Page 1


by Espie "Butch" Joyce I attended the Sun 'n Fun Fly-In at Lakeland, Florida and was impressed with the professional manner in which this fly-in was managed. We are going to feature this month in VINTAGE AIRPLANE for your pleasure, color coverage of this fly-in . I think you will find it most interesting. I would like to relate a story to you. We traveled to Sun 'n Fun in my Baron. My wife Linda, good friends Sandy and Emory, and past Antique/Classic Division President Brad Thomas all loaded up on Friday morning before Sun 'n Fun officially began and made our trek VFR down to Charleston, South Carolina. We then started to run into the weather that laid across the northern part of Florida and the southern part of Georgia. (It seems to be there in the same place every year!) Emory was fIying in the right seat. I asked him to call and see if Center could work out an IFR clearance for us into McKennon Airport at St. Simon's Island where I had planned to stop. Clearance in hand, we arrived at St. Simon's in minimum VFR conditions. I enjoy stopping at St. Simon's; if you're an EAA member on the way to Sun n' Fun, they give you a 10% discount on your fuel bill. Also, 2 MAY 1991

EAA Chapter 905 has their head­ quarters on the field stocked with coffee and cookies. Within walking distance there are some spots to eat. I met up with a friend I know from Tullahoma whom I had met at a Stagger­ wing convention. We all piled in his car and decided that we would go to Del Taco and eat lunch. Brad and Charlie do not care for Mexican food, so they decided to go eat barbecue. They dropped us off, and the plan was for them to rendezvous to pick us up to return to the airport. They stopped by on the way back to pick us up, but Brad assumed we had already left walking, so they drove off while we were standing there waving at them. We decided that since we had been left behind, we would walk on back to the airport. During our walk, one of those nice rain showers came up and we got drenched. Finally, after Brad and Charlie could not find us at the airport, they decided to come back, but we were already practically at the airport by then. Needless to say, Brad got quite a ribbing out of that for the rest of the week. Every time we started to go somewhere in our car, Brad was the first one in there since he didn't want to get left behind! The Antique/Classic area at Sun 'n Fun is managed by the President of EAA A/C Chapter One, Ray Alcott. It is a very well run operation and my hat is off to all those volunteers from A/C Chapter One. The air show at Sun 'n Fun this year had a good variety of acts. I thought it had improved quite a bit from years past. The statistical break­ down for Sun 'n Fun is as follows: there were 159 homebuilt aircraft registered, 159 registered Warbirds, 263 Classics and Antiques registered, and 278 registered Ultralights. The total atten­ dance for the week was 280,414 people; an increase from 1990. I think that Bill Eichoff, who is President of Sun 'n Fun, and Executive Director Billy Hender­ son have put together a well managed organization. I am sorry to have to report to the membership that Tom Hull of Hol­ lywood, Maryland, who was the Classic

Grand Champion winner with his 195 in 1990 at EAA Oshkosh, was killed in a crash of his 195 departing his home airport enroute to the Sun 'n Fun Fly-In. Tom was a very energetic person who was a staunch supporter of the An ­ tique/Classic Division, and whenever he was at a fly-in, just added a little extra special touch. I have no details at this time as to why this crash occurred. I will certainly miss Tom at our future fly-ins. I would like to report that the Pioneer Airport in Oshkosh will be open May 11, and that the Airport Manager's of­ fice is under construction. The An­ tique/Classic Division plans to be a strong supporter of the Pioneer Airport. As I have said in the past, if anyone feels the need to contribute financially to the Pioneer Airport, as this portion of the museum does keep our airplanes flying, please contact Greg Anderson at 414/426-4800. He can explain to you what is needed and how you can help. John Berendt, who heads up the Fair­ child Club, sent me a note saying there was a gentleman by the name of Charles Stobbart who lives in South Africa. Charles is making plans to fly his Fair­ child 24 from South Africa to Oshkosh, Wisconsin for the 1991 fIy-in. This should be quite a feat and I look forward to shaking this gentleman's hand once he arrives in Oshkosh. As John said in his letter, the Fairchild 24 will be 50 years old this year and he said "what a way to celebrate a birthday," flying from South Africa to Oshkosh. He is looking for an Aeromatic prop for the Warner 165 he has on the Fairchild, and he is looking for sponsorship of his flight. Interested members can contact Charles Stobbart, P.O. Box 424, Gallo Manor, 2052, Republic of South Africa. There are a lot of other interesting items that will be happening for the 1991 Convention. I will try to have more information for you about the 1991 EAA Oshkosh Fly-In in the next issue of VINTAGE AIRPLANE. Let's all pull in the same direction for the good of aviation. We're better together. Join us and have it all! •


Tom Poberezny



Dick MaH


Henry G. Frautschy

May 1991 •

VoL 19, No.5


Golda Cox


Copyright © 1991 by the EAA Antique/Classic Division, Inc. All rights reserved.

Mike Drucks



Mary Jones


Norman Petersen

Dick Cavin


George A. Hardie, Jr.

Dennis Parks


Isabelle Wlske

2 Straight & Level by Espie "Butch" Joyce

4 Aeromail


Jim Koepnick Carl Schuppel

Mike Steineke






Espie "Butch" Joyce

Arthur R. Morgan

604 Highway St. Madison, NC 27025 919/427-0216

3744 North 51st Blvd . Milwaukee, WI 53216 414/442-3631



George S. York

E.E. "Buck" Hilbert

181 Sloboda Ave . Mansfield, OH 44906 419/529-4378

P.O. Bax424

Union, IL 60180



5 AlC News/compiled by H.G. Frautschy

Page 7

6 Sun 'n Fun 1991 Award Winners 7 Vintage Literature/by Dennis Parks 11 Dad's PA-ll/by Doug Stone 14 Sun 'n Fun Antiques & Classics by H.G. Frautschy 20 How Do You Get Those Great Pictures? Page 14 by Jim Koepnick

John Berendt

Robert C. "Bob" Brauer

7645 Echo Point Rd. Cannon Falls, MN 55009 507/263-2414

9345 S. Hoyne Chicago, IL 60620

22 1990 Antique/Classic Photo Contest

Gene Chase

312/779-2105 John S. Copeland

27 Pass It To BUCk/by E.E. "Buck" Hilbert

2159 Carlton Rd. Oshkosh. WI 54904 414/231-5002

9 Joanne Drive Westborough, MAOl581 508/366-7245

Philip Coulson

George Daubner

28415 Springbrook Dr. Lawton, MI 49065 616/624-6490

2448 Lough Lane

Hartford, WI 53027


Stan Gomoll

Charles Harris 3933 South Peoria P.O. Box 904038 Tulsa, OK 74105 918/742-7311

104290th Lane, NE

Minneapolis, MN 55434 612/784-1172

Dale A. Gustafson

Jeannie Hill

7724 Shady Hill Drive Indianapolis, IN 46278 317/293-4430

P.O. Bax328

HaNard, IL 60033


Robert Lickteig

Robert D. "Bob" Lumley

1708 Bay Oaks Drive Albert Lea , MN 56007 507/373-2922

1265 South 124th St. Brookfield, WI 53005 414/782-2633

Gene Morris

steven C. Nesse

115C Steve Court, R.R.2 2009 Highland Ave. Albert Lea, MN 56007 Roanoke, TX 76262 507/373-1674 817/491-9110

S.H. "Wes" Schmid

29 Calendar 30 Vintage Trader 33 Mystery Plane/by George Hardie

Page 22

FRONT COVER ... Frederick T. Kirk's Howard DGA-15 stands out in the summer haze over Lake Winnebago during EM Oshkosh '90. Fred's airplane won the Antique Best Custom Award during Sun 'n Fun ' 91 . Photo by Jim Koepnick, photo plane flown by Buck Hilbert. BACK COVER ... The late Robert Stone restored this Piper PA- 11 Cub Special over a year and a half with help from his friends and family. Doug Stone, Robert's son tells the story of "Dad's PA-11 " starting on page 11 . Photo by Cory Jacques.

2359 Lefeber Avenue Wauwatosa, WI 53213 414/771-1545


7200 S.E. 85th Lane

Ocala, FL 32672

904/245-77 68

ADVISORS John A. Fogerty

Jimmy Rollison

479 Highway 65 Roberts, WI 54023 715/425·2455

823 Carrion Circle Winters, CA 95694-1665 916/795·4334

The words EAA, ULTRALIGHT, FLY WITH THE FIRSTTEAM, SPORT AVIATION, and the logos of EXPERIMENTAL AIRCRAFT ASSOCIATION INC., EM INTERNATIONAL CONVIENnON, EMANTIQUEjCLASSIC DIVISION INC., INTERNATIONALAEROBATIC CLUB INC., WARBIRDS OF AMERICA INC. are reg~tered trademarks. THE EM SKY SHOPPE and logos of the EM AVIATION FOUNDATION INC. and EM ULTRALIGHT CONVIENTION are trademarks of the above associations and their use by any person other than the above associations is strictly prohib~ed. Ed~orial Policy: Readers are enoouraged to subm~ stories and photographs. Policy opinions expressed in articles are solely those 01 the authors. Responsibil~ for accuracy in reporting rests entirely w~h the oontributor. Material should be sent to; Ed~or, The VINTAGE AIRPLANE, P.O. Box 3086, Oshkosh, WI 5490J.3086. Phone: 414/4264800.

