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of providing pleasing healthful drinks with NatexTisanes Herbal tisanes have long been recognised for their health virtues and pleasant appeal to the palate. Natex Tisanes are easy to prepare herbal drinks in t h e f o r m of tea bags, rapidly infused by the addition of boiling water. Can be enjoyed by the wholefamily. The herbs available are:L i M E F L O W E R S . A soothing drink beneficial to general health and restful sleep. R O S E H I P S . A pleasant b e v e r a g e f o r a delicate stomach. A gentle aid to regularity. P E P P E R M I N T . Excellent when tea cannot be tolerated at night. It aids digestion and promotes restful sleep. C A M O M I L E . Well known for its value to the stomach and digestion.

Enjoy life to the full with

MODERN HEALTH PRODUCTS Modern Health Products Ltd., Davis Road, Chessington, Surrey.


Founded 1944 - Registered Charity Veganism is a way of living on the products of the plant kingdom to the Exclusion of fish, fowl, eggs, animal milk and its derivatives; it encourages the study and use of alternatives for all commodities normally derived wholly or partly from animals. The objects of The Vegan Society are to further knowledge of, and interest in, sound nutrition and in the vegan method of agriculture and food production as a means of increasing the potential of the earth to the physical, moral and economic advantage of mankind. President:

Dr. Frey Ellis

Deputy President:

Mr. J . Sanderson

Vice-Presidents: Mrs E. Batt, Mrs. S. Coles, Mr. J . Dinshah, Dr. C. Nimmo, Miss W. Simmons, Miss M. Simmons, Mrs. E. Shrigley., Council: Mrs. E. Batt, Mrs. S, Coles, Dr. F. Ellis, Mr. J . Sanderson, Mrs. G. Smith, Mrs. T. Wade, Mr. W; Wright. Treasurer: Mrs. G. Smith, but all subscriptions, donations, etc. should be sent to the Secretary, 47 Highlands Road, Leatherhead, Surrey. Secretary:

Mrs. K. Jannaway, address as above.


Mr. W. Wright, Hatton House, Church Lane, Cheshunt, Herts.

Local Contacts Secretary: Mr. Hugo Stearn, The Leys, Manor Estate, Horrabridge, Yelverton, Devon. Subscriptions: ÂŁ1.25 yearly, in January. Additional members at same address not requiring an extra Journal, pensioners, juniors and students 63p. THE VEGAN Quarterly Journal 60p per annum. FREE TO MEMBERS. Single copies 15p. Post free. From the Secretary, address as above. Editors: J . Sanderson & K. Jannaway. Scientific Adviser: Dr. F . Ellis. Advertising Manager:

Mrs. D. Hanson,

, Colchester.

The Editorial Board does not necessarily agree with opinions expressed by contributors to this magazine, or endorse advertisements. Published: March 21st, June 21st, Sept. 21st, Dec. 21st. Copy dates: 1st of preceding months. 1

GROWING AWARENESS J . Sanderson. The membership of the Vegan Society rose to a few hundreds during the foundation years of the late Ebrties, doubled in the fifties, rose again in the Sixties when there were periods where the new members were almost cancelled out by the wastage, and now, in the Seventies, the graph has settled into an upward curve thatboks well for the future. At our public meeting in February, Kathleen Jannaway passed on the good news that the Society is now averaging ONE NEW MEMBER EVERY DAY. Whereas a few greenfly in March can be the progenitors of myriads by September, new vegans are not produced in this pyramidical fashion, for to become a vegan involves much change of heart and direction. Yet each new member is a source of influence wherever he or she may be. There can be no doubt that vegetarianism and veganism are penetrating deeply into the public consciousness. Most districts now have a Health Food Store, most have a Vegetarian and/or Vegan Society and most food and nutrition conscious people will meet vegetarian and vegan recipe books. Near to last Christmas, Eva Batt, besides speaking at Bournemouth, recorded for Radio Solent and Southern T. V. whilst Dr. Alan Long recorded for Western T. V. During the last quarter of this century, there will be a growing awareness of the vital part that Ve ganism has to (in the public mind) play in the economics of this country and in the feeding of its population. By eating less meat, different bread, more cereals and altering our cropping and other patterns, we could save most or all of ÂŁ3,500 million that we now spend annually on importing food. Change will not come overnight but, because of the instant news of TV and Radio, the rate of change of material conditions and political thinking are speeding up and, with the gradual reduction and elimination of meat products and later dairy products, we must have ready some new foods to take their place. Texturised vegetable protein is only a beginning. The money and energy that can always be found to prosecute war, must be found to prosecute the war on want. Many foods that we now regard as native to our shores, have been introduced in recent centuries and the world must be searched to find new sources of protein and massive experimentation must go on to develop and adapt new plant foods. Nut trees are probably one of the great keys to the future feeding of mankind for they can prvide the maximum amount of food per acre. The nutritional value of young shoots of beans, etc. is hardly known as yet in the West. Let us make better known the best of what is already known and let us experiment and discover that which the future needs. Where possible, each vegan should alleviate the world's condition by growing as much of his own food as he can, perhaps setting aside a little corner for some worthwhile experiment or alternatively contributing a little money to the Research Section of the Vegetarian Society or perhaps the Henry Doubleday Centre. Humanity may be of different colours, creeds, politics and states of civilisation but all men are inextricably woven into the World Food Problem. In helping our own country we are helping the world. Moreover, by adopting a vegan diet we will help ourselves to grow in awareness and spiritual understanding.

THE ECONOMICAL DIET The money cost of a vegan diet varies greatly, as does an omnivorous one, according to Individual circumstances and ohoice. There follows a list of the food consumed during a week in February, 1975, by one active woman. The amount it actually cost was £1.45^ but she was fortunate in having ample supplies of salads, vegetables, hazelnuts and apples from her garden. The diet could have been considerably simpler and still nutritionally adequate; it could have been a lot more extravagant. P P 42 ozs. bread (home made6 ozs. fruit buns 6 12 100% flour bought in bulk.) 3 ozs. fruit cake 6 3 ozs. porridge oats 3 4 ozs. flapjack (molasses) 4 | pkt. Ryvita 2 lb. potatoes 10 4 ozs. soya flour 4 lemons 10 6i 2 (in soups and milk). 3 satsumas 6 4 ozs. soya cheese 10 4 tea bags 2 4 ozs. peanut butter 6 7 portions of protein main dish 35 4 ozs. To 8§ grapefruit 3 1 oz. sugar 1 . grapes 4 4 ozs. dried fruit 8 EL 45^ Meals were Breakfast - oats with soya milk and/or bread or Ryvita, Tomor and Barmene, or dried fruit. Apple. Lunch - soup made from outer leaves, skins and leftovers with Barmene and soya. Salad from the garden with wholemeal bread, soya cheese or peanut butter. Fruit cake, bun or molasses. Flapjack » . Apple. Supper - vegetables from the garden - swede, carrot, beetroot, potatoes, nut or or pulse dish, apples and dried fruit dish, or fruit salad. Drinks - very weak tea with lemon, water. Salad from the garden included cabbage, lambs lettuce, landcress, celery, beetroot, carrots, chickweed, spinach beet, celeriac, sorrel, dandelion, sprouted wheat, cress, mustard. Economy points. Home made bread - Grant method - from flour bought in bulk. Home, made peanut butter costing 24p. per lb. as compared with shop bought 32p. for 11^ ozs. Home made soya cheese. High protein and fat value for lOp. for 4 ozs. Home made soya milk made by blenderising soya flour, water and fruit. Nourishing soups made from coarse parts of vegetables, soya and Barmene. Home grown salads, vegetables, nuts and fruit. Everyone can grow some salad in window boxes. Main protein dishes from nuts, whole cereals and pulses instead of packages and tins. (All recipes in "First Hand, First Rate", 32p. post free). Minimum of processed foods in tins, jars and packets. 3

