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MEREOLOGY A Study of SunnyHill, Minami-Aoyama Tokyo , Japan Kengo Kuma By Ip Tsz Man Vincent BSSC (Architectural Studies) Chinese University of Hong Kong

Submitted to the Department of Architecture in Partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Architecture at the University of Southern California Jan 2017 Š2017 Ip Tsz Man Vincent , All rights reserved The author hereby grants to USC permission to reproduce and to distribute publicly paper and electronic copies of this document in whole or in part in any medium now know or hereafter created.


Jose Sanchez Advisor


Abstract :


Acknowledge :


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Concrete, on the other hand, allow us to forget the limits and we can misunderstand the sense of scale. We think that we can do anything. Concrete makes us arrogant; wood makes us humble as designers. This is a big difference.

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- Kengo Kuma


CONTENT 1. DOCUMENTATION a. Summary b. Plans c. Sections d. Elevations e. Axometrics 2. HISTORY a. Wood Architecture 1.Tradition Eastern World 2.Western World 3,Eastern World 4.Modern Wood Architecture in Western World b. Kengo Kuma Wood Joints Projects 1. Cidori 2. GC Prostho Museum Research Center 3. Starbucks Coffee at Dazaifutenmangu Omotesand 4. Sunny Hills Japan a. Basic Module b. Fabrication c. Critiques c. Futher Development by Kengo Kuma 1. Wind Eaves 2. Yure / The Wisdom Tea House 3. Tsumiki 3. ANALYSIS a. Post Digital Age - Mereology 1. Connecting the Dots / 1st Digital Age 2. 2nd Digital Age a. Biomimicry b. Agent Based Design c. Relationship between Agent Based Design & Mereology 3. Mereology a. Definition b. What should be the smallest part? c. Open Source / Crowd Sourcing b. Spiritual Architecture / Architect as Builder 1. Anti-object to Spiritual Architecture 2. Architect as Builder 3. Building Simplexity 4. Appendix - Traditional Wood Joint Studies 5. Bibliography and References


1. DOCUMENTATION


1. DOCUMENTATION A.SUMMARY Project:

SunnyHills

Location:

Minami-Aoyama, Japan

Photography:

Daici Ano

Structure:

Jun Sato Structural Engineering

Facilities:

Kankyo Engineering

Construction:

Satohide Corporation

Site Area:

175.69m2

Building Area:

102.36m2

Total Floor Area:

293.00m2

No. of Floors:

BF1, 1F, 2F, RF

Structure:

Reinforced Concrete Partially Timber

Construction Period: 2012.November-2013.December Primary use:

Store (retail)

Client:

Sunny Hills Japan

Design Team:

Kengo Kuma, Kenji Miyahara, Hiroaki Akiyama, Yuteki Dozono, Masahiro Minami

Hvac:

San-ei Setsubi Kogyo

Plumbing:

San-ei Setsubi Kogyo

Electric:

Kokko Systems

Building Coverage:

58.26% (maximum allowed: 60%)

Floor area ratio:

166.77% (maximum allowed: 281.60%)

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Kengo Kuma & Associates

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Legend 1. Store 2. Storage 3. Parking 4. Stair Landing 5. Terrace 6. Pantry 7. Meeting Room 8. Restroom 9. Office

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Ground Floor Plan


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First Floor Plan


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Second Floor Plan


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Facade Breakdown Legend 1. South Facade 2. East Facade 3. North Facade 4. Completed Facade Component 5. Completed Building


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Building Components Legend 1. Black Metal Roof Deck 2. Concrete Wall 3. Garage 4. Wood Structure 5. Black Metal Hand Railing 6. Acetylated wood deck - Bolt fastening bracket - Standing seam (@ 383) - Galvalume Steel Sheet Fluorine - Resin Coating t 0.4 - Mesh mat for back - corrosion prevention t7 - Waterproof rubber sheet - Structural plywood t24l

7. Seam material - Drift pin 10ØL = 60 - PL 340 mm x 55 mm x 6 mm 8. Wooden facade: - Hinoki 60x60 E110 class - Application of impregnated water repellent material after incombustible treatment - Small water paint paint 9. Floor: cork flooring t4 - Structural plywood t 12 10. Cork flooring t4 - Step board t Pl t 9 - Circumferential edge FB 4.5 x 16 - Sasara FB 25 x 125

11. Stamping board: - Reed wild t40 - St Pl t12 12.floor: - Tataki Doi - Waterproof coating 13. ceiling: - Structural plywood 3 x 6 size t 24 - Small beam Hinoki 60 × 60 @ 910 - Beam Hinoki 60 × 180 14.floor: - Cork flooring t 5 - Structural plywood t 12 - Sound insulation floor panel 16 - Wooden joystick


The criteria for architecture after the tsunami is humbleness.

- Kengo Kuma


2. HISTORY


2. HISTORY

A. WOODEN ARCHITECTURE 1. Tradition Eastern World

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As an introduction, to Wooden architecture and joinery is one of the very important element in the eastern architecture world, since Tang dynasty the culture of wooden chinese architecture spread from China to its surrounding neighbours, such as Japan, Korea, Vietnam, etc. Unfortunately, these wooden architecture are vulnerable towards weathering, fires and wars, there are not much wooden structure have survived. The oldest wooden structure exist in China, is dating back to 523 AD - the Songyue Pagoda, constructed during the Northern and Southern dynasties.

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The unique feature which makes the influence of Tang Dynasty Architecture so significant is the bracket. The bracket system help to solve four problems that arise as buildings get bigger : (Richard,2008) 1/ How to reduce beam spans, 2/ How to brace wall sections above column, 3/ How to support a wide eave 4/ How to strengthen the frame. The bracket system is a modular system, which contains pieces with different joints, while they are being replicated in the structural grid supporting columns. (see Fig.1.1) When they are ready to erect bigger structures, the elements can be scale in the same proportions, and they are able to enclose spaces with different dimensions with open floor plans. (see Fig.1.2) Throughout all those years, the brackets evolved with their complexity , reduces in size and addition of different ornaments. (see Fig.1.3) The modular system of brackets are actually a result from its construction material, which the wood comes in a certain length, height and width; that brings limitation to the module. Instead of forming arches and domes with bricks and masonry as western architecture, they developed a structure system that can be manipulated and replicated throughout the buildings. Respecting nature is an important lesson for Japanese carpenters, and the practise as a carpenter in Japan is much more than a job, it is related with one’s spiritual training. Everyday’s training include sharpening their own tools, every carpenter will make their own tools for themselves, therefore they are suppose to be taking good care of them. These carpenters live together as a family , work as a team, through learning everyday, junior workers become skillful.


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Fig. 1.1 The Chinese Order - By Liang Ssu Cheng, showing how components from roof rafters to the connection to column, beam and plinth. Fig.1.2. Evolution of the Chinese”Order” - By Liang Ssu Cheng, its noticable that the order have shrink in size , Fig.1.3. Being an admirable engeering soultion, the way in which he , relative to the column, unbelivably large beams are attached to each of the four columns of Jodoji- Jododo.