Dean Richardson

Geoff Robison

The VINTAGE AIRPLANE (SSN 0091·6943) ~ published and owned exclusively by EAA Antique/Classic Division, Inc, of the Experimental Aircrah ASSociation, Inc. and is published monthly at EM Aviation Center, P.O. Box 3086, Oshkosh, WI 5490J.3086. Seoond Class Postage paid at Oshkosh, WI 54901 and add~ional mailing offices.The membership rate for EM AntiquejClassic Division, Inc, is $20,00 for current EM members for 12 month period 01 whidl $12,00 is forthe publication ofThe VINTAGE AIRPLANE. Membership is open to all who are interested in aviation,

6701 Colony Drive Madison, WI53717 608/833-1291

1521 E. MacGregor Dr. New Haven, IN 46774 219/493-4724

ADVIERTISING . Antique/Classic Division does not guarantee or endorse any product offered through our advertising, We inv~e constructive anicism and welcome any report of interior merchandise obtained through our advertising so that corrective measures can be taken. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to EM AntiquejClassic Division, Inc, P,O. Box 3086, Oshkosh, WI 54903·3086,


EAGLEROCK NOTE Dear Editor, Seeing, in your November 1990 issue, the picture of a 1928 A-4 Alexander Eaglerock being restored by John Innes prompts me to refresh the memory of your readers of the Eaglerock which was restored in the early 1970s by Reagan Ormand, Jack Brouse and Doug Boren. This A-2 Alexander Eaglerock, NC6601, has all of the original parts, including the original 90 hp Curtis OX-5 engine. After nine months in the rebuilding process, the Eaglerock flew for the first time in February 1973 and as recently as June 1990. The OX-5 purrs right along after only a few "pulls through" on the prop even after all these years. In 1973, Ormand, Brouse and Boren FLEW NC6601 to enter the plane in the Texas Antique Air Show in Denton, the (Inter)National Experimental Aircraft show in Oshkosh, Wisconsin and the National Antique Air Show in Blakes­ burg, Iowa. It took Grand Champion in all three shows, as well as a room full of trophies since then. NC6601 is now hangared at Biggin Hill Airpark near Lubbock, Texas and is only flown on VERY special occasions and when the wind is RIGHT DOWN THE RUN­ WAY. The original tailskid has been replaced with a wheel but it is original in every other respect. NC6601 was featured on the front cover and in a story, "Grand Champion Eaglerock," in VINTAGE AIRPLANE, August, 1973. SPORT AVIATION, September, 1973 lists NC660 1 as Grand Champion, Antique class and features it in full color on the cover of its Novem­ ber, 1973 issue. AOPA PILOT, February, 1969, has an interesting over­ view of Eaglerock production by the Alexander Film Company in Colorado 4 MAY 1991

in the 1920s. It is a grand old bird but,

thankfully, a lot of improvements have

been made in private aircraft since then.

Best wishes and Happy Flying,

Doug Boren

MORE ON LES MAITLAND Dear Editor, Re: Page 8, VINTAGE AIRPLANE, February 1991. On the top of the page you have an excellent photo of the beautiful black and gold Curtiss R-6 Racer flown by Lieut. Lester J. Maitland in the 1922 Pulitzer race. Perhaps you may be interested in a fascinating footnote: Les Maitland was commissioned as a pilot in the U. S. Army Air Service in May 1918 and was a test pilot at Mc­ Cook Field, Dayton. At Bolling Field, Washington, DC, Les was an aide to General Billy Mitchell and took part in the famous bombing mission which sank the ex-German battleship "Osfriesland. " Les Maitland was described by author Thomas Foxworth as "a born flier." Reporting on his first test flight in the new, powerful and tricky Curtiss R-6, Foxworth said, "When the ex­ uberant Maitland took the R-6 aloft on her very first flight, he poured on full power and blistered Curtiss Field at 223 mph! This was the more remarkable because the official world speed record then stood at 205 ..." After that and only one other test hop, Maitland flew the Curtiss R-6 (Race # 44, U. S. Air Service #AS-68563, Project # P-279) to second place on October 14, 1922 in the Pulitzer Trophy Race at Selfridge Field, near Detroit. Les Maitland's performance was out­ standing because after the first lap, the

engine-driven fuel pump failed, and he had to work the emergency wobble­ pump with one hand (quite a distrac­ tion!), while flying the race with his other hand (quite a distraction!) - leav­ ing the wide-open throttle untouched. His landing - requiring three hands, when he had only been issued two - on an uneven turf airfield in a hot and dif­ ficult little biplane racer with hard high­ pressure tires, must have been a very interesting experience! At first light on March 29, 1923, after four short flights on previous days flying one of the two Curtiss R-6s, Les broke the world's absolute speed record at 244.94 mph (with one downwind pass at 281.4) at Dayton. General Billy Mitchell, not to be outdone, promptly exceeded it. Forgotten by most pilots today, Les Maitland made the very first nonstop flight to the Hawaiian Islands, together with Lieut. Albert F. "Heggy" Hegen­ burger as navigator, in a fabric-covered, wooden-winged Fokker C-2 Trimotor named the "Bird of Paradise," on June 28-29, 1927. Flight time was 26 hours, 49 minutes. For an account of Les Maitland's life and the story of his frightening first flight to Hawaii, see the article in "Wings" magazine (Sentry Books) of December, 1990. Les died in March 1990 at the age of 91. Boardman C. Reed Lt. Colonel, USAF (Retired)

VINTAGE AIRPLANE readers may be interested to know that Albert Hegenberger's grandson, Rick Hegen­ berger is a director of the Warbirds of America. Rick flies a North American T-28 out ofthe Bridgeport, CT airport.•

Compiled by H.G. Frautschy

AIC HOSPITALITY CENTER This year, Antique/Classic visitors may be surprised to find a few changes that have taken place in and around the A/C Red Bam Headquarters area. The Red Bam itself has been ex­ panded in order to accommodate the growing needs of the Division and its work force. No worries though, the porch and its friendly atmosphere will remain intact and unchanged. So, you can feel free to come in and sit down with all your A/C friends just as you always have. Then, after you've visited on the porch awhile, you can get up and amble over to the A/C Hospitality Cen­ ter located just to the west of the Red Barn. (Just behind the OX-5 Tent and next to the Judge's Headquarters.) The Hospitality Center, established by A/C Director and Chairman Jeannie Hill will be in its second year of opera­ tion. The facility is open to all An­ tique/Classic members and guests. Besides providing a place where A/C members and prospective members can meet and enjoy the hospitable atmos­ phere of the division, the Center also provides an area where guests can learn more about EAA and the Division. Video tapes, along with other visual aids and displays explaining A/C ac­ tivities and programs will be available for during the entire convention.

So please, stop by and get aquainted with some new "old" friends you haven't met yet! 1991 A/C PICNIC INFORMATION On Sunday, July 28, 1991, the A/C Division of EAA will hold its annual picnic and dance at the EAA Nature Center. This year a new feature will highlight the event. The picnic will include an open house of Pioneer Air­ port and its extensive collection of vintage aircraft. Participants will be able to tour the recently expanded facility, including the site of the new museum storage hangar and the airport manager's office. Why waste your time in town fighting the crowds for a dinner reservation? In­ stead, come to the Nature Center and enjoy a wonderful dinner of roast turkey, pork and all the trimmings. After dinner, tour Pioneer Airport and leisurely walk among the fabulous col­ lection of A/C aircraft there. After­ ward, stay for music, dancing and an ample supply of Antique/Classic corn­ radery and friendship. Tickets will be available through Jeannie Hill, A/C Picnic Chairman, at the A/C Red Barn or at the A/C Hospitality Center. Come early and stay late, as this prom­ ises to be the best A/C picnic ever! .

EARLE THOMAS HULL 1955-1991 All of us attending Sun n' Fun '91 were shocked and saddened by the news that Tom Hull II, EAA 123764, A/C 3854, had been killed on April 6th in the crash of his pristine Cessna 195. Also killed in the crash was Tom's friend Gary Mogge, EAA 257392. The preliminary report from the NTSB investigator indicates that the engine on the aircraft was not producing full power during the entire takeoff roll, or after takeoff. After climbing only 50 to 100 feet, the airplane collided with trees beyond the end of the airport runway, and then burst into flames upon impact. Tom's volunteer work on behalf of the Cessna 170 club as the Parts Coor­ dinator, and his outstanding efforts on his 195 will be sorely missed, as the many comments and letters we have received here at Headquarters indi­ cate. Tom was one of the new genera­ tion of vintage airplane restorers, and his considerable expertise would have added even more to our division's heritage. Our heartfelt con­ dolences are extended to Tom's wife Kim and the rest of the Hull family, as well as the family of Gary Mogge.




>< E




The weather was nice and warm, the showers few and far between, and a good time was had by all. Here are the results of the Antique/Classic Awards from Sun n' Fun '9l.




GOLDEN AGE 1927 - Earlier

SILVER AGE 1928-1932


1936 Stinson SR-8E Robert and Anne Lindley, Boynton Beach, FL




CONTEMPORARY AGE 1933-1945 NC28705





Piper L-4


Waco F2


Howard DGA








Stearman PT- 17

Stearmon PT-17

Cessna T-SO






Piper J-3

Joe Mathias, Norfolk, VA



Aeronca 7AC

Joe Smart, McDonough, GA

CLASS 11- 81 -150HP

N 5796H

Piper PA-17 C lipper

Mitch Freitag, SummeNille, SC


Cessna 195

Bob Silwonicz, Pompano Beach , FL




Johnny Martin and Jimmy Ray, Miami Lakes, FL

John Wright, Springfield, IL




Scott Anderson Athens, TN

Glenn Charles, Hunker, PA




Mark Holl iday, Athens, TN



Piper J-3

Loren Peters, Kissimmee, FL

Brian Becker, Pompono Beach, FI BEST OF TYPE


Cessna 195

Leslie Haley, Old Mystic, CT

Bill Childers, Melbourne, FL



Luscombe 11 A

Pete Womack, Quinton, VA

Jim Kramer, Boynton Beach, FI



Cessna 120

Scott Cox, Ft, Lauderdale, FL

Sam Johnson, San Juan Capistrano, CA



Cessna 195

Joe Rowe, Vero Beach, FL



Republic SeeBee

Jim Zantop, Whitmore, MI

David and Paula Henderson, Felton, DE W, King Sims and J, Max Bradley Atlanta, GA

Fred T. Kirk,

Ft, Lauderdale, FI BEST WWII ERA



NC 50238

Stinson V77

Jack Graham, Vero Beach, FL



Travel Air Biplane Willie Ropp, Del Ray Beach, FI on Floats



Culver Cadet

Dawson Ransome, Ocala, FL



Aeronca L-3

Budd Conyers, Jr. Altamonte Springs, FL



Waco UPF-7

Vincent Woeppel, Lake Placid, FL

Congratulations to all the winners!

