Page 1


Challenges and rewards

It's March now, and we're get­ ting closer and closer to enjoying a little warmer weather around here. Oh, how I long to open the hangar doors and let the sunshine in! Unfor­ tunately, that worthless rodent out in Pennsylvania saw his shadow again this year, so we are allegedly going to experience another six weeks of win­ ter weather around here. Yikes! And I was hoping for just six more days . . . I am greatly encouraged by the ongoing developments in our 2009 EAA AirVenture Oshkosh planning. We're still a number of months away from the event (148 days from March 1), and we'll continue to refine our planning for the many offerings for the membership and visitors to our end of the field. I think you'll share my amazement when you see all the changes that will benefit all of us who enjoy the annual EAA conven­ tion and fly-in, both in the Vintage Aircraft Association area and the en­ tire convention grounds. It continues to amaze me that given the many economic chal­ lenges we all face on a daily basis, so many of you have chosen to stay strongly engaged in sport aviation as an interest. We all need to do ev­ erything we can think of to promote the VAA year-round. Consider in­ troducing a friend or relative to the ultimate experience of Oshkosh. Of­ tentimes I struggle to choose the ap­ propriate words to best describe how I feel when I do this, especially when it's a young person who has had lit­ tle to no interaction with aviation as a passion. Once those new people get here, it is better than Christmas to them. They walk around for the

first 72 hours practically drooling all over the front of their shirt and in a constant state of overwhelming ex­ citement . It just doesn't get any bet­ ter than that! I have two (soon to be three) young grandsons, and I can­ not wait until they're old enough to start attending AirVenture. That will be a very special time for me. If you haven't visited the EAA website recently, I would highly en­ courage you to do so. The staff at EAA continues to improve the qual­ ity and content of this site. There are volumes of information about your organization as well as the latest and greatest aviation news. It is timely as well as interesting. Be sure not to miss Steve Taylor's blog, http:// , which details all of the convention site improvements currently in the works at Oshkosh. I believe you will find it to be useful as well as infor­ mative. Be sure to check it out at and at www.AirVenture. org. My congratulations to everyone at EAA wh o maintains this website on a daily basis. It continues to im­ prove, and there is something of value there for everyone. Don't forget to also wander around in EAA's calendar of events website. It's that time of year to be­ gin your 2009 flying season fly-out planning. This is a really great site to peruse all aviation events within a deSignated travel distance. You can also designate an event type if you go to the advanced search tab on this site:·s really amazing to me the number of events that are already announced on this site. If your chapter is plan­

ning an aviation event that's open to the public, this is a great site to post your event on. As previously announced, work on the new Vintage Hangar is con­ tinuing to develop. The concrete footers for the new structure have now been completed, and by the time you read this column the struc­ ture itself should be well on its way to coming out of the ground. Be sure to also visit the VAA website, www., to watch for con­ tinual updates on this new hangar facility that will house the various type club operations and the Vintage workshop, which will continue to demonstrate metalworking and a number of other demonstrations of aircraft restoration skills. This facil­ ity will also house our VAA Volun­ teer Refreshment Center, the Vintage Computer Operations Shop, VAA Convention Operations Office, and a hospitality reception/conference room. Be assured that we will be for­ ever mindful of the fact that you, the membership, made this new facility possible. Your continual monetary support of the Friends of the Red Barn fund has proven to be the key to the development of many oppor­ tunities of this nature. It's a simple formula: You donate the dollars, and we give it all back in direct support to the AirVenture experience. It is truly an exciting time for the Vintage Air­ craft Association. You won't want to miss out on this excitement. VAA is about participation: Be a member! Be a volunteer! Be there!

VOL. 37, NO.3

N E 2009



Straight & Level Challenges and rewards by Geoff Robison




The Indubitably Delightful Dart

Big plane class with small-plane cost

by Sparky Barnes Sargent


"Left Turn Only!"

Bill Brennand on the amazing racing career of

Steve Wittman's Chief Oshkosh and Buster

by Bill Brennand, as told to and written by James P. Busha


Light Plane Heritage

The Tipsy S.2

by John Underwood


The Vintage Mechanic

Repairs, alterations, maintenance,

preventive maintenance

by Robert G. Lock


Trading Avgas for Clams A different kind of $100 Hamburger by Irven F. Palmer J r.


Dolph Overton's Ford Tri-Motor The outstanding restoration is headed to a new owner in Arizona by Sparky Barnes Sargent


Mystery Plane by H.G. Frautschy


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FRONT COVER: While he bought it in 1969, Dolph Overton's 1929 Ford 4-AT-E was only recently restored to its former Transcontinental Air Transport (TAT) glory. Soon to be on its way to a new owner in Arizona, the Ford 's restoration was a collaborative effort headed up by Bob Woods at Woods Aviation in Greensboro, North Carolina. Photo cour­ tesy Bob Woods. BACK COVER: At the 1949 National Air Races in Cleveland, Ohio, the third year of the Goodyear trophy races, here's an overhead view of 19 of the racers. How many can you name? The answer is on page 18. Bill Brennand collection.

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Europe: Willi Tacke Phone: +49(0)1716980871 Fax: +49(0)8841/496012 willi@{ VINTAGE AIRPLANE

as timely a way as possible, notes to VAA headquarters by April 30. Dur­ VAA's 2009 Friends of the Red Barn Campaign John Colomy, manager of the Small ing the month of May we will com­ Next month each of you will be re­ Airplane Directorate's Standards pile the issues in a list and forward ceiving a letter concerning the VAA Office. "Although some type clubs them to Kim Smith, the manager of Friends of the Red Barn (FORB) cam­ contact the directorate whenever the FAA's Small Airplane Directorate paign. The Vint age Aircraft Asso­ they have issues, in the past they in Kansas City. Kim and her staff will then di­ ciation has, by necessity, elected to may have waited to discuss their underwrite a portion of its yearlong concerns at the annual meeting of rectly contact the clubs, working to activities with funds outside of the all type clubs held during previous address the issues during the first regular membership dues. The pro­ years at EAA AirVenture. In order to part of the summer and, if need be, ceeds from this fund pay for all sorts improve communications, the EAA meeting with the individual clubs of volunteer activities and improve­ and the FAA have agreed to try a dif­ during AirVenture. After AirVenture, the Small Air­ ments to the VAA area, as well as sup­ ferent approach./J plane Directorate will report back to We ask that any issues the type porting VAA advocacy efforts and educational endeavors. The addition clubs may have with the FAA be sent EM regarding the issues brought forof the FORB funds to our annual op­ erating budget allows the VAA to keep our dues as low as possible. Your an­ nual con tribution made in the first half of 2009 will directly benefit this year's convention activities and VAA programs throughout the year. We ask that you consider actively participating in the 2009 VAA Friends of the Red Barn campaign. Your do­ nation may be tax-deductible to the Replica Golden Age Racer Makes First Flight extent allowed by law, and you can Another incredible replica of a golden age racer has taken to the skies at Fla­ enhance your part icipation if you bob Airport in Riverside, Cal ifornia . Thanks to the vision and resources of EM work for a matching-gift company. President's Council member Tom Wathen and the talents of Mark Lightsey and You can do so by copying, filling out, his colleagues at Aerocraftsman Inc., an Avions Caudron C.460 flew for the first and then sending in the form in­ time on January 28. Among those who helped build the replica are recent gradu­ cluded on these pages; by filling out ates of the Wathen Aviation High School. and sending in the form included in The airplane gained fame at the 1936 National Air Races in Los Angeles, the mailing that arrived in your mail­ when it shocked its American counterparts by sweeping both the Greve and box; or by donating online at www. Thompson trophies. The replica is faithful in size and design in every respect /J

VintageA ircra( html. If you desire more information

concerning the VAA's Friends of the Red Barn campaign, feel free to give us a call at 920-426-6110. We'd be happy to speak with you!

Type Club Concerns In an effort to add to the ways the type clubs can communicate in an ef­ ficient manner with the FAA's Small Airplane Directorate, the VAA will again facilitate a series of meetings for clubs that ask for a meeting with the FAA during AirVenture. "The Small Airplane Director­ ate responds to the public's con­ cerns th roughou t the year and in 2

MARCH 2 009

except for the engine (a Fa irchild Ranger is under the cowl , doing excellent stand-in work for the original six-cylinder Renault Bengali ), and the C.460 is fin­ ished in glossy French racing blue. "Obviously a plane with only 50 minutes on it is far from proven , but it flew fine, " reported Lightsey, who made the maiden flight. With the landing gear down and the power at 27 inches and 2700 rpm, it was cruising around the pattern at 165 mph. The project follows in the footsteps of the other replica racer projects done at Flabob, including the Miles & Atwood SpeCial, Brown B-2 racer Miss Los Angeles, Gee Bee Z City of Springfield, Laird-Turner SpeCial , and de Havilland Comet racer. All were built and flown from the airport, with notable aviation talents like the late Bill Turner and Ed Marquart having a major part in their creation. The Caudron repli ca will be transported to Europe for this summer's flying sea­ son , including appearances at the Paris Air Show and the Geneva Classics event in October. Since the airplane will be out of the country, it will not be at EM Air­ Venture Oshkosh, but plans are being made to have the racer at the annual EM convention in 2010.

ward and their disposition. This process will replace the "large room" meeting previously held dur­ ing the convention. In that way, EM can help facilitate how issues can be addressed more proactively than we've been able to in the past, and the FAA and EAA can give all type clubs an equal opportunity for their concerns to be addressed. We ask that only the head of each type club send a letter; if you're a member of a type club and you feel the club should ad­ dress a specific problem, please con­ tact the club directly and ask that the issue be added to the club's list of con­ cerns. Club presidents or their des­ ignated representatives should send their letter to: Vintage Aircraft Assodation Attn: Type Club Issues P.O. Box 3086 Oshkosh, WI 54903-3086 Or you can e-mail your letter to vintageaircra( Only those is­ sues brought forth in writing will be added to the list, and again, please ensure your message is submitted by April 30, 2009.

New International ELY Regulations in Effect Outside U.S. The Search and Rescue satellite system officially stopped monitoring 121.5 MHz emergency locator trans­ mitters (ELTs) on February I, 2009, and now only monitors the newer 406 MHz units. The International Civil Aviation Organization adopted 406 MHz as the international standard for ELTs, abandoning 121.5 because of the high false-positive signal rate. In the United States, the Federal Aviation Administration (FM) has not proposed any changes to Fed­ eral Aviation Regulation 91.207 (the regulation requiring ELTs in most airplanes), meaning aircraft owners with 121.5 MHz ELTs installed will continue to meet the regulation re­ quirements. 121.5 MHz ELTs will continue to be monitored, but only by ground-based facilities and air­ borne aircraft that happen to have their VHF receiver tuned to 121.5. Finding a downed airplane equipped with a 121.5 MHz ELT will therefore

be more difficult. This may be reason enough for some airplane owners to upgrade their ELT. A less-expensive but poten­ tially effective option for U.S. aircraft owners would be to consider a manu­ ally activated 406 MHz personal 10cator beacon (PLB), which sends out a distress signal on 406 MHz, or a SPOT tracking device. Either could be a great supplement to the current ELT installed in the airplane. But neither a SPOT nor a PLB meets the regulatory requirement of 91.207 and cannot be considered as meeting the require-

ments of the regulation. Several other countries require, or are in the process of adopting, 406 MHz units • Canada-Transport Canada is adopting a policy requiring a 406 MHz ELT installed in all aircraft, imple­ mented during a two-year conversion period. (Details not yet finalized.) • Mex ico-Aircraft with a 121.5 MHz ELT installed are okay for op­ erations in Mexico until July I, 2009, or until the next mandatory ELT battery replacement, which­ ever comes first. A 406 MHz ELT is

EAA 8· 17 Tour Set for Takeoff in April Aluminum Overcast,

EAA's restored B-17 bomber, returns to the sky on Friday, April 3, in Chino, California, the first stop of nearly 60 planned for the 2009 Salute to Veterans national tour. The first tour seg­ ment includes 16 stops in five states between April 3 and June 3. The tour continues with the air­ plane back "horne" for AirVenture July 27-August 2, then back on tour through December. The national B-17 tours have taken place each spring and fall since 1994. Since then, tens of thousands of people have experienced this unique air­ plane through its flights and aircraft ground tours. For more information regarding flights and ground tours, visit www.B17. org or contact EM's B-17 Tour Office at 800-359-6217. Special pre-book rates on flights are available for EAA members and non-members, and group ground-tour rates are available for schools or other large groups.

First Leg- 2009 EAA 8-17 Aluminum Overcast Salute to Veterans Tour April 3-5 , Chino, California (Host: EM Warbird Squadron 16)

April 7-8, San Diego , California (EM Chapter 14)

April 10-12, Torrance, California (Torrance Air Fair Association)

April 14-15, Camarillo , California (EM Chapter 723)

April 17-19, Van Nuys, California (EM Chapter 40)

April 21-22, Visalia, California (EM Chapter 262)

April 24-26, Hayward, California (EM Vintage Chapter 29)

April 28-29, Stockton, California (EM Chapter 1432)

May 1-3, Napa, California (EM Chapter 167)

May 5-6, Truckee, California (EM Chapter 1073)

May 8-10, Sacramento, California (EM Chapter 52)

May 12-13, Redding, California (EM Chapter 157)

May 15-17, Portland, Oregon (EM Chapter 105)

May 20-26 , Seattle, Washington (EM Warbird Squadron 2)

May 29-31, Ogden , Utah (EM Chapter 23)

June 3-9, Denver, Colorado (Wings Over the Rockies Air & Space Museum)



required after that date. • Bahamas-All general-aviation aircraft are allowed to use 12l.5 MHz ELTs until February I, 201l. If you have any questions, please contact EAA Aviation Services at info@ or call 888-322-4636.

