Page 1


VOL. 31 , No. 2


VAA NEWS /H .G. Fra u tschy



























17 Publisher Editor-in-Chief Executive Editor News Editor Photography Staff Advertising Coord inator Advertising/ Editorial Assistant Copy Editing


VINTAGE AIRPLA """"" N -= E- 足

Executive Director, Editor VAA Administrative Assistant Contributing Editors Graphic Designer


FRONT COVER: It's hard to believe that this Cessna 172 was delivered over 36 years ago. One of the first bui lt with Cessna's Ommnivision back window, it's been a part of Robert Koshar's family since 1972. It won the Contemporary Champion award at EM AirVenture 2000. EM photo by Jim Koepnick, EAA Cessna 210 photo plane flown by Bruce Moore. BACK COVER: Frank Warren's striking painting entitled "All American Ace " shows us Douglas Campbell, the first pilot trained by Americans to become an ace during WW-I. Campbel l downed his 5 German aircraft in 1918. He stands beside a Nieuport 28 bearing the "Hat in the Ring" markings of the 94th Squadron of the American 1st Pursuit Group. Warren 's painting was awarded an Honorable Mention ribbon from the judges of the 2002 EM Sport Aviation Art Competition.


Winter Work It happens every so often; we have winter weather in my part of North Carolina. Since the first of De­ cember I have had either snow or ice lying in front of my hangar door about half the time. My hangar door faces east, and with the sun in the southern sky this time of year, the hangar shades this area. The snow and ice stays there until it warms up for a few days. I know those of you who live where you must put up with these conditions every winter are not go­ ing to have a good deal of sympathy for me. Not having all of the neces­ sary equipment to deal with the snow removal, most of the time we south­ ern guys rely on Mother Nature to remove this crunchy, cold stuff. I have a bi-fold hangar door, and with it closed, coupled with the insulation and a good propane heater, it makes for a cozy atmosphere. In December we had our EAA Chapter Christmas party in our hangar. This gathering is one that a number of people that may not at­ tend other meetings very often will make an extra effort to attend. It is a covered dish affair; Norma and I supply the turkey and ham. There is always a great deal of food for every­ one. With crummy, uncomfortable weather outside, the Chapter also held its January meeting at our hangar. A number of aircraft did fly in, including a new RV-S. I would have liked to linger and admire it, but it was windy and cold, so I ducked back inside before I was chilled to the bone. With the weather so cold, it's a great time to stay in the hangar and work on the Luscombe panel again. I have com­ pletely removed the old panel and the wiring, plumbing, etc. The windshield

had to be removed to drill out the rivets securing the windshield retainer. (Add that to the ever-growing list of "just one more thing./I) I have mounted the new panel in a jig on the workbench. All of the new instruments are installed, and my radio guy is doing the wiring for me. If I can keep every thing going forward , maybe I can be finished somewhere between late spring and mid summer. In the meantime, I do have to throw in an annual inspec­ tion on the Baron, and maybe a golf game or two. We can "see over the horizon, " season-wise, and warm weather is not far away.

Think of Sun 'n Fun as the coming-out party for EAA's Countdown to Kitty Hawk. We all know what that means; it will soon be April! Everyone needs to be at the annual Sun 'n Fun EAA Fly-In held at Lakeland Linder Re­ gional Airport in Lakeland, Florida. The people at Sun ' n Fun continue to improve this great fly-in, expand­ ing the attendance of airplanes and people each year. Think of Sun 'n Fun as the com­ ing-out party for EAA's Countdown to Kitty Hawk. The Wright Flyer built by Ken Hyde's Wright Experi­ ence will be the centerpiece of an exciting pavilion located just to the east of the FAA building. Thanks to the sponsorship of the Ford Motor Company and Mi­ crosoft, this exhibit promises to be both entertaining and educational.

The centennial reminds us of the great freedoms we've enjoyed over the years as we fly all over this great nation. I am not sure how many of you have thought about th e an­ niversary celebration in this light, but I will offer the following for your thoughts. The Wright brothers would have no way of ever imagining that an aircraft could be used as a weapon against civilians in the way it was during the terrorism act of Septem­ ber 11. The fallout of the action of terrorism affected the aviation com­ munity in a negative manner. Some even wondered if we would ever get back in the sky with the freedom that we have known. Because of a number of people's hard work, we're close, but there are still those within our own government who would prefer to see greater restrictions placed on us. We can't let that hap­ pen under the guise of "national security." The powered flight of the Wright brothers inspired others to become involved in aviation. Now because of their flight in 1903, they are once again the leaders whose de­ termination and will to succeed will cause aviation people to celebrate flight, and, with renewed spirit, find aviation once again enjoyable. I will be in the Vintage area dur­ ing this year's Sun 'n Fun Fly-In. I hope to see you there. Let's all pull in the same direction for the good of aviation. Remember, we are better together. Join us and have it all. Butch ...... VINTAGE AIRPLANE


FAA FIELD ApPROVALS At this point we can't give you specifics since the FAA has not yet issued a revision to the policy gov­ erning field approvals and supplemental type certificates; how­ ever, as this issue was going to press, we learned the FAA Small Aircraft Directorate was in the process of putting together Revision 16 to the policy. Coupled with some addi­ tional direction issued from FAA Washington, the field approval process should become clearer. We were also asked to urge any mem­ bers who have had problems, particularly in the lower 48 states, to appeal their denial of a field ap­ proval to the manager of the facility with which they've been working, and if that does not work, to contact us at EAA headquarters. Specific, non-emotional data is needed to be sure the word gets out that the field approval process is not to be held up, and that field approvals should be continuing. If you need to con­ tact EAA Government Programs on this issue, please e-mail us at or call 920-426-6522. METEOR RT- 14 LOGS FIRST FLIGHT AT CHINO With Dave Morss at the controls, the Wathen Foundation's replica of the Turner RT-14 Meteor made its first flight at Chino, California, on Thursday, December 12, 2002. Tom Wathen said the airplane flew for IS minutes, and that golden era racer indicated 170 mph with its Pratt & Whitney R-1830 producing just 17 inches of manifold pressure, about 30 percent power. During the first flight the engine ran smoothly, but hot. "We have to let more air out of the cowling," Wa­ then said. Bill Turner built the replica in his Repeat Aircraft shop on the Flabob Airport, which the Wathen Founda­ tion saved from developers little more 2



than two years ago, but work to ad­ dress the cooling needs and other bugs, such as the inability to get more than 10 degrees of fla ps, will take place at Chino's Planes of Fame. With a 2S-foot wing and an empty weight better than 3,000 pounds, with full flaps the l,OOO-hp racer should land at 115 mph, Wathen said , which makes the airplan e "too hot for Flabob" and its short runway. Morss called the RT-14 a "real rocket ship," Wa t hen said. He added that the replica marked Morss' 32Sth first flight, and his 30th first flight of a prototype air­ craft. Owned and flown by legendary race pilot Roscoe Turner, the original RT-14 is in the collec­ tion of the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum and com­ peted in the National Air Races from 1937 to 1939, placing first in 1938 and '39. -S.M. Spangler

DAVID ELMENDORF David Richard Elmendorf was born in 1911 in Puerto Rico. His family then moved to New York, and he attended St. John's Military School. As a young man he moved to California in the late 1920s and settled in Culver City, close to Clover Field in Santa Monica, a center of early aviation in Califor­ nia. He learned to fly in a Reet biplane. In 1935 he entered the National Air Races in Cleveland and again in Los Ange­ les in 1936 with his plane, the Elmendorf Special, which was a Keith-Rider R5. This plane was later sold (1938) and renamed the Jackrabbit and today is on display in the Wittman hangar at the EAA AirVenture Museum in Oshkosh, Wisconsin. Later, he worked at Douglas Aircraft and in 1941 joined a pilot training school at Cal Aero in Ontario, California, where he trained young Air Corps cadets to fly. He also served in the U.S. Army in 1945 and continued to train pilots. After the war, he returned to Douglas and retired after 35 years as an air­ craft mechanic. Dave is survived by his wife of 70 years, Helen Elmendorf. He was buried on September 26, 2002, at Forest Lawn in Hollywood Hills, California.

The Art of Engineering From NASA's Aeronautical Research AN EXHIBITION AT THE ART INSTITUTE OF CHICAGO The architecture department at The Art Institute of Chicago and the Aero­ space Technology Enterprise of the National Aeronautics and Space Adminis­ tration (NASA) are organizing an exhibition on aerospace design for showing August 2, 2003, through February 8, 2004, in the Kisho Kurokawa Gallery of Architec­ ture at the Art Institute. Later, it will travel to two other museum locations in the nation, and a photographic version will circulate to airports throughout the United States. The project will have an accompanying book published by Merrell Publishers in London and an extensive educational program at the Art Institute. The exhibition itself will feature the architecture and engineering of wind tunnels through approximately 90 wind tunnel models from NASA's collection. The earl iest of these is shown here and remains unidentified. NASA and The Art Institute of Chicago would appreciate any ideas that members might have regarding the identification of this vintage artifact. The exact nature of the routed-out hole and rectangular area on the side of the fuselage are also unknown. Please contact John Zukowsky, the John H. Bryan Curator of Architecture, The Art Institute of Chicago, 111 S. Michigan Avenue, Chicago IL 60603 (phone 312-443-3949; fax 312-578-0960; e-mail The first EAA member who correctly identifies this biplane (any documentation would be helpful, since it is unidentified!) will receive copies of two of the Art Institute's previous books on aerospace architecture entitled Building for Air Travel (1996) and 2001: Building for Space Travel (2001).

VAA's "Friends of The Red Barn" VAA 2003 Convention Fund Raising Program The Vintage Aircraft Association is a major partici­ pant in the World's Largest Annual Sport Aviation Event - EAA AirVenture Oshkosh! The Vintage Divi­ sion hosts and parks over 2,000 vintage airplanes each year from the Red Barn area of Wittman Field south to the perimeter of the airport. The financial support for the various activities in connection with the weeklong event in the VAA Red Barn area has been principally derived from the Vin­ tage Aircraft Association's general income fund. Starting in 2002, the Vintage Board elected to more properly underwrite the annual Vintage Red Barn area Convention activities from a yearly special conven­ tion support fund. This effort is the VAA's "Friends of the Red Barn" program. This fundraising program is an annual affair, begin­ ning each year on July 1 and ending June 30 of the following year. This year's campaign is well underway, with contributions already arriving here at VAA HQ. Our thanks to those of you who have already sent in your 2003 contributions. You can join in as well. There will be three levels of gifts and gift recognition: Vintage Gold Level - $600.00 and above gift Vintage Silver Level - $300.00 gift Vintage Bronze Level - $100.00 gift Each contribution at one of these levels entitles you to a Certificate of Appreciation from the Division. Your name will be listed as a contributor in Vintage

Airplane magazine, and on a special display at the VAA Red Barn. You will also be presented with a special name badge recognizing your level of participation. During AirVenture, you'll have access to the Red Barn Volunteer Center, a nice place to cool off. Gold Level contributors will also receive a pair of certificates each good for a flight on their choice of EAA's Ford Trimotor or New Standard Biplane, re­ deemable during AirVenture or during the summer flying season at Pioneer Airport. Silver Level contribu­ tors will receive one certificate for a flight on their choice of one of the two planes. This is a grand opportunity for all Vintage members to join together as key financia l supporters of the Vin­ tage Division. It will be a truly rewarding experience for each of us as individuals to be part of supporting the finest gathering of Antique, Classic, and Contem­ porary airplanes in the world. Won't you please join those of us who recognize the tremendously valuable key role the Vintage Aircraft Asso­ ciation has played in preserving the great grass roots and general aviation airplanes of the last 100 years? Your participation in EAA's Vintage Aircraft Association Friends of the VAA Red Barn will help insure the very finest in AirVenture Oshkosh Vintage Red Barn programs. For those of you who wish to contribute, we've included a copy of the contribution form. Feel free to copy it and mail it to VAA headquarters with your donation. Thank you.

