Frank’s permission, I’ll share with you a multi-part series of articles regarding this aviation icon. Ask a young computer-oriented person what is the definition of an “icon” and they will most likely tell you it is a symbol on a screen. But to us “old-timers,” an icon is someone
who has achieved greatness in a long career—someone who is head and shoulders above the rest of the crowd. And that certainly describes Frank Rezich. Frank was born the youngest of three sons to Rocco and Amelia Rezich, immigrants from Croatia who originally settled in the state of Washington. Rocco was a stationary engineer working in steampowered saw mills. One night, he won a large pot at a poker game. ABOVE: Frank in the cockpit running up the Wright R-760-E2 powered Pitcairn in front of Bluebird Air Service hangars at Chicago Municipal. The bright colors and trim were of Frank’s design. He even painted his car to match the ship. Photograph taken around 1940. Frank indicated they eventually took off the Kelsey wheels and installed low-pressure air wheels because of hard surface landings.
Travel Air 2000, NC661H, in the Chicago area. With 17-year-old Nick as his flight instructor, Frank soloed in this ship in 1938 at the age of 14. Frank remembers that Nick was very demanding concerning Frank’s airmanship. Above, (right to left), Mike, age 15; Nick, age 10 (standing center); and Frank, age 7 (standing left), with a model of The Spirit of St. Louis at their feet. This photo was taken in 1930 at the family home on Laflin Street, just three years after Lindbergh landed in Paris. Obviously this flight made a huge impression on the boys. Guessing the lumberjacks would not let him walk out with their money, he snuck out the bathroom window. He ran home, collected his wife and newborn son, Mike, and jumped on a freight train that eventually took them to Chicago. Rocco had relatives in the Chicago area, and they settled on South Laflin Street, east of the Chicago Municipal Airport. Frank’s older brother Mike was born in 1915. Nick came along in 1919, and little brother Frank was born in 1923. Since they lived so close to Chicago Municipal, airplanes became of interest. Both Nick and Frank entered the field of aviation, but Mike’s career took another path, as he was more businessoriented. As we’ll see later, Mike became the “money man” for the aviation interests of Nick and Frank. During the Great Depression, the family lost their home on Laflin Street and relocated to the “prairie” south of the Municipal Airport,
When asked why there were two landing gears, since the drawing only showed one, which was a right-hand gear, Frank replied, “Because you need a right- and left-hand landing gear. You simply read the drawing 180 degrees to build the other side.” where some relatives had already located. The families lived together in the first house they built collectively, and then when they had enough resources they’d build another home. Basements were handdug, and the house erection was a group effort. The Rezichs were fortunate to have boys with an interest in airplanes. They knew of a brick hangar that had burned down at the
airport, a mere two blocks away. So, after the basement was dug, the boys would make nightly trips with wheelbarrows to the airport and bring back the bricks from the burned hangar, sorting and cleaning them in the basement. Once they had enough bricks, a flat cement pad was laid and a brick house erected on it. The basement would eventually be turned into the boys’ airplane workshop. Walking home from a nearby high school, Frank would detour slightly to walk through the airport. As the boys grew up, big brother Nick was working at Bluebird Flying Service, flight instructing and doing some charter work. The year was 1936 and the airplanes and aerial activities at the field fascinated Frank. Instead of going directly home, he would linger in the hangar, getting to know the mechanics. Soon he was asked to “go get this” or “go get that,” thus becoming the Bluebird gopher. It was there he decided to become a mechanic and began buying his own tools. His wage was 50 cents per hour. Nick set up an interview for Frank with Mr. Malburg, Bluebird’s chief, for a mechanic position at Bluebird. Mr. Malburg asked, “Do you have your own tools?” Frank answered in the affirmative, and he was led into
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A very young Frank Rezich has just soloed in 661H at the Harlem Airport, 5 miles southwest of Chicago Municipal. Frank does not recall how much instruction Nick gave him, but thinks it was five or six hours. And, fuel was just 25 cents per gallon!
The old Harlem Airport, where the Rezich boys kept their E-2 Cub and Travel Air 2000 airplanes, on a cold snowy winter day. The Rezich fleet of airplanes, now totaling two, was stored in the large hangar to the left in the photograph.