Jessie Woods had not been on the wing of a biplane for many, many years, but at this years Sun 'n Fun '91, a very excited Jessie rode the wing of Steven and Susan Oliver's New Standard biplane _(That's Jessie on the left and Susan on the right.) 6 MAY 1991


bv [)ennis Var-k.s Libr-ar-v/ A.r-chives [)ir-ect()rTHE NATIONAL AIR RACES THE GOLDEN AGE (pt. 4)

1932 The National Air Races for 1932 were held at Cleveland August 27 to September 5. Sanctioned by the Na­ tional Aeronautics Association, and managed by Clifford Henderson, the races offered a total of $10,000 in prize money.

ALL WINGS TOWARD CLEVELAND The introduction in the 1932 Cleveland National Air Race program set the state for the 1932 races. "The value of the National Air Races to aeronautics has been convincingly demonstrated in the progressive bril­ liance of each succeeding annual event. By tradition, they have maintained a degree of magnitude and magnificence comparable to any other national sport­ ing event. They are not a dazzling dress parade, but a proving ground for the engineering genius and pilot skill of the aircraft industry. The eyes of the world are focused on them and the ears are trained for word of record breaking results . The news thus emanating dominates the press and the benefits derived accrue to the industry for greater appreciation and confidence in the progress and development of aeronautics. "

Schneider Cup and the discontinuance of the international competition for it, was won in 1930 at 201.90 mph. Last year the speed of the winning plane was 236.239 miles per hour. Practically all of the ships built for the Thompson this year will be capable of making 300 mph on the straightaway, which means that the event will be won by a plane averag­ ing at least 250 miles per hour in flying the required 10 laps of the triangular course. "The qualifying speed for the race has been raised to 200 miles per hour. A measured mile straightaway is being marked off in front of the air race grandstand for the qualifying trials. Alongside the measured mile will be an official three-kilometer course. While qualifying for the Thompson race, the pilots will attempt to set a new world straightaway record, which means that they must fly their ships wide open. A large cash prize and a valuable trophy have been provided to encourage the pilots in this attempt, which is to become an annual feature of the National Air Races."



In the August 1932 issue of AERO DIGEST, Clifford W . Henderson, Managing Director of the races told of his expectations. "In the 1932 National Air Races at the Cleveland Municipal Airport, it is expected that the existing world's closed-course and straightaway speed records for landplanes will be shattered. Several planes, now under construction, have been reported as having high speeds in the neighborhood of 300 mph. "The Thompson Trophy Race, now the world's premier closed-course speed classic with the retirement of the

In the October 1932 issue of AERO DIGEST, Cy Cald­ well, the magazines gadfly, presented his somewhat jaundiced view of the races and of Clifford Hen­ derson, the races Managing Director, counterpointing the normally positive hoopla surrounding the races. "Hender­ son Bros. & Barnum

& Bailey's Greatest Air Show program roars '$100,000' IN CASH PRIZES AND TROPHIES!' Then, in hushed tones, it admits that if you add every­ thing up, you'll arrive at a total of $34,000 in cash prizes for all derbies, $36,250 for all closed course events, and $1,500 for the parachute jumpers ­ a total of $71,750 in cash prizes and trophies for all contesting events. "The inference is that automobiles and the collection of plated hardware that the boys have to pay expressage on to get home is worth $28,250. Now, the Henderson brothers are the most ex­ perienced and capable air race managers American aviation has developed. National Air Races always were a financial pain in the neck until these boys undertook the management. AERO

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But there is a point at which managerial efficiency overreaches itself. The pilots think that point was reached this year.

"Despite the general dissatisfaction expressed this year, it should be remem­ bered that much of the success of the


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The Wedell-Williams Model 44 racer number 92, had a record setting year in 1932, being used to win the Bendix, setting a transcontinental record and women's world speed record.

Jimmy and Mary Haizlip both record setters in 1932 with the black and white number 92 Wedell-Williams racer.

Amelia Earhart congratulates Jimmy Haizlip upon his return to Cleveland after setting a new transcontinental record of 10 hours, 19 minutes. 8 MAY 1991

National Air Races has been due large­ Iy, perhaps chiefly, to one man, Clifford W. Henderson. On several points I do not see eye to eye with him. But I do not know of anyone who would manage the air races as well, or who would bring to the task as much experience, energy or all-around capability. Not the least difficult part has been the raising of money, and in this Cliff Henderson has done a fine job. It is only fair to him to state that without his untiring labors in all phases of the promotion, there might have been no National Air Races this year. "I offer the above for thoughtful con­ sideration by those pilots who felt so bitterly toward him and the manage­ ment. Every question has at least two sides, and this air race question has at least a hundred. So let me urge on all sides a large measure of tolerance and an endeavor to understand necessary limitations, financial and otherwise."

SHELL SPEED DASH The qualifying event mentioned by Clifford Henderson was the Shell Petroleum Corporation Qualifying Speed Dash that was required for entry in the International Free-For-All also known as the Thompson Trophy. There was also a Shell Speed Dash as a qualifying race for the Women's Free­ For-All race for the Aerol Trophy. The Shell Speed Dash demonstrated that Clifford Henderson was correct when he predicted the shattering of the world's straightaway speed record, then held by Warrant Officer Bonnett of France set in 1924 at a speed of 278.48 miles per hour. Nine aircraft qualified for the Thompson by flying over 200 mph in the speed dash. The slowest was L. Bowen in the Israel Menasco at 202.490 mph. The second fastest qualifier, Jimmy Wedell in the Wedell­ Williams 44, came very close to match­ ing the world's record at 277.057 mph. The highest place finisher, Jimmy Doolittle in the Gee Bee R-l, did shatter the world's speed record at a pace of 296.287 mph. In the women's speed dash, Mary Haizlip, flying the Wedell-Williams in which her husband won the Bendix Trophy, set a women's world record of 255.513 mph. Not only was this speed faster than two of the Wasp powered racers in the Thompson qualifier, it was a women's record that would stand for seven years.

BENDIX TROPHY The Bendix race, starting from Bur­ bank, California, saw four starters. All were fixed-gear low-wing monoplanes. Three were Wedell-Williams model 44 racers and the fourth was a new Gee Bee Super Sportster based on last year's Thompson winning model "Z." All four were also powered by 550 horse­ power Wasp Junior 9-cylinder radial engines. Jimmy Doolittle was to be an entrant in his revised Laird Super Solu­ tion but it had been damaged in a land­ ing when the new retractable landing gear malfunctioned. Jimmy Haizlip won the race to Cleveland, arriving there in 8 hours, 19 minutes. Jimmy Wedell finished second in his 1931 racer; Roscoe Turner flying the remaining Wedell-Williams was third. Lee Gehlbach was fourth in the Gee Bee. Haizlip, without landing at Cleveland, continued on to New York, setting a new transcontinental record of 10 hours 19 minutes, cutting 57 minutes off Jimmy Doolittle's record of 1931. His average speed was 238.2 mph.

in the Wedell-Williams; Bob Hall in the Bulldog of his own design . Lower powered aircraft which had qualified at over 200 mph were the Howard IKE flown by Bill Ong and the Keith Rider SAN FRANCISCO 1 flown by Ray Moore. The aircraft started the race lined up in a racehorse type start. The efficiency of the new controllable pitch propellers was shown as the Gee Bees and Hall racers pulled into the air quickly . The potential of Doolittle's 800 hp Wasp engined Gee Bee was quickly fulfilled as he took a commanding lead and the real race was the one among the three Wedell-Williams aircraft battling for second place. Doolittle continued the lead to win at a new record speed of 252.7 mph while Jimmy Wedell finished at 242.5 mph. Clifford Henderson's prediction of 300 mph was vindicated as Doolittle's fastest lap averaged 309.040 mph. For three years in a row the Thompson speeds had increased, and Doolittle had

bettered the highest speeds of the Pulit­ zer racers set in 1925 at 249 mph in an Army Curtiss racer. It can be seen that in terms of efficien­ cy as described by speed divided by power that though the winning speeds increased, the efficiency of the airframes decreased. The 1932 winning speed of 253 mph, an increase of 30 percent over 1929, was brought about by doubling the horsepower. The real efficiency in 1932 was demonstrated by the lower horsepower racers . For ex­ ample the Howard IKE produced .57 mph per horsepower, Steve Wittman's CHIEF OSHKOSH 1.15 and Art Davis' Heath Cannonball an amazing 2.88 miles per hour per horsepower. For sheer absolute speed it seems that cubic inches are what counts, not aerodynamics.

THE RACERS The 1932 National Air Races had better competition than ever before and more special built racers than ever.