'-~---------------------------------------------------------------- -- ---- -- - ---- -- ------------------------ ,

2003 VAA Friends of the Red Barn Name______________________________________________ EAA#_______________VAA# ______________


City/State/ Zip _______________________________________________________________________________

Phone_____________________________________E-Ma il ___________________________________________

Please choose your level of participation:

_ Vintage Gold Level Friend - $600.00

_ Vintage Silver Level Friend - $300.00 _ Vintage Bronze Level Friend - $100.00

o Payment Enclosed

o Please Charge my credit card (below)

Credit Card Number ______________________ Expiration Date ___________ Sign a ture_____________________________

Mail your contribution to: EAA VINTAGE AIRCRAFT ASSOC. PO Box 3086 OSHKOSH , WI 54903-3086

*00 you or your spouse work for a matching gift company? If so, this gift may qualify for a matching donation. Please ask your Human Re­

sources department for the appropriate form .

NameofCompany __________________________

The Vintage Aircraft Association is a non-profit educational organization under IRS sOlc3 rules, Under Federal Law, the deduction from Federal In­

come tax for charitable contributions is limited to the amount by which any money (and the value of any property other than money) contributed

exceeds the value of the goods or services provided in exchange for the contribution. An appropriate receipt acknowledging your gift will be sent to

you for IRS gift reporting reasons.



uring World War II, I was a -captain on Eastern Air .- - - Lines (EAL), flying out of Newark airport (before LaGuardia had been built), and in addition, I was also the chief test pilot for Co­ lumbia Aircraft Corp. at Valley Stream, Long Island (extra duty on the side, due to the necessities of wartime). On one of the rare days that I was at home, I received an urgent call from the airline, asking me to rush to Newark for an emer­ gency flight. I realized that it must be an emergency, since I had the day off from both jobs because the weather was absolutely horrible with zero/zero fog over the eastern half of the United States, and with the airlines at a standstill. I drove the 80 miles in that dense fog with real difficulty, and it took almost twice as long as the usual trip. I could hardly imagine what was in store for me during those nearly four hours of driving or why they would be calling for me to fly in such weather, espe­ cially since there were other pilots living much nearer to Newark than I who were also grounded. I finally found out. No other pilot wanted to fly the trip, for several good rea­ sons . First, the fog was extremely dense right to the ground and was expected to be very deep . Second, there was a cargo load of live Bo­ fors anti-aircraft ammunition aboard, which made the airplane about 1,000 pounds overweight. Third, there was no alternate air­ port other than the destination itself, Atlanta, and it too had the same weather but was expected to open before arrival. Dispatch had 4



called me, confident that I would cooperate as usual. On arrival at Newark I found that another captain senior to me had volunteered, so I was to be his copilot. Evidently, we were the only two volunteers. I had done so without knowing what a difficult set of circumstances confronted us, but I did not renege. The anti-aircraft cartridges were about 15 inches long, as I remem­ ber. I do not know the caliber. It was for a commonly used Swedish anti-aircraft gun. This load was ur­ gently needed for a cargo ship due to depart from New Orleans the next day with a load of war mate­ rial. The cartridges were packed, three in each wood box, and were loaded all along the floor of the passenger DC-3, and in each pas­ senger seat. Quite a sight! We were told that the center of gravity (CG) was okay, but the overload was about 1,000 pounds; I suspected it really weighed more. It was all more than slightly illegal, but it was wartime, and regulations had to be ignored sometimes. There were probably another thousand pounds worth of regulations being violated, too. The fog was so dense that we had to be towed out to the runway by a special tow tractor made for that purpose (the driver could see better than we could because he was closer to the ground) . We could not see the white lines, or the taxiway and runway markings, over the nose ahead of the wind­ shield with the ta il wheel on the ground. The mechanic driving the tow tractor detached, pulled the

two landing gear safety pins; and held them up for both of us to see them. We ran up the engines and checked the instruments and ra­ dios (low frequency receivers for four-leg ranges and high frequency for communication), set the direc­ tional gyro carefully to the runway heading (toward the southwest, where there were no high obstruc­ tions ahead), and started the long, slow acceleration for takeoff. It took a long, long time to get the extra airspeed necessary to get air­ borne with the heavy load aboard, and we did not have any markings to tell us how much runway we had left. We were committed! We had to hold an exact heading to stay on the runway, with occasional glimpses of runway lights in our pe­ ripheral vision to assure us. The fog was so dense that we could not ac­ tually see the runway approach lights as we passed over them, only a glow from them. After all, they were faced in the same direction as we were. Captain Dice gave me the thumbs-up signal to raise the gear when he was sure that he was going to stay in the air without inadver­ tently touching down. I already had my left hand on the gear lever. SURPRISE! The gear lever re­ fused to unlock or move at all. With all my strength I could not move it. Captain Dice frantically held his thumb up and jabbed it into the air, insistently, but to no avail! Thoughts raced through my mind that possibly the operator of

him­ :.w;JrlJ>:UO~· fl::Pt:iU: some of the ~~J~Pl8eu~~ in the attempts. The slow climb, with the landing gear fully extended, did get us over the big oil refinery ahead of us at Kearny, New Jersey, but we could smell the chemical smoke as we skimmed over it! The two Wright engines stayed at full takeoff power and were getting hot. Fortunately, with flat terrain ahead we were able to hold level for a while to get more cooling air before starting a long, slow climb to about 1,000 feet. That was enough for the present. Only a sight reduction of power was possi­ ble without losing airspeed and altitude. Here we were at low alti­ tude with all kinds of populated areas under us, with an overload of ammunition. The engines had to be left in a rich mixture condition to keep them from failing-we used the fuel for extra cooling . There was no choice whatsoever­ we had to continue on course, gain a little altitude, and hope the en­ gines would get us to Atlanta. Fat chance! We did not have autopi­ lots in EAL airplanes (Captain Eddie's idea), so flying at that load and low airspeed was tiring. We took turns at it and suspected that the overload was greater than we were told. We could not decide what it could be that could pre­ vent the gear from retracting, unless a set of safety pins was still in place. Yet, we had plainly seen them in the hand of the tow tractor driver.

in store for me during those nearly four hours of driving or why they would be calling for me to fly in such weather •

• •

We must have awakened a lot of people below us that night when we passed over at 2,000 feet with the poor engines over-revving at almost full takeoff power. We were using fuel at a very high rate, so we were worried about getting to At­ lanta. Any attempt to lean the mixture too much caused high oil and cylinder head temperatures. We were busy controlling the en­ gines to prevent failure. We radioed ahead to Atlanta to pre­ pare to offload the cargo to another airplane and to divide the load between two of them if avail­ able, for the engines in our airplane would have to be changed, due to such mistreat­ ment, even if we did succeed in getting there. There was no chance

olina, where a Re'Y:ollUtliOO battle was fought and ally told my passengers, via a system, about it. I was thinking of that while we were still on instru­ ments, with Atlanta still below minimums. At that moment the left engine suddenly started to vi­ brate, shaking the entire airplane with its steady vibration. The oil pressure was okay and strangely was staying at red line temperature. Fortunately, the engine kept right on running with that steady, sharp vibration. Switch­ ing the ignition had no effect, so I concluded that both spark plugs had failed on one cylinder. We had not tried the ignition before be­ cause of the high power, so we had not had any warning of one spark plug failing. I was rushing ideas through my mind and suspected some metal was flying around in the dead cylinder that would bat­ ter the spark plugs. The fast fuel burn-off had lightened the air­ plane, so the loss of power was not serious. But of course, the total failure of the engine would be fatal for a dead-engine crash in that rolling farm country in a dark night. We were mighty scared. I in­ termittently tried the landing control lever without success. I was pondering why it would not re­ lease and operate. In reviewing the landing lock­ ing system in my mind, it suddenly dawned on me that there was an up-lock cable that was extra taut due to the deflection of the wings under the unusually heavy over­ load on them. I tried the gear lever VINTAGE A IRPLANE


again. It was still locked. I was fly­ ing at that moment , so I quickly shoved the wheel forward sharply to momentarily u nload the wings, and at the same time, with my left hand on the gear lever, it unlocked an d came up t o the retract posi­ tion. With that, the gear came up! Meanwhile, Captain Dice was trying instinctively to overcome my sudden push on the wheel. Be­ fore pushing forward I had slowly raised the nose a little. What a re­ lief! With the engine about to fail we were able to reduce power and continue on to Atlanta, which had suddenly opened up wide due to a warm front passage. The engine kept right on running with its steady vibrations, even while we taxied to the hangar. When we stopped the engines, a column of oil smoke arose from the cowling of the left engine and a small stream of oil ran down to the tarmac . The mechanics re­ moved the cowling and, not to our surprise, the master cylinder, No. 1, had a big open crack right across its head. I stayed at the airport (af­ ter midnight) instead of going to the hotel, because I wanted to see what had caused the trouble. The mechanics were curious, too, so they removed the cylinder and found the reason. The top of the piston had been pounded thousands of times by a piece of metal and had been dis­ torted to a concave surface without being punctured. The head of the exhaust valve was missing with only the broken valve stem showing. It had done all of that pounding and had finally escaped out through the exhaust port into the exhaust pipe. The tapered end section of the pipe had a long slot for the exhaust gases but was too narrow for the valve head to es­ cape through it . The section was removed, and there was the head of the exhaust valve, neatly folded double. While it was in the cylin­ der and being heated red hot, it had broken off its stem and, being soft, the piston crushing it edge6


wise had quickly folded it tightly double. By the greatest good for­ tune it h ad no t punct ur ed the piston, which would certainly have caused a fu lly catastrophic failure of the engine. As for the failure of