Frank’s first airplane, an elephant-ear Travel Air 4000, NC9946. Because it had been used for skywriting, it had an extended exhaust pipe on the Wright J-5 engine. the hangar to a bench where landing gear parts were laid out, along with a drawing of the assembly. He was told to assemble the landing gear so it could be put on the airplane. About four hours later, Frank went to Mr. Malburg and said he was finished. When Mr. Malburg returned to the bench he found that Frank had as-
28 OCTOBER 2010
sembled two landing gears. When asked why there were two landing gears, since the drawing only showed one, which was a right-hand gear, Frank replied, “Because you need a right- and left-hand landing gear. You simply read the drawing 180 degrees to build the other side.” Mr. Malburg said, “Go into the of-
fice and get the paperwork for me to sign. You’re hired!” Frank was only 17 years old, but the boss was probably never told. That was the end of high school for Frank—he did not complete his senior year. Airplanes and work were more important to him. Mike Rezich was the boys’ financier when it came to purchasing airplanes. The first was a Taylor E-2 Cub, purchased in 1934 and based at the nearby Ashburn Airport. The second airplane was a Travel Air 2000, purchased by Mike Rezich from a man in Fredericksburg, Maryland. The owner agreed to deliver the ship to Chicago. Upon reaching southwestern Pennsylvania, however, the airplane suffered an engine failure and crashed into a mountain just east of Pittsburgh, causing some structural damage. The owner offered to refund the $400 purchase price, but Mike said to fix it and let him know when it was done. Frank remembered, “Nick went to Maryland about a year later, the ship was rebuilt, even with an overhauled engine, and flew the repaired Travel Air back to Chicago. It was painted silver with red trim.” Nick was just 17 years old at that time. With Nick as his flight instructor, at the age of 14, Frank soloed the Travel Air in 1938. When asked how he felt, he said, “Elated! And I got the airplane back on the ground without damaging anything.” Frank recalled, “Harlem Airport had about a half-mile dirt square so you could land in any direction, depending on the wind direction. The airplane had a tailskid and no brakes. After the solo Nick gave me more instruction on slow flight…stay away from the spins; avoid stalls and what will cause the airplane to stall. I got a little cross-country training from Nick. In those days Chicago to Lake Michigan was a long cross-country flight. You always flew where there were open fields, because of the OX-5 engine—it had some inherent problems, like the rocker arms, water pump, and leaking water lines. The water would boil and steam would come out—so you had to get it on
the ground immediately. I had many forced landings flying to another airport. After the landing I had to go get some water, pour it in the radiator, start the engine, and continue. And the magneto wasn’t very good.” Frank describing his solo in the Travel Air as being “exhilarating” is the same feeling of solo flight that I felt in 1959 in a Cessna 120. Frank continued to gain experience as a mechanic and eventually obtained his aircraft mechanic’s license from the CAA. Mike was working at the Ashburn Airport for Matty Laird but moved to the Harlem Airport, where there were large storage hangar facilities available. He continued to purchase airplanes, adding a Pitcairn PA-7M, NC876M, to the fleet. Frank remembered, “The ship was used by Eastern Air Lines as an instrument trainer. It was sold to Monarch Air Service and Pierce “Scotty” O’Carroll to be used for instrument flight training. However, O’Carroll quit the instrument training and sold the airplane to Mike. Mike flew the airplane to Chicago Municipal and moved it into the family shop for overhaul. Franks said, “We stripped the airplane, re-covered and painted it in a bright scallop trim. We even overhauled the Wright R-760-E2. We took it to Bluebird and assembled it in their hangar and got it ready to go. The airport was being expanded to double its size, so all the city people were out there to see the progress. Nick was going to test fly it, and he asked me if it was ready to go, and I said just get in and go! So Nick cranked it up and taxied to the end of the runway and warmed the engine up. We had a small radio installed because there was a tower there, and eventually he was cleared for takeoff. With 350 hp, the airplane climbed until it was over the center of the field and, before the crowd of local dignitaries, the engine quit! Nick dead-sticked the ship back in and we towed it to the hangar. Nick asked, ‘What the heck did you do to the airplane?’ So I checked everything in the fuel system and every-
James O’Brien in the front cockpit and Frank sitting in the rear cockpit of Travel Air D4000, NC8115, and the second Travel Air purchased by his brother Mike in 1940. At age 17 the familiar cigar is in his mouth. This was a Wright J–5 powered ship. Photo taken at Chicago Municipal Airport in 1940. thing was okay. Then I noticed that we had changed the gas cap to a nice new shiny chrome model that was not vented. When the new cap was removed, a large gush of air went into the tank; that [a non-vented cap] had caused fuel starvation to the engine.” The boys flew the airplane around the area—Indiana, Iowa, and Illinois. Frank remembered, “When we put the air wheels on the airplane, you would just be in love with it. When you pulled the power off, with those air wheels, when the oleos touched the ground that was it. Forget it. It’s all done. We eventually had to put a tail wheel on it; then we moved it out to Willie Howell’s strip, where we had the other two Travel Airs hangared.” The family home was just a block away from a 50-foot gate that opened onto 63rd Street, and there was a shop building at the house. That is where much of the restoration and repair work took place. I asked Frank what the neighbors said about airplanes taxiing down the street. He said, “We never asked. We just did it!” At this time Frank also recalled, “There was a weather guy, Harold Alford, who owned two J-5 Travel Airs. Every night around midnight he would strap an instrument box to the outer strut, take off, and go straight up to around 10,000 feet above the airport; then he would come back down and they would take the
weather box in to analyze it. Well, one night he fell asleep and spun in. He survived and later became assistant chief pilot at Eastern Air Lines.” Frank recalled details of the old Chicago Municipal Airport; “In the early days it had a little tower down on the east side, and we used to talk to them. Everybody knew the guys in the tower. Like when we brought our airplanes over to store ’em, we saw them [the tower guys] in the saloon and we told them, “Hey, we’re coming over in the morning so they could watch for us.” Frank bought his first airplane at age 19 from a guy on the north side of Chicago. “I paid about $325 for the ship, which included a spare engine and prop. It was a Wright J–5 powered Travel Air 4000, NC9946. It flew very nice, and it was used for smoke writing. It was an elephant-ear airplane. The J-5 was a big improvement over the OX-5. I used to like the sound of the engine on takeoff because it was putting out power, but you needed a long prop.” In the photograph of NC9946 the photograph of NC9946 on page 28, you can clearly see the extended exhaust tail pipe on the J-5 engine. NC9946 still belongs to Frank and is registered as NC9946H. Next month, read about Frank’s move to Howard Aircraft at Chicago Municipal, where he experienced even more challenges.
