Page 1



VOL. 33, No.4




Straight and Level


VAA News Reminiscing with Big Nick


My 35-Year Love Affair Part II

by Nick Rezich


The Vintage Instructor

Patterns, Part II

by Doug Stewart



FRONT COVER: Front and Back Covers: The rare Thruxton Jackaroo was the brainchild of an RAF officer; 16 deHavil­ land Tiger Moths were modified , and another 10 kits for the modification were made. The four-seat biplane is doubly rare in layout; the controls for the airplane remain in tan­ dem configuration , both on the left side of both the front and aft seats. See Budd Davisson's story beginning on page 14.

EM photo by Jim Koepnick, shot with professional Canon digital camera equipment. EM photo plane flown by Bruce Moore.

Pass It To Buck

Super Preflight

by Buck Hilbert


Al Menasco Aviation Pioneer.

Part I

by Chet Wellman


Production Manager Classified Ad Manager Copy Editor

Tom Poberezny Scott Spangler H.G. Frautschy Theresa Books Kathleen Witman Ric Reynolds Jim Koepnick Bonnie Bartel Julie Russo Isabelle Wiske Colleen Walsh

Cleveland Mechanical Brakes by Dan McNeill

Director of Advertising

Katrina Bradshaw

Mystery Plane

Northeast: Allen Murray Phone 609·265·1666, FAX 609·265·1661 e·mail: Southeast: Chester Baumgartner Phone 727·573·0586, FAX 727·556·0177 e·mail; cixlllml ll Central: Todd Reese Phone 800·444·9932, FAX 816-741·6458 .-mail: todri@Spc·mag,com Mountain & Pacific: Keith Knowlton & Associates Phone 770-516-2743, FAX 770·516·9743 e-mail: kkllowitoll@eaa,org

A Thruxton Jackaroo

by Any Other Name Is Still a Jackaroo

by Budd Davisson


The Earth Inductor Compass by Brice Goldsborough



Type Club Notes

by H.G. Frautschy 26 30


Calendar Classified Ads

Publisher Editor-in-Chief Executive Director/Editor Administrative Assistant Managing Editor News Editor Photography

Display Advertising Representatives:


Volunteers and Chapters

Volunteers and Chapters are the topics of discussion this month. Our VAA volunteers have proven them­ selves to be the cream of the crop. During EAA AirVenture Oshkosh, the Vintage area routinely attracts hun­ dreds of volunteers. This past year, 436 volunteers put in 21,973 hours to get the grounds ready and run the Vintage area during EAA AirVenture. In exchange for their hard work, we try our best to go out of our way to treat these fine folks to a good time. I think this is reflected in the number of repeat volunteers we see each year. What is that one element that is always present that convinces these valued volunteers to return to EAA AirVenture year after year? I hon­ estly believe that it's "different strokes for different folks." Each year we see a large number of new people who sign up to volunteer with us, and we are increasingly convinced that we are doing our best to retain each and everyone of them. Again, this con­ cept is best reflected by the number of repeat volunteers we see each year. Why do I think this is an important factor to spell out to our member­ ship? The answer is twofold. First, and most important, we can never have too many volunteers. Second, I can't help but believe that there are still a large number of EAA and VAA mem­ bers who attend EAA AirVenture reg­ ularly and are always looking to add something new and fulfilling to their Oshkosh adventure. Even if it's else­ where on the field, I ask that you give strong consideration to volunteering some time to this great organization. I look forward to seeing you out there. Speaking of volunteers, I wanted to take a moment to comment about the value of our Vintage Chapters. It

seems to me that we continue to see bigger and better things coming out of our relationships with these Chap­ ters and their members. You folks are all important to the overall well-being and the many successes of the Vin­ tage organization. One individual re­ ally must be mentioned here as the unsung hero of all the Vintage Chap­ ters. That person is Robert "Bob" Brauer. Bob is a longtime director serving on the Vintage board of direc­ tors. For as long as I can remember, Bob has been the VAA Chapter cheer­ leader who has constantly served as the administrator and recruiter for our many Vintage Chapters. He also is our board member liaison with the EAA Chapter office. For many years, this has long been a year-round ef­ fort by Bob as he responds to the vari­ ous inquiries about VAA Chapters and ultimately sells the benefits of estab­ lishing a local Chapter in a particular region. Thanks, Bob, for all your ef­ forts in administering the VAA Chap­ ter program for all these years. As a lot of you are aware, many VAA Chapters also playa vital role at EAA AirVenture each year. These vol­ unteers provide a myriad of services to the Vintage area. It all begins long before the event, with the volunteer work weekends that are scheduled beginning in May of each year. This year's weekends are May 13-15, June 17-19, and July 8-10. VAA Chapters are also engaged in a number of EAA AirVenture member services, and all their efforts are sincerely appreciated. Many of you recently received a let­ ter from me personally requesting your support of the VAA Friends of the Red Barn fund. This opportunity to finan­ cially support your organization may prove to be a good opportunity for you

to help make a difference at this year's event. Please be assured that on what­ ever level you may choose to partici­ pate will be sincerely appreciated. I also wanted to mention that, al­ though each year we see a good number of key Chapter officers and individual leaders participate in the Friends of the Red Barn fund, we saw a donation this year that really set me back on my heels. When Chapter 10 in Tulsa made a Chapter donation last year, we were all pleasantly sur­ prised, and now, another chapter has stepped up to the plate. VAA Chapter 11 in Brookfield, Wisconsin, recently made a Diamond level donation to the Friends of the Red Barn fund. To me, this is truly an exceptional gesture by the membership of Vin­ tage Chapter 11. It's one of the groups who always plays a vital role in vol­ unteering personal time at EAA Air­ Venture each year. These are the guys and gals who operate Toni's Trolley in the Vintage area. They drive a van around the Vintage area during the convention and offer free shuttle ser­ vice to our fly-in members who park their aircraft in the Vintage area. Our sincere thanks go out to all the members and officers of VAA Chapter 11. For you to share your hard-earned treasury with the entire Vintage mem­ bership in this manner is truly above and beyond the call of duty. Anyone feel challenged out there? How about you folks in VAA Chapter 37? Oh yeah, I almost forgot, I'm the treasurer of VAA 37. I'll have to look into that! Let's all pull in the same direction for the good of aviation. Remember, we are better together. Join us and have it all. A~ VINTAGE AIRPLANE

New VAA Chapter Congratulations to the new members of VAA Chapter 38 in Columbus, Ohio. In mid­ February VAA 38 received its VAA Chapter charter, making it the newest member of the 18 VAA Chapters in good standing. For information about Chapter 38, contact president Perry Chappano, 614/485-9354, e-mail We look forward to hearing what they're up to in the coming fly-in season. If you'd like to know more about creating a VAA chapter in your area, contact Troy Toelle in the EAA Chapter Office at 920/426­ 6847, e-mail, or contact the VAA board member in charge of VAA chapter relations, Bob Brauer, 773/779-2105 or e­ mail You can also learn about chapter formation on the Web at www. For the location of the nearest VAA Chapter, log on to chapter/chapter_locator.html.

VAA Work Weekends In just a few short weeks the snow will be gone here in central Wisconsin, and our thoughts will once again turn towards the fly-in season. Each year there are plenty of tasks to perform as we prepare the VAA area for EAA AirVenture Oshkosh 2005. This year, we'll be holding a trio of work weekends to get the VAA Red Barn and other facilities ready for our visitors. The dates are: May 13-15 June 17-19 July 8-10 To confirm your participation, please contact Bob Brauer, 773/779-2105 or e-mail We can always use your help. Last year, for instance, the Red Barn's porch was pressure washed and refinished, and ongoing replacement and 2

APRIL 2005

maintenance of windows in the Red Barn and Volunteer Center were accomplished, along with a new back door for the Red Barn. Come and join the fun!

AirVenture Attractions It's going to be a banner year for EAA AirVenture! On the modern front, SpaceShipOne, with its carrier ship White Knight, will be here, along with the Scaled Composites crew that made it all happen. In addition, Steve Pitcairn is flying his Miss Champion Pitcairn PCA-2 autogiro Miss Champion to the annual fly-in, where he will donate the historic rotorcraft to the EAA AirVenture Museum. After the annual convention, it will be placed on display in EAA's Pitcairn Hangar at Pioneer Airport. This may very well be the last time you'll get to see Miss Champion in flight. How could you miss that? For more information about attending EAA AirVenture, visit Remember, all aircraft eligible for judging within the VAA judging guidelines are able to park in the VAA area. Historically, the convention grounds have never closed to judging-eligible aircraft for parking.

EAA-FAA Forge a Unique Partnership It should be no mystery why the FAA's senior managers attend EAA AirVenture Oshkosh each year­ they can meet face to face with a broad spectrum of the aviators they serve. A better question might be why these same senior managers would brave a Wisconsin winter for a two-day summit at the EAA Aviation Center on February 16-17 Because avia tion safety is important to both organizations, said EAA President Tom Poberezny. Nine senior FAA representatives joined EAA staffers for a long­ range planning summit: - John Hickey, FAA aircraft

certification services director - Jim Ballough, director, flight standards service -Martin Weaver, manager, light-sport aviation office - Frank Paskiewicz, manager, production/airworthiness certification division - Scott Sedgwick, manager, standards office, small aircraft directorate -Joe Tintera, manager, regulatory support division - Anne Graham, assistant manager, general aviation division - Carol Giles, deputy director, flight standards service - Dave Cann, manager, aircraft maintenance division EAA provides a number of proactive safety programs to its members such as Technical Counselors, Flight Advisors, and EAA SportAir Workshops because safety is rooted in doing things right, and with high standards. In this tradition, EAA helped the FAA develop and implement the Amateur-Built DeSignated Airworthiness Representative (AB-DAR) program. "EAA doesn't only talk about issues, we work constructively and cooperatively to get things done," Poberezny said. Because of this , the organizations have agreed to annual summits.

Vintage Aging Aircraft During the summit, the FAA agreed to look at how it examines vintage and aging aircraft. Of particular note were discussions on the availability of acceptable data in support of restoration, alteration, and maintenance of older aircraft. Over the coming months EAA and its Vintage Aircraft Association division will submit recommendations to the FAA, which will use this information in a report and action plan that could possibly be ready by EAA AirVenture ....... Oshkosh 2005.

