Page 1


VOL. 31 , No. 12


VAA NEWS/H.G. Frautschy
















PAS S IT TO BUCK/Buck Hilbert







Publisher Editor-in-Chief Executive Editor News Editor Photography Staff Advertising Coordinator Advertising Sales Advertising/Editorial Assistant Copy Editing




Executive Director, Editor VAA Administrative Assistant Contributing Editors


Front Cover: EAA's historically accurate reproduction of the 1903 Wright Flyer was painstakingly built by the Wright Experience of Warrington, Virginia . It has been the centerpiece of EAA's Cou ntdown to Kitty Hawk, presented by Ford Motor Company, and wi ll be t he Flyer used to recreate the Wright brothers first powered flight at 10:35 am on December 17, 2003. EAA digital photo by EAA Chief photog足 ra pher, Jim Koepnick. Back Cover: Resting sideways on its launch ing rail in the cool sunshine of a win足 te r' s day on North Carolina's Outer Banks, the 1903 Wright Flyer is ready to fly four t imes on December 17th. It would never fly again after that amazing day. Wright Brothers/Library of Congress digital fi le LC-DIG-ppprs-00615 .

From the Vintage Aircraft Association

Board of Directors and



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Same-day coverage of EAA's Countdown to Kitty Hawk cele­ bration, including footage from the re-creation of the Wright brothers' first flight in EAA's au­ thentic reproduction 1903 Wright Flyer, will be broadcast on The Discovery Channel at 9 p.m. ET on Wednesday, December 17. The program will include portions of Discovery's The Wright Brothers: First in Flight, which first aired in September. The original program contained significant coverage of EAA's Countdown to Kitty Hawk celebra­ tion, presented by Ford Motor Company, and the construction of the Flyer by The Wright Experience in Warrenton, Virginia. The docu­ mentary follows the parallel paths of the Wrights in 1903 and The Wright Experience in 2003 as Ken Hyde and his team employ reverse­ engineering to interpolate the brothers' design process and re­ sults from existing Wright aircraft and parts, family correspondence, and other sources. In the documentary EAA Presi­ dent Tom Poberezny describes the centennial celebration's sig­ nificance along with EAA's Countdown to Kitty Hawk festiv­ ities, which culminate in the actual flight of the Flyer repro­ duction precisely at 10:35 on December 17, 2003, weather per­ mitting . The program will be repeated at midnight and the next day at noon.





The EAA Air Academy 2004 ses­ sion schedules are now available at 2 DECEMBER 2003 A one-of­

a-kind experience, the summer program offers three camp levels for young aviation enthusiasts: pri­ mary (ages 12-13), intermediate

(ages 14-15), and advanced (ages 16-18). Downloadable Air Acad­ emy application links are located on each camp web page for your convenience.


One Million Young Eaghts!

In a recent local feature story about the EAA Young Eagles pro­ gram, pilot Rick Ellis·(EAA 469164) of Freeport, IllinOiS, said, "Who knows? The millionth Young Ea­ gle could be someone who flew out of this airport." That comment became prophecy on October 25, 2003, when Rick took 15-year-old An­ drew Grant, from nearby German Valley, for his Young Eagles flight at the Albertus Airport (FEP). They didn't know it at the time, but Andrew be­ came the one-millionth Young Eagle entered into EAA's official register, the World's Largest Logbook. That entry realized a goal EAAers started working toward in July 1992. Rick is president of EAA Chapter 475 and the Young Eagles coordi­ nator for Chapters 475 and 22. A sophomore at nearby Forreston High School, Andrew is the son of Becky and Tom Grant. Andrew and Rick will be EAA's guests at the Centennial of Flight celebration at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, on December 17. Following the EAA Count­ down to Kitty Hawk Wright Flyer's re-enactment of the first flight at 10:35 a.m., Andrew will join EAA Young Eagles Chairman Gen. Chuck Yeager for a ceremonial flight to commemorate the million Young Ea­ gles flown and to honor the more than 35,000 pilots and 50,000 ground volunteers who made it happen. Looking to the Future While EAA fine-tunes the program's future, one thing is certain: EAA Young Eagles will continue to expose children between 8 and 17 to the wonders of personal flight through an introductory aircraft ride. "We've proven that we're pretty good at flying kids, so we'll con­ tinue to do that," said Young Eagles Director Steve Buss. "Except we want to make a child's flight an even more valued experience by fol­ lowing up more effectively and facilitating those who wish to continue in aviation, whether that's someone pursuing a private pilot certificate, an aeronautical degree, an aviation career, or whatever." Thousands of children have used their Young Eagles flight as a springboard to a lifetime of aviation, Buss said, but the program has had an equally profound effect on the volunteer pilots and ground crews. "This has been a tremendously exciting year for the Young Ea­ gles program, but I'm even more excited about the potential the program holds for the future."

PROPOSED AIR TouR! CHARITABLE AIRLIFT RULE RELEASED EAA Young Eagtes flights not affected The FAA's recently published no­ tice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) that suggests improve­ ments in national air tour safety could have adverse effects on commercial sightseeing flight oper­ ations and some charitable fund raising flight operations. But it would not affect the EAA Young Ea­ gles program. The proposal allows for continued charity flights by en­ tities such as EAA Chapters under similar restrictions to the current EAA drug-testing exemption. EAA and its affiliate, the Na­ tional Association of Flight Instructors (NAFI ), each plan to submit comments aimed at allow­ ing continued operations for charitable fundraising flights and to ensure that the operation of flight experiences in vintage air­ craft such as EAA's Ford Tri-Motor will continue. Both organizations will make their comments public before the comment deadline, Jan­ uary 20, 2004 . It will take the FAA at least a year before a final rule be­ comes effective. The proposed rule is modeled on Special Federal Aviation Regula­ tion (SFAR) 71, which FAA credits with Significantly lowering the air tour accident rate in Hawaii. FAA now seeks to apply the regulations throughout the country. TONY MARKL Through a layout error, our au­ thor on hand propping airplanes was misidentified last month. The correct spelling is Tony Mark!. Our thanks to Tony for sharing his ex­ pertise, and our apologies for the misspelling. Tony also teaches and does fabric work at the customer's lo­ cation-check out his website



To be considered for induction into the VAA Hall of Fame during 2004, petitions must be received by December 30, 2003. If you wish to nominate an individual who you believe has made a significant contribu­ tion to the advancement of aviation between 1950 and the present day, please make a copy of the form on this page (or download it at www. programs/ vaa_hof.pdf) , fill it out, add sup­ porting material, and send it to: Charles W. Harris VAA Hall of Fame

P.O. Box 470350 Tulsa, OK 74147-0350 Be as thorough and objective as pOSSi­ ble. Attach copies of materials you deem appropriate and helpful to the committee. The person you nominate can be a citizen of any country and may be living or deceased. His or her contribution could be in the areas of flying, deSign, mechanical or aerodynamic develop­ ments, administration, writing, or some other vital, relevant field; or any combi­ nation of fields that support vintage aviation.

EAA Vintage Aircraft Association Hall of Fame Nominating Petition Note: To be considered for induction into the VAA Hall of Fame, petitions MUST be received by December 30th of 2003. Person nominated for induction into the VAA Hall of Fame: Name : ________________________________________________ Street: ___________________________ City: ____________________ State: ___________ Zip: _ _ _ _ _ _ Phone: _____________________ Date of Birth: ________ If Deceased , Date of Death: ________________ Name and relationship of closest living relative : __________________________ Street: City: ----,-,_______________________ State: Zip: Phone : ____________________ Email Address: _____________________________________________ Time span (dates) of the nominee's contributions to aviation:

(Must be between 1950 to present day.) ________________________________

Area(s) of contributions to aviation: _________________________________

Describe the event(s) or nature of activities the nominee has undertaken in aviation to be worthy of induction into the VAA Hall of Fame: ________________________

Describe other achievements the nominee has made in other related fields in aviation:

Has the nominee already been honored for his/her involvement in aviation and/or the contribution you are stating in this petition? (Circle one) Yes No If yes, please explain the nature of the honor and/or award the nominee has received:

Additional Information: _________________________________

Person submitting this petition: ___________________________________ Street: _________________________ City: ____________________ State: .,....,..._______________Zip: __________ Phone: _ _ _ _ _ __ Email Address: ___________________________________________ Please attach any supporting material with your petition for the committee's review. Mail to: Charles Harris, VAA Hall of Fame , P.O. Box 470350, Tulsa , OK 74147-0350 VINTAGE AIRPLANE


. . .~8. .