Meanwhile, Captain Dice was trYing instinctively to overcome my sudden push on the wheel. the landing gear to retract, why didn't I think of that before I did? Since Dick Dice had priority as captain, he was entitled to keep the valve. Now, here is a similar incident in a Bonanza. You Bonanza people all know that it is de rigueur to crank up the landing gear by hand. Such stress on the gearing may cause a failure in the gearbox. The failure might not happen at the time of the cranking, but pOSSibly later at an inconvenient time. When I was flying the DC-8 out of ]FK airport it sometimes happened that I would land late at night, just barely ahead of the sea fog rolling in off the Atlantic that would cover the airport with dense fog. That could happen with only a few min­ utes' warning. One night, just that happened. When I finished the de­

briefing in the operations office, the ai rport was covered by dense sea fog . My trusty little model C Bonanza was sitting out there in it, and I wanted to get home, as usual. The weat h er at POU (Dutchess Cou nty Airport at Poughkeepsie) was showing 900/2, and was ex­ pected to go down to below 500/1, later. The legal minimum on the only (VOR) approach was 600 feet. Syracuse was my alternate, quite a long way, but well within my range, and with Buffalo open I had a good set of alternates. So, I was driven out to my very damp steed. The tower operator recognized my voice and said, "Any runway you wish, Captain," I chose 4. I was the only airline pilot who regularly commuted to my flights by private airplane in the entire New York area, so the control tower opera­ tors knew me well. Knowing that the top would be about 1,000 feet, I took off in the dense fog . In the climb I flipped the land­ ing gear switch to retract. But it didn't! After two or three trials, I got the same result. The circuit breaker was still engaged, so press­ ing it gave no help either. By that time I was on top, temporarily, for I had a low overcast ahead of me at POU. If the weather went below minimums I could not land, be­ cause the minimum descent altitude was the definite limit. No landing could be made with run­ way in sight only, at that time. In case I had to go to my alternate, SYR, with the gear down all of the way, I could run low on fuel. So I wanted to get the gear up. Remem­ bering how I had unloaded with wings in the DC-3 (a long time be­ fore jet airliners), I made a series of short zooms and short push-overs, each time getting a few turns of the crank while the weight of the land­ ing gear was zero and no load was on the gears in the box. Presto! The gear was safely up. The weather at POU stayed above minimums, and I got home on schedule. The gear switch had failed, but it worked fine for extension. ......


break an airplane




ohnny Ringer

hated ice. Ice can

be quite unpre­

dictable. If the temperature and moisture are just right, you can pick it up even when it isn 't forecast. And then again, even when it is forecast, you might not get any. Johnny and I were waiting at LaGuardia for a Lockheed C-60 to arrive on a cargo run. The C-60 was to depart Buffalo for Rome Air Force Base in upstate New York, and then continue on to LaGuardia. We were to take it back the other way. It ar­ rived late. The crew told us about the hairy trip they had. As they were approaching Rome they started pick­ ing up rime ice, fast and heavy. The crew decided to pass up Rome and try for Albany. They soon had such a load of ice that the boots couldn't cope with it. They also were unable to climb up out of it. With full power they were just able to stagger into Albany. Af­ ter landing they said that the whole underside of the wings and even the fuselage had fingers of ice hanging down like stalactites. Of course, this load raised hell with the lift and added weight to the plane. The cap­ tain was a good pilot and plenty cool. He wasn't one to exaggerate. Johnny and I listened to all this, and I figured that Johnny would cancel. He certainly would have had


the right to. But he didn't. We took off for Rome and were between layers at 6,000 feet between Albany and Rome. We started to let down into Rome and immediately started picking up ice. Johnny let down to about 4,000 when he de­ cided that he had enough of that. He poured the coal to the Lockheed and started a steep climbing turn to the left. We used to teach chandelles under the hood at Burlington. Johnny was doing a chandelle if I ever saw one. Johnny and I flew together a lot. If he was looking at a chart or some­ thing besides his instruments and got a little off course, I acted as his autopilot. I would just reach up and make the correction. He accepted that as routine after a while. Actu­ ally it made us a pretty good team. On this particular flight Johnny was a bit overanxious to climb out of there. When I saw that the air­ speed had dropped to 90, I reached up and pushed forward on the

wheel. Just then a red light started blinking on my side of the in­ strument panel. The warning light was in­ dicating a loss of fuel pressure to the right engine. Under the throttles on the center console was a wobble pump handle to manually pump fuel pressure to the engines. I started pumping, and Johnny asked me what I was doing. I stopped pump­ ing and showed him the red light that had come back on. Johnny then did something that really shook me up. He started pumping his control wheel back and forth and mutter­ ing, "Oh shoot, oh shoot, oh shoot." He had definitely panicked. We were able to climb back up between layers. I kept pumping the wobble pump until I was tired. We had a second lieutenant Air Force pilot in the back, riding observer. I called him up front and asked him to pump for a while. I informed him that if he did a good job we could make it into Albany. He did, and we did. Johnny and I never mentioned that incident to each other or any­ one. The following year I had a flight as plane commander where panic got a grip on me. It taught me never to be too critical of my fellow pilot. It has always been amazing to me how critical some pilots can be of VINTAGE AIRPLANE


other pilots, even their friends. I have to admit that from time to time I have been guilty. I think that it came from the phrase, "There but for the grace of God go I." The demise of our Colonial Air­ lines DC-2s was another series of wild experiences. To operate the hydraulic system to work the landing gear up or down, the copilot would start with a lever next to his seat. This lever had a button on the end of it with a re­ movable cap over the button. After removing the cap and depressing the button, the lever could be moved either up or down. Then a long pump handle on the floor would be used to build up the hy­ draulic pressure. When the DC-2 would sit on the ground without the engines run­ ning even for a short period of time, the hydraulic pressure would go down. It was the copilot's job to pump the pressure back up. More than once, especially in the wee hours of the morning on an all­ night trip when we were parked and waiting to be loaded, the pres­ sure would go down. I would look at the pressure gauge and say to myself, "Self, pump up the pres­ sure." I would be thinking "Up" when I grabbed the gear lever. Then I would say something else to my­ self like, "Don't do something stupid, like pulling the lever up!" It is the pressure that has to come up, not the gear. The lever would have to be put in the down position, and the pressure pumped up with the pump handle. One of our DC-2s was parked in front of the terminal at Buffalo. My friend, Johnny Strong, was the copilot. I forget who the captain was, although I can think of a cou­ ple I wish it were. The captain was in his seat, and he asked Johnny to pump the pressure up. Well, Johnny pulled the lever up, and the captain pumped! The DC-2s didn't have the pins that would prevent the gear from folding as the later model DC-3s had. It had a cable around the gear with a turn8


buckle. Unfortuna t ely, the turn­ buckle on the left gear of this DC-2 had been put on with on ly a cou­ ple of turns ... and it parted. With that, the left gear collapsed and the right gear folded sideways.

I think that it came from the phrase, "There but for the grace of God go /." There sat that great old bird right in front of the terminal at Buffalo. The left wing was sprung. So you might say that it was "terminal at the terminal"! Captain Roe Nemmers was one of our check pilots. He was checking out one of the new captains at La­ Guardia in the other DC-2. The brake system on the DC-2 was differ­ ent, to say the least. The captain had a brake lever on the left side of the cockpit, and the copilot had one on the right. If the captain wanted both brakes, he would neutralize his rud­ der pedals and pull on his brake lever. If he wanted left brake, he would let off on the brake lever, push the left rudder pedal, and pull on the brake lever. The same if he wanted right brake. The lever would always have to be released before it could be applied again. The procedure after landing was for the copilot to take the wheel and for the captain to have his left hand on the brake lever and his right hand on the throttles. It was raining on the day that Captain Nemmers was checking out the new captain. Between the two pilots pushing and pulling on their respective brake levers they managed to get off the runway and onto the wet grass after landing. They got it back heading for the runway and would have

made it except for two things. One, they started sliding sideways on the wet grass. And two, a B-24 was parked in the direction they were sliding. They collided with the B-24. It wasn't a terrific crash. Just hard enough to total our second and last DC-2. No fire and nobody hurt. But, "Adios, good old DC-2." At the end of 1942, Colonial Air­ lines got a contract with the Air Force to operate a school to train Air Force pilots to fly C-47s. The 10 sen­ ior copilots with 1,000 hours were chosen to be checked out. I was one of them. We received horsepower ratings but not air transport ratings. This being a military program, ap­ parently we did not need an instructor's rating. The school was set up at Albany, New York. We arrived there in Janu­ ary 1943 with two C-47s. These were the same as our DC-3s, which were the old type with boilers for cabin heat. They were flown into Albany by Colonial captains, not us. We suggested that we be given the opportunity to do a little flying together to practice. None of us had even flown a DC-3 or C-47 without an airline captain aboard. Our re­ quest was denied with the ridiculous excuse that nothing was going to in­ terfere with the training program starting on time. So we sat around until February 10. If they had thought that we were going to bend one of their planes, they would never know how close I came on the first early morning flight. Early morning was really the mid­ dle of the night-0400 to be exact. It was February 10, 1943, and it was 10 below zero and snowing. My two students were second lieutenants who had just received their wings and had no twin-engine time. I asked the chief pilot, Charlie Wen­ zel, and Mr. Brown, the director of the school, what they thought I might be able to teach on a morning such as this. They told me to just get the flight out on time, and if noth­ ing else, check the weather. Ours was not to question why, so I pre­ pared to depart.

This was to be my first flight in a DC-3 with out a cap tain. Also, as it turned out, I would have been better off alone th an to have those two students aboard. Those early DC-3s and C-47s had boilers that provided the cabin heat. Those boilers co uld be the most temperamental contraptions ever invented. I'm not sure that even a li­ censed plumber could get any heat out of them some tim es. This was one of those times. As we taxied out, one of the students was still messing around trying to get the boiler work­ ing, with no success. The runway was covered with snow as I took off to the so uth . There was a southwes t wind blow­ ing. They were giving the ceiling at 1,200 feet, and they were correct. At that altitude the lights on the ground were starting to disappear. I turned on the landing lights, and it was snowing like crazy. I made a 180 to the left and headed back to­ ward the field. I turned on the ADF (automatic direction finder). It was just going around and around. A few minutes went by, and we should have been able to see the field. But we didn't. I couldn't believe it. Of course, looking back, I know what happened. I had a wind out of the southwest and poor visibility, and while making my 180 toward the east, I had passed to the east of the field. I was getting into serious trou­ ble. Panic was setting in. At least I always thought it was panic. Years later I read an article written by a flight surgeon about the mental effects of hypothermia. We had no cabin heat, and it was 10 below zero outside. The students were scraping ice off the inside of the windshield. Th ey didn't have the slightest idea that I didn't know where in the world we were. Actually they seemed to be getting a charge out of it. All I could think of was to stay VFR and stay in the lowlands. We had hills to the east and to the west. The Mo­ hawk River runs west from the Albany area, and the Hudson runs north and south. I picked up a river and started down it, or perhaps up

it. I don't even remember checking my compass. Suddenly right ahead was one of the most beautiful sights I have eve r seen. Two blinking red lights that were on a bridge between Albany and Troy. I had seen these lights many times from my hotel room in Albany. I knew the heading from there to the airport. I landed and went into operations. I told them that if they fixed the boiler, then come daylight I would go back out, weather permitting. I told this experience to very few people, but it really shook me. I

knew that I had really panicked. I also knew that I had not done a good job in preflighting. For one thing I should have checked the ADF before taking off. Even if I was­ n't planning on using it, it didn't mean that I might not. There were many other things that I could have done that I didn't. It taught me an important lesson, however. A lesson about the consequence of not main­ taining the best possible "tranquility of spirit. " In other words, keep cool so that you can keep thinking. Thinking clearly that is! .......


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As many of you n oticed, there was no Myster y Plane in last month's issue, so we'll double up on answers to keep on schedule . First, the October Mystery Plane was a pretty pre-war prototype from a we ll-known manufact urer that didn't make it to th e pro­ duction line. Here's our first note, from Jim Stothers, Rancho Palos Verd es, California:

H . G.