The 200S Friends of the Red Barn Campaign

Many services are provided to vintage aircraft en­ thusiasts at EAA AirVenture Oshkosh. From parking airplanes to feeding people at the Tall Pines Cafe and Red Barn, more than 400 volunteers do it all. Some may ask, "If volunteers are providing the services, where is the expense?" Glad you asked. The scooters for the flightline crew need repair and batteries, and the Red Barn needs paint, new windowsills, updated wiring, and other sundry repairs, plus we love to care for our volunteers with special recognition caps and a pizza party. The list really could go on and on, but no matter how many expenses we can point out, the need remains constant. The Friends of the Red Barn fund helps pay for the VAA expenses at EAA AirVenture, and is a cru­ cial part of the Vintage Aircraft Association budget. Please help the VAA and our 400-plus dedicated volunteers make this an unforgettable experience for our many EAA AirVenture guests. We've made it even more fun to give this year, with more giving levels to fit each person's budget, and more interesting activi­ ties for donors to be a part of. Thank-You Items by Level

Access to Volunteer Center

Your contribution now really does make a differ­ ence. There are six levels of gifts and gift recognition. Thank you for whatever you can do. Here are some of the many activities the Friends of the Red Barn fund underwrites: • Red Barn Information Desk Supplies • Participant Plaques and Supplies • Toni's Red Carpet Express Repairs and Radios

• Caps for VAA Volunteers • Pizza Party for VAA Volunteers

• Hightline Parking Scooters and Supplies • Breakfast for Past Grand Champions • Volunteer Booth Administrative Supplies • Membership Booth Administrative Supplies • Signs Throughout the Vintage Area • Red Barn and Other Buildings' Maintenance • And More!

Two Passes to VAA Volunteer Party

Close Auto Parking

2 Tickets


Full Week

2 People/ Full Wk

2 Tickets


2 Days

1 Person/ Full Wk

1 Ticket

Donor Appreciation Certificate

Diamond , $1,000







2 People/Full Wk

Platinum, $750







Gold, $500







Silver, $250







Bronze, $100





Loyal Supporter, $99 & Under



Special FORB Badge

Special FORB Cap

Tri-Motor Ride Certificate

Two Tickets to VAA Picnic

Name Listed: Vintage, Web & Sign at Red Barn

Breakfast at Tall Pines Cafe

VAA Friends of the Red Barn Name_______________________________________________________EAA#________ VAA#________




Please choose your level of participation:

___ Diamond Level Gift - $1,000.00 Silver Level Gift - $250.00

___ Bronze Level Gift - $100.00

___ Platinum Level Gift - $750.00 ___ Loyal Supporter Gift - ($99.00 or under) Your Support $ _ _

_ Gold Level Gift - $500.00 o Payment Enclosed (Make checks payable to Vintage Aircraft Assoc.) Mail your contribution to: o Please Charge my credit card (below) Credit Card Number ________________________ Expiration Date ______ Signature__________________________________


*00 you or your spouse work for a matching gift company? If so, this gift may qualify for a matching donation . Please ask your Human Resources department for the appropriate form.


The Vintage Aircraft Association is a non-profit educational organization under IRS SOIc3 mles. Under Federal Law, the deduction from Federal Income tax for charitable contributions is limited to the amount by which any money (and the value of any property other than money) contributed exceeds the value of the goods or services provided in exchange for the contribution. An appropriate receipt acknowledging YOllr gift will be sent to you for IRS gift reporting reasons.






Reprinted from Vintage Airplane September 1974 Nick Rezich All Photos Courtesy the Nick Rezich Collection

My favorite story about the Ca­ det is a chapter in aviation history. This particular flight didn't receive the publicity it warranted, but be­ lieve-you-me, it was historic. It was February 16, 1941, when Dr. Cecil Smith and fellow dentist Dr. Joseph Lorenz of Burlingame, California, took off from Mills Field, San Francisco, California, in a Continental 75 powered Culver Cadet called the Twerp . They were headed for a tour of Central and South America . Smith had owned six different lightplanes before buy­ ing the Cadet. He bought the Twerp for this trip because of its perfor­ mance and range . The only op­ tional equipment bought with the airplane was the IS-gallon auxil­ iary tank, which gave them a cruise range of 1,051 miles, a Kollsman sensitive altimeter, rate of climb, and a turn and bank indicator. Their cargo consisted of 12 4

APRIL 2005

pounds of maps and papers, emer­ gency tools, tire pump, tie-down ropes, floatation gear, machete, gun and ammunition, 2 gallons of wa­ ter, 15 pou nds of beef jerky, plus personal luggage consisting of toi­ let articles, socks, underwear, and cameras ... yes! All that went into the Cadet! Oh yes! I almost forgot­ Smith and Lorenz wore glasses, so a spare pair of each was also carried. Now get out your world at­ las and ruler and follow this little jewel. The first stop out of Frisco was San Diego for their clearance. The Twerp was cleared the same as a steamsh ip-Port Bill of Health, Cargo Manifest, etc. The passen­ ger list was eliminated by signing Lorenz on as a crew member. The next stop was Hermosillo, Mexico, where they spent the night. The next morning it was on to Mazatlan . They covered that leg of 590 miles on 17 gallons of gas.

Guadalajara was made by night­ fall. They spent two days each in Mexico City, Mexico, Guatemala City, Guatemala, and Managua, Ni­ caragua, and then flew on to Da­ vid, Panama. The next morning after landing there, they phoned (at 7:00 a.m.) for permission to enter the Panama Canal Zone. They re­ ceived instructions on how to enter the zone and were given an explicit route to fly into France Field. It was good that they flew as in­ structed, as they were met at the channel by interceptors and guided into France Field, landing at 9:30 a.m. There they were checked thor­ oughly and granted permission to fly without cameras over any part of the Zone . They left Panama at 2:00 p.m. and landed at Turbo, Co­ lumbia, at 4:30 p.m. At Turbo they landed at an emer­ gency field washed by the spray of the Gulf of Uraba and protected

Big Nick poses in front of his Culver, and a friend does likewise with his Monocoupe 90A in the background. All the photos are from the 1940-44 era.

from high tides by a dike. The only building was a mission where they spent the night as guests of the Catholic fathers. Supper that night consisted of two cans of sausages, crackers, and beer. They did not get much sleep because half the night was spent checking the tiedowns on the Twerp because a raging storm was in progress. The rain belt extended the length of the continent, and Smith and Lorenz's concern was to get to Cali, Columbia, flying over 300 miles of the worst jungle in South America where the re was, at least, a han­ gar for the Twerp. With no weather report from Cali, they took off at 10:00 a.m . the next morning, fol­ lowing the Atrato River until it dis­ appeared below the cloud layer they were forced to overfly to clear the fast-rising Andes ahead of them. Af­ ter five hours they broke out and followed a railroad to a narrow notch in the Andes to Cali. The next leg was to Quito, Ecua­ dor. When the Twerp left Cali, the pilots had been warned not to land outside of military fields. To en ­ force the warning, the Cadet was escorted to the border. At Quito the airport was fogged in, so they flew on ... IFR, VFR, IFR, VFR . .. with compass and altime­ ter as their only means of success­ fully threading their way through narrow canyons in a blinding rain. They pushed on for 500 miles and landed at Guayaquil where the Twerp took on 18 gallons of gas­ not bad gas mileage for 500 miles. It was still raining, and it ap­ peared that another big storm would hit Guayaquil's airport, so

the Cadet roared off for Talara, Peru, where they spent the night. On February 27 the dentists took off for Lima. This leg was covered in five-and-a-half hours; then it was on to Arica, Chile, a 690-mile leg flown in five hours and 45 minutes. After 11.25 hours of Culver time that day, a night's rest and some sightseeing were well earned. The next day, however, Smith

THE CADET WAS AWARDED A FREE HANGAR FOR THE NIGHT IN RECOGNITION BY THE LOCAL PEOPLE OF THE AWESOMENESS OF THEIR FEAT. and Lorenz headed southward again, down the Pacific Coast of Chile to Antofagasta ... where they encountered their first mainte­ nance problem, an oil leak. They spent two hours trying to locate the source of the leak, but failed to find it. They tightened everything in sight and took off for Vallenar, site of a Pan-American emergency strip, where they spent the night. The following morning saw fur­ ther attempts to stop the oil leak and a takeoff for Santiago. There, Pan-American mechanics washed down the engine and found the

leak-it was coming from a crack in the oil radiator. The mechanics soldered the crack, and by noon the next day the Cadet was off for Men­ doza, Argentina. This short leg of only about 150 miles between Santiago and Men­ doza would be the ultimate test of the Culver's performance, for it in­ volved crossing the backbone of the Andes, past the 23,834-foot peak of Aconcagua, the tallest mountain in South America, and through the Uspallata Pass. This involved the lit­ tle over-grossed Cadet climbing to 17,000 feet for safe passage through the pass. The Uspallata is probably the windiest and roughest pass in the world-test balloons have re­ corded winds to 200 mph. Smith and Lorenz received a weather report from Pan-Am that the pass was clear, but winds up to SO mph were blowing and were predicted to increase even more. They were ad­ vised not to go. The two were anxious to try it, however, so they fired up the Twerp and were on their way. Aft er circling the field to 10,000 feet, they headed the Cadet for the pass . The ride through was one Smith and Lorenz will never for ­ get. It was slam-bam all the way, but they made it. The Culver Ca­ det was one of the first production lightplanes to cross the Andes and undoubtedly the first ever to make the crossing in a "touring" config­ uration, that is, with a full load of gasoline, baggage, and both seats occupied. When they landed at Mendoza, the Cadet was awarded a free hangar for the night in rec­ ognition by the local people of the awesomeness of their feat. VINTAGE AIRPLANE


Chud Hanell, a race driver who worked at Howard Aircraft, and Big Nick in his Culver.

