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BRITISH STANDARD

Fire precautions in the design, construction and use of buildings —

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Part 5: Code of practice for firefighting stairs and lifts

ICS 13.220.01; 91.060.30; 91.140.90

BS 5588-5: 1991 Incorporating Amendment No. 1 and implementing Amendment No. 2 not published separately


BS 5588-5:1991

Committees responsible for this British Standard

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The preparation of this British Standard was entrusted by the Fire Standards Policy Committee (FSM/-) to Technical Committee FSM/14, upon which the following bodies were represented: Association of Metropolitan Authorities British Fire Services’ Association British Gas plc British Retailers Association British Telecommunications plc Building Employers Confederation Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers Chief and Assistant Chief Fire Officers Association Consumer Policy Committee of BSI Department of Education and Science Department of Health Department of the Environment (Property Services Agency) Department of the Environment (Building Research Establishment) (Fire Research Station) Department of the Environment (Construction Directorate) Department of the Environment for Northern Ireland Electricity Supply Industry in UK Fire Brigades Union Health and Safety Executive Home Office Incorporated Association of Architects and Surveyors Institute of Building Control Institution of Fire Engineers Institution of Gas Engineers Institution of Structural Engineers London Fire and Civil Defence Authority Loss Prevention Council National Association of Fire Officers National Council of Building Material Producers Royal Institute of British Architects Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors Scottish Office (Building Directorate) Society of Chief Building Regulation Officers Timber Research and Development Association

The following bodies were also represented in the drafting of the standard, through subcommittees and panels: This British Standard, having British Lift Association been prepared under the District Surveyors Association direction of the Fire Standards Policy Committee, was National Association of Lift Makers published under the authority of the Standards Board and comes into effect on 30 August 1991 © BSI 05-1999 First published August 1986 Second edition August 1991 The following BSI references relate to the work on this standard: Committee reference FSM/14 Draft for comment 89/44633 DC ISBN 0 580 19787 5

Amendments issued since publication Amd. No.

Date

7196

June 1992

10358

March 1999

Comments

Indicated by a sideline in the margin


BS 5588-5:1991

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Contents Page Committees responsible Inside front cover Foreword ii Section 1. General 1 Scope 1 2 Definitions 1 3 Use of this code 3 Section 2. Planning and construction 4 Firefighting shafts 6 5 Firefighting stairs 14 6 Firefighting lobbies 14 7 Fire mains and landing valves 15 8 Smoke control 15 9 Construction of the firefighting shaft 17 Section 3. Firefighting lift installation 10 General 20 11 Firefighting lift cars 20 12 Firefighting lift wells 21 13 Firefighting lift machine rooms 21 14 Firefighting lift control systems 23 15 Fire service communications systems 26 Section 4. Electrical services 16 Electrical services 27 Section 5. Routine inspection and maintenance 17 Routine inspection and maintenance 29 Appendix A Resistance to damage of enclosing and separating partitions 30 Appendix B Examples of typical arrangements to keep the firefighting lift well free from water 30 Appendix C Operational tests for firefighting lifts 32 Appendix D Model certificate for the commissioning of firefighting lifts 35 Figure 0 — Height and depth of a building 2 Figure 1 — Minimum extent of firefighting stairs and lifts in tall buildings and buildings with deep basements 7 Figure 1a — Firefighting lift within escape stair 9 Figure 2 — Typical firefighting shaft layouts at fire service access level 10 Figure 3 — Banks of lifts that incorporate a firefighting lift 11 Figure 4 — Examples of protection of the firefighting shaft from external fire 13 Figure 5 — Deleted 17 Figure 6 — Water protection for firefighting lifts 22 Figure 7 — Drain outlet to smoke shaft 30 Figure 8 — Raised threshold to lift entrance 31 Figure 9 — Drainage grid to lift entrance 31 Figure 10 — Floor sloped away from lift entrance 32 Table 1 — Tests for partitions 30 Publication(s) referred to 36

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BS 5588-5:1991

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Foreword This code of practice, prepared under the direction of the Fire Standards Policy Committee, is a revision of BS 5588-5:1986, which is withdrawn. Other Parts of BS 5588 which are already published are as follows: — Part 0: Guide to fire safety codes of practice for particular premises/applications; — Part 1: Code of practice for residential buildings; — Part 4: Code of practice for smoke control using pressure differentials; — Part 6: Code of practice for places of assembly; — Part 7: Code of practice for the incorporation of atria in buildings; — Part 8: Code of practice for means of escape for disabled people; — Part 9: Code of practice for ventilation and air conditioning ductwork; — Part 10: Code of practice for shopping complexes; — Part 11: Code of practice for shops, offices, industrial, storage and other similar buildings. This code provides recommendations for the design, construction and siting of firefighting stairs and lifts in order to assist the fire service in firefighting operations in high or large buildings or buildings with deep basements. It also includes recommendations for the maintenance of equipment installed in the firefighting shaft. This code includes recommendations for the necessary combination of structural fire safety arrangements and smoke control for the firefighting shaft, as well as recommendations for the firefighting lift and its engineering and communication systems. A firefighting lift, as well as being used as a normal passenger lift, is intended to transport firefighters and their equipment when there is a fire in the building. This code recommends design features necessary for a lift to be used with an acceptable measure of safety when there is a fire in a building. It is the product of a study of all aspects of the use of lifts during fires in buildings, including the history of failures of lifts and of casualties arising from their ill-considered use, and also of existing and earlier technical standards. As far as possible this code makes references to BS 5655 for the construction of the lift, and adds only the provisions necessary for a firefighting lift that are not normally provided on an ordinary passenger lift. It should be seen as replacing Appendix G in BS 5655-1:1986 and BS 5655-2:1988. In this code a commentary on the relevant principles is followed by any recommendations that are made. The commentary is intended to provide an explanatory background to recommendations, especially if the recommendations might otherwise appear to be arbitrary. NOTE

Commentary text is printed in italics.

Some of the more important changes made in this revision are as follows. a) The criteria for the provision and number of firefighting shafts are now given in the Parts of BS 5588 dealing with particular building uses. b) Dual-entry firefighting lifts are now acceptable in certain circumstances. c) Firefighting lobbies need not be provided with permanent ventilation. d) The operation of the firefighting lift control system is described in greater detail. e) The firefighting shaft electrical services are described in greater detail. f) Recommendations for routine inspection and maintenance have been included.

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BS 5588-5:1991

It has been assumed in the drafting of this code that the execution of its provisions will be entrusted to appropriately qualified and experienced people. A British Standard does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a contract. Users of British Standards are responsible for their correct application.

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Compliance with a British Standard does not of itself confer immunity from legal obligations. In particular, attention is drawn to 3.3.

Summary of pages This document comprises a front cover, an inside front cover, pages i to iv, pages 1 to 36, an inside back cover and a back cover. This standard has been updated (see copyright date) and may have had amendments incorporated. This will be indicated in the amendment table on the inside front cover. Š BSI 05-1999

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blank


BS 5588-5:1991

Section 1. General 1 Scope This code of practice provides guidance for designers in providing firefighting stairs and lifts to assist the fire service in firefighting operations. Some recommendations are also made with respect to passenger, goods and service lifts adjacent to a firefighting lift where they affect the use and safety of the firefighting lift. NOTE 1 The control system described in clause 14 is also suitable for evacuation lifts described in BS 5588-8 and should replace the fireman’s switch control described in BS 2655 wherever possible. NOTE 2 The titles of the publications referred to in this standard are listed on page 36.

2 Definitions

a firefighting lift provided with two sets of doors, one used for normal operations and the other in the firefighting mode 2.7 emergency lighting lighting provided for use when the supply to the normal lighting falls 2.8 evacuation level(s) the storey or storeys at which final exits suitable for the evacuation of persons are available NOTE

This is not necessarily fire service access level (see 2.16).

For the purposes of this Part of BS 5588 the following definitions apply.

2.9 fire door (assembly)

2.1 call

a door or shutter provided for the passage of persons, air or objects which, together with its frame and furniture as installed in a building, is intended, when closed, to resist the passage of fire and/or gaseous products of combustion and is capable of meeting specified performance criteria to those ends

the operation of pressing a landing call button to call the lift, or, in the lift car, of pressing the appropriate button to take the lift to the desired level NOTE

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2.6 dual-entry firefighting lift

See also 2.27.

2.2 car control station the control panel in the lift car for the use of passengers 2.3 class 0 either: a) composed throughout of materials of limited combustibility; or b) a material classified as class 1 when tested in accordance with BS 476-7, and which has a fire propagation index I of not more than 12, and a subindex i1 of not more than 6, when tested in accordance with BS 476-6. 2.4 control equipment electrical switches, door interlocks and apparatus associated with the operation and programming of the lift service 2.5 depth (of a building) distance between the lowest point of the floor of the lowest storey of a building, to the ground level measured at the centre of that face of the building where the distance is greatest (see Figure 0) NOTE Ground level is the level of the footway or paving in front of that face, if present.

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2.10 firefighting lift a lift designated to have additional protection, with controls that enable it to be used under the direct control of the fire service in fighting a fire NOTE The firefighting lift is a development of the type of lift known as a fireman’s lift. Although existing firemen’s lift installations may be replaced, firemen’s lifts should not be used in new installations. Only lifts complying with this code of practice can be designated firefighting lifts.

2.11 firefighting lobby a protected lobby providing access from a firefighting stair to the accommodation area, and to any associated firefighting lift 2.12 firefighting shaft a protected enclosure containing a firefighting stair, firefighting lobbies and, if provided, a firefighting lift together with its machine room 2.13 firefighting stair a protected stairway communicating with the accommodation area only through a firefighting lobby 2.14 fire main a water supply pipe, fitted with landing valves at specified points, installed in a building for firefighting purposes

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BS 5588-5:1991

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Figure 0 — Height and depth of a building 2.15 fire resistance

2.20 lift landing door

the ability of a component or construction of a building to satisfy for a stated period of time some or all of the appropriate criteria specified in the relevant Part of BS 476

hinged or sliding portion of a lift well enclosure at each landing that gives access to a lift car when open

2.16 fire service access level a level at which there is suitable entry to the building and to a firefighting shaft from an area to which fire service appliances have access 2.17 floor area the area enclosed by the inner surfaces of walls, including internal walls 2.18 height (of a building) the level of the surface of the highest point of the floor of the highest storey (excluding any such storey consisting exclusively of plant rooms), measured from the level of the surface of the lowest fire service access roadway adjacent to the entrance to the firefighting shaft where the measurement is greatest (see Figure 0) 2.19 lift landing the lobby floor space from which the lift car is normally entered at each level

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NOTE

This is not the lift car door.

2.21 lift machine the unit, including the motor, that drives and stops the lift 2.22 lift well space in which the lift and the counterweight (if any) move. This space is materially enclosed by the bottom of the pit, the vertical walls and the ceiling 2.23 material of limited combustibility either: a) a non-combustible material; or b) any material of density 300 kg/m3 or more which, when tested in accordance with BS 476-11, does not flame, and the rise in temperature on the furnace thermocouple is not more than 20 °C; or c) any material with a non-combustible core of 8 mm thick or more, having combustible facings (on one or both sides) not more than 0.5 mm thick.