Th e "Starliner" was a six-p lace development of Lockh eed 's Vega di­ vision in 1939. It was powered by a 600-hp M enasco " Unitwin " en­ g in e, whi ch was, in fa ct , a Si a m ese -twin developm ent of th e Menasco six- cylinder inverted airTHIS MONTH'S MYSTERY PLANE




3086, O SHKOSH , WI 54903 -3086 . YOUR






15 , 2003 , FOR INCLU­







Bellanca CH-400 Skyrocket designated by t he U_S. Navy as an XRE-2 , BU No. 9207.

and 1950s, scra ping allowance mon ey to bu y a 25 -cent Comet model airplane kit. Cleveland kits were too pri cey for me then , and Guillow kits were for little kids­ they could not fly. The Comet E-series was a go od compromise. They flew well, there was a good as­ sortment of subjects, and with care, they could fly fairly well. Some of those I built and flew included the Waco EQC-6, Aeronca K on floats , Piper J-4, Stin so n SR-7, Ryan ST, Curtiss P-40 C, Grumman F4F-3, Republic P-47 C, and the P-51A . The Navion that I built took about 10 days to ge t ready to fly, and turned in some 30-second flights.

Then, th ere was the Vega Star­ liner. The following has been ab­ STRUT SOO/@RAW BALSA PROP :LANK CROSS stracted from Lockheed Aircraft SECTION NOSE O/2"THICK BALSA) :: 0 BlDCK AERO DIGEST JULY, 1929 (] Since 1913, by Renee J. Franeil­ THIS MEMBER ON TOP ONLY ~1:/.4J(°I~~~' :~6~O,D~~~SRTERA A~~~~~E:~931 ~r:~jf=rFr~T=rr===n===~=o;L~O'IJ'S'ON RUSSCRAFT HOBBIES Ion (Putnam, 1987): SIDE REAR t : ·­ U. S. NAVYOF AIRCRAFT 1921-1941 VIEW VIEW • : of' $ In 1937, Lockheed fostered the ~H~ ~ founding of th e A iRover Company, (1/16" DIAMETER COLOR SCHEME : METAL TUBE) ~~~1~tG~'F F~~ N~USO~~RO s~~~~s, BAMBOO REAR to make a Unitwin engine from two RUBBER PEG ARE SILVER . TOP OF WINGS PROP HOOK 8 AND STAB ARE CHROME YELLOW. (.030 CIA. WIRE) Menasco C6S-4 engines, and assem­ rALANCE HERE COVER WINDSHIELD WITH CELLULOID a OTHER WINDOWS WITH CELLOPHANE ble some Lockheed Altair spare parts to act as a Flying Tes t Stand for the flight tests. A iRover was renam ed Vega in 1938, and Vega's first air­ plane was the Starliner, which was given the CAA registration of NX21725. It appears that the ma ­ chine never had an ATC or even a Group 2 approval. First flight was U.S. NAV Y BELLANCA aIlY.OCIl£T made with a centrally located ~. A td" HANNAN P~ANUT _ _~=:::J~t;~~=Jb==~::::::=::::=J fin / rudder, on 22 April 1939, but .• BYSALTY WILLIAW Bill Hannan's sharp-looking peanut scale, rubber-powered model airplane th ere was a g litch in the propeller plan for the XRE-1 (this is sheet 1 of 2 sheet s) is published in his small control mechanism and the pilot book entitled Plans & 3-Views International, Volume 1.. Stock number BHP­ made an off-airport landing. Re­ 31, and priced at $9.95 (plus S&H ). The book is available from Hannan 's pairs were made quickly, and a Runway, P.O. Box 210 , Magalia , CA 95954, phone 530-873-6421; e-mail twin-fin/ rudder, [as shown in the; or on the website at www.hrunway. com. Vintage Airplane photograph], was made. A further mishap took place wh en the nose gear failed to cooled Buccaneer" engine, result­ source of most of my information is lower on a landing, but due to the ing, in effect, in a V-12 engine. I "Aerofiles ".com. fact that all three wheels of the tri­ think only one example of th e air­ Tom Baldenhofer, Waveland, cycle landing gea r protruded from craft was built. It was later modified Mississippi, has some additional th e surface, a la B -17 and DC-3, to a single-tail version (Model 22) memories of the Starliner: dama ge was minimal. NX21725 with a furth er refinem ent of th e amassed a total flying time of nearly " Unitwin" engine producing 640 The Bob O'Hara photog raph ninety hours, but Vega deemed it too hp. Further development/production brought back some pleasa nt m emo­ impractical for use as an airliner­ was terminated due to WW-II. The ries of my young days in the 1940s th e ma chine had only a five-s eat DUMMY CYLINDER ~











capacity. Besides, Vega was being taken into the war production pro­ gram and the company needed the production space for Hudson mar­ itime reconnaissance planes for the British Royal Air Force. Measurements: span 41 ft, length 32 ft 5 in, height 8.5 ft Weights: empty 4,190 lb, loaded 6,OOOIb

Speeds: max 210 mph @ 7,500 ft, cruise 178 mph Climb: 1,350 ft/min, initial svc ceiling 21,500 ft Range: 640 miles Note well that this applied to a 1938 light-twin with tricycle land­ ing gear and five seats. Vega or Lockheed did not scrap the machine; it was sold to a motion picture com­ pany, and like the old Capelis transport, appeared in a few films. Its present location is unknown. A sufficient amount of determination will yield a set ofplans from any of the several model airplane plan services that cater to nuts like me who build new models of old air­ planes. The old Comet kit had a span of about 24 inches, which re­ sulted in a scale very close to 1:20.

Another reply from the West coastCoast, from Bill Grove, Tu­ junga, California: Gentlemen: You will likely have thousands of replies given the typical Lockheed rudders. Here's a quote from "Lockheed Aircraftsman," a special edition for September 10, 1938: "Mac Short, president of the Vega Airplane Company, has announced that the company will manufacture a five or six place, low-wing mono­ plane to be known as the Vega. The Vega will incorporate the Unitwin engine installation and will gener­ ally qualify for the requirements of current airline-type transports. It will be metal structured and have the dual engine power plant unit mounted in the nose of the fuselage geared to a single constant speed propeller. "Wingspan of the new plane will 12



be 41 feet. Overall length will be 31 feet, 5-1/2 inches, height 9 feet, 1 inch. Estimated gross weight is 5,411 pounds. Retractable tricycle landing gear will be a feature of the plane. The Vega will follow the gen­ eral trend of the Lockheed transports produced by the parent company (Lockheed Aircraft Corp.) by using trailing edge wing flaps and twin­ rudder-and-fin tail arrangement, as well as other advanced aerodynamic features."

Correct answers were received from Charles F. Schultz, Louisville, Kentucky; Larry Knechtel, Seattle, Washington; Wayne Muxlow, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Harold Swanson, Shoreview, Minnesota; Wayne Van Valkenburgh, Jasper, Geor­ gia; William A. Kirby, Gainesville, Florida; Lane Older, Bellingham, Washington; Ken Love, North Wilkesboro, North Carolina; Re­ nald Fortier, Ottawa, Canada; Bill Mette; Bub Borman, Dallas, Texas; Walt Albert and John Bishop, Ocala, Florida; Kenny Finch, Paso Robles, California; and Thomas Lymburn, Prince­ ton, Minnesota. The second half of our "twofer" is the answer for the November Mystery Plane. While no great mystery, it sure is a favorite for full-size and model aircraft enthusiasts. Here's our first letter: The Mystery Plane is the XRE­ 2, one of three Bellanca CH-400 Skyrockets purchased by the U.S. Navy in 1932. The aircraft in the photograph is BU-9207, used for communications duties at Naval Air Station Anacostia, Washing­ ton, D.C. Another photo of the XRE-2 is shown on page 72 of luptner's [U.S., Civil Aircraft} Volume 4. The other two CH-400's were BU-8939, designated XRE-l, used by the Navy for radio resarrch re­ search and development at Anacostia, and BU-9341, desig­

nated XRE-3, used by the Marines as a two-stretcher ambulance. X = Experimental R = Transport E = Bellanca in the Navy's des­ ignation system in the early 1930s. These three aircraft were pow­ ered by Pratt & Whitney R-1340 radials, with a maximum gross weight of between 4,600 and 4,700 pounds, and were capable of speeds between 148 to 161 mph. It's not clear what the manu­ facturer's serial numbers were, but luptner suggests they might have been 628, 629, and 630. In 1938 the Navy purchased a single example of the Bellanca Senior Skyrocket and called it the IE-I. This aircraft also served at Ana­ costia. Thomas Lyburn Princeton, Minnesota

Correct answers were re­ ceived from: John Bebe, White Stone, Virginina; James Stub­ ner, Mercer Island, Washington; Dan Cullman, Kent, Washing­ ton; the Rev. Bob Scheidly, Cape May, New Jersey; Konrad Gar­ cia, Salem, Oregon; James Kolander, San Jose, California; Owen Bruce, Richardson, Texas; Gerry Norberg, Winnipeg, Man­ itoba, Canada; Ozzie Levi; Thomas M. Perkins, Tullahoma, Tennessee; Wayne A. Forshey; Walt Albert, Ocala, Florida; Timothy Dube, Ottawa, On­ tario, Canada; Peter Foster, Caledon East, Ontario, Canada; Bill Fife, Ocala, Florida; Glenn Humann, Everett, Washington; Jim Stothers, Rancho Palos Verdes, California; Kenny Finch, Paso Robles, California; John L. Kidd; Earl Space, Maple Valley, Washington; Wayne Van Valkenburgh, Jasper, Georgia; Emil Cassanello, Huntington Station, New York; Tom Balden­ hofer, Waveland, Mississippi; Larry Beidleman, Granada Hills, California; and John S. Paul, In­ dianapolis, Indiana. .......


The 1920s were "Special" ... ARTICLE AND PHOTOS BY GILES AULIARD

t the beginning of the 1920s a great number of small airplane companies were created. But at the beginning of the following decade, more than 90 per­ cent of them were history, some having built only one airframe, oth­ ers none. One such company, the Winstead Brothers Airplane Co ., was formed in 1926 and dissolved the same year, with a total produc­ tion run of exactly one airplane. Thanks to Paul Dougherty, presi­ dent of the Golden Age Air Museum of Bethel, Pennsylvania, this his­ toric machine is still alive, and it graces the sky of central Pennsylva­ nia on all-too-rare occasions. During a bustling period in the 1920s, Wichita, Kansas, became one of the premier centers for airplane design and production, starting with the famous Swallow Airplane Manu­ facturing Co., created by Matty Laird in 1919 as the E.M. Laird Co. Under Laird's guidance, Swallow became one of the first successful post-war airplane manufacturers, with the Laird Limousine and, later, the Swal­ low. By 1924, Matty Laird had left, and Jacob "Jake" Moellendick was 14


presiding over its des­ tiny. In his team were two brilliant young engineers with ad­ vanced -for the time-ideas: Walter Beech and Lloyd Stearman. In their af­ ter-work hours, they were building their own vision for the plane of the future, an airframe with a steel tube structure fuse­ Typical of early airplanes, the Winstead's panel is lage. After all, the idea "filled" with instruments related mostly to the en­ was not new and was gine's operation. The height gauge and a clock are put to good use by the total complement of flight gauges. the Germans during World War I, specifically with the Stearman visited an older fellow to Fokker D.VII, which gave allied pilots ask him to participate in this new and risky endeavor. After a lot of a tough ride. After completing their project, convincing, Clyde Cessna agreed Beech and Stearman presented the to put his expertise (and his fruit of their illicit labor to Jake money) in the Travel Air venture. Moellendick, who did not really With the new company incorpo­ appreciate their efforts, and com­ rated on February 4, 1925, the trio mented thusly: "No way ... Our was writing a new page in the his­ customers trust wood, and that's tory of aviation books. what they will get ...." The first product of the newly cre­ At that pOint, the two friends ated Travel Air Manufacturing Co. decided to part with such a short­ was the Travel Air 1000, swiftly sighted company and create their amended into the Travel Air 2000, own. Late in 1924, Beech and and finally, by installing a radial en­