At noon on March 4, the Ca­ det zipped across the Rio de la Plata headed for Porto Alegre, Brazil. After five hours of bucking 60 mph head winds, however, they landed at the Air France field at Pelotas, Brazil, for the night. The next morning they were off for Porto Alegre where they filled up on gas and water and went on to Rio. There, they again had the oil radiator soldered and, as an added precaution, wired the United States for a new one to be air expressed to Para, Brazil. Leaving Rio, they headed into the state of Bahia. Rio had wired ahead for a supply of gas, and at their next stop, a tanker with 350 gallons of gas was waiting. When they ordered 30 gallons, the attendant refused, say­ ing the gas was for a Pan-Am airliner. Smith and Lorenz tried to explain that the fuel was for the Twerp, but all the guy would do was shout, "Pan-American! Pan-American!/I No one ever heard of a lightplane being 6

APRIL 2005

able to fly from Rio into Bahia and only needing 30 gallons of gas! By now the oil radiator had de­ veloped a really bad leak-and there were no facilities to fix it. The den­ tists took off anyway, oil leak and all. Two hours out over Pernambuco state at 6,500 feet-over the jungle­ the engine started to go. Twenty min­ utes later it froze. The ocean was too distant, so they headed for the jun­ gle and its headhunters. Frantically looking for a clearing, they spot­ ted a sand bar in the distance that looked promising and headed for it, wheels up for max glide. As they ap­ proached the clearing, it looked like they could put it in wheels down­ so they tried it. The Cadet sailed over the edge of the clearing by a mere 35 feet and settled in on the sand. The wheels dug a 4-inch trench for about 50 feet before the left strut broke and the left wing dug into the sand, bringing

the bird to an instant halt. Smith and Lorenz sat for a few minutes, dazed but unhurt. Finally, Lorenz said, "I believe we have ar­ rived./I When they climbed out, natives appeared from everywhere­ no, not headhunters, but friendly natives. Next came the sign lan­ guage, which eventually resulted in the dentists spending the next sev­ eral days on horseback and nights in native huts until they reached Bar­ reirinha, where a chartered plane flew them back to civilization. Today a monument of wood and fabric lays on a sand bar in South America-a tribute to a great air­ plane, the Culver Cadet. Up to the point of the forced land­ ing, the doctors had covered some 12,000 miles, averaging 30 miles to a gallon for a total flying cost of $300! Hey! Piper, Beech, Cessna-Can you top that on 75 hp? Progress? Bah! Al Mooney ... genius! How about you Culver owners in the Bay area see if these two fine pilots are still around and invite them to the next Culver Club get­ together. I promise two most inter­ esting speakers. In fact, I'd like to see some sort of recognition for these two men ... maybe in the form of a plaque. I would be willing to throw in 20 bucks toward it-how about it, Culver owners? Remember, there are those that have and those that haven't ... yet! Editor's Note: We'd be curious to know if anyone ever found Lorenz or Smith, the touring dentists. If Big Nick has any of you Culver enthu­ siasts stirred up as a result of his article, you might want to join one of the Culver type clubs. 2005 con­ tact info: Culver Aircraft Association, 281­ 351-0114 or Culver Club, 641-938-2773 or a Culver Dart Club, 419-734-6685 or Culver PQ-14 Association, 949­ 495-4540 .....


Patterns, Part II

Last month I described an inci­ dent that occurred in the pattern of my local airport, where a fast-flying aircraft on a long straight-in final al­ most gobbled up a slow and stately Champ as it was turning from base to final. I didn't describe the pilot of the fast airplane as a turkey, but I did allude to how hawks and eagles and some other birds of prey will join in midair for the propagation of their species. However, when airplanes do the same thing, the only thing that is spread is pieces and parts all over the ground. And the statistics appear to show that when airplanes do that, they are usually either in, or near, the traffic pattern of an airport. It would cer­ tainly behoove us, therefore, to be extremely vigilant in our scan for other traffic whenever flying in, or near, the traffic pattern. And it would also help the sustaining of the spe­ cies Homo pilotiens if we all flew the traffic patterns of our airports adher­ ing to the proper procedures for do­ ing so. These procedures standardize not only how we fly the pattern, but also how we should operate on the ground. They give guidance on how we should enter and depart the pat­ tern, the altitudes we should use, and the distance we should main­ tain from the runway. They deter­ mine who has the right of way in the traffic pattern, and advise how we should use our radios. Some of these procedures are reg-

ulatory. For example FAR 91.111 (a) states: "No person may operate an aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard." And

If you are at

pattern altitude,

you should be

able to see all

the other aircraft

that might be in

the pattern.

FAR 91.113 (g) says: "Aircraft while on final approach to land, or while landing, have the right-of-way over other aircraft in flight or operat­ ing on the surface, except that they shall not take advantage of this rule to force an aircraft off the runway surface ... . When two or more air­ craft are approaching an airport for the purpose of landing, the aircraft at the lower altitude has the right-of­ way, but it shall not take advantage of this rule to cut in front of another which is on final approach to land or to overtake that aircraft." The Aeronautical Infonnation Man­ ual (AIM), while not regulatory in nature, has a great deal of useful

information that goes a long way in standardizing the procedures we should use in the pattern. I cer­ tainly don't have the space to repro­ duce the important parts here, but I would strongly suggest that you review Chapter Four, in particular 4-1 -9, 4-2-2, and most of section 3, which deals with airport opera­ tions. It might be possible that the last time you reviewed the AIM was quite some time ago, so a little re­ freshing couldn't hurt. I have spent quite literally several thousand hours flying in traffic pat­ terns, and I have a few suggestions that I would like to offer, based on my observations. At the top of the list I would like to repeat something I mentioned in the last article. That is, the most important piece of colli­ sion avoidance equipment we have is our eyes. It is absolutely the last defense, when all else has failed, in providing separation between us and other aircraft. Next is that you fly the pattern with precision. Pattern altitudes, par­ ticularly at nontowered airports, can vary anywhere from 600 feet AGL up to 1,500 feet AGL. Know what the correct pattern altitude is for the air­ port at which you are flying. If you're not sure, look it up (after all, the regs say that you will obtain all available information prior to a flight). The Airport Facility Directory (AFD) would be a good place to find that informa­ tion. And then be sure to fly that alti­ continued on page 28 VINTAGE AIRPLANE



Super Preflight Reprinted from the April 1989 issue of Vintage Airplane Springtime? Soon, I hope! I can tell by the familiar Airplane Disease itch. It's time! Time for that spring break and getting the wind wagons up there in the air where they belong. Before we fly though, there are a lot of little things we had better do. Yep! Here comes the annual spring preflight lecture you've heard so many times before. Well, if you have already read and know all this, skip on to some­ thing else-on second thought, maybe you'd better skim it over, just in case. Our machines here at the Funny Farm hardly fly at all in the wintertime. With the usual snow accumu­ lation, we just shut down after the first big snow and don't open the hangar doors again until the frost is out of the ground. This applies only in the event that we don't have an extreme emergency, such as a beautiful day with temps in the upper 30s when it'd be a crime not to fly. But enough of that. Our biggest off-season problem is mice. Them lit­ tle meeces love airplanes to pieces. I never had fig­ ured out how they can thrive inside a tin airplane with fiberglass insulation and just about nothing to eat in the entire machine, but they do here at the Funny Farm. I went flying after coming home from my West Coast vacation in December. I was in the Cessna 175 at 2,500 feet doing lazy-eights, and a little creature sticks his head out of the wing root just a bit above eye-level as though asking if I forgot how to fly straight and level. When we got down, out came the D-Con and mothballs. But let's start at the begin­ ning, as though we were do­ ing an ordinary preflight, and then we'll amplify it a little. Start in your usual way. Sit down in the cockpit and check the paperwork. Are we still in license? If you've got radios, is the ELT listed on the station li­ cense? You guys without elec­ trical systems, wipe that grin off. You need a license, too. Are you 8

APRIL 2005

The FCC says an ELT is a transmitter, which it is, so get an application and get legal! (Wait! In 2005, you don't need a station license for the airplane's radios, unless you're traveling abroad with the airplane. In Mexico and Canada, you still need the restricted radiotelephone license you may have been issued years ago if you became certificated prior to the 1990s. -HGF) While we're in the cockpit, let's check the seat belts and shoulder harnesses, the seat tracks, the carpet (to see that it doesn't interfere with the tracks) and give a good look around in general. Controls all free? Rudder pedals work all right? Brakes have pressure? Does the fuel selector move? Gauges read anything? Are there any signs of seepage (fuel stains) in and around the gauges, primer, and fuel lines? That's the quickest way to find a fuel leak, spotting the stains left by the evaporating fuel. When you get outside, check the little drain holes in the belly beneath the fuel selec­ tor. They can tell you if the fuel pump packing or "a" rings have sprung. Try the primer-does it? How does the panel look? The instruments aren't full of water or anything, are they? The master switch, does it click the solenoid? Is the battery up? How about all the warning lights? Man, I could go on all day, but these items are nothing new. They're supposed to be checked on every preflight, without any conscious ef­ fort. But you 're probably out of practice, and this pre­ flight has to be a good one so everything will go right and we can enjoy. Well, if you're satisfied with all the stuff inside, let's go out­ side. On the way, check the door hinges. Better lube 'em. Have you priced one lately? How about the door latches, too, while we're at it. Tell you what, first let's walk all the way around the airplane and just look. Hah! There's where my buddy ran over that runway marker last fall and scratched the paint off the legal?

wheel pant. My gosh, the decal is partly gone off the prop, and look there, some dirty bird has been perch­ ing on top of my tail beacon. What a mess! Well, that's what's readily noticeable. Let's get down to the nitty. Strip off enough cowling to get a good, long look at the engine compartment. How are the fuel drains and the gascolator? While we're in there, let's look at the stacks and the SCAT tubes and check the flapper door on the carb heater. Do all the engine

ment and especially the battery, let's check the prop. Got the keys in your pocket or visible on the top of the glareshield? Pull the prop through about six blades and then on the next four or six, count the cylinders as you go by them. Are they all there? This is known as the poor man's compression check. If you fall flat on your face where there is supposed to be a cylinder on compression, maybe we have a valve stuck open. How about the prop itself? Is it all there and reasonably free of nicks and scratches? Back to the airframe. Tires? Are the wheelpants free of mud and stuff so the wheels turn free? Strut infla­

Unbutton as much as you can.

controls work? How do the intake tubes look? What about the wires, both primary and secondary? Baffles, oil leaks, and sanitation? See any rust or dirt pockets? Check any and all external lines, generator/alternator brackets and belts. Can you see the battery water level? Any corrosion in that area? Keep looking. What you find now might save lots of time and embarrassment later. Oh yeah, how about the oil quantity? When you're satisfied with the engine com part­

tion? Do the scissors need lube? Hey, it's your airplane. You gotta make sure on these things. Even if you're hero enough not to be worried about the safety angle, give some thought to the expense if a tire goes flat or a strut doesn't absorb the shocks like it's supposed to. Let's look at all the control surfaces. Flaps, too, and trim tabs. Check 'em all, and don't forget the static, pi-

tot, and vent lines. Even though I didn't mention it be­ fore, how'd the carb air intake look? Hey, I've had about enough of this looking stuff. Let's clean the windows, top the tanks, do a really -z:;2,. '­ good run-up, and go fly! Over to you, c..fL../t<..CJG­ VINTAGE AIRPLANE


Al Menasco



Part I (of two parts) Reprinted from Vintage Airplane April 1985 CHET W ELLMAN


AI Menasco at age 87 in 1984.