THE TRULY ECONOMICAL DIET Though we have to consider money costs, much more important is it,, in a hungry world, to consider the most economical use of the basic resources of air land, water and energy. Since the Rome Food Conference in November 1974 which did so much to alert people to the extreme seriousness of the world food situation, it has become widely recognised that domestic animals are poor providers of food for man. However cruelly immobilised in "factory farms" they still use up the greater part of the food they consume in their own life processes and leave comparatively little for man. It is being freely admitted that it is wrong to feed animals on grain and other foods that could be eaten .. directly by man but neverthe less it is fequently stated that animals should be used to convert grass, other indigestible plant materials, experimental factory made foods and various waste materials into edible flesh and milk products. This is but a passing phase. Having once begun to question our eating habits, having once recognised our responsibility to all our fellowmen, we will soon seek to use every acre of land wisely for the good of all life. Once we turn _ our intellectual powers in the right direction, we will, by the intensive cultivation of both newly-bred and well tried species, be able to produce enough food for all on comparatively little land. Higher slopes and other regions unsuitable for horticulture can be given over, not to exploited sheep, but to wild life, to recreational purposes and most important of all to trees. Trees be.sides providing food of many kinds, *, raw materials for other basic needs, inspiration and fuel, are essential for the maintenance of breathable air, available water and fertile soil. Reckless destruction of the forests has resulted in floods, droughts and soil erosion. In wiser ages to come man's creation of the deserts which has resulted from his addiction to the flesh of grazing animals will be judged as one of his greatest follies. As to factory . foods and the use of indigestible plant materials, the production of the former will be deemed as unjustifiable waste of unrenewable sources of energy, and every bit of the latter regarded as essential composting material. There is a growing realisation that man has to learn to satisfy his needs in accordance with those cyclical processes that have supported the evolution of life sin^e its beginning. Modern agriculture has become so divorced from these thaÂŁ is now dependent on non-renewable sources of energy and chemicals and is at the same time destroying the life of the soil on which we all depend. simplest cycle for man is that in which he uses his enrgy to gather the food that yields the energy for the gathering. Such a system served him well during his long evolution. All cultures save that of the hunter.gatherer represent an interference with natural processes. Having spread through the world, having developed amazing intellectual powers, man must devise similarly sns^'nable cultures that will fu rther his evolution as a social, intellectual, compassionate spiritual being. Small scale, diverse veganic gardens in a world to which the tree cover has been restored earn be the basis of this. This will be true economy. +



K. Jannaway.

IMPORTANT NOTICES RESEARCH. Dr Frey Ellis urgently requires further volunteers of under 25 years of age, especially children, for the research on fatty acids. They will be required to visit Kingston General Hospital, Coombe R d . , Kingston-on-Thames, Surrey, and should write to Dr. Frey Ellis at the Pathology Department there. A VEGAN COOKERY COURSE will be conducted by Mabel Cluer at The Vegetarian Centre, Marlowes Rd. (about 5 mins. walk from Kensington High St.) for the five Fridays April 18th - May 16th inclusive plus a 6th lecture probably on May 13th. Fee for the course ÂŁ5 inclusive. As the last course was very well supported, those interested are advised to write soon to the Sea at Leatherhead. AUTUMN MEETINGS. These will be held in Bournemouth, November 21st-23rd, 1975. Accommodation has been booked in self-catering flatlets, E3.25 per person from Friday evening to Sunday afternoon. Please apply by end of April. Secretary and send suggestions for lecture subjects and other activities. Bournemouth is lovely in the Autumn and this will be a wonderful opportunity to get to know your fellow vegans. Please enclose S. A. E. for reply with full particulars. HAVE YOU PAID YOUR SUBSCRIPTION FOR 1975?- it was due in January. In spite of rising costs, we have not raised the subscription but are most grateful for the extra donations that very many have sent. This helps us to "carry" those who cannot afford to pay more but whose service and witness is most valuable to the Society. Please send as much as you can but please do not let inability to pay even this minimum subscription hinder your support of the Society; just being a member can be an encouragement to others. To help with astronomical postage please send a stamp with any communication requiring a reply. PLEASE send ALL subs., literature orders and other communications to the LEATHERHEAD OFFICE. FUTURE MEETINGS. April 6th, Sunday at 2.30 p. m. at Serena Coles, Purley, Surrey 01 660 7518. "What Veganism means to me"- 5 minute contributions from members. Volunteers please write to the Secretary. April 27th, Sunday at 1. 00 p. m. Newsletter production meeting (see later page) at 8 Petherton Rd. , London N. 5. July 6th. Sundav at 2.30 d. m. - Garden Party at 47 Highlands R d . , Leatherhead, Sy. B2033, off A24 - past St. Mary's churchyard - off Dorking R d . , nr. 714, 712, 470, 408, 468 bus routes - 15 mins. Leatherhead Station.

VEGFAM FEEDS THE HUNGRY : LAND - ECONOMY - WISE : EARTH - PLANT - MAN Donations gratefully received by - The Hon. Secretary, Vegfam, The Sanctuary, Lydford, Devon. Administrative expenses borne by Trustees. Covenanted subscription forms and/or collecting books supplied on request.


