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Interactive Architecture and Generative Systems

ABSTRACT This dissertation aims to study the relatively new field of Interactive Architecture and Generative Systems and answer the questions of what they are along with what their future is in mainstream architecture. With the exponential advancement of technology and media we stand at a juncture wherein the boundaries between architecture and technology are diminishing. The need has thus arisen to integrate them seamlessly. Interactive Architecture is the result of this amalgamation. Interactive Architecture refers to architecture which through computational technology can understand its occupants or users in varying degrees and can thereby provide appropriate responses immediately. Generative Systems refers to a set of systems which follow an evolutionary design approach and form the backbone of Interactive Architecture. These systems constitute the programming part which is in direct control of the designer/architect. Initially three categories of architecture type are identified which include prescribed, responsive and interactive. The study is then presented in two parts wherein Interactive Architecture and Generative Systems are discussed in detail. After briefly studying the historical background of Interactive Architecture, the social and psychological implications have been identified such as Behavior awareness, sense of place, control of space, architectural awareness, lifestyle pattern change etc. The in-depth study of the real-time applications of Interactive architecture however brought to light the various obstacles which hinder the development of interactive environments and have impeded its acceptance into mainstream architecture. Some of which include lack of economic feasibility, low availability of appropriate technology and lack of social acceptance. In the subsequent chapter Generative Systems types are discussed. Models are identified that create Interactive spaces such as Bottom-up model and open-system Model. Within Generative systems various sub systems like rule based, self-organizational and computational geometry are stated. The dissertation further

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moves to explain Swarm Intelligence, Cellular Automata and Interactive Genetic Algorithms in order to create Interactive Spaces. Having an Idea of the field and the algorithms forming it, several secondary case studies are selected which are examples of Interactive Architecture. An analysis presents and compares these samples with each other on the basis of its social implications, agency, interaction levels, Generative Systems employed and type of experiences generated. Through these comparisons conclusion on the design strategies and success of such architecture is drawn. Interviews of architects involved in this field aim to further this conclusion by assessing the success of Interactive Architecture as a field. The Conclusion states that despite Interactive Architecture having a Utopian theoretical approach it still hasn’t been able to achieve a foothold in mainstream architecture. The scale of Interactive Architecture remains to be limited to Installations and academia and the future of this field is not very clear. Though architects believe that the collaboration of media and technology with architecture is inevitable the role and scale of architectural involvement remains undecided.

Keywords Interactive Architecture, Generative Systems, Bottom-up model, Swarm Intelligence, Cellular Automata, Interactive Genetic Algorithm

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Interactive Architecture and Generative Systems

DECLARATION

The research work embodied in this dissertation titled Interactive Architecture and Generative Systems has been carried out by the undersigned as part of the undergraduate Dissertation programme in the Department of Architecture, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi, under the supervision of Abhishek Sorampuri (name of guide). The undersigned hereby declares that this is his/her original work and has not been plagiarised in part or full form from any source.

Name of student: Vipanchi Handa Roll No.A/2549/2013 Date 11-11-2016

(Signature of student)

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(Signature of guide)

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Interactive Architecture and Generative Systems

Acknowledgment

I take this opportunity to thank everyone who has played any role in the completion of my dissertation. I am deeply grateful to by dissertation guide Mr. Abhishek Sorampuri for his constant motivation and guidance throughout my research.I am also thankful to my Coordinator Mr. Shuvojit Sarkar for his encouragement and support. I would like to express my gratitude to Dr.(Mrs.) Ranjana Mital for her generous guidance at the initial stages of my dissertation which helped me take the study forward. I would like to thank Ar.Vami Koticha for taking time out of her busy schedule to help answer my queries. I would also like to express my gratitude to the Architecture Block Library at School of Planning and Architecture,Delhi for the helpful attitude of the Librarian(s) without which a lot of my research would not have been possible(found). Lastly and most importantly I can never thank my parents enough for providing me constant mentoring and being my constant source of motivation.I would specially like to appreciate the efforts of my mother Mrs. Amika Handa for providing me with encouragement and precious advice.

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Table of Contents

Contents

Page No. Abstract

1-2

Declaration

3

Acknowledgment

4

1.1 Introduction

10

1.2 Need Identification

11

Overview Chapter 1

1.3 Research question 1.4 Aim

12

1.5 Objective 1.6 Scope 1.7 Limitation 1.8 Research Framework and Methodology

13

Literature Review Chapter 2

2. Defining Architectural Behavior

14-19

2.1 Prescribed 2.2 Responsive 2.3 Interactive Chapter 3

3.

The anatomy of Interactive Architecture

20-34

3.1 Definition 3.2 Development-Historical Background 3.3 Sociological and Psychological Implications 3.4 The Obstacles faced in IA

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Chapter 4

4.1 Identifying the Tool

35-50

4.2 Generative Systems 4.3 Applications of Generative Design 4.4 Identifying Systems for Interactive Architecture Case Studies Chapter 5

5.

Case Studies

51-62

5.1 Analysis 5.2 Methodology 5.3 Analysis Conclusion Conclusion Chapter 6

6. Conclusion

63-66

6.1 Critique on current state 6.2 Redefining the role of an architect 6.3

Future of Interactive Architecture and Generative

System and acceptance into mainstream architectural practice Bibliography

References

67-68

Appendices

1.Interview -1

69-71

2. Interview-2

72-74

3. Interview-3

75-80

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List of Figures

Page No.

Fig 2.1 Film Guild Cinema Theater.

15

Fig 2.2 Facade of Beijing National Aquatics Center

15

Fig 2.3 Light Space Modulator

16

Fig 2.4 Facade of UN Studio Galleria

17

Fig 2.5 Sketch of the Generator Project

17

Fig 2.6 Film Guild Cinema Performance

18

Fig 2.7 Interior and facade of Enter-Active Installation

19

Fig 3.1 Symbiosis of Machine and Human

23

Fig 3.2 Cedric Price-Fun Palace

24

Fig 3.3 Types of Interactions in Cybernetic Systems

25

Fig 3.4 I-spa by Michael Fox

27

Fig 3.5 Sensacell,Leo Fernekes & Joakim Hannerz

28

Fig 3.6 Bubbles,Michael Fox and Juintow Lin

29

Fig 3.7 Hylazoic Soil,Philip Beesley

30

Fig 3.8 Moody Mushroom Floor,Usman Haque

31

Fig 3.9

32

Scents of Space,Usman Haque and Josephine Pletts

Fig 4.1 Generative Logo Design

36

Fig 4.2 Generative House Design

37

Fig 4.3 Types of Loop Systems

38

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Fig 4.4 Rules in Cellular Automata

42

Fig 4.5 Rules of 2D Game of Life

43

Fig 4.6 Rules of 3D Game of Life

43

Fig 4.7 Spatial Forms based on Game of Life

44

Fig 4.8 Birds Flocking

45

Fig 4.9 Swarm Behavior

46

Fig 4.10 Flow Diagram showing IGA processes

48

Fig 4.11 Schematic Diagram showing GA procedures

49

Fig 4.12 Growth of Surface through GA

50

Fig 5.1 Interactive Wall

51

Fig 5.2 Muscle NSA

52

Fig 5.3 Digital Pavilion

53

Fig 5.4 Visualization of Hyperloop

54

Fig 5.5 Entrance to Son-o-House

55

Fig 5.6 Interacting with Dune 4.2

56

Fig 5.7 Users walking through Volume Installation

56

Fig 5.8 Interior of the Simulation room

57

Fig 5.9 Interior of the Simulation room

58

Fig 5.10 Interior of Water Pavilion

58

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List of Tables

Page No.

Table 3.1 Comparison of conventional methods and Interactive

22

Architecture Table 5.1 Analysis Chart

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1.Overview 1.1 Introduction “Traditionally, architecture has been thought of as hardware: the static walls, roofs and floors that enclose us. An alternative approach is to think of architecture as software: the dynamic and ephemeral sounds, smells, temperatures even radio waves that surround us. One might also consider the social infrastructures that underpin our designed spaces. Pushing this analogy even further, we can think of architecture as a whole as an “operating system”, within which people create their own programmes for spatial interaction” -Usman Haque We stand at a time when exponential changes are taking place in our everyday lives.Technology and media are evolving rapidly .Knowledge in the form of curated data

is

becoming

one

of

the

most

valuable

resources

of

today.The

internet,gaming,hand-held devices, or smart robots have taken a paramount role and place in our everyday lives.By allowing technology to develop we are creating a new generation of dynamic and interactive spaces which mean different things to different people.Spaces are no more Static. This change at the same time presents a ordeal for architects and designers to embrace and engage in the design of spaces and architecture that accept these new lifestyle choices into their fabric.Architecture is presented with a dilemma wherein it needs to shed its previous approach of static existence and move onto a state of existence which is adaptable to the fast paced changes of today's world as people are becoming more voraciously hungry for personalization.The implications for architecture are obvious (Banham) . Up till now technology can populated our spaces with microwaves, air-conditioners,televisions,cable and telephone wires, , and other digital playthings.However in the close future as media and technology continue to become

more

readily

available,affordable,powerful,intuitive

and

desirable-architecture will absorb it into its fabric entirely.

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Till quite recently architecture software tools were being used for visualization and simulations as part of prototyping.But the next iteration is that of Interactive Architecture.This will give rise to architecture that will be in a constant state of flux and continue to learn and adapt in its operation. Unlike Traditional processes followed in architectural wherein the architect searches to create a perfect space through endless models that output static single forms,the spaces will now themselves learn and transform into what they should be at that moment. This new era of architecture and technology is difficult to ignore. 1.2 Need Identification The exponential advancement in technology and media has provided us with a glimpse of what the future could hold for us. As the gap betwen the real and virtual spaces diminishes, architecture continues to be viewed more than just a static outcome.Architecture has started to be seen as a dynamic entity which is capable of growth and evolution. A dialogue between the built and user now can be imagined.However are we as architects ready for this change?Our we equipped with the knowledge of what the future might hold? The need is to study and understand some of these futuristic fields of architecture such as Interactive Architecture and Generative Systems so that we can assess and anticipate the future. 1.3 Research Question What is Interactive Architecture and Generative Systems?To what extent can they be integrated into mainstream architecture?