VINTAGE AIRPLANE 29
BY ROBERT G. LOCK
Elementary weight and balance This edition will feature a discussion of an important subject: weight and balance. It’s of particular importance when it comes to aircraft stability and safety. I’ll focus on those issues that will aid in understanding the dynamics of the subject. We will not discuss how to actually compute the empty weight and center of gravity location at this time. That data is readily available in many publications. The one I like to use is FAA Advisory Circular (AC) 43.13-1B, Chapter 10. In fact, I use the sample weight-andbalance report, including the equipment list and loading schedule as shown on pages 10-22 and 10-23 of the AC. First on the agenda is a brief discussion of longitudinal stability. This stability can be defined as movement along the longitudinal axis and around the lateral axis of the airplane, or stability in PITCH. Positive stability is when an aircraft tends to return to the state of initial equilibrium position (trimmed level fl ight) following a disturbance. Neutral stability is when an aircraft remains in equilibrium in a “new” position following a disturbance. Negative stability is when an aircraft tends to move farther in the same direction as the disturbance that has moved it from the initial position. A good reference for stability tests is FAA AC 90-89A, Chapter 5, Sections 1-3. This publication is titled Amateur-Built Aircraft & Ultralight Flight Testing Handbook. Reference data on weight and balance, test flights, and other pertinent material is included. Figure 1 shows three types of static stability. Sketch (a) shows positive static stability; the marble tends to move toward the center and will fi nally come to rest as each oscillation gets smaller. Sketch (b) shows negative static stability. Once disturbed, the marble rolls off the surface. Sketch (c) illustrates neutral static stability, as the marble will move but will assume another position. Dynamic stability is the time history of the movement of the aircraft in response to its static stability
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FIGURE 1 tendencies following an initial disturbance from level flight. Figure 2 shows positive longitudinal dynamic stability.
FIGURE 2 Dynamic stability is positive when the aircraft is displaced and tends to return to its original flight path in a reasonable amount of time. Sketch (a) shows the aircraft displaced along its longitudinal axis, and Sketch (b) shows the aircraft returning to its original patch with minimal oscillations. Compare this to negative longitudinal dynamic stability as shown in Figure 3.
Here the aircraft is displaced, and the oscillations tend to move it away from its original flight path as the oscillations increase over time.
FIGURE 4 FIGURE 3 Good static and dynamic longitudinal stability depends on the size and location of the horizontal stabilizer, its location (distance) from the lateral axis, and a slight NOSE HEAVY condition of the aircraft. That NOSE HEAVY tendency is a most important factor in weight and balance. Center of gravity location is given in inches within the center of gravity envelope established by the manufacturer. The datum is an imaginary vertical plane selected by the manufacturer from which all horizontal measurements are taken with the aircraft in its level flight attitude. An example of the datum of a biplane could be the lower wing leading edge. Items of equipment forward of the datum would be measured with a minus (-) number, and aft of the datum would be measured with a plus (+) number. A NOSE HEAVY airplane would be expressed as a minus (-) moment, and a TAIL HEAVY airplane would be expressed as a plus (+) moment. The center of gravity forward and aft limits (CG envelope) is referenced to the datum line, but is actually a measurement on the mean aerodynamic chord (MAC). On a biplane, the MAC is an imaginary airfoil located between upper and lower wings that, if the airplane were a monoplane, would exhibit the same pitching and rolling tendencies as the biplane. Center of gravity ranges may be 27 percent to 34 percent MAC depending on the airfoil shape, but when translated to the datum line, it might be something like -3 inches to +4 inches relative to the datum line. If the datum line were the lower wing leading edge, then a typical center of gravity range would be 3 inches forward to 4 inches aft of the leading edge. Figure 4 shows the MAC of a biplane. When weighing an aircraft for the purpose of computing the empty weight center of gravity (EWCG), all items of required and optional equipment must be installed, and all other equipment must be removed. With the aircraft on scales and leveled laterally and
longitudinally, the fuel should be drained, leaving only the residual fuel, or that fuel in the system that will not come out with the airplane in level flight. The oil should be drained, leaving only residual oil. The scale weights can then be recorded. Measurements taken should be the distance of main wheel centerline to datum, and main wheel centerline to tail wheel centerline. The aircraft is then removed from the scales, and the tare (any extraneous material such as chocks) weighed and recorded. Then, using AC 43.13-1B pages 10-22 and 10-23, compute the EW and EWCG location. Occasionally the manufacturer will provide an EWCG range, and if the EWCG falls within this range, no further forward and aft computations need be made. An example is the Boeing Stearman Model 75 aircraft. The CG range is (-1.5 inches) to (+7.1 inches). The empty weight CG range is (-1.0 inch) to (+0.5 inch)—“when EWCG falls within this range, computation of critical fore and aft CG positions is unnecessary.” However, most older airplanes do not have an EWCG range, so critical forward and aft CG locations must be computed. Again AC 43.13-1B page 10-23 shows how to compute critical forward and aft CG locations. At this point one can compute on paper the entire weight-and-balance scenario for any loaded condition. I computed every loaded condition for the New Standard D-25 biplane I have been flying recently: full fuel/solo, full fuel/two passengers, full fuel/four passengers as well as minimum fuel/solo, minimum fuel/ two passengers, and minimum fuel/four passengers. By doing this, a pilot can see what the CG location is for each condition. You can also load the airplane to maximum capacity, and if the weight goes over the maximum allowed, a loading schedule can be established. When I loaded the New Standard (on paper) to maximum gross weight, it exceeded the published limit. Therefore, I had to provide loading instructions within the operations limitations. The loading instructions read: “Maximum baggage weight is 60 pounds. Under certain loading conditions, no baggage may be carried. Restrictions for maximum gross weight (3,400 pounds) loading: When