THOMPSON TROPHY The Thompson Trophy race was the grand finale of the 10 day race meet. Eight monoplanes were entered. These included Doolittle and Gehlbach in the Gee Bees; Wedell, Turner and Haizlip


1929 1930 1931 1932

AIRCRAFf Travel Air R

Doug Davis Speed Holman L1ird Solution Lowell Bayles Gee Bee Z Jimmy Doolittle Gee Bee R-1



Monoplane Biplane Monoplane Monoplane

400 hp 450 hp 535 hp 800 hp

195 mph 202 mph 236 mph 253 mph


.49 .49 .44 .31

The Gee Bee R-1, flown by Jimmy Doolittle, won the Thompson Trophy race at a speed of 252.687. Although Gee Bee's would not win another major race, this was a record that would not be broken until 1936. Everybodys attention is focused on the small tire in the engine cowl! Quick work by the man with the tire extinguisher prevented a disaster for the Gee Bee crew. Jimmy Doolittle is the second from the lett. VINTAGE AIRPLANE 9

cowling and of cockpi t arrange­ ment. The extent to which the radial engine has captured the American in­ dustry was evi­ denced by the use of radials on the first six machines in the Thompson race, in spite of the aerodynamic handicap of the type on machines of very high speeds. Recent developments in cowling have of course gone far to reduce the ra­ dial's handicap, and all of the planes with Wasp or Wasp Junior engines had the full venturi or NACA cowling. The forms used, however, varied widely. "In the Gee Bees with their huge fuselages won the Bendix trans- t:~~ii"~~~:'::"';;';~-=--:"-':':"':::':2~6~~~L______"':::'''::'''--".J having a maxi­ continental event, and George Hardie Collection mum diameter only engine problems exceeding the en­ Hall Bulldog, designed, built and flown by Bob Hall, former Granville designer. prevented it from gine diameter by being among the first two or three a foot or more, the cowling flares out machines in the Thompson, if not the steadily to a maximum diameter at the actual winner. This year there was not trailing edge some six or eight inches a single biplane entered in the greater than the diameter over the Thompson race in any of the lirnited­ cylinders, and then leaves a relatively displacement, free-for-alls. The turn­ narrow annual passage, only about four over is complete. inches wide, for the escape of air. "The wire-braced monoplane is the "The Wedell-Williams and the Hall favorite. The first five machines in the planes, with fuselages of much smaller Thompson were all in that class, as are maximum cross section, contract the Ben Howard's two new Menasco racers cowling diameter after passing the (Ike and Mike) and both of the most cylinders and then leave, especially on successful light planes. The Keith the Wedell-Williams ships, an annual Ryder ship with the large Menasco was opening wider than the Gee Bee's." the only cantilever plane to have any marked success. Among the wire­ A CLASSIC YEAR braced machines the majority, including The 1932 National Air Races was the Gee Bee, Wedell-Williams and definitely a classic. More new racers, Howard ships, are low-wing more close competition, world records monoplanes with lift bracing to the set, other records broken, some that would landing gear and landing wires to the top last for years. With the end of the of the fuselage. Schneider Trophy competition in 1931, Retractable landing gear on the all­ "The major aerodynamic problems of the National Air. Race was now the metal Keith Reider R-l "San Francisthe fuselage are of course those of the col." premier international air racing event..

New unlimited aircraft included two new Gee Bee Super Sportsters, the R-1 and R-2, two new Wedell-Williams model 44 racers and the Hall BULLDOG. For lower powered races, Ben Howard had two larger versions of ~'~~£~~~-;;;rl3 PETE named MIKE and IKE, and Steve Wittman flew his new Cirrus powered CHIEF OSHKOSH. New technical ground was also being broken George Hardie Collection with all metal con- The Granville R-l, with an 800hp Pratt and Whitney Wasp, was piloted by Jimmy struction, the use of Doolittle to set a new landplane record of 296.287 mph in the Shell Speed Dash. retractable landing gear and the introduc­ tion of variable pitch propellers. The October 1932 issue of A VIA TION took a look at the design of the air racers. "Up till 1929 practical­ ly all American racing planes were biplanes. In 1930 a biplane (Laird Solution) won the Thompson Trophy and in 1931 a biplane (Laird Super Solution)

10 MAY 1991


"IT :J


.!l ~



by Doug Stone (EAA 348098, Ale 14914) It was July 11, 1986 when my dad called me and my mom to come down to the airport to see the finished product! It was done just in time for tomorrow's flight to the First Annual Sentimental Journey to Lock Haven, Pennsylvania. 1986 was of course significant because it represented 50 years of Cubs (the first 50 anyway). This was the second time around for fabric work since the PA-ll was pur­ chased by my dad in August, 1969 from a nearby grass strip in Spencer, Mas­ sachusetts. He had flown it "home" to the grass strip in Westboro, Mas­ sachusetts where he had learned to fly after returning from WWII service. The result this time was a lot different from the first time when the fading blue and white trimmed fabric was traded for an all white Ceconite 101 with bronze bul­ let striping back in January 1973. September 1977 became a turning point with Westboro's closing. Dad had become Airport Manager after the air­ port was sold to a local industry and leased back until building plans dis­ placed the airstrip. The town had passed up a chance to have a modern Municipal Airport developed for a mere $150,000 town contribution! It would

have been a great asset, located nearly midway between New England's two largest cities! Instead, it was on to Marlboro Airport. No longer involved in management, dad undertook in 1985 to restore the airplane to as near original condition as possible, just for his own satisfaction. The research had already begun in earnest. Establishing himself a contact at the Piper factory in Clyde Smith, Jr., such things as factory blueprints of the

paint design layout were obtained. Another item was procuring paint chip samples from the Piper factory files before the plant's closing. Now the two-color paint scheme could be matched exactly: Newport Blue and Yellow. But was this Cub Yellow or Lock Haven Yellow? It was Lock Haven Yellow. The first time around the fuselage and landing gear were completely stripped of all old fabric, paint and zinc





.!l >-



The rounded lines ofthe color scheme complement the soft contours ofthe Cub Special. VINTAGE AIRPLANE 11

on new leafsprings. A chief reason for redoing the more durable ceconite so soon was the fact that the wings had not been done since NC4964M was acquired by dad. Now, with the factory original color scheme planned to go back on, Ceconite 102 would be used throughout. Structural­ ly, the wings were in pretty good shape. The ribs were aluminum and the spars metal. The only replacement here would be metal tubing in the wingtip bows. Don's Flying Service, Marlboro, Massachusetts helped secure the fuselage envelope. Then it was back to a private garage for more finishing touches. The tail feathers and those pesky ailerons were being done there. Those many hours of fabric coating, sanding and stitching were thankfully "shortened" by a group of close friends, including some members from the local chromate. The metal tubing was then or a natural finish . I guess the proof EAA "Marlboro Antiquers" Chapter reprimed with two coats of Epibond and came one day when an old-timer 673. remarked that this was the first one he'd one coat of Rustoleum white. The rest The virgin Ceconite fuselage was of the metal from the engine and boot seen with the original painted blue first coated with blue Dac-ProofPrimer. cowlings to the carb and heater air boxes floorboards and original blue throttle Second, after attaching tapes to the knobs. and the sticks received similar treat­ material it was built up using ap­ It sure helped to know someone when proximately three coats of clear Ran­ ment. Aluminum stringers then it came time to refabricate the metal replaced the wood and likewise, along dolph butyrate and silver dope. Careful the sides aluminum replaced wood in interior panels, bungee cord covers and attention was given to wet sanding to the form of tubing. wing fairings! Naturally other items remove the humps and bumps. More Si lver was then applied. Final prepara­ Inside the cockpit all instruments were not left to chance as the firewall, tion was painting the fuselage all white were refaced in white by Keystone In­ trim jackscrew, cab les, glass and strument Co. The floorboards were upholstery were among the many items in order to make the finish colors appear found replacements for. The brake replaced new and painted blue. Ap­ brighter than if they were applied over cylinders were rebuilt and rounding out the Silver. The beautiful Lock Haven parently this was quite commonly changed over the years to either black the rear was a Maule tail wheel mounted Yellow was next and the Newport Blue was last. The wings were next and one day dad and a cople of the guys stood there as­ sessing the situation. None of them had ever done anything like this before. The trick was to attach the Ceconite en­ velope around the wings so that the seams lined up. Finally one of the guys pointed out to dad that they'd never finish if he didn't start cutting the fabric! The laborious rib stitching was finished off on the bottom of the trailing edge. Specifications were met which called for closer stitching on the wing area met by the propeller slip-stream. The original Continental 65 had been upgraded to another factory offering: a ~ Continental 90. The swap was made j from a Super Cub on July 30, 1977 ­ >- the very same day 18 years earlier that ! 8 this PA-18 originally had received it in 1959. The simple interior of the Cub is highlighted by the instruments restored by Keystone Final assembly was completed by Instrument Company. Don's Flying Service, along with a fresh 12 MAY 1991

A proud Doug Stone shows off the hardware the PA-ll Piper Cub Special has gathered, a fining tribute to the late Richard D. Stone, Doug's father and the Cubs restorer.

aruma!. Boy, "fresh" sure was an under­ statement this time! Now it was off to Lock Haven! Not anxious to have the craft judged, just attending filled dad's pride. One of the guys entered it anyway and a surprised owner received Second Place in type. The following year it took First Place in type. To further complete the authen­ ticity, only original Cub Logbooks could be used. Since Piper no longer carried them and no one else offered them, they would have to be reprinted! And with Piper ' s permission they were! Dad figured if he printed up a few hundred he could cover the costs of this special printing task with a small markup. Research showed that the early Pipers used several similar cover designs for their burgeoning model of­ ferings. Only one design would be chosen for reprinting however. The J-3 which appeared on the burgundy En­ gine log in the early 1940s was selected. It would appear on both the pale yellow

Aircraft log as well as the burgundy Engine log. All pages in both logs, in­ cluding the number of pages and the yellow color are exact copies of the original Piper logs of that era. Hopeful­ ly this would appear to those looking for early Piper Logbooks. To date the logs have been well received, including repeat orders! There is a small quantity of these logs still available. $7.00 per set (one Aircraft log and one Engine log) in­ cludes shipping. Or each log is avail­ able separately at $3 .50 each. Send to "Logs," 33 Birch Hill Road, Northboro, MA 01532. Personal checks made out to "Logs" are accepted. 1988 was not a year NC4964M at­ tended Lock Haven. Its owner, Richard D. Stone had rather suddenly become stricken that year. He passed away shortly after heart surgery on July 30th - 11 years to the day that the PA-ll had its own 90 horsepower "heart" in­ stalled. This article is dedicated to him and hopefully his efforts now shared

here will inspire others to carry on the spirit of flying for fun! God Bless! Also special thanks to Corey Jacques, Downeast Photography, Saco, Maine, who inspired this article and donated his servICes. In 1989 yours truly brought home two Lock Haven awards! The first, Best PA-ll; the second, a very much unex­ pected Sweepstakes Award! The Sweepstakes Award is the Most Voted For Aircraft attending! This covers EVERY type! I couldn't believe it! There were over 600 aircraft that registered. Maybe it was good luck having that old Super Cub beside it ­ you know, the one that bore the 90! Of course 7585Delta didn't do too bad either; it took best Super Cub! In 1990 NC4964M repeated BestPA­ 11 at Lock Haven. It also made the two day journey to Oshkosh where its res­ torer was added to the new EAA Memorial Wall in moving ceremonies held forever in the hearts of those who have had a loved one inducted there.• VINTAGE AIRPLANE 13

Some pilots will try anything to keep birds off their aircraft!