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BS 5588-5:1991

2.24 non-combustible material any material capable of satisfying the performance requirements specified in BS 476-4, or any material which when tested in accordance with BS 476-11 does not flame or cause any rise in temperature on either the centre (specimen) or furnace thermocouples 2.25 pressure differential system (pressurization) system of fans, ducts and vents provided for the purpose of creating a pressure differential between the fire zone and the protected space 2.26 protected enclosed (other than any part which is an external wall of a building) with fire-resisting construction 2.27 registered call a call made on a car control station or from a landing call button that is accepted by the control equipment

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2.28 smoke shaft an enclosed space in a building provided for venting smoke from a firefighting stair or one or more firefighting lobbies 2.29 vent a window, rooflight, door, louvre, grille or other device either open or capable of being opened to permit the passage of air between a part of the building and the external air

3 Use of this code 3.1 Background When the fire service is called to a fire a speedy response is expected of it. Considerable public resources in modern communications and mobilizing systems, fast efficient mobile appliances, personnel and training are committed to this objective, which is fundamental to effective firefighting and rescue operations. However, the time taken to reach the entrance of a building may be but a fraction of the time it takes to travel through the building to reach the fire and commence firefighting operations.

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Fire service personnel faced with a task of firefighting on a floor high above the ground need to be able to reach the fire quickly, with their equipment, and having done so they need also to have sufficient energy left for the arduous and prolonged task of firefighting. Physical safety and lives, their own and those of the occupants of the building, and the preservation of the building and its contents, may well be hazarded by delays in reaching the fire floor. Having done all that it can to limit response time, the fire service is therefore dependent on the foresight of designers in providing it with the necessary facilities to operate effectively within the building when it arrives there. This means that in high-rise buildings at least one of the lifts needs to be readily available and of suitable design for firefighters to use, i.e. a firefighting lift. The firefighting lift may be separate from or part of a group of lifts. The benefits to the fire service from the provision of firefighting shafts are not confined to high-rise buildings. Fires in deep basements create particularly difficult access problems in which firefighting stairs and lifts can be invaluable. Also, in buildings containing concentrations of combustible materials in large areas above or below ground level, firefighting stairs (but not necessarily lifts) will afford ready and safe access. In a fire the hazards for passengers who may become trapped if a lift fails are so great that lifts (other than lifts complying with BS 5588-8 provided for the evacuation of disabled persons) should not be used as means of escape and the stairs should be used instead: there have been many reported cases of lift failures and casualties arising from the ill-considered use of lifts during fires in buildings. The principle of protecting lift wells, although not necessarily for personal safety, is long-established practice, but the lift machinery is equally important and lift machine rooms have often not received the attention which is necessary to ensure maximum protection and reliability of the installation. Unlike a normal passenger lift, a firefighting lift needs to be able to transport fire service personnel and their equipment with a high degree of safety when there is a fire in the building. It is essential that means to free passengers who may become trapped in a stalled car are provided, even though a duplicated power supply is provided.

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BS 5588-5:1991

It is normal fire service practice to take a firefighting lift to a floor below that of the fire (floor above if a basement fire) to avoid both fire service personnel and the lift car being directly exposed to the risk of injury or damage before the fire situation can be assessed and firefighting started. Although a firefighting lift will enable firefighters to approach a fire without delay it cannot fully satisfy the needs for fire service access within the building. A firefighting lobby approach stair is also necessary for four important purposes: a) as means of final approach to the fire floor; b) for floor-to-floor movement during firefighting operations; c) to serve as an essential assured and safe route of egress for the fire service if the lift should fail or its reliability become uncertain; and d) for the firefighting lobby on the floor below the fire floor to serve as a safe area where firefighters and firefighting equipment may be assembled before commitment to firefighting operations. The advantage of fire service personnel using a lift to reach the upper floors of a building will be lost if it is then necessary to lay hose from the street to deal with the fire. This means that wherever a lift is to be used for firefighting access, a fire main and landing valves will also be needed. When planning firefighting stairs and the structural accommodation for lift installations it is not enough to anticipate fires only within the occupied floor areas and to consider the firefighting shaft as being free from risk. Experience has shown that fires in such areas result in damage and disruption out of all proportion to their size. These fires also require the speedy intervention of the fire service, and the structural design needs to take account of the need to minimize the effect of such fires on the lifts and stairs that firefighters will rely on to reach them. Reliability of power supplies and circuitry is yet another important consideration. These are also vulnerable to fire and need to be protected. The effects of water ought also to be considered as there have been incidents where lift control malfunction and failure have occurred because water has entered a lift well and reached electrical door interlocks, car controls, etc. Such water can come from many sources including open landing valves, firefighting jets, burst hose or sprinkler discharges. 3.2 Relationship with means of escape A firefighting stairway will normally be used for means of escape and therefore will need to meet the recommendations for protected stairways given in the appropriate Part of BS 5588.

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No recommendations are made in this code for the use of any lift for the purpose of escape in the event of fire. However, BS 5588-8 includes the recommendation that, subject to the provision of satisfactory fire procedures and management control, a firefighting lift may be used for the evacuation of disabled people in case of fire. 3.3 Relationship with statutory provisions It is important to appreciate the relationships between this code and the various statutory provisions relevant to the design and construction of new buildings and to the fire precautions to be provided in existing buildings. The relevant legislation indicated in general terms in 3.4 has to be complied with in the event of a conflict with this code. 3.4 Building regulations The design and construction of new buildings, and of alterations of existing buildings, are controlled by the following statutory provisions which are collectively referred to as building regulations in this code. England and Wales: The Building Regulations; Scotland: The Building Standards (Scotland) Regulations; Northern Ireland: The Building Regulations (Northern Ireland). It should be noted that some county and other authorities in England and Wales have local powers in respect of fire precautions, which may include the provision of firefighting stairs and/or lifts. 3.5 Application of all the recommendations Individual recommendations of this code should not be applied in isolation because of their interdependence and joint contribution to the provision of a relatively safe environment for firefighting. NOTE Where it would be impracticable to meet all the recommendations when installing a firefighting shaft in an existing building, it is suggested that the advice of the relevant authorities be sought.

3.6 Provision and number of firefighting shafts The criteria for the provision and number of firefighting shafts in many building types are given either in building regulations or in the relevant Part of BS 5588. However, where no such guidance is available the provision and number of firefighting shafts should be based on the following. a) Buildings or parts of buildings where: 1) the height (see 2.18) of the surface of the floor of the topmost storey (excluding any storey consisting exclusively of plant rooms) exceeds 15 m; or

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BS 5588-5:1991

2) the depth (see 2.5) of the surface of the floor of the lowermost storey exceeds 10 m; should be provided with firefighting shafts each containing: i) a firefighting stair; ii) firefighting lobbies provided with a fire main; iii) a firefighting lift installation.

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NOTE 1 The reference to parts of buildings covers situations such as a tower block rising above a podium.

b) Buildings where: 1) the height (see 2.18) of the surface of the floor of the topmost storey exceeds 7.5 m, with the floor area of any storey above the ground storey not less than 600 m2; or 2) there are two or more basement levels each with a floor area exceeding 900 m2; should be provided with firefighting shafts each containing: i) a firefighting stair; ii) firefighting lobbies. c) Sufficient firefighting shafts should be provided such that on every storey: 1) with a height (see 2.18) exceeding 18 m; or 2) with a depth (see 2.5) exceeding 10 m; or 3) above the ground storey in buildings as described in item b) 1); or 4) below the ground storey in buildings as described in item b) 2);

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the floor area on that storey served by any firefighting shaft does not exceed 900 m2 and the distance along which hose can be laid from the doorway between the firefighting shaft and the accommodation to any point on that storey does not exceed 60 m. NOTE 2 If the internal layout is not known at the design stage, a direct line measurement of 40 m may be used for design purposes, provided that the layout of the building when occupied satisfies the 60 m criterion.

3.7 Diagrams The figures in this code are intended to clarify concepts, and should not be taken as indicating the only acceptable forms of planning. NOTE Details not relevant to the concept illustrated, for example fire mains and landing valves, are not included.

3.8 Relationship with sprinkler installations Sprinkler systems, provide an effective means of controlling the outbreak of fire. However, the design criteria in BS 5306-2 are intended to control rather than suppress fire. Fire brigade access to the parts of a building affected by fire will still be required even if a sprinkler system is installed. The recommendations of this code of practice should apply irrespective of the level of sprinkler protection.

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BS 5588-5:1991

Section 2. Planning and construction 4 Firefighting shafts 4.1 General A firefighting shaft provides a protected access route for firefighters up or down a building. In most cases it also serves as a means of escape for the occupants and for normal circulation. The recommendations in this section are for measures in addition to those which may be necessary to fulfil the means of escape function. A firefighting shaft always contains a firefighting stair and, on every storey served by the stair, a firefighting lobby between the stair and the accommodation. A firefighting lift opening into the firefighting lobby may need to be provided in certain buildings. The function of the firefighting lift is to transport firefighting personnel and equipment to save time and effort. The firefighting stair is for communication over short distances and as a line of retreat should the firefighting lift fail, and the firefighting lobby gives protection to the firefighting lift and stair as well as being a bridgehead from which the fire may be attacked.

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4.2 Extent of firefighting stairs and lifts NOTE The terms “tall building”, “deep basement” and “large floor area” are not defined, as the criteria for the provision and number of firefighting shafts in many building types are given either in building regulations or in the relevant Part of BS 5588. Where no such guidance is available the provision and number of firefighting shafts is to be based on the criteria given in 3.6.

4.2.1 Commentary Firefighting shafts need to be provided in tall buildings, buildings with deep basements, and buildings with large floor areas. The firefighting shaft ought to be located so that it allows access to every part of every storey that it serves. Where storeys are large more than one firefighting shaft may be necessary to provide access within a reasonable distance of a firefighting shaft. Whilst it is preferable for the firefighting shaft to serve all storeys of a building, this is not always necessary. The following considerations affect the extent of firefighting shafts and of the firefighting lifts and stairs in them. The minimum extent of firefighting lifts and stairs is shown in Figure 1.

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In tall buildings and buildings with deep basements the firefighting shaft ought to contain a firefighting lift. Fire service personnel may need to check several storeys when they arrive to assess the situation, and the firefighting lift ought to serve all the storeys they might need to reach. Because the firefighting stair is the line of retreat if the firefighting lift fails, the firefighting stair needs to serve every storey served by the firefighting lift. The lift and stair are also used together during firefighting operations. In large complexes, with a variety of uses, different firefighting shafts may serve different parts of the complex: for example, in a complex consisting of high-rise offices over a shopping centre, the offices could have a firefighting shaft that did not serve the shopping centre. It is important that any such arrangement is logical and simple, so that fire service personnel have no difficulty in finding the firefighting shafts serving the areas they need to reach. It is considered undesirable to recommend the installation of a firefighting lift (within a means of escape staircase) as it has the potential for increasing the fire load. However, in the case of refurbished buildings where design constraints make the provision of a firefighting lift in the firefighting lobby impracticable then subject to additional measures [see 4.2.2 g)] the lift may be sited within its own fire-resisting shaft in the firefighting stair enclosure. It has also been considered undesirable to recommend this provision in residential buildings as the lack of ongoing statutory control makes the recommended measures unenforceable. Buildings or complexes which are not high and do not have deep basements, but have a large floor area, will still benefit from the provision of firefighting shafts. A firefighting lift is not necessary in such buildings because the vertical transport of personnel and equipment is not a problem, but the firefighting shaft ought to contain a firefighting stair and firefighting lobbies. To prevent smoke from a basement fire smoke-logging the firefighting stair at all levels, firefighting stairs serving storeys both above and below ground level ought to be separated at ground level.