NEWS OF MEMBERS Muriel Henderson Many of you will remember Muriel who was one of the earliest members of the Vegan Society. She was small in stature but dynamic in her work for the creatures. It was my privilege to'be able to work with her in the days when we held a three tier stall at the Animals' Fair, selling food from her health food shop at Blackheath. The word Vegan was hardly known and it was certainly not in the dictionary. She also helped Dr. Franklin when he was formulating Barmene in a small backroom in Fulham. Soon afterwards, Muriel extended her shop to include a fruit juice bar which was opened by the Lady Dowding and, later, she opened a health food department in Chieseman's Store at Lewisham. About two years ago Muriel moved to Efracombe and she was overjoyed to be able to attend the Vegetarian May Meetings at Torquay last year when she met many friends. You will have seen her article in the Autumn Vegan Journal. With her undaunted courage she began a postal service of health foods when she was unable to travel. Muriel left this life in November. She was convinced that there was a life beyond this planet and, for those of us who of like mind, we would bless her as she passes on her way to another sphere of service. To her husband, son and daughter we extend our deepest sympathy. „ „ . Serena Coles. Two friends have sent donations in memory of Muriel and the Council has decided to put them to the fund for the elderly - see below. Alan Batt, Eva Batt's husband, died on February 13th. Members, knowing how much devoted service Eva has been able to give to the Society for so many years, will feel for her at this time of loss, great stress and readjustment. Eva wishes to express her heartfelt thanks to the many kind friends who sent messages of sympathy. Joan Bray. Our Treasurer's daughter had a baby girl - Vivien, Freya, Lysanne on December 10th. An article on Maureen Summers baby appeared in the October "Modern Mother" and on Harold and Jenny Bland in the Welwyn "Review" of January 2,nd. Both presented a very favourable image of veganism. YOUNG VEGAN SECTION NORTH WALES CANAL HOLIDAY (April 5th-12th): Due to cancellations we have three vacancies. Cost about £11 plus food; vegans/vegetarians welcome. Contact Malcolm Home at , Exemouth, Devon EX8 1QR. (Exmouth 4845). For news of other activities please send S. A. E. to John Strettle, c/o Chapel End Junior School, Roberts Road, Walthamstow, London E. 1 7 . o r see Newsletter

P&g@ it 1.

CONCERNING OUR ELDERLY MEMBERS. Those of you who were at the Annual General Meeting and heard the discussion regarding a Home for the Elderly will be pleased to know that three people, including a married couple, came forward to say that they would be interested to act as wardens. This was encouraging and has been followed by a series of communications between various experienced individuals and societies and I tope for further development after 20th February. The spade work is always the most difficult part of this kind of venture - even for large, experienced concerns and the early days of the Vegan Society were just as venturesome. It would seem that accommodation for between ten to twelve inhabitants would be the ideal for which to aim, with at least one communal meal a day provided and a communal sittingroom for those who wished to use it. Members would have to be able to do their own chores and shopping, or have a local home help to assist. There would not be any nursing facilities except for minor ailments. Incidentally, there are a few whispers that some societies are now discussing the possibility of getting together in order to open aNursingflome and I am all ears. All things take time and I will commence a waiting list for anybody who is interested although I doubt whether the Home for Vegans will be achieved under fifteen months and I imagine that the Nursing Home will take much longer. It was suggested at the A. G. M. that each member be asked to send a further lOp with their subscription specifically for the Home, if they felt so inclined. Please think about it and ACT. With our present sum of ÂŁ23 we are not going to get very far with material arrangements even if we are going far with our ages'. Serena Coles. FUND FOR THE ELDERLY. The fund for the Elderly has are being made to open a Home, members have sent donations in has decided to add to this fund.

hardly begun to grow yet but now definite moves it is believed that the money will come in. Two memory of Muriel Henderson which the Council Others might do likewise.

Members can, perhaps, arrange fund raising events. (At a recent meeting Peter Brown organised a raffle). We today owe so much to the pioneers who have made the way so much easier for us. They deserve to spend their last years among those who understand them.

ORIENTAL MEDICINE Orientation and Introduction to the Principles and Practice of ORIENTAL MEDICINE Seminar arranged by Acupuncture Assn. and Tyringham Naturopathic Clinic. May 31st & June 1st (plus further seminars during the following week). Lecturer PROF. MICHIA KUSHI (assisted by Edward Esko). Full particulars from S. Rose-neil, Tyringham Clinic, Newport Pagnell, Bucks. This first time teaching visit of Prof. Michio Kushl will prove to b a most important landmark in the integration of Eastern and Western Medicine".



by the Vegan Society

HELP TO SPREAD VEGANISM by buying them for YOURSELF and YOUR FRIENDS. Be well informed and help our funds.

What's Cooking? ÂŁ 1. so post free The unique cookery book by Eva Batt. Over 250 vegan recipes and valuable information and advice. Written with such vitality and clarity, humour and commonsense that it is a delight to read and own. First Hand: First Rate

3 2 p post free

A recipe booklet especially written for those seeking to live as far as possible on f o o d they can grow themselves.

Pioneers of the New Age

Vegan Mothers and Children 32p post free

27p post free Accounts by 12 vegans of longstanding. on how they fared through the year^.

Accounts by 12 vegan mothers on bringing up children the vegan way.

In Lighter Vein

50p post free

A collection of verses by Eva Batt. Humourous and gay but pervaded by deep compassion for living things. Attractively illustrated by J i l l Bennett.

55p Attractive booklet on choosing and using the fresh foods around us. Written and illustrated by Mabel Cluer. Published just in time to stock your gardeni ALSO - pack of leaflets on many aspects of the vegan case - lOp. All prices include BUY AS MANY AS YOU GAN AND HELP THE FUNDS new postage. Fill in this coupon and send with cheque/P. O. to 47 Highlands Rd. Leatherhead, Sy. I enclose p for







Local Branches page).

The Extraordinary General Meeting to present the 1974 Accounts was held (as announced in the Winter '74 Journal) on Saturday, February 15th at Friends House Euston Ed. About 40 attended and were pleased to be informed of a gratifyingly healthy balance sheet. The Accounts were presented by Grace Smith, the Treasurer. Their adoption, proposed by Serena Coles, seconded by Peter Brown, was carried unanimously. Jack Sanderson was in the Chair.

After the Extraordinary ueneral Meeting, members listened to an interesting talk by D*. Saul Miller, a Canadian psychologist, on "Some Effects of Diet on Behaviour1 and reassembled after a much appreciated tea to ply him with questions. Dr. Miller, describing man as "an expression of the universe", a physical and spiritual entity who related most basically with the environment by means of what he ate, suggested that food could be instrumental in helping to produce psychological and behavioural disorders For example - non-whole foods could lead to disintergratlon of the personality; refined sugar was the most disintergrating of foods; eating too many foods that were "out of region, out of season" could lead to alienation. Over processed and synthesised foods lower responsiveness to the surroundings. Grain should be man's principal food; too much fruit could lead to depression, meat to extreme behaviour and tenseness and an overwhelming desire for sugar. Dr. Saul Miller encouraged his listeners to help him in his research. Eva Batt has spoken most powerfully at many meetings and on Radio and Television. Prevented by her husband's illness from keeping an engagement to appear on television in Bristol, her place was taken by Alan Long who presented the vegan case with great effect.