In collaboration with Miss Helen Holum, Menasco Inc. lbert Sidney Menasco (EAA 120764), the de­ signer and builder of the line of Menasco en­ gines, first saw the light of day on March 17, 1897, and it is rumored that as soon as he was alone in his crib, he suddenly sat up straight and said, ''It will be four cylinders and inverted." Al made this dream come true. His early childhood in Los An­ geles was filled with more than his share of troubles. When Al was about 5 years old, standing by his back door, a local neighborhood bull y was fooling around with a handgun. Carelessly, or on purpose, the gun was discharged and Al was shot in the stomach. Rushed to the hospital as speedily as possible by a horse-drawn ambulance, he arrived there two hours later. Al says, "It was at this same time th at President McKinley was also shot in the stomach. Unfortunately, he developed peritonitis and died,




while I survived." Shortly thereaf­ ter, AI's mother died and, perhaps, the shooting was the contributing cause. Because of his inability to se­ cure proper care for Al and his sister while he was at work, his father was forced to put them in an orphanage in Los Angeles. A few years later, his father remar­ ried. His bride was a German girl who was well educated and a con­ cert cellist who performed with the Philharmonic Orchestra . Her son by a first marriage, Ferde Grofe, was also an accomplished musician and composer whose best known work is the "Grand Canyon Suite." Al re­ joined his father and his new step­ mother, who soon determined that what Al needed was some proper bringing up and discipline. So she summarily enrolled Al in a German Grammar School in Los Angeles. However, Al did not take kindly to the strict discipline. "I began skip­ ping school from time to time and, at age 11, I ran away from home to see what was on the other side of the mountain. For this, I was sent to Juvenile Hall in Los Angeles."

Good behavior by AI, believe it or not, brought an early release and Al asked for, and sec ured permis­ sion, to live with his older brother, Milton, a sign painter earning $4 per week. Milton also attended art school at night. This money had to stretch because in 1908-09, there were no such things as minimum wages, food stamps, food give­ aways, aid to dependent children, low-cost housing, public aid, and many other such programs . Each household had to stand on its own feet. Al had never heard of such programs, so he took it upon him­ self to help. He scoured the city for any kind of honest job or work he could do. Al says he even had a "soft" job for a while-working as a movie extra. "After graduating from art school, my brother, whose finances had improved, took in two of my sisters and insisted that we all at­ tend school on a regular basis-so I tried," says AI. For two years Al attended the Manual Arts High School in Los An­ geles. It was here that Al met his

lifelong friend, Cliff Henderson, who later staged the Cleveland and Los Angeles National Air Races. The two of them joined the local Aero Club and began making model air­ planes and gliders, using their bi­ cycles as wind tunnels to test their creations. At this point, I submit a speech made by Al to the Menasco Man­ agement Club on January 29, 1969 (courtesy of Helen Holum and Me­ nasco Inc., A Division of Colt In­ dustries). This is reprinted verbatim because no one could improve on AI's own story of the events he de­ scribes. The speech follows, with the introduction ... C.W.

The Founder's Story Al Menasco, founder of the pres­ ent Menasco Manufacturing Co., made the following speech to the California Division's Management Club on January 29, 1969. Mr. Me­ nasco has been mentioned in many historical aviation accounts, but his full story has never been told. He is now in his early 70s and a prominent rancher in the Napa Valley. Menasco Manufacturing is proud to reprint the talk, which he gave to some 175 employees, who gave him a standing ovation when he was finished. The words are Mr. Menasco's ... "It's a tremendous thrill for me to see more people here tonight than encompassed our whole organiza­ tion for so long. But we had quality control, we had production con­ trol, all kinds of controls. I think I controlled them all. "It was suggested that perhaps you would most like to hear how this all started, from the very begin­ ning. It started a long time ago­ I was only a kid, barely started in high school when there was an avi­ ation meet at Dominguez, which was about half way to Long Beach on the Red Car Line. I guess the sign is still there-Dominguez Station. The first aviation meet in America was held on a plateau there where the Dominguez oil field now exists and it caught my fancy.

Chet Wellman and AI Menasco at AI's home at St. Helens, California in the spring of 1984.

"I went out there on the Pacific Electric Red Car the first day because it was raining. This was 1910 and among those present where Orville and Wilbur Wright, Glenn Curtiss, Santos Dumont from Brazil with his Demoiselle monoplane, Bleriot who flew the channel in 1909. All of those names were there, includ­ ing many others, such as Hubert Latham and his Antoinette, Louis Paulham with his biplane, who ac­ tually was the star of the meet as far as flying time was concerned. I was forever captivated by the scene. However, I went back to school. "In 1911 they repeated a very successful meet. So I rode my bicy­ cle out there. I sort a ditched school for most of the ten days the meet lasted. There were a couple of days that nobody flew-tinkering with balky engines seemed to occu py most of their time.

At that meet Lincoln Beachey ap­ peared for the first time in 1911, later becoming the great acrobatic pilot and the star of all acrobatic pi­ lots while he lived. He had been a dirigible pilot, but he had too much in him to stay with dirigibles. He took to the airplane with its greater maneuverability as naturally as a bird takes to the air. "I remember him diving to ground level in front of the grand­ stand, touching his front wheel on the runway and waving to the grandstand with both hands off the controls as he passed. It was un­ heard of-the most dare-devilish performance ever seen at that time. "At that meet was Arch Hoxsey. The Wright brothers by this time had an airplane factory attached to their bicycle shop in Dayton, Ohio. For $5,000 you could buy a Wright Biplane, complete with flight lesV I NTA GE AIRPLANE


sons. It had warp­ ing wings instead of ailerons for lat­ eral control, an en­ gine on the lower wing with motor­ cycle type chains running to the two propellers. Ii Arch Hoxsey was one of the grad­ uates of the Wright School and among the most daring. There was Phil Par­ malee, Johnson, Walter Brookins, Cal Rodgers, the first transcontinental pilot, and many others who graduated from the Wright School about that time. The purpose mostly was to go out and fly at some county fair and make some money giving exhibi­ tions-there was little thought of doing much else. "Hoxsey became a hero at the 1911 meet when he set an altitude record at 4,435 feet elevation, which was her­ alded all over the world. I had played hooky that day so the next day I made amends for it, attended school and carried my paper route. Hoxsey tried to better his record that day-I don't know what happened, but he spun in and was killed so his success was very short-lived. liThe next year, 1912, the meet attracted many more pilots and planes. Innovations in engines and plane design were numerous. That's when I really tossed the school­ books out the window. Because on my street-I lived at 16th and Union Avenue-there was another boy from high school whose father was discouraged about his progress in school also. His name was Far­ num Fish and he only cared about building and flying model planes as I had been doing. IiHis older brother was very stu­ dious and a scholar, and his father, Dr. Fish, was a prominent physi­ cian. They couldn't do anything with Farny as far as school was concerned so they sent him to the




Wright School in Dayton. "Farny came back to the 1912 meet as a full-fledged flyer and that was the time I kissed everything good-bye and attached myself to him. I took care of his airplane un­ der the watchful eye of Mr. Hazard, one of Wright 's best mechanics. That was my first real down-to-earth experience. I wiped off the airplane, I oiled the chains to the two propel­ lers and was promised a ride. Farny made flights every day, even during some gusty ones when others were more cautious and remained on the ground. The officials asked him to take a photographer aloft from the West Coast studios with a big Graf­ lex camera for shots of the grand­ stand and field. IiFarny was so interested he failed to watch his gas gauge and they landed in a cactus patch, wash­ ing out the landing gear and my chances for the ride. "That ended the 1912 meet and my interest in aviation for some time. I became a mechanic in a truck factory-the F.L. Moore Truck Company in Los Angeles. It was out on Lacey Street near the Arroyo Seco wash. We achieved a production of one truck per day. We built three models, two of them with Wiscon­ sin engines and one with a Conti­ nental engine. The Continental Engine Company and the Wiscon­ sin Motor Company, as you proba­ bly know, are still in business today. IiWe had a competitor in Los

Angeles called the Moreland Truck Company. The Mo­ reland Company was more success­ ful. They produced one and one-half trucks per day on North Main Street. Watt Moreland was a civic leader and businessman, a pi­ oneer head of the Chamber of Com­ merce. He was very successful and ex­ panded his factory to a new loca­ tion of modern design-out in 'the sticks' to Burbank. IiToday as I was walking around the expanded Menasco facilities I saw the back end of the saw tooth building of the then great truck fac­ tory built by Watt Moreland. Some of the trucks built there are still run­ ning today. liMy interest in engines was always paramount to all else. After the truck factory I indulged in some weekend motorcycle rac­ ing and became interested in racing automobiles. We had built a few prototype cars at the truck factory. I had the misfortune to get badly cracked up in 1914 and after I came out of that I was laid up for the best part of a year. I opened a shop at 812 West Jefferson St. in Los An­ geles-at Jefferson and University, around the corner from U.S.c. I painted the sign myself and it said 'Auto Repairing.' IiNow I was 17 years old, and I sat around for a week or so until those people with White Steamers would come in to get them repaired. I knew nothing about steam-I did not want to monkey with them very much. But I loved the Locomobiles, Knox's Stearns, Wintons, and the rest. There were about 147 different makes of automobiles on the streets of America then. Some names you wouldn't begin to remember. iiI was very proud of one. My fa­ ther's cousin, Sid Menasco, was the president of the American Automo­

bile Company of Indianapolis that built the" Ameri­ can Underslung" of very low profile and quite a leader in its class. Indi­ anapolis at that time rivaled De­ troit as the cen­ ter of automobile manufacturing with National, Stutz, Marmon and the other pio­ neer names. "So I had this garage and I shake in my boots now sometimes to re­ member when those people used to come to me with a big Locomobile and say, 'what's the matter with this, kid?' But I fixed them. I espe­ cially remember the dean of U.S.c. and his long Winton and how he trusted me. "I bought a lathe, a drill press and I had a forge. Acety­ lene welding was just coming in as a specialty. I started building race­ cars mostly from used parts from my customers cars and what spare parts I could buy. "During that time a craze started called 'cycle cars.' Some were pow­ ered by motorcycle engines, others by small one-lunger stationary en­ gines or anything that was avail­ able. A lot of embryo builders, like myself, started building them and running around the streets with them-being chased by the cops, mostly as they were unlicensed and there was no category for them. Some promoters put together a Ju­ nior Automobile Racing Associa­ tion so we went out to old Ascot and raced. The races were well at­ tended and spread to other cities as far as Tacoma on the Pacific Coast. We went to the World's Fair in 1915 at San Francisco for two races, which were a big hit. "I blew up in the first race and took second in the big race to Harry Hartz, who like several of the oth­ ers, went on to become future fa­ mous racing car drivers.

Another earty auto design.