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BS 5588-5:1991

Figure 1 — Minimum extent of firefighting stairs and lifts in tall buildings and buildings with deep basements 4.2.2 Recommendations The following recommendations are applicable. a) Firefighting shafts should be provided in tall buildings, buildings with deep basements, and buildings with large floor areas. b) Firefighting shafts should be provided with firefighting lifts in the following cases: 1) in buildings with deep basements, in which case the firefighting shaft should serve fire service access level and all storeys below it; 2) in tall buildings, in which case the firefighting shaft should serve fire service access level and all storeys above it, although the firefighting lift need not serve any storey on which there is no entrance to any accommodation [see item d)] or the topmost storey of the building if it consists exclusively of plant rooms; Š BSI 05-1999

3) in a building which is both deep and tall, in which case the firefighting shaft should serve all storeys, although the firefighting lift need not serve any storey on which there is no entrance to any accommodation [see item d)] or the topmost storey of the building if it consists exclusively of plant rooms. Storeys below fire service access level may be served by a different firefighting lift from that serving the upper storeys, and any firefighting stair that serves levels both above and below ground level should be separated at ground level. NOTE A fire-resisting partition containing a FD 30S fire door (see 9.4.1) may be used to divide the stair.

c) Firefighting shafts in large floor area buildings that are neither tall buildings nor buildings with deep basements need contain only firefighting stairs and firefighting lobbies.

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BS 5588-5:1991

d) If a building contains separate units of accommodation with their own entrances from common circulation spaces, for example as is the case with some flats and maisonettes, there should be access to each unit from a firefighting lift, either directly or via a common circulation space. e) If a firefighting shaft contains a firefighting lift, the firefighting stair in that shaft should serve every storey served by the firefighting lift. f) The stair from a firefighting shaft may be extended into a part of the building not requiring a firefighting shaft provided that either: 1) the firefighting shaft is extended accordingly, including the provision of firefighting lobbies and any fire main; or 2) the extension to the stair is separated from the firefighting shaft by fire-resisting construction [see 9.3.2 b)]. g) It is considered acceptable to install the firefighting lift in the firefighting stair enclosure (see Figure 1a) in the following circumstances: 1) the building is put to non residential use; and 2) the firefighting lift is sited so that the movement of fire brigade personnel between the lift and the lobby does not impede the use of the stair by the building occupants during an evacuation; and 3) the building evacuation scheme is single stage; and 4) if the lift is to be used for the evacuation of disabled people the provisions of BS 5588-8 are complied with; and 5) the firefighting lift is not to be used as a goods or service lift; and 6) the lift well should be inspected monthly and any combustible materials removed. 4.3 Siting of firefighting shafts 4.3.1 Commentary Firefighting shafts ought to be sited against an exterior wall to facilitate smoke control. In buildings with a high fire risk or high fire load, firefighting shafts need to be sited against an exterior wall, even if a pressurization system is provided, to facilitate firefighting and for the safety of fire service personnel. The separation of the accommodation from the firefighting shaft (see 4.4), together with the provision of means for smoke control, is intended to provide a substantially smoke-free environment for firefighting operations.

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If it is not possible to locate the firefighting shaft against an exterior wall then the route from the fire service entrance to the firefighting shaft needs to be as short as possible and protected by fire-resisting construction to ensure that fire does not affect the route or cut off the means of escape for fire service personnel fighting a fire within the building. The layout of the firefighting shaft at fire service access level ought to be such that firefighters entering the firefighting lift and persons escaping down that firefighting stair do not obstruct each other. Longer corridors may be acceptable to a fire authority if enhanced fire protection or facilities are provided, e.g. the protected corridor serving only the firefighting shaft; the provision of a second protected corridor; the provision of a wet fire main. The firefighting lobby at fire service access level needs to be large enough to act as a command post where firefighters and firefighting equipment may be safely assembled. A building might have a building control centre that could be used by the fire service, or the fire service might use a mobile command centre, etc., and such operational details ought to be discussed by the developer with the fire service. Vehicular access, including access to any inlet to a dry fire main, may be required under building regulations or local legislation, or may be covered in the relevant part of BS 5588. 4.3.2 Recommendations The following recommendations are applicable. a) At fire service access level, entry to a firefighting shaft should be available either: 1) directly from the open air [see Figure 2 (a) (1) and Figure 2 (b)]; or 2) by way of a protected corridor not exceeding 18 m in length. The corridor should be considered to be part of the firefighting shaft, and any access to it from the accommodation should be by way of protected lobbies. It should not be necessary for persons escaping down the stair to pass through the firefighting lobby at fire service access level. Where the corridor forms part of the means of escape from the accommodation it should be 500 mm wider than that required for means of escape purposes (to allow room for fire service personnel to move towards the firefighting shaft), and the firefighting lobby should have a minimum area of 5 m2 clear of any escape routes so that it can act as a fire service mustering point [see Figure 2 (a) (2)]. b) Where a dry fire main is provided, there should be appliance access to within 18 m of the inlet connection to the main, within sight of the connection and with direct access thereto.

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BS 5588-5:1991

Figure 1a — Firefighting lift within escape stair [see 4.2.2 g)] 4.4 Layout of firefighting shafts 4.4.1 Commentary It is essential that firefighting personnel, having left the firefighting lift to enter the firefighting lobby, can enter the firefighting stair enclosure in case of need without having to traverse an area of risk within any storey of the building. Therefore it is necessary that the firefighting lift, lobbies and stair are within a protected enclosure and that the firefighting stair is as close as possible to the firefighting lift so as to provide a means of escape for fire service personnel. Fire protection for the firefighting stair and lift relies on each being within a protected enclosure. NOTE 1

The firefighting lift landing doors are fire doors.

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Access to the accommodation needs to be through a lobby as a single fire door cannot provide adequate protection to the firefighting stair and lift from a fire in the accommodation. The lobby also serves as a bridgehead from which firefighting operations can be mounted. NOTE 1a The only exception is in the case of residential accommodation, where due to the high level of compartmentation between the residential units, the common ventilated access corridor can act as a lobby.

Although in some countries it is required that a firefighting lift be in a separate well, it has been thought unreasonable to follow this course provided that any additional risks can be minimized. Accordingly, this code recommends that, like the firefighting lift, other lifts within the same well should not introduce significant additional fire risks into the firefighting shaft. Entry from within the building to any other lift in the same well has to be through the same protected lobby from which the firefighting lift is entered [see Figure 3 (a)]. 9


Licensed copy:RMJM, 29/08/2005, Uncontrolled Copy, © BSI

BS 5588-5:1991

Figure 2 — Typical firefighting shaft layouts at fire service access level

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© BSI 05-1999


Licensed copy:RMJM, 29/08/2005, Uncontrolled Copy, © BSI

BS 5588-5:1991

Figure 3 — Banks of lifts that incorporate a firefighting lift

© BSI 05-1999

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BS 5588-5:1991

All access between the firefighting stair and firefighting lift and the accommodation needs to be solely via the firefighting lobby. Where it is impractical to locate all adjacent lifts within the firefighting shaft a dual-entry firefighting lift may be provided with a separate firefighting lobby accessible through a second set of lift doors [see Figure 3 (b)]. However, because of the additional risks that this arrangement places on the integrity of the firefighting shaft, certain additional facilities need to be provided by the lift control system, the number of such lifts is limited, the fire-resistance of the main lift lobby lift landing door needs to be increased to 60 min [to meet 9.3.2 b)], and any storey served by a single firefighting lift ought not be served by a dual-entry firefighting lift. NOTE 2 The operation of passenger lifts within firefighting shafts is covered in clause 14.

Whenever possible a firefighting shaft ought not to be exposed to the dangers of radiant heat from an adjacent face of the building. Where this is not possible the construction of the firefighting shaft needs to take into account the heat radiation it could be exposed to during a fire.

Licensed copy:RMJM, 29/08/2005, Uncontrolled Copy, © BSI

4.4.2 Recommendations The following recommendations are applicable. a) Access to the accommodation from the firefighting lift or stair (by way of a firefighting lobby) should be provided at all levels served by the firefighting shaft. NOTE If the firefighting lift does not serve the topmost storey of a building (see 4.2.2), the firefighting lobby on the topmost storey serves the firefighting stair only. If the topmost storey consists only of the firefighting lift motor room, no lobby is necessary.

b) Any storey served by a single firefighting lift should not be served by a dual-entry firefighting lift and not more than half the firefighting lifts serving any storey may be dual-entry lifts. c) Goods lifts and service lifts should not be located within firefighting shafts. d) Passenger lifts should not be located within a firefighting shaft unless the lift cars are constructed in accordance with 11.2 b), are clearly and conspicuously marked “Do not use for goods or refuse”, and have access only from a firefighting lobby.

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e) Where a firefighting lift is dual-entry the lift landing doors to the main lift lobbies should be separated from the accommodation by an enclosure with a fire resistance of not less than 30 min [see Figure 3 (b)]. The doors to this enclosure should be self-closing, but means of overriding the self-closing device may be provided by a hold open system incorporating an automatic release mechanism complying with BS 5839-3. The automatic release mechanism should release the door to close automatically in the event of each or any of the following: 1) the detection of smoke by suitable automatic apparatus mounted at high level in the accommodation adjacent to a door to the main lift lobby enclosure; 2) failure of the power supply; 3) operation of the firefighting lift switch; 4) operation of the fire alarm system; 5) a manual operation at a central control point; 6) actuation of any automatic fire extinguishing system (e.g. a sprinkler system); 7) the removal, for whatever reason, of a smoke detector in a fire detection zone protecting accommodation directly accessible from the firefighting shaft. Such doors should be suitably marked on both sides, at about eye level, with the appropriate sign complying with BS 5499-1. f) Where the firefighting shaft is sited against an exterior wall, if any glazed area [unless it complies with 9.2 and 9.3.2 a) 1)] or opening in the exterior wall of the firefighting shaft is less than 500 mm from the junction of the firefighting shaft with the exterior wall, then the fire resistance of the external wall immediately adjacent to the glazed area or opening should be not less than 1 h from both sides for a horizontal distance of 500 mm [see Figure 4 (a)]. g) If one or more walls enclosing the firefighting shaft are exterior walls, then: 1) the side nearest the accommodation of any exterior wall facing or adjacent to the firefighting shaft should have a fire resistance of 2 h; or 2) the side internal to the firefighting shaft of any exterior wall facing or adjacent to the accommodation should have a fire resistance of 2 h; unless the distance between the firefighting shaft and the accommodation is not less than 5 m [see Figure 4 (b), Figure 4 (c) and Figure 4 (d)].

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BS 5588-5:1991

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Licensed copy:RMJM, 29/08/2005, Uncontrolled Copy, © BSI

© BSI 05-1999

Figure 4 — Examples of protection of the firefighting shaft from external fire


BS 5588-5:1991

h) If the firefighting shaft contains sanitary accommodation, such accommodation: 1) should not be used as a cloakroom; 2) should not contain any portable heating appliances; 3) should not contain any gas appliance other than a water heater or incinerator. i) The firefighting shaft should not contain any cupboards or provide access to service shafts serving the remainder of the building. j) Only services associated with the firefighting shaft should pass through or be contained within the firefighting shaft. k) The doors between the firefighting stair and firefighting lobby should be kept free from any fastenings.

5 Firefighting stairs

Licensed copy:RMJM, 29/08/2005, Uncontrolled Copy, Š BSI

5.1 Commentary Firefighting stairs need to be sufficiently wide to be easily used by firefighting personnel carrying firefighting equipment. Firefighting stair enclosures ought to be provided with means for smoke control to ensure that they remain relatively smoke-free; they also need to be subdivided at ground level to prevent smoke from basement storeys from penetrating the stair enclosure above ground level. 5.2 Recommendations The following recommendations are applicable. a) Firefighting stairs should be designed in accordance with the recommendations of BS 5395-1, with a minimum width between the walls or balustrades of 1.1 m. This width should be maintained clear for a vertical distance of 2.0 m, measured from the pitch line or landing floor level, with the following exceptions: 1) stringers, each intruding into the stair not more than 30 mm; 2) handrails, each intruding into the stair not more than 100 mm. b) Firefighting stair enclosures should be provided with facilities for smoke control (see clause 8). c) Firefighting stairs serving floors both above and below ground level should be separated at ground level by a fire door [see Figure 2 (b) (1)]. d) Lighting in firefighting stair enclosures should comply with clause 16.

