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See encyclopedia photos — Minimoog The Minimoog is a monophonic analog synthesizer, invented by Bill Hemsath and Robert Moog. It was released in 1970 by R.A. Moog Inc. (Moog Music after 1972), and production was stopped in 1981. It was re-designed by Robert Moog in 2002 and released as Minimoog Voyager. The Minimoog was designed in response to the use of synthesizers in rock and pop music. Large modular synthesizers were expensive, cumbersome, and delicate, and not ideal for live performance; the Minimoog was designed to include the most important parts of a modular synthesizer in a compact package, without the need for patch cords. It later surpassed this original purpose, however, and became a distinctive and popular instrument in its own right. It remains in demand today, nearly four decades after its introduction, for its intuitive design and powerful bass and lead sounds. See encyclopedia photos — Robert Moog Robert Arthur "Bob" Moog (/ˈmoʊɡ/ MOHG; May 23, 1934 – August 21, 2005), founder of Moog Music, was an American pioneer of electronic music, best known as the inventor of the Moog synthesizer.

Moog's innovative electronic design is employed in numerous synthesizers including the Minimoog Model D, Minimoog Voyager, Little Phatty, Moog Taurus Bass Pedals, Moog Minitaur, and the Moogerfooger line of effects pedals.

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RMI Harmonic Synthesizer

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Product : Harmonic Synthesizer Manufacturer : RMI Release date : 1974-1976 Country : USA

Some features : 48 keys monophonic stereo synthesizer. Two digital harmonic generators (16 harmonics). Five presets (Clarinet,Flute,Pulse,Horn,Reed). LFO (Saw/Sin/Rect). AM and FM capability. "Sequencer" (arpegiator with random mode available). Filter input. Pedal controller. Independant audio chanels of each two generators.

RMI Harmonic Synthesizer : http://www.jarrography

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ARP Quadra Repairing an ARP Quadra

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See encyclopedia photos — ARP Quadra Introduced in 1979 the 61 key ARP Quadra is an analog musical synthesizer that was produced by ARP Instruments, Inc. from 1978 to 1981 in a failed attempt to catch up to the "lead" taken by Sequential Circuits Prophet 5 with its fully programmable memory. Moog made a similar attempt with the Polymoog. The machine combined pre-existing products: the Omni, Odyssey, a Solinaesque string unit, a phase shifter and a divide-down organ with ADSR, and a 4075 24 db low pass filter into one box. It has four sections. Bass is on the bottom two octaves, has two unison bass circuits (electric and string), with AR and a single pole low pass filter and a related AD envelope for cutoff. A string section is similar to the ARP Omni. Poly Synth, and a two voice Lead Synth similar to the Odyssey and a five way mixer with four unit outputs, a stereo pair, a line mono and an XLR out. There are 16 memory locations, but these do not provide storage of slider settings. The 8048 microcomputer and 128k of CMOS SRAM memory recalls 16 stored sets of on/off decisions about which waveforms and modulations are turned on in each of the four sections, and lead intervals. Using LEDs the player is visually directed to the sliders critical to the sound selected but their settings are not updated. This necessary tweaking and fine tuning is the weakness of the Quadra. Like the Moog Polymoog keyboard, the Quadra was not a truly polyphonic. It used divided-down circuits for the Omni-style string section, including ADSR, LFO, filter and VCAs for the Polyphonic Synth section. Both Polyphonic Synth and string sections share the hollow wave button which changes waveforms for both sections. It has a simple and useful arpeggiator for the lead section and memorizes intervals between the two lead VCOs. Vibrato, LFO and a fast square wave trill can be added to the arpeggiation. Very unusual is the two independent portamento rates for each VCO, whether locked together or in interval mode. This is useful in either multiple or single trigger mode.

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Moog Voyager

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See encyclopedia photos — Theremin The theremin /ˈθɛrəmɪn/, originally known as the ætherphone/etherphone, thereminophone or termenvox/thereminvox is an early electronic musical instrument controlled without discernible physical contact from the player. It is named after its Russian inventor, Professor Léon Theremin, who patented the device in 1928. The controlling section usually consists of two metal antennas which sense the position of the player's hands and control oscillators for frequency with one hand, and amplitude (volume) with the other, so it can be played without being touched. The electric signals from the theremin are amplified and sent to a loudspeaker.