Fig. 1.4. Section showing flexible beam skeleton supporting curved roof / bsic bracket set / section , showing bracket set and ang Fig. 1.5. Exploed View shows that all horizontal elements ehibit the through tenon , so characteristic of the daibutsuyo ,it also shows how the structure can be seperate into parts

When they are constructing columns from wood logs, as the full log would be too heavy to be carry down from the woods , they split them into four pieces. These four pieces will become four columns according to the side it is cut from. This would prevent them from rotting. AR CH 793 A DDR — pa g e 28 —

Another important thing for their construction is the calculation of dimensions. As wood will shrink after putting on heavy loads, such as the roof, wall, shingles etc. and all the loads need to be put evenly on the structure, like the dome in Florence Cathedral , the brick must be laid on each side simultaneously , to prevent the structure from collapsing. The structure itself is able to shake, and with this property kept it from collapsing from earthquake , even skyscrapers use this mechanism to stay against wind and earthquake.

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Wood is a natural material in tradition eastern architecture, without any additional binders to make them , they are cutted and trimmed from lumber and shave to shape. Wood as its organic will subject to denature in expose to moisture and UV rays; therefore they are shelter with a decent roof overhang. Therefore these roof overhang tends to be larger when the building gets taller. Also the cut ends of the lumber, they are subjecting to the most weathering compare with the other parts , they are covered with decorations and paints, as an important precaution to take in wood-frame construction. 2.Western World Architecture is vulnerable throughout the history of mankind, where it is also quick to react under different way after the destructions. In 1666 Great Fire of London , that destroyed 85 % of the low timber houses within the city fabric. During the reconstruction , Sir Christopher Wren build fireproof brick buildings along broad avenues and city squares , replacing convoluted alleyways of medieval city. This also affected Napoleon III during his visit to London. He ordered Paris to be rebuilt based on the London model. Commissioned to Georges-Eugene Haussmann, within 17 years , from 1853-70, a new Paris with wide avenues, tree-lined boulevards, linking broad plazas, replete with obelisk, monuments , opera houses and other showpieces is constructed. Facades along boulevards were kept to exact same mid-rise height, and strictly regulating the designs and ornaments. This process started in promoting wide avenues, open plazas and fireproof buildings around the globe.


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In 1871 Great Chicago Fire , that destroyed 800 hectares and left 100,000 people homeless. Wooden houses were banned as a result, replaced by a fireproof modern city of brick , stone and steel . And they have advance their building heights with innovations on building technologies - the hydraulic passenger lift. With the lift , buildings started to grow in height , triggering the growth of steel - frame buildings. That also affects architecture globally, known as the Chicago School of architecture, inspiring other cities such as New York , Hong Kong , Tokyo etc. to construct more and more skyscrapers. These skyscrapers have not been evolving in their operative strategy since those days.

3.Eastern World

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In a way very similar to the Western world , natural disasters swallow up wooden architecture. In Tokyo, before 1923 Great Kanto Earthquake ,the city is full of low one - to two storey wood frame dwellings. As Nature has its own limitation, that makes it at a human scale, keeping the wood architecture support by slender columns every 3m and heights to two stories. These limitations are not due to any artificial constraints , but a respect with nature. This made Tokyo one of the most beautiful cities with an extreme density , while still maintaining its human scale with nature beauty. (Kuma,2010) With the death of 100,000 people in the Great Kanto Earthquake, the wooden city locates on the seismic belt proved itself to be a deadly fire trap. The building code was then updated to construct a fireproof Tokyo of concrete and steel, that turns over the whole Eastern Architecture history, that were small and human scale using wood as construction material .

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4.Modern Wood Architecture in Western World In 2012, under all the influence of the sustainable city movements, with different certification or building codes, such as LEED in US , BEAM in Hong Kong , California Green Building Codes etc.; Michael Green has promoted a feasibility study on The Case for Tall Wood Buildings. In the feasibility study argues that if we need to make wood replacing concrete and steel to make construction industry more sustainable than before.(Michael , 2012) This marks the bloom of construction in wooden highrise around the world. Such as the New Tamedia Building in Zurigo(2013), the first NYC wood high rise by SHoP Architects. Current wood architecture skyscraper trend is proposing a more sustainable architecture environment, as steel and concrete during production produce a lot of carbon dioxide - a greenhouse gas. Switching to wood as construction material would bring down the greenhouse gas emission for architecture, however these engineered materials , would still keep the overscaled architecture. Which is still not an ideal compare with traditional japanese wood architecture.


Fig. 1.6, 1.7. Monumental Timber Frame Buildings Puehsien Ke ( Hally of Samantabhadra), cross section

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2. HISTORY

B. KENGO KUMA WOOD JOINTS PROJECT

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Kengo Kuma , a Japanese architect born in 1954. He graduated in architecture in University of Tokyo and Columbia University. And one of his goal in architecture is to recover the tradition materiality and spiritual experience of traditional Japanese Buildings, and reinterpret them for 21st Century. Wood and wooden joints have always be an important part in Japanese Architecture as described in the previous section. Wooden architecture have never been a style that is admitted in the western architecture history, for them , they use heavy masonry, to construct monumental structures .They are heavy and massive, compare with wood architecture , Kengo Kuma started to think about how to make something light out of wood.

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Wood construction, in Japanese architecture , does not contain iron nails and screws, they have nails with wood . As carpenters know very well that they will corrode after a few years , while iron and wood have different shrinkage factor, they will further damage the wood by expanding more than they can accept . 1.Cidori (2007) The first project that Kengo Kuma did with a true wood joint is Cidori, a pavilion structure exhibit in Milano Salone 2007. The joints cames from a traditional joint system of Chidori. The joints are originated from an old Japanese toy, from Hida Takayama. 2. GC Prostho Museum Research Center (2010) His second project is the GC prostho Museum Research Center that is almost an enlarged version of the previous pavilion project Cidori. Still , this project is limited by its basic units , which are 90 degree to every element. 3. Starbucks Coffee at Dazaifutenmangu Omotesando (2011) The third project is Kengo Kuma’s experiment in Starbucks Coffee. In this project, the wood joints are no longer limited as before, where the joints are becoming diagonal, compare with before , where three sticks joins at one point in Cidori and GC Prostho Museum. This projects starts to resolve a four point joint, by slightly changing the position of fulcrums, the four sticks are prevented to be concentrate on a single point.


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Fig. 2.1. Cidori - Kengo Kuma (2007) Fig. 2.2. Cidori joint system Fig. 2.3, 2.4. GC Prostho Museum Research Center (2010) Using the same cidori joint system as before Fig.2.4,2.5,2.6,2.7 Starbucks Coffee at Dazaifutenmangu Omotesando , first project using a four point wooden joint in an interior project.