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1.4 Aim The dissertation aims to explore Generative Design and Interactive Spaces and assess its role in the future of architecture 1.5 Objective 

To understand Interactive Spaces as an upcoming architecture typology

To gauge the advantages and problems of Interactive Architecture

To understand the success of Interactive Architecture among users

To understand Generative Design as an important tool in Computation

To gauge and assess the future possibilities of Interactive Spaces

1.6 Scope 

The scope of the dissertation is to simply provide an understanding of what Interactive Architecture and Generative Systems are.

A detailed study of the hardware/software/middleware used to construct Interactive Spaces will not be under the scope of this dissertation

Already Built examples of Interactive Architecture from around the world in the period from 1990s to current date will be considered for the study

An overview of Generative Algorithms shall be studied.No detailed computing or computer analysis will be carried out.

1.7 Limitations 

Lack of technical knowledge of computation process

The research is entirely based on secondary sources of Information.

Lack of advancement in technology to facilitate such spaces in current context

Interactive Spaces are currently still in their nascent stage of development leading to limited information

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1.8 Research Framework and Methodology Through the literature review, I have first understood the type of Experience Based Design that has come up due to integration of media and technology with Architecture. This was followed by a detailed study of Interactive Architecture and Generative Systems through secondary sources of information. The following secondary sources of information were used as no primary source of information exists as mentioned in the limitations. The sources of secondary study were as follows1. Books 2. Research papers and Dissertations 3. Blog-posts 4. Official Websites 5. Reports Chapter 3 -The aim of literature review was to define what Interactive Architecture is. The social and psychological implications were culled from the literature available regarding its real-time applications. Thirdly, the limitations of Interactive architecture were highlighted. All this was collected through secondary sources of information. Chapter 4 - Generative Systems was also studied through various secondary sources of information mentioned above especially scientific papers and dissertations. The various tools and algorithms were identified in this chapter. Chapter 5- Case Studies were also secondary as there are no primary case studies at present. Analyses were drawn from a sample of eleven secondary studies. The analysis chart is made from the secondary study done in Chapter 3 and Chapter 4. Two interviews of architects who have prior experience in the field of interactive and/or responsive architecture was taken to get their expertise and views on the future of Interactive Architecture in mainstream architecture. Chapter 6- Conclusion was then drawn from the Interviews taken, pool of Secondary case studies and their analysis. Dissertation 2016 School of Planning and Architecture,Delhi

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2. Defining Architectural Behavior With the evolution of technology previously considered static forms are now replaced with live and interactive spaces which can mean different things to everyone,hence open to interpretation. Architecture now rather than just being a backdrop for great stories to unfold it now takes the center-stage and itself becomes the storyteller.The process of creating such spaces is called Experience Design.Its main features include that the architecture gets the power to express itself in a dynamic way.Experience Design is a type of designing which integrates with it the new media technologies effortlessly.It aims to track the evolution of media and architecture or one can say architecture as media.In Experience Design we can broadly define three categories of architectural fields or behavioral types.(Segd.org, 2016) 1.Prescribed 2.Responsive 3.Interactive

2.1 Prescribed Architecture The ‘Prescribed’ can be understood by drawing a parallel with a Film. The way a story is conceived in the mind of a writer, so too, an architectural design in the prescribed format is a pre conceived combination of diverse elements which unfold over time. There are clearly defined elements of behavior which mark the process from the beginning to the end. This is entirely pre scripted and controlled. The most perfect example is the amazing Film Guild Cinema created by architect Fredrick Kiesler. Though it does not exist, but is considered as the most iconic design of a film theatre. The film screen looked like a lens which operated like the pupil of an eye. It expanded and contracted according to the space required by the image on the screen. Thus it eliminated the need of a curtain which would have otherwise done the same function. The screen was attached to a projector which was in Dissertation 2016 School of Planning and Architecture,Delhi

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synchronization with a multiple projection system that extended across the walls and ceiling. Much superior in viewing experience than the IMAX theater, this interesting model was still a totally prescribed experience as it inhibited the experience of viewing and lacked the sense of engagement. Keisler called it “the house of silence.”

Fig 2.1 Film Guild Cinema Theater Source-http://www.penccil.com/gallery.php?p=203547555804

More recent examples of prescribed environments are the Beijing National Aquatics Center where the projections are impeccably integrated into the architectural façade, or Thomas Heatherwick’s sculptural Sitooterie restaurant where at nightfall the lights get activated in a controlled manner to give the feeling of Dancing Lights. While magnificent in their design, these types of prescribed environments are the most common and simplest kind of kinetic architecture.

Fig 2.2 Facade of Beijing National Aquatics Center Source-https://segd.org/interactive-architecture

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2.2 Responsive Architecture Responsive architecture in simplest of terms refers to a space which responds to the environment around it. It engages with the information it absorbs from its general environment but people cannot actively affect or change its behavior. This passive response inhibits its direct interactivity or intelligence. László Moholy-Nagy presented his Light Space Modulator in the 1920s and Nicolas Schôffer’s 1974 Tour Lumiere Cybernetique of Paris-la-Defense- are perfect examples of this type of architecture. Both conceived of sound and light sculptures that absorbed data from their environment and translated it into kinetic performances

. Fig 2.3 Light Space Modulator Source-http://www.dailyicon.net/2009/12/ An architectural example of recent times is the façade of the UN Studio’s Galleria Department Store in Seoul. The façade is made up of shimmering LED disk constructed of 4,330 glass disks. This disk produces unique lighting effects during the day and digitally controlled LED light sources embedded within the disks emit transforming colors at night. The effect is achieved as a result of the interaction of the individual disks and the tapestry as a whole with the corresponding environment.

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Fig 2.4 Facade of UN Studio Galleria Source-https://segd.org/interactive-architecture

2.3 Interactive Architecture Interactivity basically refers to a system where both people and buildings enable the creation of interaction or conversation between the two in real time. Cedric Price’s 1976 Generator Project proposal is one of the early examples of this type.The Generator was a collection of many interchangeable parts which were integrated into a computer system.This allowed for a rapid change in the arrangements and configurations of the overall system.An added feature of the Generator was that it could propose changes for its own reorganization and hence a very intelligent machine.It was one of the first projects to use the idea of a motherboard.However this concept could not be actualized during that time, despite having embodied ideas of interactivity and an emotional connection betweensubject and object.

Fig 2.5 Sketch of the Generator Project Source-http://www.interactivearchitecture.org/the-generator-project.html Dissertation 2016 School of Planning and Architecture,Delhi

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Interactive Architecture and Generative Systems

A contemporary example is a Performance designed by ART+COM ,from the world of performing arts for the Munich Opera Festival in 2002. Real-time computer generated graphics were displayed on the LED-woven costumes of all actors based on their proximity with the protagonist.This was supported by a projection backdrop.Apart from the costumes the background,animations and other elemnts on the stage changing constantly hence,created a new interactive environment all the time. Therefore each performance was essentially different and generated innumerable unique experiences. Endless interactive conversations

were created

due to the many variables between the protagonists,the backdrop, the supporting actors,and the audience.

Fig 2.6 Film Guild Cinema Performance Source-https://segd.org/interactive-architecture

A more recent example is the EnterActive made in 2006 at the MET Lofts apartment building.In this interactive Installation a luminous field of red LED lights like a large carpet were embedded into the entry walkway at the building in Los Angeles.This LED walkway responded to the moves of the visitor and displayed interactive light patterns in response.When triggered due to the actions of the users the impact was mirrored on an eight story high grid of LED panels which were placed on the building facade

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. Fig 2.7 Interior and facade of Enter-Active Installation Source-www.electroland.net/enteractive/

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Interactive Architecture and Generative Systems

3. The Anatomy of Interactive Architecture This chapter aims to explore Interactive Architecture and understand its implications and meaning. To view this field in its entirety it is pertinent to study its applications, shortcoming and need. 3.1 Definition To understand what Interactive Architecture (IA) is, we need to first look at what each word signifies. The two words Interactive and Architecture if understood separately will help to form a better insight into the world of IA. The need to define IA is because many words/phrases are used interchangeably and it is hence important to have a clear understanding. Intelligent Buildings, Reactive Architecture, Automated Architecture, Responsive Architecture, Trans active Architecture, Smart Architecture, Architectonics, Robotecture, Kinetic Architecture, Hybrid Spaces, Soft Architecture are among the many words used interchangeably. Even though these terms re different because of their overlap they are inconsistently used.(Maia & Meyboom,2015) “The notion of Interactive architecture is being commonly oversimplified, by being used to refer to buildings and built spaces which are capable of simple responsive adaptations and spatial customizations of various kinds. [...] only consequent replacement of linear logics that guide their behaviour with an ability to reason and learn [will result] in achieving true interactivity – creation of spaces which are able to maintain a dialogue with their users, not only responding to their demands, but pro-actively engaging themselves in all kinds of featured spatial activities”.(Jaskieweicz,2008) The first and most important word is Interactive. Interactive directly translates into something that is mutually or reciprocally active.Hence, it signifies the need to have two participating agents wherein a mutual ‘talk’ or conversation is said to take place. But this still refers to a broad concept because of which we can classify all architecture as interactive. Architecture can be scaled from variances from reactive to proactive. (Waugh, Taylor, 1995) Dissertation 2016 School of Planning and Architecture,Delhi

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Interactive Architecture and Generative Systems

All buildings are thereby said to interact with its users: Wherein the space and user affect each other. In a classroom, though, the layout of furniture is flexible, each time a student changes it according to his/her own need, the space and user interact. We perceive architecture by interacting with it through our varied senses such as visual, touch, sound, taste, etc. But the term Interactive referred in this dissertation refers to a specific form of Interaction present in Architecture. Hence, for an environment to be considered Interactive it must take an active role and it must initiate, to some degree, changes as a result of simple or complex computations. (Negroponte,1975) Architecture is understood as not just the built or objects but as a transformed space through the use of objects. (Hiller,Hanson,1984) Architecture refers to a spatial organization that is present in our environment which might be representative of social or cultural organizations. Therefore to summarize what Interactive Architecture stands for we can say that it refers to architecture which through computational technology can understand its occupants or users in varying degrees and can thereby provide appropriate responses immediately.