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Product : Digisequencer Manufacturer : GEISS Release date : 1992-1992 Country : France

Some features: Programming system real-time graphical and tactile MIDI sequences. Resolution 1536th round. Sixteen patterns of eight tracks, playable simultaneously. Polyphonic or monophonic tracks. Octave -2 to +2, adjustable MIDI channel for each track. Quantification of the grid round, white, black, double, triple, triplet white, note, double, triple. Each track to its own mode of transposition. Real mode and relative mode. Delay -99 to +99 milliseconds. Visualization of the sequence in real time. Real Time MIDI sync. Start, Stop, Continue.


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Memory Moog

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See encyclopedia photos — Memorymoog

The Memorymoog is a polyphonic electronic music synthesizer manufactured by Moog Music from 1981–83, the last polyphonic synthesizer to be released by Moog Music before the company was sold to management and renamed Moog Electronics.

While comparable to other polyphonic synthesizers of the time period, such as the Sequential Circuits Prophet-5 and Oberheim OB-X, the Memorymoog distinguished itself with 3 audio oscillators per voice and greater preset storage capacity.

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ARP 2600

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See encyclopedia photos — ARP 2600 The ARP 2600 is a semi-modular analog subtractiveaudio synthesizer , designed by Alan R. Pearlman with Dennis Colin, and manufactured by his company, ARP Instruments, Inc. as the follow-on version of the ARP 2500. Unlike other modular systems of the time, which required modules to be purchased individually and wired by the user, the 2600 was semi-modular with a fixed selection of basic synthesizer components internally pre-wired. The 2600 was thus ideal for musicians new to synthesis, due to its ability to be operated either with or without patch cords, and was, upon its initial release, heavily marketed to high schools, universities, and other educational facilities. Three basic versions of the ARP 2600 were built during ARP's lifetime. The first, dubbed the "Blue Marvin", housed in a light blue/grey metal case, was assembled in a small facility on Kenneth Street in Newton Highlands, Massachusetts, during ARP's infancy as a company. They were often mistakenly referred to as "Blue Meanies," but "Marvin" is the correct name as named after ARP's then-CEO Marvin Cohen. Later ARP 2600s were built in a vinyl covered wood case and contained an imitation of Robert Moog 's famous 4-pole "ladder" VCF, later the subject of an infamous, threatened (though ultimately nonexistent) lawsuit. Finally, in order to fit in with the black/orange theme of ARP's other synthesizers, the ARP 2600s were manufactured with orange labels over a black aluminum panel. The mid-production grey 2600 models featured many changes amongst themselves. Changes in circuitry and panel lettering provided at least three different grey panel models.

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See encyclopedia photos — Yamaha CS-80

The Yamaha CS-80 is a polyphonic analog synthesizer released in 1976. It supports true 8-voice polyphony (with two independent synthesizer layers per voice) as well as a primitive (sound) settings memory based on a bank of micropotentiometers (rather than the digital programmable presets the Prophet-5 would sport soon after), and exceptionally complete performer expression features, such as a splittable keyboard that was both velocity-sensitive (like a piano's) and pressure-sensitive ("after-touch") but unlike most modern keyboards the aftertouch could be applied to individual voices rather than in common, and a ribbon controller allowing for polyphonic pitch-bends and glissandos. This can be heard on the Blade Runner soundtrack by Vangelis, in which virtually all the sounds are created from the CS-80. The CS-80 is known as being one of the heaviest self-contained analog synthesizers, weighing over 200 lb (91 kg). This vast instrument is notoriously tricky to service, as there are fewer and fewer engineers capable of CS-80 upkeep. One of the most notable issues is the tuning; if moved with anything but care or if stored in a room where the temperature isn't carefully set and monitored, the keyboard will detune. For this reason they should be serviced at

their usual location or at a reputable shop. These days the CS-80 is mostly owned by studios and collectors who wish to preserve this unique machine. The current price on the market for a mint Yamaha CS-80 is around 4,000 to 15000 GBP (6,700 to 25,000USD) with retrofitted MIDI versions costing even more.