Fig. 2.8 ,2.9,2.10,2.11,2.12,2.13 SunnyHill Tokyo - Second project using four point wooden joint system Fig. 2.14. basic four point joint with slight shift Fig. 2.15 How the structure is assembled Fig. 2.16 How the structure turned the corner and the assembly sequence

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4. Sunny Hills Japan (2013) The Starbucks Coffee project leads to this project , which is also my research focus in the DDR. The previous joint structure developed in Starbucks started to evolve into a three- dimensional lattice structure, that surrounds the exterior of the pineapple shop, located in Tokyo. The project architect Yuteki Dozono said in an interview , “it is not necessarily about the efficiency or structural integrity , it is just about doing something amazing that we can do.” The intent of the project was to translate the user into a modern Japanese forest in the heart of Toyko.The quality of resultant space is not only a visible intricate structure , but also the smell of locally sourced cedar. (Anna,2016) a.Basic Module In Fig 2.14, the basic structure of how the four point joints are formed through a slight shift in the intersection, creating two sets of joints in a form of diagrid structure and a porous facade. AR CH 793 A DDR — pa g e 42

In diagram 2.17 , it shows how the structure itself turns the corner, where the edge is also blurred in the sense of a typical building. Sharp edges of buildings are replaced by a cloud of wood structure. In diagram 2.16 , it display how the interior components like structures for floor decks , and interior partitions are created also using the same language. From Fig 2.22 , it is clear that the floors are not being intersecting with the exterior skin structure, where they need additional elements to be join together. Also the stairs become more an individual element locating in the Southwest corner.

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In diagram 2.18, it display how the typical unit is tilted for the final geometry, this action generates makes it more difficult for one to create the final geometry. Through diagrams and description from the engineers - Jun Sato Structural Engineering; it becomes clear that the final geometry is not constructed from a typical digital model where every elements are first drawn out. It shows that they first creates a boundary for the elements to be contain, where perhaps lines are used, and from the intersection of the lines it can inform the construction workers where the intersection will be. Here using an example from CUHK from Fig2 .21, the Bamboo Pavilion , during the construction, intersection of bamboos are marked from the digital file which only consist of lines, and each of the intersection will have a label showing its stick number and which other sticks of bamboo will they intersect. This is just a prediction of how its construction document is done for Japanese carpenters to construct this unpredictable structure. b.Fabrication From an interview of Yuteki Dozono, he described that the architect will work in Rhino for a rough design, because the parameters are too vast for Grasshopper to work. Then the drawings are sent to engineer that would calculate the forces in 2D. Then the craftsman


Fig. 2.17 Structural Analysis diagram from engineer

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would import 3D drawings of the architect into Sketch-up to print them at 1:1 scale, and overlay all drawings into the raw material to make appropriate cuts. (Anna,2016) This shows the complexity of the project would actually be too great for the current fabrication technology.

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In Fig 2.26-29, it shows the construction process of the Sunnyhills . First the concrete structure at the back of house is constructed. Then the wood lattice is started from the base and the floors. After finish the whole exterior facade, then the interior partitions with lattice structure are put in place . c.Critiques

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In the initial design , it is aimed in constructing without any metal connectors . However the site condition did not allow , as it will require a thicker member to be use without metal connector, that does not allow space for on-site assemble. At this project, its more important the innovation that it presents than maintaining the tradition.(Anna,2016) There were a lot of criticism from western architectural community on this particular project on the “excessive “ use of wood . But in reality, in Japan , currently wood is an excess resources, especially cedar and cypress, these wood are usually thin and small. And it is also a demonstration of pushing to bring back traditional all wood construction back in Japan , after all those years of using concrete since industrialization of Japan , encouraged by the government. Also , using these smaller wood reduces the price of using old trees, as these old trees have been very expensive. (Anna,2016) From watching youtube channels on Japanese Traditional Wood Architecture, I learn that in Japan there are families that owns the forest, and it will take generations to grow wood logs that are large enough for doing traditional Japanese Wood Architecture. Therefore it shows how expensive will the price of using old trees.


Fig. 2.18 How to use a cloud of curves and a blob to define the final geometry of the skin

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Fig. 2.19 ZCB Bamboo Pavilion - CUHK Labeling Drawing As reference on how the SunnyHill should be labeled in a similar sense. Fig. 2.20,2.21. ZCB Bamboo Pavilion - CUHK - How the workers are marking the length of the intersection manually after assembling the full length of one member, Bamboo Substructure and labels are printed and stick on the surface

Numbering

Fig. 2.22. How the floor structures are connected with the exterior skin, that shows the exterior skin is just barely connect with the structure, and floor is supported by the concrete part. Fig . 2.23, 2.24, 2.25 The 1 to 1 mock up of the Sunnyhill and investigation on how the floor slabs should be connecting to the exterior skin.

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Fig. 2.26,2.27,2.28,2.29 Assembly Sequence of the SunnyHill Project on site, where the concrete part is poured first , then the wooden structure is standing by itself or attached to the concrete part and assembly level by level.

Fig 2.30,2.31,2,32,2.33,2.34,2.35 From prefabricating modules in factories to the onsite fabrication or correcting of parts to assemble the floors structures. Fig. 2.36,2.37,2.38,2.39,2.40,2.41 The use of metal components in the structure, as the wood members are too thin to be connect with a wooden joint that can extend the members

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2. HISTORY

C. FUTHER DEVELOPMENT BY KENGO KUMA 1. Wind Eaves (2015) In this project, it is obvious that it starts to get closer to a digital fabrication style, where all joints are customized, with different angles, also they are reinforced by minimal metal connections. This project starts as an investigation on a non-uniform type of wooden structure, or it can be identify as a shell structure. AR CH 793 A DDR — pa g e 50 — USC 2016 Fal l

2. Yure /The Wisdom Tea House(2016) Yure, is a pavilion structure that is constructed in France and Tokyo , evolve from previous lattice structure and chidori structure. The two structures are almost identical in terms of its appearance . In an interview, Kengo Kuma express that traditional Japanese has a lot of wisdom that are forgotten after WWII , such as determining building locations that it will never be near to the ocean in tsunami areas. While after the WWII , industrialization from the western architecture proposed the use of concrete, that can construct in anywhere in the world due to its strength and durability. In eastern cultures , especially those influenced hugely by Tang dynasty , there is a sensibility to textures and materials of natural sources. In this pavilion, it is so important in the development as the previous projects all contain joints that are difficult or tricky. As mentioned before the Starbucks Coffee and Sunnyhills project , the four point joint is shifted to avoid all four sticks to connect at one point, while chidori joint involve a difficult process of assemble, therefore these joints even they are open source , it would be difficult for others to make use of them . The joint system in the pavilion is just a simple and conventional join, where only two elements are connected at one point. These joints are used since old days, and are typical that every Japanese carpenter should be able to do that. Kengo Kuma expressed he would like this system to be open to everyone again, like the old days the dougong brackets, that it is open sourced and carpenters will know how to construct them. 3. Tsumiki (2016) This project is less related about joints, instead it is about an open source part that can be stacked in variety of formations to create unique sculptures or games. Kengo Kuma compare it with the danish lego blocks , as Tsumiki is also created as children games, where instead of block of bricks , it is in a triangular shape with a “V” shape inverted at the base for connection.


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Fig. 2.42,2.43,2.44 Wind Eaves (2015) different from all previous projects ,that this uses all non-standard members which brings it a special effect of curvature, and it is protected with a layer of ETFE.