Thanks for the Help

In the August edition of Vintage Airplane there is an article by Richard Hill titled, "The Lockheed Constitution." For what it's worth, I would like to add my two cents. I was a midshipman at the U.S. Naval Academy and flew around the country in the summer of 1952 on this bird . It was a program called Air C ru ise, as opposed to summer cruises on ships. I can re­ call sitting in a window seat and watching the exhaust system of the No.3 engine light up to bright red at each takeoff through the open "gills." Later on in my life I recall seeing one of the Constitutions parked, and neglected but not abandoned, at the Sebring airport in Florida . I used to go there for the 12-hour sports car races in March. I believe this was between '60 and '63 . If Mr. Hill is correct about it ending at Ft. Lauderdale, that would ex­ plain why it disappeared from Sebring in this era. Donald (Stu) Sammis Titusville, Florida USNA '53

Restoring an antique airplane calls for many different kinds of skills . And, like most people I found myself deficient in some categories . Woodworking was the biggest problem, both from an ex­ perience level and having tools to make complex parts. My current project is a Fairchild 24W, and it has a lot of wood which has suffered neglect and exposure to the elements. It would have been convenient to go to the nearest Fairchild store to buy some of these wood parts. But, the Fairchild store is as much of the past as the hand craftsmanship employed to build this old airplane back in 1939. Fortunately I know a young man who is a furniture maker. In fact, he's a third-generation wood craftsman and has studied under American and European artisans. He works with hand tools as well as power tools. He primarily builds elegant custom fur­ niture from old-growth, tight-grained wood which is highly figured. His work is like fine art you'd expect in a known gallery. So, I felt privileged that he found it interesting and en­ joyable to make some airplane pieces for me. And, at a reasonable price! All I supplied was the aircraft grade Sitka spruce and enough of the old tattered parts to get some dimensions. I'd like to share his name and ad­ dress with others who might be "wood challenged" like myself: Mr. Frank Straza 329 Coastal Lane Waco, TX 76705 254-715-6660


Emergency Notes I just received the November is­ sue of Vintage Airplane and read Doug Stewart's article on emer­ gencies. Having been a pilot for 22 years and with 5,000 hours, I have declared four emergencies and have had the tower declare one for me. Of these five emer­ gencies, only two had any kind of paperwork: a firefighter from the crash truck filling out an event log wanting to know my name and address, the aircraft owner's name and address, and the nature of the emergency. During one of the other emergencies, I had landed at an uncontrolled field after squawking 7700, and I was requested to call the Center su­ pervisor. He just wanted to know if the plane and everyone on board landed safely. I said, "yes," and he responded with "Thank you very much!" So much for the "dreaded paperwork"! As an instructor I emphasize to my students that if there is a seri­ ous problem, don't hesitate, declare the emergency. I still re­ member the words spoken by one of the firefighters as he filled out his form. The tower had declared the emergency after I had advised them that I had an alternator fail­ ure, and that I might be losing the radios. I apologized to the fire­ fighter for them being called out. His words: "We would rather be early and not needed, than to be too late when we were needed." Scott Gifford Via e-mail Prescott, Arizona 4


Donna Morris has advised us that Worldwide Aircraft Recovery Ltd. will be starting the first part of the"Her­ culean effort" to make the Goliath a proper item for museum viewing. They expect to start disassembling the XC-99 around the first of the year to begin its trip to the United States Air Force Mu­ seum in Dayton, Ohio.

Miller Highlights Just a note to tell you how much I enjoy and appreciate the articles in Vintage Airplane by Mr. John Miller. He mentioned in his August article that his first solo was December 25, 1923. I was born just three days later, so you see, I'm getting a little long in the tooth myself. Men like Mr. Miller were my heroes when I was growing up, and he is my hero now. Thanks to you, and thanks to Mr. Miller for some wonderful reading. Regards, Remo Galeazzi Petaluma, California

( Dal Donner Via e-mail Clifton, Texas IF YOU ' D LIKE TO DROP




P.O. Box 3086 OSHKOSH , WI 54903-3086 OR E-MAIL US AT VINTAGE@EAA . ORG .


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world, quite a significant time; it marks the year of a major milestone in the Wright brothers' accomplishments that cre­ ated the flying machine. But I've often wondered why, for centuries and centuries, this did not happen. I often imagined men and women lying on the beaches of the Mediter­ ranean, or other beaches, watching the seagulls fly ... wishing that they too could view the earth from a different aspect other than the mountaintop. It took two gentlemen from our fine country, after years of study and dreaming, to accomplish controlled flight, though it was very short in time and distance. It was a great accomplishment that was quickly surpassed by the brothers, and now even by our EAA folks of today. It would have been in the realm of science fiction to dream what some in the EAA family have accomplished in the air. Records set and broken, beautiful airplanes built. Who could have imagined that one day two people would be flying around the world in a homemade airplane, non-refueled, nonstop? We saw World War I advance avia­ tion at a tremendous rate. It's hard to imagine from 1903 until 1914 and then 1915 to 1916 to see how great the advancement in airplanes was ... steel tube fuselages, more reli­ able engines, all in such a short time. Then through the '20s we again saw great progress. The thought of com­ mercial airline service, improved aircraft, in conjunction with the free­ doms that we enjoy to create, working with hand and mind, has made possible airplanes that even the Wright brothers did not imagine.

So much had happened before they got involved in the solution. During the 1850s and well into the early 1900s, ballooning became quite popular. Men and women were reaching for the sky. There were crude attempts at flight, and gliders, whether it was in Europe or with Chanute along the shores of Lake Michigan. It seems that for whatever reason, it was time to fly. To put forth the mind's efforts to solve the problems in which gravity had al­ ways defied us. Of course one can look at the jet airplanes of today, the fighters and so forth, and the equip­ ment; it's hard to imagine an airplane taking off straight up, pro­ pelled by the exhaust of the jet engines. Yet we marvel at it when the Harrier takes off and lands at our annual convention. Where will it go in the future? We don't know. But just take a look at what EAA has created as an organi­ zation, tapping minds; men and women putting hands and minds to work to be creative, to design air­ planes that are much improved over what our factories produced in the '20s, '30s, '40s and '50s, '60s and on into the '70s. And to be able to earn this freedom, to work with hand and mind is something that we must cherish. I'm pleased I've had a small, a very small part in this, working with our federal aviation agencies, CAA, and also with the men and women at those times and even to­ day. The barriers that held back the average citizen from building inno­ vative aircraft were overcome years ago, and aircraft construction has become so popular that it has really paved the way for continued growth of aviation for the average person. The educational aspects of it have

been tremendous. Solving the prob­ lems, coming up with new ideas, new materials, and ways to use the materials that are used in other ele­ ments of our life. They might come from industry, whether it's automo­ tive, boats, something completely unrelated, any of which can be used to make a better flying machine. As many of you in VAA know, you can't make progress unless you know the past. And of course with our an­ tique and vintage aircraft, they were the stepping stones, even for myself, with my American Eagle powered with a WW I OX-5 engine. It had two wings; back then airplanes weren't re­ ally airplanes unless they had two wings to provide not only the beauty, but also the extra lifting power you could get in a given wingspan. So I'm really pleased to see those of you in VAA who love history, save that his­ tory by maintaining and restoring vintage aircraft. And also you see that with our military aircraft of WW I, with the ]ennys and aircraft through the '20s, '30s, '40s, '50s ... that's why it's important to have a group, and organization, under the umbrella of EAA, for those who like that particu­ lar time of history, to preserve that part. Think of the amazing airplanes we've seen, thanks to those of you who love this aircraft genre. Steve Pit­ cairn's Pitcairn Autogiro, or Harold Armstrong's grand champion Aeronca Champ. How about the Sikorsky fly­ ing boats, or the Wacos, Travel Airs, and so many others we see each year. Keep restoring them, and we'll help you educate the public about these great machines, so they too can ap­ preciate history. ..... VINTAGE AIRPLANE



Does Santa

Use a GPS?



hristmas time is here by golly, Dis­ approval would be folly.... " The words of that vintage Christmas song by Tom Lehrer brought a smile to my face as I deleted, one by one, the numerous spam e-mails I had re­ ceived, trying to sell this, that, and the other thing for Christmas. In­ terestingly enough several of these were aviation related. As more pilot shops go online, they add to the onslaught of junk mail that now comes to us electronically. And just as their advertisements are elec­ tronic, much of what they offer seems to be electronic. It is amazing to see how elec­ tronic technology is making such rapid advances in the realm of cockpit aids. We can buy portable GPS units that give us a panel of enough information to allow us to fly our aircraft with confidence even if we have had a vacuum sys­ tem failure, and an electrical failure (provided we have fresh batteries in the unit). We can buy panel­ mounted units that can give us almost as much information as the MFDs that are in the cockpits of the airliners. There are portable de­ vices available that come close to the glass cockpits found in the heavy metal. We can buy headsets that elec­ tronically cancel all the noise that enters the tiny microphones imbedded in the earcups. All kinds of "noise" disappears the moment 6 DECEMBER 2003

you turn on the switch. Engine noises disappear (gee ... I kinda like the sound of that round en­ gine, oh well. .. ), all kinds of cockpit noise is canceled, even the sound of the gear warning horn, as one pilot claimed after landing his Cutlass gear-up at my home base this past summer.

But wait, you say. This is Vintage Airplane . magazIne.

We fly old planes.

We don't use

that stuff.