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ARP Odyssey

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See encyclopedia photos — ARP Odyssey

The ARP Odyssey was an analog synthesizer introduced in 1972. Responding to pressure from Moog Music to create a portable, affordable (the Minimoog was US$1,495 upon release) "performance" synthesizer, ARP scaled down its popular 2600 synthesizer and created the Odyssey, which became the best-selling synthesizer they made. The Odyssey is a two-oscillator analog synth, and was one of the first synthesizers with duophonic capabilities (the ability to play two notes at the same time). One potential appeal of the Odyssey is the fact that all parameters, including a resonant low-pass filter, a non-resonant high-pass filter, ADSR and AR envelopes, triangle (not sine) and square wave LFO, and a sample-and-hold function are editable with sliders and buttons on the front panel. There were many versions of the Odyssey over the years.

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Roland Jupiter-8

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See encyclopedia photos — Roland Jupiter-8

The Jupiter-8, or JP-8, is an eight-voice polyphonic analog subtractive synthesizer introduced by Roland Corporation in early 1981. The Jupiter-8 was Roland's flagship synthesizer for the first half of the 1980s. Although it lacked the soon-to-be standard of MIDI control, later model Jupiter-8s did include Roland's proprietary DCB interface, and all of them sported advanced features such as "Four on Four" and the ability to split the keyboard into two zones, with a separate patch active on each zone.

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See encyclopedia photos — VCS 3

The VCS 3 (or VCS3; an initialism for Voltage Controlled Studio with 3 oscillators) is a portable analog synthesizer with a flexible semi-modular voice architecture, by Electronic Music Studios (London) Limited (EMS) in 1969. Note this product was called with various names, by EMS. For example, the printed logo written to the front left of products are: “VCS 3” on the earlier version, “The Synthi (VCS 3) II” or “The Putney (VCS 3) II” on the later version (Synthi VCS 3 II). (See details on below photographs)

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SmallStone Phaser

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Product : Small Stone (Mk1) Manufacturer : ELECTRO-HARMONIX Release date : 1975 Country : USA

Albums which use ELECTRO-HARMONIX Small Stone (Mk1) : • Oxygene Oxygene Part 1 Oxygene Part 2 Oxygene Part 3 Oxygene Part 4 Oxygene Part 5 Oxygene Part 6


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Prophet 5

See encyclopedia photos — Sequential Circuits Prophet-5 The Prophet-5 is an analog synthesizer that was manufactured by Sequential Circuits in San Jose, California between 1978 and 1984. Introduced at the Winter NAMM show in January 1978, the Prophet-5 was groundbreaking in that it was one of the first analog synthesizers to implement patch memory, a feature which stored user settings of every parameter on the synthesizer into internal memory. It is also one of the first polyphonic synthesizers, with a maximum polyphony of 5 voices, meaning that up to 5 notes can sound at the same time. Like the Minimoog, the pitch wheel was not spring-loaded, but had a detent mechanism which clicked every time it was centered. The Prophet-5 was also known for its modulation capabilities. The "Poly-Mod" feature routed the output of the filter envelope generator and the second oscillator in each voice through two mixer knobs, which could then be connected to the pulse width and pitch controls on the first oscillator, to the filter cutoff frequency control, or all three at the same time. Since the second VCO was not limited to being an LFO, this allowed the Prophet-5 to generate 2-operator FM synthesis and ring modulator-style effects, as well as complex sweeping sounds. Three revisions were produced, the first two (commonly referred to as Rev 1 and Rev 2) using oscillators manufactured by Solid State Music (SSM), and the last one (Revision 3) using Curtis CEM chips from Curtis Electromusic Specialties. The total number of production including all revisions was nearly 6,000 units.