By H.G. Frautschy Sun 'n Fun '91 was a banner year both for the Fly-in and for the EAA staff that attended. Never before have we been able to gather as many air-to-air photos, which we are proud to present to you in color. Our thanks to all the pilots that made their aircraft available! 'Ihis year was a great year for a diverse group of aircraft, from two of Molt Taylor's Aerocars to Bob and Anne Lindley's Stinson SR-SE. For Anti足 que/Classic enthusiasts who like to get their feet wet, you had your pick of Willie Ropp's Travel Air on floats, on up to a DC-3 on floats, and everything in be足 tween . How about the "Honeymoon Lockheed 12" of Kent and Sandy Blankenburg, who had been married just (Left) Budd Conyers brought his just com足 pleted Aeronca L-3 to Sun'n Fun. Finished in Insignia Blue with Aeronca Yellow trim, the neat restoration was done by Joe Hin足 doll and his crew.

one week when we caught up with them under the wing of their green trimmed silver airliner. There really was some足 thing there for everybody. If you were able to get there, you'll enjoy seeing your favorites on the following pages. If you were unable to make it, perhaps these photos will help motivate you to plan for next yearl.

The afternoon airshow crowd relaxes on the porch of the Antique/Classic Head足 quarters building .

Bob and Anne Undley form up on the camera ship with their Great Grand ~ Champion Stinson SR-SE. The trim detail ~ on this airplane was immaculate and in- 8" spiring, and the leather upholstered inte- '" ~ rior smelled great!

Willie Ropp and his passenger, Trudy Soucy, cruise by for a low pass with his 1929 Travel Air on Edo 2425 floats. We don't think we saw Willie without a smile on his face the entire week of the Fly-in.

Scott Cox's pretty Cessna 120 was bought as a high school graduation present. It's done now - just in time for college graduation! Scott took home an Out足 standing Aircraft Award.

Bill Rose's Grumman Goose, " lucy".

Sun 'n Fun Chairman of Air Operations len McGinty and Antique/ Classic Treasurer Buck Hilbert share a few laughs.

Antique/Classic President Butch Joyce and his wife Linda are joined on the left by Emory Chronister and his wife Sandy Shimpa as they settle in with their sunscreen to watch the afternoon oir足 show.

The neat-as-a -pin Piper PA-17 Clipper of Mitch Freitog has the most beautiful cus足 tom fairings you have ever seen. Mitch's Clipper won the Class II Award in the Classic category.

Dawson Ransome had both his Piper PA足 18 Super Cub and his just finished Culver Cadet on the flight line at Lakeland. The newly restored Cadet won Outstanding Aircraft honors.

18 MAY 1991

Charlie and Brian Taylor enjoy the smooth morning air over central Florida in their just completed 415C Ercoupe.

John Lawrence and Don Undley set up in formation with their Stinsons . The Lawrence's Stinson 108-3 has a 180 hp Lycoming engine, per the Univair STC.

door was removed from the plane, which allowed plenty of room to shoot the standard angles, as well as giving us the flexibility to shoot some of the more dramatic close-ups and vertical shots. Bruce was excellent not only at for­ mation flying, but also for taking the time to look for the "good light." Most of our missions were shot above the haze layer and the clouds. Our altitude varied each day as each day's weather varied. Missions were flown from 3,500 to 10,000 AGL - wherever the sky was clear and sunny. The cumulus clouds that built each afternoon made dramatic backdrops for many of our photographs. Our photo team in the 210 consisted of Bruce, my partner Donna Bushman and myself. Donna kept one eye on the sky for any oncoming aircraft, loaded and unloaded cameras and recorded necessary information on each roll of film . Film choice for each shoot was Kodachrome 64, a fine grain slide film that we prefer for magazine production. My Canon EOS 1 and EOS lOS cameras and lenses were also an impor­ tant part of the team. Fellow photog­ rapher Carl Schuppel and I usually try to use a 100rnrn lens for most air-to-air shooting, but on these missions, I found Canon's 80-200mm F2.8 auto focus lens to be my workhorse. The lens is incredibly sharp and allows the photog­ rapher to zoom in or out to frame the subject plane in the viewfinder. Both manual and auto focus modes of the EOS cameras were utilized, with excel­ lent results from each. The EOS lOS, which has a movable focus sensor, proved to be a winner for auto focus air-to-air photography. Tying all of our photo team together with the subject planes were pilot brief­

.'"" o



"=;E Everyday, at least one person would walk up to me during Sun'n Fun '91 and ask ...



by Jim Koepnick, EAA Chief


A little talent, good equipment and a lot of teamwork makes it happen ...

The dramatic air-to-air pictures taken by the EAA photo staff are the result of not just quality camera equipment and a good "eye", but strong teamwork both on the ground and in the air. One of the key elements to the suc­ 20 MAY 1991

cess of our shoot at Sun 'n Fun '91 was Bruce Moore, our photo pilot, and his Cessna 210. The 210 proved to be ver­ satile enough to fly with all of the assigned planes, from the L-4 to Bill Rose's Grumman Goose. The baggage







I: I:


ings to detennine where we would be, radio frequencies and what we wanted to shoot. Bruce earned many compliments for giving professional briefings that not only stressed safety, but allowed for creativity on the photographer's part. Our briefings would not have run as smooth as they did if it were not for the hospitality of Ray Olcott and the An-

tique/Classic Division. The A/C Headquarters became a cen­ tal location for briefings. The final element that made our photographic mission a success was the cooperation of people like Billy Henderson, Leonard McGinty and the Lakeland tower controllers. They allowed us to keep our photo plane on the air show line, giving us easy departure for our flights as well as first-class treatment for all our requests. The great success of our Sun 'n Fun trip - the great photographs we came back with - were the result of a great team. We hope you enjoy them! â&#x20AC;˘


1990 Antique/ Classic

The 1990 EAA Antique/Classic Photo contest was another success, with 92 photographers registered at the Red Bam for this years contest. A total of 16 members submitted 63 prints for con足 sideration. We hope you have enjoyed their efforts, which we have reproduced in color for the first time.

1st Place - Ben Hannon, ~

Air to Air

2nd Place - Bill McCarrel

Ground to Air 1st Place - Myron Heimer

22 MAY 1991

Photo Contest

2nd Place - Bob Majka

3rd Place - I.W. Stephenson

Honorable Mention 足 Myron Heimer

1990 Antique/Classic

Ground to


1st Place - Myron Heimer

2nd Place - Bill McCarrel

3rd PlaceMadonna McMahan

Photo Contest

Honorable Mention (Tie) - Tan Majka

Honorable Mention (Tie) - Bob Majka



David Bennett 足 "The end of the airshow!"


1990 Antique/Classic

Photo Contest



Madonna McMahan ­ "Lug-A-Bug"



Madonna McMahan ­ "Final Flight"

Dale Crites with Curtiss Pusher and the F-117 Stealth Fighter This years Judges were, left to right: Buck Hilbert, A/C Director and EAA Photo Plane Pilot, Lee Frey, retired EAA photographer, Ted Koston, avia ­ tion photographer, Eric Lundahl, U.S. Army Photographer, and Dan Hans, amateur aviation photographer. An ­ tique/Classic Photo Contest Chair­ man Jack McCarthy would like to encourage any and all photo minded members to go to the Red Bam and sign up for the 1991 contest. A volunteer will sign you up, and present you with a set of rules, plus answer any question you may have. He also encourages Moms and Dads to get their children involved - remember, this years winner was only 8 years old! See what kids can do with a little encouragement! • 26 MAY 1991


--l5 An information exchange column with input from readers.