Pietenpol Air Camper Turns 80 Group flight to Oshkosh, special activities planned for AirVenture

In the late 1920s, Bernard Pieten­ pol, of Cherry Grove, Minnesota, dreamed of designing an inexpen­ sive homebuilt airplane using com­ monly available materials, powered by an auto engine. Eighty years later, his creation-the Pietenpol Air Camper-endures as a popular home­ built design built, loved, and flown by thousands of aviation enthusiasts the world over. EAA will honor Pietenpol's de­ sign-a two-place open-cockpit airplane of wood construction pow­ ered by a four-cylinder Ford Model A automobile engine-at AirVen­ ture Oshkosh 2009. Bill Rewey (EAA 42474) of Verona, Wisconsin, is helping organize a gathering of Air Camper builders, pilots, and planes to partidpate in the celebration. "Right now we're talking about fly­ ing up from Brodhead (Wisconsin) on Sunday morning Guly 26) in autono­ mous groups of five/, said Rewey, a member of the Brodhead Pietenpol Ass9ciation type club, which con­ venes its reunion the weekend before Oshkosh. "We are also encouraging those with radios to use the regular Fisk approach." Arriving Air Campers will have reserved parking south of Homebuilders Headquarters near the old main entry arch. Rewey will also change the format of his annual Pietenpol forum, tra­ ditionally held on Tuesday morning 4

MARCH 2009

during AirVenture. "Instead of my traditional discussion of the airplane, we'll have individual builders attend and spend a few moments each talk­ ing about their airplanes/' he said. Also being planned during AirVen­ ture is a special reception for build­ ers and Air Camper pilots at EAA's Pietenpol Hangar on Pioneer Airport. On display there is Bernard's own N12937, which was built in 1933 and is considered the oldest Air Camper in existence. EAA further honors the Air Camper this year by depicting the airplane on the "I Flew My Homebuilt" patch given to all homebuilders registering at Homebuilders Headquarters. Look for more information as events and activities are confirmed at Pietenpol owners wishing to participate at Oshkosh should visit the Brodhead Pietenpol Assodation website, www.

First Flight of the Silver Dart

Canada's First Flight to Be Commemorated at Oshkosh Thousands of Canadian aviation enthusiasts annually trek to Oshkosh to participate at EAA AirVenture be­ cause of their passion for flight. This year they'll have another reason to be here, as EAA commemorates the lOOth anniversary of Canada's first successful powered flight. On February 23, 1909, John Alex­ ander Douglas McCurdy flew the Sil­ ver Dart at Baddeck Bay, Nova Scotia, marking the first flight in the entire British Commonwealth. EAA is plan­ ning to celebrate the centennial dur­ ing AirVenture. "This is a magnificent opportunity to show our global friends the contri­ butions, spirit, and pride of Canadian aviation/' said Jack Dueck, an EAA member from High River, Alberta, who edits the Bits and Pieces e-news­

letter for EAA members in Canada. "If you're one of those Canadians who dreamed of one day making it to Osh­ kosh, this is the year to do it! We can show our proud colours at AirVenture during our flight centennial year with the entire world of flight." Among Canadian aircraft and pi­ lots scheduled to take part are the Snowbirds aerobatic team; the world's only flying Lancaster bomber in Royal Canadian Air Force markings; and dozens of unique homebuilt, vintage, and other aircraft. Specific programs and activities will be announced as they are fi­ nalized. As those activities are con­ firmed , complete information will be available at, which also includes valuable infor­ mation regarding flying to Oshkosh from Canada, as well as admissions and housing information. Subscribe to Bits and Pieces at www. EAA .org/bitsandpieces/subscribe.asp.

AirVenture Grounds Update: Steve's Blog In the midst of one of Wis­ consin's worst-ever winters, you wouldn't think much could be ac­ complished on the AirVenture con­ vention site's redesign project. But a lot is happening and you can keep up to speed through Steve's Blog, an online update by EAA facilities manager Steve Taylor. The blog includes information about redesigned transportation routes; several new building locations; reconfigured exhibit areas; the new Vintage Hangar, which will host type clubs and workshops as well as other VAA activities; and new flush toilets in some of the camping areas. See the blog at http://AirVenture . RideShare Gets You Here EAA's RideShare online bulletin board operates on the simple premise: Let no seat go unused! Need a ride to EAA AirVenture Osh­ kosh? Already driving or flying in and have space available? Then head on over to EAA's RideShare (www. continued on page 35

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Mail your contribution to: EAA, VINTAGE AIRCRAFT ASSOC., PO Box 3086, OSHKOSH, WI 54903路3086 VINTAGE AIRPLANE


The Indubitilblg

Delightful Dilrt

Big-plane class with small-plane cost ARTICLE AND PHOTOS BY SPARKY BARNES SARGENT

Kurt Grasso enjoys buying an­ tique airplanes and fixing them up if they need it, flying them for a while, and then selling them. But when he acquired NC20930, he had a dilemma on his hands­ the little airplane had quickly en­ deared itself to fellow pilots at Air Acres, his local airport in Wood­ stock, Georgia-and they didn't want to see it flyaway to another location. "I'll tell you how much this airplane is loved at my air­ port, where hangar space is at a premium," explains Grasso with a smile. "There are three people with hangars there who just love hav­ ing the Dart in their hangar. How 6

MARCH 2009

nice to have an airplane so ador­ able and so loved, you don't have to pay for hangar space!" Since he and his brothers have a longstanding love for the Dart design and have grown rather at­ tached to NC20930, he's decided to keep it in the family by relinquish­ ing possession of it to his broth­ ers. "I don't think there's another one around that has the modern­ day appointments and avionics for such an antique airplane while re­ taining its romantic lines . And not only that, the Dart has the flying characteristics that are so enjoy­ able, and which are lost nowadays in a lot of airplanes. It will almost

do basic maneuvers and aerobatics by [the pilot] just thinking about it-and that is the lovely thing about the Dart!" Kurt has been involved in avia­ tion since he was a youngster-he grew up in his father's aircraft­ automobile salvage yard just out­ side of Boston, Massachusetts. "My jungle gym was a BT-13, and I traveled with my father when he went on the road. We hit all the fun air shows up there, and at that time, air shows were more hands­ on, and more about helping each other and just flying. They had bomb-dropping contests with flour bags, spot-landing contests-and

··Thilt is the thing thilt illot of people don"t fathom nowildilgs­ being one with the ilirplilne ilnd ·weilring it_" Now thilt is Hging! "" -Kurt Grasso

little airplane, let's take a brief look back into the mid-1930s. While Al Mooney was working for Lambert Aircraft Corporation, he designed the radial-powered, low-wing air­ plane called the Monosport Model G. In 1937, Mooney and Knight Culver formed Dart Manufacturing Corporation in Columbus, Ohio. Dart bought the prototype, design, and production rights-as well as tooling and parts-to build three Monosports, which were powered by the 90-hp, five-cylinder Lam­ bert R-266. According to the Culver Club's Culver's Going Places newslet­ ter (Issue No.5), lithe first totally Dart-built airplanes ... [had] two ad­ ditional engine choices available­ the Ken-Royce [sin prefix GK] or the Warner Scarab Junior [sin pre­ fix GW], both of which were 90-hp,

N4HM is a nice example of an Applegate-Weyant Dart.

now it's all too much of a liability. And [I remember seeing] the Darts when they had their small radial engines," he fondly recalls. liMy first love has always been creating and building nostalgic-themed air­ planes with lots of radial-engine brute power that fly like they look. When you get in them and put your hands and feet on the con­ trols, the airplane becomes a part of you, and you become a part of them. So most of the aircraft I have

had come through my life have been powered by radial engines-or I have converted them to radial en­ gines. Ironically, the Dart is the first airplane I have owned that was the other way around."

Genesis of the Dart The Dart was indeed designed and built to fly behind a radial en­ gine, although NC20930 now has a Lycoming 0-290-D. To understand the genesis of this sleek, nostalgic

S-cylinder radials. The Lambert and Ken-Royce engines had smooth cowlings, but the Warner had cowl­ ing bumps . . .. In 1939 the com­ pany name was changed to Culver Aircraft Corp., and the airplanes be­ came Culver Darts. After World War II, Applegate and Weyant of Tecum­ seh, Michigan, bought the rights to the Dart and put the Dart back into production. They changed the cockpit enclosure to a hinged, gull­ wing type and switched over to a VINTAGE AIRPLANE



Kurt Grasso

Continental 100-hp, 6-cyl­ inder horizontally opposed engine [sin prefix GC]./J All told, around 60 Darts were produced; today, there are about 30 Darts (Models G, GK, GW, and GC) listed on the FAA Registry. Dart proudly marketed its Model G as "a low-wing, full-cantilever monoplane of exceptional design; new in beauty, in operating ease and safety ... every factor of its practical, sensible design inspires confidence and assures long life and satisfaction. Two-place seat­ ing, powered with a 90-hp Lam­ bert engine, type R266, providing a top speed of 130 mph and cruis­ ing speed of 110 mph. Priced in the medium area./J And aviators of the day would likely have vouched for the fea­ tures touted by that advertisement, since the spirited Dart possessed not only good looks and aerobatic maneuverability with its ever-so­ sensitive-to-the-touch flight con­ trols-it was also a strong design with solid construction. The Air­ craft Yearbook for 1939 highlights the Dart Models GK and GW, stat­ ing that they "found favorable ac­ ceptance from private flyers and fixed-base operators .... Numerous small schools and operators also use Darts for primary and acrobatic instruction. A standard Model G Dart was flown at the National Air Race Aerobatic Exhibitions by 8

MARCH 2009

'" ~I


Dart GW t hree-view from the Aircraft Yearbook for 1.939.

Leonard R. Peterson, and amazed spectators by its maneuverability and inverted flight characteris­ tics. The facilities and factory floor space were enlarged three times during the year to accommodate increasing business . ... /J

Dart Construction The Dart Model GK measures 18 feet 7 inches from nose to tail, stands 6 feet tall, and has a wingspan of 29 feet 6 inches. The wings are built of laminated spruce spars and sprucel plywood wing ribs, with wooden leading edges. Kurt observes, "It's a very thick wing; it has two spars running through it which you'd think were tree trunks!/J Those eye­ catching elliptical wings are grace­ fully faired into the fuselage with a metal fillet, complementing the Dart's neatly faired fuselage. The fuselage and cantilever em­ pennage are built from welded steel tubing, and the airframe is covered in fabric. As powered by the 90-hp

Ken-Royce, it weighed 950 pounds empty, had a useful load of 590 pounds, and a maximum payload of 250 pounds with 25 gallons of gas and 2.5 gallons of oil. It burned just a tad more than 5 gph and gave its pilot a high speed of 135 mph and a steady cruise at 118 mph, with a range of more than 500 miles. When it was time for landing, it wanted its pilot to slow it down to 40 mph before touching terra firma with its tripod-style main landing gear, and it cushioned the transi­ tion from sky to earth with its Dart oil-and-spring shock struts. Interestingly, in late November 1939, the Civil Aeronautics Au­ thority (CAA) issued an airworthi­ ness maintenance bulletin for Dart Models G, GK, and GW (sin 1-49), which requested a precautionary inspection of the fuselage struc­ ture at the wing front spar outer at­ tachments, and if defects such as cracks in the tubing or signs of un­ due stress were found, the structure

Kurt Grasso taxis the 1939 Dart into the vintage aircraft area at Sun 'n Fun.

should be reinforced. If no defects were found, a 25-hour inspection was deemed necessary. According to Kurt Grasso, there are a few details about the Dart's landing gear that have been mod­ ified through the years-such as replacing the shock struts "with a Cessna spring steel gear, but when you see this thing fly [with its neatly streamlined, tripod gear], it looks like a 1930s racer-the gear legs drop way down when it takes off. And this one has the original 3-inch Dart hubs and mechani­ cal brakes, which work very well. Sometimes they used a Goodyear [18x8x3] airwheel :tire with those 30-inch wheels, but they became unobtainable. Somewhere along the line, somebody made an STC­ approved outer ring [Lamb adapter] that fits inside the wheel-that made the wheel diameter a little bigger, and they put 4-inch Cub­ style tires on them, and that's what this airplane has."

NC20910 NC20930's first bill of sale was drawn between Culver Aircraft Cor­ poration and John Arlt of Saginaw, Michigan, on April 12, 1939-three days before this airplane's formal date of manufacture. At that time, it was powered by the Ken-Royce

Side view of N4HM, a 1946 Applegate-Weyant Dart, powered by a 1 00-hp Continental.