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Moog Liberation

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See encyclopedia photos — Moog Liberation

The Moog Liberation was the first commercially produced keytar synthesizer released in 1980 by Moog Music. The instrument is comparable to the Moog Concertmate MG-1 and the Moog Rogue but it is most closely related to the Moog Prodigy; however, as a keytar the Liberation was designed to be played in the same posture as one would play a guitar. The Liberation featured two monophonic voltage-controlled oscillators and a polyphonic section that could play organ sounds. Both oscillators could be set to triangle, sawtooth, or square waveforms and switched over a 3-octave range. The keyboard was aftertouch-sensitive and on its neck featured spring-loaded wheels for filter cutoff, modulation, and volume as well as a ribbon-controlled pitch bend. The Liberation had a single voltage-controlled filter and 2 ADS envelope generators. A 40-foot cable connected the Liberation to its rackmounted half which housed the power supply and CV/Gate output sockets.

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Product : Mini Pops 7 Manufacturer : KORG Release date : 1966-1977 Country : Japan

Some features : 20 rhythms / 15 percussion sounds. Accessories : Footswitch / Connecting Cord.

Rhythms : Waltz, Jazz Waltz, Rock 1, Rock 2, Rock 3, Rock 4, Samba, Baion, Mambo, Cha-cha, 2/4 March, 6/8 March, Rumba, Bequine, Swing, Latin Swing, Tango, Habanera, Bossanova, Slow Rock.

Albums which use KORG Mini Pops 7 : • Oxygene > Oxygene Part 2 > Oxygene Part 4 Sound demo > Oxygene Part 6 • Equinoxe > Equinoxe Part 5 Sound demo • The concerts in China Goodies : Oxygene 4 and 6 like rythmics (made by Houston)


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See encyclopedia photos — EMS Synthi A

The EMS Synthi A is a portable analog synthesizer (electronic musical instrument) made by Electronic Music Studios (London) Ltd (EMS) in 1971. It uses exactly the same electronics as the VCS 3, rehoused in a Spartanite briefcase. Instead of routing signals using patch cables, as a Moog did, it uses a patch matrix with resistive pins. The 2700 ohm resistors soldered inside the pin vary in tolerance 5% variance and later 1%; the pins have different colours: the 'red' pins have 1% tolerance and the 'white' have 5% while the 'green' pins are attenuating pins having a resistance of 68,000 ohms. The later Synthi AKS incorporated an early digital 256 event KS (Keyboard Sequencer) sequencer in the lid, input provided by a capacitance sensitive Buchla like keyboard . Perhaps its most prominent use is in Pink Floyd's "On the Run" from their 1973 album The Dark Side of the Moon. Along with Klaus Schulze and Tangerine Dream, other frequent users of the instrument include Richard Pinhas of Heldon, Merzbow and Alva Noto.

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Product : 310 U Manufacturer : EMINENT Release date : 1970-1984 Country : Holland

Albums which use EMINENT 310 U :

• Oxygene > Oxygene Part 1 > Oxygene Part 3 > Oxygene Part 4 > Oxygene Part 5 Leads (played by Per Kristian) > Oxygene Part 6 • Equinoxe > Equinoxe Part 1 Intro > Equinoxe Part 2 Eminent through Small Stone > Equinoxe Part 3 > Equinoxe Part 4 Chorus > Equinoxe Part 5 > Equinoxe Part 7

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• Magnetic fields > Les Chants Magnétiques / Magnetic Fields Part 4 • The concerts in China > Equinoxe Part 4 > Equinoxe Part 7 > Les Chants Magnétiques / Magnetic Fields Part 4 > Harpe Laser / Laser Harp > La Dernière Rumba / The Last Rumba > Souvenir de Chine / Souvenir of China • Zoolook > Ethnicolor > Diva Sound demo • Rendez-vous > Second Rendez-vous / Second Rendez-vous > Quatrième Rendez-vous / Fourth Rendez-vous > Dernier Rendez-vous / Last Rendez-vous (Ron's piece) • Houston/Lyon • Chronologie > Chronologie Part 1 • Oxygene 7-13 > Oxygene 7 > Oxygene 8 Solina through Small Stone (by Johan Schurer) > Oxygene 9 > Oxygene 13 • Geometry of Love > Electric Flesh