For those of us with PDAs we can upload NEXRAD radar, METARS, TAFS, PIREPS ... and the list goes on. We can use it as a mov­ ing map and overlay terrain warnings, radar pictures, and then toggle to a checklist of things to do. It can be used as an attitude in­ dicator if you have a portable gyro plugged in. I wouldn't be surprised to find out that someone is work­ ing on a way to hook it up to an autopilot, give it a synthesized voice to communicate with ATC (using a downloaded aviation vo­

cabulary), have a wire attached to your wrist that would send a small electronic shock to wake you up at a preset time. You could go to sleep shortly after leveling off, sleeping soundly with the confidence that the PDA would command the air­ craft to avoid all other aircraft with the information it was receiving from the uploaded TCAS. But wait, you say. This is Vintage Airplane magazine. We fly old planes. We don't use that stuff. Well ... let me tell you. Walk the lines of vintage aircraft at EAA Air­ Venture Oshkosh or Sun 'n Fun EAA Fly-In, and I think that you will find all kinds of these aids in the cockpits of these gorgeous ma­ chines . Perhaps the panels might be original, but somewhere in the cockpit resides some type of hand­ held device. For those of us who fly vintage airplanes, but choose not to show" them, we also have panel-mounted equipment. I know that when I was negoti­ ating the purchase of my PA-12, there was a Garmin 150 GPS mounted in the panel. I asked the seller how much he would reduce the price if he removed the unit before the sale, thinking to myself /I

that I would never have any use for such stuff. (Bac k then I still used paper and pencil to write with, being of a somewhat anti­ techno mentality.) I planned to use this airplane to fly low and slow using pilotage to wend my way. Why would I want GPS in this air­ plane? Since the reduction in price the seller offered was nowhere near the value of the unit, I decided to in­ clude the GPS in the purchase. I have never regretted that decision. I have come to realize that when I have to get somewhere in my Super Cruiser in a hurry, the quickest flight is also the shortest line. It doesn't get any shorter than the great circle route. I don't always use the GPS, but it is great to have ac­ cess to all the information the device offers. Not only is the short­ est route depicted, how fast we are flying along that route, seeing our arrival time, and time enroute be­ ing constantly updated, but also the nearest airports, navaids and fre­ quencies can be found in short order. I can find out at a few button touches exactly where the wind is blowing from and its velocity. Air­ port diagrams and information can be quickly brought to the fore. On and on the list goes. GPS navigators have so much information stored inside their memory. The problem is that we quickly become dependent upon these wonderful devices. Before long the sectional chart has become rele­ gated to the back of the cockpit, its expiration date long since past. And not only is that chart eroding into a pile of tattered paper, but our pi­ lotage skills are doing the same at about the same rate. We easily lapse into complacency about charts when we can see a moving map clamped to our yoke, redrawing faster than the blink of our eyes. If you are the owner of GPS equipment, when was the last time you went flying and left the unit in your flight bag? On purpose, not by accident. When was the last time that you drew a course line on a

chart, and plotted the true course and converted tha t to magnetiC course? Do you still remember how? Do you remember how to navigate using that most basic and simplest of techniques, pilotage? We all had to demonstrate our knowledge of the technique on our private pilot checkride, but for many of us de­ pendence and reliance upon GPS navigation has allowed that skill to be forgotten. I remember a flight not long ago that I shared with a dear friend and flying companion. She flew the outbound leg up into the Adirondacks using her handheld GPS to guide her while I sat relax­ ing in the back. The views were awe-full. High mountain peaks stood guardian over crystal lakes. It was fantastic. On the return flight we swapped seats and I would fly us back home. I decided to turn the panel mounted GPS off and just use map and compass for my navigation. My companion took her handheld unit in back with her. I didn't miss any of the spec­ tacular scenery on the flight home, with my head inside the cockpit looking at my GPS. Instead, I used the scenery to help guide me. You can imagine my delight when she informed me upon arrival back home that I never wandered more than three quarters of a mile off course during the entire flight back. So I would like to suggest that if you do use GPS for naVigation , turn it off occasionally and try us­ ing plain old pilotage. Not only will it help to refresh yo ur skills, but it can give wonderful satisfac­ tion knowing that you would not be lost if your GPS quit working. It's one of those things that we can do to aid in the transition from good GREAT pilot.

Happy Holidays to you all! And if anyone asks you what I might want for Christmas, I think one of those cell phones that displays NEXRAD radar would be just fine. It's time to trade in my tin cans and string. .....





























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The Daniels/Wright Photograph H.G. FRAUTSCHY


he image of that first pow­ ered flight by the Wright brothers on December 17, 1903, is indelibly marked in our minds. But the more I look at the photo, the more I realize I haven't really "seen" it at all. Subtle clues abound in the delicate fine­ grain emulsion painted on the S-by-7-inch glass-plate negative that was loaded in Orville Wright's Gundlach Korona box camera that cold morning. With the knowledge gained dur­ ing their attempted flight on December 14th, Orville placed his camera, mounted on a wooden tri­ pod, to the rear and right (to the southeast) of their flying machine, with the lens pointing to the oppo­ site end of the launching railing. In the full frame of the original photo­ graph, you can see the starting end of the rail on the very edge of the left side, just above the cracked off corner of the original negative. Without that starting point refer­ ence, it's hard to tell just how long their "Junction Railroad" (so dubbed by Wilbur) track extends to the left of the viewer. In fact, it was only 60 feet long, just a little under three times the overall length of the 21 feet, 1 inch long Flyer. The rail was made up of four IS-foot sections, each topped with a thin metal strip. Orville Wright knew exactly how he wanted the shot composed, and he set up the camera precisely



where it would show, with just one photograph, the entire vista of what he was pretty sure would be their first flight. By showing the entire launching rail, Orville could ensure that no one could dispute the length of the takeoff run, or claim the Wrights had actually started heading down­ hill and had simply taken off from a flat section of the rail. By putting the takeoff end of the rail in the center of the frame, he gave plenty of room for the person who would trip the shutter to get the Flyer in mid-air, even if the shutter bulb was squeezed late. What has been often named "the photograph of the century" was al­ most not taken. John T. Daniels, one of the men assigned to the Kill Devil Coast Guard station south of the Wrights' camp at Kill Devil Hills, had been a fascinated helper of the Wrights during their visits to the Outer Banks. After Orville had placed the camera, he chose Daniels to stand watch and trip the shutter, giving him instructions to squeeze the pneumatic bulb that would ac­ tuate the shutter when the Flyer reached the end of the rail. Daniels later said that he was so excited by the vision of the Flyer rising from the rail that he nearly forgot to squeeze the bulb, and wasn't sure at all that he'd actually taken the pho­ tograph! Perhaps he was so excited by the sight he tripped the shutter

by accident. In either case, after the flight, Orville checked the camera and saw that the shutter had been tripped. Daniels took a very memo­ rable photograph , but they wouldn 't know what it looked like until the Wrights returned to Day­ ton and developed all of the negatives in their darkroom. Amaz­ ingly, it's one of the clearest photographs taken during their 1903 stay on the Outer Banks. What Daniels captured in that moment is fascinating. By virtue of the large glass plate negative coated with a remarkably fine­ grain emulsion, we can take a peek at a number of details that at first glance are overlooked. (We've cho­ sen to not retouch in any way this first generation scan of the glass plate negative. We did crop a small section of the bottom of the photo off of our reproduction, but have kept the bro­ ken corner within the reproduction of the photograph.-Editor) First, let's look at the orientation of the photograph. You're looking with J.T. Daniels towards the north­ west, and you can see a few sand dunes in the distance. The brisk, chilly wind that morning was out of the north, with the track laid out into the wind, just about 200 feet to the west/northwest of the Wrights' two camp buildings. In a pair of photographs (see right) taken earlier in the fall that year, the area where water had collected

in a low depression in the sand is plainly visible beyond the sheds. You can also see a couple of the sand dunes that ran along the Albe­ marle Sound side of the Outer Banks from Kill Devil Hills north to Kitty Hawk. The same hills are the ones visible in the first flight photo­ graph of the Flyer. On the left side of the photo­ graph, the footprints of the brothers and their helpers are plainly visible around the perimeter of the right wing as the Flyer was prepared for flight. Orville explained the differ­ ence in the appearance of the sand around the launch area in the book How We Invented the Airplane, cur­ rently in print by Dover Press. "This track was laid in a small de­ ression, which a few days before ad been covered by water. We ose this spot because the action of the water had leveled it so nearly flat that little preparation of the ground was necessary in order to lay the track." On the right end of the airplane's foot-printed outline is a small foot­ stool or bench, with a large C-clamp across the center support of the . Ken Hyde of the Wright Expe­ believes they used the clamp gently secure the wingtip of the jl H<.Ll1H.C to the bench, to prevent the from rocking too much from to side in the breezy conditions as they prepared it for flight. To the bench's right,

The Wrights' camp is in the lower center of this photograph of the 1902 glider being flown on October 21, 1903. The water-filled area just to the left of the camp would be the site ofthe four powered flights on December 17th. The slightly irregular horizon on the left is the series ofsand dunes that stretch along the Albemarle Sound side of the Outer Banks from Kill Devil Hills to Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. W RIGHT SlATE UNIVERSr,-y ARCHIVES, W RIGHT BROTHER.' COLLECTION COURTF~W OF SPECIAL COLl.E<...-rIONS ANO ARCHIVES, W RIGHT STATE UNIVERSITY

there is the starting battery, with its kinky, stiff wire sticking out of the wooden box. It was used to start the engine of the Flyer, which was also equipped with a dynamo. A battery was needed to supply enough elec­ tricity to generate a spark within the primitive make-or-break igni­ tion system used for the engine. There's also a shovel and a small can, which, according to Th e Pa­ pers of Wilbur and Orville Wright edited by Marvin

W. McFarland, contained "nails, tacks and a hammer in it, for emer­ gency repairs." No citation for the source of that description is given. There appears to be at least two other small items obscured by the shovel and battery box. Further to the right of the objects on the ground is a small flat object, per­ haps a foot square, and an inch or so thick, most likely a board of some sort. Returning to the Flyer, it's caught in mid-air after just lifting off from the launching rail at the joint of the third and fourth rails. It has perhaps another 90 to 100 feet yet to fly on this first attempt. The bot­ toms of Orville's shoes layover the top of the footrest they provided