Fig 2.45 Yure, a new system after the sunnyhill project as the four point joint is too complex for everyday use, in this joint there will be just two point intersection, while they are having bolts to join together Fig. 2.46 Yure Pavilion. Fig. 2.47,2.48 Tsumiki - a wooden toy

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You could say that my aim is “to recover the place� . The place is a result of nature and time; this is the most important aspect. I think my architecture is some kind of frame of nature. With it , we can experience nature more deeply and more intimaately. Transparency is a characteristic of Japanese architecture ; I try to use light and nature materials to get a new kind of transparency

- Kengo Kuma


3. ANALYSIS


3. ANALYSIS

A. POST DIGITAL AGE MEREOLOGY 1.CONNECTING THE DOTS

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Since classical architecture , where there are various orders of columns, arguably composed with various parts , due to limitation on transportation, on material size ; they might comes with various shapes and ornaments , but when they goes together , the subsystem of columns , floors and roofs generates a building as a whole .

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Architecture always leads to formation of a room, or what we call a space. Then in modernism , how to define the space becomes more important , when Marshall redefine architecture as the organisation of space , and is not a discipline of creating artifacts. Leads from paintings by Theo van Doesburg , architecture starts to emphasize on the ambiguity of spaces, infinite configuration of spaces can be defined by the walls. The walls started to have different relationship than before, where they can be adjacent to another one , overlapping , or forming a continuous piece. This greatly affect the change in understanding of space in terms of which is a part and which is a whole, where before it is a clear distinction between the rooms. When it comes to post-modern times, with Zaha Hadid, who transform architecture in a new pace, surface starts to be evolve, and they create a fluidity of space that is wrapped around by surfaces, the difference between these projects and previous architecture style are how they are constructed, but their basics have not been change , is to design surface that is wrapped around spaces. Together with projects by UN Studio , like the mobius house(1993) , the boundary is defined by one continuous surface that forms a continuous paths as an infinite living journey.(Fig.) Or Toyo Ito - TaiChung Opera House(2016) that is formed from a surface bounded in a rectangular box, developed from the idea of a loose , flowing grid of continuous and infinite spaces. The design similarly starts from a structural and spatial idea of a continuous surface or shell of linked catenoids. In the 1st Digital Age ,thanks to the vast amount of computational technologies, such as CATIA, grasshopper, Rhino and other softwares all these projects can be draw in computer , Where these conversion from digital to reality with the help in technologies, such as additional manufacture(3D printing) , digital materials, robotic assembly, generated architecture that has a complexness that no architecture have ever have before.


Fig. 3.1 Heydar Aliyev Cultural Centre, Zaha Hadid , 2013 it exhibits the nature of 1st digital age , using the surface as a boundary of the building , and the fluidity of the building continuous as the landscape on the land. Fig. 3.2,3.3 Mobius House , UN Studio, the organization and

formal structure of it is based on a double-locked torus , the mobius loop. Fig.3.4, 3.5 Tai Chung Opera House , Toyo Ito, the architecture is created in such a way that the inside and outside are continuous in a like manner, and bodies are connected to nature through organs.

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Fig. 3.6,3.7 Subdivided Columns - A New Order , explores how subdivision can define and embellish this column order with an elaborate system of ornament. Fig. 3.8,3.9 Aggregations, Complex Timber Structures by MGramazio Kohler, pursued the approach of industrially manufacturing non-standardized systems with digital fabrication. Fig. 3.10 Beast - Prototype for a Chaise Lounge by Neri Oxman , 2008-10 , 3D printing. On ths continuous surface , it acts as both the structure and skin, It is programed such that it adapts to thickness, pattern density, stiffness, flexiblity,and translucency to load , curvature and skinpressured areas respectively. Fig. 3.11 Monocoque - structural skin by Neri Oxman , 2007, stands for a construction technique that supports

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structural load using an object’s external skin. Contrary to the traditional design of building skins that distinguish between internal structural frameworks and non-bearing skin elements Fig. 3.12 The water spider spends most of its life under water, for which it constructs a reinforced air bubble to survive. This natural production process shows how adaptive fabrication strategies can be utilized to create efficient fiber-reinforced structures. Fig. 3.13 ICD Pavilion 2015 - Constructed with carbon fiber and glass fibre with robotic arm on ETFE. Inspired by spider web wrapping around a water droplet, on the study of biological construction processes for fiberreinforced structures.

Theorist and architect Neil Leach argues that “while there is clearly a practice of designing that involves the use of digital tools, there is no product as such that might be described as digital”(Leach,2014) As all of these designs done with digital tools, are just allowing a more complex type of design to be realized, but they can also be used on objects that are not appear to be “digital” or parametric.(Gilles, 2016) Arguably, layering paper piece ,printing them in 3D printing, carving out from solid materials, are just different ways to achieve the same result . Such as the 3D printing columns of Michael Hansmeyer , where the column is a print of layers and layers of materials ; and complex timber structures by Gramazio Kohler, where every single element looks the same but they are unique in the joints , that means the position of them cannot change in terms of the configuration. 2.2ND DIGITAL AGE

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But has this change how architects thinks about architecture? The focus on fabrication and assembly of all these complex surface developed by architects and contractors leads to a question of how architecture should go further. Through the whole process of architecture development, architects concerns is still on an overall form, that is an illusion on how architects or designer compose the architecture. Then here comes a critical point of architecture , when we transformed how we craft a space from ancient time , a carving out of mass from a solid; to modern architecture which is from a formation of surface ; to postmodern architecture, a liquid surface . But then what will be next ? In general it can be breakdown into two different route : one is the agent-based design , and another is bioinspired architecture. A.BIOMIMICRY In the work of Neri Oxman MIT Media Lab / Achim Menges ICD, they consider mother nature as a model providing intelligence for architecture to investigate and use in their design. As nature constructs complex systems with varied compositions, densities , morphologies and internal and exchange functionalities seamlessly across scales. (Maria , 2014) Scientist and engineers have studied nature for advancing


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Fig. 3.14 Field Diagrams - from top , left to right : loose grid , striated 2, collision, linked assemblies - Stan patch work , patchwork 2, axial symmetry, peripheral Allen composition, striated , felt , block composition, mosaic, Fig. 3.15 Order and Chaos : Flocks

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science and technologies over twenty years ago (Vincent, 2012) where their interest lies on structural efficiency of biomaterials; but design explorations in architecture have been changed from bioinspired complex geometry to structural optimization , environmental control systems seizing bioinspiration for problem construction and solving (Knippers and Specks, 2012) This branch can be related with the first engineer who win the Pritzker Prize - Frei Otto , and also the architect of Sagrada Famíli - Antoni Gaudi. All their architecture have a similarity in bringing in nature or the way that material perform in nature as a reference . B.AGENT BASED DESIGN