bit, since they added a second set soon after the initial flight. The landing gear was purchased from Nicholas Beasley Co., of Marshal, Mis­ souri. According to the Winstead family, the air­ plane had a Prior to starting the OX-5, Paul Dougherty, president of radial engine be­ the Golden Age Air Museum of Bethel , Pennsylvania, fore the OX-5, primes the engine. but we could gine, the Model 4000. All of those not find any proof of this." designs had more than a family re­ Looking somewhat like a clipped­ semblance to the Swallow project. wing Travel Air 2000 (without the Left with the fuselage of the now elephant ears), the resulting flying moribund Swallow project on his machine was called the Winstead Spe­ hands, Jake Moellendick decided to cial. With all their finances sunk in get rid of it and sold it to one of his the airplane, and with no hope of sell­ employees, a fellow named Carl ing it, Guy and Carl dissolved their Winstead. A pilot and a mechanic, company, going their separate ways. Winstead, along with his brother, Guy, was working to create yet another airplane company. Leaving Swallow, he embarked on making the Beech and Stearman creation his own. The fuselage was used as it was designed and built, while the wings were of Swallow design, with an atyp­ ical shorter wingspan. They were attached to the fuselage with four vertical bolts run­ ning through the spars and standard Swallow fittings. The engine mount was of Swallow design, sporting an example of the ubiquitous Curtiss OX-5.

Paul Dougherty comments: "We figure that they loaded their pockets with as much Swallow stuff as they could before leaving .... The tail is Winstead's design; it has an aluminum tube for the horizontal stabilizer, the rest was steel tubing. In early pho­ tographs, the tail was braced with only one set of wires. We think it wobbled quite a

Carl and the Special stayed on the aviation scene, joining in the Flying Aces Air Circus in the late '20s, with Jessie Woods walking the wings, as well as barnstorming. "Everything for a buck," as Paul puts it. The Spe­ cial was sold to Marvin Mara in 1930, who employed it to barnstorm around the Midwest and, believe or not, in air racing. After changing hands multiple times, the Winstead was deemed unairworthy in 1937. The owner at the time, J.J. Davis of Ayre, Nebraska, took it apart and put it in storage. Resurfacing in the '80s, the Special was traded with the Air­ power Museum of Ottumwa, Iowa, where Paul and his father, Paul Sr., found it in 1995. After the "Special" episode of his life, Carl went on with his aviation career, becoming one of the first Cessna Aircraft Corp . employees, helping build the A series. He later became Cessna's chief test pilot, tak­ ing the model 190 for the first time in the air on December 7, 1945. Shortly thereafter, how­ ever, Carl died while testing the Cessna 195. Guy Winstead joined Travel Air in 1926, help­ ing with the design and construction of the Travel Air 5000 model, which was built on Cessna and Winstead's own time, in the same manner as Beech and Stearman pro­ ceeded with the Special. Paul continues: "My father and I purchased it from them [the AAA's Air­ power Museum] in 1995. The restoration was very exten­ sive. Three of the wings were replaced, as well as the center section. Damage could be seen in the original center sec­ tion from wing walkers. The lower ailerons were replaced. The only thing missing prior to the restoration was the ver­ tical fin and rudder, plus the seats. We re-created them from photographs because no blueprints exist. It took some four years before the airplane could fly again." VINTAGE AIRPLANE


Also on display at the museum in Bethel , Pennsylvania , is Andrew King's Ryan M-l, shown here in formation with the Winstead Special.

Just look at that beautiful grass at the Golden Age Air Museum! The Winstead 's rudder and fin were missing from the project, but Paul and his restoration crew were able to re-create the structure using photographs for reference.

After three years of flying the air­ plane, he describes its characteristics: "It flies very nicely. The OX-5 puts out plenty of power for the airplane, and the climb rate is re­ spectable for its vintage. Contrary to [what] one might think, its short wings and the four ailerons are only giving it a modest rate of roll. The elevator is very responsive, but does not have any trim. However, 16


it can be changed on the ground by removing the attach bolt and changing washers. But this is too much work for little results. The rudder is also very responsive and works very well upon taxiing. The airplane does not have any brakes or a steerable tail skid. The rudder is all you have to steer the airplane. "The takeoff distance is, depend­ ing on the load, between 400 to 800

feet. The stick forces do not change too badly between one or three peo­ ple on board. Landing rolls can be very short, if you want it, the tail­ skid acting as a very efficient brake. Formation flying is interesting, be­ cause it takes a lot of coaxing to accelerate. The OX-5 is flying very close to full power during cruise, and the only way to accelerate is to give all what little power it had left. I set the engine at about 1400 rpm on the takeoff roll, at 1350 to 1400 in normal cruise, and 1525 during 'fast' cruise. You realized that there is not much room to play with power. We never experienced an overheating problem, even on the hottest day. The airplane is much more nimble in the air and has a lighter feel than a Travel Air. The OX-5 is also one of the smoothest engines I have ever flown behind. We are rebuilding a Jenny, and if it flies even only half as good as the Winstead, it will still be a lot of fun." Since its first flight, the airplane has been an anchor at the Golden Age Air Museum, and a living me­ morial to those little companies born in the roaring '20s. ......

s there an antonym for the term basket case? If so, then the Koshar's 1966 Skyhawk is it. Robert Koshar's 172 is the anti-basket case because he bought the airplane when it was only 7 years old and for more than three decades has kept it in a perpetual state of limited restoration. While so many airplanes drift down to the point where they are borderline


derelicts, airplanes like Koshar's never need restoring because they are continuously being worked on. The fact that Koshar has owned and worked on the same airplane for more than 30 years says he likes what he likes, and one of the things he likes is familiarity and a stable lifestyle. "I was born in Watervliet, Michi足 gan, barely a mile from where I live

now. On top of that, I've been in car sales for 4S years." One of the stable interests of his life, besides cars, has been air足 planes, which started when he was a kid during World War II. "Like so many others of my gen足 eration, airplanes were simply always there, but what I remember most were the Wheaties paper air足 planes. You could send in a box top

Steve and Robert enjoy cruising In the airplane that

has become the most popular IIghtplane of all time.

It seems appropriate that Robert's love of Chevrolet

autos Is also given a place of honor on the vertical

ftn-after all, the 172 Is often P...........

"Chevrolet of the Air."

and 5 cents, and they'd send you a fold-up paper airplane of some­ thing like a Mustang. I had those hanging all over my bedroom, and I never outgrew it. My brother crewed an A-26 during WWII, and his stories helped fuel my interest in aviation. "Besides airplanes, I've always loved cars, and I bought and sold my first one when I was only 18 years old and have been at it ever since." Every pilot can remember his first few airplane rides, and the same is true of Robert Koshar. "My first ride was in a Stinson 108, but my second one was in an AT-6 owned by a druggist in town. Then, sometime around 1956, when the C-l72 was just being in­ troduced, I got a ride in one of those , and I remember saying to myself, 'I'd like to learn to fly,' but I didn't do anything about it until a couple years later. Then I jumped right in and worked straight through until I got my private pi­ lot's license in 1960." Not one to be a spectator, Koshar quickly found himself on the board of the local airport and decided there had to be a way to promote

aviation on a local level. "They'd been having a sort of fly-in or open house at the airport, but I got involved in it and helped promote it into something much bigger. I hired a Tri-Motor Ford to come in and give rides. The event grew to the point that sometimes 150 airplanes showed up and every­ one in town came out. The event is currently sponsored by our local EAA Chapter 585." Koshar rented airplanes until 1972 when his Skyhawk came into his life. "It was a really good airplane and had been well cared for. The owner before me raised chickens for Colonel Sanders, and he wanted $ 7,400 for the airplane. I only had $5,000 in cash, but I really wanted the airplane. We finally settled on $7,150 and a wash job, and I man­ aged to come up with the rest of the money." From that point on, the airplane became the Koshar family go-places machine, but at no time did Robert imagine he'd own the same air­ plane for 35 years and that it would be an award winner (Contempo­ rary Champion, 2000). (The

airplane was actually manufactured in October 1965. 2000 was the first year it became eligible for a VAA Contemporary award.) "I didn't buy it to fix it up be­ cause it didn't need fixing up. All we were going to do was fly it, but then one day I looked around and real ­ ized I'd owned it 20 years. And then 30 years. Along the way the airplane naturally needed work, but every time I worked on it, I tried hard to keep it as original as possible. Plus, we were really careful with the air­ plane, so even today it still has almost all of its original parts. "All of the glass is original, but so are all of the plastic parts. Be­ cause it has always been hangared, much of the stuff that normally de­ teriorates is in great shape. When we did some of the major work on the airplane, like painting it, we didn't have to go through the usual process of finding the right plastic parts for it because we didn't need them . This is probably pretty un­ usual for a Cessna of this age. Even the spinner and the prop are origi­ nal to the airplane." Most of the major work on the airplane naturally occurred in the

last few years as the air­ plane began to show its age. "We rewired the avionics when we in­ stalled a Garmin 250 and had a bunch of the instruments re­ built or refinished. At about the same time we installed strobes, which obvi­ ously aren't original, but it seemed like a good move for safety reasons." When they were doing the instru­ ment panel, rather than updating the instruments Robert had them refinished, including the big, old­ fashioned directional gyro (DG). "We found this wonderful old instrument repair guy who enjoyed working on the bigger instruments, and he repainted the DG and made it look absolutely new. At the same time we repainted the instrument panel beige because it made every­ thing so much easier to read." No matter how much you baby an airplane, however, sooner or later two items are going to need redoing, the interior and the paint, and when it came time to do these items, Koshar had a guide already in hand. "We had a 1966 AOPA magazine that had a full-color spread on both the paint scheme and the interior, and we used that as a guide. The red/green/white color scheme matches the original colors. To get the right fabric-sky blue, pink, and coral-for the seats, we found a

close match that was featured in some cars of the day and is still being made. That turned out to be less of a headache then we thought it would be." It should be men­ tioned that the head­ liner in the airplane is what was in it the day it With the restorations of 1960s-era automobiles was shipped in 1965. such a hotbed of activity, finding the right sky That alone says how blue, pink, and coral fabric turned out to be well the airplane was pretty easy. cared for during its pro­ tracted stay with the Koshars. were put on by Koshar. The engine, "Almost since the first day we the trusty 145-hp Continental 0 ­ got the airplane," Koshar laughs, 300, was topped in 1974 but has "we started on a long-term paint re­ yet to be majored by Koshar. "Right now the engine has 2,000 moval process knowing we'd repaint the airplane some day. Most hours on since its last major, but people call that process waxing, but our mechanic can't find a single the results are the same. By 1999, reason to major it except for the we had rubbed a lot of the paint off, time on it. It has good compres­ and it was time for a new coat. sion, and no metal at all shows up "With the AOPA magazine in in the oil. We know we're going to hand, we went down to Russell El­ have to rebuild it soon, but it runs lis at Woodlake Aircraft Refinishing so smoothly and so flawlessly we in Sandwich, Illinois. He shot it really hate to take it apart. It's actu­ with Imron and duplicated the ally hard to believe it has that original paint scheme. Where there much time on it because it is still were decals, all of which were in putting out as much power as it al­ perfect shape, we masked them off ways did." and painted around them. It was at The airplane is definitely living about that time that I started pol­ the easy life, and you don't have to ishing everything I could get my look too hard to know why the air­ hands on. When I polished the in­ plane is in such good shape. side of the exhaust stacks, however, "I keep it in a special private my four kids told me I had defi­ hangar that is not only the air­ nitely gone off the deep end!" plane's home, but my home away Today the airplane has a total from home. The whole thing is car­ time of 3,200 hours, half of which peted and has all of the luxuries