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Table 3.1 Comparison of conventional methods and Interactive Architecture Source-Author

3.2 Development-Historical Background Discussions around IA are not new. They were born in the 1960s and since then have caught the fancy of many engineers, architects, artists and biologists. It is said that the development of Interactive Architecture took place when cybernetics was introduced in architectural thinking during the same time. Cybernetics refers to the science of communications and automatic control systems in machines. The ideas rooted in cybernetics were picked up at the time by few architects who translated and moulded them according to the arena of architecture and spaces.(Maia, 2016) This was also the time when the computational world was beginning to expand. IA was thereby influenced by production of market driven products in order to directly involve users. However it was only in 1990s that IA started becoming technologically and economically feasible. It was also at this time that Kinetics began to be examined.

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Fig 3.1 Symbiosis of Machine and Human Source-http://www.iaacblog.com/programs/symbiosis-of-architecture-and-machine

In the 1960s, Gordon Pask made great advancements toward understanding and identifying this field. He popularly claimed “architects design systems, not just buildings” (Pask, 1969). He collaborated with a number of architects and developed a “Conversion Theory” which served as a basis for IA development for that time. Pask believed that an environment should allow users to take a bottom-up role in configuring their surroundings in a malleable way without specific goals. In 1967, an architect William Brody also published a visionary article which proposed that our environments should be taught self-organizing intelligence that had the potential to become evolutionary. Nicholas Negroponte, founder of MIT Media Lab also spoke about similar idea in ‘The Architecture Machine’ although he spoke of the digital environment rather than a physical one. On expanding ideas previously devloped by Pask and Norbert Weiner, Charles Eastman in 1972 developed a model of Adaptive-Conditional Architecture. Through this Eastman proposed that architects could interpret spaces and users as complete feedback systems. This feedback system was thought to self-adjust in order to fit the need of user. However, Eastman had a very machine-led approach. Thereafter, Tristan d’Estree Sterk proposed a hybridized approach that combined the machine led with the cybernetics approach. This is seen in today’s time wherein simple automated feedback is coupled with higher level processing. Dissertation 2016 School of Planning and Architecture,Delhi

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One of the most influential name in the development of Interactive Architecture is that of Cedric Price. He developed work on ‘anticipatory architecture’. He thought of architecture as a living, evolving thing.

Fig 3.2 Cedric Price-Fun Palace Source-http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php? He proposed many projects (unbuilt) which were indeterminate, flexible and responsive. The two most popular projects include the Fun Palace in 1961 and the Generator Project in 1976-79. In the 1980s and 1990s an explosion of development began to take place in the field of computer science.Fields such as Intelligent environment(IE) were formed,thereby bringing computation into the physical world. Many projects developed as a result. Michael Mozer, in 1990s developed the ‘Adaptive Home’ which was an ‘intelligent home’ as it could predict the behavior and needs of the inhabitants by observation. A similar project developed was MIT’s Intelligent Room directed by Michael Coen in which computational smarts were embedded into everything the user could come in contact with. The goal was to allow users and computers to interact with each other. Hence, from this historical time-line it is apparent that the field of Interactive Architecture has been through various stages of development with the increase in technological advancement. However, It is still in its nascent stage wherein it lies closer to science fiction than mainstream architecture. It now appears to be gaining momentum as compared to its beginnings a few decades ago. Dissertation 2016 School of Planning and Architecture,Delhi

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3.3 Sociological and Psychological Implications An Interactive Environment can not only facilitate lifestyle changes but also has the power to influence them. With the change in lifestyle trends, architecture now needs to keep up with these ever changing activities and requirements of the users. Interactive Architecture is said to have sociological and psychological implications. This refers to social actions and interrelations of personality, values, and mind with social structure and culture. This social culture is affected by introducing an environment which not only understands but responds to each of these needs.

Fig 3.3 Types of Interactions in Cybernetic Systems Source-http://slideplayer.com/slide/3056538/

The sociological and psychological needs of a person might be addressed not only through spatial changes in an interactive space but also through other factors such as lighting, acoustics, smell and touch.(Fox and Kemp, 2009) Fold-able LCD screens, smart fabrics, thin air projection technologies and holographic projections are few of the technologies used to create these environments. It is also important to note that many of these technologies might not cause a mechanical or physical change but still influence the definition and experience of a particular space.

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Interactive Architecture is thus said to not only engage but to an extent entice, manipulate, direct and coerce the actions of a user. As IA aims to operate on an intuitive level of communication it develops the following broad implications1.

Changing Lifestyle Patterns

2.

Creating Behaviour Awareness

3.

Heightened sense of Architectural Awareness

4.

Sense of Place

5.

Control of Space

6.

Attachment to Space

7.

Sense of Sound and Sound

3.3.1 Changing Lifestyle Patterns The current lifestyle patterns are rapidly changing. There is not only a dramatic change in the workplace but also leisure activities have undergone a considerable change over the years. With computer literacy increasing greatly in the past decade along with technology being readily available our daily activities and interactions have changed considerably. The virtual world has become an important part of our lives. A change in our lifestyle patterns thereby calls for an architecture that responds to this ever changing need. Interactive Architecture can therefore meet this need. Through its constant relation of interaction between the users it can understand the needs providing an enhanced experience. For example, the current lifestyle patterns indicate a trend among people to stay at home and engage in the use of technologies such as televisions, game consoles and so on. This increases the energy usage per home. Through IA technologies that are capable of handling this flexibility in energy usage can be developed. Hence, we can have Intelligent Homes in the future.(Fox and Kemp, 2009)

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Therefore IA can be the key to solving many social and psychological problems that arise due to a more virtual based lifestyle pattern which continues to emerge. 3.3.2 Creating Behavior Awareness The ability of an architectural space to inform their users of their actions can have enormous effects on their behaviours. IA has the potential to not only shape a person’s experience but also to make the experience explicit. Though the main role of IA discussed is to adapt and learn from the user’s actions it also teaches us how to live and work more efficiently.Sustainable living, for example, is related to efficient building operations. However, many efficient buildings are not intuitive at all. This creates a big gap between what a building is supposed to do and what the user is comfortable or seems to do with it. This might happen when the strategies are often not in line with the user needs. Hence, IA is a go to solution as it can help to provide a medium for interaction between the space and user. The feedback can help to create a compromise between the building and user performance. We can learn how to operate our buildings-opening windows, doors, shading etc. but when the building responds to our actions we are confronted with new levels of awareness. Our buildings through IA are not limited to one-on-one interaction but they develop the ability to respond to or change our perspectives. (Fox and Kemp, 2009)

Fig 3.4 I-spa by Michael Fox Source-Fox, M. and Kemp, M. (2009). Interactive architecture. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Dissertation 2016 School of Planning and Architecture,Delhi

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3.3.3 Heightened sense of Architectural Awareness Interactive environments help us understand our spaces and surroundings better. Suddenly when placed in our environment which is intuitive in its response to us our experience is heightened. We feel, see, and touch better. The senses are heightened due to sudden awareness. At the core of such projects lies the fact that a dialogue is created with the users. When such a relationship is established, it leads to an understanding of not only our own actions but also others actions in that space and an awareness of the environment itself. Imagine, that there is a three dimensional space which changes its colour according to the mood and touch of the user. When in such a space, as the environment starts reacting to the user, the user himself/herself starts becoming conscious of the extents of the space and the responses of people all around. This creates a heightened sense of architectural Awareness.

Fig 3.5 Sensacell,Leo Fernekes & Joakim Hannerz Source-Fox, M. and Kemp, M. (2009). Interactive architecture. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. 3.3.4 Sense of Place When the communication is clear and the results of the interaction are clearly visible, a sense of accomplishment is established on the part of the user. Such interaction

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transcends traditional goals of operating a space and leads to the satisfaction of having a successful conversation with a space. For example, there are two people trying to have a private conversation in a crowded room. The background noise will probably make the experience of talking difficult. If architecture was able to adapt to this need and the shape of the room changed such that this need could be accommodated, the users will develop a heightened sense of place as the environment would have been able to facilitate this need. An interactive space can also function on many psychological levels from being a soothing urban retreat from the stressful urban life to an exciting social environment for someone who is alone. Let’s say for hospitals we create an interactive environment which can understand and respond to a person. It can sense the tension through ones gait or tone of voice or the heartbeat. If the environment could sense this then it could also respond to these changes appropriately thereby providing a more friendly or unthreatening and responsive space.

Fig 3.6 Bubbles,Michael Fox and Juintow Lin Source-Fox, M. and Kemp, M. (2009). Interactive architecture. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.

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3.3.5 Control of Space The ability to control and adjust a space can be reciprocal. IA can play an active role in suggesting new ways its inhabitants can use the environment. The experience can change depending on how a group of users interact. This suggests that not only the user can teach how a space can be changed or transformed physically but the space itself can suggest newer ways to be used. If in an interactive Environment it is possible to change its physical geometry then a whole new set of possibilities arise in how the space can be used in real-time. The potential of all parts is analysed and the most efficient means using this space is reached upon.

Fig 3.7 Hylazoic Soil,Philip Beesley Source-Fox, M. and Kemp, M. (2009). Interactive architecture. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. 3.3.6 Attachment to Space Interactive Architecture is built upon a sympathetic understanding and presents a break away from the traditional constructs of the built environment followed in the past. IA can be used by architects/planners and so on to understand what exactly makes a space work rather than creating spaces based on preconceived notions about what is right or wrong for the users. A space becomes interactive when it understands what the user likes or enjoys about that space .Let say a person enjoys Dissertation 2016 School of Planning and Architecture,Delhi

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sitting next to a window providing a view and sound of the ocean. However, this cannot be enjoyed at all times due to the sun angles which obstruct this view. The Interactive Space will be able to understand this and provide a solution in order to avoid such a problem. This will increase the attachment of the user with the space.