RED DEER IN SCOTLAND I write to express concern at the latest infringement (to my knowledge) by man of the laws of Nature, namely, the experiments being carried out on the red deer in Scotland with a view to domesticating them, as featured on Nationwide in the beginning of January. Surely vegetarians and animal lovers should unite now to stop this before it goes any further. If it is not stopped, then the next we shall hear will be that they have been incarcerated in broilerhouses, or are being transported alive for slaughter overseas, or perhaps even that they are being subjected to Kosher slaughter, for who knows to what further depths man's greed and ignorance will cause him to sink? And surely in the danger to the deer we have a great opportunity to enlist the sympathy of the uncommitted public for our cause. Don't let's miss It! Margaret Lawson. 1975




We hope to be represented by Eva Batt and Serena Coles at the 23rd World Vegetarian Congress, Maine, U.S. A. August 16- 28th. Full information, for anyone wishing to go, sent on receipt of S.A. E. 9

EXETER VEGETARIAN & VEGAN SOCIETY. This society was started up in September 1974 and, at the time of writing, we have held 5 public meetings with attendances averaging around 25. We have had speakers on topics such as Beauty Without Cruelty, Fruitarianism, etc. Unfortunately, we have not had all that much support from vegans or vegan sympathisers in the locality and the great majority of our members (38 so far) are lacto-vegetarians. Nevertheless, vegan literature is distributed and read, veganism is discussed and, perhaps, in the future, more people will feel able to go "the whole way". Rather than try to directly impose veganism on people, it would seem better to sow the seed gently in the belief that, in the long run, the flower produced will be all the stronger. In the West Country, we now have vegan groups in Exeter, Torquay and Cornwall. Hopefully, Plymouth will also soon have a vegetarian and/or vegan group - it only needs one or two people to set the ball rolling as there is plenty of potential there. I am sure this is the case in many places in fact; it is just a question of assessing local resources and then doing something! In any area of reasonable population, there are bound to be several vegetarians and probably atleast a few vegans. A vegetarian society in such a place, if it does not already exist, should always be a viable proposition; where there is already a vegetarian society it may well be possible to form a vegan group out of that. The advantages of forming these groups or societies should be apparent. It is not only that individuals prosper by meeting others of like mind but, also, it provides a very good way of advertising the vegan/vegetarian ethic. A society in the locality means that, presumably, some kind of publicity campaign is launched, meetings are advertised, and so on; in this way, the ideas associated with veganism and vegetarianism reach, at least partially, a large number of people and so that seed, which can never be expected to flower overnight, is gently sown. Malcolm Home,

, Exmouth, Devon EX8 1QR.

WEST COUNTRY VEGETARIAN/VEGAN CONFERENCE: Weekend of July 11th-13th at Beaford in North Devon. Primarily for those in Devon, Cornwall and Somerset. More details next issue or contact Malcolm Home, , Exmouth, Devon EX8 1QR. TORBAY VEGANS meet at Theosophical Lodge, 26 Parkhill R d . , Torquay, each third Tuesday in the month at 7. 30p. m. and would be pleased to meet anyone interested, especially visitors. The NORTH LONDON & DISTRICT BRANCH are continuing to meet regularly and members have enjoyed getting to know each other at well supported gatherings at the homes of Beatrice Camm, Kevin & Maryke Mc Cartney and plan to meet at Susan Berfords on March 2nd. If you want to be kept informed of these meetings, please send S. A. E. to Myra Kelly, Southgate, London N14 4LL Suggestions for activities welcomed.


Shopping with


Several of you have commented on the attractive advertisement for Prewett's Cook Book boldly headed WHAT'S COOKING? This is not the name of the book, as might at first appear, neither is there any connection between Prewett's and our vegan cookery book "What's Cooking?" This common phrase may be used by anyone, anywhere, except as the title for another book. COMMODITIES Lindt Chocolate. Both plain and bitter chocolate is free from animal ingredients except white sugar, the source of which is not known. Leisure Drinks, specialists in alcohol-free drinks. *

We have been assured that


this Company's "Golden Harvest Pate" is free from any ingredient of animal origin. The other two flavours, "Mushroom" and "Tropical" contain milk. Help to get Golden Harvest into shops by asking for it. Discontinued. Mapletons regret that they are not yet in a position to re-introduce salt-free Barmene, discontinued last year due to the difficulty of establishing supplies of necessary raw materials. No longer vegan. Jus-Rol Ltd., can no longer guarantee that the shortening used in their shortcrust pastry will remain entirely vegetable. George Walker continues his mammoth, self-imposed task of contacting every brewery in the U. K. He has now added distilleries to his list. Sheaves of information arrive here, of which we have space for'only a few selected items. In the Isle of Man, anything from Castletown Brewery is vegan, also Bell's Scotch Whisky and all whiskies from the White Horse distillery and Gordon's gin. Puzzled beer drinkers may be interested to know that "finings", the clarifier derived from isinglas (which comes from the swimming bladder of the sturgeon and is imported from the Far East), is used for "settling" draught beer only. Bottled or keg beer is filtered, not fined, and therefore does not involve the use of this fish material. Toiletries and Cosmetics. Yardley. Although assuring us that their use of the natural Musk and Civet is gradually being replaced by synthetic perfume fixatives, this Company could not comply with our request for the names of any Yardley products not containing either of these materials - produced at the cost of animal suffering. Carter Brothers "Tiki" cosmetics. Some of these contain lanolin and/or honey and the manufacturer could not give us the name of any Tiki cosmetics which are vegan.


Faith Products. All contain lanolin and beeswax, and in the moisturiser, honey. Eva Batt. ALSO NOTED Marks and Spencer's Chocolate Peppermint Creams and Chocolate Bitter Orange Creams, listed under the vegan section in the Handbook, contain egg albumin. Vegecos Innocence lipsticks, listed as vegan, contain beeswax. Homoeopathic Remedies. Medicines for internal use may be supplied in granules of pure sugar or liquids of alcohol/water mixture from A. Nelson & Co. Ltd., 73 Duke St., London WIM 6BY. Tissue Salts can be supplied in pillule form made entirely from sugar, cane or beet, or in liquid form with a base of 15% alcohol obtained from vegetable sources obtainable from Weleda (UK) Ltd., Ship St., East Grinstead, RH19 4ES. COFFEEMATE IS NOT VEGAN - we are trying to get the manufacturers to change their label but so far with no success. PLANTMILK LTD. Arthur Ling wishes to express his deepest thanks to the vegan he met at the A. G. M. who broke into his Christmas holiday to visit the Plantmilk Factory and give his professional services as a desigr. engineer. His help, given freely because he "wanted to do something practical to help-the Vegan movement" was of immense value. Arthur wonders whether other vegans with professional qualifications, trade skills or other special abilities (e. g. commercial artists) would be willing to help in a similar fashion. He urgently needs an electrician who can help with the rewiring of the factory. Also, urgently, the Company is in great need of a labelling machine to replace their present worn out one. Perhaps some member can help it to acquire one at a low cost. It was largely the help of members of the Vegan Society that made possible the acquiring of Plamil House. It is hoped that the same interest will help it to provide the maximum service to the cause of veganism. Please contact Arthur Ling, Plamil House, Bowles Well Gdns., Dover Rd. Folkestone.

Established 1728. To the best of our knowledge we are the only producers of pure apple juice made from organically grown apples without toxic or chemical sprays. No added chemicals or preservatives. We crush as we pick - no cold storage - no loss of flavour. And we supply nearly a 1,000 shops all over the U. K. (over 100 in London alone). "CRANKS IN HEAL'S"serve only ASPALL'S Apple Juice and Cyder -> we feel greatly honoured. We can supply your health shop - ask them. Or you direct by B. R. S. Enquiries to - The Cyder House, Aspall Hall, Stowmarket, Suffolk. 12

mm h



NUTRITION by F. R . Ellis, M. D., F. R. C. Path, and T.A.B.Sanders, B.Sc. (Nutrition).