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6 Firefighting lobbies 6.1 Commentary Lobbies have to be of sufficient size to enable fire service personnel to lay out hose and connect it to a landing valve (if provided) without undue congestion, but the lobby should not be so large as to encourage any form of storage or unauthorized use. The layout of a firefighting lobby and the positions of all doors should reduce, as far as is practicable, risks arising from: a) the creation of dead-ends (in which firefighters may become cut off from access to the safety of the stair or become disorientated in poor visibility); and b) the direct exposure of lift landing doors to the effects of fire through the doorway leading into the accommodation. Subject to certain restrictions, sanitary accommodation may be accessed by way of the firefighting lobbies. In the case of residential buildings designed in accordance with BS 5588-1 it is accepted that the protected ventilated common corridors/lobbies will provide sufficient protection of the firefighting stair without the need to provide additional dedicated ventilated lobbies. 6.2 Recommendations The following recommendations are applicable to all buildings except residential buildings designed in accordance with BS 5588-1. a) Firefighting lobbies should not form part of a general circulation route within any storey except for circulation between storeys and to sanitary accommodation. If the wall between the firefighting lobby and the sanitary accommodation is not the wall enclosing the firefighting shaft [i.e. does not comply with 9.3.2 b)] then the wall between the firefighting lobby and the sanitary accommodation should comply with 9.3.2 c) and the sanitary accommodation should not contain any fire risks [see 4.4.2 h)]. b) Firefighting lobbies should have a clear floor area of not less than 5 m2. The clear floor area should not exceed 20 m2 for lobbies serving up to four lifts, or 5 m2 per lift for lobbies serving more than four lifts. All principal dimensions should be not less than 1.5 m and should not exceed 8 m in lobbies serving up to four lifts, or 2 m per lift in lobbies serving more than four lifts. c) Firefighting lobbies should be provided with facilities for smoke control (see clause 8).

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BS 5588-5:1991

NOTE However, in the case of residential buildings, there is no need to increase the area of ventilation beyond that recommended in BS 5588-1.

8 Smoke control

d) Where the firefighting shaft contains a firefighting lift, the firefighting shaft should contain a fire main. e) Firefighting lobbies should be clearly and conspicuously marked with a notice complying with BS 5499-1, stating “Firefighting lobby: do not use for storage”. f) Lighting in firefighting lobbies should comply with clause 16.

Effective means are needed to minimize the possibility of serious contamination of the firefighting shaft by smoke, such as the provision of openings for natural ventilation, determined in certain circumstances by the configuration of the building, or by a pressurization system. Because of the difficulty of ventilating smoke from basement levels, natural ventilation is acceptable only for basements of limited depth; firefighting shafts serving deeper basements need to be pressurized. No provision need be made for smoke venting in the lift well over and above the permanent ventilation required by BS 5655-1 and BS 5655-2. Whatever solution is proposed the effects of problems created by the prevailing wind direction and high winds need to be considered as they can markedly influence the effectiveness of both natural ventilation and pressurization systems. The circumstances in which it may be necessary for the fire service to exercise control over the means of ventilation to meet operational needs at the time of a fire also need to be considered. BS 5588-4 gives guidance on the use of pressurization for the purposes of smoke control in protected escape routes but, although the principles behind the recommendations of BS 5588-4 remain valid, some of its recommendations are not appropriate for the pressurization of firefighting shafts. In particular, the design conditions reflect fire service operational practice, i.e. connecting hose to the fire main outlet on the storey adjacent to the fire storey and approaching the fire storey via the firefighting stair. In order to keep the firefighting lobby relatively smoke-free before firefighting operations commence it is necessary to hold back the hot smoke and gases produced by a fully developed fire, and hence the open door airflow needs to be higher than that necessary for means of escape. Although the velocity of hot smoke and gases could reach 5 m·s–1, firefighting operations, such as the use of a jet, ought to contribute significantly to the holding back of hot smoke and gases. Designers of pressurization systems also need to take into account possible interference with, or from, pressurization systems for escape routes, the use of mechanical ventilation or air conditioning plant which is operating in an abnormal mode to clear the smoke from accommodation areas, leakage through the building fabric, the number of doors open or partly open, gaps around doors (including lift doors) and the effect of doors being opened and closed when the pressurization system is operating.

7 Fire mains and landing valves NOTE Although this code does not include a recommendation for the provision of fire mains in buildings provided with firefighting stairs but not a firefighting lift, this should not preclude the provision of fire mains in such buildings.

Licensed copy:RMJM, 29/08/2005, Uncontrolled Copy, © BSI

7.1 Commentary Landing valves ought to be sited where personnel can safely lay out and charge hose lines before entering the fire compartment, and ease of access, exposure to fire from the accommodation if a door is open, obstruction of fire doors by the hose line and the risk of unintentional discharge of water hitting the lift doors or controls need to be considered when siting landing valves. 7.2 Recommendations The following recommendations are applicable. a) Wet and dry rising (and falling) fire mains should be installed in accordance with BS 5306-1 and a landing valve should be installed in each firefighting lobby and at fire service access level. b) Landing valves should be sited and their outlets directed: 1) so that access to them is unobstructed; 2) away from lift landing doors so there is minimal risk of any discharge of water from the outlet coming into contact with lift controls and communications equipment or of flowing into the lift well (see clause 12); 3) so that hoses can be connected, charged and advanced into the accommodation without excessive kinking or obstruction to doors and exit routes. c) Where dry falling mains serve basements 10 m or more below ground, either: 1) the falling main should serve only storeys below the charging point; or 2) a pressure limiting device should be fitted to prevent excessive pressure developing at landing valves below the charging point.

© BSI 05-1999

8.1 Commentary

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BS 5588-5:1991

8.2 Recommendations The (following recommendations are applicable. a) Firefighting shafts serving basements more than 9 m below ground level should be provided with a pressurization system. b) All other firefighting shafts should be provided with either a pressurization system (see 8.3) or natural ventilation (see 8.4); 8.3 Recommendations for the pressurization of firefighting shafts Pressure differential systems should be designed and installed in accordance with BS 5588-4. 8.4 Recommendations for the venting of firefighting shafts by natural means

Licensed copy:RMJM, 29/08/2005, Uncontrolled Copy, Š BSI

NOTE 1 Firefighting shafts serving basements with floor levels more than 9 m below ground level should be pressurized [see 8.2 a)].

The following recommendations are applicable. a) An openable vent with an area of not less than 5 % of the horizontal cross-sectional area of the firefighting stair enclosure should be provided at the top of the stair enclosure, sited where it will not be unduly affected by wind pressures1). The vent should be provided with a remote control mechanism located adjacent to the fire service access doorway and clearly marked as to its function and means of operation. The mechanism should be capable of opening and closing the vent. All connections between the remote control and the opening mechanism should be within the firefighting shaft. Where any part of the remote control mechanism is powered by electricity, a secondary supply should be provided (see also clause 16). b) For firefighting stairs adjacent to external walls, openable vents with an area of not less than 15 % of the horizontal cross-sectional area of the stair enclosure should be provided at each storey level above ground level. Any door opening directly to open air should be considered to contribute to the requirements for venting and where possible such doors should not be kept locked. c) Firefighting stairs that: 1) serve only basement levels less than 9 m below ground level; and 2) lead directly to a final exit; need not be provided with openable vents at any level. NOTE 2

1)

The door to the final exit serves as a vent.

d) Lobbies above ground level should be provided with openable vents with a free area of not less than 25 % of the horizontal cross-sectional area of the firefighting lobby with the vent(s) sited as near to the ceiling as is practicable. e) Firefighting lobbies at each basement level in a particular firefighting shaft should each be provided with a vent at high level having a minimum cross-sectional free area of 1 m2. The vent should discharge direct to open air or into a smoke shaft, serving only that storey, with a cross-sectional area not less than that of the vent. Smoke shafts serving basements should discharge direct to open air at ground level where the exits from the building and fire brigade access would not be affected by the smoke discharge. Any cover to a smoke shaft serving a basement should be either a metal grille designed to prevent blockage of the shaft by rubbish, or both breakable and easily accessible from the appropriate fire service access level. f) Unless vented direct to open air, the firefighting stair should be vented into a separate smoke shaft, and not into the smoke shaft serving the firefighting lobbies. Any smoke shaft serving a firefighting stair or lobbies should be fully open to the external air at top and bottom and the outlets should be sited where they will not be adversely affected by wind pressures 1). Openings into the smoke shaft should be guarded to a height of not less than 1.1 m. g) Smoke shafts serving storeys above ground level should have: 1) a minimum internal area of 25 % of the lobby floor area, or 3 m2, whichever is the greater, with a minimum internal dimension of 1 m, where serving lobbies; 2) a minimum internal area of 15 % of the horizontal cross-sectional area of the stair enclosure or 1.5 m2, whichever is the greater, with a minimum internal dimension of 0.75 m, where serving a stair. h) All openable vents provided for smoke control (with the exception of vents sited above a stair [see item a)] should be outward opening, should not be top hung, should open a minimum of 30°, should be clearly identifiable and accessible and should be fitted with: 1) simple lever handles; or 2) rotary drives to simple rack or gear operated devices; or

Further information is given in CP 3: Chapter V: Part 2 and in the Wind Loading Handbook, HMSO.

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Š BSI 05-1999


BS 5588-5:1991

Figure 5 — Figure deleted 3) locks which can be operated with a square-ended key 8 mm × 8 mm in cross-section and 25 mm deep and which should be agreed with the local Fire Authority. i) Permanent vents should not be provided.

9 Construction of the firefighting shaft

Licensed copy:RMJM, 29/08/2005, Uncontrolled Copy, © BSI

9.1 Commentary The construction separating the firefighting shaft from the rest of the building, and also the internal walls of the firefighting shaft, need to be sufficiently robust to withstand mechanical damage both in day-to-day use and during the course of a fire. That part of the structure which separates the firefighting shaft from areas of risk needs to have a high level of fire resistance and, whilst the fire resistance requirement for the firefighting shaft may be greater than that for the rest of the building, this ought not to be interpreted to mean that the firefighting shaft would survive collapse for any longer than the primary structural elements in the rest of the building. The extra fire resistance ought to be regarded as a factor of safety. The fire resistance of the shaft will be affected by any weak points in the construction of walls, floors, etc. Attention needs to be paid to detailing, particularly the joints between dry linings and floor slabs, and to the fire stopping of any holes in walls or floors made for the passage of cables, pipes, etc. Although the preferred location for the firefighting shaft is against an exterior wall, there is a possibility that fire in the accommodation adjacent to the firefighting shaft could threaten the firefighting shaft if it broke through an opening in the exterior wall, or through the exterior wall itself, and flames were fanned horizontally along the face of the firefighting shaft. Although exterior walls need not resist fire from within a building, it is necessary for openings in exterior walls to firefighting shafts to be protected by fire-resisting construction if they are sited close to the perimeter of the firefighting shaft (see also Figure 4). 9.2 Recommendations for structure and materials The following recommendations are applicable. a) Walls (other than external walls) and floors enclosing or separating firefighting lift wells, machine rooms, stairs, lobbies or smoke shafts should be constructed from materials of limited combustibility.