Engine Company's 90-hp LeBlond 5-F and had a Flottorp fixed-pitch wood propeller. By May 1940, NC20930 had already been air­ borne for 165 hours. By 1957, this particular Dart was in Michigan, where it was con­ verted from a Dart Model GK to a Dart Model GW with the instal­ lation of a Warner Scarab Junior radial engine. All parts forward of the firewall were replaced with parts from another Dart, and an adjustable Hamilton-Standard pro­ peller was installed. The airplane was re-covered with Irish linen and dope around the same time. In early 1968, NC20930 was in Ohio, where once again it experienced

an engine change. The Warner was removed, and a 125-hp 0-290-D Lycoming was installed, with a Sensenich propeller. Of course, the change from a radial to a hori­ zontally opposed engine required other modifications as well, in­ cluding a different engine mount, and the installation of Piper PA-20 baffling with a PA-22 spinner and nose cowl, as approved under Sup­ plemental Type Certificate SA3-408 and Larsen Industries drawings. Hence, NC20930 evolved from its beginnings as a Dart Model GK to a Dart Model GW-and although it still has this latter designation, the discerning eye will note that its serial number, GK-34, quietly bears VINTAGE AIRPLANE


Dart advertisement in the April 1939 issue of Western Flying magazine.

A Iow.wi.,,, lWl..c:Lllw_ monop1acw of 0:­ orpcionJl~p;_iGt-..'Y.iDop«1Itini

testimony to this Dart's early life, when it was powered by the Ken-Royce radial.

Modern Appointments Today, this 69-year-oltl Dart has a total time of only 950 hours. Cov­ ered in Ceconite and finished in cream with green trim, it's a stand­ out on the flightline-and on the taxiway, where the author spotted it taxiing in to Sun 'n Fun this spring. rts 125-hp Lycoming is neatly con­ cealed by a cowling that facilitates the retention of the Dart's

smooth lines. And it's fu lly instru­ ment flight rules equipped, with a NARCO MK-12B nav/comm with course deviation indicator, King KT­ 76A transponder with encoder, and Apollo GPS, and it has a four-posi­ tion cylinder exhaust gas tempera­ ture gauge. "The exceptional thing about this airplane," shares Kurt, "is that not only is it an antique airplane, but it has a full panel, is fully uphol­ stered in leather, with heat, cabin air, dome lights, and intercomand it is a lovely cross-country air-

tal", . ..

_ and "'fry larnu of ill pnc. tia.I, ~'bJe daip impira [1)f16d~ .Dd ~ b sli(t and a tWaction. T'III'O-~ M'atioa. powued ""i~h " 90 h.p. Lanlbm tIIglnt. Iype Rl66, ptovidu" • top ~pNd of no m..p.h. snd cruit:i08 &peed of 110

rn.p.h. Priced in 1M medium .ft•. Inquirifs IOlkilH from pbM owner.,. potead.1 and distributort.




Above: Dart advertisement reprinted in Culver's Going Places, the Culver Club 's newsletter.

this airplane-an older fellow did, and he put his heart into tastefully

r--:------;----;~-:-lr,~~~p~la~n:e.~I~d~id~n~o~t~re~s~t~o~re~~u:pgrading it." Darting About • Tit. Dart coati

ratlolt where••r ~:~: t. 'a'. ".riqcll .d.. '~ Oft th'. olrpoN, of tit 'I-a." wit." It reu, U•••, It. quality of • COII,,"ry. Its ·'.Ukerry" ria,' •• It. co••true,'o•••411 ...te. our Ower .y.ry~ J ••eII ~.p.ndClbmt., ·"tid'· Ii••,. A_d _ lie 0 its ' .. ootll.. ftow'_. Whoever fl,1 a D for .port or 10 art. el'•• r cOlllm.rcfally p ral.. i,";I~:::;UC:'o f_ .f~ ....y. aad til• • 0 .~~"'rol. I,••C.a.. dow."'. a." weat. Wei, ca.... "'e'; '0 It p .e;,:~d Oft a." "porto" r.., ••tlene I.vl';d·' , 0 135 lII.p.h. Co,... 'errl'orie, avallobl '" a '0. de"rahle ,a'., or d,u~~~::.~ablll.ed do...._


of ·f,••0'. wi,. •. I••".



Kurt revels in flying NC20930 and describes its handling char­ acteristics much the way a proud paren t would his honor roll student. He steps up onto the wingwalk, settles down into the comfort able cockpit, and from takeoff to landing, just lightly holds the stick, using only fin­ gertip pressure for control in-



Left: More advertising from Cul­ ver's Going Places newsletter.

10 MARCH 2009

put. "I can just slightly move the stick, and even at cruise, it just re­ sponds like a favorite horse. That is the thing that a lot of people don't fathom nowadays-being one with the airplane and 'wear­ ing it.' Now that is flying! The Dart tells you what it wants, you do it, z and it likes it!" ~ The Dart's flight controls are ~ -­ activated by push-pull tubes, as ~ opposed to cables, and its trim 5 system uses a bungee device. Kurt ~ explains the latter this way: "It ~ has a spring-tension influencer, ~ which is like a 'manual servo,' and ~ . when you set the trim lever for­ ~ ward or back, it pulls or pushes on oU L...-_ _ _ _ _ --~---,.....­ two different springs that are con­ "Predecessor" of the Dart- the first Monosport Model G. nected to the elevator controls. The only time it's trim-sensitive your maneuvers to keep it run­ 260 feet and with not more than is when you've got a full load­ ning. You have to induce false 105 miles an hour at the bottom of when you start rolling, it wants gravity by centrifugal force and the loop. Therefore, for exhibition to run on all three wheels for a keep the oil and fuel where it be­ purposes, I figure twice 260 feet, or little bit, but when you get up to longs. That's like Younkin in the 520 feet, as the point at which to about 30 mph, you just bump the Beech 18, or anybody that does a start the loop ...." stick forward a little, and that tail routine in a T-6, or Uohn Mohr] in While the Dart excels in aerobatic comes up. After that, it flies with the 220-hp stock Stearman-those maneuvers, "it isn't a fast airplane, aerobatics are an art." no real trim adjustment." but it is just the most enjoyable air­ One glance at the Dart eas­ Historically, at least a cou­ plane in the world to fly," explains ily reveals how short-coupled it ple of well-known pilots, such as Kurt. "And it'll land just like a Cub, is, and some pilots might think Rodney Jocelyn and Leonard Pe­ except for one thing-with all this that it would be a bit squirrelly terson, selected the Dart as their wing, it floats. So on a short strip, during takeoffs and landings. Yet aerobatic steed. Jocelyn (who was you can land it perfectly, but you've Kurt proclaims that it isn't that inducted into EAA's International got to learn how to bring it in flat way at all. "It is the most gentle Aerobatic Hall of Fame in 1998) and slow. If you put the nose down tailwheel airplane-when a lot of flew a clipped-wing Dart that was at all, any little speed up will just new pilots, and a lot of pilots in powered by a 220-hp Continental make it float all the way down the general aviation, switch over to radial. Decades ago, Peterson's per­ runway! Other than that, Darts are flying tailwheel aircraft, they have formances in the Dart were well- known for not spinning easily, if a lot of problems with them. But received at the Rancho Boyeros, spinning at all. Another nice thing this airplane is one of the most Havana, air show; the National Air about them is that not only do you docile airplanes that you could Races at Cleveland; and the 11 th sit side by side, you can slide the ever fly. And aerobatics are lovely Annual All-American Air Maneu­ glass open and hang your hand out in this airplane-you can snap vers at Miami. In his article "Tak­ while flying it-which is nice! That roll it, barrel roll it, do hammer­ ing the 'Stunt' Out of Stunting," makes it like an open cockpit." Kurt Grasso succinctly sums up heads-and it's just so respon­ which appeared in the Culver sive. Now I'm a 'dinosaur' I guess, Club's first newsletter, he describes his admiration of the Dart with a but modern-day aerobatics-tum­ some of his maneuvers: "The Dart, smile when he says: "It's acrobatic, bling through the air with some for example, will recover nicely in docile, forgiving, and a dream to fly! of these beautiful little Extras or 220 feet [from an inverted recovery And it's a great airplane for cross­ Christen Eagles-that's like break­ without power from an inverted country flying, and peevish or low­ dancing, compared to a ballet. stall]. So in exhibition work, I ap­ time tailwheel pilots." Plus, there Aerobatics, to me, is when you proach an inverted stall at 440 feet are those irresistible romantic lines fly an airplane that does not have altitude or more . ... I found that of the Dart, which handily open the an inverted system-especially a an outside loop could be flown doorway to an aviator's heart-and ..... big airplane-and you have to do with the Dart in a diameter of only even some hangars. UJ



"Left Turn Only!"

Bill Brennand on the amazing racing career of

Steve Wittman's Chief Oshkosh and Buster




he great Chief sat for­ lornly atop the hangar rafters, a musty coating of bird droppings and dust covering the re­ mains of this once proud racer. The name and caricature of Chief Osh­ kosh could still be seen faintly on the front cowl that housed the pre­ viously finely tuned Menasco en­ gine. The same engine that seized and imploded on its designer/pilot while flying in the Oakland, Cali­

T 12

MARCH 2009

fornia, races back in 1938. After flip­ ping over upon landing, the Chief was pu lled from the soggy marsh. Its pilot, Steve Wittman, shaken and bruised but otherwise unhurt, had the remains trucked back to Wisconsin, where it began its al ­ most la-year state of hibernation . As a kid living on a farm just south of the Oshkosh airport , my interest in aviation was fueled by airplanes flying overhead. But my passion and desire to become a pi­ II

lot was ignited by Steve Wittman and h is racing airplanes that rock­ eted by our farm in the 1930s," re­ called Bill Brennand. "'Witt,' as he was called by his Above: 1932-Steve Wittman standing in front of Chief Oshkosh. Broken, battered, and stored in the rafters of Steve Wittman 's hangar in Oshkosh, after World War II, pieces of it would rise again as Buster.

'old time' friends and colleagues, would be out practicing for fu­ ture races in either Chief Oshkosh or Bonzo. At that time [1935] Bonzo was probably one of the three fast­ est airplanes in the United States. It was faster than the current military aircraft, but not quite as speedy as the Howard Hughes racer. How­ ever, Witt was able to obtain these breakneck speeds utilizing half the horsepower compared to his round­ engined brethren! "As I grew, so did my desire to become a pilot. Being the son of a farmer did not provide the finan­ cial opportunity I needed to obtain this goal. With war clouds growing, I attempted to join the Air Corps to obtain my dream, only to be 'shot down' and occupationally deferred to the farm during the war. My brother was already in the service, and that was enough for my dad. I really hated the farm because when you weighed only 100 pounds and had hay fever, you didn't make a very good farmer! "Fate soon showered me with a wonderful opportunity. In the frigid Wisconsin winter months, not much was happening on the farm, and being an airport bum, I soon found myself working for Steve Wittman, unofficially. Tech­ n-ically, I couldn't work anyplace else with my deferment, and Witt couldn't hire anybody. Witt came up with a barter system, keeping track of my time and giving me credits toward my ratings: private, commercial, and flight instructor. "Soon after the war, now offi­ cially an employee of Wittman's Flying Service, I began building up my hours instructing new pilots on the GI Bill. At the end of most flying days, Witt and I would sit around the hangar and he would talk about pulling the Chief down that hung above our heads, fixing her up, just to have something to 'play with.' But the conversation would always end with Witt saying 'maybe someday.' "With my persistent nagging and grousing of Witt (on an almost

1938-Chief Oshkosh after the crash in a swamp during the races in Oakland, California.