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carrying 4 passengers, maximum fuel is limited to 31 U.S. gallons and no baggage is allowed.” A sample loading schedule is shown in AC 43.13-1B page 10-23. Once the EW and EWCG have been computed along with the critical forward and aft loading, the equipment list should be established. Again, AC 43-13-1B page 10-23 is a good source for information. When I do a weight and balance, critical forward and aft loading, loading schedule, and equipment list, I use AC 43.13-1B as a guide for my paperwork. If any of my computations don’t fall within the center of gravity range established by the manufacturer, it may be possible to ballast (if the aircraft is nose heavy). Here, AC 43.13-1B paragraph 10-22 and Figure 10-16 show how to compute for installation of permanent ballast in the aircraft. Here, ballasting a nose-heavy condition is easier than a tail-heavy condition. Weight and balance is of great importance for establishing good longitudinal stability for the aircraft. To have good stall/spin recovery tendencies, the CG must be located forward of the center of pressure (lift). When this relationship is established, if the airplane is stalled, the nose will fall below the horizon and recovery will be normal. If the CG is aft of the center of pressure (CP), it may not be possible to lower the nose to effect a positive recovery from the stall/spin. The aft CG is the most dangerous, because it is almost impossible for ballast to move the CG forward because the minus (-) arm is so short. The tail-heaviness tendency of an aircraft must be dealt with during the restoration process. However, for slight tail-heaviness tendency, one can adjust the stagger of the wings aft (decrease stagger), in an attempt to move the CP aft of the CG. But this is usually not effective because of the limited movement of wing stagger. In my days of antique airplane restoration, I’d say that many of the airplanes produced in the early days by the factory were tail heavy. It’s nice to know this when the airplane is completely disassembled. Probably the most important factor in a good-flying airplane will be the length of the engine mount, which will locate the weight of the engine and prop far enough forward of the datum line to set the EW where it should be located. This is particularly true with the Travel Air 2000/3000/4000 series that were modified from the original engine to the Continental 220-hp radial. In observing Travel Airs that have been modified to the Continental W-670 engine, I find various lengths of engine mounts; it’s almost like the original modifier took a shot in the dark. Thrust lines also vary considerably. I always think that if the airplane is slightly nose heavy, I can easily ballast the tail post with a small amount of weight. But if the airplane is tail heavy, then I have a real problem on my hands, particularly if the airplane has just been completely restored. When I was restoring my 1929 Command-Aire 5C3 I knew that the original factory airplane was tail heavy. You could tell because the large baggage compartment located
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aft of the pilot’s seat was restricted to only 5 pounds of baggage. So I moved the engine mount forward 1 inch and installed a Wright R-760-8 engine, which moved the CG even farther forward. A preliminary weight-and-balance check with the airplane (fuselage uncovered) on scales and leveled showed the CG toward the forward limit. The photograph below (Figure 5) shows the weighing of the Command-Aire with the fuselage uncovered to establish the preliminary EWCG location. So I placed the battery aft of the baggage compartment, which acted as ballast. Locating the battery box and battery aft helped move the EWCG to a better position. Figure 5 shows the location of the battery box in the aft fuselage.
FIGURE 5 When I was finished and test flew the airplane, the CG was perfect. In level flight the trim handle was in the center of its travel. The photo below shows one of the first of many test flights of my Command-Aire over central Florida’s green swamp. Note the position of the horizontal stabilizer, with the elevators streamlined, which indicated that the center of gravity location is where it should be.
FIGURE 6 My efforts paid off with the finished product. The chief designer of Command-Aire, Albert Vollmecke, told me that the tail post of the fuselage structure was oversized so as to accept a window sash weight in case ballast was needed to restore the proper CG location on new airplanes. They used a single aircraft design and then installed different types of engines, whatever was available. That made weight and balance a critical issue—how does one get the correct arm on the various engine and prop installations? Sometimes they got it right, and sometimes they didn’t.
The center of gravity location is so important to me that I do a check of the EWCG location before covering the fuselage if I have any doubts as to its position. When I restore my Travel Air 4000 I’ll do the same thing and get the CG located in the correct place on the MAC. Next, a rare view of an aircraft being hoisted for a landing gear retraction check at Fantasy of Flight. The landing gear is about 4 inches off the ground at this point. Note how the ship is balanced.
FIGURE 7 Above, the Grumman Duck with its landing gear retracted by means of a hand crank in the left side of front cockpit. Note how the retraction of the gear did not change the center of gravity. These photos are courtesy of Andy Saulter. If anybody wondered how a ship would appear if balanced like a model airplane, these are the photographs that graphically demonstrate weight and balance! Thanks, Andy. I guess one could call this “Duck on a rope,” or “Dangling duck.”
TERMINOLOGY: Center of gravity (CG)—The point where the aircraft, if suspended, would balance perfectly. Empty weight center of gravity (EWCG)—The point where the aircraft, if suspended, would perfectly balance minus its useful load. Center of gravity range—The distance between most forward and most aft center of gravity location established by the manufacturer. Useful load—The aircraft’s empty weight subtracted from the maximum gross weight. Maximum gross weight—The maximum loaded weight of the aircraft, as specified by the manufacturer. Empty weight—The aircraft’s weight that includes all fixed equipment, weight of the entire aircraft, fixed ballast, hydraulic fluid, and residual fuel and oil. Datum—The line established by the manufacturer from which all horizontal measurements are taken. Arm—The horizontal measurement from the datum to the center of an item. A plus sign (+) is used when
I recall in my early days of building flying models, I was taught to check the balance of a model by placing my fingers at about one-third (about 30 percent) the wing chord and raising the ship. If it was nose heavy or tail heavy it was very apparent. You are doing something similar when computing weight and balance of a real airplane. In conclusion I would like to throw in a little theory of fl ight. Longitudinal stability is stability in pitch. The aircraft is designed to be slightly nose heavy in level flight. This slight nose-heavy tendency is offset by a lifting force down (download) on the horizontal stabilizer. When the aircraft is in cruise and trimmed for level flight, the amount of download exactly offsets the nose-heaviness tendency. If the aircraft is pitched up, airflow over the aircraft is reduced and downward lifting force on the horizontal stabilizer is also reduced. With a slight nose-heaviness tendency, the nose will fall below the horizon, airspeed will increase, and the downward lifting force on the horizontal stabilizer will increase, raising the nose. When these pitch oscillations decrease and the aircraft returns to level cruise flight without input from the pilot, the aircraft displays positive static and dynamic stability. That’s what we really want for the best flying qualities. Extremes in forward or aft CG locations will alter the stability tendency toward neutral or negative stability, which is what we don’t want. For further information on weight and balance, consult the Aircraft Weight and Balance Handbook, FAA-H-8083-1A. It’s very good. So, folks, we need to get the center of gravity location on the money for good control. Pay attention to the details during restoration for best results.