© BSI 05-1999

b) Walls enclosing or separating firefighting lift wells, machine rooms, stairs, lobbies or smoke shafts should be constructed from materials with a durability and resistance to impact damage not less than that given in Appendix A, and whose fire resistance, durability and resistance to damage is not significantly reduced by the absorption of water resulting from firefighting operations and/or the operation of sprinklers. NOTE Materials such as brick and concrete are deemed to satisfy the recommendations of Appendix A.

c) Ceilings, stairs and landings within the firefighting shaft should be constructed from materials of limited combustibility. d) Internal surfaces to walls and ceilings enclosing or separating firefighting lift wells, machine rooms, stairs, lobbies or smoke shafts should be class 0. e) Ducts and ductwork should comply with BS 8313 and BS 5588-9 as appropriate. 9.3 Fire resistance 9.3.1 Commentary Satisfactory performance of fire resistance of structural elements is ascertained by compliance with one of the following: a) specifications tested, or assessed, in accordance with the appropriate Part of BS 476; NOTE Requirements made in connection with statutory provisions may still refer to BS 476-8, although it has been superseded by BS 476-20, BS 476-21, BS 476-22 and BS 476-23, with the tests relevant to loadbearing elements published in part 21, and those for non-loadbearing elements in part 22. Brief details of these tests are given in PD 6520.

b) appropriate British Standard specifications or codes of practice; c) specifications referred to under building legislation. 9.3.2 Recommendations The following recommendations are applicable. a) Fire resistance, where recommended in this code, implies the following: 1) for walls and partitions, compliance for loadbearing capacity (where appropriate), integrity and insulation; 2) for glazed elements, compliance for the appropriate criteria (see 9.5);

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BS 5588-5:1991

3) for doors, compliance for integrity when each side is exposed separately to test by fire, except in the case of lift landing doors, where performance is in respect of exposure of the landing side only. b) Construction separating a firefighting shaft from other parts of a building or areas of risk should have a fire resistance of not less than 2 h for the sides remote from the firefighting shaft and not less than 1 h for sides internal to the firefighting shaft. c) Other parts of the construction enclosing or separating firefighting lift wells, machine rooms, stairs, lobbies and smoke shafts should have a fire resistance of not less than 1 h from each side, except that openings of minimum size necessary for ropes and cables are permitted in the construction separating a lift machine room from a lift well. 9.4 Fire doors NOTE The term “fire door” includes both the door frame and the door leaf or leaves.

Licensed copy:RMJM, 29/08/2005, Uncontrolled Copy, © BSI

9.4.1 Commentary The performance of a fire door when tested in accordance with BS 476-22 is judged by its time to failure (in minutes) for the criteria of “integrity” and “insulation”; regulations and codes of practice do not normally, however, specify any performance for insulation. For the purposes of this code, fire doors are designated by reference to their required performance (in minutes) for integrity only, e.g. a reference FD 60 implies that the door in that situation should achieve not less than 60 min integrity when tested in accordance with BS 476-22, and a reference FD 30 implies not less than 30 min integrity. Where doors are also required to retard the passage of smoke the suffix “S” is added. 9.4.2 Recommendations The following recommendations are applicable. a) Fire doors protecting openings in fire-resisting structures should have a fire resistance of at least one-half of that required for the structure, but in no case less than 30 min. NOTE 1 In the early stages of fire it is unlikely that the door between the firefighting lobby and the accommodation would be directly attacked by fire, although the wall separating the firefighting shaft and the accommodation might well be. The main function of the door at this point is to ensure that the firefighting lobby remains relatively smoke free. During firefighting operations the door between the firefighting shaft and the accommodation at the fire floor would be open and therefore its level of fire resistance is relatively unimportant, as is the fire resistance of the doors between the firefighting shaft and the accommodation at levels not affected by fire.

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b) Fire doors (except lift landing doors and doors to and within pressurized firefighting shafts) should, when tested in accordance with BS 476-31.1 with the threshold taped and subjected to a pressure of 25 Pa, have a leakage rate not exceeding 3 m3/h per metre. When installed, the threshold gap should be sealed by a seal either with a leakage rate not exceeding 3 m3/h per metre at 25 Pa or just contacting the floor; where this is impracticable the threshold gap should not exceed 3 mm at any point. c) Fire doors, except lift landing doors, or doors to a service duct [see item f)], should be fitted with a self-closing device (other than rising-butt hinges) that: 1) should be of a type that cannot readily be disconnected or immobilized and does not embody a stand-open action; 2) should override any latches fitted to the door, or in the absence of a suitable latch or other positive device for holding the door shut in its frame, should be of a type that has been shown by test in accordance with BS 476: Part 8 or Part 22 to be capable of holding the door closed in the frame for a sufficient period of time for the closing role to be taken over by a thermally activated sealing device (such as an intumescent seal), or throughout the full period of exposure if such seals are not incorporated. d) Unless shown to be satisfactory when tested in accordance with BS 476-8 or BS 476-22, no part of a hinge on which any fire door is hung, and which provides the means of support at the hanging edge, should be made either of combustible material or of non-combustible material having a melting point of less than 800 °C. e) Hold-open systems should not be fitted to fire doors to firefighting lobbies and stairs. f) A fire door to a service duct, in lieu of being self-closing, should have means to enable it to be kept locked shut when not in use and be so marked on the outside with the appropriate sign complying with BS 5499-1. g) Any fire door [except one referred to in item f)] should be marked on both sides, at about eye level, with the appropriate sign complying with BS 5499-1 to the effect that it should be kept closed when not in use. NOTE 2 Advice on the provision of door furniture for fire doors is given in Code of practice for hardware essential to the optimum performance of fire-resisting timber doorsets (1983), prepared by and available from the Association of Builders’ Hardware Manufacturers, Heath Street, Tamworth, Staffordshire B77 7JH and BS 8214, Code of Practice for fire door assemblies with non-metallic leaves. © BSI 05-1999


BS 5588-5:1991

9.5 Glazed areas 9.5.1 Commentary Partitions, doors and windows can be glazed with a variety of products, e.g. traditional annealed wired glass based on soda-lime-silica or clear borosilicate glass. Although able to satisfy the integrity requirements of BS 476-22 for periods in excess of 90 min, these permit local high heat transmission and radiation through the glass and so are unable to satisfy the requirement for insulation for more than a few minutes. Such heat transmission and radiation would constitute a hazard to firefighting personnel. Some laminated glasses (intumescent or gel-interlayer) can achieve in excess of 90 min for integrity and insulation in specific glazing constructions.

Licensed copy:RMJM, 29/08/2005, Uncontrolled Copy, Š BSI

NOTE PD 6512-3 gives advice and information on the performance of glazed elements in buildings.

The type of glass permitted in walls required to be fire-resisting depends on whether: a) the glazed element needs to afford the same level of protection against fire as the remainder of the enclosure in which it is situated; or b) the glazed element only needs to afford protection against the passage of flame and hot gases. 9.5.2 Recommendation Construction which is required to be fire-resisting, enclosing or within the firefighting shaft, should not contain glazed areas unless: a) it is an external wall [other than a wall that should be fire-resisting (see 4.4.2)]; or b) the glazed element complies with 9.2 and 9.3.2 a) 1); or c) the glazed element is fire-resisting in terms of integrity, the glazed area is provided in a fire door, and its area does not exceed 0.1 m2.

Š BSI 05-1999

9.6 Flooring and floor coverings within the firefighting shaft 9.6.1 Commentary Floor coverings need to be fully secured to the floor, with floors being maintained so as to minimize the risk of slipping on the floor or floor covering when it becomes wet. As the slip resistance of resilient floor surfaces is reduced by contamination by dust or materials such as oils or grease, it is essential that they are cleaned frequently. The flammability of any textile floor covering needs to be low. 9.6.2 Recommendations The following recommendations are applicable. a) All floorings and floor coverings should be chosen so as to minimize slipperiness when wet, and resilient floor surfaces should be maintained in accordance with BS 6263-2, with only emulsion polish (i.e. not wax polish) being used. b) Textile floor coverings should: 1) when tested, together with any underlay, in accordance with BS 4790, using the test procedure reflecting the method used for securing the floor covering to the floor, either i) not ignite; or ii) have effects of ignition on both the use- and under-surfaces not extending beyond a circle of radius 35 mm centred on the central point of application of the nut; 2) be firmly secured to the floor, with any adhesive used non-water soluble; 3) be interrupted at all doors to and within the firefighting shaft along the line of the threshold of the doorway with a metal or other non-combustible strip not less than 50 mm wide.

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BS 5588-5:1991

Section 3. Firefighting lift installation

Licensed copy:RMJM, 29/08/2005, Uncontrolled Copy, Š BSI

10 General The firefighting lift installation includes the lift car itself, the lift well and the lift machine room, together with the lift control system and the fire service communications system. The lift installation needs to comply with the appropriate requirements of the relevant Parts of BS 5655. A firefighting lift, unlike a normal passenger lift, is designed to operate so long as is practicable when there is a fire in parts of the building beyond the confines of the firefighting shaft, as it is used to transport firefighters and their equipment to a floor of their choice. The lift may be used in normal times as a passenger lift by the occupants of the building but, in order to prevent the risk of the entrance being obstructed when the lift is required to go into the firefighting mode, it should not be used for moving refuse, nor for moving goods. In buildings provided with a single lift its use for the transport of goods should be avoided unless essential, the lift lobbies should be kept clear, and when used for moving goods the doors should not be obstructed to ensure that the lift remains at a particular level. Because of the danger of failure of the electrical control system of the lift, steps need to be taken to reduce the likelihood of water from firefighting operations and from the fire area (from a sprinkler discharge, for instance) flowing into the lift well, and electrical equipment needs to be protected against falling water. Although BS 5655-1 and BS 5655-2 requires a small slope on the lift landing to prevent cleaning water from entering the lift well, water from firefighting has not previously been considered in lift design codes. It is essential that the lift doors be power operated. Firefighting lifts located in areas subject to, or potentially subject to, vandalism (e.g. local authority housing, shopping precincts, multi-storey car parks) should comply with DD 197 insofar as its recommendations do not conflict with the recommendations of this code.

11 Firefighting lift cars 11.1 Commentary 11.1.1 General Whilst all lift cars ought to comply with the relevant requirements of BS 5655, this clause contains additional requirements specific to firefighting lifts. The provision of a secondary power supply means that there is no recommendation for lighting additional to that specified in BS 5655.

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Although the minimum size of lift acceptable for a firefighting lift is an eight-passenger lift with a floor area of 1.1 m wide by 1.4 m deep, a rated load of 630 kg and a clear entrance 800 mm wide by 2000 mm high, consideration needs to be given to the provision of larger firefighting lift cars as this would assist the evacuation of any casualties. 11.1.2 Construction Materials need to be chosen so as to make the lift car a minimal fire risk. 11.1.3 Speed As firefighting is very time-critical, there is a limit on the full travel time. 11.1.4 Emergency operation and escape As firefighting lifts are provided with two independent sources of power (see clause 16), it is not necessary to provide facilities for emergency operation additional to those specified in BS 5655. However, firefighters may need to be rescued from a lift stuck between floors, and therefore it is necessary for firefighting lift cars to be provided with a ceiling hatch for use when the car is not within reach of the landing doors. To prevent misuse the hatch ought to be easily openable only from outside the lift car. 11.2 Recommendations The following recommendations are applicable. a) The lift car should comply with all the relevant requirements of BS 5655. The dimensions of the lift car should comply with Table 4, Table 5 or Table 6 of BS 5655-5:1981. b) The frame and main structure should be constructed from materials of limited combustibility. Wall and ceiling linings should be constructed from materials which would be classified as class 1 if tested in accordance with BS 476-7. Flooring should follow the recommendations given in 9.6.2. c) The speed of the lift should be such that it will run its full travel in not more than 1.0 min. d) An emergency trap door complying with 8.12 of BS 5655-1:1986 or 8.12 of BS 5655-2:1988 should be provided. Access to the inside of the car through the trap door should not be obstructed other than by easily breakable or removable lighting diffusers.