Steve Wittman along with Buster and many of the trophies won with the racer during its racing career. Buster is now enshrined in the Smithso­ nian National Air and Space Museum's Golden Age of Flight gallery on the National Mall in Washington , D.C.

daily basis!), pleading for the rescue of the Chief finally paid off. Witt looked at me one day and said, 'Okay, we'll get it down and rebuild her.' And with that nod of approval from Witt, I propelled myself into the rebuild project. Little did I re­ alize it at the time, but I was an apprentice to an aviation master/ designer of a soon-to-be notewor­ thy, historic aircraft. "During the latter part of 1946, an announcement was made that would forever compose and forge my destiny: the creation of a new class

of competition race aircraft. The U.S. Professional Race Pilots Association (PRPA) formulated and drafted the design requirements for this new class. Emphasizing simplicity and safety along with affordability, the PRPA came up with a winning com­ bination, both for pilot and specta­ tor alike. The first showing of these 'midgets' would be at Cleveland in the late summer of 1947. "The only engine allowed would be the very reliable and dependable 85-hp Continental. A minimum empty weight of 500 pounds with a VINTAGE AIRPLANE


Upon returning to the Oshkosh airport after winning the 1947 Goodyear trophy race during the National Air Races in Cleveland, Bill Brennand is greeted by a lineboy.

wing surface of at least 66 square feet along with visibility requirements and fuel-carrying capabilities were only some of the very strict rules placed on this new class. An empha­ sis was also placed on the racecourse and its dimensions. The entire race of these midgets would be flown in front of the 'paying crowd,' rocketing around pylons and thrilling the spectators all while flying inches away from one another barely 20 feet off the ground. "In early January of 1947, the Goodyear Corporation announced that for the next three years, Goodyear would sponsor this new class

14 MAR CH 2009

and donate prize money for the winners. With this new devel­ opment and announcement by Goodyear, especially the poten­ tial of winning the lion's share of the $25,000 purse, Witt and I both agreed that the Chief would easily fit into this new midget category, and with no minimum pilot weight requirement, Witt selected me to fly his plane in the first Goodyear trophy race. "Rebuilding the fabric-covered steel-tube fuselage began in earnest as a new set of larger wings was also added. The large 250-hp Menasco engine was replaced with

the little ' popcorn popper' Conti­ nental 85 hp. Because of the size difference in engines, the cockpit was moved forward one bay. The basic tail group and landing gear remained the same as when it flew as Chief Oshkosh. Wheel brakes and instrumentation was also added per the race rule requirements . The aircraft was painted overall red with a bright yellow race number (20) and N number. The 'phoenix' airplane that lay dormant for 10 years was given a new name that air-racing fans would soon remem­ ber, Buster. "With the rebuild nearing com­ pletion and the Goodyear race in Cleveland, Ohio, fast approaching, Witt and I were scrambling to get Buster finished on time. I had never flown a midget racer before and was starting to have some self-doubt and concern over embarrassing my­ self and the Wittman race team in front of 175,OOO-plus screaming fans. [On the day of the big race], sensing my dilemma, Witt just bel­ lowed to me, 'Remember, left turn only!' and with that I relaxed and focused on the race ahead. "On the eve of departure for

Bill Brennand perches on the edge of the t urtledeck of Buster before his qualifying run. In this shot you can see the scimitar-shaped race propeller that was dest royed during the qualifying attempt. With a stock propel­ ler, Brennand would go on to win the $8,500 first-place prize money and the inaugural Goodyear trophy race.

Cleveland and the Goodyear race, I was finally able to test-fly my new mount. I can honestly say that without a doubt, Buster was the best­ flying airplane I ever flew. I had flown enough in different aircraft to realize that sometimes these planes had abrupt characteristics. Buster was unlike anything I had ever flown. The stall configuration was very docile with full aileron control and little buffeting. That in itself was a real advantage in racing because you didn't have to spend your time 'flying' the airplane, giv­ ing me more time to see the next pylon and other aircraft. My entire racing configuration practice lasted a whopping 20 minutes! I was cer­ tainly the underdog! "The Wittman racing team de­ parted for Cleveland. Witt in his clipped-wing Bell P-63 Kingcobra arrived well before Buster and I be­ cause of all the fuel stops I had on the way. This really gave me a good chance to test out the stopping char­ acteristics of a plane with no brakes. "The race rules reqUired all air­ craft to have brakes installed, but they never said they had to work! And I can assure you, these didn't!

"After landing at Cleveland, I taxied over to the ramp across from the big military hangar. A wave of people started to cross the tarmac and move toward me . I started to think something was wrong. Was I leaking gas? Did I park in some­ one's spot? The mob of people turned out to be all the compet­ itors and their crews. Everyone wanted to see Wittman's entry be­ cause every challenger knew that if you were going to win this race, you had to beat Wittman's ma­ chine. I slowly backed away, ana­ lyzing my competition. Boy, was I out of my league! "There they stood, larger than life. Famous Lockheed test pilots Tony LeVier and Herman ' Fish' Salmon spoke to one another in hushed voices, pointing and gazing at Buster. Both Tony and Fish had their own spectacular aircraft de­ signed and built by a contingent of Lockheed employees. Near the tail of Buster stood Art Chester, one of the most successful race pilots from the 1930s, analyzing Buster and sur­ mising that he had seen this aircraft or parts of it before. Buster was now completely encircled by the inquis­

itive racing diSCiples as my confi­ dence level began to spiral. They glanced at me, knowing Buster was going to be tough to beat, but with a highly inexperienced pilot at the controls, they thought they had a 'helluva' good chance of winning! "I left Buster to the curious and wandered over to the technical committee to announce my arrival. The committee acted as judge and jury to make sure all the require­ ments were met. In fact, to obtain the minimum weight (500 pounds), ballast was added to Buster. I smiled to myself, realizing that I was the lightest pilot flying the lightest ship! After getting the okay from technical, I was handed off to op­ erational flight test, to make sure I could handle this little rocket. "As I put my chute and helmet on, the operations people installed an accelerometer to the interior of Buster. I was told that in order to race, I must show that Buster and I can sustain 9 G's . I knew how Buster was built and had ev­ ery ounce of confidence that she would hold up under the pressure. It was me I was worried about! I disclosed my concern to Witt as I VINTAGE AIRPLANE


Tucked under the nose of a United Airlines Mainliner DC-3 are four Good­ year trophy racers. From left to right , they are Steve Wittman's Buster, Art Chester's Swee Pea, "Fish " Salmon 's Cosmic Wind Minnow, and Charlie Bing's Flightways Special.

Art Chester's Swee Pea, flown by Paul Penrose, is just outside of Charles Bing's Rightways Special (right) as they round one of the Goodyear pylons during the 1947 National Air Races. The Goodyear trophy race was set on a rectangu­ lar course in front of the grandstand at the Cleveland, Ohio, airport. One of the guiding forces behind the first Goodyear trophy race, Benny How­ ard (center) is flanked by his wife, Maxine (everyone called her "Mike"), and Ed Allenbaugh, owner and builder of race number 95, Californian.

1947 National Air Races-Left to right: Paul W. Litchfield , Goodyear board chairman; William Brennand, winning pilot; E.J . Thomas, presi­ dent of Goodyear; and S.J. Wittman , designer and builder of the winning plane, Buster. 16

MARCH 2009

strapped myself in. 'That's pretty tough to pull 9 G's without black­ ing out,' I said . Witt just smiled and laughed and said, 'Just make a slight turn, pull back a little on the stick, and rap your knuckle on the bottom of the instrument.' I climbed to 4,000 feet, made the turn, and whacked the accelerom­ eter. It pegged at 12 G's! I reset it and that time gave it a 'gentle' tap. Nine G's, just as Witt predicted. "After landing and having the G meter removed and verified, it was time to qualify Buster. The course was laid out in a rectangular shape-2.2 miles, turning around four pylons. In the middle of these pylons was the grandstand. I was given strict instructions to never, ever-under any circumstances­ fly over the grandstand! Here's how Bill remembered that day: "Taking off, I locate the first py­

Flashing a winning smile is Bill Brennand after taxiing in with his racing mount, Buster. The crash helmet used by Brennand was borrowed from a friend who used it to race boats. On the front in hastily applied paint is Bill 's nickname at the time, Willie.

Ion and turn around it. I am still in one piece. As I round the second, all heck breaks loose, as time slows way down. Traveling close to 200 miles per hour and 3000 rpm at 50 feet above the ground, the engine is vibrating so severely that I feel it may 'blow. ' Instinctively pulling power and climbing almost verti­ cally, on my way up I roll the wing down to see my options; I have only one, taking me over the 'sa­ cred ground' called the grandstand. I see a strip of grass in front of the bleachers. Pushing the nose down as I come over the grandstand con­ taining 4,000 onlookers, I think to myself, 'We'll argue about it tomor­ row,' as I turn into the wind. The wheels touch as I slow effortlessly in front of the cheering crowd. As the shaking in my body be­ gins to subside, I climb out of the cockpit and gaze in horror at the front end of Buster. The beautifully curved wooden racing propeller that graced Buster's nose is noth­ ing more than a saw-toothed piece of lumber. Over 1 foot on one of the blades is gone. The spinner is all chewed up, and the cowl has vibrated loose. My mind wanders and I wonder if it is too late to be a farmer! After a long night of repairs, Buster is patched and mended by Witt and crew. The racing prop is replaced by a wood Sensenich that Witt was able to borrow from the vendor. The prop looks like it be­ longs on a Piper Cub, not a midget II


Witt was able

to obtain these

breakneck speeds

utilizing half

the horsepower

compared to his

"round -engined"


racer. I am able to qualify Buster and make it around all four pylons without any pieces falling off! I then advance to the heat races and am placed in between two legends. "'Somebody on the race com­ mittee must have really messed up,' I thought to myself sitting in Buster with the prop idling. Here I am, sandwiched in between Tony LeVier on one side and Fish Salmon on the other. I am sure they will pull me out at any minute after re­ alizing their mistake. My hope is shattered and dashed as the white flag is dropped, indicating one min­ ute to race. 'What am I doing here?' I say out loud. I increase the rpm. My jaw matches the boost as I at­ tempt to destroy the piece of gum in my mouth . My crew is doing a great job of holding down the tail

as the throttle is jammed forward, awaiting the drop of the green flag. "In one harmonious second the green flag is lowered and my crew releases me as I propel forward. The lightweight configuration of Buster and pilot works to our favor. I keep it on the runway as long as possible to gain speed . As I trade altitude for acceleration, the overinflated tires rotate faster until I am airborne. A quick glance to either side, and I find myself out in front. I feel my­ self beginning to 'gray-out' as I round the first pylon. I am having a lot of difficulty finding the sec­ ond pylon as I swing out wide. Fish Salmon flashes by me and around pylon number 2. I latch onto his tail and acclimate myself with the entire course. Round and round we go, and with each lap my confi­ dence builds. I retake the lead, and in a few short laps I am given the checkered flag. liMy crew is ecstatic. Witt beams a smile as long as the new prop. I am finally able to relax as I pry the gum from the roof of my mouth. I wait until everyone is out of ear­ shot, and I pull Witt aside. 'I just wanted to let you know some­ thing, Witt,' I say in an apprehen­ sive voice. 'When I retook the lead, I pulled the power back because I knew no one could catch me, and I didn't want to show them how much power we had.' Witt is in shock, standing there smiling at VINTAGE AI RPLAN E


Some of the Goodyear racers taxi by the stands before the start of the 1947 Goodyear race. Bill Brennand and Buster lead the parade, followed by Art Chester's Swee Pea, "Fish" Salmon's Cosmic Wind Minnow, Tony LeVier's Cosmic Wind Uttle Toni, the Loose racer flown by Warren Siem, and the Brown 8-1, now modified with a Continental C-85 and dubbed Suzie Jayne.

me, rubbing his hand vigorously over his jaw. 'Good job, Bill,' fol ­ lowed by a pat on the back is all I needed to realize 'I done good.' Bill continued to reminisce about that fantastic racing day: "Buster, along with the other rac­ ers, is tweaked to perfection for the big race. All the finalists' midgets are towed out to the starting line. With the planes lined up wingtip to wingtip, the start has all the ap­ pearance of a horse race takeoff. The flagman then drops the yellow flag, indicating engine start-up. " Remembering all the things Witt told me earlier began to flash through my mind. I have placed small pieces of tape on the instru­ 18


ment panel: one for each lap . My plan is to remove a piece after each circuit. That way I will know when to pour the coal on. As the oil be­ gins to warm and rpm increases, the flagman stands on the tips of his toes, waving the green flag ex-

uberantly. The takeoff is a sight to behold as these midgets, like a swarm of bees, accelerate forward to takeoff. "To conserve weight, Buster car­ ries 5 gallons of fuel in its IS-gallon tank. Turning over 3000 rpm, this little engine gu lps gasoline. The grandstands are full of race enthusi­ asts. Over 175,000 paying custom­ ers are here with another 175,000 outside the fence to become a part of air-racing history. "Just like the heat races , the midgets stay low, close to one an­ other. I begin to lose track of the laps. Was that number seven or eight? Glancing at the billowing pieces of tape, I'll just rely on the checkered flag. Oil pressure's good and cylinder temps are normal as I cruise around the pylons, being closely followed by Paul Penrose in Art Chester's Swee Pea. Fish Salmon and Tony LeVier are in a battle for third place in their look-alike Cos­ mic Wind racers. "As I round the fourth pylon I see a 'crazy man' up ahead on the ground waiving a black and white checkered flag at me. I still have pieces of tape to peel off. Was that 15 laps? Then it hits me . I have just won the inaugural Goodyear trophy race . Not too bad for a boy right off the farm!" Buster and Bill Brennand raced for the next three years, winning the Goodyear trophy again in 1949. Buster completed a robust 23 years of air racing and earned a place of honor in the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, having one of the longest careers in air racing as both Chief Oshkosh and Buster........

Back Cover aircraft list: The racers pictured on the back cover are (by race numberj CAA registration number, and from left to right) : 40, N1210M , Thompson , Screaming Meany; 39, N24C, Keith So­ rensen , Dearfly; 97, N9059H, Denight Special, DDT; N68732, AI Foss Special , Ginny; 51, N2E, Johnson, Betty Jo; 4, N21C, Cosmic Wind , Minnow; 20, NX14855, Wittman , Buster, N10E, Coonley, Little Toot; 67 , NX5111H , D. Long, Midget Mustang; 29, N138C, Lawrence Tech, L.1. 1. ; 3 , N20C, Cosmic Wind , Little Toni; 92, N60089, Bill Falk, Riv­ ets; 10, N1E, Kensinger-Corkill , Tater Chip; 47, N66317, Pack Model C, Lil Rebel; 5, N22C, Cosmic Wind, Ballerina; 34, N44183, Williams, Estrellita; 14, N74J , Miller, Little Gem.