Source: jarrography

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Korg Polyphonic Synthesizer

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See encyclopedia — Korg Polyphonic Synthesizer

The Korg PS-3300 is one of the biggest and rarest synthesizers ever made. Only around 50 units were produced by Korg over a 4-year period from 1977 to 1981 after it was discontinued Which. The high production costs of this very complex instrument gave it a price tag that was out of reach for anyone but the wealthiest musicians of the day. It is a much coveted by professional synthesizer musicians and collectors alike as it has a big and unique sound Which has been described as an orchestra of synthesizers. It has near mythical status attained due to its rarity and the fact That it was adoptet and revered by many of the artists were the synthesizer that pioneers, dry as Vangelis, Jean-Michel Jarre, Kraftwerk, Klaus Schulze and Keith Emerson. Even Bob Moog was so impressed with the PS-3300 that after he was given a demonstration of it he is quoted as saying that it was "the best for fat synthesizer sounds." At its release back in 1977, along with the smaller PS-3100, it was a landmark in many respects synthesizer. It was the worlds first fully fledged polyphonic synthesizer where all 48 keys could be played at once and articulated Independently of each other. Still to this day, the family of Korg synthesizers PS (PS-3100, PS-3200, PS-3300) remains the only fully polyphonic analog synthesizers semi-modular in Existence.

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ARP 2500

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See encyclopedia photos — ARP 2500

The ARP 2500, built from 1970–81, was ARP's first product. It was a monophonic analog modular synthesizer equipped with a set of sliding matrix switches above each module. These were the primary method of interconnecting modules. There were also rows of 1/8" miniphone jacks at the end of each row of matrix switches, to interconnect rows of switches. The main 2500 cabinet could hold 12 modules, and optional wing cabinets could each hold 6. The matrix switch interconnection scheme allowed any module's output to connect to any other module's input, unlike the patch cords of competitive units from Moog and Buchla which could obscure control knobs and associated markings, but it had the disadvantage of greater cross-talk. Although the 2500 proved to be a reliable and userfriendly machine, it was not commercially successful, selling approximately 100 units. A collection of the 2500s most popular modules was packaged into a single, nonmodular unit as the ARP 2600, leaving out the matrix switching and more esoteric functions. The 2500s most notable usage was in the motion picture Close Encounters of the Third Kind to communicate with aliens The ARP technician sent to install the unit, Phil Dodds, was cast as the musician. The unit featured in the film consisted of a fully loaded main unit, two fully loaded wing cabinets and dual keyboards in a custom case.

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See encyclopedia photos — Mellotron

The Mellotron is an electro-mechanical, polyphonic tape replay keyboard originally developed and built in Birmingham, England, in the early 1960s. It superseded the Chamberlin, which was the world's first sample-playback keyboard Intended for music. The concept of the Chamberlin was itself modeled after the Laff Box invented by engineer Charlie Douglass in order to insert prerecorded laughs into TV and radio programs more easily in the then-developing field of post-production.

The heart of the instrument is a bank of parallel linear magnetic audio tape strips. Playback heads underneath each key enable the playing of pre-recorded sounds. Each of the tape strips has a playing time of approximately eight seconds, after Which the tape comes to a dead stop and rewinds to the start position. A major advantage of using tape strips, as opposed to tape loops or cassettes (compare to the Birotron) Is That the Mellotron can Reproduce the "attack" transient of the instruments recorded on the tape. A drawback is the short "decay" time of the note.

A Consequence of the eight second limit on the duration of each note Is That if one wants to play chords That last longer than eight seconds, one must release different notes in sequence in a Process That has been Compared to a spider crawling across the keyboard.

The MKI, MKII, and MKV models contained two side-by-side keyboards: The right keyboard accessed 18 "lead / instrument" sounds dry as strings, flutes, and brass, the left keyboard played pre-recorded musical rhythm tracks in various styles .