Fig 3.8 Moody Mushroom Floor,Usman Haque Source-Fox, M. and Kemp, M. (2009). Interactive architecture. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.

3.3.7 Sense of Smell and Sound Apart from Visual experiences, other senses such as that of sound and smell have the potential to create profound experiences within an environment. Usually in architecture, sound and smell have negative connotations wherein they are seen as elements that need to be blocked and cause negative impacts on the overall space. However, If seen from a positive view point, replicating pleasant sounds/smells can add to not just the overall interactivity of a space but also create a sense of emotional connect. Sound and smell can add a layer of connect to the space that probably vision itself cannot accomplish. Sound and smell in an Interactive Environment can be manipulated according to the need of the user. Imagine a system in an office environment where the white noise present in the office is

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translated into the sounds of birds/nature creating a positive environment. (Fox and Kemp, 2009) Similarly smell could evoke strong emotions as well. A number of projects which can translate smells from one location to another through computational means are being researched upon.

Fig 3.9

Scents of Space,Usman Haque and Josephine Pletts

Source-Fox, M. and Kemp, M. (2009). Interactive architecture. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.

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3.4 The Obstacles faced in IA Interactive Architecture being at its nascent stages of development we need to not only ask ourselves critical questions about what Interactive Architecture shall aspire to be or the implications it will have but also what it should not be. Interactive Architecture as a field is still closer to science fiction than what it is to mainstream architecture and does not show an exponential growth in its development despite being in the academia for some time now. There are many obstacles that limit IA. (Kolarevic and Parlac, 2015) 1. Lack of appropriate Hardware technologies Majority of the current building systems are inherently inflexible. This means that buildings in order to suite Interactive Architecture Technologies will have to be conceptually completely rethought. Materials that are ‘smart’ or can adapt and reconfigure themselves according to the user will have to be used. 2. Lack of Economic Feasibility Despite the availability of inexpensive and easy to use electronic components there is still a long way to go. There is a limited real world application IA has achieved over time due to lack of funding and high cost when it comes to increasing the scale of such spaces. The software and Hardware have to be conceptualized according to the space created and there is a lack of modularity which prevents it from being cost-effective. It is however, hoped that the cost of technology reduces making IA economically feasible. (Kolarevic and Parlac, 2015) 3. Presence of ‘Gimmicky’ Architecture Sometimes to create novel solutions to problems we are blinded by technologies. This makes us lose sight of the qualitative aspects of a project and do not analyse whether the problem can be effectively tackled through other low-tech solutions. Disregarding social and cultural aspects of a project we often create gimmicky architecture in which the user soon loses interest. Interactive Architecture sometimes fails to understand this and hence is limited to installations and not mainstream architecture. Dissertation 2016 School of Planning and Architecture,Delhi

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4. Maintaining a connection with the user Even though the main aim of Interactive Architecture is to create an attachment with the user to the back and forth dialogue which it aims to create. It can often struggle to maintain this very connection. This can happen when IA either becomes too indeterminable that the user is forced to override it as it produces very random results or it can become very determinate making it very boring for the user to interact with. For an Interactive space to be successful it needs to fall somewhere in between these two extremes. While maintaining a level of indeterminacy it should aim to analyse and map the responses of the user.

5. Indeterminate Future of IA There are yet fundamental questions that need to be addressed. Even though it is pointed out and expected that the next generation of architecture will be able to sense, change and transform itself (Beesley). It is still not known to what extent and measure. It is still not clear in studies of how Interactive Architecture will affect us in real time and whether we will be able to adopt it in our everyday lives. (Kolarevic and Parlac, 2015)

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4. Understanding the Process 4.1 Identifying the Tool After having explained what Interactive Architecture is, the next question that arises isHow is it created? We begin to wonder and explore what the building blocks of such architecture will be. Interactive architecture comprises of dynamic spaces and objects capable of performing a range of pragmatic and humanistic functions. These complex physical interactions are made possible by the creative fusion of embedded computation (intelligence) with a physical, tangible counterpart (kinetics). A uniquely twenty-first century toolbox and skill set—virtual and physical modeling, sensor technology, CNC fabrication, prototyping, and robotics—necessitates collaboration across many diverse scientific and art-based communities. To put it in simpler words there are two components of Interactive Architecture‘The Hardware’ and ‘The Software’. Here the hardware is basically the material or outer layer of the built. This is decided by what the architect/designer wishes to view the final product as. The software is what goes behind it. The computers, sensors, processors, effectors, form the brain of the architecture which communicates with the user and creates responses in the hardware that can be viewed by the person interacting with it. Here it is important for the architect to know about not just what happens on the surface but what goes behind the final product as well. We need to acknowledge a huge shift in the design process. At the centre of this shift lies the increasing use of computation. As architects we need to understand these computation tools and familiarize ourselves with the basic logic behind such algorithms.

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One of the algorithmic systems that have found great use not only in order to create Interactive Architecture but to solve many architectural problems today are Generative Systems.

4.2 Generative Systems Generative systems refer to a set of systems which follow an evolutionary design approach. Rather than a simple approach of responding to a context by creating a structure which meets a functional need, a generative design system explores all the possible patterns, parameters available thereby creating many permutations. (Kuhn,1996)

Fig 4.1 Generative Logo Design Source- MIT Media Lab Generative systems offer a methodology and philosophy that view the world in terms of dynamic processes and their outcomes.It offers a paradigm shift for the process of design and the expression of that process(Kuhn 1996). For designers, it means a reconsideration of the static entity and actions which change/alter it. Conceptualization shifts from the primacy of objects to envisaging interacting components, systems and processes, which in turn generate new artefacts, with special properties.

Generative systems have resulted in a process wherein the material and medium of design is algorithmic. The solution and process both are dynamic. This results in algorithms manifesting dynamic and emergent behaviour. These systems aim to shift Dissertation 2016 School of Planning and Architecture,Delhi

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the focus from static models towards a computational one. As generative systems have allowed us to establish various patterns relations, structures, processes, form as well as to model evolutionary behaviours, it has resulted in the simulation of real world phenomena.

Fig 4.2 Generative House Design Source-http://www.architectureresearchlab.com/arl/2012/08/21/housing-agency-sy stem-has/ Feedback Loop The most distinguishing feature yet an integral part that makes computational design generative are the feedback loops. These can range from simple mechanisms where the output forms the input of the next cycle, to relatively complex mechanisms consisting of design evaluation routines. This has deep roots in dynamic modelling and is by and large repetitive processes.

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Fig 4.3 Types of Loop Systems Source- Cellular Automata, L-Systems, Fractals, Chaos and Complex Systems. (2016 Generative Design follows two patterns of feedback loops 1. Evolutionary Pattern- This involves modelling, analysis and interpretation. This follows a simple mechanism where the output gets fed back into the system. 2. Self-organizational Pattern- Here the feedback loops feature between the design agents and modelled environment. This in technical terms is called ‘Stigermic (Stigmergy: stigma (sting) + ergon (work) = ‘stimulation by work’) Communication’ which basically refers to creation of complex results on the interaction of different agents with the environment. Changes in environment trigger new actions which in turn cause more changes. This is used to create highly dynamic systems of design or in this case the foundation of Interactive Architecture. Hence we can say generative design systems are capable of creating two types of models1. Static or closed System Model 2. Dynamic or Open System Model The static model is basically an example of the prescribed architecture discussed earlier. This basically refers to an isolated system whose behaviour is devoid of any input or feedback loop.(Castillo, 2012)

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On the other hand, The Dynamic model is an example of Interactive Architecture which is being studied. Here the system created is a group of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent elements forming a complex whole. (Marius Watz) Now that the model or the final product is identified for Interactive Architecture it is important to specify the approach. The approach followed in the case of the Static Model is the top-down modelling approach whereas for the dynamic systems it is the bottom-up modelling approach. Here we can define the system as a set of many agents that exist in some state, these agents when acted upon or when left to interact with each other create new results and affect the overall system.(Castillo, 2012) These agents thereby as a whole generate complex behaviours.

4.3 Applications of Generative Design To understand what generative design is, it is important to understand what it does. Generative Design as obvious from the above explanation encompasses a lot. However its main objectives can be clubbed under the following headings1. To Generate Complexity Also referred to as data-amplification this means that small and simple components are used through permutations or chain reactions to create a larger set of complex components. As in evolution, simple organisms have evolved creating more complex ones. Generative systems through chain reactions create complexity in aggregates which are more sophisticated. This means that with a simple set of parameters set by the designer the computer can generate complex and sophisticated results or solutions. 2. To Self-maintain and Self-repair “Human-designed structures are typically brittle either in a physical or functional sense� (Jon, Alan and Troy, n.d.)

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When we say that architecture is static it refers to a state wherein despite the changing environment, the architecture fails to respond and provide a solution itself. Outside agents have to either add/subtract or modify the built to respond to the solution. Hence the user is the only agency interacting. The main objective of generative systems and Interactive Architecture which overlaps is that of adaptation. Generative Systems adapt themselves to maintain stable configuration in cases wherein the environment is subject to change. 3. To recreate an ecosystem This objective tries to understand the interrelated relationship of user and space. This means that the algorithms create an ecosystem like environment wherein the organism and environment are interdependent. This means organisms might evolve due to change in environment or environment might change itself due to high number of variability in organisms. This in computational terms refers to many feedback loops in a systems which actively maintain their state in order to offset environmental changes. 4. To generate novel structures, behaviours, outcomes or relationships The third objective is crucial for creating closed system models. Generative design is widely used to create objects/designs that are novel in their appearance and approach. Here the architect/designer creates a program wherein he/she knows the parameters of the design. However, the result is not a predicted one. Various natural processes of growth and evolution are often mimicked or sought for inspiration to novel structures through generative design. Genetic algorithms, fractals, voronoi etc. are often used to create new geometries and forms.