Another view of the camp, with the low dunes to the west ofcamp visible in the background. Compare those two hills to the same pair shown in the first flight photo. The Flyer was wheeled in and out of the shed sideways, using the same trolley and a couple ofthe rail sections that would be used to launch the flight. VINTAGE AIRPLANE


near the lower wing's trailing edge, and you can see Orville lean­ ing on his right elbow, with his left arm pushed out to the left. In his left hand, he has the control stick for the elevator (they called it the "front rudder ") fully aft, a control input that was taken out probably within a second or two after the shutter was tripped. He's just slid his body and the wing-warping control cradle over to the right, in an effort to pick up the left wing, which dipped just slightly at this early stage of the flight. The small cylindrical object mounted on the wing interplane strut to the left of Orville is the gasoline tank. The radiator for the engine is mounted to the next strut over, immediately to the right of the pilot's position. ] ust barely visible at the bottom of the front crosspiece is the bicycle hub used as a guide for the Flyer as it rolled down the launching rail. Below it you can see the two­ wheeled truck with the crosspiece used to hold up the aft end of the Flyer as it rolled down the rail. In the photo, it has just left the rail and impacted the ground, with a little bit of sand flying up in the air. In other photographs of the Flyer taken that December, the wheeled truck is seen as it was used to trans­ port the Flyer out of the hangar shed, which was constructed after the Wrights' arrival in late Septem­ ber of 1903. The propped-up doors of the shed (the building had swing-up doors on each end) would not allow the airplane to be slid out with its wings in what years later would be­ come a traditional method of airplane storage. Instead, it came out wingtip first, with the wheeled truck under the Flyer, parallel with the wings. The brothers and their 10


temperature of about 35 degrees, the density altitude that morning would have been very conducive to getting the maximum performance possible from the Flyer and its propulsion system. The addition of Wilbur on the right side of the photograph adds a perfect human element to it, and his pose is memorable. The wind they were bucking is billowing ou Wilbur's suit, his pant legs being filled with air, as is his jacket. His cap is pulled firmly down nearly to his ears, and his celluloid collar is clearly visible above the collar of his suit jacket. He must have been rather cold, as was his brother, since the temperature was just barely above freezing. It was 33 de­ grees at 8 o'clock that morning, with a high of 37 later in the day, and the wind was howling out of the north/northeast, according to the logs of Weather Bureau observer ].]. Dosher at his station in Kitty Hawk.

helpers would then wheel it out of the hangar shed, moving it outside on a couple of sections of the 15­ foot section of rail. Given the cold, nasty weather conditions on December 17,1903, it's no surprise they r:;---;r - - - - - -.........- - - - - - - - - ­---, only moved the air­ plane about 200 feet to the west of their hangar shed. Besides the obvious fact that this photo­ graph has captured such a momentous event, it really is a very well composed photograph. The Wrights' flying ma­ chine is certainly fascinating. You can clearly see the en­ gine's large flywheel turning 1,000 rpm, and the chains driv­ ing the propellers at just a little more than 350 rpm as One of the most interesting as­ the engine strains to produce 12 hp pects of Wilbur's presence in the and propel the 675-pound biplane photograph are his footsteps, which forward against a gusty 24-26 mph can be clearly followed from the blast of frigid air. That cold, dense right wingtip to the point where air certainly contributed to the suc­ he's nearly stopped and at the end cess of the Flyer that morning . A of his run alongside the Flyer. strong high pressure ridge was "Nearly stopped," you ask? Sure! Look closely at the foot­ building from the west, and cou­ pled with the camp's elevation of prints, and you'll see they're close continued on page 25 only 11 feet above sea level, and a

Barnstormers and the

Harrington Funk

Writing off an aircraft the hard way GERALD




ne of the things about be­ ing my age is the fact that I'm old enough to re­ member seeing the last of the old-fashioned barnstormer air shows, but still young enough to en­ joy flying today, and still have enough memory left to put together this story of an air show held 54 years ago! As the beautiful June day at the air show drew near an end, with the usual air show stunts completed to the pleasure of the crowd, the an­ nouncer called the crowd's attention to a board wall that had been built just off the side of the runway. The fi­ nal event of the Second Annual Harrington, Delaware, Air Show Oune 12, 1949) was to be an airplane crash­ ing into the board wall. The plane took off with Earl L. Newton Jr. at the controls . As the plane climbed and circled the field, the announcer ad­ vised the crowd that the crash was to be photographed by a number of photographers on the field for a story to be used in the Parade section of the Philadelphia Inquirer newspaper. As this was going to be a one-shot op­ portunity, the crowd was asked to stay behind the camera crew until af­ ter the stunt was over. As the circling plane approached the field on its flight toward the wall, it dropped to less then lO feet above the ground, the crowd holding its collective breath as the plane sped to­ ward the wall. The crowd gasped as, at the last second, the pilot pulled up, just missing the wall. As the pilot circled the field one more time, the announcer again asked the crowd to remain behind the camera crew. As


Newton crossed the field again, he once more lined up with the wall, and this time he crashed straight into it. As pieces of airplane and board wall settled in a cloud of dust, the

crowd surged forward as t he dust started to clear. The door of the plane flew open, and Earl Newton Jr. climbed out without a scratch, much to the relief of his wife, who was one

Earl L. Newton Jr., wearing his football-style helmet, just before his stunt at the Harrington Airport air show on June 12, 1949.

At the moment of impact with the board wall, just after the vertical posts have sliced through both wings. VINTAGE AIRPLANE


While the picture taking was going on, I cut a section of the left aileron fabric as a souvenir. A few weeks later I cut the "Barn­ stormers Are Back" story out of the Philadelphia paper, and the section of the aileron fabric and the newspaper story held a place of honor in my bedroom for a few years. It was last seen in the attic collecting dust. My interest at this time of life went from airplanes to cars, girls, marriage, and the necessity of mak­ ing a living. In the 1950s I did manage to get my pilot's certifi­ cate and start a business just a block or two from Delaware Airpark, in Cheswold, Delaware. This put Earl Newton after the crash, holding a pack ofcigarettes me back in contact he hoped would lead to a product endorsement. The with airplanes and air­ youngster on the far right looking down is the author, craft people, and Gerald Lewis. Later that year, Newton would be killed eventually, in early during an air show in New York state. 1989 I got a job work­ of the first to reach the wreckage. ing for Towery Aircraft Service at the The photographers took more pic­ airport and went back to school to tures of Newton, one of him standing get my A&P certificate. My boss at Towery Aircraft had in front of the wrecked aircraft with a cigarette in his mouth and holding seen a picture of a Funk at some up a pack of Camel cigarettes. New­ time in the past and thought he ton and his partner, Walter J. would like to have one. He checked McGinnis, hoped to sell the photo­ Trade-A-Plane, found one in Texas, graph to the Camel Cigarette Co. for and brought it to Delaware to re­ use in its "Men With Nerves of Steel store. Shortly after the Funk was Smoke Camel" ad campaign, but moved into the hangar, one of the that never happened. local pilots stopped in and asked to Well you can imagine what an im­ see it. After looking it over he smiled pression all this made on a 14-year-old and said that the last Funk he had boy. I grew up in Dover, Delaware, seen was crashed into a board wall at during the early years of World War II, an air show in Harrington, Delaware, watching the creation of the Dover in the late 1940s. At that point the Army Air Force Base and seeing and memories of that day at the air show hearing all the different types of air­ came back in a flash. I guess the craft overhead day and night. Add sight of an airplane crashing into a that to the fact I had a brother who board wall made the type of aircraft was a B-17 pilot, so I had already been an unimportant part of the event. As more information came forth, I bitten by the flying bug. 12


found out that Ford Model B engines powered the first Funks built by the Akron Aircraft Co. in Akron, Ohio. They were installed upside down and backward from their automotive application. Many years ago I owned a 1928 Model A Ford pickup and had a lot of fun with it, so I thought a Ford-powered Funk would make a great airplane. The first thing I did to get more information was to become a mem­ ber of the Funk Aircraft Owners Association, which is an organiza­ tion some Funk owners set up to help preserve the few Funk aircraft left by exchanging information and history of the aircraft. One of the goals of the founder, G. Dale Beach, and the club's self-appointed re­ searcher, Lou Chapo, was to locate or find out what happened to each of the 365 Funk aircraft built. They were very successful finding the his­ tory of more than three hundred Funks. After Dale and Lou passed away, I became interested in contin­ uing the hunt with some success. Serial number 44 was found over­ head in a hangar in Florida, and number 51 in a barn in Indiana, but the identity of the Harrington Funk was not to be found . A lot of time was spent talking to many of the old-time fliers in the Harrington area and putting a story in the local newspaper asking for help in identifying the airplane. On a visit to the Philadelphia Public li­ brary, I did find the microfilm of the Parade story as it was published, and also the obituary of Earl L. Newton Jr., who died later in the same year in a airplane crash at another air show in Catskill, New York. But still, no new information about the Har­ rington Funk. With the death of Newton I was left with only one other way possible to identify the plane. I had to locate the surviving partner, Walter J. McGinnis. Many attempts were made to find McGin­ nis, with no luck. At the 1995 Funk Fly-In in Cof­ feyville, Kansas, I told the story of the Harrington Funk to a group of Funk Club members, which in­