The word comes from the Greek meaning pre-eminent. Proteins are chemical compounds and are large in terms of molecular size with molecular weights of between five thousand and five hundred thousand. All proteins contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen and some contain, in addition, sulphur and phosphorus. Proteins are made up of smaller units called amino acids which are linked together in chains in various combinations. Muscle, blood, nervous tissue and the internal organs consist of different types of protein all of which are synthesised from the amino acid building blocks in the body. There are twenty different types of amino acids commonly found in animal and plant proteins. The body is able to synthesise twelve of these but it does not have the ability to synthesise the other eight in sufficient quantity to meet the body's daily needs. Therefore it is necessary that they are provided in the diet and are thus termed essential amino acids. They are isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine and for infants histidine. If sufficient quantities of these essential amino acids are not present in the diet, the growth and maintenance of body tissue will be impaired. The body can only fully utilise a protein which has all the amino acids in the correct proportions. Animal proteins such as milk and eggs contain all the amino acids in correct proportions and consequently are called high quality proteins. Plant proteins, with the exception of soya bean protein, do not contain all the amino acids in the correct proportions and generally are deficient in one or more of the eight essential amino acids and are of a lower quality (see Table 1). Fortunately, different plant proteins are deficient in different amino acids so, by mixing two plant foods of low quality, it is possible to produce a high quality protein with all the amino acids in the correct proportions. For example, a pulse and a cereal (baked beans on toast) or a mixture of cereals and nuts (Muesli) provide high quality protein with all the amino acids in correct proportions. As a rule, cereals tend to be deficient in lysine and pulses deficient in methionine. Table 2 shows various plant foods that are deficient or high in lysine or methionine. From this it is possible to work out various combinations of plant foods to ensure that the diet is sufficient in both these amino acids. The most important sources of plant protein are pulses, nuts and cereals. Approximately one tenth of man's diet should contain protein which conveniently is the amount found in most cereals. Therefore it is important that cereals should form the basis of a vegan diet and care should be taken not to substitute them with starchy roots and tubers which have a low protein content. As protein


is needed for growth, young children and pregnant and lactating mothers need a greater proportion of protein in their diet (see Table 3). It is important, especially for young children (under five years) that cereals should be supplemented with protein rich foods such as soya bean products, nuts and pulses to provide an adequate supply of good quality protein in the diet. Generally, fruits, leafy vegetables, roots and tubers contain vciy little protein. Table 4 shows the protein content of some foods. The humanitarian aspect of the vegan diet is important because the increased use of plant protein for human consumption could help solve the world food shortage. It takes four or five times as much land to support a family on animal products than on plant products. Every year, enormous quantities of grain are fed to farm animals for dairy and meat production. If this grain was used for human consumption, it could relieve the world food shortage. However, it seems that developed countries would rather feed grain to their food animals than to starving people in distant countries. Therefore, in summary, the protein intake of a vegan diet can be quite adequate as long as a variety of plant foods are eaten at each meal.


Protein source Animal


Net protein utilisation 100

Egg Fish Meat Milk Blood Gelatin

90 81

80 4 0

Soya Wheat Germ Coconut Ground nut Beans Potato Rice Bread

75 67 70 45 45 40 40 40

* D. S. Miller and Pamela Mumford, Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, vol. 2 no. 3/4 March 1972.


TABLE 2. LYSINE* METHIONINE* Deficient Deficient Almonds Beet Broad beans Barley Brussel sprouts Brazil nuts Cabbage Flour Carrots Maize Lentils Walnuts White bread Peanuts Peas White rice

LYSINE* High Broad beans Cauliflower Haricot beans Lentils Peas Soya Turnip tops Wheat germ

METHIONINE* Hiffh Brazil nuts Brown ricei Cauliflower Maize Spinach Turnip tops White bread White rice

•Few plant foods show substantial deficiences of essential amino acids other than lysine or methionine.


Energy and Protein Requirements.

Age Group

Calories required

Grams of Plant

Infants 6-11 months 1090 23 Children 1-3 years 1360 27 4-6 " 1830 34 7-9 " 2190 41 Male adolescent 10-12 years 2600 50 13-15 " 2900 62 16-19 " 3070 63 Female a lolescent 10-12 years 2350 48 it 13-15 2480 52 rr 2310 50 16-19 Male adult 20-39 years 3000 40-49 " 2850 ) 50-59 " 2700 ) 62 60-69 2400 ) 70 and over 2100 ) Female adult 20-39 years 2200 ) 40-49 " 2090 ) 1980 50-59 " ) 48 60-69 " 1760 ) 70 and over 1540 ) Pregnant women latter half of pregnancy add 350 63 Lactating women add 750 76 first 6 months •based on figures from a recent Joint FAO/WHO Committee Report.


Protein Calories 8.4 7.9 7.4 7.5 7. 7 8.6 8.2 8.2 8.4 8.7 8.3 8.7 9.2 10.3 11.8 8.7 9.2 9.7 10.9 12.5

TABLE 4. THE PROTEIN CONTENT OF SOME CEREALS, NUTS AND BEANS COMPARED WITH ANIMAL PRODUCTS. Food Bread (whole meal) Maize (whole meal) •Millet (Sorghum) Oats (rolled) Rice (husked) Rye (whole meal) Wheat (whole meal) Wheat germ Almonds Brazil nuts Hazel nuts Peanuts Walnuts

Protein g per 100 g

Food Broad beans (boiled) Haricot beans (boiled) Runner beans (boiled) Soya bean Beef steak (stewed) Chicken (roast) Eggs (fresh, whole) Ham (boiled) Milk (fresh, whole) Mutton, leg (roast) Ox liver (fried)

9.1 9.5 10.1 13.0 7.5 11.0 12.2 26.6 18.6 14.3 12.7 26.2 14.8

Protein r per lOOg 4.1 6.6 0.8 38.0 30.8 29.6 11.9 23.1 3.4 25.0 29.5

The above article will be the first chapter in a booklet on Vegan Nutrition which Dr. Ellis and T. A. B. Sanders are preparing. Other chapters will appear in future issues of the "Vegan". They are so arranged in the Journal that, by removing the staples, a complete leaflet can be obtained. Dr. Ellis is at present engaged on research on phospholipids and fatty acids and needs more young volunteers, teenage and children especially (see page 5j The tests involve taking blood and also, if parents agree,aspirating some fat from the arm. This is done through a needle using a small amount of anaesthetic. Volunteers should be 100% vegan.

Recent publicity has been given to the assertion by Dr. Crawford and his coworkers that the long chain fatty acids essential for brain development have to be obtained from animal products. Professor Snodgrass, Dr. Frey Ellis and others, claim that they are synthesised within the brain itself, that the membranes of the brain cells are impervious to them. The fact that superior intelligence can be developed without animal products is clearly demonstrated by the performance of many vegan children (some of vegan parents). Most vegan children seem to be above average in intelligence and doing well scholastically. Recent clinical investigations of vegan children by Dr. Frey Ellis and Miss Mumford of Queen Elizabeth College, University of London, confirm the adequacy of the diet in every respect. A report will be available shortly.