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Moog Modular

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See encyclopedia — Moog Modular

Moog modular synthesizer refers to any of a number of monophonic analog modular synthesizersdesigned by the late electronic instrument pioneer Dr. Robert Moogand manufactured by R.A. Moog Co. (Moog Music after 1972) from 1965–80. In 1964, Robert Moog created one of the first modular voltagecontrolled music synthesizers, and demonstrated it at the AES convention That year. Moog employed his theremin company to manufacture and market his synthesizers Which, unlike the synthesizers created by Don Buchla (the other prominent figure in the early history of the synthesizer), featured a piano-style keyboard as a significant portion of the user interface. Moog also Established standards for analog synthesizer control interfacing, with a logarithmic one volt-per-octave pitch control and a separate pulse triggering signal.

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Copenhagen 2008

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Aarhus, Denmark

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Kosice 2008

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On the stage

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Jean-Michel Jarre’s 10 Favorite Synths

The Red Bull Music Academy has published an really interesting interview with synthesist Jean Michel Jarre, in which he shares his 10 favorite synths.

We’ve included quotes from Jarre on his favorites, but he goes into more detail about each of the synths in the interview. Jarre will featured at a Red Bull Music Academy session May 16, 2012. See the Red Bull site for details.

“Today, same as a piano or a saxophone, an ARP remains a classic instrument, and one that we’ll still be using in two centuries time,” notes Jarre. “After having weighed up the advantages of the virtual, today we’re realising that we’re made of flesh and blood…..and we have an absolute need for an emotional and tactile relationship with our instruments.”

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E.M.S VCS 3 (1969)

“My first synth, Europe’s answer to the American Moog: a Mini versus a Cadillac. Post-war technology had led us to an European electronic sound which was very different to the American sound.”

ARP 2600 (1971)

“ARPs are like the Stradivarius or the Steinways of electronic music. They were invented by craftsmen who, today, we’d place on the same level as the luthiers that built violins, clavichords, pianos – all of the acoustic instruments.”

ARP 2500 (1969)

“This is the big brother of the ARP 2600, created to compete with the modular Moog”.

Fairlight CMI (1979)

“The Fairlight is an instrument which immediately struck me as extraordinary when it first appeared on the market, because it brought to mind the way that I approached electroacoustic music when I started out – that’s to say with two decks, some scissors and some cellotape. The limits of this machine awarded it an extraordinary poetry.”

Roland JD-800 (1991)

“With the JD-800, you could modify the sound, as you can on an ARP or a Moog, but with a Japanese sound quality, which in some respects, is more refined.”

Memory Moog (1982)

“With the Memorymoog, and other synths that came out around the same time, in one fell swoop, we could make complete chords, and that changed everything. For better and for worse. As a result, we ceased to compose electronic music the classic way, as Wendy Carlos did. “

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RMI Keyboard Computer (1974)

“It created a very different sound to anything else that could be heard at the time, precisely because the digital edge added a certain coolness. This synth was to music what the film Tron was to cinema at the time.”

Eminent 310 (1970)

“This synth defines my sound, from Les Mots Bleus by Christophe and the songs of Patrick Juvet, right up to Oxygène and Equinoxe, where I used it heavily. To this day, I still use it frequently.”

Teenage Engineering OP-1 (2011)

“It’s been a long time since I’ve seen something as interesting, flexible and creative as this. And importantly, its inventors have reintroduced a notion which had been desperately lacking: humour.”

Mellotron (1963)

“This is another mythical instrument from the electroacoustic scene, since it was one of the first samplers well ahead of the Fairlight. It’s the sound of the 40s adapted for the music of the 60s.”

Via Synthtopia and Mark Louis.

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All photos by Thomas Alsina

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Jean-Michel Jarre’s Instruments  

“Today, same as a piano or a saxophone, an ARP remains a classic instrument, and one that we’ll still be using in two centuries time,” notes...

Jean-Michel Jarre’s Instruments  

“Today, same as a piano or a saxophone, an ARP remains a classic instrument, and one that we’ll still be using in two centuries time,” notes...