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BS 5588-5:1991

e) In buildings provided with more than one lift, firefighting lift cars should be clearly and conspicuously marked with a notice complying with BS 5499-1 stating “Firefighting lift: do not use for goods or refuse”. In buildings where the firefighting lift is the only lift every firefighting lift lobby should be clearly and conspicuously marked with a notice complying with BS 5499-1 stating “Firefighting lift: Do not obstruct lift doors. Do not leave goods in lift.” f) In addition to the normal storey markings, “Fire service access level” or “FSAL” should be marked on or adjacent to the appropriate car controls and indicators. g) Dual-entry lift cars should be provided with two car control panels, one of which is labelled “For fire service use”. NOTE Operation of the firefighting lift switch disables the normal lift control panel and enables the fire service control panel.

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h) In firefighting shafts with a pressure differential system in accordance with this code, the lift doors should be capable of opening/closing against the maximum pressure difference attained when the system is fully operational.

12 Firefighting lift wells 12.1 Commentary The provision of sprinkler heads within the firefighting lift well is not desirable: given compliance with the recommendations of this code, the only potential for fire occurring in the lift well would arise from combustibles within the car, which could not be reached by sprinkler discharge. Furthermore, any cooling effect from sprinkler discharge could not reliably control excessive temperatures in the lift well which would make the lift unsafe to use. There have been several recorded occasions when water from a landing valve, hose lines, etc., has entered the lift well and caused malfunction of the installation when it reached electrical door interlocks, car controls, etc. It is therefore necessary to minimize the effects of water on lift operations. The minimum flow rate from a fire main recommended in BS 5306-1 is 25 L/s, and this is considered to be representative of likely flow rates from other sources. The absence of sprinkler heads does not obviate the need for protection from water.

2)

The method chosen ought to be appropriate to the building, and might include the provision of drainage channels and drainpipes, and/or laying the lift landing floor to a fall so that any water entering the lobby will not enter the lift well but will drain away down the stairs and/or into a smoke shaft and/or to gargoyles or scuppers on the outside of the building (see Appendix B). The upper and side surfaces of electrical control equipment within the lift well need to be protected against falling water from seepage under the lift landing doors) by, for example, the provision of waterproof covers or diverter canopies: these need to be so arranged that falling water is diverted away from other control equipment. 12.2 Recommendations The following recommendations are applicable. a) Sprinklers should not be provided in the firefighting lift well, and any sprinklers installed in the firefighting lobby should be sited so that they do not drench the lift landing doors or controls. b) Water should be prevented from entering the well of a firefighting lift and interfering with the operation of the electrical equipment of a firefighting lift. Electrical equipment within the lift well located within 1 m of any wall separating the lift well from a lift lobby should be provided with enclosures classified as a minimum IPX32) in accordance with BS 5490 (see Figure 6). NOTE Where dual-entry lifts are provided the recommendation applies to equipment within 1 m of the walls separating the lift well from both the firefighting lobby and the main lift lobby.

c) Electrical equipment necessary for the operation of the firefighting lift should not be installed within 1 m of the bottom of the lift well.

13 Firefighting lift machine rooms 13.1 Commentary This code seeks to protect the firefighting lift machine room by incorporating it within the firefighting shaft. A similar degree of protection is, of course, necessary for power supplies, generators and all other apparatus essential for the operation of the firefighting lift, and this is covered in clause 16.

Classification IPX3 in accordance with BS 5490 requires equipment to be protected against splashing water;

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BS 5588-5:1991

Figure 6 — Water protection for firefighting lifts

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BS 5588-5:1991

It is essential that a fire in the firefighting lift machine room does not lead to the firefighting shaft becoming smoke-logged, and that the risk of the operation of the firefighting lift machine being affected by water during firefighting operations is minimized. This is best achieved by siting the lift machine room adjacent to or above the lift well, and not directly below the lift well. This code recognizes the arrangement whereby the lift machine is sited directly within the lift well, (obviating the need for a separate machine room). Such an arrangement is acceptable provided that similar safeguards are provided for the lift machine and associate equipment as for a conventional lift machine room. Such safeguards should include the protection of the lift machine against water and the reduction of smoke hazards as far as practicable.

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13.2 Recommendations The following recommendations are applicable. a) The machine room for a firefighting lift should be sited within the firefighting shaft, not directly below the lift well, and should be either: 1) separated from the firefighting stair, firefighting lift lobby and firefighting lift well by fire-resisting construction in accordance with 9.2 and 9.3.2, and accessible only by way of the firefighting lift lobby at that level; or 2) located above the firefighting lift well and accessible by way of the firefighting stair with a fire door between the stair or lobby and machine room. b) The machine room for the firefighting lift should comply with all the relevant requirements of BS 5655. c) Water should be prevented from entering the machine room.

14 Firefighting lift control systems 14.1 Commentary A firefighting lift switch is provided to enable the fire service to obtain immediate control of the firefighting lift(s) in that firefighting shaft. Provision should be made to control access to the firefighting switch. If access is key controlled it is better to site the firefighting lift switch behind a lockable access door, rather than provide a key operated switch. This is because a door can be broken open if necessary, whilst it is not unknown for key operated switches to be rendered inoperable by the filling of the keyway with, for example, adhesive.

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Lifts in the firefighting shaft operate normally until the firefighting lift switch is operated. This immediately renders inoperative all call buttons both on the lift landings and in the lift cars, and the firefighting lift and other lifts in the firefighting shaft are brought as speedily as possible to the fire service access level. It is not necessary to interconnect separate or multiple groups of lifts with other firefighting lifts as it may be undesirable to disable the whole building. If, as part of the fire strategy in a particular building, the firefighting lift (and any other lifts within the firefighting shaft) is brought to the fire service access level on operation of the fire alarm system, the lift car and landing controls ought to be disabled until the firefighting lift switch has been operated. If a lift is travelling away from the fire service access level it will stop (without opening its doors) at the next available floor according to the lift speed and the minimum slow down distance of the drive system; the lift then reverses direction and travels without stopping to the fire service access level. On arriving at the fire service access level the lift doors open on all lifts in the firefighting shaft to allow any passengers to exit, after which the lift doors will close on all the lifts except the firefighting lift to prevent further operation. The car controls of the firefighting lift become active only after it has arrived at the fire access level and the firefighting lift switch has been operated. It is stationed at the fire service access level with its doors open and is operated in the following way: fire personnel entering the lift car may register a call to any selected landing in the building by sustained pressure on a car control until the car doors have fully closed. If a car control is released before the doors have fully closed, the doors immediately reopen and the call is cancelled. Once moving, additional calls may be registered on the car controls: the lift travels in the direction of the first call registered, and stops at the first floor encountered for which a call is registered. The doors remain closed and may be opened only by continuous pressure on the “door open” control. Release of the “door open” control before the doors are fully open will cause the doors to automatically re-close: this is to allow fire service personnel to observe the situation immediately outside the lift landing doors in the firefighting lobby. Once the doors are fully open they remain open until a new call is registered at the car control station.

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Heat- or smoke-sensitive (touch button) controls are not suitable as the heat or smoke from the fire might “call” the lift to the fire floor prior to operation of the firefighting lift switch: on reaching the fire floor the lift doors could open and it is possible that the fire could put the lift out of action. Landing control circuitry needs to be designed so that, whilst the lift is in the firefighting mode, any failure that can occur such as a short circuit induced by heat or moisture does not affect operation of the firefighting lift.

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14.2 Recommendations The following recommendations are applicable. a) A firefighting lift switch should be positioned near the firefighting lift landing door at fire service access level and clearly marked “Firefighting lift”. The operation positions of the switch should be clearly marked “on” and “off”. Unless some other provision is made to control access to the firefighting lift switch, it should be protected by a cover provided with a lock openable by the standard lift door emergency unlocking key described in Appendix B of BS 5655-1:1986. The cover should not be transparent, should be positioned not more than 2 m from the firefighting lift, and should be marked “FB”. If the firefighting lift is located in an area subject to vandalism the cover should be located not less than 2.5 m above floor level, or immediately below the ceiling if the ceiling height is less than 2.5 m. b) If there are two or more lifts installed together there should be clear indication as to which lift is the firefighting lift. c) The landing controls and lift car controls should be of a type that are not prone to registering false signals because of conditions resulting from the fire or firefighting operations, e.g. the effects of heat, smoke and moisture. d) Failure of the landing controls whilst the lift is in the firefighting mode should not affect operation of the firefighting lift. e) The firefighting lift switch should operate as described in item g) independently of the switch position of the following: 1) any collective control; 2) any attendant’s changeover switch or control; 3) any emergency switch in the lift car; 4) any caretaker’s immobility switch; 5) any security, commissionaire’s, caretaker’s or similar cut-out switch.

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The firefighting lift switch should not override the inspection control or stop switch on the car top, nor the stop switches in the pit, the machine room or the pulley room. NOTE 1 When the firefighting lift is out of service because of engineering work, it is important that a “lift under maintenance” sign be placed on the lift at fire service access level.

f) On operation of the firefighting lift switch, all lift safety devices should remain operative, except as may be specifically recommended in item g) 2). g) Operation of the firefighting lift switch should automatically ensure the following. 1) Landing call buttons and car control stations within the firefighting shaft, with the exception of the car door controls, should be rendered inoperative. 2) Safety devices for all lift landing doors and all lift car doors in the firefighting shaft that may be affected by smoke or heat, so as to prevent door closure, should be rendered inoperative. NOTE 2 The most common types of door safety device are photo-electric beams, pressure-sensitive edges and movement sensors (Doppler effect using microwave or ultrasonic beams).

3) All lifts within the firefighting shaft should return as soon as practicable to the fire service access level with a “Lift under fire service control” sign illuminated within each lift car. The “Lift under fire service control” sign should remain illuminated until the firefighting lift switch is returned to the “off” position. NOTE 3 It is important that any lift travelling away from the fire service access level be able to stop and reverse without the car doors opening. NOTE 4 The firefighting lift (and any other lifts within the firefighting shaft) may be returned to fire service access level at any time by switching the firefighting lift switch from “on” to “off” (for a minimum of 5 s) and back to “on”.

4) On arriving at the fire service access level, all lifts within the firefighting shaft other than the firefighting lift should be retained there with the lobby and car doors kept in the closed position (after opening for the discharge of passengers). NOTE 5 The leaving of the lift doors closed is to prevent the lift well acting as chimney. If the fire service wish to check that all the non-firefighting lifts are empty this can easily be done by switching the firefighting switch off and on again as this will cause the lift doors to open. Passengers cannot be trapped within a lift car as the car door controls are not disabled [see item 1)].

5) The fire service communications system (see clause 15) should be operative.

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BS 5588-5:1991

6) If the firefighting lift is dual-entry [see 2.6 and 4.4.2 e)]: i) the fire service car control panel should be enabled, and the normal car control panel should be disabled; NOTE 6 Until the lift has returned to fire service access level all car controls are inoperative [see item g) 1)].

ii) any fire doors protecting the main lift lobby that are held open, at all levels served by that firefighting lift [see Figure 3 (b)], should be released; iii) the lift landing doors to the main lift lobbies should be locked shut at all levels served by that firefighting lift;

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NOTE 7 The locking shut of the landing doors is that carried out as part of the normal lift operations. Operation of the firefighting lift is dependent on the successful locking shut of these doors.

iv) the lift landing doors to the firefighting lobby should be brought into operation at all levels served by that firefighting lift; 7) Warnings that the switch has been operated that are both audible and visible at all points within the lift well, motor room and any other area entered for maintenance purposes should be provided. NOTE 8 The audible and visible alarm signal need to be provided in case a maintenance engineer is working on the firefighting lift installation. They also need to be operated by the fire alarm system. NOTE 9 On becoming aware of the signal it is important that the engineer immediately reinstates lift operation if the lift is safe to use and then leaves the building; if it is not possible to reinstate lift operation immediately it is advised that the engineer leaves the building and awaits (at fire service access level) the arrival of the fire service.

h) After the firefighting lift has parked, with doors open, in response to operation of the firefighting lift switch, sole control should then be vested in the firefighting lift car control station, and the following should be ensured. 1) It should not be possible to register a call to a landing other than landing by sustained pressure on a lift car call control until the car doors have closed fully. If the car call control is released before the doors have fully closed, they should re-open immediately. 2) Registration of a call should cause the lift car to travel to, and stop with the doors remaining closed, at the selected landing. 3) If the car is in motion, it should be possible to register further calls from within the car. The car should stop at the nearest landing in its current direction of travel for which a call is registered. When the car stops, all calls should be automatically cancelled and the car should not depart until a fresh call is registered.