"But at the Fair my attention was again diverted to aviation. I met Art Smith, then called the boy avia­ tor and the acknowledged peer of all exhibition fliers. He was just 21 years old. A kid out of Fort Wayne, who had built his own airplane and taught himself to fly when he was 16. He had replaced the great lin­ coln Beachey, who had been killed at the Fair about two months ear­ lier. Art was a genius of many sorts. Although recorded as the 4th man in the world to 'loop the loop' as it was called, he was the first to actu­ ally turn a perfect loop. "Pegoud of France was the first, Beachey second, and De Loyd Thompson the third. All of them were using the Gnome or LeRhone rotary engines with tremendous gy­ roscopic force-the rotary, as most of you know, was the favored en­ gine of most of the pioneers. The crankshaft was fixed and the whole of the engine revolved around it, creating a revolving mass respon­ sible for the excessive gyroscopic force. Their maximum horsepower was 80. And they reached the top of the loop they were barely fly­ ing-they were staggering-so that the gyroscopic force usually rolled them out of the loop at the top. Each loop also required a dive to enable them to get up and over. "Art was the first to use a sta­ tionary engine which he converted with carburetor and oiling changes to operate inverted. He used smoke

cartridges on the wing tips so that you could observe the pattern of his loops and other acrobatics. At the Mardi Gras in New Orleans he added fireworks and night flying to his repertOire and the publicity became widespread. "Lincoln Beach­ ey read the reports in San Francisco and recognized a rival. He countered by having a wire-braced monoplane designed and built, much lighter and faster than the biplane others were using. He was determined to show that he could turn a perfect loop too. On the first exhibition he dove a 3,500 feet straight down for momen­ tum pulling up sharply for the loop. The wings went off and he plunged into the San Francisco Bay ending a brilliant and courageous career. "It was a great tragedy at the time. Art Smith read the news in Chicago and decided he could carryon for Beachey and prove that airplane maneuverability need not result in tragedy. He crated up his airplane and shipped it to San Francisco-he never thought of flying them across the continent. He proposed to the director of the Fair that he finish the rest of the Beachey contract, which paid $1,500 per week. He of­ fered to throw in the night flying and fireworks to boot. "The directors of the fair, headed by the president of the University of California at that time, said no, that they would not sign any more death warrants. Subsequent to what Art did then, I learned the value of public re­ lations. He had a capable manager much like actors today, who got 50 percent of the take, inCidentally, and this entrepreneur besieged the Fair officials in every way possible to reverse their decision. Unfortu­ continued on page 29 VINTAGE AIRPLANE



olks, don't try this at home. This modifica足 tion was done by professionals ... no, really! It was. And the name? Thruxton Jackaroo? That was on purpose. It's interesting to note that the country that gave the world James Bond and XKE's also gave us the Thruxton Jackaroo. Although, when mentioned in polite society, the concept of a four-place Tiger Moth sounds outland足 ish; there is no doubt that it sounded like a good idea at the time, the early 1950s. After all, the reasoning went, the Tiger Moth was the most beloved airplane

F 14

APRIL 2005

in the U.K., with the possible exception of the Spitfire. And surplus Moths were readily available for a veri足 table song. And the world (England specifically) defi足 nitely needed a reasonably priced, 90 mph, four-place airplane. So, why not make four-place Moths? Like we said, it sounded like a good idea at the time. It might have been more successful if Piper and Cessna hadn 't come along and soaked up the four-place market. One of the delightful fallouts of actually producing a four-place Tiger Moth was totally unintended: no one foresaw the fun that owners like Tom Dietrich and

Steve Gray, both of Kitchener, Ontario, north of the north border, would have at future fly-ins, answering questions asked by a bewildered public. "No, we didn't do it ourselves. Yes, it is government approved in both England and Canada. No, this isn't the only one." In the first place, it takes a certain kind of person to take on the "uniqueness" that is part of the personal­ ity of a Tiger Moth. Being British to the core and barely changed since the design's inception in the 1920s, the Tiger Moth appeals to people who like a leisurely pace. It also helps if they have an overabundance of patience combined with an overt willingness to tinker with me­

chanical contrivances that, until a high level of famil­ iarity is reached, seem to make no sense. The above describes Tom Dietrich and The Tiger Boys (see a loosely organized group of true aviation fanatics based in Guelph, Ontario, who have taken it upon themselves to put together a "private museum." Tom sums up their museum concept by explaining, "We're trying to put together a collection that focuses on Canadian airplanes that taught people to fly before the war. Since the prices were going up quickly, we just bought everything we thought we might like to have while they were still affordable, whether they were fly­ able or not. We could restore them later." Actually, the group appears to be an aeronautical commune, with Tom as their guru. They pool finances, knowledge, and skills and surround themselves with the kind of aero-toys they all like. All of this and they get to act like they're a museum so no one knows they're actually having fun. So far their list of airplanes, many of which are future projects, include a Cornell (PT-26), Yale, E-2, C-3, Gypsy Moth, Fleet Finch, part of an Mk II Anson and enough of an Mk II Hurricane that they think they can eventually build an airplane around the parts. These guys are nothing, if not ambitious. It would be easy to mischaracterize Tom as being a long-time, serious aviation enthusiast. We say "mis­ characterize" because to describe Tom that way would be a gross understatement and put him in the same cat­ egory as others who dearly love aviation. Tom stands above the rest because, among other things, he has spark plugged any number of restorations and has owned a bunch of antique airplanes, but he has one overriding difference that sets him apart from most who throw themselves into such activities: he doesn't have a pilot's license and never has! Unable to pass the physical, Tom wasn't about to let something as trivial as that stand between him and the things he loves, so he routinely partners with a licensed pilot on a restoration project so he can at least ride along after he has worked his magic on the airplane. Tom and Steve Gray actually have the same aero­ nautical roots: model airplanes. For decades Tom ran the local hobby shop, which was the natural outgrowth of his youth. He said, "There has never been a time when I wasn't VINTAGE AIRPLANE


in love with airplanes . Never! I started building models as soon as I could cut balsa and got very, very se­ rious about it. So, it was only natural that I'd open a hobby shop. "Steve used to buy supplies from me, and before long we started build­ ing some serious models together." It's probably important that their definition of "serious model" be explained. For one thing, several model airplane magazines have run stories on some of their airplanes, including an RIC Spruce Goose that spanned nearly 16 feet! Go back and reread that: 16 feet, and that's not a typo. That's a serious model in any­ one's book. "I hadn't really given full-scale airplanes much thought," Tom said, "until I went to Oshkosh in 1970. My original pur­ pose was to get detail photos for some scale models I was building. I didn't expect to be so bowled over by all the really in­ teresting airplanes, espe­ cially the antiques. I looked at the work the

builders did and

made it into a fly­ ing airplane, and I couldn't help think that I could do that, too. And suddenly I wanted to." What Tom didn't know was that shortly after he returned from that first Oshkosh, an airplane that would become a major part of his life was being imported from England to Canada. In 1971 Thruxton Jackaroo G-APHZ was imported and passed through several owners, including the Canadian writer Glenn Nor­ man, before coming to rest at Geert Frank's country airstrip in Plumb Island, Massachu­ setts. For decades Frank was instrumental in bringing in a wide range of unusual foreign airplanes, including a lot of Tiger Moths and Tail up, grass clippings flying up from the wheels as the Jackaroo trun­ Fiesler-Storches. dles down the sod runway; this is what unhurried recreational flying is Tom said, "When I went to look at the all about. airplane in 1974 it was disassembled. It was

The cockpit of the Jackaroo looks roomy, with plenty of g1ass all around for a pleasant journey.

16 APRIL 2005

missing lots of parts because, as a modified thing, including the canopy, into place . You didn 't Moth, there wasn't a lot of interest in it, but even have to do any recovering work on the exist­ the Tiger Moth parts were worth money. I, ing airplane! Believe it or not, but apparently their however, loved it and carted it home. claims of being able to make the conversion in 10 "The basic airplane turned out to be a 1937 hours were true. They modified 16 airplanes and 82A Tiger Moth, so it was one of the first. On then produced another 10 kits. Most of this occurred top of that, it had served with a Polish RAF unit in the late 1950s." and was actually at Dunkirk during the evac­ The first 16 Thruxton airplanes utilized the origi­ uation. It was one of the original 16 air­ nal Tiger Moth turtledeck, so the intersection with the planes that were converted to Jackaroos." canopy is a little abrupt. Rollason built aircraft around The Thruxton Jackaroo was reportedly the remaining kits, and it modified the turtledeck, rais­ the brainchild of an RAF officer who saw ing it up to fair better with the canopy. Tom said the the Moth as a basis for a four-place airplane gross weight is up to 2,180 pounds, which allows the that would serve the transportation needs of Jackaroo pilot (now, there's a description you don't many Englanders. His basic concept was that hear often) to carry four people and fuel, making it a he'd produce the section of the fuselage that would true four-place airplane. be four-place, but leave as much of the airplane un­ "When we got the airplane home we found it changed as possible to keep the costs and the down­ needed everything. At some point in its life it had been a duster. For that reason, when it was brought into time to a minimum. Incidentally, "Thruxton" was the name of the town Canada, it was pretty ratty to begin with, and it went where the plant was located and "Jackaroo" is an Aus­ downhill from there. I remember seeing it once in sie term for a roustabout worker who can do many Canada, and it had flowered carpet for the wingwalks. "Fortunately, even though it didn't look very good things well. "The kits," said Tom Dietrich, "were really well done and was super dirty, it hadn't been allowed to sit out­ and clever. They included all the miscellaneous lit­ side very long, so nothing was badly deteriorated. For tle parts and bits of hardware you'd need to make the instance, I had to do no welding on the fuselage. Con­ complete conversion. There were several new com­ sidering it had been a duster, that was surprising. "The wings, as you'd expect of woodwork, which ponents that widened and lengthened the fuselage, . at the time was nearly 50 years old, needed some plus the extra seats and mounting system. The exist­ work, but they weren't rotten or badly damaged. We ing control system was relocated off center under the had to do some ribs, but most of the work was reglu­ left seats, which meant the control cables on the right would be too short. So, short pieces were supplied that ing everything. "We had the instruments overhauled and rebuilt the bolted into place. The cables exited at different places compass ourselves. Our compass is marked AM, mean­ in the rear, but all of that was provided for. ing Air Ministry, signifying that it's a British compass "There was no fabrication to be done. You simply rather than a Canadian, which are marked RCAA." bought the kit, did some cutting, and bolted every­ VINTAGE AIRPLANE