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In Points + Lines - field conditions, Stan Allen have argued that if we need to shift from analog to the digital , it would be an important idea to note the importance of field conditions. Field conditions moves from the one towards the many, from individuals to collectives . from objects to fields(Stan,1999). He also bought up examples such as the flock algorithm designed by Craig Reynold , an artificial intelligence theorist . He called them as boids, and in the algorithm , they just follow three simple rules, 1/ separation : steer to avoid crowding local flock mates; 2/ alignment : steer towards the average heading of local flock mates; 3/ cohesion : steer to move towards the average position of local flock mates. (Craig, 1987) Later the boids are named agents, and it brings architecture into a new age of exploring agent based designs. Being used in architecture and urban planning not only to evaluate design or simulate pedestrian flow.(Gerhard,2009) But as a major tool in the 2nd Digital Age or what we called post-digital age.The agent-based design or algorithm , is abstract and flexible to contain wide range of agent rules. Besides, it can also perform various types of computation that are equivalent to certain existing algorithms , including particle - based physics simulations , genetic algorithms, L-systems and cellular automata. (Satoru , 2014) The first architecture that use a similar approach as field to define one’s boundary should be Diller Scofidio + Renfro first attempt in blurring the boundary of architecture in Swiss 2002 EXPO, using fog to create the field as a boundary that wraps around the building. In this building there is no physical boundary like any other typical building, and the fog does not only gives a boundary that will various according to surrounding environment and lights; it also become a visual boundary towards people. Diller and Scofidio developed


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Fig. 3.16 Choreograments 02 - The Physical Collective, by Daneil Kohler , Rase Navasaityte, exploring the formal hierarchy established by the Bauhaus : From point to line to plate to L-shape to panel to surface condition.

Fig 3.17 Lego Patent Drawing in 1961, showing how lego uses simple mechnism allowing kids to have an accuracy that their muscles does not have . And how parts are standarize to form parts that can grow in any direction.

a “Braincoat” , that matches visitors with similar interest, and will attract them with same color as they get near. (Diller, 2002) C.RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGENT BASED DESIGN AND MEREOLOGY

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Agent-based design and mereology have a relationship , not just through the education of agent-based design in AADRL , but also at the level of understanding both issue. In agent -based design , agents have their own “intelligence” , they can be flocking in a field. Where in mereology, using Rasa Navasaityte work as an example, it is a replacement of the agent into a part ,with that to create the whole . Their difference is in the early part of agent-based design , they still consider the agent a way to generate and morph into a surface, where in mereology , parts took place and it stops forming a continuous surface , instead is a field of parts that forms the whole . 3.MEREOLOGY A.DEFINITION

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Mereology , a term borrowed by architects in the description of a study of parts and whole relationship. This is consider a response to the argument of Neil Leach quote previously: that in the first digital age, it involve the use of digital tools , but the output is no closer to digital than it has been before. In response, how can a building or its material organisation be digital? In Mario Carpo’s description of the Second Digital Turn (Carpo,2014), projects are to understand design computational processes as fundamentally discrete; while it is further pushed by Neil Gerschenfeld concept of digital material, the discreteness in fabrication; using Lego as an example : 1/ allows a more accurate positioning than usual, 2/ it can grows in an unlimited size and direction, 3/ they can be from various material, 4/ parts no longer needed can be disassembled and reuse. These difference makes the difference between an analog system(a normal 3D printing) and a digital system(Lego assembly). (Gerschenfeld,2012) The biggest difference of a digital system and an analog system, I would say is , the ability of disassemble and reuse of parts, which makes the architecture not an object , but when it need to be convert ,


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Fig. 3.18,19,20,21 Suncheon Art Platform Proposal Gilles Retsin Architecture, composed of laminated veneer lumber sections that form 278 stiff hollow elements, referencing traditional korean style. All parts are preassembly with similar way of element composition in

various scales. Fig 3.22 Fushimi Inari - Difference in Repetition - Gilles Retsin, Fig 3.33 Todaj-Ji Nigatsudo temple in Nara, 17th century. Almost modernist relation to the ground, horizontal striation, proto-piloti, cantilevers - Gilles Retsin

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it can be changed . And under this logic, the accuracy of the whole is depending on the accuracy of the parts( that are being prefabricated) , not the tool of fabricating, no matter it is human or robot or cnc machine. This allows construct faster and more precision in the construction. (Knaack,2012) This practice can also be see in Chinese and Japanese wood architecture,due to the nature of wood, it might get rotten or damaged by nature or human activities, and the construction method with Dou Gong make it possible to replace only one part of the building, unlike modern construction with concrete and steel , which is almost impossible to replace any parts , as parts never exist. The building is a whole , and can only be whole or nothing.

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In referencing the proposal for Suncheon Art Platform by Gilles Retsin, it is a proposal that parts and whole have the same importance . Unlike traditional japanese and chinese dou gong, which have a specific organization, for example a-b-c-d, to form the structure; in Gilles proposal , the parts can be organize in various way, it may be b-a-c-d or c-a-b-d etc. The combination make parts to form various whole, and brings various functions to the whole. Quoting from Simon Herbert A. “By a hierarchi system , or hierarchy , I mean a system that is composed of interrelated subsystems , each of the latter being in turn hierarchic in structure until we reach some lowest level of elementary subsystem .” (Herbert, 1996) i.e. this system can need to form from parts that have no hierarchy between them, where they form subsystems - that is where they started to have hierarchy due to the functionality, structural performance etc. And these subsystems will form the entire system - i.e. the building itself.

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Another one is the 4D printing or self-assembling materials by Skylar Tibbits in MIT. It can be consider digital material ,as it contains an information in itself, where it convert its form under various condition , such as underwater, or heat. Although in the SunnyHill project , Kengo Kuma did not bring up the concept of mereology. However in its design method and appearance it is obvious related with mereology. For example, the boundary of the building is not using the old concept of surface that are loft or sweep from curves, instead the lines (wood strips) is designed as a field of lines, composite in designing a mereological surface . Where there is no absolute statement of the character of the element, but a relative description of part-relationship between elements. B.WHAT SHOULD BE THE SMALLEST PART ? In Kengo Kuma’s ideology , first. the smallest part should be a part that is able to be carry by human, it can be by one hand or both, or even with help of several people, like traditional wood architecture, the columns and beams might need more than one man to carry, but they should not be as heavy as the rocks of the Great Pyramids in Egypt. Second, these parts although they are small , need to be of a scale


Fig. 3.24 Dougong in composition, in this example it is obvious each dougong is a unique piece , in a way that must be assemble in a-b-c-d , when it changed in the assembly sequence , it will not work.