4.4 Identifying Systems for Interactive Architecture Generative Systems have three broad categories1.Rule Based Systems Dissertation 2016 School of Planning and Architecture,Delhi

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2.Self-organizing Systems 3.Computational Geometry Self-organizing systems are however used to create Interactive Spaces. As the aim of an Interactive Space is to create personalized results for every behaviour, our aim is to program a system which can thereby create a complex set of results for a simple set of input. Few Self Organizing Systems popularly used are 1.Cellular Automata 2.Swarm Intelligence 3.Interactive Genetic Algorithms

4.4.1 Cellular Automata (CA) Introduction ‘A Cellular Automata is a discrete dynamical system’ Originally discovered by Stanislaw Ulam and John von Neumann in the 1940s cellular Automata is a discrete model studied in mathematics, physics, theoretical biology, microstructure modelling to name a few. Quantities such as space, time and states of the cell/system are considered as discreet entities. A cellular automaton consists of a regular grid of cells, each of which can be in one of a finite number of n possible states, updated synchronously in discrete time steps according to a local, identical interaction rule. In this system, the state of the cell updates or changes according to the local rule governing it. This rule in turn depends on state of cell and its neighbouring cells in the previous step. Hence we can say that it functions on a simple feedback loop mechanism.(Robert J., 2002)

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Fig 4.4 Rules in Cellular Automata Source- Cellular Automata, L-Systems, Fractals, Chaos and Complex Systems. (2016). All cells in the lattice are thereby changing and updating simultaneously in discreet time steps thus giving rise to different patterns throughout. This was translated into a computational mechanism through the ‘Game of Life-2D’ made by Conway in 1970s. It is a two dimensional CA, wherein each cell has nine neighbours (including itself), and two states (black or white).Conway discovered that his CA was capable of generating astonishing patterns and structures. He also showed that it was computation-universal.

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Fig 4.5 Rules of 2D Game of Life Source- Cellular Automata, L-Systems, Fractals, Chaos and Complex Systems. (2016).

Fig 4.6 Rules of 3D Game of Life Source- Cellular Automata, L-Systems, Fractals, Chaos and Complex Systems. (2016).

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Fig 4.7 Spatial Forms based on Game of Life Source- Cellular Automata, L-Systems, Fractals, Chaos and Complex Systems. (2016). Applications of Interactive Architecture CA systems have found great application and use in addressing architectural, landscape, and urban design problems. The basic idea behind it is not to describe a complex system with complex equations but to let complexity emerge from interaction

of

simple

individual/agents

following

a

simple

set

of

equations.(Devetakovic et al., 2009) The typical features of CA include

Absence of control

Symmetry breaking

Global order

Adaptation

Complexity

Hierarchy

Interactive Architecture is perceived through sensory changes such as visual, smell, sound, taste, touch. There have been several approaches wherein CA has been used to generate systems for electronic and sonic music art. It helps to create new music responses through the interaction of the user in the environment. (Burraston and Edmonds, 2005)Similarly a proposed installation called ‘Social Circuits’ by Kalypso Kaplani aims Dissertation 2016 School of Planning and Architecture,Delhi

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to create visual responses to how a person interacts with the installation through using Cellular Automata based programming.(Kaplani, 2016) 4.4.2 Swarm Intelligence (SI) Introduction

“The emergent collective intelligence of groups of simple agents.� (Bonabeau et al, 1999)

Used to describe emergent collective behaviour-the term Swarm Intelligence was first used in 1989 by Gerardo Beni and Jing Wang in the context of cellular robotic systems.SI is an artificial intelligence based on the collective behaviour of decentralized, self-organized systems.

Fig 4.8 Birds Flocking Source-Chen, Y. (2016). Swarm Intelligence in Architectural Design. These systems are mostly made up of simple agents that interact locally with each other and as a whole with the environment. Although each agent does not have a rule dictating its behaviour, the interactions of agents with each other and the environment lead to a common behaviour. Examples existing within nature include ant colonies, bird flocking, animal herding, bacterial growth and fish schooling.(Chen, 2016)

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Fig 4.9 Swarm Behavior Source-Chen, Y. (2016). Swarm Intelligence in Architectural Design. Early studies of swarm behavior employed mathematical models to simulate and understand the behavior. The simplest mathematical models of animal swarms generally represent individual animals as following three rules: 1. Separation: Move in the same direction as your neighbours 2. Alignment: Remain close to your neighbours 3. Cohesion: Avoid collisions with your neighbours Application in Interactive Architecture Nowadays this new approach of collective behaviour has been implemented in many fields such as biology, social structure, engineering, artificial visualization and architecture. For architects, SI helps to examine the role of agency within generative design processes. The research about swarm principle applications range from visualization, self-organization of multi-agent system, architecture, form design to urbanism. Swarm Intelligence is thought to be generated into an architecture design method itself. It also is crucial for building new transaction spaces, which are emotive, trans active, interactive and collaborative. When we look at an urban environment from the point of view of Swarm Architecture we no longer see isolated objects, instead we see objects which have a relation with each other. Swarm-based urban planning is an intriguing and very dynamic design game. It is really challenging for the designer to find the rules that generate excitement in the cities. Dissertation 2016 School of Planning and Architecture,Delhi

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Swarm intelligence represents an excellent method to test the interaction between the user and the building, to study alternatives of design based on the interactions of users. If the swarm behavior can be visually seen as some layers of architecture skin, then patterns and layering might be a way of application in architecture design for swarm simulation. As Swarm Intelligence is related to the movement of agents these are used to create visually stimulated Interactive architecture. The Seed Box Pavilion by Heatherwick Studio and Emotive Wall by Hyberbody are few examples wherein SI has been used to create Interactive Systems.

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4.4.3 Interactive Genetic Algorithm (IGA) Introduction “Architecture is considered as a form of artificial life,subject, like the natural world,to principles of morphogenesis, genetic coding, replication and selection�- John Frazer This type of algorithm belong to a general category of Interactive evolutionary computation.Interactive Evolutionary computation refers to genetic computation which uses human evaluation in there process.It was first used in 1989 as an visualization tool for modelling an artwork called bimorphs.Interactive genetic algorithms (IGAs) are powerful tools with several uses in the design community,for example, identification of preference, and for the generation of new ideas (Cho, 2002).IGA are suitable in situations wherein the user has the power to change its general behavior by their interaction.The main advantage of such a system however lies in the fact that the solutions obtained are according to users desire and can produce variations in the obtained results.

Fig 4.10 Flow Diagram showing IGA processes Source-Fasoulaki, E. (n.d.). Genetic Algorithms in Architecture: a Necessity or a Trend?. Masters. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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The opinion of the user is necessary to have evaluation and selection of solutions for next generation and thereby complete the evolution process.This basically means that the users intuition and emotion are needed and are an important part of this algorithms feedback loop mechanism.(Farooq and Siddique, 2014) “Genetic algorithm is developed primarily for problem solving and optimization in situations where it is possible to state clearly both the problems and the criteria to be fulfilled for their successful solution�-J.Frazer GA are iterative processes and each iteration is called a generation.The user interface allows for the selection of models,manipulation of parameters, and selection of next generation parents.Th work done is viewed through tree model of L-systems.The set of properties are called as chromosomes.GA can be seen as a set of three procedures1. Selection- the better solutions are selected 2. Crossover- New offspring from selected options is generated 3. Mutation- random parts of an offspring are changed to create a more diverse pool

Fig 4.11 Schematic Diagram showing GA procedures Source-Fasoulaki, E. (n.d.). Genetic Algorithms in Architecture: a Necessity or a Trend?. Masters. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In terms of architecture,different properties of a building such as lighting,acoustic,facade etc can be used as chromosomes for creating an iterative process.

Application in Interactive Architecture

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Most common GA applications range from evolutionary design optimization and creative evolutionary design.It is used as a generative process in form finding for architecture.The main use of GA is to manufacture forms along with their relationships to one another.Complex spatial models can also be generated. In terms of Emergent or Interactive Architecture these algorithms over a bottom-up approach in creating multiple cycle of evolution and feedback.To create a space which alters its spatial configuration by changing surfaces through GA one can experiment with the defining and re-writing of simple rules that can lead to subsequent development which can alter the form in 3D.The conditions influencing the growth of the surface can also simultaneously change the grammar or basic rules of the GA creating an evolutionary process.Growth can be achieved with the use of the GAs.(Fasoulaki, n.d.)

Fig 4.12 Growth of Surface through GA Source-Fasoulaki, E. (n.d.). Genetic Algorithms in Architecture: a Necessity or a Trend?. Masters. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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5.Case Studies Interactive Architecture is a relatively new field.The projects undertaken in this field are therefore limited in scale.The Case Studies are projects that have been undertaken for research or exhibition purpose. The aim to study these projects is to understand the types of work that are undertaken under this field,what implications it has on users and finally assess the level of dialogue that is created between the user and space. This will help to understand and provide a brief overview of the current state of Interactive Architecture. 1.Interactive-Wall The Interactive Wall is a large scale architectural installation which consists of seven separate wall components which display real-time behavior and interact with the viewer

Fig 5.1 Interactive Wall Source-http://www.hyperbody.nl/research/projects/interactivewall/

Festo, a leading worldwide supplier of pneumatic and electrical automation technology, commissioned it and this was presented at Hannover Messe 2009.

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This was a very crucial step in the development of interactive/emotive architecture. In the words of its designers, this is a wall that can move because it wants to .(Hosale and Kievid, 2016) 2.Muscle NSA The Muscle NSA is a programmable architectural space which has the ability to change and respond to the viewers.It is an example of a dynamic entity which can reconfigure itself. It was created by ONL and HRG

. Fig 5.2 Muscle NSA Source-http://www.hyperbody.nl/research/projects/muscle-nsa/

It was envisaged that just like a living muscle programmable buildings will take shape by contracting and relaxing industrial muscles. Therefore, The MUSCLE programmable building is a created by wrapping pressurized soft volume in a mesh of tensile muscles. The dimensions like which length, height and width change depending on the pressure pumped into the muscle. The visitors play an interactive role while exploring the various states of the MUSCLE. (Lynn, 2014)

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3.Virtual Operation Room The ONL office in association with Hyper body Research Group developed a game called The Virtual Operation Room. The VOR works on responsive geometry, which responds to the actions performed by the players of the VOR game. The player learns about the bodily system in a highly sensitive and pro-active world. The VOR claims to be a futuristic [2010 and beyond] self-diagnosis tool and first of an auto-curing health game. The player experiences himself/herself as an augmented body. 4.Digital Pavilion

The Digital Pavilion derived from a 3D voronoi algorithm is an adaptive robotic system which contain interacting installations that interact with not just the users but also with one another.The feedback loop works in a way such that data output from one installation is adapted as inputs for other installations. The Pavilion project uses a behavioural design technique through which structures and geometries can be generated on the basis of volumentric and behavioral demands.