Amazingly, all of the ABS plastic panels in the Koshar's 172 are original!

including room for my '56 Chevy Pickup (which still has the original tires), a garden outside and, of course, a refrigerator with the requi­ site adult beverages. While the airplane is sitting there, I spend a lot of time engaged in removing the new paint via the Armstrong wax method in time for its next paint job, which at this rate should be about 2030." Since two of Koshar's grown chil­ dren are into airplanes as much as he is, it's obvious that the trusty lit­ tle 172 will live out its days under a Koshar roof. Of course, by that time, as they continue caring for the airplane, they will have gone

All of the vinyl trim and the instrument panel plastic are origi­ nal as well , although the panel overlay has been repainted a light tan to make the panel easier on the eyes. The instruments were reworked , too, and a Garmin 250 installed in the radio stack.

through yet another cycle of restor­ ing the restoration. When it's done that way, a piece at a time over a huge period of time, the project is never-ending-by the time you've finished one part of the airplane, it's time to go back to one of the

first parts restored and do it again. Yes, the Koshar's 172 may be getting older, but you can't tell by looking at it because it's in a state of suspended animation where, like the portrait of Dorian Gray, it ...... never ages.

THE Distractions It's what you don't see that m igh t bite! DOUG STEWART


As I turned base for Runway 11 , I knew it would only be a few more min­ utes before I could relax. The airplane would be in its tiedown spot, and I could go home and wash all the salt from my body. No , I hadn 't been sweating, al­ though it was the middle of the summer. I had been playing in the surf at Block Is­ land all day. I was pleasantly tired and slightly, painfully sunburnt. The flight home had been pleasant. Smooth, warm air had allowed me to keep the side win­ dow open so I could rest my elbow and pull a little fresh air into the cockpit of my 1947 Piper Super Cruiser. The sun slowly settling in the west added a little to the sting in my eyes from the sun and saltwa­ ter that day, but it was not a distraction . My wife, sitting behind me, was content. This was a repeat of a flight taken many times before. As I turned final I glanced briefly at the spruce trees, planted directly on the ex­ tended centerline many years before by a disgruntled neighbor, and then fixed my gaze on my aim point just beyond the dis­ placed threshold. I was on target and on speed for a nice three-point landing. Many pilots were intimidated by the ap­ proach to Runway 11 at Great Barrington Airport. Those spruce trees were often their undoing. Instead of watching their aim point on the runway, they would allow their gaze to fixate on the trees , and thus would lose awareness of where they were in relation to the glideslope. I too had made that mistake , years back, as I learned to fly here, but now that I was chief instructor I was not to be fooled . Just before we passed over the trees my wife exclaimed over the intercom, "What's than " Want to know how to get a pilot's at­ tention quickly? Just do as my wife had just done, using the same urgent tone that she had used. "What's what?" I responded . "The smoke!" she said. She now had my full attention.

"Where? " I asked , wondering how long it would take for my tube and fabric baby to be engulfed in flames , and whether or not I could get it on the ground and deplane before becoming part and parcel of the charred embers smoldering in the smok­ ing hole. I didn't have time to think of the money I would save my children by not having to pay for cremation expenses be­ fore my wife responded , "Over there. At the sawmill. " To the. left of the final approach course was a sawmill. At the end of the day its workers would empty their sawdust col­ lectors. And on days like this , when the wind was light and variable, the fine par­ ticle dust would plume up in the air appearing as if there was a fire. Before I could relax in the thought that I would not be consumed in a PA pyre, the runway rose up to smite me. Those poor bungee cords in the landing gear stretched to their limits as we arrived, not landed, at the threshold of the run­ way. KSHPROI ..OI. .N.N.GGG! And back up in the air we went in the biggest bounce I have ever experienced when I was at the controls. I guess I'll log two landings for this one, I thought, as I regained my composure and, at the same time, control of the plane. Good thing I teach bounce recoveries to my tailwheel students , because I thus had re­ cent practice in the proper technique . Adding a little power, I settled the aircraft back down to the runway on all three wheels, and with such a low forward speed, I soon turned off the runway and taxied across the grass to my tiedown spot. As I turned in my seat to scold my wife for violat­ ing my "sterile cockpit" rule , her sheepish face told me it would not be necessary. Sterile cockpit . A concept developed by the airlines to minimize distraction in the cockpit during high workload times. In the airlines , by regulation , there is to be no conversation in the cockpit, except for flight-related topics, until climbing above 10,000 feet. But it is a concept

that those of us who fly in general avia­ tion aircraft should adhere to as well. Not that we cannot talk until above 10,000 feet. If that were the case, then most of us flying vintage airplanes would never, ever get to talk with our passengers. But during those portions of the flight when our work load is high-that is, takeoff, climb-out, descent, and land­ ing-it is our responsibility as pilot in command to brief our passengers that we should not be distracted by unneces­ sary conversation. It is not the time to be talking about the ball game, or what's for dinner. This is not to mean that they should not help in scan­ ning for traffic, and calling it when seen. Yet even in that role your passengers should be briefed to call traffic that only could be a potential conflict. You wouldn 't believe how I have been distracted by a passenger telling me of traffic "over there " and searching and searching, only to finally have the passenger point out an airliner flying overhead at FL 370. Brief them to call traffic by "clock" position and by altitude as same altitude , higher, or lower. "Over there " went out of usage shortly after World War I. We have to be wary of any and all dis­ tractions during these critical portions of flight, not only passenger distractions. I remember once when I was hired to fly a Piper Mirage for a private family. At least three times per month I would fly the roundtrip from Massachusetts to Florida. On one return trip my only passenger was a teenage girl. She was quite inter­ ested in flight, and also quite loquacious. Most of the t ime she spent sitting in the right front seat asking numerous ques­ tions . Questions about the avionics, questions about the phonetic alphabet, questions about " how much longer tilL .. ?" But they were, for the most part, intelligent questions and made the flight time pass by quickly. We typically made a fuel stop at Wilm­ continued on page 27 VINTAGE AIRPLANE


CK BY E.E. "BuCK" HILBERT, EAA #21 VAA #5 P.O. Box 424, UNION, IL 60180

Support Why belonging to you r local chapter and the national organization is a good thing As your "Dear Abby" of the Vintage group, I'm always fielding calls from members on many subjects. One hot topic right now is the EAA Chapter Of­ fice request for a membership list and the insistence that all chapter members be EAA members, and, in the case of di­ vision chapters, that local chapter members be members of the national division as well. On the surface, this policy is deemed by a few as somewhat proprietary, maybe even a little dictatorial. It ran­ kles some, and I know the feeling. No one likes being told what to do. That's one side of the issue. Here's how most of us see it, and I'll bet you will too after you read this and think about the broader picture. Supporting EAA and VAA or any other division with your interests at heart is important! They serve as our voice in aviation matters . They work nonstop promoting aviation, including doing their best keeping the Feds in line, doing public relations work that tries to keep the media on the right track, providing the facility at Oshkosh for our annual convention, and more . Think about the member benefits like insurance programs, the Chapter Of­ fice, Aviation Information Services, the library, and all the other things EAA headquarters does for us as individuals and as a group. Yeah, I know, they do it for all of aviation, and it takes man­ power and resources. Manpower means bucks, and the fa­ cilities to house the manpower take megabucks. The cost of doing just the things the membership needs and requires takes more bucks. The publica­ tions take bucks. It's all a matter of supporting the organization, a sort of "one for all and all for one." Taking ad­ vantage of the benefits of national EAA and VAA membership without con­ tributing is a sort of backhanded dealing. The question came to be about vol­ 22



unteers. The people who come to the meetings or Chapter events, work to make the meeting successful, make the coffee, sweep up afterward, and do all they can to make the event or meeting a success. They'll park airplanes, drive the people carriers, gas the airplanes, help in any way they can, but they are not members of the Chapter or EAA. They are the real asset, and there is no way we're going to turn them away. How are we to handle the situation? When the Chapter was formed , the officers who incorporated it were given a set of suggested bylaws. They are proba­ bly somewhere in the file and haven't been looked at in years. I must admit I had never looked at them, and I've been involved for more than 30 years. Talk about blind faith! So I recently got a copy and read them. The bylaws contain good, solid reasons for insisting on local and national membership. There are 20 articles in the bylaws gUidelines. Articles IV and V concern membership, Regular Chapter Mem­ berships and Family Chapter Memberships, and they both contain wording to the effect that you must be a member of EAA in addition to being a Chapter member. By the way, that's not something that's new; we just didn't think it was a very big problem. We were wrong. It's a higher percentage than our insurance carrier or we are comfortable with. Okay, so far so good . Now we come to the solutions to the above-mentioned problem. The most obvious choice is to ask them to be­ come national members. Impress upon them the benefits they receive as a na­ tional member. In many cases, when the explanation is made, the $3.33 per month in national dues for EAA seems pretty worthwhile. If you're a division member, it's only $6.33 per month for full EAA and VAA membership, or $3.83 per month for a basic EAA and VAA combined membersh ip. Heck, that's

less than the cost of 2 gallons of avgas! Still can't make that work? Para­ graph three refers to Honorary/ Complimentary Membership. Here's a way a Chapter can help get a volunteer on the national roster. If the Chapter officers and the board of directors wish to extend an Honorary or Complimentary Chapter Member­ ship in recognition and appreciation for whatever reason, they can do just that. The person or persons have no voting rights and can't hold office, but the esteem and the appreciation is there and shown by the Honorary/Compli­ mentary Chapter Membership. The next paragraph (four) covers a Spe­ cial Chapter Membership clause. This covers the guy who, because of whatever circumstance, doesn't have the money to pay either Chapter or EAA dues. He is an avid airplane nut, loves the Chapter and its activities, and pitches in some way, but just can't swing it. In this case, the Chapter officers and the board can request, in writing, that the EAA Chapter Office extend a one-year complimentary membership. How about that? Now everyone is happy, and there is a one-year respite to solve the problem. Here's another benefit of membership for volunteers: the Chapter Event Insur­ ance covers them. If something happens when volunteers are parking airplanes, cooking pancakes, or serving coffee, they are covered! To qualify, though, they must be volunteers with the sanction of the Chapter officers and the board. With all the work that the Chapter Office does, I think it's accomplished a lot. Every base is covered. If a question comes up, and the answer isn't in the bylaws, then a call to EAA headquarters will get you an answer. An answer that benefits not only the Chapter, but also the member and the volunteer.