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that human is able to work on it. It would be meaningless if they are so small like Lego blocks, it would be just tedious to use them for construction. Third is these parts should be able to be stable, even existing alone, without the whole. As the main concept of the parts and whole paradigm is established such parts and whole can be separate and even co-exist. C.OPEN SOURCE / CROWD SOURCING In the design of the SunnyHill project and the Wisdom Tea House project , Kengo Kuma had also mentioned that the joints of the project is actually open sourced, where any Japanese carpenter can do that. He is talking about bring back the old ways in Japanese wood architecture , where all those joints are open sourced, at least within the community of the carpenters, who also hold the knowledge of wood . Architects are no longer the one who controls the building , but allowing carpenters or people with little carpentry training can work on them. This idea of the open source movement have also been seen in the western architecture community. AR CH 793 A DDR — pa g e 68 —

While through digital technologies and digital fabrication, the position of architectural design and architect has been changed drastically. Buildings have themselves become parts - prefabrication modules, which are replicated and customised to adapt to specific needs as designs become information that can be easily shared and collaborated such as Building Information Modeling(BIM). With BIM and other technologies, open source becomes an answer to architecture, scripts can be shared through forums like Grasshopper.com , BIM / Revit families can be shared through Autodesk Seek. Here comes the question is should architecture should be open source ? And how architect should be responding to this change ? (Wendy, 2016)

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Architects before are the sole or group behind the design of a building. They and they alone are responsible for overseeing the design and aesthetics of it, architects should be the person who knows best about his building, and therefore he is required to get license under license issue communities such as NCARB, RIBA , HKIA etc. With open source architecture, those who understand and know how to write scripts, make families in revit becomes more in a role of a software engineer. They developed a piece of software that is free for others, no matter they are architect or designer or general public , without any architecture training background required , to create an architecture model, and construct it . Origin of Open Source movement: arguably is the software freedom activist and computer programmer Richard Stallman’s 2001 consideration of the free software movement. He thinks of the free software from the perspective of “freedom of speech”.(Jose, 2016) Where at the back of all these free softwares there are surveillance and data aggregators collecting players information that they spent hours in creating and hence accumulating millions of hours donated by individuals. (Jose , 2016) This is just similar practice in architecture field, with all those open competitions. For example the Guggenheim Competition in 2014, collected over 1000 schemes over the world , is also an example that millions of hours are donated by architects just under a wish of


getting a chance in the second round of the competition. People argue for open source architecture thinks like the French philosopher Michel Serres, the contemporary knowledge is based on our technological capability to gather , associate and connect information. The exponential development of technologies is only being capable because of the ability of human to stream and screen information, and simultaneously construct a future upon it.(Aaron, 2016)

Problems that this will leads to - authorship

The people who do that will starve, or it’s also about humanity, why communist never worked before. As all other people who cannot create their own software will be using all these resources for free, if people who are the authors of those software are not being paid at all, and they cannot make a living ,why would they still give out free softwares. Problems that this leads to how to control the power For example in China, they are developing a platform called Sesame Credit , to “encourage “ correct citizenship, and rewards citizens to follow government guidelines.(Jose, 2016) Same problem have actually been bought up by the “Black Mirror” from Netflix, the credit becomes a way of isolating people who are not following the “rules” by the government, certain things such as getting on a flight , borrowing loans are prohibited. Through this scoring system which is also a part of a crowdsourcing management action by public, the government becomes the only one defining the game through peer pressure. (Jose, 2016)

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Patent and copyright laws before were just to protect on innovations in technology and applied arts , later they are developed to over purely intellectual and artistic works . Not until 1976 , architect’s plan and drawings were included in copyright legislation. Still there is limitations on them as the complexity of interventions , service and products provide by architect , and digital technologies even complicated it even more. (Wendy,2016) Grasshopper with its vast amount of plugin have also been into this problem, that when one designer used a certain plugin to create perhaps a facade. Then does the plugin author become one part of the author ? Problems that if everything is free

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Another voice is people argue that open source can provide feedback in design, through the workshops of how the public’s help on inputting ideas or evaluate designs; Or create a more fast responding time such as Zara , where clothes are shipped to stores twice a week through the immediate buying pattern , product line is adjust. (Carlo , 2016) Not only in fashion industry , but also in gaming culture, they uses an open-ended sandbox strategy with such combining the solution space becomes practically infinite. The game has become a piece of infrastructure that every participant contributes. The open source makes use of the crowdsourcing strategies to maximize profit and make use of users as cheap labour.(Jose, 2016)


3. ANALYSIS

B. ANTI-OBJECT SMALL ARCHITECTURE NATURAL ARCHITECTURE Kengo Kuma wrote the book Anti-object , Small Architecture , Natural Architecture, as his manifesto against modernist architecture and a return to Traditional Japanese Architecture Ideology.

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1. Anti-object to Spiritual Architecture In Kengo Kuma’s concept, architecture should not be what Le Corbusier proposed in the ‘ five points of new architecture’. As his uplift of building through piloties , are not only to uplift valuable ground space, but also to isolate his building from surrounding and make it more prominent. (Kuma, 2010) This design is to make the building looks better in the photography, but also isolated from surrounding, becoming an object itself. As this object oriented way of thinking architecture is bringing us to a dead end, abandoning the universal architecture, in an Aristotelian approach , categorising everything and juxtaposing all culture and tradition in a relativistic way, brings a closer distance between form and subject.

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Also , the extensive use of glass in architecture , did not bring the effect of transparency , or the blurring of the boundary as they proclaimed. As glass are not completely transparent all the time, it’s reflectiveness become an object still. The ability of generating big pieces of glass converts the small punctuated windows of masonry structure , into the ability of big windows that brings the connection of outdoor and indoor. In “Water/Glass” , he explored the connection of indoor and outdoor through something other than the glass. Kengo Kuma used a water body instead, the pool of water with dark color stone as the base, makes it difficult to gauge the depth of the pool where it is connected with the other surface of water - the sea , that is 100 metre from the clift.(Kuma, 2010) At particular times ,the upper and lower planes of water becomes the single continuous surface , making a sensation of floating on the sea. The subject now is connected directly to the world through the medium of water. And on rainy days, the boundaries between the world melt : sea, sky and pool transformed into a mass of blue-grey particles that envelop the subject.(Kuma, 2010)

This is a spiritual side of architecture, where big scale


Fig. 3.25 Mies Van der Rohe , Glass Skyscraper Project - Berlin , Germany, This project is a demonstration of the transparency of glass can blur the boundary of inside and outside, however in reality glass is never that transparent. Fig. 3.26,3.27 Water/Glass - Kengo Kuma, This project uses water as a medium of extending nature

- the ocean into the building, making one the sense of floating on water. Fig 3.28,3.29 NO Stage in the forest Kengo Kuma, as NO stage is a place symbolizing another world, and the connection between the two world is the transparency and openness of the architecture itself

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Fig. 3.30 Interior of Sunnyhill by Kengo Kuma, the use of Fig 3.31 3.32, Interior of Sunnyhill by Kengo Kuma, the traditional Washi Paper effect of the wood elements to simulate an effect of wood forest with the sunlight from exterior.

architecture , of modern architecture propose, the skyscrapers , the podium towers , or any mega-structure is not able to produce, breaks the boundary between the physical building and the nature. It is not about the definition of the physical boundary and how to articulate it, instead it is about what connects the inside and outside. AR CH 793 A DDR — pa g e 72 —

The Sunnyhill project of Kengo Kuma , is more a project that simulates the effect of the boundary in a forest. As the project is located in the centre of Tokyo, the idea of creating a wood forest would makes a connection to the nature.