English Moths didn't originally have brakes, and the Thruxton didn't either, which can be problematic on some airports. "We put Bendix me­ chanical brakes on it, which is the way Cana­ dian Moths are equipped. They use the same hub as Tiger Moths and the same $600 a piece tires that, unfortunately, wear out quickly on pavement." When Tom brought the project home, he started looking around for help from others with simi­ lar interests. Since he and Steve had worked together on models, it was only natural that Steve would become involved. "I look at full-scale air­ planes, like the Moth," Steve said, "and I see them as logi­ cal extensions of models. I'm a woodworker and am used to working with small details that have to be done a certain way, and that's what this was. Tom and I are doing a Moth right now, and I love the nos­ talgia of the older airplanes." Tom said, "Steve started out as a volunteer on the project, but as others dropped out, Steve became the project and took over ownership of the other half of the jackaroo." Steve had started out flying in the Air Cadets as a boy, but, as is often the case, family and career quickly dominated his life. In fact, when Tom retired from the hobby shop busi­ ness, Steve took it over. "I didn't get back into fly­ ing until four or five years ago. My son started flying and he pulled me back in. I started flying a Fleet Canuck to get my taildragger time, then started flying Tom's Baby Ace, which is the oldest fly­ ing homebuilt in Canada." About finishing the jackaroo, Tom said, "We used Ceconite with cotton tapes and used dope all the way 18

APRIL 2005

through. We'd used dope on the model airplanes, and the entire process was very familiar to us. We got the airplane flying in 1980, which means the finish that's on it now is nearly 22 years old, but it's hold­ ing up great. "The other guys in the museum group are restor­ ing an 82A Tiger Moth they've named Woody Woodpecker. These include my partner Bob Ravell, Brian Smith, Brian Lewis, and Steve Gray. Frank was my original partner in the jackaroo, and I flew with him a lot. In fact, we brought it to Oshkosh the first time in 1983, then again in '93, and this year, so it seems as if once a de­ cade it makes the trip." When Steve bought into the jackaroo and started flying it, he found it to be different than flying the Ca­ nuck. "Of course, it was much heavier and larger than any­ thing I'd flown," he remem­ bered, "but, as long as there's no crosswind, it's actually eas­ ier to land . "I love working on deHavil­ lands. I also think de Havilland designs are somehow more artistic. In fact, we're looking for a Rapide, the deHavilland biplane transport. It'll have to be another basket case so we can afford it, but I've found my background lets me build fast. However, the Cornell is the next project on the list af­ ter this Moth." The Tiger Boys look as if they have work scheduled out for the several decades, and that couldn't make them happier. As Tom put it, "This is a hobby gone out of control. We may not all be kids, but we have young hands and we're going to build airplanes while we can do it. We're .,.. all Tiger Boys to the end."

Rolls-Royce invites the owners and restorers of our nation's aviation treasures to become part of the 2005 National Aviation Heritage Invitational.

Competition categories include

Antique, Classic and Warbird.

Aircraft must be forty-five years old

and restored to airworthy condition.

Dedicated to the Preservation of our Nation's Aviation Heritage -

Dayton Air Show, July 15-1 7 足

Reno National Championship Air Races, September 1 6 -1 8 The National Aviation Heritage Invitational is sponsored by

Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum





For further info: or you may call (703) 621-2774



Originally published in Aero Digest, June 1927 By BRI CE GOLDSBOROUGH PIONEER I NSTRUM ENT COMPANY

Vintage Airplane editor's note: Long gone from our modern instrument panels, the Earth Inductor Com足 pass (EIC) was a marvel of modern engineering when Charles Lindbergh used one in May of 1927 to help keep the Spirit of St. Louis headed in the right direction during his solo hop across the North Atlantic. Its method of operation is fascinating. Here's an explanation of the inner workings of the EIC from one of the engineers responsible for its creation in the mid-1920s.-HGF


APRIL 2005


h e Earth Inductor Com­ pass consists of three major units-a generator, a con­ troller and an indicator. As­ sociated with these are a casing and shaft, which establish a mechani­ cal connection between the genera­ tor and the controller and a cable which electrically connects the gen­ erator and indicator. The generator is the same in principle as any electric generator, except that it has no artificially in­ duced field. It has an armature, a commutator, and a pair of brushes. The armature unit is supported on gimbals so that its position will be undisturbed by ordinary roll­ ing and pitching of the airplane. A windmill drives th e armature and commutator through a universal jOint. The brushes are supported for orientation about a normally verti­ cal axis, and electrical connections are made to them. The earth's mag­ netic lines of force running from north to south form the poles of the generator. The controller is a purely me­ chanical device. It is connected to the generator through the shaft and casing. Rotation of the control­ ler causes a corresponding rotation of the brushes of the generator. Di­ als upon the face of the controller show the angle through which the brushes have been orientated in re­ lation to the airplane. The indicator is a ga lvanometer, which is electrically connected by means of the cable to th e brushes of the generator. The position of the hand of the indicator, therefore, shows the electrical potential be­ ing produced by the generator. The operation of the compass depends upon the rotation of the armature of the generator, which cuts lines of flux of the earth's field and generates electricity. It is exactly similar in ac­ tion to an ordinary D.C. generator. There is a little four-cupped wind­ mill and paddlewheel on top of the fuselage inside of which is placed the generator. This is the armature driver. When the plane is in the

breeze created by the propeller, or by the motion of the plane though space, it rotates this little dynamom­ eter type of wheel at high speed. As the armature rotates it cuts the magnetic lines of force of the earth, which run from north to south, and produces a voltage which is sufficient to indicate on the com­ pass, which, as you will note by the cut, is a zero centered galvanom­ eter. As in any ordinary electrical generator, there is a position of the

ONCE THE COURSE IS SET THE PILOT HAS ONLY TO KEEP THE PLANE SO HEADED THAT THE HAND OF THE COM­ PASS ALWAYS REMAINS ON ZERO, AND HE WILL ALWAYS BE ON THE CORRECT COURSE. brushes which will give the maxi­ mum output this position obtains when the brushes make contact with the commutator bars which are connected, at any instant, with the coil, which is directly between the two pole pieces at that instant. If the brushes are moved so as to make contact with a coil which forms an angle with respect to the pole pieces, this coil naturally is not being cut by as many lines of force as wo ul d pass through it if it were exactly between the former, and consequently would generate a lower Voltage. By this same line of reasoning one can readily see that a point will be reached where the coil is at right angles to the pole pieces and conse­ quently no voltage is induced . This also applies to the compass genera­ tor. We consider the earth's flux or lines of force as forming north and south pole pieces of this generator. The controller is connected to the brushes by a flexible shaft,

and when it is turned it rotates the brushes around the commutator by means of a worm drive. When the controller is set to read north and the plane is headed in this same di­ rection, the brushes will be east and west. In this pOSition they are con­ nected to a coil which is at right an­ gles to the earth 's magnetic flux and do not produce any current to work the galvanometer. The pointer of the latter will stay on dead center. In the same manner, if the con­ troller is set to a due eastern po­ sition and the plane headed east, the brushes will again make con­ tact through the commutator with a coil which is at right angles to the earth's lines of force and th e me­ ter will again read zero. If the plane is now turned a little to the left and the controller still remains on "east," the meter will show a read­ ing because the coil is being cut by some lines. If it is turned further to the left, it will cut a greater amount of flux and give a higher reading to the left on the meter. If the plane is headed to the right, it will read less and less, and when it is headed in the direction indicated on the controller, it will read zero. Moving it further to the right the meter will again read on the side marked "right." The co u rse to be followed is set on the controller dial; this moves the brushes to some position around the armature; the plane is now pointed until the hand or the compass meter reads zero, i. e., it remains in the exact center. A de­ viation of the needle to the left in­ dicates that the plane is to the left of the course set on the control­ ler and it must be brought back to zero by heading the plane more to the right. Once the course is set the pilot has only to keep the plane so headed that the hand of the compass always remains on zero, and he will always be on the correct course. An unknown direction can be determined by rotating the control­ continued on page 27 VINTAGE AI RPLANE


TYPE CLUB NOTES Cleveland Mechanical Brakes, from the Nov./Dec. issue of the Luscombe Association Newsletter 173 D AN McNEILL

Vintage Airplane editor's note: The Cleveland wheels and brakes, also known as Van Sickle wheels and brakes, are common on a variety of lightplanes built in the 1940s, in路

uscombes came from the factory with a variety of brake types; Goodyear, Shinn, and Cleveland mechanical brakes were all used . Si n ce my airplane is equipped with the Cleveland mechanicals, those are the brakes I'm most interested in keeping in good repair. When all the Cleveland brake components are in good condition and the brakes are adjusted properly, they work well. But t hey are drum brakes. And the drum isn't very large or robust. The design is decidedly low tech and some (like me) may even say crude by modern standards. So any use of the brakes for more than taxiing or holding the airplane during run-up will lead to very rapid brake fade . Fortunately for us, as on any Luscombe, the less you use the brakes the better. Keeping th ings working properly has another advantage besides fu n ct ioning brakes. Parts prices for these things are absolutely staggering! De Beers needs to get out of the diamond business and start a Cleve land bra ke parts cartel. I'm certain there would be more money in it for them!

cluding Aeroncas, Taylorcrafts, and Luscombes. Treat them like precious metal, for they cost dearly! Here's a sterling method to keep them in good shape. -HGF


The Cleveland DMB wheel is subject to a repetitive AD. The tire flanges need to be closely inspected for cracks. 22

APR I L 2005

cam milled in the end of the cam push the brake shoes into con路 tact with the brake drum. The lever return spring and shoe return spring are included just to add a chic and spendy at路 mosphere to the photo.