Light Plane Heritage


EAA Experimenter JULY


The Tipsy S.2


own through the years there have been many attempts to build an ultralight single­ seat aircraft meeting the same requirements of efficiency and reliability as the usual multi-seat touring aircraft. Few have achieved success to any great degree, and it had been generally accepted that ultralights were impractical. The Tipsy S.2 was, however, one very definite exception to the rule and might be considered something of a milestone in avia­ tion-lightplane development at any rate. The S.2 was a refinement of the Tipsy S designed by O.E. Tips, managing director of the Belgian Avi­


ons Fairey aircraft firm. The prototype S., powered by a 36.6-cubic-inch, 18-hp Douglas opposed twin, appeared in the latter part of 1934. The following year the diminutive aircraft was widely demonstrated throughout Europe. In 1936 the S.2 was introduced and 19 examples, variously powered, were built in Bel­ gium by Avions Tipsy. Some 10 or 12 examples were built in England by Aero Engines, Ltd. During 1936-37. Licenses were granted for its construction in France, Spain, and South Africa. Although weight was kept at a bare minimum, the aircraft was stressed to a point where it could reason­

Editor's Note: The Light Plane Heritage series in EAA's Experimenter magazine often touched on aircraft and concepts related to vintage aircraft and their history. Since many of our members have not had the opportunity to read this se­ ries, we plan on publishing those LPH articles that would be of interest to VAA members. Enjoy!-HGF 20

MARCH 2009

ably be described as an aerobatic machine. As for the flying charac­ teristics, all three controls were ex­ tremely light and most effective. Flying the Tipsy has been described as pure delight-the little ship was completely without vices. The fuselage, constructed in two units, consisted of four spruce lon­ gerons with spruce frames covered entirely with a birch plywood skin, an unusual feature being the inte­ gral construction of the forward fu­ selage section and the wing. Most S.2s had open cockpits; however, later Belgian production machines had closed cockpits. The wings were of all-wood con­ struction and consisted of main "I" spar and an auxiliary longeron. Between the spars a rigid diagonal pyramid bracing maintained tor­ sional rigidity. Ribs were built up with spruce strips. The leading edge was plywood covered to the main spar, the balance being fabric­ covered. The airfoil at the root was an RAF 48, tapering to RAF 38 and 28 at the tip. The ailerons were dif­ ferentiallyoperated . The tail group was also built up of spruce, the vertical stabilizer be­ ing integral with the fuselage. Lead­ ing edges were plywood-covered, the remainder fabric-covered . The landing gear was composed

TipI)' S.Z -c:::r o-r....

- .. . ­







BEGINS March 14-15


March 20-22

2 ~ days

March 21 -22


March 27-29

2 ~ days

March 28-29 April 4-5

2days 2days

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COURSE DESCRIPTION Composite Construction,Electrical Systems & Avionics, Fabric Covering, Basic Sheet Metal, Test Flying Your Project, & What's Involved in Kitbuilding ELSA Repairman Inspection-Airplane (16 hour course) Composite Construction, Electrical Systems & Avionics, Fabric Covering, Basic Sheet Metal, & What's Involved in Kitbuilding ELSA Repairman Inspection-Airplane (16 hour course) Von's RV Assembly Composite Construction, Electrical Systems & Avionics, Basic Sheet Metal, Test Aying Your Project, & What's Involved in Kitbuilding T1G Welding Von's RV Assembly ELSA Repairman Inspection-Airplane (16 hour course)


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Griffin, GA Oshkosh, WI Oshkosh, WI

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---~--22 MARCH 2009



Specifications of the Tipsy S.2 Span

24 ft. 7 in.


18 ft. 8 in.


4 ft. 8 in.

Landing gear tread

6 ft. 6 in.

Wing area

100 sq . ft.

Wing loading

5.5Ibs/ sq. ft.

Power loading

22.4lbs/ hp

Empty weight


Useful load

264 1bs.

Gross weight


Maximum speed

95 mph

Cruising speed

80 mph

Landing speed

37/ 40 mph

Initial rate of climb

400 ft./min.

Service cei ling

10,000 ft.


470 miles

Fuel consumption at cruising speed

1.3 gal/hr.

of low-pressure tires held in forks fitted with coil-spring shock ab­ sorbers. The gear was attached at three points to the main spar. A variety of different engine in­ stallations were employed on the prototype Tipsy S and production S.2s. These included both the 30­ and 33-cubic-inch Aubier-Dunne two-cycle inverted in-line two- and three-cylinder engines of French manufacture. The former developed 20 hp at 1600 rpm, the latter 27 hp at 1600 rpm. The Belgian Sarolea "Albatros," a 67-cubic-inch opposed twin developed to attain 30 hp at 2750 rpm, was the most popular in­ stallation and permitted a top speed of 103 mph. A few Belgian S.2s were fitted with the French Train 4T, a 122-cubic-inch inverted four-cylinder inline of 40 hp, which gave the ship a top speed of 124 mph. British pro­ duction versions of the S.2 were powered by the popular and highly efficient Aero engine "Sprite," a 4S-cubic-inch flat-twin delivering 24.5 hp at 2800 rpm. Specifications and performance figures for the "Sprite" -powered S.2 are shown in the accompanying chart. ......

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Repairs, alterations, maintenance, preventive maintenance e begin this issue with a discussion about main­ tenance, repairs, and al­ terations for the antique airplane. Let's proceed from the owner's standpoint and talk briefly about preventive maintenance. Fed­ eral Aviation Regulations (FAR) Part 43, Appendix A(c) describes pre­ ventive maintenance as that main­ tenance that can be accomplished by the owner, provided it does not involve complex assembly opera­ tions. We will cover just a few; if you're interested, consult FAR 43. First, the owner can make minor fabric repairs consisting of bonding a fabric patch to small holes. It not allow patching large holes or doing any kind of rib lacing. Also included is making sheet metal re­ pairs to secondary structures, such as cowling, fairings, and the like. It does not authorize repairs to the primary structure. The owner can repaint the aircraft, but not bal­ anced control surfaces. The owner can replace tires and tubes, replen­ ish fluid in shock struts and brake cylinders, and replace upholstery. The owner can replace shock ab­ sorbers, pack wheel bearings, and lubricate components, as long as there is no disassembly required. The owner can replace seat belts, light bulbs in landing and naviga­ tion lights, and replace and service the battery. As far as the engine is concerned, the owner can change



MARCH 2009

oil; inspect oil and fuel screens; re­ place, clean, and gap spark plugs; and replace hoses in fuel and oil systems (excluding hydraulic sys­ tems). Please note that this is only a partial listing.

Originally, these

conversions were

completed with a

"field approval"

tt:9m-tfle CAA.

Try doing a com­

plete engine change

without any type of

"approved data" in

today's world.

If the airplane is operated "for hire," then the work needs to be su­ pervised by an A&P mechanic who needs to make an appropriate entry in the logbooks. An A&P mechanic can perform and return to service minor repairs, minor alterations, and mainte­ nance, including IOO-hour inspec­

tions. An A&P mechanic cannot approve major repairs, major altera­ tions and annual inspections. An A&P holding an inspection autho­ rization (A&P-IA) can approve the above; however, the only major al­ terations that can be approved by the A&P-IA are those listed in FAA Advisory Circular 43-13-2A and some supplemental type certificate (STC) installations. But this major alteration issue is good for another column devoted to this one subject at a future date. A simple definition of a major re­ pair is a repair to the aircraft struc­ ture that returns the airplane to conformity with its approved type certificate (ATC), or in rare cases its Group 2 approval. Similarly, a major alteration is something done to the structure that moves the airplane outside of its ATC or Group 2 approval. Let me list just a few Major Re­ pairs, as specified by FAR Part 43, AppendiX A(a): Splicing of structural members, such as spar splices, steel tube splices, large repairs to stressed sheet metal components, and the replacement of fabric (original type only). And there are many more. Now, here is a very brief list of major alterations, as specified by FAR Part 43, AppendiX (b) : Electri­ cal system installations in nonelec­ trical airplanes, radio installations, battery installations, and replacing of synthetic fabric on surfaces origi­

nally approved for Grade A cotton fabric. Again, there are many more to list. But, some major alterations can be approved by an A&P-IA. Other major alterations can­ not be approved by the A&P-IA. A few of these alterations are engine and/or prop changes, changes in wheels and brakes, changes in tail wheel installations, changes in fuel system (addition or sub­ traction of fuel tanks), installa­ tion of an entire electrical system including battery and charging system, and alteration of wing and/or control surface shape. So what happens (with the FAA) when a person buys an air­ plane that had been converted to a crop duster/sprayer and wants to return it to "stock" configuration? That's always a good one to analyze. The A&P-IA can remove the modi­ fications to the structure and replace components originally used in the airplane-and can re­ turn it to service. However, when all work has been completed, the FAA must do a conformity inspection to deter­ mine if the airplane conforms to its original type certificate, and issue a new standard airworthiness certifi­ cate. The old airworthiness certifi­ cate was in the restricted category, and it is no longer valid. The point here is that the mechanic is modi­ fying an existing structure back to standard, not the opposite. Thus far, in my career as an air­ craft mechanic, I've been through six different FAA conformity in­ spections, the most difficult being on my 1929 Command-Aire be­ cause there were no drawings or other type design data. You may be fortunate if there is a type club for your aircraft that may have a large collection of draWings for the pur­ pose of keeping an aircraft airwor­ thy. And that is a most important factor for future dealings with the FAA. We'll have more on that later. Factory drawings continue to be a most important item for aging aircraft but may be the most diffi-


ther hard copy or microfiche, while some are still in storage. AERONAUl"ICS BRANCH And many drawings were de­ AERONAuncs BUI..lEnN No. 7-A stroyed. Such was the case for the Command-Aire. Where were (are) the draw­ AIRWORTHINESS REQUIREMENTS ings stored? Originally they OF were stored in Washington, AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS I D.C., in the department's files. As the drawing files grew and more aircraft received the cov­ eted approved type certificate, the drawing files were relocated to the old torpedo factory build­ ing at Alexandria, Virginia. As the files continued to grow, the newly formed FAA relocated the drawings to the district office (DO) nearest to where the airplane was manufactured. Some draw­ ings were lost during transfer, and some were destroyed at the DO. But many drawings are still stored , at the Federal Records Storage Cen­ ter in Suitland, Maryland. I have -

perused boxes and boxes of original Figure 1 blueprint drawings stored there for years! It's absolutely amazing what cult to obtain. Drawings are needed is there. But no one knows exactly when the owner finds it necessary what is in each of the boxes. I have a brief transcript of what I saw in to replace a primary structural com­ ponent, such as wings, control sur­ 1982, but it's a drop in the bucket faces, fuselage, landing gear, etc. of what is actually there. Perhaps How were drawings originally this could be another column in submitted to the Aeronautics Branch the future. So drawings are a most impor­ of the u.S . Department of Com­ merce, or later the Civil Aeronautics tant item when it comes to repair­ Administration (CAA)? The answer ing a structure or fabricating new. lies in Aeronautics Bulletin No. 7-A What if you want to make a new dated July 1929. (See figure 1.) wing structure and there are no Within the CANs bulletin, Para­ draWings available? Aha! The wall graph 4-PROCEDURE reads: "The has been set and it is almost impos­ drawings, which the manufacturer is sible to obtain drawings from the required to furnish in duplicate, are FAA, although it is the "caretaker" of all ATC drawings. checked for conformity." After the air­ I will say that wood structures are plane is approved for manufacture, "One set of drawings is impressed with probably the easiest to reproduce the seal of the Department of Com­ from original parts, because aircraft merce and returned to the manufac­ quality wood is still aircraft qual­ turer to be used in the construction of ity wood and the component can his airplanes. The other set is placed be reverse-engineered. A major de­ in the department's files." It is the viation will be the type of adhesive location and access to the second used to manufacture the part. The manufacture of metallic parts pro­ set of drawings that is always con­ vides yet other challenges. What troversial (these drawings are com­ monly called "first copy"). Some type of aluminum is it? Was it heat­ treated or not heat-treated, and drawings have been released, ei­ DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE






what type of heat-treatment did it prevailed and have a one-time STC substantiating evidence that the in­ receive? The same is true with steel­ approval for NC997E only. I can­ stallation might be field approved tube structures. Was it originally not do another installation, but I again. The use of previously ap­ SAE 1020, SAE 1025, or SAE 4130? can use my original Form 337 as proved Form 337s can be another What type of filler rod was origi­ nally used? Was the structure not Albert Vollmecke, chief engineer and heat-treated, or if heat-treatment designer for Command-Aire, and your was used, what specifications were humble author search for Albert's draw­ followed and what was the final tensile strength of the material? ings in the Federal Records Storage Cen­ My point here again is that draw­ ter. These boxes contain the first copy of ings are most valuable when repro­ ducing parts. Without them it can the original ATC drawings. No Command­ be very difficult. And these needed Aire drawings were found, but other im­ drawings are sometimes impossible to obtain or have been destroyed. If portant data did turn up. the drawings are not available and the owner needs to fabricate a pri­ mary structural part for his or her own airplane, then my question is, Where Are the Young ABcPs? where is the middle ground? And I'd like to briefly discuss the certification of Airframe & Powerplant me­ how can we keep this airplane air­ chanics and why there is a shortage of qualified people. When I began in­ worthy? FAR Part 21.303(a) allows structing in the A&P program at Reedley College in 1967, the local FAA the owner to reproduce parts for his mandated that we teach students how to make a five-tuck woven-cable or her own aircraft, but not to sell splice, splice a wood wing spar, and weld a cluster out of steel tubing. Their an exact duplicate to others . Still, reasoning was that many modified Stearman agricultural aircraft were lo­ the owner is responsible for over­ cated in the valley and that all mechanics should have these skills. Eventu­ seeing the construction of such ally these skills became even more outdated and were dropped in the level parts to make sure they conform to of importance. original specifications. Skill levels are determined by the FAA and appear in FAR Part 147. There Alterations are often necessary to are now 44 subject areas to which all students for the A&P certificate must make an aircraft safe; one doesn't be exposed , and there are three levels of exposure. Level 1 means t o be want to build problems that came lectured, look at pictures, and maybe touch the item. Level 2 means to have with the airplane in 1929 back some knowledge that can be repeated. And Level 3 means that an exten­ into a restoration completed today. sive knowledge of the subject must be taught. Wood, fabric covering, gas What are some common alterations welding, the radial engine , and many other subjects that relate directly to that one finds when dealing with older aircraft are now relegated to the bottom of the knowledge rung, Level older aircraft? The first that jumps 1. Therefore, most entry-level mechanics with little experience do not have out at me is an engine change. Say the skills necessary to inspect, maintain, and repair older aircraft. Owners from an OX-5 or Wright J-5 to a either have an experienced mechanic/inspector who supervises their work Continental W-670 or Lycoming and signs off on such work in logbooks, or they have an experienced person R-680, as is commonly found in who actually can do the work. These experienced wood, fabric , steel-tube many Travel Air airplanes. welders, and radial-engine folks are becoming harder and harder to locate. Originally, these conversions Type clubs have several experienced mechanics and inspectors within their were completed with a field ap­ ranks. But there never seems to be enough to go around . proval from the CAA. Try doing a To compound the problem of this mechanic shortage , general-aviation complete engine change without A&P mechanics must endure very low wages to stay in the business . And any type of approved data in to­ fixed-base operators don 't like to hire newly certificated mechanics because day's world . Darned near impos­ they don't have experience and must be trained. It's a vicious cycle ; it was sible. To remove a Wright R-600 there when I started teaching in 1967, and it 's still there now. Where are we Challenger engine of 185 hp and going to find experienced young mechanics to maintain the fleet of aging air­ install a Wright R-760 engine of planes? I'm still looking for that answer! Mechanics who seek careers in the 240 hp, I had to do a one-time STC! vintage portion of general-aviation type ships are usually influenced by men­ It involved more than four years tors. Mentors are either a friend or an employer, and they offer encourage­ of time and much paperwork, and ment to continue in this area of aviation, either through their experiences or the process rapid ly increased the someone they know who has had an illustrious career in vintage aircraft. gray hair on my head. But I finally 26

M AR CH 2009

topic for the column at a future date. Perhaps when the waters are a little less muddy. There are many changes occurring within the FAA at this time, and field approvals happen to be one. So we'll just have to wait and see what happens. Supplemental type certificates are just what the term indicates, a major alteration of the original type certificate. Obtaining an STC from the FAA takes time, money, and the know-how to get it through the sys­ tem. ~hen I was working on my one-time STC for the Command­ Aire, there were FAA folks who did not have a clue about the existence of a Command-Airel They knew what a McDonnell-Douglas DC ­ 10 was or a Boeing 727. In other words, these engineers primarily were assigned major modifications to very large transport category air­ craft. That's part of the problem! I finally had to hire a deSignated airworthiness representative (DAR)

and if the problem involves a mag­ neto, he knows how to time it to the engine. [Since this column was published in the TARA newsletter in 2002, Rob has earned his Airframe and Powerplant certificate and now has the authority of returning to service maintenance and minor re­ pairs to his aircraft.] It's kind of like when I ferried his Fairchild PT-26 from Kentucky to California; the tail wheel went flat out on the plains of Nebraska . The young A&P had

never seen a tail wheel like this, so I said, "You jack up the tail, I'll disas­ semble the wheel, you fix the tube, and I'll reassemble the wheel and re­ install it." I did most of the work; it cost about $45 as I recall, but he was happy and I was on my way. Constant maintenance by a me­ chanic, coupled with preventive maintenance by the owner, will keep our old airplanes airworthy. Let's fix them before they break .. . and be safe! ......


~hclpg~ilie~C~~i~tiOnOff l~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~t~_

dead-center. All I can say is that it was a nightmare! But I, with the help of my DAR, finally prevailed, and the Command-Aire was certificated in the Standard category (NC) in 1989. It has been flying ever since. Lastly, I'd like to say a few words about maintenance. I know I am preaching to the choir, but con­ tinual maintenance will keep the older airplane in airworthy condi­ tion. Many owners are not certifi­ cated mechanics, but it is extremely important to be able to diagnose a problem or be able to thoroughly describe what the problem is to get it repaired. As I stated earlier, many new young mechanics don't have a clue about the older airplanes. I have instructed my son, Rob, who operates a 1929 New Standard D-25 biplane, how to time a magneto and how to check and reset idle mixture or speed-just a couple of the things that can or will go wrong with a ra­ dial engine . Now, Rob cannot do any of these maintenance items be­ cause he operates the airplane com­ merCially. But, he can describe a problem and diagnose how to fix it,

got the idea from Ponce. It's called rejuvenadoD and it works great with real dope finishes. Spray our rejuvenator overaged dope; it soaks in and restores flexibility for years of added life. It can even hide hairline cracks. And no finish has the foot-deep luster of authentic polished dope. t

Roll back the calendar on your plane's finish!



Many pilots have gone to their favorite $100 hamburger site enough times that going again and looking at the same scenery would be boring. Irven Palmer shares with us a unique off-airport . excurSIon. Where else would you go?


Trading avgas for clams? Righ t about now you are saying, "What?"

A Nlgltt Ollt Remember all those times when you took your spouse or friend out for a special dinner. Perhaps it was to Anthony's for fresh Alaskan Copper River king salmon at $26.50 each, or to Red Lobster for lobster at $31.00 each, or to Outback Steakhouse for filet mignon at $28.00 each. Add a 28





couple of glasses of wine and a tip to the nice server, and you are talking about real money. But, it was a great evening, so you didn't give it a sec­ ond thought, right?

tide at the Pacific Ocean beaches. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife had sent out a no­ tice that razor clam digging would be permitted on the coming week­ end. With that kind of low tide, clams were a sure thing.

Tlte OCetJH CtJ//S

Above: Charlie, my Cessna 170, N3428C, parked on the wet sand. I'm waiting to see if the tires start to set­ tle into the sand. If so, then the plane will be pushed onto the plywood pan­ els to prevent further settling.

Fast-forward now to a spring day in 2008 . The local newspaper al­ ways gives the ocean tides on the weather page, and for this partic­ ular day it listed a minus loS-foot

John F. (Fred) Huppertz Snellville, GA

• Fly six to eight missions per year for Angel Flight Southeast • Member of EAA 690 at Gwinnett Airport ­ Fly Young Eagles • Own a 1964 BE-35S Bonanza • Career officer in the U.S. Air Force:

1953 to 1978

• Flight instructor: 1978 to 1985

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N47"o7.49' W124"11.08·


.14-42: 4!IOOX1!50 (SAND) .140 Rock. Rat !fe. AIM'IIT


__ . d

Unattended. Vehicles. pedellrlan. 8IId animal. on ..., In ¥IcInIty 01,.". _ _

lIIter IWJ 1enCth. Streem CfOIaina 1500' from the end 01 Rwy 14. CtI: W-'"n&\OII S - ANIIon 360-651-6300 or 1-8OG-552-0e86 for 11ICI111)I11IfonMIlon prior 10 11M. Rwy '-'-l1li wIIIII weld! for debris; land on demp a.1d; city a.1d IS exllemeiy 10ft. ~mF122 . 9


Copalis State beach location displayed on the Seattle Sectional Chart and the description of the sand airstrip in the U.S. government's Air­ port/Facility Directory for the Northwest United States.

We pilots know that the govern­ ment's Airport/Facility Directory re­ gional manuals list all sorts of airports from Class B major hub airports to little dirt strips way out in the boon­ docks. The Northwest U.S. directory, covering the area where I live in Wash­ ington state, lists one unique land­ ing area that is situated 54 nautical miles west of where I keep my Cessna tied down at the Olympia Airport. It is named Copalis State. Runway 14­ 32 is 4,500 feet long and 150-plus feet wide. It's actually the ocean beach sand! Razor clams love sand.

Tlte LOClitiOH The Seattle Sectional Chart shows the Copalis State beach sand air­ strip to be 12 nautical miles north of the entrance to Grays Harbor at N47 07.45', W124 11.08' , with GPS coordinates of S16. It is about a two-hour drive west from Washing­ ton's state capital at Olympia, or if by air, it's 45 minutes to an hour on a magnetic course of 271 degrees.

Tlte Trip Given the minus tide, I was up early at 6 a.m. and drove the 14 miles to Olympia Airport from my home in Rainier, Washington. I preflighted N3428C, or Charlie, a 1954 Cessna 170 that has 8.50-6 tires that can eas­ ily handle gravel and soft sand. After preflighting, I departed west and flew over the Capitol Forest and then over 30 MARCH 2009

the fogged-in Chehalis River Valley toward the ocean. Bucking a little head wind, I arrived in the Ocean Shores area in about an hour. I flew north along the beach and noted that, sure enough, the tide was way out, and I saw several automobiles and four-wheelers down there with a few folks digging clams. Arriving over the Copalis State sandy beach and airport, I made sev­ eral low passes looking for any ob­ structions, logs, debris, posts, ropes, deep ripples in the sand, or soft spots usually indicated by a darker wet­ appearing surface. The sand looked smooth and hard. From years of landing on beaches and gravel bars in Alaska I know that the safest place to land is on the damp sand. Not re­ ally wet sand-that can be slurpy or quick"-or dry powdery sand-that is a recipe for getting really mired or stuck. The damp sand is just above the obvious wet sand on an outgo­ ing tide. The wind was favoring landing northward, so I gently settled down on Runway 32 on the damp sand, right at the edge of where the wet sand begins. After shutting down I got out my two wood veneer panels and placed them on the sand in front of the tires and waited. I watched the tires, looking for any signs of sink­ ing. This time the beach sand was very firm, and so the panels were not needed. If, however, the tires had started to settle into the sand (owing to a slurpy condition), I would have 1/

rolled the airplane onto those veneer panels to stop any sinking. Another procedure I learned from flying in the Alaskan bush for more than 35 years.

Tlte DlgglHg Next I got out the hip boots, clam shovel, and pail and walked down the beach toward the ocean. It was a beautiful sunny morning, and the beach had only a few folks nearby. It was just Charlie and me and all those waiting clams, Soon I saw the telltale dimples that razor clams make as the water recedes. The Washington state 2007 sport fishing rules state that the limit is 15 razor clams. In just about 30 min­ utes of searching and digging I had 15 clams in my bucket. I washed the sand off them in a pool of seawater and headed back to the plane.

Tlte 1{etlfl'H I loaded the veneer panels. In Alaska I have had to leave some be­ hind, because sometimes the sand was so soft the tires would start to mire in the sand if the airplane were left to sit for any length of time. Into the airplane went the clam bucket and shovel; then I shed the hip boots. Taking off I flew east directly back to Olympia in 55 minutes, After parking and tying down the airplane I drove the 14 miles home to Rainier, arriving at 10 a,m. I had been gone from home only four hours.

My wife, Marie, cleaned the clams, and I weighed them. The clean meat weighed 2.1 pounds. The next day I refueled the airplane, noting that it took 16.1 gallons of 100 low-lead av­ gas. The price that summer was $5.53 a gallon plus tax, for a total of $89. So that was comparative to the cost of one of those special nights out for dinner with your spouse or special friend I mentioned earlier. And when cooked, those razor clams were deli­ cious, not to mention the excitement of my shoreline airport experience. For the record, 2.1 pounds of ra­ zor clams figures out to be $42.38 per pound when compared to the price of avgas it took to get them.

Iflf0Jl (#0 The wide expanse of ocean often brings windy conditions, so dress accordingly by taking a windbreaker that can be removed. Take along some hip boots because you will find yourself down on your knees digging with your hand to grab hold of those clams after the first few shovelfuls of sand are removed. Remove your wristwatch before you start digging. Take along a friend who can help you move the plane if needed. My airplane is equipped with big tires, so it can handle the sand on most beaches . Most airplanes today are equipped with 6.00-6 tires that are smaller and more prone to sink into the sand a little. The beach at Copa­ lis State when I landed was excellent and hard-packed in the damp area. Airplanes with 6.00-6 tires can easily

land and take off there. Parking on wet, slurpy sand could be a problem with planes equipped with wheel­ pants if the tires settle a little into the sand. After landing and com­ ing to a stop, get out and watch the tires for a while to ensure the sand is hard-packed.