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In the lack of spiritual meaning of architecture, Kengo Kuma suspect that big , solid buildings will lost their appealing for most, as small seems to be more interesting , not only in a construction sense, they can also be self- sufficient and ‘off grid’. (Kuma, 2010) That becomes an argument of zero carbon buildings, as they are aiming to be self-sufficient and off grid , just like how animals make their own nest without relying on resources from big infrastructures. For Kengo Kuma, the importance of a small architecture, does not necessarily need to be a shrunken building, instead, they should be designed and built within physical reach and make living easier. They are not necessarily a smaller whole, but a smaller component element. Units need to be not too small, and too big, like using Lego units, it is possible to use them as toys, but if building a house with them, the scale too be too difficult for handling. (Kuma, 2010) It’s about the modularization, to a handleable unit. While the units can be reversible, like traditional Japanese architecture on reversible joinery without nails or glue. And these things bring a changeable living condition to these woodframing houses, that is ahead of any architecture style at that time. Japanese Architecture is always having a common view that Japanese architecture is eco-friendlier or have greater importance on nature. That it sounds returning back to the tradition may help in saving the world from all those global environmental issues. (Kuma, 2010) Some might argue that using abundant wood in architecture will lead to deforestation. In his mind, this need to be carefully managed like the old ways, where domestic forest are use , and


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planned felling and planting makes the wood become a sustainable resources.

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In his eyes, a lot of ways environmental architecture doing is not environmental at all . For example in the west, all the rooms are being heat or cool, that would be totally wasteful, where in Japan, the houses have furnishings like Kotatsu, a low-heated table with comforter to warm our feet , while the room temperature stays low. In fact, there is no need to heat the rest of the room. (Kuma, 2010) This similarity draws my attention with Peter Zumthor, who wrote “ Designing is inventing. When I was still at arts and crafts school , we tried to follow this principle . We looked for a new solution to every problem . We felt it was important to be avantgarde. Not until later did I realize that there are basically only a very few architectural problems for which a valid solution has not already been found. “ As all of the previous mereology theory ,building a whole with parts, are part of what the traditional architecture has been. The valid solution has already been found, but just lost through the history. 2.Architect as Builder In the western architecture, Peter Zumthor would be a significant idol to compare with the idea of Kengo Kuma. Deeply inspired by Architecture Without Architects by Bernard Rudofsky(1964) and Native Genius in Anonymous Architecture by Siby Moholy – Nagy (1946). They have a similarity in architecture that is not having a recognizable signature style, unlike Tadao Ando who works on concrete, or Zaha Hadid who works with curves.

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“If early on, you know how things are put together, then you can build. The architect is in charge of making, he is not an artist “– Peter Zumthor. In a recent interview for the Venice Architecture Biennale 2016, Peter Zumthor spoke to Dezeen that it was a myth that traditional forms of construction are being replaced by digital processes like 3D printing and robotic fabrication, and insisted that handmade crafts are back in favour. (Amy, 2016) This also brings in the similarity of Peter Zumthor and Kengo Kuma, who consistently went back to the traditional hand-made architecture, with a huge care on material, considering themselves as builder who work with the workers. Since the industrial revolution, the handcraft in almost every item on the world is forgotten, proposing everything to be effective, to be quick seems to be a trend where capitalism is pushing us to. Under this environment, a lot of new artificial materials like Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete, are being invented, but these artificial materials, the way they feel in touch, the way they response to the environment is identical everywhere. This created the universal architecture style in modern architecture, every city become the same, they look the same with skyscrapers soaring on the skyline, entering every building become the same, and hard work are used on building science in developing materials allowing these building to perform.


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Fig. 3.33 Traditional Bamboo Scaffolding in Hong Kong, Construction of the Wan Chai Convention Center Fig . 3.34 Construction Worker working inside the Bamboo Pavilion CUHK - Mix of Digital Practice and Traditional Craftsmanship

Fig 3.35 Bamboo Pavilion CUHK - Information extract from digital model - Pole intersection point , Location of Point in 3D space , Length of Each segement, Order of Pole during construction, angle of pole from each leg

3.Building Simplexity

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In the second section, Mereology, how Gilles Restin proposed, brought in a connection of fabrication of parts with robotic fabrication, with the intelligence embedded in the joint itself, the robot does not need complex movements to create things, as if the lego can allow kids to make things that their muscle have not allow them to do yet. To me I think doing a robotic fabrication would blur the ideology that Mereology brings and allows, instead of proposing parts with robotic fabrication, I think handcraft is still an important history piece of mankind. Although in the production industry we see the more complex things these robotic arms can do, but the value of a handcraft piece is much higher than robotic made pieces. And there also start to be a bloom of companies that introduce handcraft around, for example Woodrite in Hong Kong that recycle wood floors and other wood products, and redesign them to become furniture pieces.

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Using the Bamboo Pavilion of CUHK as an example, it is a mix between the digital technology using kangaroo in grasshopper as a physical simulation, while the construction process is a manual process that involves the traditional Cantonese Bamboo Scaffolding. Through a complex digital process of form-finding through Kangaroo in grasshopper, the digital model is turned from a complex 3D model into a flat 2D construction drawing, showing the dimensions and pole of each intersection on the digital model. That is the digital intelligence extracted out from the digital model, and being translated back into the pavilion through the handcraft of skillful bamboo scaffolders. And this is also what from Kengo Kuma did in the Sunnyhill project. I would argue architecture should not limit itself towards only handcraft or only robotic . It can be a mix. Through digital technology, parts can be created, with intelligence embedded in them, while the rest of them can be handcraft. What should be studies now should be how we can create a project with a mix of digital technology and traditional handcraft.


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WOOD JOINTS IN CLASSICAL JAPANESE ARCHITECTURE

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1. Stepped Dovetailed Splice 2. Stepped Goosenck Splice 3. Rabbeted Oblique Scarf Splice 4. Mortised Rabbeted Oblique Splice 5. Blind Stubbed, housed rabbeted oblique scarf splice 6. Tenon and Mortise Splice 7. Right Angle Tenon and Mortise Splice 8. Housed Tenon and Mortise Splice 9. Right Angle Tenon and Mortise Splice 10.Double-faced Halved Rabbeted Oblique Scard Splices 11.Double-faced Halved Rabbeted Oblique Scard Splices With Key 12.Single Faced Rabeted Oblique Scard Splice

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To Be Continued .......

Plan Elevation Isometric

Assembly Sequence


75mm 60mm 15mm

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Stepped Dovetailed Splice (Koshikake Aritsugi)


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75mm 60mm 15mm

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Stepped Gooseneck Splice (Koshikake Kamatsugi)


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Rabbeted Oblique Scarf Splice (Okkake Daisen Tsugi)


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5. REFERENCES

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Websites : 1/ Building Breathing Space. 2016. Building Breathing Space. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.stevenconnor.com/bbs/. [Accessed 21 October 2016]. 2/ Digicult | Digital Art, Design and Culture. 2016. Art And Architecture: Investigation At The Boundaries Of Space | Digicult | Digital Art, Design and Culture. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.digicult.it/design/art-and-architecture-investigation-at-the-boundaries-of-space/. [Accessed 21 October 2016]. 3/ issuu. 2016. Learning from Wood by Anna Antropova - issuu. [ONLINE] Available at: https://issuu.com/annaantropovabooks/docs/book-final-spreads-indd. [Accessed 09 November 2016]. 4/Chinese Dou Gong Brackets. 2016. Chinese Dou Gong Brackets. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.richardwiborg.com/Chinese_Dou_Gong_Brackets.html. [Accessed 19 November 2016]. 5/Dezeen. 2016. Chidori Furniture by Kengo Kuma and Associates | Dezeen. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.dezeen.com/2011/11/07/chidori-furniture-bykengo-kuma-and-associates/. [Accessed 27 November 2016]. 6/ designboom | architecture & design magazine. 2016. kengo kuma wraps sunny hills japan shop in wood. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.designboom.com/ architecture/kengo-kuma-wraps-sunny-hills-japan-shop-in-wood/. [Accessed 27 November 2016]. AR CH 793 A DDR — pa g e 10 4 —