There is a good deal of information available online at the Cleveland Aircraft Wheel and Brake website at Here you can find parts catalogs, service gUides, and maintenance man uals . There are some good exploded draWings of the brakes and the wheels-they are most helpful for find ing parts numbers. The brakes work by the ro颅 tating action of the machined flats on the lever cam p u shing the shoes o u tward to make contact with the drums. The lever cam is housed in a milled hole in the alumin um backing plate. There are two flats mi lled into the end of the cam in which the brake shoes ride. The brake shoes have hardened wear pads peened onto the surfaces that contact the cam. The cam and the brake shoes are subject to wear at those contact areas. Treat the brake shoes with respect. Each one costs $657 .60! That is not a typo ... check the Univa ir catalog for yourself! If the wear inserts on the brake shoes are badly worn, t hey ca n be rep laced. The wear plates are a





The many parts used in a Cleveland (Van Sickle) mechani足 cal brake assembly. The early part numbers referred to a C7000 series; the later Cleveland and Parker drawings refer to the 30-3 series of brakes. The Cleveland line of wheels and brakes is now owned by Parker Hannifin, Inc.

paltry $131.20 each. Yikes! Keep this up and pretty soon we're going to be talking about real money! You don't want to know what the cam costs. I normally disassemble, inspect, and clean the brake assemblies at annual time. With the wheels off for bearing repacking, everything in the brake assembly is pretty easy to see and access. New brake linings are 0.220-inch thick. If you're not getting good braking action, check the thickness of your linings. New spec on the brake drum is 5.4275 賊 .002S-inch i.d. (That amazing tolerance fig u re is straight from the Cleveland tech rep's mouth!) If

This is how all those expensive little bits are supposed to get together. It doesn't look like it should cost as much as a week in Hawaii, does it?

you can't get adequate braking action no matter how much the lever cam moves (about 0.5 inch or less of lever movement is normal free-p lay), it's most likely worn linings and/or brake drums. New brake linings are cheap (relatively!) and easy, so do that first. The new linings should come with in足 structions for installing. The old lining rivets are simply drilled out, and the new linings are drilled and riveted to the shoes. The Cleveland website also

Removed from the vau" and delivered to the hangar by a spe足 cially contracted armored car, here is the Cleveland brake backing plate, ready to install on the axle. They don't really need to be polished, but considering how much the parts cost, you may want to make it flitter and shine a little. V IN TAGE AI RPLANE


has the installation procedure. New brake drums are available, but make sure you are sitting down when you call Univair for pricing. Once everything is cleaned and checked, I like to lube all the bearing surfaces with automotive high-temperature disc brake lube . If you apply it ju­ diciously and don't get any on the shoes or drum contact surfaces, it helps make everything work very smoothly. It may even help those precious parts last just a bit longer. And while you have everything apart, don't for­ get about the AD on the Cleveland DMB wheels. It's AD 48-08-02. It calls for removal of the tires and in­ spection of the wheel flanges for cracks. This is to be done after the initial 500 hours in service and every 100 hours after that. These wheels have had failures in the past so it's a good idea to look at them care­ fully. Just don't even ask what new wheels cost ... After all that, and if all your parts and pieces are in serviceable shape, you should have brakes that work as well as the day they were new ... which was just barely adequate for the job even in 1946. If you have many worn parts to replace, the cost can quickly be­ come a prickly issue. So, you may be wondering, are there any alternatives? The Luscombe Heritage/ Team Luscombe folks in Chandler, Arizona (www. IU5combeh, will gladly send you a com­

The Cleveland brake assembly installed and ready to lay a streak of smoking-up-melted-tire rubber down the runway. Well, maybe not. Maybe it will hold you stationary at the run-up pad. If your airplane isn't a Luscombe, your instal­ lation may be set up with all the fancy action parts of the backing plate at the bottom, instead of the top as shown here.

plete conversion kit for new Cleveland hydraulic disc brakes and wheels. The current cost for the complete kit is $2,550. The installation can be done on a 337 field approval. And after pricing parts for the old mechanical brakes, the price of the new Cleveland hydraulic wheels and brakes will seem like a bargain. ......

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APRIL 2005


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Send your answer to EAA, Vintage Airplane, P.O. Box 3086, Oshkosh, WI 54903-3086. Your answer needs to be in no later than May 10 for inclusion in the July 2005 issue of

Vintage Airplane. You can also send your response via e-mail. Send your answer to mysteryplane@eaa .org. Be sure to include your name, city, and state in the body of your note, and put "(Month) Mystery Plane" in the subject line.


The January M ys t ery Pl ane came to us from the EAA library collection. Unfortu nately, it was not identified in our collecti on, and of the three answers we received, none of the three matched the other two! Fortunately, I had one of those "I've seen that photograp h recent ly" feelings, and it turns out I was right. The same photograph had run in


the October 2002 issue of Skyways magazine. Ray Smith of Lockport, New York had seen it, too: "The flying boat to be identified in the latest issue of our magazine may be considered to be one of two names; either could be considered correct. "The photo was taken at Lake Geneva in Wisconsin. "Here, t he Wrigley chewing


gum family as well as many other people had summer homes along the shoreline. "The flying boat could be best identified as a Continental/Curtiss, having been built by Continental Motors in the state of Michigan in 1924. It was powered by a Liberty engine of 400 hp. There were some ex-Curtiss Company employees involved in the assembly, perhaps that is why it was so named. "This airplane was also known as the Kantner Flying Boat, because Harold Kantner was believed to be the engineer on this project; some say he was also the pilot." In Skyways , in their column called ID UNK, the late Pete Bowers and Bob Gordon identified the Continental/Curtiss. The tail number on the flying boat was 2195, and the photograph was taken in 1928. We have no other information. ..... VI NTAGE A I RPLANE


MAY 2S·30-Welland, Ontario, Canada-Beside Niagara Falls,

The following list of coming events is furnished to our readers as a matter of information only and does not constitute ap­ proval, sponsorship, involvement, control or direction of any event (fly-in, seminars, fly market, etc.) listed. To submit an event, send the information via mail to: Vintage Airplane, P.O. Box 3086, Oshkosh, WI 54903-3086. Or e-mail the information to: Information should be received four months prior to the event date. APRIL 24--Half Moon Bay, CA-15th Annual Pacific Coast

Dream Machines Show. 10 am - 4 pm. Hundreds of avia­ tion wonders will be on display. Fly-ins welcome. Spectator admission: Adults $15; 5-14 yrs and 65+ $5; Kids 4 and under free. Info: 650-726"2328 or APRIL 30·MAY I-Oshkosh, WI-Pioneer Field. Ercoupes, Cubs, and Aeroncas Fly-In. Special permission is required to land. Contact Syd Cohen for required documents and more info, 715-842-7814 or Cost $50 per person for food and lodging. MAY 6·S-Burlington, NC-Alamance County Airport (BUY). Carolinas-Virginia VAA Chapter 3 Spring Fly-In. BBQ at the field Friday Evening, judging in all classes Saturday. Awards Banquet Sat. Night. Everyone welcome. Info: 843-753-7138 or MAY 7-Meridian, MS-Topton Air Estates, EAA Ch. 986 Annual Fly-In. Free BBQ lunch to all who fly in. Everyone welcome. Info: 601-693-1858 or MAY 13·1S-Kewanee, IL-Municipal Airport (EZI). 3rd Annual Midwest Aeronca Festival. Flying events, food, seminars. Breakfast 14th & 15th. On field camping or motels. Info: Jody, 309-853-8141 or or MAY IS-Romeoville, IL-Lewis Lockport Airport (LOT). EAA

Ch. 15 Fly-In Breakfast. 7am-Noon. Info: 630-243-8213.

MAY IS-Warwick, NY-Warwick Aerodrome (N72). EAA Ch.

501 Annual Fly-In. lOam-4pm. Unicorn advisory frequency 123.0. Food available, trophies for various classes. Registration for judging closes at 1pm. Info: 973-492-9025 or MAY 15·16-Tallahassee, FL-Air Fest. All vintage owners, pilots, and enthusiasts are welcome. Info: Pete, 850-656­ 2197 or f/ MAY 21-Middletown, OH-Middletown Municipal Airport (MWO). "Chris Cakes" Pancake Breakfast Fly-In, 7am­ 11am. Sponsored by the Middletown Aviation Club. Info: Bill, 513-423-1386, Bob, f/ MAY 21·22-North Hampton, NH-Hampton Airfield (7b3). VAA Ch. 15 Giant Fly Market Fly-In. Pancake Breakfast & afternoon BBQ dogs & burgers each day. Info: Joe, 603­ 539-7168 or, or Hampton Airfield, 603-964-6749. 26

APRIL 2005

New York. USA-Canadian Stinson Fly-In. 37 Stinsons coming so far, trying to get at least 50 Stinsons. All welcome. Niagara Falls tour. BBQs. Camp on airport, or hotel. Info: Roger, 416-919-3810 or JUNE 3·S-Troy, OH-WACO Field (lWF). VAA Ch. 36 Vintage Strawberry Festival Fly-In. Open to all planes, vintage and newer. Lunch available each day. Transportation available to Troy city's Strawberry Festival on Saturday and Sunday. Vintage autos, tractors, motorcycles, and more. Info: Dick & Patti, 937-335-1444 or; or Roland & Diane, 937-294-1107, JUNE 3·4--Bartlesville, OK-Frank Phillips Field (BVO) . 19th

Annual Biplane Expo. Info: or Charlie Harris 918-622-8400. JUNE S-DeKalb, IL-DeKalb-Taylor Municipal Airport (DKB). EAA Ch. 241, 41st Annual Fly-In Breakfast. 7am-Noon. Info: 847-888-2719. JUNE 16·19-St. Louis, MO-Dauster Flying Field, Creve Coeur Airport (IHO). American Waco Club Fly-In. Info: Phil Coulson, 269-624-6490 or, www. JUNE 25·26-Bowling Green, OH-Wood County Airport

(IGO). EAA Ch. 582, Plane Fun fly-in, 9am-5pm each day. Pancake breakfast and food all day. Young Eagles rides, warbirds, homebuilts, vintage, and car show (Saturday only). Info: Brian, 419-351-3374 or or JULY S·lO-Alliance, OH-Barber Airport (2Dl) 33rd Annual Fly-In and Reunion sponsored by Taylorcraft Foundation, Owner's Club, and Factory Old-Timer's. Breakfast served Sat & Sun by EAA Ch. 82. Info: www.taylorcraft.orgor 330­ 823-1168. JULY 10·1S-Dearborn, MI-Grosse lie Municipal Airport. Int'l Cessna 170 37th Annual Convention. Info: 936-369-4362 or JULY 11·14--McCall, ID-McCall Airport. Cessna 180/185 Int'l Convention. Many fun things planned. Call for hotel and other info: 530-622-8816 or JULY 22·2S-Waupaca, WI-Waupaca Airport (PCZ) . 2005 An­ nual Cessna and Piper Owner Convention & Fly-In. Info: 888-692-3776 ext. 118 or www.cessnaowner.orgor www. AUGUST 6·7-Santa Paula, CA-(SZP) Santa Paula 75th An­

niversary Air Fair. Exhibits, vintage and experimental aircraft displays, flybys, hangar displays, vendor booths, dinner-dance, and other community activities. Info: 805­ 642-3315. AUGUST 7-Queen City, MO-Applegate Airport 18th Annual Watermelon Fly-In. 2 PM 'til dark. Info: 660-766-2644. AUGUST 19·21-Alliance, OH-Barber Airport (2D1) . 7th An­ nual Ohio Aeronca Aviators Fly-In. Join us for a relaxing weekend of fun, food, friendship and flying. Breakfast served by EAA Ch. 82 Sat & Sun, 7am-llam. Camping on field, local lodging and transportation available. Forums on Saturday. Info: Brian, 216-337-5643 or bwmatzllac@yahoo. com or www.oaaf/ AUGUST 20-Laurinburg-Maxton, NC-Ercoupe Owners Club Awesome August Invitational. North/South Carolina mem­ bers and guests. Lunch, awards, Young Eagles Flights. Info: 336-342-5629 or

AUGUST 20-Newark, OH-Newark-Heath Airport (VTA) .