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4) If the car is stationary at a landing, it should be possible to control the opening of the doors only by the application of continuous pressure on the “door open” car control. If the control is released before the doors are fully open, the doors should automatically re-close. Once fully open, the doors should remain open until a new call is registered on the car control station. i) Effective means should be provided: 1) within the lift car to indicate the confirmation of all calls registered on the car control station; 2) to show the position of the car (at any time whilst power is present), both in the car and at the fire service access level, whether the car is in motion or at rest. j) The lift installer should issue a certificate after installing and testing a firefighting lift which states that the tests and checks listed in appendix C have been satisfactorily completed. NOTE 10

A model certificate is given in Appendix D.

14.3 Changeover from primary to secondary supply after operation of the firefighting lift switch 14.3.1 Commentary On loss of the primary supply the lift, if travelling, will come to an emergency stop and the lights will go out. The emergency lighting will come on immediately. There will then be a delay of up to 30 s while the secondary supply (see clause 16) is established: this will be indicated by the restoration of the main lighting in the lift car. The problems to be considered are: a) the selector may be out of step, or the lift may have stopped out of level but close to the fire service access level; b) the doors may be in mid-operation. However, for safety reasons the firefighting lift ought not to restart until a firefighting lift car control has been operated following the changeover. 14.3.2 Recommendations The following recommendations are applicable. a) On operation of any of the car controls after re-establishment of the power supply, the control system should establish and indicate [see 14.2 i)] an accurate lift position within 10 s and without travelling more than one storey with any travel being towards fire service access level. NOTE This may be achieved by use of an uninterruptable power supply in microprocessor controlled systems or by mechanical means, e.g. by moving slowly to the next landing reset switch.

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b) If stopped at a landing, unless the lift car and lift landing doors are fully closed, they should open once the power supply has been re-established. c) All calls registered prior to the changeover of the power supply should be cancelled.

15 Fire service communications systems 15.1 Commentary

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BS 5655-1 requires some means for persons shut in the lift car to summon outside assistance and additionally an intercom system or similar device between the machine room and any car which runs more than 30 m. Whilst it is possible that such equipment may be of limited use to the fire service, it will clearly not be sufficient to meet the fire service’s need for an effective communications system. This clause is aimed specifically to meet the needs of the fire service and includes provision for the system to extend also to the lift motor room. A separate intercom system should be provided for each firefighting lift installation independent from any other system.

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15.2 Recommendations The following recommendations are applicable. a) As part of the firefighting lift installation an intercom system or similar device should be provided for two-way speech communication between the firefighting lift car and both fire service access level and the firefighting lift machine room whilst the firefighting lift is in the firefighting mode. b) If the firefighting lift is located in an area subject to vandalism the communication equipment at fire service access level should be a handset on a 2 m long cord located behind a locked cover [see 14.2 a)] located not less than 2.5 m above floor level, or immediately below the ceiling if the ceiling height is less than 2.5 m. c) The communications equipment within the lift car should be a built-in microphone and speaker, and not a telephone handset. d) A firefighting lift is now intended to act as an evacuation lift prior to the arrival of the fire service and the recommendations contained in BS 5588-8 should apply.

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BS 5588-5:1991

Licensed copy:RMJM, 29/08/2005, Uncontrolled Copy, Š BSI

Section 4. Electrical services 16 Electrical services

16.2 Recommendations

16.1 Commentary

The following recommendations are applicable. a) The primary electrical supply to the firefighting lift should be obtained from a sub-main circuit exclusive to the lift and independent of any other main or sub-main circuit; other lifts in the firefighting shaft may be fed from the same primary supply, provided that the supply is adequate for this purpose and that arrangements are such that a fault occurring in any other lift in the firefighting shaft or the power supplies thereto will not affect in any way the operation of the firefighting lift. b) A secondary power supply independent of the primary power supply to the firefighting shaft, e.g. an automatically started generator should be provided which will, independently of the primary supply, be of sufficient capacity to: 1) maintain in operation: i) the firefighting lift; ii) normal lighting within the firefighting shaft; iii) the fire service communications system (see clause 15); iv) any mechanical ventilation or pressurization system which operates in conjunction with the operational use of the firefighting shaft; v) any pump(s) required to feed the fire main; vi) the stair enclosure openable vent.

To reduce the risk of the loss of electrical supply in a fire a secondary power supply, such as a generator or a supply from a separate substation, is considered essential. The secondary supply needs to have sufficient capacity both to maintain services in the firefighting shaft and to keep the firefighting lift and its ancillary equipment in operation. Its capacity ought also to be sufficient to enable passenger lift cars in the same well as the firefighting lift to be brought to fire service access level on operation of the firefighting lift switch. The secondary supply needs to be designed to operate safely in fire conditions. Consideration of the means for the provision of a secondary supply ought to include the overall electrical distribution system within the building, and also the power needs for other equipment requiring a secondary or standby power supply. It should be noted that power supply from a second substation cannot normally offer protection against the occurrence of a fault (unconnected with the fire) on the high-voltage distribution system (such as the severing of a high-voltage cable during construction work) as this could affect both substations. If protection against such faults is required by the occupier then either a generator needs to be provided, or the secondary power supply needs to be taken from a high-voltage distribution system different to that normally supplying the building. The changeover from the primary to the secondary power supply needs to be automatic so that the lighting and smoke control within the firefighting shaft, and any pumps for the fire main, continue in operation. Both the primary and secondary sources of power to the firefighting shaft need to be sufficiently protected against fire and water damage, and also to be separated from each other, so that a failure in cables or equipment, either by mechanical breakdown or damage by fire, in any one system, does not affect the other supply. Protection against fire may be achieved through choice of cable, choice of route (for example through protected areas, or external to the building) or by the provision of additional protection. It is essential that the fire procedures of the building do not include the isolation of the circuits supplying power to the firefighting shaft and its associated services.

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NOTE In the case of some residential buildings where regular maintenance of a generator would not be expected, relaxation can be considered for the secondary supply. In such cases, the power supplies should be via two separate intakes into the building from the same external substation and thence two separate routes to the firefighting shaft in addition.

2) permit the automatic recall to fire service access level of all other lifts in the firefighting shaft, if necessary in sequence and at reduced speed. The secondary power supply should be capable of providing the power for item b) 1) within 30 s of the failure of the primary electrical supply. Where the secondary power source is a generator, it should be capable of providing the power necessary for at least 3 h without replenishment of fuel. A supply from another substation should be from a substation which does not normally provide the incoming supply to the building.

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BS 5588-5:1991

c) Whichever secondary source is provided, the distribution should be organized such that the secondary supply remains live when the remainder of the supplies in the building are isolated in an emergency. d) All electrical services should be installed, and periodically inspected and tested (with any necessary maintenance carried out), by suitably qualified engineers in accordance with BS 7671 (IEE Wiring Regulations)3). 1) should be located in a protected shaft, where possible in the lift well; or 2) should be adequately protected against the action of fire for a period not less than that required for the structural fire protection of the firefighting shaft; or 3) should be classified as CWZ in accordance with BS 6387. e) Cables, switchgear and other equipment transmitting the secondary power supply should be separated from those of the primary supply or physically protected so that a breakdown, or any cause of a breakdown, on one supply should not lead to simultaneous failure of the other supply. f) The primary and secondary power supply cables should be terminated in a changeover device located within the firefighting shaft. The changeover device should automatically effect a transition from the primary to the secondary power supply if any phase of the primary power supply to the firefighting shaft fails. g) Any electrical substation, distribution board, generator, hydraulic pump or other apparatus which supplies or transmits power to the firefighting lift installation, or any equipment associated with the firefighting shaft (e.g. pressurization fans, pumps for fire mains, etc.) should be protected from the action of fire in the building for a period not less than that specified for the enclosing structure of the firefighting shaft (see 9.3) and in accordance with the general principles of structural fire protection for a lift machine room (see BS 5655).

3)

h) Lighting, lift and communication circuits and equipment should be safeguarded as appropriate to ensure that the failure, or cause of failure, of any one does not lead to the failure of another component of the installation. i) All switchgear controlling supplies to the firefighting shaft and its ancillary equipment should be secured against unauthorized operation and clearly labelled “Firefighting shaft: do not switch off”. NOTE 1 Additional warning labels need to be provided, with their location and wording depending on whether the isolating protective device is fed from the live side or the dead side of the main isolating device. If fed from the live side, the label on the isolating protective device for the firefighting shaft supply needs to include the following: “Warning: this supply remains alive when the main switch is turned off” and a label should be placed on the main isolating device reading “Warning: the firefighting shaft supply remains alive when this switch is turned off”. If fed from the dead side, a label needs to be fixed to the main isolating device reading “Warning: this switch also controls the supply to the firefighting shaft”.

j) Cables other than those required for the operation of the firefighting lift (and any other lifts within the firefighting lift well) should be located outside the firefighting lift well, although within the firefighting shaft. k) Indication of the status of: 1) which power supply, primary or secondary, is in use; 2) any mechanical ventilation or pressurization systems; 3) any pumps feeding fire mains; should be provided adjacent to the firefighting lift switch and should be duplicated in the fire control room (if provided). NOTE 2 The indicatiors for power supplies should identify which system is supplying the firefighting shaft. The indicators for mechanical ventilation systems, pressurization systems and fire main pumps should indicate whether the equipment is in operation, and not merely whether it is energized.

l) The firefighting stair and lobbies should be provided with an emergency lighting system complying with BS 5266-1.

Available from the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Savoy Place, London WC2R 0BL.

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Section 5. Routine inspection and maintenance 17 Routine inspection and maintenance 17.1 Commentary It is essential for the reliable operation of the firefighting lift and its associated equipment that a schedule of routine inspection and maintenance is adopted. The 6-monthly and annual inspection and testing needs to be carried out by suitably qualified and experienced personnel. 17.2 Recommendations

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The following schedule of routine inspection and maintenance should be followed, in addition to any servicing recommended by manufacturers or installers. a) Daily, operation of the central control to release any doors held open by automatic release mechanisms [see 4.4.2 e)]. b) Weekly, operation of the firefighting lift switch, and operation of any mechanical ventilation or pressurization systems.

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c) Monthly, simulation of failure of the primary power supply. If a diesel generator provides the standby power supply, it should energize the firefighting shaft for at least 1 h. NOTE Frequent starting of the generator followed by a few minutes on-load is not recommended. It is important that when the engine is running the generator is loaded to at least 50 % of the engine’s capacity to prevent sooting up with resultant loss of performance.

d) 6-monthly, inspection of fire mains and associated valves, etc. (see clause 38 of BS 5306-1:1976), and inspection of the firefighting lift (see BS 5655-10). e) Annually, operational testing of the firefighting lift controls as described in C.1, and verification of the minimum pressure differential, maximum door opening forces, and open-door airspeed criteria, in pressure differential smoke systems.