7/ArchDaily. 2016. SunnyHills at Minami-Aoyama / Kengo Kuma & Associates | ArchDaily . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.archdaily.com/484981/sunnyhillsat-minami-aoyama-kengo-kuma-and-associates. [Accessed 27 November 2016]. 8/ domusweb.it. 2016. The Wisdom Tea House. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www. domusweb.it/en/interviews/2013/01/14/the-wisdom-tea-house.html. [Accessed 27 November 2016]. 9/Speakers / Videos - Eco Meta Discrete Parts. 2016. Speakers / Videos - Eco Meta Discrete Parts. [ONLINE] Available at: http://cargocollective.com/ecometadiscreteparts/Speakers-Videos. [Accessed 27 November 2016]. 10/ Jun Sato Laboratory. 2016. Jun Sato Laboratory, University of Tokyo Jun Sato Structural Engineers Co., Ltd.. [ONLINE] Available at: http:// junsato.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp/. [Accessed 27 November 2016].

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11/ kengo kuma and associates. 2016. kengo kuma and associates – 隈研吾建築都 市設計事務所. [ONLINE] Available at: http://kkaa.co.jp/. [Accessed 27 November 2016]. 12/ 南青山3丁目のサニーヒルズで遭遇した2つの地獄と2つの天国 | そういうことか建築基準法. 2016. 南青山3丁目のサニーヒルズで遭遇した2つの地獄と2つの天国 | そういうことか建築基準法. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.kenkihou.com/minamiaoyama-hell-heaven. [Accessed 27 November 2016]. 13/ ArchDaily. 2016. Michael Green presents ‘The Case for Tall Wood Buildings’ | ArchDaily . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.archdaily.com/220779/michaelgreen-presents-the-case-for-tall-wood-buildings. [Accessed 27 November 2016]. 14/Vimeo. 2016. SunnyHills at Minami-Aoyama 微熱山丘 南青山.東京 on Vimeo. [ONLINE] Available at: https://vimeo.com/80766626. [Accessed 27 November 2016]. 15/ YouTube. 2016. SunnyHills at Minami-Aoyama 微熱山丘 南青山.東京 YouTube. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uF6kuAMxdE0&index=63&list= WL. [Accessed 27 November 2016]. 16/ Divisare. 2016. Kengo Kuma & Associates, Erieta Attali · Sunny Hills · Divisare . [ONLINE] Available at: https://divisare.com/projects/326136-kengokuma-associates-erieta-attali-sunny-hills. [Accessed 27 November 2016]. 17/ RESILIENT WOOD. 2016. RESILIENT WOOD — Sunny Hills. [ONLINE] Available at: http://resilientwood.tumblr.com/post/131704324862/sunny-hills. [Accessed 27 November 2016].


18/ ArchDaily. 2016. Kengo Kuma Designs Sculptural Pavilion in Paris | ArchDaily . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.archdaily.com/776541/kengo-kumadesigns-sculptural-pavilion-in-paris. [Accessed 27 November 2016]. 19/ Dezeen. 2016. Peter Zumthor: Venice Biennale heralds return of handmade architecture. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.dezeen.com/2016/05/26/peterzumthor-venice-architecture-biennale-2016-return-handmade-architecture/. [Accessed 06 December 2016]. Books: 1/ Jane Burry, 2012. The New Mathematics of Architecture. 1 Edition. Thames & Hudson. 2/ Herbert A. Simon, 1996. The Sciences of the Artificial - 3rd Edition. third edition Edition. The MIT Press. 3/ Leach,Neil 2014,’There Is No Such Thing as Digital Design’,in Gerber, D and Ibanez, M (eds) 2014,Paradigms in Computing, Evolo, New York 4/ Gilles Resin, GR, 2016. Robotic Fabrication in Architecture, Art and Design 2016. 1st ed. Switzerland: Springer.

6/ Kengo Kuma, 2015. Small Architecture Natural Architecture (2 volume set). Edition. Architectural Association Publications. 7/ THE CASE FOR Tall Wood BUILDINGS How Mass Timber Offers a Safe, Economical, and Environmentally Friendly Alternative for Tall Building Structures [http:// cwc.ca/wp-content/uploads/publications-Tall-Wood.pdf] 8/ Reynolds, Craig (1987). “Flocks, herds and schools: A distributed behavioral model.”. SIGGRAPH ‘87: Proceedings of the 14th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques. Association for Computing Machinery: 25–34. doi:10.1145/37401.37406. ISBN 0-89791-227-6

10/ Elizabeth Diller, 2002. Blur: The Making of Nothing. Edition. Harry N. Abrams. 11/ Liang Ssu-ch’eng, 2005. Chinese Architecture: A Pictorial History (Dover Architecture). Edition. Dover Publications. 12/ Mario Carpo, 2012. The Digital Turn in Architecture 1992 - 2012 (AD Reader). 1 Edition. Wiley. 13/ Architectural Design 2015 , Material Synthesis (AD) Wiley 14/ Architectural Design 2016 , Evoking Through Design,Contemporary Moods in Architecture (AD) Wiley 15/ Architectural Design 2012 , Material Computation (AD) Wiley 16/ Architectural Design 2016 , Open Source Architecture,Digital Property (AD) Wiley 17/ Klaus Zwerger, 2015. Wood and Wood Joints. 3 Enlarged Edition. Birkhäuser. 18/ Peter Zumthor, 2006. Atmospheres. 5th Printing. Edition. Birkhäuser Architecture. 19/ Peter Zumthor, 2010. Thinking Architecture, 3rd Edition. 3rd Edition. Birkhäuser Architecture.

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9/ Aschwanden, G.P.D.A; Wullschleger, Tobias; Müller, Hanspeter; Schmitt, Gerhard (2009). “Evaluation of 3D city models using automatic placed urban agents”. Automation in Construction. 22: 81–89.

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5/ Kengo Kuma, 2007. AA Words Two: Anti-Object?: The Dissolution and Disintegration of Architecture. Edition. AA Publications.


“The price is loss of our own identity. If wood can become the main material again, we can recover the mentality of Japan. This is my dream.�

- Kengo Kuma

Mereology - A Study of SunnyHill , Minami-Aoyama, Tokyo, Japan, Kengo Kuma  

A study of how wooden joint in Japanese culture is currently being affected by the digital age in architecture , submitted for Direct Design...

Mereology - A Study of SunnyHill , Minami-Aoyama, Tokyo, Japan, Kengo Kuma  

A study of how wooden joint in Japanese culture is currently being affected by the digital age in architecture , submitted for Direct Design...

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