an item is aft of the datum, and a minus sign (-) is used when an item is forward of datum line. Moment—The product of the weight of an item multiplied by its arm. Mean aerodynamic chord (MAC) – Established by the manufacturer, a chord line of an imaginar y air foil that has a leading and trailing edge. Weighing point—A ver tical line passing through the object (usually the wheels) that locates a point on the scales where all weight is located. When measuring the arm of installed equipment, such as a radio, measure to the center of the item. Tare—The weight of excess material placed on scales to secure or level the aircraft for weighing purposes. Tare is deducted from the scale reading to obtain actual aircraft weight. Minimum fuel—The weight of fuel in pounds used when determining critical for ward and aft CG locations. METO (maximum except takeoff horsepower) horsepower divided by 2.
VINTAGE AIRPLANE 33
Vintage Instructor THE
BY Steve Krog, CFI
A Tale of Three ‘First’ Flights ’ve had the pleasure of serving as an EAA Flight Advisor since the inception of the program nearly a decade ago. During that time I’ve enjoyed working with a number of pilots who successfully completed their first flight in a newly built, newly restored, or newly owned aircraft. I’d like to share with you a couple of experiences, but first I’ll give a bit of background on the Flight Advisor program. Several years ago the EAA, in a proactive move, launched the EAA Flight Advisor program. Statistics at that time indicated an inordinate number of accident/incidents were occurring on the first flight of newly built, newly restored, or newly owned aircraft. The EAA, with the blessing of the FAA, launched the Flight Advisor program. It is designed to review with the pilot: + the pilot’s overall flight experience + the pilot’s recent flight experience + the pilot’s familiarity with the plane to be flown + the flight and handling characteristics of the plane to be flown + the aircraft’s speeds and power settings Should the pilot be found to lack experience in a similar aircraft, the Flight Advisor will usually recommend receiving some dual instruction to prepare the pilot for the first flight. As a long-time flight instructor, I then take my Flight Advisor hat off and provide the necessary dual instruction in preparation for that first flight. The first pilot tale deals with an older gentleman whom I’ll call Tom. He had spent three years building an experimen kit-plane and was within days of making the first flight. Tom didn’t have a lot of flight time but had flown both tailwheel and tricycle-gear airplanes, accumulating about 250 hours of total time. However, it had been more than 10 years since he had last flown a tailwheel airplane. Tom’s airplane was built in the tailwheel configuration, and although he hadn’t flown any airplane in nearly two years, everything he had read about it indicated that it would be quite easy to fly. Several of his airport friends began “suggesting” that it would be
34 OCTOBER 2010
wise to get a couple of hours of dual instruction in a tailwheel airplane before attempting the first flight. At first Tom balked at the suggestion, but then he gave in to the idea and came to see me. We reviewed the speeds of his airplane and found them to be quite similar to that of my Piper J5 Cruiser, so off we went. After reviewing some slow flight and stalls, we headed back to the airport to try some takeoffs and landings on a slightly frozen turf runway. Tom’s first two landings were picture perfect—beautiful approach, great speed control, and a nice touchdown with good directional control. I began to think that maybe Tom was as good of a pilot as he thought he was. When it was time for takeoff and landing number three, I altered the pattern and asked that he fly it at 800 feet rather than the normal 1,000 feet above ground level (AGL). Almost immediately Tom was behind the airplane, struggling to catch up and fl y it correctly. The turn to final was sloppy and altitude control was the same. He was behind it all the way, the J5 bounced once, and Tom was at a loss for what to do. When it touched down the second time, he didn’t have the nose aligned with the runway, and the plane began sliding sideways on the turf. The J5 is a rugged airplane and our speed was now quite slow, so I let him go to see what he would do. When we fi nally came to a stop, we had completed a beautiful slow-motion ground loop to the right, and we were now facing north rather than south. I let Tom sit there silently and think about what had just happened. Finally, he said, “What did I do, and why did it do this?” Before I could respond he added, “I guess the guys were right, I could sure use some dual instruction before attempting to fly my airplane.” Over the next several days Tom and I flew together for three or four hours, at which point I pronounced him ready to make the first flight in his newly built airplane. Following the EAA Flight Advisor guidelines, I assisted him with his first flight; it was both exhilarating and uneventful.