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Appendix A Resistance to damage of enclosing and separating partitions Unless constructed of materials such as brick or concrete, partitioning should satisfy the criteria for compliance given in Table 1 when tested in accordance with BS 5234-24). NOTE The tests are carried out on a test specimen between 4.5 m and 6.0 m in length incorporating an 1 100 mm wide doorset 650 ± 50 mm from one end with a 900 mm wide partition fixed at right angles to the other end. The way in which the components are fixed to each other needs to be in accordance with the supplier’s recommendations with regard to their nature, type, position and spacing. The test specimen is to be mounted in a rigid rig (such that the application of a load of 2 kN at any point, in addition to any load imposed by the test specimen, does not result in a deflection exceeding 1 mm or lateral residual movement exceeding 0.1 mm) and subjected to the tests given in Table 1 in the order in which they are listed.

Table 1 — Tests for partitions Test

Severity

a) Stiffness (see note 1)

Criteria for compliance

500 N

No significant damage, maximum deflection (see note 4) 10 mm

1) surface damage

10 N·m

No significant damage

2) perforation

30 N·m

No significant damage

120 N·m

No significant structural damage

b) Small hard body impact (see note 2):

c) Large soft body impact (see note 3)

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NOTE 1 NOTE 2 NOTE 3 NOTE 4

Force applied via a 150 mm diameter plate. Body is a 50 mm steel sphere. Body is spheroconical bag 600 mm × 400 mm filled with hardened glass beads. Deflection of the partition from the vertical.

Appendix B Examples of typical arrangements to keep the firefighting lift well free from water B.1 The use of a drain outlet to the smoke shaft is shown in Figure 7.

Figure 7 — Drain outlet to smoke shaft

4)

In preparation.

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B.2 The use of a raised threshold to the lift entrance is shown in Figure 8.

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Figure 8 — Raised threshold to lift entrance B.3 The use of a drainage grid to the lift entrance is shown in Figure 9.

Figure 9 — Drainage grid to lift entrance

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BS 5588-5:1991

Licensed copy:RMJM, 29/08/2005, Uncontrolled Copy, © BSI

B.4 The use of a floor sloped away from the lift entrance is shown in Figure 10.

Figure 10 — Floor sloped away from lift entrance

Appendix C Operational tests for firefighting lifts C.1 To ensure that the firefighting lift controls respond correctly [see 14.2 g)], the following tests and checks should be made. a) If the lift is a dual-entry lift, operate the firefighting lift switch and check that: 1) the fire doors to the main lift lobbies are closed; 2) the lift landing doors to the main lift lobbies are locked shut; 3) the lift landing doors to the firefighting lobbies are operative. Reset the firefighting lift switch, obstruct the locking mechanism for one of the main lobby lift landing doors, and operate the firefighting lift switch. Check that the lift cannot operate in the firefighting mode. b) Operate the firefighting lift switch: 1) when the lift car is travelling in the upward direction at the rated speed; 2) when the lift car is travelling in the downward direction at the rated speed; 3) when the lift car is travelling in the upward direction during slowdown towards a floor; 4) when the lift car is travelling in the downward direction during slowdown towards a floor; 32

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BS 5588-5:1991

5) when the lift car is stationary at a floor other than the fire service access level, with the door closed; 6) when the lift car is stationary at a floor other than the fire service access level, with the door open; 7) when the lift car is stationary at a floor other than the fire service access level, with the door opening; 8) when the lift car is stationary at a floor other than the fire service access level, with the door closing; 9) when the lift car is stationary at the fire service access level. c) Carry out the following checks after each of the operations b) 1) to b) 9). 1) That the landing call buttons are inoperative. 2) That the firefighting lift car control station is operative. 3) That the simultaneous operation of two landing call buttons does not override the firefighting lift switch. 4) That in the case of a firefighting lift car on collective control, control has been changed to manual operation from the firefighting lift car only 5) That the attendant’s changeover switch has been overriden. 6) That the firefighting lift switch overrides any emergency switch fitted within the lift car which is available for use by passengers. 7) That, where an attendant’s control is provided, the car will not respond to the car control station when operated in conjunction with that control during the period when the lift is descending to ground floor level on operation of the firefighting lift switch. 8) That any immobilizing switch which may be fitted (such as an immobilizing switch provided for the use of a resident caretaker) has been overriden. 9) That any lift car cut-out switch which is fitted (such a switch may be provided for security purposes or for the use of the commissionaire or caretaker, and is usually situated at ground floor level) has been overriden. 10) That the motor generator set of the firefighting lift, if fitted, restarts within 30 s of operation of the firefighting lift switch. 11) That the inspection control and stop switch on the car top, and the stop switches in the pit, the machine room and the pulley room, are not overriden. d) Carry out the following checks after operation b) 9). 1) That constant pressure on one of the car call controls causes the lift to travel to, and stop with the doors remaining closed at, the selected landing. 2) That the doors open only if continuous pressure is applied to the “door open” control, and that if this control is released before the doors have fully opened they automatically reclose. 3) That, once fully open, the doors remain open until a new call is registered on the car control system. NOTE

In normal service the lift doors automatically reclose after a specific period.

4) That it is possible to register further calls from within the car if it is in motion. 5) That the lift stops at the nearest landing in its current direction of travel for which a call is registered, and all remaining registered calls are then cancelled. 6) That it is possible to register a call to each storey served by the firefighting lift. C.2 To ensure that the lift control system is not susceptible to electromagnetic interference from fire service radio transmissions, the following test should be carried out. Transmitters with a power output of 2 W operating in the 457 MHz and 462 MHz bands should be used to produce an electromagnetic field. NOTE Unless the test is carried out in a shielded room, a Test and Development licence5) is needed (under the Wireless Telegraphy Act), and there needs to be liaison with the fire service to prevent any disruption of fire service operations.

The transmitter should be placed 0.5 m from any lift control panel in the machine room or any lift landing call station.

5)

Test and Development licences may be obtained by application to the Department of Trade and Industry, Radiocommunications Agency, Room 712, Waterloo Bridge House, Waterloo Road, London SE1 8UA.

© BSI 05-1999

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Apply each of the following electromagnetic fields: a) continuous, horizontally polarized; b) randomly keyed on and off, horizontally polarized; c) continuous, vertically polarized; d) randomly keyed on and off, vertically polarized during each of the following tests. 1) Operate the firefighting lift switch when the lift car is travelling in the downward direction at the rated speed. 2) Operate the firefighting lift switch when the lift car is stationary at a floor other than the fire service access level, with the door opening. Carry out each of the following checks for both tests and for each of the fields a) to d). i) That in the case of a lift car on collective control, the operation of the firefighting lift switch changes the control to manual operation from the firefighting lift car only. ii) That the operation of the lift car control station is unaffected. C.3 To ensure that the lift control system responds correctly when there is a changeover from the primary to the secondary power supply, operate the firefighting lift switch and, after the lift has returned to fire service access level and is moving towards the topmost storey, simulate a failure of the primary power supply. After verifying that all calls registered prior to the changeover of supply are cancelled, restart the lift by operating (any) one of the car controls, and a) ensure that the car indicators in the lift car and at fire service access level are correctly reset within 10 s of the restart signal and without the lift car travelling more than one storey with any travel towards fire service access level; b) carry out the tests and checks described in C.1. With the firefighting lift under firefighting control and stopped at a landing, simulate failure of the primary power supply: 1) when the doors are opening; 2) when the doors are open; 3) when the doors are closing; 4) when the doors are closed. Verify that, unless both the lift car and lift landing doors are fully closed, they open on re-establishment of the power supply.

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Appendix D Model certificate for the commissioning of firefighting lifts

Š BSI 05-1999

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Publication(s) referred to BS 476, Fire tests on building materials and structures. BS 476-4, Non-combustibility test for materials. BS 476-6, Method of test for fire propagation for products. BS 476-7, Method for classification of the surface spread of flame of products. BS 476-8, Test methods and criteria for the fire resistance of elements of building construction. BS 476-11, Method for assessing the heat emission from building materials. BS 476-20, Method for determination of the fire resistance of elements of construction (general principles). BS 476-21, Methods for determination of the fire resistance of loadbearing elements of construction. BS 476-22, Methods for determination of the fire resistance of non-loadbearing elements of construction. BS 476-23, Methods for determination of the contribution of components to the fire resistance of a structure. BS 476-31, Methods for measuring smoke penetration through doorsets and shutter assemblies. BS 476-31.1, Method of measurement under ambient temperature conditions. BS 2655, Specification for lifts, escalators, passenger conveyors and paternosters6). BS 4790, Method for determination of the effects of a small source of ignition on textile floor coverings (hot metal nut method). BS 5234, Partitions (including matching linings). BS 5234-2, Specification for performance requirements for strength and robustness including methods of test7). BS 5266, Emergency lighting. BS 5266-1, Code of practice for the emergency lighting of premises other than cinemas and certain other specified premises used for entertainment. BS 5306, Fire extinguishing installations and equipment on premises. BS 5306-1, Hydrant systems, hose reels and foam inlets. BS 5306-2, Specification for sprinkler systems. BS 5395, Stairs, ladders and walkways. BS 5395-1, Code of practice for the design of straight stairs. BS 5490, Specification for classification of degrees of protection provided by enclosures. BS 5499, Fire safety signs, notices and graphic symbols. BS 5499-1, Specification for fire safety signs. BS 5588, Fire precautions in the design, construction and use of buildings. BS 5588-0, Guide to fire safety codes of practice for particular premises/applications8). BS 5588-1, Code of practice for residential buildings. BS 5588-4, Code of practice for smoke control using pressure differentials. BS 5588-6, Code of practice for places of assembly8). BS 5588-7, Code of practice for the incorporation of atria in buildings8). BS 5588-8, Code of practice for means of escape for disabled people. BS 5588-9, Code of practice for ventilation and air conditioning ductwork. BS 5588-10, Code of practice for shopping complexes8). BS 5588-11, Code of practice for shops, offices, industrial, storage and other similar buildings8). BS 5655, Lifts and service lifts. BS 5655-1, Safety rules for the construction and installation of electric lifts. BS 5655-2, Safety rules for the construction and installation of hydraulic lifts. BS 5655-5, Specification for dimensions of standard lift arrangements.

6)

Obsolescent.

7)

In preparation

8)

Referred to in the foreword only.

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BS 5655-10, Specification for the testing and inspection of electric and hydraulic lifts. BS 5839, Fire detection and alarm systems for buildings. BS 5839-3, Specification for automatic release mechanisms for certain fire protection equipment. BS 6263, Care and maintenance of floor surfaces. BS 6263-2, Code of practice for resilient sheet and tile flooring. BS 6387, Specification for performance requirements for cables required to maintain circuit integrity under fire conditions. BS 7671, Requirements for electrical installations. IEE Wiring Regulations. Sixteenth edition. BS 8214, Code of practice for fire door assemblies with non-metallic leaves. BS 8313, Code of practice for accommodation of building services in ducts. CP 3, Code of basic data for the design of buildings. CP 3, Chapter V Loading. CP 3-2, Wind loads. DD 197, Recommendations for vandal resistant lifts. PD 6512, Use of elements of structural fire protection with particular reference to the recommendations given in BS 5588 “Fire precautions in the design and construction of buildings”. PD 6512-3, Guide to the fire performance of glass. PD 6520, Guide to fire test methods for building materials and elements of construction. Other publications Wind Loading Handbook, C. W. Newberry and K. H. Eaton, HMSO, 1974. Code of practice for hardware essential to the optimum performance of fire-resisting timber doorsets, Association of Builders’ Hardware Manufacturers, 1983. IEE Wiring Regulations, Regulations for electrical installations, Institution of Electrical Engineers.

© BSI 05-1999


BS 5588-5: 1991

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Bs 5588 5 1991 fire precautions in the design and constructi