Tile PlJclflc 1(lJzor C/IJIII Siliqua patuia is a bivalve mollusk and can be found from California to Alaska, anywhere the ocean beach is sandy. The razor clam conceals its briny excellent meat in an olive brown shell with a varnish-like glossy outer surface. The long, narrow shell can ex­ ceed 6 inches in length, and the edges of the shell are razor sharp if broken­ hence the name. Some people say the name comes from the shape of the shell, which resembles the handle of an old straight razor. The shell's inte­ rior is white or purplish.

1(eclpes There are dozens of ways to pre­ pare the clams after you have them shucked and cleaned, but I'll just mention a few really good ones. Best Ever Razor Clams Beat one egg until foamy; beat in enough Bisquick to make a bat­ ter of dripping consistency. Dip the clams in the batter and fry for one minute on each side in melted but­ ter. A heavy skillet works best. These clams are extra good served with gar­ lic bread and a green salad.

Breaded Clams in a Pan Brown three cloves of garliC in but­ ter in a heavy pan with a lid. Bread clams in a batter and brown in an­ other pan. Remove garliC from but­ ter and place brown clams in garlic butter. Cover and cook a few minutes until tender. Clamburgers or Patties 1 cup drained razor clams 1 egg 1/3 cup chopped celery 1/3 cup chopped onion Blend in blender until well mixed. Flatten into patties or burger. Using a large spoon, drop them into a pan of hot butter. Fry a couple of minutes and serve plain or on a bun.

So, all you taildragger owners, even if it has come down a bit in re­ cent months, I know the price of av­ gas has gone through the roof, and while it has come down a bit, you and I know that just the hint of some international crisis can cause it to jump back up. But don't just pol­ ish up your airplane this weekend or go somewhere for one of those $100 hamburgers. Grab your clam shovel and head for the ocean beach and have an exciting off-airport experi­ ence digging razor clams. You will ap­ preciate the real benefit after eating them and will find that trading avgas for clams really is a great deal. If you don't have an ocean nearby, look at your local state directory and see if there's not an unusual or remote air­ port with a nearby site that's of inter­ ...... est. Have fun and fly safely! VINTAGE AIRPLANE

3 1

An outstanding restoration is headed to a new owner in Arizona


olph Overton's interest in aviation began when he was a young boy in South Carolina. He soloed the ubiquitous Piper J-3 Cub at 16, graduated from West Point, became an Air Force pilot, and during his military service became an ace during the Korean War. In 1951, he flew 102 ground attack missions in the Republic F-84, and in 1953, while flying the North American F-86, he shot down five MiGs in four days. Overton received numerous medals for his achievements. Following his service to his country, Dolph's passion for aviation continued to thrive. His aviation acquisitions have



MARCH 2009

encompassed more than 90 vintage aircraft and an enormous collection of aviation documents and books. Those materials are now housed in the Carolinas Aviation Museum's Dolph Overton Aviation Library in Charlotte, North Carolina. One of Dolph's vintage airplanes, a 1929 Ford 4-AT-E Tri-Motor that has been painstakingly restored to an original airworthy condition, was auctioned off at the January 2009 Barrett-Jackson auction in Scottsdale, Arizona. The historic airliner sold for $1.2 million during the auction. Ford Tri-Motors have fulfilled significant roles in aviation history, perhaps most notably by demonstrating the safety, reliability,

and efficiency of air transport. A 1927 Ford Motor Company ad featuring the Tri-Motor (which appeared in The Saturday Evening Post), eloquently proclaimed: "Now look to the skies for dawn! A new industrial and commercial era is commenCing, just as surely as new eras commenced with steamboats, with the railroad, and the automobile.... The all-metal planes of the Ford Motor Company have already flown on regular schedules, carrying freight , a distance of 700,000 miles .... The Ford Tri-Motor population has somehow managed to survive since the 1920s and ' 30s, though their numbers have dwindled from hundreds to a handful. Today, /1

The meticulously restored interior of the Ford features lightweight plywood paneling with inlaid decorations and seating that recalls the days when everyone got a window seat!

there are only four Ford 4-AT-E Tri足 Motors on the FAA Registry, along with eight other Ford Tri -Motor models . Only half of the existing Ford Tri-Motors are though t to be in airworthy condition. Dolph's Tri-Motor, NC9612, has its own intriguing history, wh ich began with its sa le to Marner Flying Service at Fe lts Field in Spokane, Washington . It ch anged hands in October 1936 and went to Illinois. In Aug u st 1940, it was sold to K-T Flying Service of Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii-it was at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Sold again in September 1945, it returned to the mainland. In 1949, TWA leased NC9612 for its 20th anniversary tour, and the

The front office of the Ford, with nothing modern added to the cockpit. The restoration included the original Johnson bar brake control lever, standing upright between the seats.

The Ford logo plate was _ _ prominently mounted next to the entry door on each Tri-Motor.




Ford 4-AT-E Tri-Motor NC9612, serial number 55, now completely restored in the markings of Transcontinental Ai r Transport (TAT) , the predecessor to Trans World Airlines. Purchased by noted aviation collector Dolph Overton in 1969 and part of his Wings and Wheels collection in North Carolina, the Ford 's recent restoration was supervised by Bob Woods of Woods Aviation in Greensboro, North Carolina, with the massive wings restored by Maurice Hovious of Hov-Aire, an expert Ford Tri-Motor restorer of near Kalamazoo, Michigan.

Tri-Motor was painted with the Transcontinental Air Transport (TAT) Inc. logo, in recognition of TAT's first air-rail passenger route across the nation in 1929. NC9612 then went on to fulfill other roles as an agricultural sprayer in Idaho and an air tanker to fight forest fires. In October 1957, it was sold to Johnson Flying Service in Missoula, Montana, where it continued its firefighting role by transporting smoke jumpers and supplies. Dolph Overton purchased NC9612 in February 1969, and more than three decades later, he decided to have the airplane restored to its original 1929 condition. The wings were restored by Hov-Aire in Vicksburg, Michigan, and the majority of the restoration was overseen by Bob Woods of Woods Aviation in Goldsboro, North Carolina. Detailed gUidance was sought from museum staff and aviation historians to ensure NC9612 would 34

MARCH 2009

be restored as accurately as possible to its original configuration. After returning to flight status, the Tri-Motor was flown to Richmond, where it was displayed at the Virginia Aviation Museum in

November 2005. It remained there until recently, when it was flown to Goldsboro, North Carolina, to await its new owner; we understand the purchaser will be moving the airplane to the Phoenix area. ~

continued from page 4

AirVenture.orgjrideshare), sign up, and discover the most eco­ nomical way to the World's Greatest Aviation Celebration. Need a Place to Stay? While you're online, secure your Oshkosh accommo­ dations via the AirVenture website ( planningjwhere_to_stay.htmf). There are links to all avail­ able lodging options, including on-site camping. If you prefer private housing, call the Oshkosh Convention & Visitors Bureau's EAA Housing Hotline at 920-235-3007.

GA Organizations Ask TSA for Rulemaking Committee Faced with the imposition of the potentially disastrous Large Aircraft Security Program, the leading general­ aviation organizations requested in February that the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) establish a rulemaking committee to allow public and private stake­ holders to work toward a more workable solution. In a letter signed by organization presidents Tom Po­ berezny, EAA; Craig Fuller, AOPA; Ed Bolen, NBAA; and Pete Bunce, GAMA, they assert that "creation of a dedi­ cated work group would allow industry and the TSA to work together on requirements that would simultane­ ously enhance security and facilitate GA operations" and "provide a secure forum for stakeholder informa­ tion sharing and the development of sensible and im­ plementable measures." For the latest developments on the LASP issue, visit

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THIS MONTH'S MYSTERY PLANE COMES TO US FROM A COLLECTION OF PHOTOS FROM THE LATE GEORGE ISHKANIAN OF HELlOPOLlS, EGYPT. GEORGE AND HIS FAMILY DONATED A COLLECTION OF PERSONAL PHOTOS TO THE EAA ARCHIVES. Send your answer to EAA, Vintage Airp lane, P.O. Box 3086, Oshkosh, WI 54903足 3086. Your an swer needs to be in no later than April 15 for inclusion in the June 2009 issue of Vintage Airplane. You can also send your re足 sponse via e-mail. Send your answer to mysteryplane@eaa. org. Be sure to include your name plus your city and state in the body of your n ote and put" (Month) Mystery Plane" in the sub ject line.


Here's an answer to the December Mystery Plane from our friend Bob Taylor, the president of the An足 tique Airplane Association in Ottumwa, Iowa. "In the December issue of Vintage AirpLane the neat little machine is one of several aircraft built by Kenneth Montee of the famous Montee family of Santa Monica, California. He built several airplanes,

36 MARCH 2009

two that flew in the On-To-New York Race. We have read that this was either in 1925 or 1926, and Ken Montee won first place with the aircraft pictured in Vintage Airplane, plus second place also being won by his small OX-5-powered biplane flown by E.L. Reslin. Reslin was also involved in building the monoplane that was powered with a Curtiss K-6 engine. "Obviously both such aircraft would have been very short on fuel capacity, so if they flew them all the way to New York in 1925 or 1926 alone that would have been quite a story. "Two versions of this small monoplane were built and were reported as both being named Dragon Fly. One version was used by Ken Montee, gaining fame if not fortune by landing the one pictured in your December issue on Sunset Boulevard in front of the famous Beverly Hills Hotel. "The Montee fam ily operated the K.W. Montee Aircraft Company at Clover Field in Santa Monica, California, in the '20s, specializing in aerial survey and custom-built aircraft. My first visit to Clover Field was in mid 1939, with Douglas Aircraft Com足

pany being the major activity on the field with Douglas B-18s in production and delivery. "We have found that the early 1920s are a source of much still-untold aviation history with numer­ ous mystery airplanes being built utilizing the OX-S engine." Robert L. Taylor President, AAA Ottumwa, Iowa (According to the 1926 edition ofJane's All the World's Aircraft, the race that was won was the 1925 edition held in conjunction with the 1925 Air Races. The 1927 edition of the book states that Kenneth Mon­ tee died after contracting a fever during a December 1926 aerial mapping flight.-HGF)


Curtiss OX-5 90 hp


20 feet


14 feet


5 feet

Total wing area

89 square feet

Area of ailerons

10.5 square feet each

Area of elevator

10.5 square feet

Area of rudder

6 square feet


675 pounds


975 pounds

Useful load

275 pounds

Loading pounds per square foot 11.6 And a letter from Wes Smith: Loading pounds per horsepower 10.5 "The December 2008 Mystery Plane is the 1922 Angle of incidence 0.0 Sport or Racer monoplane constructed by Mr. Ken­ neth Montee. "Mentioned in The Ace: The Aviation Magazine of little machine are listed in the table above. the West (September 1922, pp 12-13, IS), the aircraft "In unofficial trials this little machine is said to was built by Kenneth Montee. Interestingly, the cap­ have obtained a maximum speed of around 140 miles tion of the photos which appears on pp 12-13 states: per hour with a landing speed of 55 miles per hour ' Ken Montee, and his sport monoplane taking off in and a climb of around 500 feet per minute. the street in front of the Beverly Hills Hotel. Ken­ "It is unfortunate that I can find no other details neth Monte designer, builder and pilot of the ship .' Like many old photos, the monoplane is shown tak- , - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ­ ing off, and there is an inset photo of Ken Montee in the upper left corner of the main photo. "Perhaps it is best to let the contemporary descrip­ Your One STOP tion of the monoplane that appeared in The Ace speak Quality Shop for the record (Shogran, Ivar L. The Ace. September 1922. Technical Comment, pIS): • Aeronca "The accompanying cut is one of the latest South­ • Air Tractor • Ayres ern California productions. This little racing mono­ • Beechcraft plane was designed and built by Kenneth Montee, a • Boeing well known pilot in this locality, and is probably one • Canadair of the smallest of its kind ever built. • Cessna "The wing is built up with the conventional box • Culver spars and plywood ribs, but differs from most semi­ • Dehavilland braced monoplane wings in that it is in one piece, • Douglas the spars being continuous from tip to tip. It is • Fairchild braced on either side by two small struts running • Fleet from the bottom of the fuselage to a point about • Grumman one-third the distance from the side of the fuselage • Howard • Norseman to the tip of the wing. • North American "The fuselage is of the 'stick and wire' construction, • PZL cloth covered, and the tail surfaces are built from steel • Ryan tubing also covered with cloth. • Stinson "Steel tubing is used for the landing gear struts • Taylorcraft which are arranged to form the conventional type • Thrush of chassis. • Waco "The gasoline tank has the capacity of 10 gallons, ]·888·388·8803 (toll free) or ]·780·447·5955 Fax: ]·780·447·5980 enough for a little better than one hour duration, and is placed in the wing." "Some of the dimensions and characteristics of this VINTAGE AIRPLANE


about this attractive, interesting, and diminutive monoplane . Nev­ ertheless, there is something of a re semblance to the earlier Loen­ ing M-8-0 (yes, this is the correct d e signation according to con­ temporary records) monoplane of First World War vintage , or the slightly newer PW-2 (pursuit, water-cooled), two built in 1921. (Th ere was also a PW-2A, four of which were built in 1922, and one PW-2B, which was allegedly con­ verted from one of the PW-2As). The shape of the PW-2 vertical rud­ der and the airplane's overall con­ figuration is very much like that of the 1922 Montee Sport. "Montee's aeronautical end eav-

ors are not well documented, which is a pity. One can only imagine an aircraft taking off from the streets of Beverly Hills in the early 1920s. The Ace only ran from about 1919-1925. One of my favorite photos from this magazine (Volume 3, number 2, No­ vember 1921) shows a German shep­ h erd, front paws astride the cockpit of a biplane, and wearing an Iron Cross attached to his collar! li Ken W. Montee also modified a I N-4 (Canada) around 1927. He used a Fokker C.lV wing and a Cur­ tiss C-6 engine. A photo appears on p 232 of Canadian Aircraft Since