GARDENING 1974 Twenty five reports were sent in mostly from people with less than an eighth, of an acre. Only four claimed to be using completely non-digging methods though nearly all claimed a minimum of digging, and a reliance on plant compost. Six supplemented their own compost with bought in supplies and seven with green manure. One used human excreta. Pesticides were generally avoided, most saying that they had little infestation and either endured it or dealt with it by hand. The usual range of vegetable crops were grown with emphasis on beans and peas. For most 1974 had been a disappointing year because of the unfavourable weather. Great disappointment was expressed with.regard to soya beans. Eleven people grew them; a few reported poor germination but most had sturdy plants that failed to develop more than a small number of beans; some got none. Mr Whisker, nick-named Mr Soya Bean because of his long association with the plant- he has experimented with 100 varieties in his Surrey garden- describes 1974 as the worst year in his experience. " It produced " , he says, " all the wrong climatic features." He welcomed this as giving opportunities for experiment but was sorry for those growing soya for the first time. He hopes they will not give up. His own Fiskeby V. - which he uses as a control to evaluate new overseas material- grew to between 3' and 3' 6" in height and bore pods from top to bottom of the stem. He lost over twenty cultivars that had ripened in previous years but still mamaged to obtain ripe seed from sixty varieties. Cold wet weather prevented him from harvesting crops until the end of October and would have left them longer but for threatened floods. His faith in turning Britain into a soya bean producing country remains undaunted. Mr Whisker has been much excited at receiving a request for some of his Surrey seed from the Chinese Academy of Science. He has been able to send 10,000 seeds and has received from Peking some wild soya seed with which he will be experimenting in 1975. HINTS ON GROWING SOYA Do not sow until the soil is warm - not before mid- May. Place linch deep in heavy soil, 2 ins in light soil., in short rows of about 36 ins, with the rows 9" - 12" apart. MOST IMPORTANT keep the soil thoroughly soaked while the plants are in flower and while the seeds are being formed and fattened. Allow as long a ripening period as possible.

THE QUESTION OF FERTILISER Much prominence is being given in reports on the World Food Crisis to the importance of the provision of artificial fertilisers. It seems very wrong to encourage the developing countries in this way. Artificial fertilisers cost million of pounds to establish, are very expensive to run ( it takes 5 tons of fossil fuel 17

to produce one ton of artificial fertiliser ) and while the immediate effect is to produce higher yield, the long term effect may be to damage the soil's ability to produce crops for the greatly increased population that must be expected in the coming years. What is the alternative ? Many would say the use of animal manure. This is used for fuel and building in some of the poorest countries. Such manure .besides being part of the unjustifiable exploitation of animals, is only made from grass and other green plants which will provide more and,some believe, much healthier compost if made directly from plants instead of being passed through animals first. Some advocate the careful recycling of all wastes including human excreta. China for many years has maintained a large population on small acreage by such means. (King's book "Farmers for Forty Centuires'hateen reprinted as a paper back. It makes fascinating reading.) To some people the recycling of human excreta seems most appropriate and the alternative of depositing it in the sea a polluting waste and an unjustifiable offence against the 'law of Return1.' What do you think ? MrsDalziel 0"Brien well known for her successful pioneering of veganic gardening gives her views below. We hope to have contributions from others to publish next issue. K. Jannaway. FOOD FOR THOUGHT - on Fertilisers. by R. Dalziel O'Brien. In any iiscussion on the use or misuse of land, invariably it is taken for granted that animal cr^anics ere a natural and desirable fertiliser for any growing plant: indeed many people sincerely believe that only by returning to a state comparable with the middle ages where no other forms of manure were used on farm land is the most beneficial thing that could happen to ensure the well being of the human race! - briefly, to seek solutions to present day agricultural problems in the customs prevailing long before the introduction of so called artificial fertilisers. This idea is another example of distance lending enchantment to the view.' There is another side to that scenery, indeed it would be more realistic to say that the seeds of today's land problems were sown then, because in those byegone days people were being encouraged to keep more food animals, including cattle. Later came the practice of taking milk for domestic use and this led to dairy farming becoming an important factor in farm production resulting in increasing numbers of animals. Then came the Enclosure Act and the custom of keeping cattle housed through the winter months, instead of slaughtering them in the autumn as was the usual practice. In consequence, an accumulation of dung had then to be disposed of, and I strai^y suspect, it and other animal wastes, were spread over the fields as an expedient and this method of dealing with them has persisted ever since. In fact, the habit has become so fixed that to question its wisdom amounts to heresy!


The introduction of intensive rearing of cattle and pigs and the problems this method has engendered are becoming so vast as to be almost unmanageable. Farming journals today consistently feature differing methods of animal waste disposal, particularly the slurry from the cattle and pig units, which are aimed at relieving the situation - there are even "lakes" of it in some areas! I do not accept that the way out for present day agricultural problems relating to the domesticated food animal industry as it has now become, is to go back: rather to go forward; dispense with them, and automatically those particualar problems would cease to exist. To those who doubt that these substances are indeed harmful, I would draw their attention to the fact that the ruminant animals from which the domesticated ones have been bred, lived in an environment where a natural balance was maintained for the most part: any fouling of the soil was counteracted in the natural cycle and their grazing habits therefore did not destroy their source of food. Instinctively, they moved on continuously, thus allowing time for the insects, soil workers and other creatures to do the work involved in rendering the "waste" as harmless as possible. In this way, herbage and the soil were kept in a healthy state. A very different situation is created when large herds are confined in fields and forced to graze the same area over and over. The animals are absorbing i'fyi their own wastes via the grasses, thus contibuting a cause of diseases, some of which are known to be directly transmittable to man. In the early 1900s, farmers who put "night soil" on their land were sent to "Coventry" by their neighbours because such an act was seen as irresponsible and lacking consideration for the well-being of.the animals and the hygiene of the soil. They knew that a peculiarly distressing complaint can be contracted by animals from such substances. In the later stages of this illness, the animals develop depraved tastes - even eating soil and, almost unbelievably, preferring impure water to pure! Who knows what depraved tastes human beings will develop if sewage continues to be used as fertiliser because it should be remembered that any manures are taken up in solution by plants. Therefore, for us to consider that our vegetables, fruits, cereals and nuts are better for our health when grown with animal organic manures, is to be under an illusion; we are, in fact, absorbing the very pollutants which in so many other directions we are trying to prevent! It has been authoritively stated that it is almost certain that disease (cancer included) is caused by the absorption by the body of "alien" substances. How more alien can substances be than excreta discarded by animals and/or man and the putrefying wastes and undesirables from other sources, in sewage? If one gives serious thought to this subject, one will see that anything less natural and health giving could hardly be imagined! To those who think their own excreta is permissable, even desirable, as a manure for their food crops, I would suggest they think a little more deeply on the implications of that phrase "food for thought" and ask themselves what the origin of those thoughts are. 19


from ITALY

by Bruno Nascimben.