Fig 5.3 Digital Pavilion Source-http://www.onl.eu/projects/digital-pavilion Dissertation 2016 School of Planning and Architecture,Delhi

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This means that each visit is a unique experience as the installation never repeats its exact content and shape.The space is in a state of flux and is constantly being adjusted in real-time by public movements and by streaming content. 5.Hyperloop The Hyper-loop is an architectural scale real-time interactive structure, which is in a constant state of flux. This large-scale structure, is made up of joints spread out and connected in varying degrees of freedom. The structure, geometrically is in the form of a loop, which has the capability of fully re-configuring its components in real-time.

Fig 5.4 Visualization of Hyperloop Source-http://re.hyperbody.nl/index.php/Msc2G7:Frontpage

This configuration joint wise results in generating a fully kinetic and sonic real-time interaction with people entering or leaving the structure as well as moving within the structure itself. The entire loop is like a robot exploratory in nature and is fully dynamic. This harnesses different volume of movement, sound and light as an active medium of communication with its visitors. Son-O-House The Son-O-House has a generative sound environment. It is aimed at creating a permanent interaction between diverse elements such as-the sound, the Dissertation 2016 School of Planning and Architecture,Delhi

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architecture and the visitors. The aim of sound is to influence and alter the perception and the movements of the visitors.

Fig 5.5 Entrance to Son-o-House Source-https://www.flickr.com/photos/msikkens/8658752622

The sensors placed inside the building catch the presence, activity and the approximate location of the visitors . Information thus received is constantly analyzed and quantified. The

analysis thus generated is used to control the nature

of the sound and therefore challenges the visitors to re-interpret their relationship with the environment. The final result is a complex feedback system in which the visitor becomes a participant.(Evdh.net, 2016) 6.Dune 4.2 DUNE is a public interactive space which is responsive to the passerby.This installation present in Amsterdam is composed of large quantities of fibers that have the ability to light up when they sense motion and sound. As the visitors pass by the installation reacts to the stimuli and brighten up their path

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. Fig 5.6 Interacting with Dune 4.2 Source-http://v2.nl/lab/blog/opening-dune-4.2 7.Volume A luminous interactive installation it consists of a field of 48 luminous, sound-emitting columns that respond to movement. As Visitors move through the sculpture, they create their own unique journey by experiencing light and music. Volume responds to human movement by creating many permutations of audio-visual experiences.

Fig 5.7 Users walking through Volume Installation

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Source-http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/v/volume-united-visual-artists/ 8.The Kids room The KidsRoom is a virtual and perceptual based narrative playscape for children.It is an

interactive

space

that

is

created

for

kids

through

the

use

of

images,music,narration,light, and sound effects.These effects have the power to transform a normal bedroom into

fantasy land wherein the child can participate in

an interactive and reactive adventure story. (The MIT Media Laboratory, 1999)

Fig 5.8 Interior of the Simulation room Source-http://vismod.media.mit.edu/vismod/demos/kidsroom/kidsroom.html 9.Age Invaders Age Invaders is new take on the arcade game space invader.It is a virtual based game wherein all family members through blue-tooth and online connection can participate in a game in real-time.The gaming parameters are set in order to help the older players react in a comfortable time frame.Similarly younger players have a limited time to react while playing the game.Thus this game balances physical ability across generation.(Mixedrealitylab.org, 2016)

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Fig 5.9 Interior of the Simulation room Source-http://mixedrealitylab.org/projects/all-projects/age-invaders/

10.Water Pavilion

The building consists of two pavilions: the Freshwater Pavilion and the Saltwater Pavilion which are connected to each other. Each pavilion has its own sound environment.

Fig 5.10 Interior of Water Pavilion Source-http://www.arcspace.com/bookcase/nox-machining-architecture/

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The music in these two different spaces is not a fixed composition but is based on a generative approach and is dependent on the activity happening in that moment. How sound will be combined is pre scripted; the actual decision of what sounds is made in real-time. This way the music will never be the same. To a certain extent the visitors can influence the processes due to the presence of sensor based interfaces in the building. To add to this the weather conditions outside of the building also have a role in affecting the kind of music that is played. A traditional concert is composed to give a uniform experience to the entire audience, In contrast, the Water pavilion has the opposite approach. The concept in this case was to

promote individual experiences. Two persons visiting the building

can have different experiences and when visiting the Water Pavilion a second time this can lead to again another experience.

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5.1 Analysis

Table 5.1 Analysis Chart (*scale 1-5 based on secondary feedback where 1<5)

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5.2 Methodology Through the analysis chart each secondary case study example was examined under seven broad parameters namely Type of experience, Social and psychological implications, Initiative, Interacting Agents, Model, Generative Systems and finally scaled each project according to the level of interaction and thereby success. Eleven case studies were selected on the basis of the following parameters1. Real time example of Interactive or Responsive Architecture 2. Scale-installation,pavilion 3. Project Type- Academia,research,exhibition,commercial 4. Time Period- 1990-2016 5. Location-all The aim of the analysis was to find what design strategies were used,the effects Interactive Architecture has on its users and thereby the level of Interaction it can generate.This was done to analyze whether Interactive Architecture is actually popular and successful among its users or it fails to generate interest. The level of Interaction was awarded points on a scale of 1-5 where 1 is the lowest and highest.The points were awarded on the basis of the following1. Duration of time spent by each individual interacting 2. The level of predictability of the installation 3. The level of unpredictability of the same 4. The level of interaction between the user and installation These points were given on the basis of secondary information available from the participants and video recordings.

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5.3 Analysis Conclusion More interacting agents and types of experiences usually lead to higher level of unpredictability and level of interaction between the user and interactive environment.Such spaces are therefore more successful.In the study examples like Digital Pavilion,Virtual Operation,Muscle NSA rank to be the most interactive. The work in Interactive Architecture is most limited to academia and commissioned work for exhibitions and are not created for commercial use.Apart from Interactive Wall made by Hyperbody for Festo all other project in the samples taken belong to academic or exhibition works.Cybernetics Models are the most popular followed by Hybridized and then mechanical models.The only Mechanical mode were Muscle NSA and Hyperloop. Most of Secondary Studies did not however specify the Generative System used for its creation.Swarm Intelligence was however widely used in most of the examples studied.Interactive Wall,Muscle NSA,Virtual Operation and Hyperloop used Swarm Intelligence. It is seen that most of the examples taken were successful when it comes to creation of dialogue between user and space. 9 out of 11 case studies were awarded points 3 or more for the level of interaction it was able to create.However the inconsistencies lie in the fact that despite the installations being successful none of them had a subsequent version of the installation apart from few like Dune and Volume.This shows that most of the installations were stand-alone one time project only . Only the virtual based games such as Age Invaders were accepted as part of mainstream use. Therefore the need of a follow-up study exists in the future to understand why these inconsistencies occur and why does Interactive Architecture continue to remain as part of academia rather than being accepted into mainstream architecture despite the reactions its able to garner from users.

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6. Conclusion 6.1 Critique on the current state Two viewpoints exist on the current state of Interactive Architecture.One Viewpoint celebrates the increasingly blurred line between the digital and physical whereas the second viewpoint presents a picture ground in reality addressing issues such as lack of economic funding and acceptance. Both viewpoints are strong have relevant data to back.Hence,an ambiguity on the current state is presented. The essential information to take back from each stand is as follows1.First Viewpoint- It recalls that our surroundings have become inextricably tied to technological trends and architecture and technology define and respond to each other.Ubiquitous computing is said to have secured a permanent role in our lives. It celebrates the power of technology today and states that it has become affordable for the design community to access.Sensors available today can discern almost anything from complex gestures to CO2 emissions to hair color.The point ultimately stated is that the current state is a good position for interactive architecture as everything has become part of an ecosystem where objects,environments, and buildings autonomously interact with each other. 2.Second Viewpoint- This outlook reiterates the fact that Interactive architecture as a field still relates more closely to science fiction than to mainstream architecture.It is stated that in order to blurr these gaps between the digital and built we might skip the line and fail to accept other better low tech solutions.Further problems such as lack of funding and economic feasibility of all interactive architecture projects in the current scenario is acknowledged. â&#x20AC;&#x153;I have less than 10% success rate, though it seems to be getting a little easier now that past work has been fundedâ&#x20AC;?- Usman Haque(In interview by Daniele Mancini for Unpacked:a creative think tank)

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Despite a few differences in thought both the viewpoints agree with the fact that the current state of technology has a strong foothold in our lives at the present.Apart from the few difficulties faced by Interactive Architecture at present it might be better in the future. “One big problem with so-called “interactive” architecture and art is that in fact there is no indeterminacy:It has often been thought that the use of a dynamic/responsive system like a computer in itself enables a designed artifact to “open up” to public participation; but actually, the rigidity of algorithms and input/output criteria usually employed in such systems mean that they are just as autocratic as traditional media.” -Usman Haque(In interview by Daniele Mancini for Unpacked:a creative think tank)

6.2 Redefining the role of an Architect Interactive architecture is in a position where it has the potential to redefine the role of the designer.The focus does not lie solely on the finished product but deals with catalyzing and exploring how a design may evolve.Designing Interactive architecture is considered an ego-less endeavor which aims to design a platform for the future rather than future itself.For this the designer will have to understand the people that in turn will affect and interact by changing the environment around them. The role of the designer/architect shall therefore call for a more intuitive and sensitive approach. As per the interviews conducted, architects were found to be optimistic about the future of interactive technologies in Architecture.Architects beleived that the emergence of more technolgies into the field of archtecture will call architects to take a more proactive role in learning and broadening their horizons.