(UPIillIIHAlt· cluded Tilman Thomas, a quick check in Dale ~:;"m::::::~t O_,HOl--O-PE-RA-T-IO-N-Ll-M-ITA-T~IO-N~S- ~"",,,,,,". """ '" '. Funk owner from San An­ Beach's book It's A Funk , ~~~~~ •. ., . '. - .~ - ~~"., . .. .. tonio, Texas. Several showed that Funk N24129 months later I received a was last owned by R. Paul ENGINE AND AIR SPEED LIMITS NOT TO BE EXCEEDED phone call from Tilman Synder of Norwood, Penn­ (U'hItIs .... IIDI.- .. Al1.or IttoNIIIEXD£D 0I'EIlIUI1 U.ltS) TRUE INDICATED AJR SPIED ENGINE UMJTS that opened with the sylvania, a suburb of statement that "I would Philadelphia. At this point not believe what had hap­ I believed we had found pened at a local pilots the right airplane, but to club meeting." When he be sure, a request was sent was introduced at the to the FAA for the records club meeting it was men­ ofN24129. ""0 /u.o I'" I'" tioned that he owned a Well for all of you who '1mnW'JD JOB m ~°S}_1iYnlfIOI' lLIOD OI • .sO 12, 194. AID flit mOD. mOB !O JUD 12, 11149. moms Funk aircraft. Instead of do not believe in Santa LlJIlHD 1'0 IalDUD nOInft W / .4 the usual question asked, Claus, think again. After a IWIIIJIl'OS .t.llIl'OU. JIILlUD. moUs ' ..... PIIOJIIlII'!ID 0HIl mQll,Y lI'I'ULADD 0ft0 i. ~ "What's a Funk?" one of short wait a package ar­ ~ o:a Wli ~JI!ISW~. I IUD 9, 19U the gentlemen in the rived from Santa Claus " ~ D crowd said that he and a (aka the FAA) with the his­ THIS PLACARD MUST BE DISPLAYED IN VIEW OF THE PILOT partner once owned a tory of Funk N24129. As I Funk, but it had crashed The final experimental airworthiness certificate for the Funk, checked each of the 40­ into a board wall at an air issued just prior to the air show stunt. The back side of the cer­ some pages looking for show in Harrington, tificate reads: "Occupancy ofthe aircraft restricted to one anything that would tie person. This aircraft shall not be flown after June 12, 1949./1 Delaware, in 1949. N24129 to the Harrington Well it's a small world Funk, the last five pages after all. After eight years of looking, was me looking down at the left brought the search for the Harring­ Walter]. McGinnis had finally come aileron as I cut out the piece that I ton Funk to a successful close. The out of the woodwork. Tilman took home as a souvenir! first page showed the owner of the Thomas had McGinnis call me, and As with life other things came up, Funk was R. Paul Synder of Nor­ we had a long talk about the air and a call back to McGinnis was put wood, which matched the show and the Funk airplane that on the back burner. Over the next information in the Funk book. was crashed. We tried to pin down few years my collection of Funk air­ The next page showed the sale of its identity. He recalled that it was planes, Funk parts, and blueprints the plane to Howard A. Goschler bought a short time before the Har­ increased, and I stayed busy making of Chester, Pennsylvania. The rington air show in the Philadelphia, parts for my Funks and trying to third page was a change in regiS­ Pennsylvania, area for $100, and help out other Funk owners with tration, from NC to NX, which was flown to Harrington for the their parts and problems . For a denoted a switch to the experi­ show. If we had the N number, this while, nothing much was done to mental category. Next to the last information could be checked with follow up on the story. In 2001 I page was a CAA Operation limita­ FAA records. McGinnis could not re­ took time to get back on the trail of tion form dated June 9, 1949, member what happened to the the Harrington Funk. I called stating, "Certificated For The wreckage after the show, but he did McGinnis, and as we talked, I was Purpose of one Exhibition agree to keep looking for anything able to tell him more about what I Flight On June 12, 1949, and test flights prior to June 12, that may help. In April 1996 Tilman was trying to do. Thomas submitted the story and the He said he would go through 1949. Flights Limited To The supporting photographs to the club's some of his old photo albums and Immediate Vicinity of the newsletter, The Funk Flyer, for publi­ see if he could find anything that Harrington Airport, Delaware. cation. I read the story and looked at might help. Later that same day, Hight Prohibited over Thickly the accompanying photographs McGinnis called back and told me Populated Areas or Large very closely, trying to find anything he had found four pictures of the Gatherings Of People." The last that might help identify the plane. Funk, but could not read the N num­ page was a CAA Status Change Re­ No luck. There was one picture pub­ ber. He was sending them to me to port dated July 15, 1949, showing lished that I did not have in any of look at. When the pictures arrived, the registration certificate was can­ my files. It was the shot of Newton by using a good magnifying glass, celed for reason No.4. Accident standing in front of the wrecked and knowing about a Funk last "Washout 6-12-49." With that, we Funk with the cigarettes. As I looked known to be in the Philadelphia knew finally what had happened at the picture I realized that the area, I was able to read N24 L9 on to Akron Funk Model B, Serial No. ....... head at the right edge of the picture one of the Funk photographs. A 55, NC then NX24129. ,







Dm •











t an Historical Reproduction H.G. Frautschy 1----12 - - ­


fter his very exacting restoration of a Curtiss Jenny, Ken Hyde of Warrenton, Virginia, chose to pursue a different line of research dealing with the pioneer era of flight. After researching and building a Wright glider and kite, he came to EAA with a proposal. Would EAA be interested in collaborating with his new organization, "The Wright Experience," with the ultimate goal of creating the most exact reproduction of the 1903 Wright Flyer _-+--- ---- ~'-9-"- - - a l ever built? An agreement was reached, and the ex­ traordinary aircraft created by The Wright Experience has been the centerpiece of EAA's "Countdown to Kitty Hawk" celebration during the past year. Since not everyone was able to visit the exhibit on its multi-state tour, we'll share a number of details of the reproduction Flyer. First off, it's a pretty good-sized biplane. Though only 21 feet, 1 inch long, it spans 40 feet, 4 inches. It has 510 square feet of wing area, yet only 12 horsepower was needed to fly the airplane, with the engine turning 1,000 rpm as the two propellers produced 132-136 pounds of thrust while they turned 330 rpm. But to reproduce that action, to exactly re-cre­ ate the handiwork of the Wrights and their mechanic/machinist, Charles Taylor, would require years of research and require outstand­ ing workmanship. The Wright Experience team followed the actual handwork processes used by the Wrights and Taylor as closely as possible. You can see much of this work and L ___________-:--:---:---:-_~~-__:_-_:_:::---_:__:_-J-, even more details of its construction as it was The lBO-pound reproduction engine is bolted to the lower wing at four points, documented by The Wright Experience at its just to the right of the engine. (The Wrights built the Flyer with both right website I'd particu­ wings 4 inches longer to compensate for the engine's off-centerline placement. larly recommend the web pages dealing with The engine weighed about 34 pounds more than each brother, so they added the reproduction of the Wright propellers-it's to the wing area on the right side.) On the right is the valve camshaft, linked quite fascinating! to the crankshaft sprocket (left) with a linked chain. Its tension was taken up Let's take a look at many of the details that by the boxwood idler roller (center). Centered on a bracket next to the end of make up the reproduction 1903 Wright Flyer. the crankshaft is a Veedol revolution counter, which was mounted on a long We'll start at the heart of the machine, the flexible bracket secured to a wing rib. 4-cylinder engine designed by the Wrights VINTAGE AIRPLANE


and built, for the most part, by Char­ lie Taylor in the Wrights' machine shop. The experienced hands of the staff at Hay Manufacturing of Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, built the new re­ production engine. For many years, the Hay family had been running a

aeronautical exhibit held in conjunc­ tion with the Annual Automobile exhibition in New York City. The crankshaft and flywheel in the motor mounted on the 1903 Flyer displayed at the National Air and Space Mu­ seum is from the 1904 motor. Orville Wright personally attested to

that substitution, made when

the motor was reassembled for


Each of the four connecting ~ rods is built up instead of CD~ forged, using a seamless steel ~ tube with the bronze rod ends ~ screwed and pinned in place. ~

Using a rosebud tip on his torch, Steve Hay heats up the sprocket for the valve camshaft in preparation for silver soldering. copy of the 1903 Wright engine that they made in time for the 75th an­ niversary of the flight. We've been fortunate to have their display of run­ ning antique aircraft engines in the VAA area since the 1970s. The Wright Experience turned to Hay's to re-create an even more exact version of the engine. Did you know the engine on the Wright Flyer on dis­ play at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum is not the com­ plete original engine? In fact, the original aluminum engine block, damaged when the Flyer was rolled over and over by a gust of wind after the fourth flight, is on display at the Wright Brothers National Historic Memorial at Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina. To this day, the original crankshaft and flywheel are still miss­

ing, gone since the close of the 1906 16



This is the aluminum crankcase casting with the cylinders, pistons, and crank­ shaft in place. The racetrack area to the right on top of the casting is the vapor­ ization/intake manifold for the engine. A plate with a small can soldered to it is mounted over this area. As air is drawn through the can, fuel is intro­ duced from a small tube (there is no ~ carburetor of the type we would know), ~ and it vaporizes as it makes contact CD ~ with the warm, then hot crankcase. The ~ lightweight engine construction can be ~ seen in the open webs of the case on the left. When completed, a simple sheet

metal plate covered the area over the

crankshaft and the connecting rods.

Using a lathe, Mike Newberg turns the raw crankshaft, which was drilled out from a steel bLank.

Every aspect of the first Wright brothers' engine built by Charlie Taylor is exactly duplicated, in足 cluding the open rocker arms, which are built up using sheet steel. The spring steel keeper is positive acting, yet it allows quick disassembly when needed.

The cast iron pistons slip into cast iron cylin足 ders, which are screwed into the cast aluminum crankcase.

Each exhaust valve is built up with , IQ' 足 a a el-style spring.