by Buck Hilbert (EAA 21, Ale 5) P. O . Box 424 Union, IL 60180 Dear Buck, I hope this finds all well with you. have not been to Oshkosh for several years and have rather lost track of a lot of the fellows I got to know there. The magazine business has been deteriorat­ ing steadily for the last decade or so due to inflation and I get far fewer writing assignments than I used to. So things have been rather tight for us. We eat and we have a roof over our heads, but no spending money for things like trips to Oshkosh and rebuilding old airplanes. And I'm too old to start some other career. I'm trying to do some writing about various old planes and would appreciate any information you could send me on certain obscure points. I believe you have had experience with both Aeronca C-3s and Fleets. Due to fuselage shape, etc., the C-3 upper longeron runs level from the wing trailing edge to the stabilizer attachment point. This makes the C-3 carry her horizontal tail on the same level as the wing. All the books on airplane design show stabilizers positioned at some

level below high-wing monoplanes' wings, to put the stabilizers into the wing down wash and get the tail down load desired for longitudinal stabili ty. I would assume to look at one that the stabilizer on a C-3 works in air some­ what above the maximum downwash effect region. Therefore I wonder if this tail positiion affects the C-3's flying qualities, trim, stall behavior, etc.? In connection with this, somehow long ago I picked up the idea that the Clark Y airfoil (used on the C-3) tends to stall from the leading edge, which of course can result in an abrupt stall. A very long time ago a fellow (now long gone) told me the C-3 he used to own had a weird stall, tending to suddenly just drop itself bodily. So I wonder if you could give me some insight on the C-3's overall trim, elevator control and stall be­ havior? I am also trying to figure out the reason for the various fin and rudder combinations used on the Fleets. Early ones had a small fin and a moderately­ sized rudder with straight trailing edge. Then some came along sporting a larger rudder with rounded t.e., and then some appeared with this new rudder plus a larger, longer fin . In June 1989 VINTAGE AIRPLANE there is a photo on page 27 of a Fleet you flew for some­ body that has the early small rudder

hinged onto the later large fin. I sup­ pose all this had something to do with changing CAA spin recovery require­ ments. What I see is an explanation of how the ship behaved with the original small tail, what the larger rudder did, and why the larger fin finally appeared. Did the .. Airknocker" nickname originate from the C-3's two-cylinder engine sound or from the Champ's four­ cylinder engine feeding into a pair of manifolds offering two exhaust outlets? The original Fleet was a derivation from the earlier and larger Consolidated PT-1 and PT -3 trainers. These both had rather small fins. The Tiger Moth has a noticeably small fin. The Stearman has a fin that while not tiny, is still on the smallish side. The original Fleet shared the PT's small fin and was a trainer. So I am wondering, was this small fin idea common to these trainers for the pur­ pose of accentuating propeller torque effect so as to prepare students for the larger military and commercial planes they would go on to fly later on? Or? And/so why the large fin on the Fair­ child PT-19? Tail blanketing effect of the large low wing needed a stronger rudder? Or? None of myoid books on aircraft woodwork show or say anything about how routed I-beam wing spars were manufactured. I assume the factories had large, stationary, production-type routing machines which were fitted with custom-made blades to do this routing quickly and neatly. Would you have anything to say about this? In-be­ tween routed sections were solid sec­ tions where wing fittings bore. I assume they had some trick for indicating how to feed a spar blank onto or into their machine so as to make the routed sec­ tions start and end at the proper places. Any idea how they did this? So now I shutteth methelf upp! Thanks! It can be amazingly difficult to ferret out answers to things about older planes that are right before everyone's eyes but which none of the modern breed ever notices or thinks about. Regards, Bob Whittier (EAA 1235) Dear Bob, Hey, what a pleasure to hear from you! I must admit I've missed your articles and your presence at OSH­ KOSH. It's sort of an afterthought thing, you know, "What ever happened to Ole Bob?" kind of. But then it seems like we get busy with just everyday VINTAGE AIRPLANE 27

living and there's no further time to wonder. In any event, it's really great to know you are still there and on the same plane with the rest of us. Broke, still inter­ ested in airplanes and still wanting to learn. Aeronca C-3s and your question about the positioning of the horizontal in line with the same plane as the wing. One of the things we most often forget is that this airplane was the father of most of the light planes flying today . It was a learning experience but did pro­ vide the basis for which all the Chiefs, Champs, "T" Carts, and whatever evolved from. It was after this machine was built that the later designers wrote the books. The subject matter for the so called "books" was taken from these airplanes. The deep thinkers took over and voiced all these theories on what, how and when it would fly. One of the greatest, if not the greatest, of man's inventions was the printing press. Now man's progress could be recorded in hard copy and made avail­ able to everyone. His experiences could be a guide and example to those following his example. Unfortunately, no one reads anymore, and so mistakes are re-created and the circle is complete. The Aeronca C-3 is a beautiful little flying machine and was a great flyer for its day. It is my firm belief that this airplane saved flying during the depres­ sion. Its low cost coupled with its low operating costs made rental reasonable. $3.00 per hour covered everything at a time when a Travel Air or a Waco was costing nearly $40. Many of the Cap­ tains I flew with on United Airlines who retired in the late sixties learned to fly in C-3s. They saw things progress from C-3s up through the 747s. And the ex­ perience gained in the C-3s carried them through their entire flying careers. Enough soapbox oratory; let's get to your questions. The positioning of the horizontal doesn't bother this airplane one bit. It flies in an entirely conven­ tional way. There is no trim tab; the angle of incidence is set into the stabi­ lizer at rigging time positioned for the expected pilot weight. Its speed en­ velope is very small and there is no real apparent trim changes from stall to a 100 mph lAS dive. Elevator control is very positive. The tail comes right up on takeoff and comes down very nicely on landing. It is tail heavy on the ground and sometimes forward stick is necessary to lighten the tail when 28 MAY 1991

making taxi turns . Virginius Clark has never really got­ ten all the credit for his airfoils and other contributions to aviation technology he so richly deserved. He was the guy that gave us so many innovations its un­ believable. His molded plywood (Lockheeds), his wing structure designs (Northrop, Boeing, Douglas) and his complete airplane designs were beauti­ ful. The whole Consolidated line originated with him, and I wonder how many people are aware he was working for Hughes on the Spruce Goose when he died. The Clark "Y" does have a sharp and entirely unacceptable "break" when it stalls. At least that's what the aerospace engineers of today will tell you, but then they didn't tell that to the Luscombes, Cubs and Aeroncas, and so they all fly just great. The lack of differential aileron contributed to the problem. In a stall, or near stall, application of aileron would cause the down wing to drop faster. Our C-3 gives no stall warning! There is no airframe buffet, no shake, only a little less air stream noise. A wing will just start to go down and if you try to pick it up with aileron, you will REALLY aggravate the situation. Holding that aileron will produce a very nice spin entry. It is here where the method of picking up the wing with opposite rudder becomes a very impor­ tant technique. I found this tendency could be al­ leviated somewhat by rigging the airplane with a 2 to 2 1/2 degree nega­ tive angle of incidence at the tips. This will make the root stall first and give aileron control at much slower speeds. I have also installed aileron gap seals which increases their effectiveness im­ measurably. It also gives a natural pitch down when the stall occurs. I don't recall what it did before, except that when I first began flying this particular machine it flew like a brick. I flew it that way for several years until one day I started fooling with the rigging and got the very positive results I enjoy now. As to the name "AirKnocker," I sort of feel it's an eventual derivation of all the variations of the company name. (I agreef-HGF) You've heard people call it Air-wron-icker, A-ronka, Aero­ knocka and gosh knows what else; I think the name just came from a deriva­ tion of the various pronunciations. The moniker has been around forever, but it didn't apply to the C-3s, prewar "Ts,"

"Ks" or Chiefs. The E-l13 Aeronca engine doesn't knock. It has a very throaty distinctive roar like no other. The postwar Champs and Chiefs did have a distinctive exhaust that could possibly have led to the name. Regarding the Fleet Tails. I have flown both the small and large tails, and found no appreciable difference. I have talked with some of the RCAF instruc­ tors who flew the 16s and they claim the extra area of the elevators and rudder helped in some maneuvers. Since I am not a hard aerobatic pilot and not prone to doing outside maneuvers, I can't give you the clue. The Fleet also has a Clark "Y," doesn't have differential aileron, and therefore is of the "old" school. The military wanted the larger control sur­ faces and that is why the later models were so equipped. The Model 7 originally had a small fin, but that was modified when the headrests, and in some cases winter canopies. were in­ stalled. I am enclosing copies of some of the Fleet Canada information from my files. The PT-19. If memory serves me correctly, the PT wing was big and fat and had a tendency to wallow through the air. The big fin there just ensured stability. Routed spars. I wish I had a copier to reproduce the pages of this manual I have here. Published in 1951, it is ANC - 119 Bulletin titled "Wood Aircraft Inspection and Fabrication," issued by the Subcommittee on Air Force-Navy-Civil Aircraft Design Criteria Munitions Board Aircraft Com­ mittee. It describes the various types of routed spars and the method of routing. Basically, it states that the routing is done in a very simple way with one router bit of the proper profile for the edges and another bit for removing the central position of the cutout. My Swal­ low spars gave the appearance of being . solid but were in fact laminated routed pieces with the hollowed out sides glued together - the whole idea being strength without weight. Go back to the old EAA Aircraft File Number 1, WOOD, and refer to page 46. There is a good article there by E. P. Emmanual, EAA #430 (and he refers to an article you had written) where he explains how he did it. And so I come to the end. It was a pleasure hearing from you. Hope I haven't confused the issue with my ram­ bling. Let's hear from you more often! Over to you, Bob. •