EM Calendar of Aviation [vents Is NowOnline EM's online Calendar of Events is the "go-to' spot on the Web to list and find aviation events in your area. The user·friendly, searchable format makes it the perfect web-based tool for planning your local trips to afly·in. In EM's online Calendar of Events, you can search for events at any given time within acertain radius of anyairport by entering the identifier or a ZIPcode, and you can further define your search to look for just the types of events you'd like to attend. We invite you to access the EM online Calendar of Events at http://www.eaa.orglcalendar/

Upcoming Major Fly-Ins


Wesley R. Smith Springfield, Illinois

Aero Friedrichshafen Messe Friedrichshafen, Friedrichshafen, Germany April 2-5, 2009 www.Aero-Friedrichshafen.comlhtml/en Sun 'n Fun Fly-In Lakeland Under Regional Airport (LAL), Lakeland, FL April 21-26, 2009 Virginia Regional Festival of Flight Suffolk Executive Airport (SFQ), Suffolk, VA May 30-31 , 2009 Golden West Regional Fly-In Yuba County Airport (Myv), Marysville, CA June 12-14, 2009 Arlington Fly-In Arlington Municipal Airport (AWO), Arlington, WA July 8- 12, 2009


EAA AirVenture Oshkosh Wittman Regional Airport (OSH), Oshkosh, WI July 27 -August 2, 2009 Colorado Sport International Air Show and Rocky Mountain Regional Fly-In Rocky Mountain Metropolitan Airport (BJC), Denver, CO August 22-23, 2009 Mid-Eastern Regional Fly-In Grimes Field Airport (174), Urbana, OH September 12-13, 2009 Copperstate Regional Fly-In Casa Grande Municipal Airport (CGZ), Casa Grande, AZ October 22-25, 2009


Southeast Regional Fly-In Middleton Field Airport (GZH), Evergreen, AL Oc10ber 23-25, 2009

For details on EAA chapter fly-ins and other local aviation events, visit


MARCH 2009

to'ClJ. e 1929 ­ 1949 c/fa.tlolla.l ofl'C cl{sI.cefl The only comprehensive DVD Story of the National Air Races available today! "Aviation fans will enjoy the year-by-year storytelling about the airplanes, and the pilots who flew them"Rose Dorcey, EAA Sport Aviation

Something to buy, sell, or trade? Classified Word Ads: $5.50 per 10 words, 180 words maximum, with boldface lead·in on first line. Classified Display Ads : One column wide (2.167 inches) by 1, 2, or 3 inches high at $20 per inch . Black and white only, and no frequency discounts. Advertising Closing Dates: 10th of second month prior to desired issue date (i.e . , January 10 is the closing date for the March issue). VAA reserves the right to reject any advertising in conflict with its policies . Rates cover one insertion per issue. Classified ads are not accepted via phone. Payment must accompany order. Word ads may be sent via fax (920-426-6845) or e-mail (c/assads@ using credit card payment (ali cards accepted). Include name on card, complete address , type of card, card number, and expiration date. Make checks payable to EM. Address advertising correspondence to EAA Publications Classified Ad Manager, P.O . Box 3086, Oshkosh, WI 54903-3086.

MISCELLANEOUS Flying wires available. 1994 pricing. Visit or call 800­ 517-9278.

PLANS/KITS Kinner parts list for the R-5-1, R5 Series 2, R-53 and R-55 - $75.00. Instructions for operation and maintenance of the Kinner R-52 or R-5 series 2, R-55 and R-53 -

" .. a positive addition to the aviation historian's video collection." Jerr; Bergen. American Aviation Historical Society

"[ highly recommend this interesting video." Tim Savage, Warbird Digest

"Professionally produced and written, this offering is a H.G. Frautschy, Vintage A;rp/~ a!,~e~~~~

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e here at Poly-Fiber are mighty proud to help heroes like Captain Eddie defeat the dreaded Hun in the skies over France by covering his ship with the toughest, easiest-to­ repair fabric known to man. It's easy to apply, too, even Over There, and it'll see our boys through the most arduous dog­ fighting they'll face. Poly-Fiber will never let them down, so don't you, either! Help put Liberty Bond sales "over the top" for all our gallant doughboys!

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Members get in FREEl www, Phone: (920) 426-4818


To start receiving e-Hotl lne thiS week, VISit www.EAA.orglnewsletters VINTAGE AIRPLANE


Membershi~ Services Directory VINTAGE



OFFICERS President Geoff Robi son 1521 E. MacGregor Dr.

New Haven, IN 46774



George Daubner

2448 Lough Lane

Hartford, WI 53027




Secretary Steve Nesse

Treasurer Charles W. Harris 7115 East 46th Sl.

2009 Highland Ave. Albert Lea, MN 56007 507-373-1674

Tulsa, OK 74147 918-622-8400

DIRECTORS Steve Bender

Dale A. Gustafson

85 Brush Hill Road

Sherborn, MA 01770


7724 Shady Hills Dr. Indianapolis, IN 46278 317-293·4430

sstl O@cummst.flet

David Benn ett

375 Killdeer Ct Lincoln, CA 95648 916-645-8370

Jeannie Hill

P.O. Box 328 Harvard, II. 60033-0328 815-943-7205


John Berendt

7645 Echo Point Rd.

Espie "Butch" Joyce

Cannon FaJi s, MN 55009


704 N. Regional Rd. Greensboro, NC 27409 336-668-3650



Jerry Brown

4605 Hickory Wood Row

Greenwood, IN 46143



Dave C lark

635 Vestal Lane

Plainfield, IN 46168


Dan Knutson

106 Tena Marie Circle

Lodi, WI 53555



Steve Krog

1002 Heather Ln.

Hartford, WI 53027


Phone (920) 426-4800

Monday-Friday CST) EAA and Division Membership Services (8:00 AM-7:00 PM FAX 92().426-4873 www.eaa.orgjmemberbenefits 80()'564·6322 •New/renew memberships •Address changes • Merchandise sales 'Gift memberships 888-3224636 EM AirVenture Oshkosh Sport Pilot/Light-Sport Aircraft Hotline 877-359-1232 Programs and Activities 92().426-4843 Auto Fuel STCs 92().426-B570 Education/ Aeroscholars • EM Air Academy 92().426-B880 www.airacademY.or£ 92()'426-B823 • EM Scholarships 92().426-B801 www.eaa.orJljnafi Right Instructor information 92()'426-4848 Library Services/Research Benefits 80()'727-3823 AUA Vintage Insurance Plan www.eaa.orfi/memberbenefits EM Aircraft Insurance Plan 866-6474322 80().853-5576 ext. 8884 EM VISA Card EM Hertz Rent-A·Car Program 80().654-2200 EM Enterprise Rent·A-Car Program 877421-3722 www.eaa.orgjenterprise 92().426-4825 Editorial FAX 92().426-B579 VM Office


John S. Copeland

Robert D. "Bob" Lumley 1265 South 124th St. Brookfield, WI 53005 262-782-2633

Membership in the Experimental Aircraft Association, Inc. is $40 for one year, inelud­ ing 12 issues of SPORT AVIATION. Family membership is an additional $10 annually. Junior Membership (under 19 years of age) i5 available at $23 annually. All major credit cards accepted for membership. (Add $16 for

copeland l

@jIlIlO, (O I11

Phil Coulson ll1

S.H. "Wes" Schmid 2359 Lefeber Aven ue

28415 Springbrook Dr.

Lawton, MI 49065


Wauwatosa, WI 532 13 414-771-1545


sflschmid@gmai/. eom



9345 S. Hoyne Chicago, IL 60643 805-782-9713

Robert C. Brauer

E.E. "Buck" Hilbert 8\02 Leech Rd. Union, IL 60180 815-923-4591


Gene Chase

Gene Morris

5936 Steve Court

2159 Carlton Rd. Oshkosh, WI 54904 920-231-5002

Roanoke, TX 76262

817-491-91 \0



Rona ld C. Fritz

John Turgyan

15401 Sparta Ave. Kent City, MI 49330 616-678-5012

PO Box219 New Egypt, NJ 08533 609-758-29\0




Northborough, MA 01532


airventure@eaa.or£ sportpilot@eaa.or£

888-EAA-INFO (322-4636)

EAA Members Information Une Use this toll-free number for: information about AirVenture Oshkosh; aeromedical and technical aviation questions;

chapters; and Young Eagles. Please have your membership number ready when calling.

Office hours are 8:15 a.m .. 5:00 p.m. (Monday· Friday, CST) IA Deacon Street

Fax (920) 426-4873

Web Sites: www.vintageaircra/, www.airvent!, E-Mail: vintageairaa(

Foreign Postage.)

EAA SPORT PILOT Current EAA members may add EAA SPORT PILOT magazine for an additional $20 per year. EAA Membership and EAA SPORT PILOT magazine is available for $40 per year (SPORT AVIATION magaZine not ineluded). (Add $16 for Foreign Postage.)

VINTAGE AIRCRAFf ASSOCIATION Current EAA members may join the Vintage Aircraft Association and receive VINTAGE AIRPLANE magazine for an ad­ ditional $36 per year. EAA Membership, VINTAGE AIRPLANE magazine and one year membership in the EAA Vintage Aircraft Association is available for $46 per year (SPORT AVIATION magaZine not ineluded). (Add $7 for Foreign Postage.)


Current EAA members may join the International Aerobatic Club, Inc. Divi­ sion and receive SPORT AEROBATICS magaZine for an additional $45 per year. EAA Membership, SPORT AEROBAT­ ICS magazine and one year membership in the lAC Division is available for $55 per year (SPORT AVIATION magazine not included). (Add $18 for Foreign


WARBIRDS Current EAA members may join the EAA Warbirds of America Division and receive WARBIRDS magazine for an additional $45 per year. EAA Membership, WARBIRDS maga­ zine and one year membership in the Warbirds Division is available for $55 per year (SPORT AVIATION magazine not ineluded). (Add $7 for Foreign Postage.)

FOREIGN MEMBERSHIPS Please submit your remittance with a check or draft drawn on a United States bank payable in United States dollars. Add required Foreign Postage amount for each membership.

Membership dues to EAA and its divisions are not tax deductible as charitable contributions

Copyright ©2009 by the EAA Vintage Aircraft Association, All rights reserved.

VINTAGE AIRPLANE (USPS 062-750; ISSN 0091-6943) is published and owned exclusively by the EAA Vintage Aircraft Association of the Experimental Aircraft Association and is published monthly at EAA

Aviation Center, 3000 Poberezny Rd., PO Box 3086, Oshkosh, Wisconsin 54903-3086, e-mail: Membership to Vintage Aircraft Association, which includes 12 issues of Vintage Airplane magazine, is $36 per year for EAA members and 546 for non-EAA members. Periodicals Postage paid at Oshkosh, Wisconsin 54901 and at additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes

to Vintage Airplane, PO Box 3086, Oshkosh, WI 54903-3086. PM 40063731 Retum undeliverable Canadian addresses to Pitney Bowes IMS, Station A, PO Box 54, Windsor, ON N9A 6.15. FOREIGN AND APO ADDRESSES - Please allow at least two months for delivery of VINTAGE AIRPLANE to foreign and APO addresses via surface mail. ADVERTISING - Vintage Aircraft Association does not guarantee or endorse any product offered through the advertising. We invite constructive criticism and welcome any report of inferior merchandise obtained through our advertising so that corrective measures can be taken.

EDITORIAL POLICY: Members are encouraged to submit stories and photographs. Policy opinions expressed in articles are solely those of the authors. Responsibility for accuracy in reporting rests entirely with the contributor. No remuneration is made. Material should be sent to: Ed~or, VINTAGE AIRPLANE, PO Box 3086, Oshkosh, WI 54903-3086. Phone 920-426-4800. EAA® and EAA SPORT AVIATION®, the EAA Logo® and Aeronautica fM are registered trademarl<s, trademarks, and service marks of the Experimental Aircraft Association, Inc. The use of these trademarks and service marks without the permission of the Experimental Aircraft Association, Inc. is strictly prohibited.






EAA AirVenture Oshkosh I July 27-August 2, 2009 Buy your tickets online now to save time and money! For more information visit


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