The engine con­ trols are a clever arrangement using a control lever at­ tached to the engine and fuel valve with cords. When placed with the end of the lever fully to the left, the fuel valve was closed. Moved to the center position, the main fuel valve is opened, allowing the engine to be started. (A sec­ ond fuel valve was set in advance to the proper fuel flow needed for the engine to run. While it could be adjusted prior to takeoff, it was not intended to be used in flight.) When all was ready for the aircraft's launch, moving the lever to the far right, as shown here, would push the start/stop/reset button on the stopwatch, stat the indica­ tor ofthe Jules Richard anemometer, and pull on the cord secured to one end ofa bell crank that held the Veedor revolution counter offthe end of the crankshaft. When the bell crank was pulled, the flexible bracket forced the counter's rubber tip into contact with the end of the crankshaft, and it started counting engine revolutions. To release the restraining wire holding the Flyer in place, a small spring clip was pulled upward (not visible). Pulling the lever all the way back to the left would close the fuel valve, stop the anemometer recording and stopwatch, and pull the bell crank the opposite direction and move the revolution counter away from the crankshaft. The Wrights put this in­ strument package together in this way so they could quantify what had happened during the flight, and calculate the distance flown through the air. They didn't intend to refer to the instruments while in flight. Think of the three instruments as the first "in-flight data recorder."

The output end ofthe crankshaft is a busy place.

You can see the beautiful brass and glass oil cup used to lubricate the bearing inside the bracket sleeve for the chain guide tubes. 18


The entrance to each of the chain guide tubes has a pair ofboxwood

rollers put in place to keep the chains from being chewed up as they en­ tered each guide tube.

li ••I~~~=-~~31

The Packer Engineering Company of Naperville, Illinois, built the beautiful reproduction dynamo used on the repro­ duction Flyer. The dynamo produces voltage which is supplied to the make or break ignition system used on the Wright engine. Each time the contacts in each ignition chamber are cycled, the collapse of the magnetic field in the dy­ namo creates a surge ofelectricity that jumps the contact points, creating an ig­ nition spark. The dynamo is friction driven offofthe engine's flywheel.

Here's a wider view ofthe engine and drive train, along with the hip cradle used for wing warping controls. On the far left is the radiator. The fueL line can be seen starting in the foreground and running along in front ofthe cradLe. The cradle is attached to the wing structure by the two black steel straps you see extending aft of the sides ofthe cradle, and the wing warp­ ing controLwires cross just behind it and are attached to each side ofthe cradle.

The forward rudder, what we now call the elevator, was controlled by a simple sash chain, which was wrapped around a pair ofwooden drums, one on the control lever actuated by the pilot, and the other here between the two control surfaces. One of the few mistakes made by the brothers was the placement ofthe centerline ofthe hinge. It was too close to the center of pressure of the surfaces, so that when a pitch change was made to the control sur­ face, the sUrface would be acted on by the relative wind, and would drive to full de­ flection, much farther than the pilot intended. Both Orville and Wilbur experi­ enced this troublesome characteristic, and

had to quickly learn to make very small adjustments to the pitch control during their four flights. Coupled with the pitch . . . instability of the basic design, the brothers dId a great lob learnmg to compensate, and were able to increase each subsequent fli?ht's d~ration and distance. Their prior experience with their gliders, and practice WIth thezr 1902 glider, proved invaluable. All of the special cotton muslin fabric spe­ cially woven for the reproduction Flyer was secured in place by stitching or small tacks. Over 1,900 tacks were used on the original and the reproduction.

The steel parts for the drive train were all expertly brazed in place, just as the Wrights had done a century be­ fore. As experienced bicycle makers, brazing steel tubing framework was second nature to the brothers, as well as Charlie Taylor, their mechanic. The ends of the propeller driveshaft brackets are stiffened with hard wire bracing, wrapped and then soldered. The small brass cup is an oil cup for lubrication of the shaft bearings. The propellers were mounted with a "crush bLock" under the nut and washer, with a wider plate on the op­ posite side of the propeller. VINTAGE AIRPLANE


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Each of the wing warping wires was connected to a short length of link chain, which ran over rollers to allow for their attachment to the upper and lower wings. You can see the wing warping control guides quite clearly in the Daniels/Wright photograph taken on December 17, 1903. Also, by attaching the interplane struts using a single point, the wing structure was flexible yet braced. Only the center sec­ tion of the wings was rigidly tnlSSed with bracing wire. The outer panels were braced in this flexible manner.

Fax 785-594-3922

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The {ollowing lisl o{coming events is fllrnished 10 Ollr readers as a matter of information only and does not COI1­ stitute approval, sponsorship, involvement, control or direction of any evenl (fly-in, seminars, fly markel, elc.) lis led. To submit an event, please log on to Only if Internet ac­ cess is unavailable should you send the information via mail to:, All: Vintage Airplane, P.O. Box 3086, Oshkosh, WI 54903-3086. Information should he received {our months prior 10 Ihe event dale.

A pair ofbicycle hubs was used to guide the Flyer down the launching rail. A full landing gear would be heavy, and wheels would be useless on the sands of the Outer Banks, so the brothers wisely chose to keep it simple and use a pair ofskids to land upon. They continued to use this method for many years, believ­ ing it to be superior until proper ground preparation was made to flying grounds, and the aircraft's performance improved to the point that it was not seriously hin­ dered by the additional weight ofa wheeled landing gear. .......

June 16-19, 2004-Lock Haven, Pa­

19th Annual Sentimental Journey to Cub Haven 2004. Fly-in, drive­ in, camp. Info: 570-893-4200 or July 27-August 2, 2004-EAA AirVenture

Oshkosh (KOSH)_

EM's Countdown to Kitty Hawk Touring Pavilion presented by Ford Motor Company

• December 13·17 . First Fligbt Centennial Celebration, Kitty Hawk,NC 20


The lower crosspiece attaches here at the lower front end of the skids.

Espie "Butch" Joyce Madison, NC

• Started flying in 1946 father, Espie, Sr. • Began flying lessons at age II

• President of the VAA fAA Vintage Aircraft Association

Butch and grandson Hunter prepare for takeoff in the Luscombe BE.

/I My grandson, Hunter Otey, and I have confidence in his

grandmother, Norma Joyce, President of AUA, Inc. She has put together, with AIG, a great VAA insurance program for AUA's customers and her loved ones./I

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The Pratt & Whitney 420-hp Wasp C1 engine powered the five-passenger






Our September Mystery Plane was a tough one since the photo didn't show any details, and many good details were hidden just out of view.

September's Mystery Plane in fancy trim paint is a Mahoney Ryan Brougham (not to be confused with similar Stinson Detroiters, Travel Air 6000s, and Verville 104s). Identifica­ tion is by the lower front side windows, broad curved rudder top, and the verti­ cal gear strut. The Brougham design was refined from the NYp, Ryan M-1, and M-2 Bluebird series. The top bal­ anced rudder is the early B-1 form. Frank Hawks flew a B-1 in the 1927

Ford Air Tour and at the 1927 Na­ tional Air Races. The B-1 carried four passengers with 220-hp Wright JS en­ gine power. The B-3 with JS or 330-hp J6 power had enlarged tail surfaces, and a wider cabin. Mahoney sold his share of Ryan to The Detroit Aircraft Company for production of the five­ passenger B-S at Lambert Field, St. Louis, in 1929. Yes, Detroit in St. Louis. That's the Spirit! I digress! Nine of 48 B-Ss went to China. From the spring 1990 CAHS Journal Edo Float drawings by D.E. Anderson, Edo 39­ 4650 or Edo Q 3830 floats of 20-foot 4-inch length could be mounted on the B-S.

B-7 with enlarged tail surfaces and a longer fuselage. Edo K-46S0 twin floats of 20-foot S-inch length could be mounted on the B-7. A smaller three-passenger Detroit Ryan C-1 with J6 power and deluxe furnishings ended Brougham-type production in 1936. The 1931 Aircraft Yearbook three-view drawing shows the C-1 had a straight rudder hinge line, like the B-S, and not like the top balance rudder of the Mys­ tery Plane in September 2003 Vintage Airplane. One of many airlines using Broughams was The Thompson Flying Service between Chicago, Bay City, and Pontiac, Michigan. TAC family colors were a black fuselage and vertical tail with a white logo, and orange wing and horizontal tail. Like in the NYP engine, Thompson sodium-cooled aircraft valves were used in the Wright radial engines. Russ Brown Lyndhurst, Ohio Other correct answers were re­ ceived from Ev Cassagneres, Cheshire, Connecticut; Wayne Muxlow, Min­ neapolis, Minnesota; Thomas Lymburn, Princeton, Minnesota; and Scott Gifford, Prescott, Arizona. One member thought it might be the last Ryan-Mahoney airplane built, the C­ 1/C-2, but the balance area on the rudder shows this airplane to be an early Ryan B-1. .......