The second pilot tale involves Dick, a U.S. Air Force –trained pilot who hadn’t flown in more than 10 years. As Dick was nearing completion of his experimental kitbuilt aircraft, he stopped by and wanted as much dual as was necessary to be both a safe and competent pilot. We flew a Piper J3 Cub and worked on all maneuvers, including a lot of cross-wind landings. After nearly 12 hours of dual accompanied by a fair amount of ground instruction, I pronounced him safe and current and signed him off for both a tailwheel checkout as well as a flight review. It took several extra weeks before Dick’s airplane was finally signed off by the FAA. During that time Dick continued to fly the Cub to remain competent. On Friday, after flying the Cub, he stated that early Sunday morning would be the designated first flight. Prior to that, he planned to do some additional taxi tests. I firmly reminded him NOT TO FLY the airplane until I could assist him with the first flight. He wholeheartedly agreed. On Saturday evening after I had left the airport, Dick proceeded with the taxi tests. All went well, but the “little devil” sitting on his shoulder kept saying, “Go ahead and fly it.” Dick gave in and decided to try flying his newly built airplane. The takeoff was uneventful as were two or three overhead circles around the airport. But when it was time to land, the nerves took over and he stalled the airplane about 20 feet above the runway. When the dust settled Dick realized he wasn’t hurt, but his airplane suffered major damage. It will take him another two years to undo and repair his now not-so-new airplane. There are two lessons to be learned from this mishap. First, never make a first flight without having someone on the ground to observe what you’re doing, and second, don’t let that little devil on your shoulder convince you to do something for which you are not prepared. Had Dick waited until Sunday and worked with a Flight Advisor, the mishap may never have occurred, or at least it would have caused no more than a hard landing. Tale number three has a very happy ending. Harry bought a used airplane, but before ever attempting to fly it, he came to me and wanted to get some dual instruction. We began a program that involved about 15 hours of flight time covering all maneuvers, all types of landings, and all types of balked takeoffs, followed by a number of simulated engine failures in the pattern and on landing. Harry soloed in the Cub and flew a couple more hours before we agreed he was ready to try flying his airplane.
The day of the first flight was beautiful; bright sunny sky with light and variable surface winds. We talked about the first flight at length and finally it was time to fly. I equipped Harry with a handheld radio and headset and did several radio checks with the airplane engine running. Harry taxied to the end of the runway, completed his pretake-off checklist, and did one high-speed taxi run. Everything checked out. I positioned myself about halfway down the runway while he aligned the airplane with the centerline of the wide turf runway and moved the throttle slowly to full power. The takeoff was uneventful, and he climbed to 500 feet AGL before attempting a shallow turn back to the airport. I then instructed him to climb to 1,000 feet AGL and fly three left-hand circuits around the airport. While doing so he read back to me the power settings, airspeeds, and temps. With everything in the normal operating range, I had him fly three more overhead circuits, making right-hand turns to get the feel of the airplane’s handling characteristics. After completing the circuits, he re-entered the lefthand traffic pattern and reduced power to establish the desired approach speed and rate of decent, leveling off and making a go-around at 500 feet. As agreed to on the ground, he then made two approaches to land but executed a go-around at 100 feet. He reported that everything felt good to him, and he was ready to make a landing. I had him call out his power setting and approach speed to me every five to 10 seconds while on the approach. Three successful takeoffs and landings were made before calling it a day. It was time to celebrate over a cup of hot coffee while reviewing flight characteristics, airspeeds, and power settings. Unlike Dick’s unfortunate experience, Harry’s flight was exhilarating and successful! If you have built, restored, or purchased an airplane you’ve never before flown, you’ve invested a lot of money and sweat equity. Take a long moment or two and think about all you’ve invested before convincing yourself that you can make that first flight. Tom learned a good lesson without it costing him anything but a bruised ego. Dick learned a hard and expensive lesson. Harry had a great experience and thoroughly enjoyed his newly acquired airplane! There’s no room in our beautiful skies for macho pilots. Respect your airplane and what it can do while candidly reviewing your own capabilities. Remember the old pilot’s saying: A good landing is one you can walk away from (like Dick’s), but a great landing is when you can use the airplane again tomorrow.
…Dick proceeded with the taxi tests.
All went well, but the
“little devil” sitting on his shoulder kept saying,
“Go ahead and fly it.”
VINTAGE AIRPLANE 35
by H.G. FRAUTSCHY
MYSTERY PLANE This month’s Mystery Plane comes from Duffy Thompston of Lakeland, Florida. Send your answer to EAA, V i n t a g e A i r p l a n e , P. O . B o x 3086, Oshkosh, WI 549033086. Your answer needs to be in no later than November 15 for inclusion in the January 2011 issue of Vintage Airplane. You can also send your response via e-mail. Send your answer to firstname.lastname@example.org. Be sure to include your name plus your city and state in the body of your note and put “(Month) Mystery Plane” in the subject line.
J U LY ’ S M Y S T E R Y A N S W E R e enjoy your suggestions for Mystery Planes—in fact, more than half of our subjects are sent to us by members, often via e-mail. Please remember that if you want to scan the photo for use in Mystery Plane, it must be at a resolution of 300 dpi or greater. You may send a lower-resolution version to us for our review, but the final version has to be at that level of detail or it will not print properly. Also, please let us know where the photo came from; we don’t want to willfully violate someone’s copyright. July’s Mystery Plane came to us from EAA’s archives, and it was a toughie, as the foreign crates can be. This one was identified by just one of our regular contributor/readers. Wes Smith of Springfield, Illinois, identified this one for us as the Lioré et Olivier LeO 6.2 (H-6). He dug up the information on it in Les Prototypes de Transport Civils Francais (Minidocavia No.8, by Pierre Gail-
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The LeO 6.2 was built in 1919 by the French firm founded by Fernand Lioré and Henri Olivier. It was a tri-motor aeroplane powered by one 260-hp Salmson CM9 and a pair of outboard 180-hp engines built by Hispano-Suiza, the model 8Ac. lard). This photo in his book is sans undercarriage, and with tip floats. It is correctly pronounced “Lwray a Oliviay” or something to that effect. Gaillard also wrote Les Multimotors de Servitudes Francais (Minidocavia No. 14). Both are great little books.
Friends of the Red Barn - 2010 Thank you for your generous donations!