“Definitely the role of the architect is changing,we need to broaden our perspective and horizon.”- Vami Koticha (In Interview taken by author)

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â&#x20AC;&#x153;In near future when all sort of information will be with everyone and AI will be an integral part of our life.The role of the architect to think things beyond imagination.â&#x20AC;?-Abhishek Sorampuri (In Interview taken by author)

6.3 Future of Interactive Architecture and Generative System and acceptance into mainstream architectural practice We are present at a time where robotics and interaction are finally both technically and economically feasible.The required technologies are appropriate to enable designers/architects who are not experts in computer science to recreate and imagine their ideas in real-time.The current field is fresh ideas and new projects. This current scenario though not that well-developed might foster advanced thinking within the discipline.However it is also imperative to state that the foundation of Interactive architecture has been around since the 1960s and it has yet not reached a stage of mainstream acclaim. It therefore becomes difficult if not impossible to predict how quickly interactive architecture will be executed widely and to assess what applications will work their way to the fore. According to some(Miles Kemp, Michael Fox) such projects are slowly becoming an inevitable part of building environments and cities.However,other architects working with Interactive Architecture state their is still a long way to go with availability funding very difficult(Usman Haque).Specific categorical areas have also come to the fore as designers have pioneered this new area of design. Therefore,no absolute answer can be given for assessing the future of Interactive Architecture. Generative Systems on the other hand will become a very important part of how we design in the future as they have already made a foothold in the field of architecture and design.Generative Systems have other uses apart from creating Interactive Architecture and hence shall continued to be exploited in design.

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â&#x20AC;&#x153;We are in the early period of information age, it is still young and growing. And we have already started seeing the application of it in buildings with interactive facade. So in coming years as technology will evolve we may expect that the information will become an integral part of the building as well.â&#x20AC;?-Abhishek Sorampuri (In Interview taken by author)

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Bibliography

1. Devetakovic, M., Petrusevski, L., Dabic, M. and Mitrovic, B. (2009). Les Folies Cellulaires â&#x20AC;&#x201C; An Exploration in ArchitecturalDesign Using Cellular Automata. Ph.D. Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade, Serbia. 2. Burraston, D. and Edmonds, E. (2005). Cellular automata in generative electronic music and sonic art: a historical and technical review. Digital Creativity, 16(3), pp.165-185. 3. Kaplani, K. (2016). socialCircuits | Interactive Installation. [online] Interaction Design Communication. Available at: https://kalypsokaplani.wordpress.com/2015/06/20/socialcircuits/ [Accessed 8 Nov. 2016]. 4. Zhao, L. (2016). Artificial Intelligence and Evolutionary Machines. [Blog] Interactive Architecture Lab. Available at: http://www.interactivearchitecture.org/artificial-intelligence-and-evolutionary-machines.ht ml [Accessed 6 Nov. 2016]. 5. En.wikipedia.org. (2016). Cellular automaton. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellular_automaton [Accessed 8 Nov. 2016]. 6. Cellular Automata, L-Systems, Fractals, Chaos and Complex Systems. (2016). 7. Robert J., K. (2002). Architectural Interpretation of Cellular Automata. 1st ed. [ebook] Illinois,USA, pp.1-6. Available at: http://mypages.iit.edu/~krawczyk/rjkga02.pdf [Accessed 5 Nov. 2016]. 8. Castillo, F. (2012). Generative Systems : A Paradigm for Modelling Complex Adaptive Architecture. [Blog] COMPLEXITY. Available at: http://complexitys.com/english/complexitys-culture/generative-systems-a-paradigm-for-mo delling-complex-adaptive-architecture/#.WCBDQPl95PY [Accessed 3 Nov. 2016]. 9. Chen, Y. (2016). Swarm Intelligence in Architectural Design. 10. Fox, M. and Kemp, M. (2009). Interactive architecture. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.

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11. Maia, S. (2016). Testing Inhabitant Agency in Interactive Architecture: A user-centered Design and Research Approach. Masters. The University of British Columbia,Vancouver. 12. Kolarevic, B. and Parlac, V. (2015). Building Dynamics: Exploring Architecture of Change. 2nd ed. Abingdon,oxon: Routledge, pp.12-16. 13. Evdh.net. (2016). Son-O-House - Edwin van der Heide. [online] Available at: http://www.evdh.net/sonohouse/ [Accessed 9 Nov. 2016]. 14. Khoo, E., Cheok, A., Nguyen, T. and Pan, Z. (2008). Age invaders: social and physical inter-generational mixed reality family entertainment. Virtual Reality, 12(1). 15. Mixedrealitylab.org. (2016). Age Invaders | Mixed Reality Lab. [online] Available at: http://mixedrealitylab.org/projects/all-projects/age-invaders/ [Accessed 9 Nov. 2016]. 16. The MIT Media Laboratory, (1999). The KidsRoom: A Perceptually-Based Interactive and Immersive Story Environment. M.I.T Media Laboratory Perceptual Computing Section Technical Report. Cambridge, MA. 17. Hosale, M. and Kievid, C. (2016). InteractiveWall. [online] Hyperbody.nl. Available at: http://www.hyperbody.nl/research/projects/interactivewall/ [Accessed 9 Nov. 2016]. 18. RAHAMAN, H. and TAN, B. (2009). INTERACTIVE SPACE: SEARCHING FOR A DUAL PHYSICAL - VIRTUAL WORLD. Undergraduate. National University of Singapore. 19. Lynn, G. (2014). NSA Muscle. 5th ed. Canadian Centre for Architecture. 20. Farooq, H. and Siddique, M. (2014). A Comparative Study on User Interfaces of Interactive Genetic Algorithm. The 5th International Conference on Ambient Systems, Networks and Technologies. [online] Karachi: Published B.V. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com [Accessed 6 Oct. 2016].

21. Fasoulaki, E. (n.d.). Genetic Algorithms in Architecture: a Necessity or a Trend?. Masters. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

22. Segd.org. (2016). Interactive Architecture | SEGD. [online] Available at: https://segd.org/interactive-architecture [Accessed 1 Aug. 2016].

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APPENDIX-1 Interview The following is a telephonic interview conducted on 10-11-2016.The interviewer is the author and the interviewee is Ar. Vami Koticha,an associate at sP+a.She along with her colleagues designed the Interactive ‘Breathing Wall’ Installation at NGMA,Delhi.The installation was showcased at NGMA,Delhi in 2016.

VH: The breathing wall was a responsive installation.It is a break from the traditional architectural work that is done in a firm in India specially.How was the experience therefore of designing such a space different for you as an architect? Did you collaborate with any specialists? VK: Our studio sP+a is constantly trying to do different kinds of work.We believe in collaborations and for our other projects as well collaborate with relevant consultants.For example for one of our projects we collaborated with Hunnarshala.For this project however we wanted to try to create this installation on our own and thereby kept it at a scale that could be handled by our firm alone.We were always wanted to try a project like Breathing wall in our firm and honestly,did not know what to expect from it.For this we did not collaborate with anyone,we ourselves tried our hand at coding.We started of at a smaller scale where we learnt to do simple things with coding and from there we built up.we started working with sensors , and making it do different things like open close or even rotate.The end product was an amalgamation of all these different parameters that combined origami with technology.

VH: What problems/difficulties were faced by you when you were designing and constructing the ‘breathing wall’? VK: Because it was something we were trying out for the first time it was something wherein we were also learning simultaneously.A new challenge would arise Dissertation 2016 School of Planning and Architecture,Delhi

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everyday.Lets say one day the circuit worked but the code wouldn't work,if the code worked the motor would run or maybe another day the motor made a lot of noise.So it was a mix of software,hardware,physics,management etc. I wont shy away from saying it wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t an easy job.

VH: How do you redefine the role of an architect considering the technology has become an important part of architecture?What is the new role of an architect? VK: Definitely the role of the architect is changing,we need to broaden our perspective and horizon.Having said that of course one can not let go of the need of specializations, hence I reiterate the fact that collaborations are important.They allow us to chose us to something in a detailed and exhaustive manner but not neglecting everything else.

VH: Do you see responsive architecture or Interactive Architecture becoming a part of mainstream architectural practices? VK: Definitely, I also think that this has started to happen at a large level already.The use of AI(Artificial Intelligence) etc is always mixed with architecture along with many other technologies. I do not see any stream in isolation from the other stream.Everything at the end comes together as an experience to the human. Having said that nobody knows in what direction it will go right now!

VH:At one end of the spectrum,we talk about going back to the basic,wherein simplicity is considered one way of moving forward in the sense of sustainability etc. But at the other end we find ourselves constantly pushing towards better technology and hence more gadgets,devices and more personalization.Is there a side to take,if yes then what, or is there a middle path that exists? Dissertation 2016 School of Planning and Architecture,Delhi

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VK: One thing I would like to clarify is that if you are using technology in the right way we can get the most sustainable solution.Its a myth that people think that if one is using technology it is not sustainable.Bjark Ingels talks about this.creating sustainable architecture but using technology to achieve all those goals.So I think the think technology to enhance and achieve sustainability is the right way to move forward.

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APPENDIX-2 Interview The following is an interview conducted on 4-11-2016.The interviewer is the author and

the

interviewee

is

Ar.

Abhishek

Sorampuri,junior

partner

at

M:OFA(Ë&#x2DC;manifestation of fluid architecture).Ḥe has alot of experience in computation for architecture and conducted many workshops on the same.

VH: How do you view architecture? Is it a static or dynamic entity? What are the factors that affect this? AS: Architecture can never be termed as an static entity and it can never be defined by the architect or designers either. Most importantly architecture is always defined by two entities: The user: How the user behavior changes through time and age and how user adapts architecture as per their requirement is what that matters most. The context: Even if the building remains static the context around it always changes. which eventually affects the user inside.