RICE AND PUMPKIN For each person: 1 spoonful of good olive oil j: an onion about 150 gr. pumpkin 60 gr. rice | litre of water salt and pepper if desired In a pot fry with olive oil a chopped onion. When it is brown add the pumpkin cut into small dice without the skin, water, salt and a little tomato sauce. Continue cooking until the pumpkin is cooked, then add the rice, stirring a little. The soup must become dense, but the rice not overcooked. RISOTTO WITH CAULIFLOWER For each person: 1 spoonful olive oil 1 clove of garlic 2 cauliflower 90 gr. of rice ยง litre of water salt, nutmeg tomato sauce optional In a saucepan fry the chopped garlic, and when it is brown add the cauliflower, broken without leaves, water and salt. Continue the cooking until the cauliflower is nearly cooked, add the rice, stirring a little. The risotto would be solid, but not too much. Should water have to be added it must be boiling. SPAGHETTI AND PESTO Put spaghetti (100 gr. each person)in abundant, salted, boiling water. Stir and cook for 5 minutes, then strain in a colander, season with Pesto and serve. Pesto is a green sauce to put on the pasta (spaghetti, macaroni, tagliatelle). The word pesto means crushed, mashed; in fact the ingredients should b a bruised in a mortar. Do not ask for pesto in ar, It-'iaynsslaiirant b o o m ! " cheese would be added. Garlic, basil, parsley ;u-e thinly cut, put in a cup with salt, milled pepper and good olive oil (green), The proportion of the ingredients may be varied according to taste. Mashed nuts and pine seeds may be added.


PROPOSALS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF A VEGAN NEWSLETTER. The proposal for a newsletter arises from the feeling of a need for a complimentary publication to the "Vegan" but much more because of the improved . social contact that could arise, not only throught the circulation of the news, letter, but also from the participation in the production. PROPOSALS. To organize on a regular basis a weekend meeting which will produce a Vegan Newsletter. PARTICIPANTS. The meetings should be open to all members of the Society and sympathizers. LOCATION. The meeting should take place at a different location each time, if possible, in order to allow a maximum number of people to co-operate in the newsletter production. Each meeting should decide where the next location will be and this will be printed in the newsletter. The requirements for a location are simply floorspace for overnight guests and access to a duplicating machine. FREQUENCY. The meeting should take place once every month or every two months according to the interest shown. INTENTIONS. 1) To provide a framework for regular co-operation and contact among vegans. 2) To provide a means of faster communication than is possible through the quarterly "Vegan"thereby stimulating the organization of further activities. 3) To provide a less formal, more open publication. The "Vegan" is like a shopwindow to the Society and, as such, has to maintain a certain respectability. A newsletter circulating among members could be less restricted. FINANCE. Cost of production can be minimised using the typed stencils technique with a duplicating machine. These costs will be met by the newsletter participants with a possible contribution from the Vegan Society. Cost of circulation. If the newsletter is sent only to those members who request it and supply the newsletter co-ordinators with stamped addressed envelopes, this will eliminate circulation costs. It will also ensure that the newsletter will not continue to be produced unless it is serving a real need. CONTENT. The content of the newsletter will depend on who is willing to contribute. Final decisions on what goes into the newsletter will be decided by majority vote of the members of the Society who are present at the production weekends. A forwarding address for contributions will be printed in each issue. This proposal was discussed at a recent North London meeting, where considerable interest was shown. Please let us know if you want to participate in producing the newsletter and send any ideas and contributions to: M. McCartney, . , London N5. We also need to know sources of duplicating machines that can be borrowed for a weekend. The first newsletter will hopefully be produced at above address on Sunday 26th April, 1.00 p. m. All welcome. Those wishing to receive a copy of the first Newsletter should send a S. A. E. to the same address.


It was with great regret that I read the letter "Saying it with Fires" in the Vegan Winter 1974 issue. I must admit I am torn deeply by this issue. However, in regard to animals most people truly believe that it is necessary to kill animals for food, sport, research, etc. Until that belief can be changed through education it would seem that direct action against such a strongly held belief can only result in counteraction by any society holding such beliefs. Further, I think that what is at issue here is a lesson we have in our hands to teach but can lose the right to teach if we make a mistake. The lesson is that humanity must abandon the use of force. Clearly nothing is more forceful than the taking of life. So we must oppose the use of force. It seems quite logical to believe that we cannot convince our brethren to abandon the use offeree if we use it ourselves. Clearly, the use of force rather than reason to accomplish ai\y end is unjustifiable. Such at least is our logic. Our emotions tell us the reverse unfortunately. One wants to liberate all animals. Yet this cannot be done by force. It must be done with logic, with teaching. We have today the ability to communicate with all humans to teach the need to abandon the use of force and to abandon the use of animals. If we-,instead of using that ability to communicate, become instead brigands in the eyes of society, we shall lose soon that ability to communicate. We must remember we are talking about dealing with what in a sense are children with toys. If you wish to take a dangerous toy out of a child's hand, you:must present it with another toy, more tempting but less dangei ous. Veganism is such a tempting and undangerous toy. It must be presented to the foolish children called carnivores who now cling to their animal victims with such foolish energy. If we can present veganism and the need for and ease of practice which goes with it, we can liberate all the animals rather than just a few by r.ight. But, if we adopt the stealth of the hunter in our efforts, we shall have lost all of our cause. In America, demonstrations by Vegans have included demonstrations at the ubiquitous McDonald's hamburger chain - including some demonstrations which which brought live cattle into their establishment to prove that only dead ones were allowed there and other demonstrations using live horses outside horse meat markets to show the beauty of the living animal. We have also demonstrate! in zoos with signs and placards and mock bars proclaiming "no-one is free until all are free" and "this is a prison, close this prison". Bunuel's new film The Phantom of Liberty" even includes a reference to a demonstration at a zoo. Such demonstrations bring public attention to the issues involved but do not involve trying to take the deadly rattle from out of the baby's hands. Instead, they are designed to make the baby think. We support such non-violent demonstrations. Bob Pinkus. U. S. A.