Our thanks to every member who stepped up and made a donation to help make the VAA area one of the highlights of AirVenture Oshkosh 2010. Your selfless contributions benefited your fellow VAA members and volunteers, as well as the general public who came to be educated and entertained. The contributors are listed H.G. FRAUTSCHY on this page, and we thank you all!
Diamond Plus Level
Gordon Anderson Jonathan Apfelbaum Charlie Harris Espie “Butch” Joyce Norma Joyce Robert “Bob” Lumley Mark Morrison, MD Bill & Saundra Pancake John Patterson Walter Ross Wes Schmid Ronald Tarrson John Turgyan VAA Chapter 10, Tulsa, OK
Ronald R. Alexander Dennis & Barbara Beecher Jerry and Linda Brown Dave and Wanda Clark Steve Farringer Tim and Sherri Greene Malvern Gross Tom Hildreth Peter N. Jensen, Jr. John Kephart William McSwain Steve Moyer Charlie Nelson, Swift Museum Foundation Larry Nelson Dan and Denise Osterhouse Roger Rose Peggy Straughn Victor Tyler Jamie Wallace
Diamond Level John W. Cronin, Jr. Susan Dusenbury Brad Poling Sally Ryan Ben Scott
Platinum Level Mark A. Kolesar Richard & Sue Packer Rene Shales-Ford
Gold Level Ronald Apfelbaum Judy Belcher Raymond Bottom James C. Gorman A. J. Hugo Earl Nicholas Bob Schjerven Steven and Nancy Taft C.E. Tom Thompson
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Bronze Level Lloyd Austin L. Tom Baker Lt. Col. (Ret)Hobart Bates Logan Boles Gary Brossett Col. Harvey Browne Thomas Buckles Robert “Rob” Busch Steve Buss Perry Chappano Gene Chase Geoffrey Clark Sydney Cohen John and Marge Cooke Jack Copeland Dan Dodds
Cheryl and Chris Drake James E. Fischer David G. Flinn Terry Griffin Red & Marilyn Hamilton Richard Heim Daniel S. Henry Carl Higgins Allan Janes Bob Kellstrand Rich Kempf Lynn Larkin RAF GR 45 L LC; Jimmy Leeward Ballard Leins Barry Leslie Joseph Leverone Gerald Liang Russ Luigs Thomas Lymburn Helen Mahurin Sarah Marcy Gene Morris Roscoe Morton Lynn Oswald Steven Oxman Sandra Perlman Tim and Liz Popp Ron Price Roy Reed Jerry Riesz John Rothrock, Jr. Gene Ruder John Seibold Art Sereque Jeffrey L. Shafer Bob Siegfried, II David Smith Dean Stoker Don Straughn
Mary and Donald Toeppen Butch and Pat Tortorige Dwayne and Sue Trovillion Thomas Vukonich Bob and Pat Wagner Donald Weaver Jeanne Williams Roy Williams Jan Douglas Wolfe Michael Wotherspoon Brian Wynkoop Dennis Zander
Supporter Level Jesse Black Denis Breining Charles Burtch Don Coleman Camille Cyr Max and Rene Davis Sal DiFabio Geff Galbari Randy Gillette Arthur Green Red Halloway; Louisiana Midland Transport Co. Keith Howard Walter Kahn Peter Karalus Glenn Kinneberg James Lockwood Charles Luke Don Nelson Keith Plendl Bob Staight Major Dick Starke Alan C. Thiel Constantine Vlahakis Edward Warnock Michael Williams
VINTAGE TRADER S o m e t h i n g t o b u y, s e l l , o r t r a d e ?
Classified Word Ads: $5.50 per 10 words, 180 words maximum, with boldface lead-in on first line. Classified Display Ads: One column wide (2.167 inches) by 1, 2, or 3 inches high at $20 per inch. Black and white only, and no frequency discounts. Adver tising Closing Dates: 10th of second month prior to desired issue date (i.e., Januar y 10 is the closing date for the March issue). VAA reser ves the right to reject any adver tising in conflict with its policies. Rates cover one inser tion per issue. Classified ads are not accepted via phone. Payment must accompany order. Word ads may be sent via fax (920-426-4828) or e-mail (email@example.com) using credit card payment (all cards accepted). Include name on card, complete address, type of card, card number, and expiration date. Make checks payable to EAA. Address advertising correspondence to EAA Publications Classified Ad Manager, P.O. Box 3086, Oshkosh, WI 54903-3086.
AIRCRAFT Stinson 108-2, Restoration. New Interior, oil cooler etc. Float fittings $22,500. Ph/Fax: 218-723-1126. Duluth MISCELLANEOUS Flying wires available. 1994 pricing. Visit www. flyingwires.com or call 800-517-9278.
STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP, MANAGEMENT, AND CIRCULATION (Required by 39 U.S.C. 3685). 1. Title of Publication: Vintage Airplane 2. Publication No.:062-750. 3. Filing Date: 9/30/10. 4. Issue Frequency: Monthly. 5. No. of Issues Published Annually: 12. 6. Annual Subscription Price: $36.00 in U.S. 7. Known Office of Publication: EAA, 3000 Poberezny Road, P.O. Box 3086, Oshkosh, WI 54903-3806. Contact Person: Kathleen Witman, Telephone: 920-426-6156. 8. Headquarters or General Business Office of the Publisher: Same as above. 9. Publisher: Rod Hightower. EAA, 3000 Poberezny Road, P.O. Box 3086, Oshkosh, WI 54903-3806. Editor: H.G. Frautschy, EAA, 3000 Poberezny Road, P.O. Box 3086, Oshkosh, WI 54903-3806. Managing Editor: None. 10. Owner: Experimental Aircraft Association, 3000 Poberezny Road, P.O. Box 3086, Oshkosh, WI 54903-3806. 11. Known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security holders owning or holding 1 percent or more of total amounts of bonds, mortgages or other securities: None. 12. Tax Status: Has Not Changed During Preceding 12 Months. 13. Publication Title: Vintage Airplane. 14. Issue date for circulation data below: September 2010. 15. Extent and Nature of Circulation (Average No. Copies Each Issue During Preceding 12 Months/ No. Copies of Single Issue Published Nearest to Filing Date): a. Total No. of Copies Printed (7,585/7,262) b. Paid Circulation (By Mail and Outside the Mail): 1. Mailed OutsideCounty Paid Subscriptions Stated on PS Form 3541 (Include paid distribution above nominal rate, advertiser’s proof copies, and exchange copies) (6,173/6,160). 2. Mailed In-County Paid Subscriptions Stated on PS Form 3541 (Include paid distribution above nominal rate, advertiser’s proof copies, and exchange copies) (0/0). 3. Paid Distribution Outside the Mails Including Sales Through Dealers and Carriers, Street Vendors, Counter Sales, and Other Paid Distribution Outside USPS (162/187). 4. Paid Distribution by Other Classes of Mail Through the USPS (e.g., First-Class Mail) (136/136). c. Total Paid Distribution (Sum of 15b (1), (2), (3), and (4)) (6,507/6,483). d. Free or Nominal Rate Distribution (By Mail and Outside the Mail): 1. Free or Nominal Rate Outside-County Copies Included on PS Form 3541 (0/0). 2. Free or Nominal Rate In-County Copies Included on PS Form 3541 (0/0). 3. Free or Nominal Rate Copies Mailed at Other Classes Through the USPS (e.g. First-Class Mail) (18/18). 4. Free or Nominal Rate Distribution Outside the Mail (Carriers or other means) (379/7). e. Total Free or Nominal Rate Distribution (Sum of 15d (1), (2), (3), and (4) (397/25). f. Total Distribution (Sum of 15c and 15e) (6,906/6,508). g. Copies not Distributed (See Instructions to Publishers #4 (page #3))(359/346). h. Total (Sum of 15f and g) (7,265/6,854). i. Percent Paid (15c divided by 15f times 100) (94.71%/99.61%). 16. Publication of Statement Ownership: Publication required. Will be printed in the October 2010 issue of this publication. 17. I certify that all information furnished on this form is true and complete. I understand that anyone who furnishes false or misleading information on this form or who omits material or information requested on the form may be subject to criminal sanctions (including fines and imprisonment) and/or civil sanctions (including civil penalties). Executive Director/Editor: H.G. Frautschy, 9/30/10. PS Form 3526, September 200
AIRPLANE T-SHIRTS 150 different airplanes available. WE PROBABLY HAVE YOUR AIRPLANE! www.airplanetshirts.com or call 1-800-6457739. We also do Custom T-shirts and Caps for Clubs. www.aerolist.org, Aviations’ Leading Marketplace. PARTS Parting out Piper J5. Wings and other parts fit J4. Ph/Fax 218-723-1126 Duluth SERVICES Always Flying Aircraft Restoration, LLC: Annual Inspections, Airframe recovering, fabric repairs and complete restorations. Wayne A. Forshey A&P & I.A. 740-472-1481 Ohio and bordering states. Biplane Builder Ltd. Restoration, fabric, paint, fabrications, paperwork with 53 completed projects, Wacos, Moth’s, Champs, Pitts etc. Test flights and delivery. Indiana 812-343-8879 mike@biplanebuilder. com, www.biplanebuilder.com. WANTED POBJOY ENGINE PARTS WANTED. Any restorable items considered for Niagara series 1 especially BTH M.1/2 magnetos. Please contact John on (27) 12 460 8337 or firstname.lastname@example.org VINTAGE AIRPLANE 39
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Copyright ©2010 by the EAA Vintage Aircraft Association, All rights reserved. VINTAGE AIRPLANE (USPS 062-750; ISSN 0091-6943) is published and owned exclusively by the EAA Vintage Aircraft Association of the Experimental Aircraft Association and is published monthly at EAA Aviation Center, 3000 Poberezny Rd., PO Box 3086, Oshkosh, Wisconsin 54903-3086, e-mail: email@example.com. Membership to Vintage Aircraft Association, which includes 12 issues of Vintage Airplane magazine, is $36 per year for EAA members and $46 for non-EAA members. Periodicals Postage paid at Oshkosh, Wisconsin 54901 and at additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Vintage Airplane, PO Box 3086, Oshkosh, WI 54903-3086. PM 40063731 Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to Pitney Bowes IMS, Station A, PO Box 54, Windsor, ON N9A 6J5. FOREIGN AND APO ADDRESSES — Please allow at least two months for delivery of VINTAGE AIRPLANE to foreign and APO addresses via surface mail. ADVERTISING — Vintage Aircraft Association does not guarantee or endorse any product offered through the advertising. We invite constructive criticism and welcome any report of inferior merchandise obtained through our advertising so that corrective measures can be taken. EDITORIAL POLICY: Members are encouraged to submit stories and photographs. Policy opinions expressed in articles are solely those of the authors. Responsibility for accuracy in reporting rests entirely with the contributor. No remuneration is made. Material should be sent to: Editor, VINTAGE AIRPLANE, PO Box 3086, Oshkosh, WI 54903-3086. Phone 920-426-4800. EAA® and EAA SPORT AVIATION®, the EAA Logo® and Aeronautica™ are registered trademarks, trademarks, and service marks of the Experimental Aircraft Association, Inc. The use of these trademarks and service marks without the permission of the Experimental Aircraft Association, Inc. is strictly prohibited.
40 OCTOBER 2010