VH: Architecture affects how we perceive space and vice-e-Versa.A dialogue thereby exists between the user and space.How can we make it better?Do we need an outside agency? AS: It reminds me of a quote by Rem Koolhaas: "People can inhabit anything. And they can be miserable in anything and ecstatic in anything. More and more I think that architecture has nothing to do with it. Of course, that's both liberating and alarming. " Here one can understand from his statement that its people who define a space.

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Architecture has always been a module to plug-in other elements of your interest and make it more generic. You can take example of anything that existed in history from past 400-500 years. For example, the laser show happening on humayun's tomb nowadays is an example of how an external agency has played a role to re define the essence of architecture.

VH: On of the current fields that aim to better this dialogue is that of Interactive Architecture.

Wherein

the

space

works

on

a

feedback

loop

mechanism.Understanding and producing responses to the responses of users. Is this needed? AS: Yes! I believe it is required as it reduces the process of iterations involved in redeveloping the space from ground zero. I also think this process/machine learning/AI should be creative enough to understand the psychology of the user to create a vibrant space.

VH:

With the current state of technology available to us or keeping in mind the

advancement in technology and its advent in our daily lives? Will it become a key component of a building? Is a future where each home is interactive -an imaginable future? AS: Let's talk about the time before the industrial age. We can see how things have changed in past 300 years. Since the construction of Eiffel tower that symbolizes the start of the industrial age to the construction of Anish Kapoor's Orbit in London we can see how the use of steel has changed and it is predominantly the primary mode of construction in building. We are in the early period of information age, it is still young and growing. And we have already started seeing the application of it in buildings with interactive facade. So in coming years as technology will evolve we may expect that the information will

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become an integral part of the building as well. It becomes a duty for innovators, architects, urbanologists to shape the space our future generation will inhabit in.

VH: How do you redefine the role of an architect considering the technology has/will become a very important part of architecture? If people can redefine their space what will be the role of an architect in all this? AS: In near future when all sort of information will be with everyone and AI will be an integral part of our life. I do believe that people will be able to create their own space. But again there comes the role of the architect to think things beyond imagination. Secondly, if we consider that AI will completely take over the human creativity in future then that will be a very Utopian condition and we will have to imagine ourselves to get controlled by a lot of iron man. Which seems highly unlikely in near future.

VH:

How do we reach a balance? At one end of the spectrum, we talk about going

back to the basic, wherin simplicity is considered one way of moving forward in the sense of sustainability etc but at the other end we find ourselves constantly pushing towards better

technology and hence

more

gadgets,devices and

more

personalisation. Is there a side to take if yes then what or is there a middle path that exists? AS: This very thought is what we can term as balance. We do not need to take sides here but we need to move ahead with what we as an individual/group feel right. Every decision is binary and there has always been two sides of it. There are people who want to move ahead, innovate more, evolve new technology but at the same time there are those people who talk about basic/simplistic life; these are the people who help us to stay connected to our roots and not lose the direction.

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APPENDIX-3 INTERVIEW-SECONDARY The following are proceedings from an interview for the online series by Unpacked:a creative think tank.The interviewer is Daniele Mancini and the interviewee Usman Haque, founder partner of Umbrellium, a design firm working in the field of Interactive Architecture. DM: Many of your projects explores the application of Open Source strategies learned from Computer Science. You often recur to the expression “Open Source Architectures”. Can you explain the analogy? UH: “Open source” in the software universe refers to a type of source code (with which software is designed and built) that is accessible to all; that is freely distributed as long as it remains equally open; that allows for modification and derivatives as long as the result is equally open; that is non-discriminatory; where patching is possible without disturbing the integrity of the main work; and that is technology neutral.Similarly, an open source architecture requires a framework in which the distinction between “those who design” and “those who use” is replaced by participatory system that encourages a constructed project to be constantly “patched” or “performed”. Such an architecture comes close to the visions Dutch artist, architect and situationist Constant had in his project New Babylon. In this massive exploration he assumed that everyone is an artist in the design and construction of their spaces, events and lives. His project proposed a worldwide structure constantly built and rebuilt by its inhabitants, a structure that varied throughout its lengths as different groups of people contributed to it and altered it in different ways.

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DM: This implies Architecture could be think as a software. What does it imply? UH: Traditionally, architecture has been thought of as hardware: the static walls, roofs and floors that enclose us. An alternative approach is to think of architecture as software: the dynamic and ephemeral sounds, smells, temperatures even radio waves that surround us. One might also consider the social infrastructures that underpin our designed spaces. Pushing this analogy even further, we can think of architecture as a whole as an “operating system”, within which people create their own programmes for spatial interaction. Architectural design that emphasises “softspace” over “hardspace” is a little like “software” design rather than “hardware design” in computer terminology, where “hardware” refers to the physical machine and “software” refers to the programs that animate the machine. In an architectural context, technology is used to provoke interactions between people, and between people and their spaces. If softspace encourages people to become performers within their own environments, then hardspace provides a framework to animate these interactions. The idea of an architectural operating system lies in the design of the systems that integrate the two. One model of operating system that is particularly relevant to architecture (since the design of space is always a collaborative process) is an open source system. Applying open source to architecture suggests a collaborative democratic project that exists in time as well as space: an architecture that is created by people through its use, as a performance, a conversation, a bodystorm that goes on throughout the life of the architectural system, whether it is a building or other architectural situation. DM: So, the final goal of the Open Source Architecture looks to be, essentially, to make people participating in the design of their own environment in a more sustainable way…

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UH: Yes, to find ways that enable people to become more engaged with the spaces that we inhabit; to this extent it is quite explicitly socio-political. Works like Open Burble are less about the spectacular urban experience and more about exploring ways that “normal” people come together to design, construct, negotiate and critique with each other concerning design decisions

DM: And, what about the impossibility to 100% predict how an installation will react to external agents? I’m talking about the indeterminacy you as an artist (or architect or performer) have to manage thinking about the users action/reactions…

UH: One big problem with so-called “interactive” architecture and art is that in fact there is no indeterminacy: the designer has pre-determined the algorithms, and the possible inputs and outputs, even if he/she isn’t able to predict what someone might do (e.g. by having a movement sensor, you’re not able to predict how someone will move, but you’re still restricting input to that which can be quantified as “movement”; you’re also pre-defining what the system will output in response to what it considers “movement”). It has often been thought that the use of a dynamic/responsive system like a computer in itself enables a designed artifact to “open up” to public participation; but actually, the rigidity of algorithms and input/output criteria usually employed in such systems mean that they are just as autocratic as traditional media. Indeterminacy would be a good thing I think, just like Pask’s “under-specified” systems; in contrast to the half-loop model of “reactive” algorithms often employed in so-called “interactive” works, Pask was more interested in double-loop models where (in the first loop) nothing exists until one enters in conversations with the artifacts (or until the artifacts themselves have conversations) and (in the second loop) variations in goals (of the designed construct *and* the human participant) create evolving and unpredictable interactions whose sum total is “conversational” in a valid sense. Dissertation 2016 School of Planning and Architecture,Delhi

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It is not about concealing and then revealing but rather about “creating” information, just as Wikipedia does in the context of the web. Pask was interested in exploring models in which data is actually “created” by the participants and nothing exists until one enters in conversations with the artifacts (or until the artifacts themselves have conversations). In his participant-focused constructional approach, the data has no limits. In his systems, how something reacts is closely entwined with how externalities (like humans) reacted to the system in the past; indeterminacy is a pre-requisite.

DM: Still I think the meaning of the project is missing unless you visualize/represent/sonify data somehow… UH: I don’t think data aesthetics are a particularly useful end-product – it is much more important to consider what happens to the concept of architecture when spaces become intimately entwined even though geographically remote. It is less about making something representational and more about making actual connections (and by extension relationships) between things. EXML is basically three things: a repository for data feeds; a dialect of XML enabling people to standardise the way they connect remote environments through the internet; and a system for adding “tags” to their feeds in order to share them without knowing in advance who is going to make use of them. As a first step, I’ve released a Processing library making it easy to stream and receive data in just a couple of lines; next I hope to integrate it more closely in the arduino platform.

DM: You belong to a pioneering generation of interactive artist/architects that need to face also the not very easy issue of make institution trust your experiments… Where do funds come from? Do they come from academia ? Private sponsors? From the art circuit? Dissertation 2016 School of Planning and Architecture,Delhi

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UH: My projects tend to be funded by institutional grants, occasionally commissions or large scale events. Interestingly, more and more of the institutions I have been involved with are open to (or even insist on) open source or Creative Commons approaches.

DM: How difficult is to be granted? UH: It’s very difficult; I think I have less than 10% success rate, though it seems to be getting a little easier now that past work has been funded.

DM: Why it is difficult by your point of view? UH: It’s difficult because, frankly, it should be difficult. If it was easy to get things funded then I think we would see even more crap than we already see funded….. I cannot complain about this difficulty because I think the process also helps to tighten up proposals, make you really think about what you are intending to do, ensure that there really is a point to the proposal you are trying to put forward. On the other hand, it cannot be denied that the approach also then defines the kind of work that gets funded… In this sense, there is one aspect that makes it problematic for me: I almost always have to force my projects to fit into a particular category, usually one that they don’t sit comfortably in. I would like to leave them in a more general “architecture” category, but sometimes I have to respond to more “artistic” concerns that may not come naturally, or, as in Evolving Sonic Environment, artificial consciousness discourse – which is certainly interesting but then I have to attain a certain level of rigour that is often absent in less science-based approaches.

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DM: How did you manage the first sponsorship? I mean, what was your first sponsored project? How consistent was the budget? UH: The first project sponsoredâ&#x20AC;Ś. Hmmmâ&#x20AC;Ś. Maybe that was my Moody Mushroom Floor, my diploma project at the Bartlett; while I was trying to finish it off I ran out of money for some of the expensive electronics so I called up MPS electronics and told them about what I was trying to do. I think they agreed to give me about 80% of the stuff I needed free of charge. As far as process goes, the project always comes first; and then one day I find the appropriate funding avenue.

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