May 24-26 - Watsonville, CA. 27th Annual West Coast Antique Fly-In ir. memory of Jean Lamb. Contact: 2464 EI Camino Real, Suite 445, Santa Clara, CA 95051,408/496-9559. May 24-26 - Columbia, SC Annual Pal­ metto Sport Aviation Memorial Day Fly-In. Columbia Owens Downtown Airport. CUB. Contact: Jack Hilton, (Day) 803/699­ 0233, (Evening) 803/782-0088. Housing contact: John Gardener, 803/796-2400. May 25-26 - Decatur, AL. EAA Chap­ ter 941/Decatur-Athens Aero Services 3rd Annual Memorial Day Fly-In and Southern Aviation Reunion. Classics, Warbirds, Homebuilts. Camping, transportation to Alabama Jubilee, Hot Air Balloon Races. UNICOM 123.0, VOR on Field 112.8 ­ 205/355-5770 for information. May 31-June 1 - Bartlesville, OK Na­ tional Biplane Association 5th Annual Con­ vention and Exposition - BIPLANE EXPO '91. Free admission for all biplanes and current NBA members, all others paid ad­ mission. Contacts: Charles W. Harris, 918/742-7311 or Mary Jones, 918/299­ 2532. June 1-2 - New Braintree, MA Tanner­ Hiller Airport (home ofTanner's Restaurant, West-Central, MA). Annual Sport Aviation Fly-In; Antiques, Classics, Homebuilts and Warbirds welcome. Contact: Bruce Tanner, 508/867-8186. June 2 - DeKalb, IL EAA Chapter 241 will serve its 27th Annual Breakfast, 7:00 AM - Noon, Dekalb-Taylor Municipal Air­ port. Contact: Ed Torbett, 815/895-3888. June 2 - Tunkhannock, PA Skyhaven Airport (76N). Fly-In Breakfast, 8am - 2pm. Located on the NY sectional 19 miles from LHY VOR 110.8 on the 289 degree radial or 19 miles from AVP vor 111.6 on the 333 degree radial Unicom 122.8. Antiques and classic people welcome. Crafts and Flea Market. Campground with modern facilities available on the field . Contact: Steve Gay at Skyhaven Airport, 717/836­ 4800. June 7-9 - Merced, CA Municipal Air­ port. 34th Merced West Coast Antique Fly­ In. Contact: Merced Pilots Association, P. o. Box 2312, Merced, CA 95344, or Mac Duff, 209/383-3975. June 7-9 - Denton, TX Muncipal Air­ port. 29th Annual Texas Antique Airplane Association Fly-In. Registration $3.00 donation per person; Registration and meals $20.00 donation per person. Fly-In Chair­ men: Mary and Bert Mahon, 1803 Concord Lane, Denton, TX 76205,817/387-2620. June 8 - Lamar, MO Municipal Airport 30th Anniversary Fly-In. Free pancake breakfast & commemorative gifts for par­ ticipants. Trophies for oldest and youngest pilots, best antique, classic, homebuilt, ultralight and longest distance flown. RIC model airplane show 2 PM. 417/682-2939. June 8 - Newport News, VA Patrick Henry Airport. 19th Annual Fly-In spon­ sored by EAA Chapter 156. Contact Chet Sprague for information and NON-RADIO ENTRY at 8 Sinclair Rd., Hampton, V A 23669,804/723-3904; leave message. June 9 - Aurora, IL Municipal Airport. EAA Chapter 579 Fly-In/Drive-In Breakfast

and Airport/FBO Open House, 7:00am ­ Noon. Contact: Alan Shackleton 708/466­ 4193 or Bob Rieser, Airport Manager, 708/466-7000. June 9 - Portsmouth, OH Airshow '91. Warbirds, Antique, Classic aircraft; ultralights, paraplane, rotorcraft. Military fly over and static display. Sky divers, hot air balloons. Hangar party June 8th. Plus more. Hours 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM. Contact: Don Hulbert, 1012 Ruhlman Ave., Portsmouth, OH 45662, 614/353-3574 or 820-2400. June 21-23 - Middletown, OH. WACO GATHERING, Hook Field. Forums, ven­ dors and other activities. Chairman, Phil Coulson. For more information, call the IWA office, 812/232-1042, or Phil at 616/624-6490. June 21-23 - Pauls Valley, OK. Ok­ lahoma City Chapter of AAA Fly-In. All types of aircraft welcome to eat, drink and be merry. Contacts: Doug Andreson, 405/350-1420 or D. 1. "Bud" Sutton, 405/392-5608. June 26-30 - Lockhaven, PA Wm. T. Piper Memorial Airport. ERCOUPE OWNERS CLUB 1991 National Conven­ tion. Open to all Ercoupe owners and per­ sons interested in Ercoupes; public invited. Awards, trophies, special events, tours, seminars, picnic, banquet Saturday night. For convention information and reserva­ tions, contact Steve Kish, 215/838-9942 evenings. June 27-30 - Mount Vernon, OH 32nd Annual National Waco Reunion Fly-In. Wynkoop Airport. Make your reservations at the Curtis Motor Hotel 1-800/828-7847 or (in Ohio) 1-800/634-6835. Contact: The National Waco Club, 700 Hill Av., Hamil­ ton, OH 45015 or call 513-868-0084. June 29-30 - Orange, MA Municipal Airport. 15th Annual New England Regional EAA Fly-In with antique steam and gas engine show, flea market, food. Trophies both days for homebuilts, antiques, classics, warbirds. Chapter 726. Contact: David White, 508/544-8189. June 30-July 5 - Jennings, LA. Inter­ national Cessna 170 Association 23rd An­ nual Convention; Holiday Inn on airport. P. o. Box 896, Jennings, OK 70546, 318/824­ 5280. Arrival Sat., June 30; Departure Sat., July 6. Contact: Ron Massicot (Conv. Chrm.), 318/332-4597. July 4-7 - Cottage Grove and Roseburg, OR Airports. Oregon Antique and Classic Aircraft Club "Firecracker Fly-In at Cottage Grove. Fly-out afternoon of July 5 to annual OACAC meeting at Roseburg Airport. July 6 & 7, state EAA meeting at Roseburg Air­ port. Contact: Larry Well, 13721 S.W.

Hiteon Drive, Beaverton, OR 97005; 503/224-8125, x650 (Voice Mail). July 6-7 - Emmetsburg, IA Airport. Tail Dragger Club 3rd Annual Aeronca Champ Fly-In. Annual Flight Breakfast Sunday, July 7. Camping by airplane & free breakfast to pilot & co-pilot. Contact: Keith Harnden, Box 285, Emmetsburg, 1A 50536, 712/852-3810. July 12-14 - Williamsport, PA, Willaim T. Piper Memorial Airport. Third Annual Northeast Stearmans Association Fly-In. Contact: Dale Criswell, 717/368­ 03266(days) - 717/323-7779(evenings) or Frank Haas, 215/355-1200(days) - 215/593­ 2675. July 13-14 - lola, WI Annual Fly-In, Central County Airport. "Old Car Show" weekend. Midwest's largest car and swap meet. Breakfast and transportation available both days. Info, 414/596-3530. July 13-14 - Deleware, OH Airport. 10th Annual EAA Chapter 9 Fly-In. War­ birds, Homebuilt aircraft, Antiques/Clas­ sics, Camping. Contact: Art TenEyke 614/363-6443 or Alan Harding 614/442­ 0024. July 27-28 - Schiocton, WI, Airport. Annual Fly-In. Food both days, raffle, Skydiving, and band Saturday night. Free camping to EAA members during week of convention. Contact Joyce Baggot 414/986­ 3547. July 26-Aug. 1 - Oshkosh, WI 39th Annual EAA Fly-In and Sport Aviation Convention. Wittman Regional Airport. Contact: Jolm Burton, EAA Aviation Cen­ ter, Oshkosh, WI 54903-3086 414/426­ 4800. For housing information, contact Housing Hotline, 414/235-3007. August 3-4 - Schenectady County, NY Airport. NORTHEAST FLIGHT '91 AlR­ SHOW, sponsored by The Empire State Aerosciences Museum & Schenectady County Chapter of the American Red Cross. Robert W. Schuhl, Director, Northeast Flight '91, Suite 419, Mohawk Mall, Schenectady, NY 12304-2301; 518/382­ 0041. August 23-25 - Sussex, NJ Airport (Route 639). 19th Annual SUSSEX AlR­ SHOW '91. Gates open 8am, show starts 1:30pm. Information, contact Paul G. Styger, Sussex Airport Manager, P. O. Box 311, Sussex, NJ 07461, 201/702-9719 or 201/875-7337. September 7 - Chico, CA Municipal Airport. Chico Airshow and Antique Fly-In commemorating 50th Anniversary of the Flying Tigers. Hospitality pckage to all registered pilots includes Friday evening BBQ, Dance tickets, Saturday Pancake breakfast. Antiques, homebuilts, military & all others welcome. Chico Airshow and An­ tique Fly-ill Committee, 236-A W. East Ave., Box 166, Chico, CA 95926, 916/894­ 3218. September 13-15 - Jacksonville, IL. Seventh Annual Byron Smith Memorial Stinson Fly-In and Reunion. Seminars on Stinson 108s and Franklin engines, Saturday banquet. Fly-outs, contests, camping at field. Contact: Loran Nordgren, 4 W. Nebraska, Frankfort, IL 60423, or call 815/469-9100. VINTAGE AIRPLANE 29


The following is a partial listing af new members who recently have joined the EAA Ant~ que/Classic Division. We are honored to welcome them into the organization whose members common interest is vintage aircraft. Succeeding issues of THE VINTAGE AIRPLANE will contain additional listing of new members.