Jeff c. Smith Asheboro, NC

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The fo llowing list ofcoming events is furnished to our readers as a matter of informa­ tion only and does not constitute approval, sponsorship, involvement, control or direction ofany event (fly-in, seminars, fly market, etc.) listed. To submit an event, please log on to Only if Internet access is unavailable should you send the information via mail to:, Att: Vintage Airplane, P.O. Box 3086, Oshkosh, WI 54903-3086. Information should be received four months prior to the event date. FEBRUARY 22-Fort Pierce, FL-EAA Ch. 908 Fly-In Pancake Breakfast, Ft. Pierce Int'I Airport. Info: Paul, 772­ 464-0538 or AI, 772-461-7175. FEBRUARY 27- MARCH I -Missoula, MT-Montana Avia tion Conference, Hol­ iday Inn, Parkside. Workshops, seminars, nationally recognized speakers, trade show. Info: Montana Aeronautics Divi­ sion, P.O. Box 5178, Helena, MT 59604-5178. Phone 406-444-2506 or fax, 406-444-2519, e-mail MARCH 7-9-Casa Grande, AZ-45th annual Cactus Fly- In at Casa Grande Airport. Info: call John Engle, 480-987-5516 or Dave Sirota, 520-603-5440. MARCH I2-13-Romeoville, IL-29th Annual Genera l Aviation Maintenance Semina r. At Lewis University. Co­ sponsored by the Illinois DOT, the FAA and th e Professional Aviation Maintenance Association (PAMA). MARCH 22-Fort Pierce, FL-EAA C h . 908 Fly-In Pancake Breakfast, Ft. Pierce Int' l Airport. Info: Paul, 772­ 464-0538 or 772-461-7175. MARCH 20-23-Cincinnati, OH-14 th Annual Inti Women in Aviation Con­ ference. In fo: 386-226-7996. APRIL I9-Fort Pierce, FL-EAA Ch. 908 Fly-In Pancake Breakfast, Ft. Pierce In­ t'l Airport. In fo: Paul, 772-464-0538 or 772-461-7175. APRIL 27-HalfMoon Bay, CA-13 th An­ nual Pacific Coast Dream Machines Show, Half Moon Bay Airport. 10am­ 4pm . Admission $15 adults, $5 (age 5-14 & 65+), free for kids age 4 and under. Parking included in price of admission. Info: 650-726-2328, APRIL 2-S-Lakeland, FL-Sun ' n Fun EAA Fly- In . Info: 863-644-2431, MAY 4-Dayton, OH-EAA Ch. 48 40 th Annual Fly-In, Moraine Air Park (1-73). Info: Dennis 937-878-2647 or Mike 937-859-8967, MAY 4-Rockford, [L-EAA Ch. 22 Fly-In Drive­ In Breakfast, Greater Rid. Airport, Courtesy Aircraft Hanger. Info: 815-397-4995. MAY I6-IS-Kewanee, IL-Midwest Aeronca Fest (a nd old fashioned tail­ dragger) Fly-In, Kewanee Municipal Airport KEll. Info: 309-852-2594, e­ mail: jodydeb@inw. net.

MAY IS-R omeoville, JL-EAA C h. 15 32 nd Ann ual Fly-In Breakfast, Lewis University Airport (LOT), 7am-Noon. Info: George 630-243-8213. MAY IS-Troy, OH-VAA Ch . 36 Old Fashioned Barbeque Fly-In, WACO Field (1 WF), l1am-4pm,Young Eagle Flights. (Rain date for Young Eagle flights, June 22, Ipm-4pm) Info: 937-335­ 1444, e-mail: or 937-294-1107, e-mail MAY I6-2~Fayetteville, NC-Festival of Flight 2003. Info MAY 24-Fort Pierce, FL-EAA C h . 908 Fly-In Pancake Brea kfast, Ft. Pierce In­ t' l Airport. Info: Pau l, 772-464-0538 or AI, 772-46 1-7175. JUNE I4-I5-Toledo, OH-EAA Ch. 582 Fly-In, Metcalf Field (TDl) . Pull-A-Plane contest, Young Eagles, food, aircraft and auto displays. 9am-5pm. Info: Jo hn 419­ 666-0503 or JUNE 6-7-Bartlesville, OK-17th Annual Biplane Ex po. Info: C harlie Harris 918-665-0755, Fax 918-665­ 0039, . JUNE 6 -S-Alliance, OH-Mid-Eastern FUNK Aircraft O.A. Fly-In, Alliance­ Barber Airport, 201. In fo: 216-382-4821. JUNE 2I-22-Howell, MI-4th Annual Great Lakes Fly-In, Livingston County Airport (OXW). Hands-on workshops, seminars, and more. Info: 517-223­ 3233, AUGUST 29-3I-Sara nac Lake, NY­ Centennial of Flight Celebration Air Show.

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July 9-13, Arlington, WA (AWO) • EAA AirVenture Oshkosh

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Something to buy, sell or trade? Classified Word Ads: $5.50 p er 10 words, 180 words maximum, with bold­ face lead-in on first line. Classified Display Ads: One column wide (2.167 inches) by 1, 2, or 3 inches high at $20 per inch. Black and white only, and no frequency discounts. Advertising Closing Dates: 10th of sec­ ond month prior to desired issue date (Le., January 10 is th e closing date for the March issue). VAA reserves the right to re­ ject any advertising in conflict with its policies. Rates cover one insertion per is­ sue . Classified ads are not accept ed via phone. Payment must accompany order. Word ads may be sent via fax (920-426­ 4828) or e-mail (classads@eaa .org) using credit card payment (all cards accepted) . Include name on card, complete address, type of card, card number, and expiration date. Make checks payable to EAA. Ad­ dress advertising correspondence to EAA Publications Classified Ad Manager, P.O. Box 3086, Oshkosh, WI 54903-3086. BABBITT BEARING SERVICE - rod bearings, main bearings, bushings, master rods, valves, pis­ ton rings Call us Toil Free 1-800-233-6934, e-mail Web site VINTAG E ENGINE MACH INE WORKS , N. 604 FREYA ST., SPOKANE, WA 99202. Airplane T-Shirts

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ington , North Carolina. On departure from Wilmington the routing was always to DIXON , a military NDB that could not be re ceived on our civ i li an ADF. We would always locate it using LORAN . On this particular flight we were cleared for departure on Runway 35. I was used to the dril l. As we crossed the fence , the tower would pass us to departure con­ trol, and it would clear us direct to DIXON with an initial climb to 10,000 feet. After being passed to Washington Center, it would clear us up to FL 210. As I ta xied to the runway centerl ine and spooled up the turbochargers , an annun ciator started to flash . A quick glance warned that the LORAN had lost guidance and was searching for a new "chain ." There was no need to abort the takeoff so I released the brakes and commenced my takeoff roll. But now I was scrambling to quickly set in the coor­ d inates for DIXON in the RNAV unit , someth ing I had neglected to do after sta r t-up because my young passenger had asked me a question in the middle of my getting set for departure, thus in­ terrupting my sequence flow. I was still busy with the RNAV unit as I was passed to departure control and in­ structed , " Direct DIXON. " I knew the general direction, so I turned easterly as I finished dialing in the info to the RNAV. With DIXON now set , I settled into the climb . Soon Washington Center cleared us up into the flight levels . As we were passing through 14,000 feet, the sweet voice from my right queried , "So when do you take the gear up?" DUh . " Uh , I guess it might be safe to do that now." Boy, did I feel dumb! Be­ cause of the combination of distractions I had neglected to raise the landing gear. I suppose it could have been much worse . Those distractions might have oc­ curred during descent, and I would have missed lowering the gear, with obviously much greater consequences. Please strive to maintain a sterile cock­ pit whenever you are flying during periods of high workload. The time for idle cockpit conversation is not when operating in or near an airport environment . If you ask your passengers to refrain from chatting while you are busy, if they are smart, they will realize you are more than a good pilot ... you 're a great pilot. .......

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Ian Sanderson . . . . . .. Sandringham, Victoria, Australia Louis Churchville ...... . .......... Summerfield, NC Svanbjorn Sigurdsson .... . ..... . . . . Akureyri, Iceland Kevin D. King ........ . . .... .. . .... .. Pinnacle, NC Sesan Ibironke .. . ... . ..... . .... Emure-Ekiti, Nigeria Deborah Steele . . . .. . .. . .... .. .... Walnut Cove, NC Steinar Seavdal ............ . . .. . . Grimstad, Norway Scott Morgan .... . .. .. .... . .. . . . .. . .... . Allen, NE Gerry Raham .. . . . . . . . ......... Calgary, AB, Canada George C. Vossler . . .. . . . .. . . .. .. . .. . .. Auburn, NH Serge Beauchamp ......... . ... Montreal, po, Canada John Deneke ............. . .......... Glen Rock, NJ Russ Dunlap ........ . ..... . .... . .... . . Palmer, AK Karl A. Breister .... . .................. Minden, NV Norman Wiswell ........ . ... . ...... . . Auke Bay, AK Nicholas A. Derensis ....... . .. . . . .. . .. Norwich, NY Michael Caraway .............. ... ..... Decatur, AL Paul E. Middlebrook ... ..... . .. . . ... .. Penn Yan, NY William Shaver . . .. . . ..... ... .. . . . .. Huntsville, AL Paul Walter ..... . .. . . . . . ... . .... .. . Johnsburg, NY Harold Settle .... . ...... . .... . . North Little Rock, AR Donald Emch .. . .. . . . . .. . ........ . ... Bellevue, OH M. Edward Turnage .. . ... . . . . . .. . .. . . Little Rock, AR Dean Foppe .......... . ... ... .. ... .. . . Ottowa, OH Dave Goss .. . . . .... . . ... . . .. ... . .... . . Gilbert, AZ Carl J. Fuderer. .... ....... . .. . ........ Spencer, OH William C. McLearran . . . . . .... . ....... . Tucson, AZ Kevin J. Gassert ......... . ..... . .... Cincinnati, OH Marilyn F. Boese ........... . ........ Fort Bragg, CA John Kodysh .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .... North Ridgeville, OH Tony Calderon . .. . . . ... . ... . ... . .. .... . Norco, CA Hap Clarke .. .. . . . ..... . .. .. . . .. .. ... Portland, OR Phillip Gale . . ... . .... . .. . ..... . .... . El Cajon. CA John Pike .......... .. . . .. . . ...... Oregon City, OR Don Giacomo ....... . ... .. . .. . .. . . .. .. Rescue, CA Paul Tulacz .. ................. . ...... Portland, OR Mark Kosenski . .. . ......... . . . ....... San Jose, CA Harry C. Palmatier ..... .... .. . .... . Coudersport, PA William A. McMahon . . . ...... . . . . .. . Camarillo, CA Nancy Lee Salomon ............ . ... Spartanburg, SC Larry Muffly .... . . . . ....... . . .. . . . .. Elk Grove, CA Edward Shaffer ....... . .... . . ... . . . . Walterboro, SC Steve L. Randalls . . . ... ... . . . . . .... Nevada City, CA Eileen Wilson . .. ................... . . . .. Cross, SC Marice Robidoux . .. . . . ... ...... . .. . . . .. Yermo, CA Dan Krogstad ....... . .. . . . .. . .... .. .. Spearfish, SO Ron Sawyer . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . Columbia, CA Tom P. Cunningham .. . . . .. . .......... Nashville, TN David P. Smith . . . . . ... . . . ...... Pacific Palisades, CA Clarence E. Bell ...... . . .. . . .. .. . .. San Antonio, TX David Cole .. . ............ . ... .... .... Meeker, CO Paul Bretanus . . .. ... ... . .. . . .. ...... Deer Park, TX David Fogarty . ..... . .. . .. ... . . . .... Boca Raton, FL Michael G. Cunningham ...... .. . .. . . .. Garland, TX Otto Freund . . ............ . ... . . . .. Boca Raton, FL Fred N. Mair .... ............ . .......... Keller, TX William A. Kaser ... . . ....... ... .. . . . Vero Beach, FL Bob McCully ......... . .. . .... . .. .. . Streetman, TX Stephan Ley Kruse ..... .. . . . . . .. . Fort Lauderdale, FL Brent Meredith .......... . ............ Nocona, TX Todd Stuart . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . ... . . . . ... Key West, FL Walter Passmore .... . . . .. . . .. . . .. . .... McAllen, TX James D. Barlow ........... . ..... . .. . . . Duluth, GA Roger D. Peterson ..... . .. .. .. .. . . .. .. . . Sweeny, TX John C. Gower .. . . ... ..... ... . . .. .. Columbus, GA Scot A. Powell .. . .. . .. . . .. . . .. ... . ... El Campo, TX Paul M. Horovitz .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. Savannah, GA Robert Roth . ... . .. . .... . .. . .. . . ... Fort Worth, TX Bob A. Huegel . ...... . ... ... .... .... Burlington, IA Jack D. Teer ......... . .... . ...... .. .. . Kerrville, TX Edward Clark . ... . .... . ...... . . . .. . . . . Modesto, IL Hyral B. Walker . .... .. .. . . .. . .. . . . ... .. Lufkin, TX William C. Helvey ......... . . . . .. . . Poplar Grove, IL Michael S. Haas ....... . ..... . .. . .. . . Richmond, VA William J. Foraker .. . .. .. . ... . . . .... Terre Haute, IN EmilJ . KutiIek .. .............. . .. Charlottesville, VA King D. Anderson . . ...... . ... . ......... Lenexa, KS Rod Brown... ........... . ... . .... Sammamish, WA William Koelling.. .. .. .............. Great Bend, KS John B. Pilgrim .............. .. . . . . .. . Tenino, WA Jose Lopes . ........... . .. . ... . ... So. Portland, ME Donald Allen . . ... ........... . ....... Appleton, WI Harland Verrill . .. .... ... . . . . . .... ....... Flint, MI Gerald Cutsforth . .............. . .... Pewaukee, WI Stein Bruch . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . West Rosemont, MN Todd A. Dailing ... . .. . ........... Fort Atkinson, WI Les Heikkila ... . . . . . . . . ... . . ...... Chesterfield, MO Fredric M. Koblenzer . . . .. .. . .. . ...... Fox Point, WI Phillip R. Land ............ . .... .. .. . . Hartford, WI T. Douglas McCarlie ......... . . . .. . . . .. Summit, MS Richard C. Rutledge ..... . .. .. ... .. .... Oshkosh, WI lven Bryant . . . . ............. . . .. . . .. . Helena, MT Dave West. . . .. .... . ...... .. ......... Bloomer, WI Robert Allen . . .. .. .. . . . .. . .... . ..... Corneilus, NC 28