3086, OSHKOSH, WI 54903-3086. YOUR AN­






WORLD OF FLIGHT 2004 The Best in Aviation Photography EANs 2004 Calendar features the best in aviation photography with ... • 12 flight-inspiring months to schedule appointments and important events. • Full-color images ideal for framing. • Dates to assist in planning your trip to EAA AirVenture Oshkosh and the many EAA Regional Fly-Ins throughout the US. 10







--- ,2.<­


11 19








P.O. Box 424, UNION, IL 60180

Cooperation Wins on This One Recently registered aircraft owners of antique and so-called "Aging Aircraft" (anything that's type certificated and built prior to 1974) received an SAlE from the FAA. That's the acronym for a "Special Airworthiness Informa­ tion Bulletin." Peruse it closely, men and women; it represents more than just a few years of joint efforts by EAA's government affairs, your divi­ sion, the type clubs, the AAA, aircraft manufacturers, and the FAA to recognize the problems of the older, so-called" Aging Aircraft." It's the culmination of several attempts by users, type clubs, and alphabet groups over the past several years dealing with the problems that are cropping up. The fact is our airplanes are getting older and therefore re­ quire attention to the problems of aging. The concerns were at first treated with somewhat of a skepti­ cal attitude. But as more evidence came to light, highlighting prob­ lems of corrosion and fatigue, the skepticism began to turn to reality. Your representatives, myself in­ cluded, were involved from the beginning. This has never been a "from the top down" type of direc­ tive from the FAA. We were asked for and happy to give our input into the process that created this document, and it really was the start of a great relationship with the FAA. It helped short-circuit at­ 24 DECEMBER 2003

The type clubs were the best source of information with historic background . experIence on most of the problems. Some of the FAA's concerns had already been dealt with by the clubs and were common knowledge amongst the members.

tempts to summarily ground ALL the airplanes involved, and with the outstanding cooperation of the FAA Small Aircraft Directorate the type clubs and other organizations were brought into the picture. The type clubs were the best source of information with his­ toric background experience on most of the problems. Some of the FAA's concerns had already been dealt with by the clubs and were common knowledge amongst the members. FAA's fears and con­ cerns on some of the items were allayed, and as others cropped up, a cooperative effort was made not only to solve them but also to suggest action. That's the reason for the SAlE. It may not be mandatory, but it's to your advantage to read it care­ fully! It's pretty handy, too. Use it to doctor up a new custom checklist for your airplane. Work with your particular type club to cooperate and create an inspec­ tion checklist that works for your favorite brand of airplane. Take whatever action is suggested, mumble a word or two of "thanks" to the people who brought it to light, especially the type clubs, yours' and other al­ phabet associations, renew your membership so as to show your support, and with that it's, Over to you,

Capturing History continued from page 15 together at the beginning, as the machine gains mo­ mentum. Then, at a point just above the battery box, you can see an abrupt change in the path and pacing of his footsteps. He turns to the right, and the length in the gap of Wilbur's footsteps increases. He's slowing down his short run, lengthening his stride to "brake himself" to a stop in the firm, wet sand. You can even see the ridges of his footsteps are to the right of each step as he slows, indicating his applying pressure to the right to slow himself, instead of to the left, which would be the case if he were trying to accelerate. It's similar to that moment in time when a parent lets go of the back of his or her child's bicycle seat and wit­ nesses the child successfully wobble down the sidewalk alone for the first time. As soon as the child's off, you stop, transfixed by the reality of his or her accomplish­ ment. In the Daniels/Wright photograph, Wilbur has un­ consciously slowed to a stop and now looks intently at his brother, airborne on their Flyer, gratified and no doubt a little amazed by what he sees. A century later, many of us are still just as amazed and gratified.

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actOITlpliShments, es­

pecially Harry Combs and the late Martin Caidin for their book Kill Devil Hills and Dr. Tom Crouch and his book The Bishop's Boys as well as Orville Wright (with Fred C. Kelly) and his book How We Invented the Airplane. Finally, I can't express deeply enough my thanks to Ken and Beverly Hyde and the team at the Wright Experi­ ence for their time given to answer my questions, and to those who created their outstanding website at . is truly the Internet at its finest, with in-depth explanations of various aspects · of the Wright brothers' work, and of the aviation archaeol­ ogy that has gone into creating the exact reproduction of the 1903 Flyer and the kites and gliders that preceded it. Our thanks as well to Ken for supplying a copy of the Library of Congress' high-resolution scan of the original glass plate negative of the Daniels/Wright photograph, and for lending his historical knowledge in the composi­ tion of this article. To download a digital image file of the Daniels/Wright photograph, visit www.loc.govand click on Search . Enter Wright Papers, and you'll see the listing for this and many other interesting Wright photographs.

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Bill Lawson...................................... Alabaster, AL

Chris Copeland ...... .. ........ . . . . . .......... Queen Creek, AZ

Dan Kaljian ... .. ... . . . . .... . ................ San Francisco, CA

Phillip Pedron ... . .. . . . ... . ... . .. . . . .. . ..... . ... Livermore, CA

Roger W. Shartle .......... . . . . . . . . .. ........... Carmichael, CA

Mike Smith . .... .. ... . . . ... . . . . . .... .......... Grass Valley, CA

William J. Stewart ............................... Sun Valley, CA

Kurt A. Walters ..................................... Clovis, CA

Eric Weirshauser ... ... ... ..... . ...... .. . . .... ..... San Jose, CA

Samuel F. Wright ..................... Rancho Santa Margarita, CA

David A. Theis ............................... Crested Butte, CO

Robert Blanchard . ........... . .... .. . . .. ......... . .. Miami, FL

Elaine Adams Harrison .......... . ..... ....... . .. . .. Ft Pierce, FL

David Minor ...... . .... ..... .... .... ...... .... Okeechobee, FL

David Gray . ......... .... ....... .... . .... .... .. . . . Atlanta, GA

Brant W. Hollensbe . . ... . ..... . .. . .... . . . .. . West Des Moines, IA

Harry Sauerwein ................. .. . .. . .. . . . .. . .... . . Boise, ID

Percy H. Ah Mu ...... . ... . .. . ... . . . .... . ..... . Buffalo Grove, IL

Ross Carbiener ..... .. . . .. . ... .... ... .. . .... .. ... .... Orion, IL

James G. Hamm . . .. .. .. . ... . . . .... . .... . ... .... . .. Canton, IL

Tony Chipas ...................................... Wichita, KS

Clifford Hartley .... . .. .. ......... . .. ....... .. .... Frankfort, KY

Carl Webster ..................................... London, KY

Phillip Lee Chamberlain ........................ Lake Charles, LA

Anthony C. Grotefeld .. .. ... . .. .......... ........ Pearl River, LA

John S. Smith ................................ Easthampton, MA

William Insley............................. Mardela Springs, MD

William Williams ........... . ..... . ........ .. . . . . . Eastport, ME

Roger Halstead ................................. . . Midland, MI

Thomas R. Martin................. . .. . . .. .. ...... Roseville, MN

Daniel R. Mersel . .. . . . . . ... . .... . . .... . . .. ...... Rochester, MN

Kevin Eisenbath ... . ... ..... ...... .. ............ St Charles, MO

Artie Pete Chesnut, III .......................... Snow Camp, NC

Mark McCray ..................................... Garner, NC

Tommy Winnett .. . . . ...... . . . . . .. . . . .. . ...... . . Lexington, NC

Dan Guevin . . .. . ...... ... ..... ... ....... .. ... .. .. Candia, NH

Victor Palloto ... . .. ..... . . ..... .... . .. . . . .... . .. . .. Passaic, NJ

Marc V. Pierce .................................. Colts Neck, NJ

Andy Richardson . . ... ... ...... . . . .. . ........... Ho-Ho-Kus, NJ

Stefan Stas ....................... . . . . . .. . .... . Long Valley, NJ

Tom Goodwin ... .. . . . ...... ... ............ ... .. . Santa Fe, NM

Gerild A. Smith...................... .. . . . .. . . .. . Las Vegas, NV

Peter Cousins............... . ........ . . . . .. . ...... Goshen, NY

Glen L. LeComte . .... . . . ... . . .. . ................. Syracuse, NY

Terry Kuebler . . .... . . . .......................... Gahanna, OH

Dan Ramsey ...................... .. .............. Belpre, OH

Chet Dixon ...................................... Duncan, OK

Glen Dresback . ............ . .. . . . .... . .. . . . .. . .... . . Altus, OK

Jerry Thompson .. ... ................... .. . .... .. Stillwater, OK

David W. Ruddiman .............. . ......... .. . . .. . .. Salem, OR

Gene Keller ............. . . . ....... .. . . .... . .... Bethlehem, PA

Hank Likes .. . .. . ............. ..... . ...... . . Mechanicsburg, PA

Edward Miller ............... . ................. Port Matilda, PA

George Taylor .. . . . .. . . . . ... .. . . . . . .. .......... Coopersburg, PA

Benjamin Oliver ............. . ......... ... .. ... . .. . Sumter, SC

John T. Roberts . . . ................ . ... . ......... . ... Clover, SC

Bernice Dohm ....... . . ...... . .... ..... .... ..... Knoxville, TN

Robert Holton...... .. . . ..... . .. . . . .. . .... . ... .. . . Midland, TX

Bobby Jones . . .... ........ .. ..... ... ... .. .......... Krum, TX

Darrell Gordon ........ . . . .... . . . . . ...... . ... Virginia Beach, VA

David Hutcheson .... ..... ... .. . ............. . .... Ringgold, VA

Robert S. Overstreet ............................... Marshall, VA

Robert Price ................................. Stephens City, VA

Michael Pulka .......... .. ....... . . ... .. . . . .. Virginia Beach, VA

Donald Hulslander .................... . ............. Kent, WA

Donald Daniel Kamm ... . .... . . .. . . . .... . . ..... North Bend, WA

Zia Agha . . .. . ............ .. ..... . ... ..... ..... .. . Bayside, WI




Something tl? buy, sell or trade? Classified Word Ads: $5.50 per 10 words, 180 words maximum , with boldface lead- in on first line. Classified Display Ads: One column w ide (2.1 67 inches) by 1, 2, or 3 inches high at $20 per inch . B lack and white only, and no fre ­ quency discounts. Advertising Closing Dates: 10th of second . month prior to desired issue date (i.e., January l Ois the closing date for the March issue). VAA reserves the right to reject any advertising in conflict with its policies. Rates cover one inser­ tion per issue. Classified ads are not accepted via phone . Payment must accompany order. Word ads may be sent via fax (920-426~4828) or e-mail ( using credit card pay­ ment (all cards accepted). Include name on card, complete address, type of card , card number, and expiration date. Make checks payable to EAA. Address advertising correspondence to EAA Publications Classified Ad Manager, P.O. Box 3086, Oshkosh, WI 54903-3086 BABBITT BEARING SERVICE - rod bearings, main bearings, bushings, master rods, valves, piston rings. Call us Toll Free 1/800/233-6934, e-mail Website VINTAGE ENGINE MACHINE WORKS , N. 604 FREYA ST., SPOKANE, WA 99202.