Bartow, FL Scott Oglesby Stuart, FL Paul J . Hughes Omak, WA David S. Edwards West Richland, WA Kenneth A. Rinear Oingwood, TX Robert A. Henton, III Salt Lake City, UT Carl Penner Friday Harbor, WA Michael F. Robbins Eagle River, AK Raymond C. Hahma Edward O. Neikes Taylorville, IL Pinole,CA William H. Wood Elkton, FL J ames Patterson BlueBell, PA John E. O'Neil Canadaigua, NY Joan V. Moore Nashville, TN John Tudor John M. I)rice Hampton, NH West Lafayette, IN Ned E. Derhammer Naperville, IL Arthur Anderson Orlando, FL Donald H. Whitten Bartlett,IL Andy Kus Toronto, Ont. Canada Gilles Chamberland The Netherlands L. P. Slrybos Hutchinson, MN David J . Kruager Eugene, OR Jane Phillips Denver, CO Gene F. Carlin Holland Voest Schermer Edward II. Segar Memphis, TN Albion,IL Howard H. Gaither Natick, MA James E. Feather Marshfield, WI Don Halloran

Amboy, WY Patrick J. DeLauder R.C.MeGee Kernersville, NC Marcus J. Hailey Atianta,GA Gainesville, FL Joseph E. Roux Andrew Austin Santa Cruz, CA Guillermo De Alba Martin Mexico O.J. Young Seabrook, TX Hruno C. Ferretti Pine Island, NY Moncure,NC Vann B. Covington Grinnell, IA Richard B. Hammond Stauton, vA Franklin L. Root Tulsa, OK Gary Baca Hill Hampton Cedar Rapids, IA Wichita, KS L. John Zimmerman Cinnaminson, NJ Everett J. Maddox Liberty, SC William Martin Angela Janssen Freeport, IL Daniel McNeil Placerville, CA Jerry Stadmiller Fort Lauderdale, FL Robert R. Dixon, Jr. Hickory, NC Ralph A. Lereh Boone, NC Dale R. Gultch Brookfield, WI Hernhard Roesler West Germany R. E. Schmidle Beaufort, SC Albuquerque, NM J. Martin Lewis Paul Soame England Crystal River, FL Jim M. Patton, Jr. Daniel R. Doyle Fort Lauderdale, FL



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Membership in the Experimental Aircraft Association, Inc. is $35.00 for one year, including 12 issues of Spor! A viation. Junior Membership (under 19 years of age) is available at $20.00 an­ nually. Family Membership is available for an additional $10.00 annually. All major credit cards accepted for mem­ bership. FAX (414) 426-4873.


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Super Cub PA 18 fuselages repaired or rebuilt - in precision master fixtures. All makes of tube assemblies or fuselages repaired or fabricated new. J.E. Soares Inc., 7093 Dry Creek Road , Belgrade , Montana 59714, 406/388-6069 . Repair Station D65-21. (UFN) 1910-1950 Original Plane and Pilot Items - Gosport System , $40.00, 1930's Lunkenhiemer Primer, N.O.S. $85.00 , much more . 44- page catalog $5. Jon Aldrich, POB-706, Groveland , CA 95321 ­ 209/962-6121 . (6-4) NOSTALGIC AIRLINE POSTER BOOKS - Colorful publicity of the airlines of the World! FREE DETAILS! Gerard , 3668-VA Hilaire , Seaford , NY 11783-2710. (6-4) Ham-Standard Ground Adjustable model 5404 with 4150 blades for sale. Excellent condition . Freshly tagged. 102 inch diameter. Call Whirlwind Prop. 708/336-4373. (5-2) FOR SALE - Gorgeous winged CONTINENTAL engine "Powerful as the Nation " permanent water transfer decals. 6 inches x 2 inch, red , black and silver. Great for Waco, Cub , T-craft, etc. $6 .50 per pair. CURTISS ALDRICH , POB 21 , Big Oak Flat, CA 95305 FOR SALE - Two-hundred-year-old partially restored colonial house located adjacent to a paved , lighted instrument runway on two acres of land which includes four tiedowns, and free hangar for two years. 4.9 nm from Pease VOR (NY sectional) . Centrally located to Boston , Manchester , NH and Portland, ME. Easy access to 1-95. 207/439­ 4922 days, 207/439-4052 evenings. Ask for Jack or Jean Hardy. (7-4) VINTAGE AIRPLANE 31


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Pauley, Highland Park, MI; Herbert de­ Bruyn, Bellevue, W A, Larry Carlson, Rocky Hill, Ct; Lynn Towns, Brooklyn, MI; Charley Hayes, Park Forest, IL; John Lachendro, Butler, PA; Dr. T.G. Gardner, St. Louis, MO; Brad Leftwich, Bloomington, IN ; Frank Pavliga , Rootstown, OH; Marty Eisenmann, Garrettsville, OH; John Houser, Mid­ dletown, OH, Len Phillips, Gates Mills, OH; John Hem, Coeur d'Alene, ID; Bill Madden, Las Cruces, NM; Ralph Nor­ tell, Spokane, W A; John Maxfield, Northfield, MI; Ted Giltner, Tamaque, PA; and finally (phew!) Bill Ewertz from Sonoma, CA. The designer of tills airplane must have worried about the keeping nose up . The photo was sub mitted by Ted Businger of Evening Shade, Arkansas. Answers will be published in the August, 1991 issue of VINTAGE AIRPLANE. Deadline for that issue is July 5. The Mystery Plane in the February issue drew a sizeable number of answers. Many included interesting in­ formation, and had personal experience with the later airplane. The most com­ plete answer came from Emil Cassanel­ 10 of Huntington Station, New York. He writes: "The Mystery Plane is the Great Lakes 2T -1. The original design called for a straight wing. Flight tests revealed a strong tail-heavy problem. To cure it, a sweep-back of 9 degrees was added to the top wing, thus the 2T-IA model. The original also had a small tail (rud­ der/fin) which was enlarged on later models. The powerplant was four­ cylinder, air-cooled in-line Cirrus Mark 3 of 85 hp. Charlie Meyers, formerly of Waco, was chiefly involved in the design and testing of the 2T -1. "It is interesting that the deHavilland Tiger Moth had swept back wings as a change from the straight-wing Moth. The reason, though, was it was impossible to "bailout" of the front cockpit willie sur­ rounded by interplane struts. The fix here for the R.A.F. was to bring the top center

section forward of the front cockpit and sweep the wings back to keep the center of gravity at the same place. "The first two Great Lakes built were called Great Lakes transports, Serial Nos. 1 and 2. Sport trainers started with Serial No.3". Other answers were received from Gene Chase, Oshkosh, WI; Len Phjl­ lips, Gates Mills, OH; Lloyd Washburn, Port Clinton, OH; Robert Wynne, Mer­ cer Island, WA; J. R. Nielander, Fort Lauderdale, FL; Steven McMicoll, Geneva, IL; Cedric Galloway , Hesperia, CA; David Gautiller, Auburn, WA; Bill Ewertz, Sonoma, CA; Wayne Van Valkenburgh, Jasper, GA; John Underwood, Glendale, CA; Robert

A question came up within all these letters. Bill Madden, P.O. Box 3178, Las Cruces, NM 88003 would like to hear from anyone who can supply documentation of the brake line instal­ lation as Great Lakes orginally sup­ plied them. In particular, Bill would like to know how the cables got from the bellcranks under the floorboards to the wheels. One of the other letter writers may have the answer for Bill. Perhaps Bill Ewertz, who is lucky enough to own, along with his wife, Janet, two Great Lakes. His is an original 1929 model, modified with a Ranger engine. Hers is a replica of the same airplane. Now that's together­ ness! Bill has another interesting VINTAGE AIRPLANE 33

project, a 1937 Ford Powered Arrow Sport, which he is willing to part with. Contact him at 110 Specht Rd., Sonoma, CA 95476. Noted aviation author Peter Bowers of Seattle, W A, wrote that the un­ covered February Mystery Plane looked like one of the prototype Great Lakes 2T -I 's, most likely the second one built, CfN 4, Registration number 620, since C/N 3 (527) had fewer turtleback stringers. Here's the rest of Peter's note: "The Great Lakes Aircraft Corp. was formed in 1929 and moved into the former Glenn L. Martin factory in Cleveland, OH, after Martin moved to Baltimore. The first business was to build Martin T4M-l torpedo planes for the Navy under the designation TG-I and -2. The CfN's I and 2 were as­ signed to two civil versions of the TG-I that Great Lakes hoped to market, while C/N's 3 and 4 went to the two prototype 2T-I sport-trainers. "The 2T-l, designed primarily by ex-Waco pilot and official, Charlie Meyers, was a tandem two-seater powered with an 85 hp Cirrus III four­ cylinder upright air-cooled engine. The prototypes and the first two production articles had a straight upper wing. Because of the plane's

small size, the front cockpit could not be under the upper wing as on larger contemporary Travel Airs, Wacos, etc., but was behind it. This resulted in an undesireable tail-heavy condi­ tion that was soon corrected by sweep­ ing the upper wing back nine degrees outboard of the center section. The sweep added greatly to the snap-roll capability of the little biplane and it has been widely used for airshow and

competitionaerobaticseversince. "The 2T series went through various modi­ fications and three separate Approved Type Certificates to Model 2T-1 E, which featured increased wing gap, larger tail surfaces, a rounded-out fuselage and an inverted Cirrus en­ gine. Most of the 2T's flying today have been converted to later engines, either Warner radials or Lycoming or Continental flat engines" .•





j :; o u .!1



~~~~--~~~~--~--------------------------------------~~ Great lakes 2T-IA being tested as a seaplane. Of particular interest is the neat arrangement of the enlarged rudder and bolt-on underfin to get the added tail area needed for seaplane. This is serial number 118, registered 8S7K. The 2T-l did not get approval for noats.

Great lakes 2T-l prototype, serial number 3, registered 577, on one of the early test nights with Frank Clewers in the cockpit. Note the straight upper wing and the few stringers in the turtle deck. The picture is dated March 25, 1929. 34 MAY 1991

Antiques & Classics足

Youre Welcome Here!

I s there a pilot among us whose heart doesn't swell when a WACO, Stearman or a pretty little Jenny flies overhead? On the wings of these airplanes, we all experience the leather helmet days before radios, nosewheels and controlled airspace. We're fortunate your EAA is dedicated to keeping our flying heritage alive. Keeping antique and classic aircraft flying means investing substantial money as well as time. AVEMCO's antique and classic air足 craft coverage provides protection of your financial investment at a surprisingly reasonable cost. In ad足 dition to liability and hull coverage, you can be compensated for your labor if you make repairs yourself. After all, who knows your airplane better than you do? Stop by and see us at Oshkosh. Your antique and classic aircraft, as well as your enthusiasm, is welcome here.






By Aviation People ... For Aviation People

This is intended as a brief description of the coverage offered. Certain exclusions and limitations apply. We will be glad to send you a sample policy for your review.

AAA04-0 (6/90)


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