EAA Ch . 402 Fly-In Breakfast. Info Tom, 740-587-2312 or AUGUST 20-Niles, MI-Jerry Tyler Memorial Airport (3TR). VAA Ch. 35 Corn and Sausage Roast. llam-3pm. Rain date August 20. Donations $5 adults, $3 children 12-yrs and under. All you can eat. Info: Len, 269-684-6566. SEPTEMBER 3--Marion, IN- (MZZ) Fly/In Cruise/l n. Info: SEPTEMBER 16-17-Bartlesville, OK-Frank Phillips Field (BVO). 49th Annual Tulsa Regional Fly-In. Info: www. tl.lisaf/ or Charlie Harris at 918-622-8400. SEPTEMBER 17-18-Rock Falls, IL-Whiteside County Airport (SQI) . North Central EAA "Old Fashioned" Fly-In. Forums, workshops, fly-market, camping, air rally, awards, food & exhibitors. Info SEPTEMBER 23-2S-Sonoma, CA-Sonoma Skypark (OQ9). 23rd Annual West Coast Travel Air Reunion. Come to wine country for the largest gathering of Vintage Travel Airs. Info: 925-689-8182. SEPTEMBER 24-0 ntario, OR-Ontario Air Faire-Breakfast by EAA Ch. 837. Large warbird collection, acro airshow, car show, stage entertainment. Free admission . Info: Roger, 208-739-3979 or OCTOBER 1-2-Midland, TX-Midland Int'l Airport. FlNA­ CAF AIRSHO 2005 will commemorate 60th Anniversary of the end of World War II. Info: 432-563-1000 x. 2231 or pl.lbiicreiations@cafhq·org


EAA AirVenture

Oshkosh 2005

The EAA TEXAS Fly-In May 13-15, 2005 NEW LOCATION! Hondo, TX (HDO)

July 25-31, 2005 Oshkosh, WI (OSH)

EAA Mid-Eastern Fly-In August 26-28 , 2005 Marion, OH (MN N)

Golden West EAA Regional Fly-In

Virginia State EAA Fly-In

June 3-5, 2005 Marysville, CA (MYV)


October 1-2 , 200 5

Petersburg, VA (PTB) www.vaeaa .org

Rocky Mountain EAA Regional Fly-In

EAA Southeast Regional Fly-In

June 25-26, 2005

Watkins, CO (FTG)

October 7-9, 2004 Evergreen, AL (GZH)

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Northwest EAA Fly-In

Copperstate Regional

EAA Fly-In

July 6-10, 2005 Arlington, WA (AWO)

October 6-9, 2005 Phoenix, AZ (A39) www.copperstate. org

THE EARTH INDUCTOR COMPASS continued from page 21

ler dial until the compass reads zero, when the course will correspond to the point indicated on the control­ ler. The latter has thirty-six divisions each correspond­ ing to ten points on the compass. It will be seen that a direction exactly opposite to the figured course will give a zero reading, but this is easily avoided by noting that on the correct heading the indi­ cator hand always moves in the direction in which the craft turns; should it move opposite, the reverse head­ ing is indicated. In order to fully appreciate the advantages of the Pioneer Earth Inductor Compass, it is necessary to consider the characteristics of ordinary magnetic types used on aircraft. The directive force of a magnetic compass depends upon the reaction between its magnets and the earth's magnetic flux. So long as the magnetic element of such a compass remains horizontal, the magnets tend to align themselves with the horizontal projection of the earth's flux, and the compass tends to indicate the an­ gle of heading in degrees from magnetic north. At best the north-seeking tendency in not great, as the torque due to the reaction between the magnets and the earth's flux is small. A magnetic compass is affected by magnetic or fer­ rous materials in its immediate vicinity. These are prin­ cipally the engine with its ignition accessories and parts of the aircraft control system. The latter, being mov­ able, produces errors of varying magnitudes. Structural parts of the aircraft, if of ferrous material, may affect the compass, even though unmagnetized, due to induc­ tion from the magnetic needles themselves. To a large extent these magnetic errors may be corrected by the use of compensating magnets, but such compensation is uncertain and must frequently be checked if any ac­ curacy is to be assured. The outstanding feature of the earth inductor compass is the disassociation of the magnetic element from the indicating element. Instead of using magnetic needles, the direction responsive element of the earth indicator compass is an electric generator the same in principle as any electric dynamo except that no artificial field is used, the earth's flux serving for a field. The output of such a generator is dependent upon the angular relation be­ tween its brushes and the earth's flux. With such a gen­ erator the problem of stability becomes relatively simple, as the revolving armature, acting as a gyroscope, actually resists motions tending to disturb its stability. As to its value we have but to point again to the New York-Paris flight in which young Lindbergh confidently staked his life on the accuracy of this "aviator's eye." ....... VINTAGE AIRPLANE


continued from page 7

tude with precision. It is much easier to spot another aircraft flying at the same altitude as you are than it is to see one that is 200 or 300 feet above or below you. And the precision that I refer to ap­ plies not only to your altitude, but also to the distances you fly from the runway. On departure you can start your turn to the crosswind leg when you are within 300 feet of pattern al­ titude. That should have most aircraft about 1/2 mile beyond the departure end of the runway. (However, please be sure that doing so would not vio­ late local noise restriction policies.) I personally like to fly the pattern at no more than 1/2 mile. That way, if I have an engine failure, I will always be within gliding distance of the runway. Thus, I recommend you turn down­ wind so that you will end up offset 1/2 mile from and parallel to the run­ way. Now make sure you make the proper wind corrections, so that you maintain 1/2 mile and do not drift in, or away, from the runway. If you have maintained your 1/2 mile offset from the runway, you should make your turn to base (traf­ fic permitting) when your chosen landing point on the runway is be­ hind you at a 45-degree angle. Plane geometry (I hope you can figure out the kind of plane I'm referring to) will now have you 1/2 mile from your landing spot. Again, be sure to main­ tain this distance with the proper

crosswind corrections, if needed. While we are speaking about the winds, don't forget that they also af­ fect how steep or shallow your bank will need to be to maintain those pre­ cise distances. A tail wind component will dictate a steeper bank, and a head wind a shallower bank. Being aware of where the wind is blowing from will also give you a heads-up on when to start your turns. If you know that the wind is from your right as you fly a left-hand downwind, you should have no excuse to blow through the final approach course in your turn from base to final. How we enter the pattern is a sub­ ject that gets a great deal of debate. Some pilots like to fly an overhead approach, going outbound from the downwind on a 45-degree angle, then doing a descending right-hand 180­ degree (assuming left-hand traffic) turn to enter the downwind leg on a 45-degree angle at the midfield point. I personally find that using that entry procedure often leaves me blind to what is going on in the pattern while I am flying outbound and while I am in the descending 180 as well. I don't know how many times I have had to take evasive action to avoid being hit, while flying the downwind leg, by someone who has chosen to enter the pattern in that fashion. My recommendation is to be at pattern altitude prior to your arrival at the pattern. Plan your arrival so

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APRIL 2005

that you can enter the downwind on a 45-degree angle, if appropriate. If, however, you are approaching the airport in a manner that necessitates overflying the runway centerline, fly a crosswind anywhere from midfield (if the runway is 5,000 feet or more) to over the departure numbers or up to 1/2 mile upwind of the departure end of the runway. Do be aware of aircraft that may be going around or on a missed approach. If you are at pattern altitude, you should be able to see all the other aircraft that might be in the pattern. Be prepared to modify this crosswind entry, as nec­ essary, to sequence yourself in regard to other aircraft so you maintain at least a minimum separation of 1/2 mile between aircraft. I have used this VFR arrival pro­ cedure for many, many years. And I have not once had to take evasive ac­ tion to avoid another aircraft. At the start of this article I made reference to hawks and eagles. They can easily see mice on the ground from the alti­ tudes at which we fly traffic patterns. Now some of you may call me a tur­ key for advocating entering the pat­ tern as I have described, and I admit that I don't have the keen vision of an eagle, but by using my eyes I have yet to have a close encounter in the pat­ tern, nor have I cut anyone off or vio­ lated the FARs. I have put a lot of emphasis on the use of our eyes for collision avoidance. This is not to say that we can't use our ears and voice as well. In the next ar­ ticle I would like to discuss the proper use of the radio as an effective aid in collision avoidance, particularly in re­ gard to operational procedures in the traffic pattern and terminal area. After all, the more tools we have to use, the better equipped we are to manage the risks that we as pilots accept. I hope you will join me in that task. Doug Stewart is the 2004 National CFT ofthe Year, a Master Instructor, and a des­ ignated pilot examiner. He operates DSFT Inc. (www.dsflight.comJ based at the Co­ lumbia County Airport (lBi). ......

Al Menasco continued from page 13

nately for the officials, the Fair was losing money. They needed 'out­ side' attractions to bring people in the gates. The concessionaires were in the red also. "50 Art put on a show for the news­ papers and the public. He loaded up with all the gas he could carry-took off from a race track adjoining the Fair and flew alongside and outside the buildings, upside down, back­ wards, spirals, loops, spins, the works. Nobody had ever seen anything like that done with an airplane. The screamer headlines came out and the expression was coined that he had 'out Beacheyed Beachey.' That ex­ pression has been used many times since, that 'somebody out somebod­ ied somebody,' but that is where the expression originated. "Professor Moore saw this from his office windows and that did it. He would not sign a contract with the crazy kid, 'bent u pon sui­ cide' but to make it short, pressure was put on by the concessionaires and newspapers and they hired Art Smith at a salary of $3,600 per week, more than double Beachey's. Beachey had to cancel a lot of his flights because of the famous San Francisco fogs. Art never missed a flight, night or day because of the fog. If the fog was down, he got down lower. lilt was at that juncture that I came up there to race. The cars and our mutual backyard experience and age intrigued Art and he asked me to build a car for him similar to mine with refinements, which his assistance could provide. This was flattering to say the least. After the car was finished-the Fair over­ I was back in Los Angeles sweep­ ing out my shop and wondering where my next customer was com­ ing from when I received a letter from him. He offered me a job to come to San Francisco and build twelve cars and three airplanes and join him in a tour of the Orient." To be continued. . . ~

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