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Jan 16-1S, 2004 Corona (LA), CA RVASSEMBLY Jan 24, 2004


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Feb 6-S. 2004

Flying wires available. 1994 pricing. Visit www.f/ or call 800-517-9278.


Feb 20-22, 2004 Griffin (Atlanta), GA TIGWELDING

For Sale -1939 Spartan Executive, 3500TT, 10 SMOH. 214-354-6418.




Warner engines. Two 165s, one fresh O.H., one low time on Fairchild 24 mount with all accessories. Also a fresh O.H. 145, 1938 Fleet 10F, Helton Lark, and Aeronca C-3. Find my name and address in the Officers and Directors listing and call evenings. E. E. "Buck" Hilbert.



Dec 12-14. 2003 Oshkosh, WI RVASSEMBLY

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EAA Aviation Center, PO Box 3086, Oshkosh WI 54903-3086

OFFICERS President


Espie -Butch- Joy~e

George Daubner

704 N. Regional Rd. Greensboro, NC 27425 336-668-3650

2448 Lough Lane

Hartford, WI 53027

262-673-5885 Secretary

Treasurer Charles W. Harris 7215 East 46th St. Tulsa, OK 74147 918-622-8400

Steve Nesse 2009 Highland Ave. Albert Lea, MN 56007 507-373-1674

DIRECTORS Steve Bender

Dale A. Gustafson

85 Brush Hill Road Sherborn, MA 01770 508-653-7557

7724 Shady Hills Dr. IndianapoliS, IN 46278 317-293-4430

David Bennett

P.O. Box 1188

Roseville, CA 95678


jeannie Hill

P.O. Box 328

Harvard, IL 60033-0328

8 15-943-7205

john Berendt

7645 Echo Point Rd.

Cannon Falls, MN 55009

507-263-24 14

Steve Krog

1002 Heather Ln.

Hartford, WI 53027


Robert C. 118ob" Brauer

Roben D. "Bob" Lumley 1265 South 124th SI. Brookfield, WI 53005 262-782-2633

9345 S. Hoyne

Chicago, IL 60620


Phone (920) 426-4800

Fax (920) 426-4873

Web Site: http://www, and Ilttp://www,

EAA and Division Membership Services 800-843-3612 .. . ....... ... FAX 920-426-6761 Monday-Friday CSn (8:00 AM-7:00 PM • New/ renew memberships: EAA, Divisions (Vintage Aircraft Association, lAC, Warbirds), National Association of Flight Instructors (NAFI)

• Address changes • Merchandise sales • Gift memberships

Programs and Activities EAA AirVenture Fax-On-Demand Directory · . ............. .. . .... ...... 732-885-6711 Auto Fuel STCs .............. _920-426-4843 Build/ restore information ..... . 920-426-482 1 Chapters: locating/organizing .. 920-426-4876 Education .. ... .. . ..... _..... 920-426-6815 • EAA Air Academy • EAA Scholarships

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Dave Clark

635 Vestal Lane

Plainfield, IN 46168


john S. Copeland

lA Deacon Street Gene Morris

5936 Steve Court

Roanoke, TX 76262


North~08~~~~:4~~5 01532

Dean Richardson

1429 Kings Lynn Rd

Stoughton, WI 53589


Phil Coulson

284 15 Springbrook Dr.

Lawton, Ml 49065


Geoff Robison

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New Haven, IN 46774

260-493-4724 Roger Gomoll

889 1 Airport Rd, Box C2

Blaine, MN 55449



S.H. "Wes" Schmid 2359 Lefeber Avenue Wauwatosa, WI 53213 414-771-1545



Gene Chase 2159 Cariton Rd. Oshkosh, WI 54904 920-231-5002

E.E. "Buck" Hllben P.O. Box 424 Union, IL 60 180 815-923-4591


EAA Membership in the Experimental Aircraft Associ­ ation, Inc. is $40 for one year, including 12 issues of SPORT AVIA1JON. Family membership is available for an additional $10 annually. Junior Membership (under 19 years of age) is available at $23 annually. All major credit cards accepted for membership. (Add $16 for Foreign Postage_)

AVIATION magaZine not included). (A dd $15 for Foreign Postage.)


Current EAA members may join the EAA War­ birds of America Division and receive WARBIRDS magazine for an additional $40 per year_ EAA Membersh ip, WARBIRDS magazine and one year membership in the Warbirds Divi­ VINTAGE AIRCRAFT ASSOCIATION sion is availab le for SSO per year (SPORT AVIATION magazine not included). (A dd $7 f OT Current EAA members may join the Vintage Foreign Postage.) Aircraft Associaton and receive VINTA GE AIR­ PlANE magazine for an additional $36 per year. EAA Membership, VI N TA GE AIRPLANE EAA EXPERIMENTER magaZine and one year membership in the EAA Current EAA members may receive EAA Vintage Aircraft Association is available for $46 EX PERIMENTER magazine for an addi­ per year (SPORT AVIATION magaZine not in­ tional $20 per year. cluded). (Add $7 for Foreign Postage.) EAA Membership and EAA EXPERIMENTER magazine is available for $30 per year (SPORT AVIATION magazine not included). (A dd $8 for lAC Foreign Postage_) Current EAA members may join the Interna­ tional Aerobatic Club, Inc. Division and receive SPOR T AEROBA TICS magazine for an addi­ tional $45 per year. EAA Membership, SPORT AEROBA TICS magaZine and one year membership in the lAC Division is available for $55 per year (SPORT

FOREIGN MEMBERSHIPS Please submit your remittance with a check Of" draft drawn on a United States bank payable in United St ates do llars. Ad d required Foreign Postage amount for each membership.

Membership dues to EAA and its divisions are not tax deductible as charitable contributions.

Copyright ©2oo3 by the EM Vintage Aircraft Association All rights reselVed. VINTAGE AIRPlANE (ISSN 0091-6943) IPM 40032445 is published and owned exclusively by the EM Vintage Aircraft Association of the Experimenlal Aircraft Association and is published monthly at EM Aviation Center. 3000 Poberezny Rd., PO. Box 3088. Oshkosh. Wisconsin 54903-3086. Periodicals Poslage paid al Oshkosh, Wisconsin 54901 and at additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to EM Vintage Aircraft Association, PO. Box 3086, Oshkosh, WI 54903-3086. Return Canadian issues to Slation A. PO Box 54, Windsor, ON N9A 6J5. FOREIGN AND APO ADDRESSES - Please allow at least two months for delivery of VINTAGE AIRPLANE to foreign and APO addresses via surtace mail. ADVERTISING - Vinlage Aircraft Association does not guarantee or endorse any product offered through the advertiSing. We invite constructive criticism and welcome any report of inferior merchandise obtained through our advertiSing so that corrective measures can be taken. EDITORIAL POUCY: Readers are encouraged to submit stories and photographs. Policy opinions expressed in articles are solely those of the authors. Responsibilily for accuracy in reporting resls entirely w~h the contributor. No renumeration is made. Material should be sent 10: Editor, VINTAGE AIRPLANE, PO. Box 3088, Oshkosh, WI 54903-3088. Phone 9201426-4800. EMe and SPORT AVIATIO~. the EM Logo" and Aeronautica'· are registered trademarks, trademarks. and service marks of the Experimental Aircraft Association. Inc. The use of these trademarks and service marks without the permission of the Experimental Aircraft Association, Inc. is strictly prohibited. The EM AVIATION FOUNDATION Logo is a trademark of the EM Aviation Foundation, Inc. The use of this trademark without the permission of the EM Avialion Foundalion. Inc. is strictly prohib~ed.



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Pilot Bear Bank .... $12.95 There is no doubt that this cute resin bear is an aviation buff. He sits approximately 6inches high holding his favorite toy.

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Picture Frame

Memories of yesteryear come back when looking at this ornament of a child riding in an antique airplane pedal car. Approximately 3-3/4" in length.

Beautifully crafted wooden frame in three sizes. 4x6 .... V01207 .... $23.99 5x7 .... V01220 .... $24.99 8xl0 . ... V01222 .... $28.99

Pedal Plane Ornament. ........... V51484

Tin Biplane Ornament ...... $5.25 Small tin toys have entertained many young children, here's a chance for you to enjoy a similar toy made into an ornament. Approximately 2-3/4" in length.

Tin Biplane Ornament. ......... V51487

Set of Three Skiplanes ......... $19.80


sue h. ..

Uniquely painted with detailed designs, these ornaments will become favorites for your whole family during the holiday season. Approximately 1-3/4 " high.

Three Ski

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Traveler Print Bag ........ $39.95

Take your essentials or throw together a days necessities into this 12x14 travel companion. Choose a vertical bag with cloth handles or a horizontal bag with black handles.

Bag . .......... VOl168

Paper Weight . .... $14.00 Choose between two distinctly

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Vertical (3" high) . .... V00801

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Three-piece Baby Outfit ........... $39.99 . Set includes a soft t¡shirt appliqued with an airplane, pants and hat. State color choice of blues or pinks.

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