Membership Services Directo~ VINTAGE



EAA Aviation Center, PO Box 3086, Oshkosh WI 54903-3086

OFFICERS President f.spie 'Butch' Joyce P.O. Box 35584 Greensboro, NC 27425 336-668·3650 Secretary

Steve Nesse 2009 Highland Ave. Albert Lea, MN 56007 507·373·1674


George Daubner 2448 Lough Lane Hartford, WI 53027 262·673·5885

Treasurer Charles W. Harris 7215 East 46th 51. Tulsa, OK 74147 918·622·8400

DIRECTORS Steve Bender

815 Airport Road

Roanoke, TX 76262


sst l()(

Dale A. Gustafson 7724 Shady Hills Dr. Indianapolis, IN 46278 317·293-4430

David Bennett P.O. Box 1188 Roseville, CA 95678 916-645·6926

Jeannie Hill

P.O. Box 328

Harvard, lL 60033


John Berendt

7645 Echo Poin t Rd.

Cannon Falls, MN 55009


Steve Krog

1002 Heather Ln.

Hartford, WI 53027 262·966·7627

Robert C. "Bob" Brauer 9345 5. Hoyne Chicago, IL 60620 773·779·2105

Robert D. "Bob" Lumley 1265 South 124th Sl. Brookfield, WI 53005 262·782·2633

Dave Clark

Gene Monis

635 Vestal Lane Plainfield, IN 46168 317-839·4500


5936 Steve Court Roanoke, TX 76262 817·491·9110

John S. Copeland lA Deacon Street Northborough, MA 01532 5()8..393·4775

Dean Richardson 1429 Kings Lynn Rd Stoughton, Wl 53589 608·877·8485

Phil Coulson

284 15 Springbrook Dr.

Lawton, MI 49065



Geoff Robison

1521 E. MacGregor Dr.

New Haven, IN 46774


Roger Gomoll

8891 Airport Rd, Box C2

Blaine, MN 55449



S.H. "Wes" Schmid 2359 Lefeber Avenue Wauwatosa, WI 53213 414·771· 1545



Gene Chase 2159 Carlton Rd. Oshkosh, WI 54904 920·231·5002

Phone (920) 426-4800 Fax (920) 426-4873 Web Site: and E-Mail: vintage @

E.E. "Buck" Hilbert P.O. Box 424 Union, IL 60180 815·923·4S91

ADVISOR Alan Shackleton

P.O. Box 656

Sugar Grove, IL 60554·0656



EAA and Division Membership Services 800·843-3612 ....... . .. .. FAX 920-426-6761 Monday-Friday CST) (8:00 AM-7:00 PM • New/ renew memberships: EAA, Divisions (Vintage Aircraft Association, lAC, Warbirds), National Association of Flight Instructors (NAFI)

• Address changes • Merchandise sa les • Gift memberships

Programs and Activities EAA AirVenture Fax-On-Demand Directory ... ..... .... ... ........... 732·885-6711 Auto Fuel STCs ...... . ....... 920·426-4843 Build/ restore information ..... 920-426-4821 Chapters: locati ng/ organizing .. 920-426-4876 Education ............... . .. 920-426-681 5 • EAA Air Academy • EAA Scholarships

Flight Advisors infonnation .. .. 920-426-6522 Flight Instructor infonnation . .. 920-426-6801 Flying Start Program . .... ... .. 920-426-6847 Library Services/ Research ...... 920-426-4848 Medical Questions ............ 920-426-4821 Technical Counselors .... .. ... 920-426-4821 Young Eagles ..... .... ... .. .. 920-426-4831 Benefits AUA ................... . .. 800-727-3823 EAA Aircraft Insurance Plan . .. 866·647-4322 Term Life and Accidental ...... 800·241-6103 Death Insurance (Harvey Watt & Company) Editorial .. .......... ... ... . 920-426-4825

.................. .... . FAX 920-426-4828

• Submitting article/ photo • Advertising information EAA Aviation Foundation Artifact Donations ........... 920-426-4877 Financial Support . .. . . .... .. 800-236-1025


EAA Membership in the Experimental Aircraft Associ­ ation, Inc. is $40 for one year, induding 12 issues of SPORT AVIATION. Family membership is available for an additional $10 annually. Junior Membership (under 19 years of age) is available at $23 annually. All major credit cards accepted for membership. (Add $16 for Foreign Postage.)

VINTAGE AIRCRAFT ASSOCIATION Current EAA members may join the Vintage Aircraft Associaton and receive VINTAGE AIR­ PlANE magazine for an additional $36 per year. EAA Membership, VINTAGE A IRPLANE magazine and one year membership in the EAA Vintage Aircraft Association is available for $46 per year (SPORT AVIATION magazine not in­ cluded). (Add $7 for Foreign Postage.)

lAC Current EAA members may join the Interna­ tional Aerobatic Club, Inc. Division and receive SPORT AEROBATICS maga zin e for an addi­ tional $45 per year. EAA Membership, SPORT AEROBATICS magazin e and one year membership in the lAC Division is ava ilable for $55 per year (SPORT

AVIATION magazine not included) . (Add $15 for Foreign Postage.)

WARBIRDS Cu rrent EAA members may join the EAA War­ birds of America Division and receive WARBlRDS magaZine for an additional $40 per year. EAA Membership, WARBIRDS magaZine and one year membership in the Warbirds Divi· sion is availab le for S50 per yea r (SPORT AVIATION magazine not included). (A dd $7 for Foreign Postage.)

EAA EXPERIMENTER Current EAA members m ay receive EAA EXPERIMENTER magazine for an additi onal $20 per year. EAA Membership and EAA EXPERIMENTER magaZine is available for $30 per year (SPORT AVIATION magazine not included). (Add $8 for Foreign Postage.)

FOREIGN MEMBERSHIPS Please submit your remittance with a check or draft drawn on a United States bank payable in United States dollars. Add required Foreign Postage amount for each membership.

Membership dues to EAA and its divisions are not tax deductible as charitable contributions.

Copyright 102003 by the EM Vintage Aircrah Association All rights reserved. VINTAGE AIRPlANE (ISSN 009t ·6943) IPM t482802 is published and owned exclusively by the EM Vintage Aircraft Association of the Experimental Aircrah Association and is published monthly at EM Aviation Center, 3000 Poberezny Rd.. PO. Box 3088, Oshkosh, Wisconsin 54903·3088. Periocicals Postage paid at Oshkosh, Wisconsin 54901 and at additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to EAA Vintage Aircraft Association. PO. Box 3088, Oshkosh, WI 54903·3088. Return Canadian issues to Station A. PO Box 54. Windsor, ON N9A 6J5. FOREIGN AND APO ADDRESSES - Please allow at least two months IOf delivery of VINTAGE AIRPlANE to loreign and APO addresses via suriace mail. ADVERTISING - Vintage Aircrah Association does not guarantee Of endorse any procuct offered through the advertising. We inv~e constructive criticism and welcome any report of inferior merchandise obtained through our advertising so that corrective measures can be taken. EDITORIAl POLICY: Readers are encouraged to submit stories and photographs. Policy opinions expressed in articles are solely those of the authors. Responsibility for accuracy in reporting rests entirely with the contributOf. No reoumeration is made. Material should be sent to: Editor, VINTAGE AIRPLANE, P.O. Box 3088. Oshkosh. WI 54903·3086. Phone 920/426-4800. EAAf) and SPORT AVIATIO~. the EAA Log~ and Aeronautica ~ are registered trademar1<s. trademarks, and service marks of the Experimental Aircraft Association, Inc. The use of these trademarks and service marks without the permission of the Experimental Aircrah Association, loc. is strictly prohib~ed . The EAA AVIATION FOUNDATION Logo is a trademark 01 the EM Aviation Foundation, loc. The use 01 this trademark without the permission of the EM Aviation Foundation, loc. is strictly prohibited.



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FROM US AND CANADA (All OTHERS 920路426路5912)


PO BOX 3086

OSHKOSH, WI 54903-3086

• • on Ford HENRY FORD, foander - I

do not consider the machines which bear my name simply

as machines. If that were all there were to it I would do something else. Power and ma~

are asefal only as they set as free to live. They are bat means to an end.

.r:nT:ID:i'~ - BILL FORD, Chairman and CEO



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