IN R E P L Y TO DON PHILLIPS may I quote from the report on the affairs of the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals recently published. "The affluent society of modern urban life is one which human convenience is paramount. Domestic pets are bought like any other consumer goods and without real thought for the future. When human convenience seems to require it, these animals are discarded as any other unwanted property might be. I n addition to this, the natural breeding of domestic aniamls in a secure, urban environment produces more progeny than are desired or can be homed. The result is unwanted thousands of dogs and cats. It is agreed, on all hands, that the problem is increasing -" No, Mr. Phillips (and four other vegans), I do not really need to keep "pets" but why should all these products of man's ruthlessness and throw-outs from heartless commercial breeders be consigned to the burning? Not one of our pets was deliberately sought and all have sad histories - we keep them at considerable personal expense and sacrifice and we are not of the "bootees on poodl'es"mentality. C. Barnard. I really must protest against the recently published letter on pets from Don. L. Phillips and his four anonymous friends. Mr. Phillips questions whether "grown up people really need to keep pets". Perhaps not but many of them, like myself, keep pets only because they have saved them from some unpleasant or cruel fate. My own pet dog would have gone to a vivisection laboratory thirteen years ago if I had not taken him, and my pet cat was abandoned and thrown out in midwinter as a tiny, unweaned kitten. Messrs. Phillips & Co. then suggest that I should adopt deprived children rahter than deprived animals. However, my wife and I are by experience, training and inclination, better fitted to care for unwanted animals rather than unwanted children. Therefore, if there are both animals and children in need of adoption, it is surely better for us to adopt the animals? In any case, the animals'needs are the most pressing as there is no Welfare State to care for theml About the only thing animals are likely to get on the taxpayer when their existence becomes inconvenient for man is a lethel injection (if they are lucky) or (if they are not) electrocution or gassing. R. Marriot. VEGETARIANISM AND THE EARLY CHURCH ' I am a Christian and a Lay Reader in the Anglican Church; but I confess I have found it very difficult indeed to answer those non-vegetarians who point to the account in St. Luke, chapter 5, of the miraculous draught of fishes. In verse 4, Our Lord tells Simon Peter to "let down the nets for a draught of fishes". If Our Lord condemned the killing and eating of fish, birds and animals, (it is said to me) why then did He give this command and behave in this way with no condemnation of catching fish but a command to practise it? How would Mr. Lane counter that argument? I hope he will not do so by questioning the story as myth or suspect: this only invites the retort that we reject what is harmful to our cause but keep and make use of what supports it. A. J. Pettitt. (. ,..) 23

F rom a Correspondent in Hong Kong I have discussed the benefits of the Vegan Way of Life with members of the Buddhist Sangha here (who have been leading the way of life which you prescribe for about 2,000 years) and they have informed me that the main benefits are:LONGEVITY. Most Chinese live to about 65-70, but Buddhists have a marked reputation for reaching 80 plus. One famous Chinese monk, Hsu Yun, died at 120 during the 1950's and we have in Hong Kong today another famous Chinese monk, Lo Ka, who is over 100. The older Chinese usually turn to a strict vegan diet at about 60 in order to prolong their life. Unfortunately, it is rather difficult to produce facts and figures. POSTPONEMENT OF SENILITY. Amongst Buddhist Vegans, there is a marked absence of senility in old age. LOW FOOD INTAKE. When the body gets used to a vegan diet after a number of years, less food is needed. Amongst Buddhist Vegans there are two meals only per day with soup in the evenings. LITTLE SLEEP REQUIRED. Buddhist Vegans need six hours sleep only, from 10 p. m. to 4 a . m . STOMACH DISORDERS REDUCED. From discussions it was noted that very few suffered from any kind of stomach disorder which is very common out here and in other tropical countries. Europeans living out here average one serious stomach upset a year. European Buddhist Vegans living out here have been almost trouble free except for one case of appendicitis'. (There have been other illnesses such as rheumatism though). LESS BODY ROT! Because of the climate, bodies are usually buried/cremated within 3 days out here. The Chinese then exhume relatives' bodies after 7 years and place tiie bones into pots which are in turn placed on hill tops overlooking a beautiful view. As a result of these activities, it has been noted that in many cases the bodies of Buddhist Vegans have not decayed as expected. Many such cases have been declared as saints and the body preserved. This suggests that the living body of a Vegan must be healthier, cleaner and more hygienic than a meat eater's body. PEACEFUL DEATH. Amongst Chinese it is considered of great benefit to die peacefully during sleep. This is considered to be one of the benefits of a Buddhist Vegan. Although I cannot prove this with figures, it would appear to be a regular happening amongst Buddhist Vegans. SPIRITUAL INSIGHT. Buddhist Vegans consider it either hard or difficult for a meat eater to obtain any kind of spiritual attainment such as E. S. P. and the like. The Greeks also considered this . Spiritual growth cannot be attained with safety on a meat diet or with alcoholic drink. EXCELLENT RE-BIRTH CONDITIONS. (This one I am afraid I cannot prove to you!) After a long period as a Vegan, human re-birth or higher is assured. It is no longer possible to obtain re-birth as an animal. It also ensures human re-birth into an environment free from wars, starvation and violence. It also ensures a long life, few illnesses and a peaceful death at the next birth.





There are, basically, two very different concepts involved in modern medicine. Orthodoxy is concerned primarily with "surgery" in its broadest interpretation, the object being the removal of an illness or symptom; unorthodox medicine is concerned with the patient, and with effecting a Healing process in order to make the patient Whole. It is_ immediately apparent that for orthodox medicine to meet with any degree of success, the specific cause of the illness must be known, whereas in the case of therapy directed towards making good the Whole, use of disease categories and the necessity for conventional diagnosis are not essential. The orthodox practitioner is bound by the concept of his patient contracting a specific illness, for which, hopefully, there is a specific cure, whilst the Healer acknowledges a condition of dis-ease within the patient, arid is able to restore harmony often without any conscious understanding of which illness he is removing. It is worthwhile here to examine the relationship between the whole and the part, and for the benefit of orthodox medicine, between the symptom, which shows that all is not well, and the overall condition which the symptom represents. In our most unenlightened state we see a symptom and, because it is unpleasant, we remove it, not concerning ourselves with its cause, which would take too much time. Unfortunately, this is in common practice in the doctor's surgery. The suffering patient displays, say, a hand covered with warts and is comforted by a prescription which will remove them, but which will also destroy the natural warning system which indicates that the person as a whole needs attention, possibly resulting in a far more serious disharmony developing at a later date. The fact that the warts are connected to the hand, the hand to the arm, and the arm to the rest of the body, is ignored. In a more enlightened state we would, of course, ask ourselves the cause of the symptom, and by one means or another we would discover its origin, or probably what we thought was its origin, and we would treat the cause which would thereupon, hopefully, disappear. But what happens then when we come to realise that the cause of an illness or bodily disharmony may not lie in the physical or mental bodies, but on a deeper level - perhaps with the "energy body" which Kirlian photography* has captured on photographic plate and which Edward Russell in his book "Design for D e s t i n y " h a s equated with that most unfashionable of "make beliefs" the human soul ? What happens when we reach the understanding that a disharmony we wish to adjust in one person may in itself be a symptom of a disharmony affecting the whole of mankind ? A hand covered i*? warts may in its apparent simplicity be the pointer to a condition pervading whole societies and nations of peoples. Cancer is acclaimed the disease of the age, but is it the cause of various symptoms in countless unfortunate individuals, or is it equally the symptom 째f wrong living patterns which has built up over the years ?


This is where the concept of curative medicine falls down, for the health of the patient is determined by the degree of vision which the system possesses, and orthodox medical concepts are bounded by limitation. We may cure an illness which may, in fact, be a symptom, we may treat an area of one person's body unaware that by doing so we are affecting the whole of that body and eventually the whole of all bodies, and we may unwittingly charge our so-called remedies with harmful properties through testing and obtaining them at the expense of other life. If we want to get anywhere with medicine, we must step beyond labelled diseases and limited diagnosis and broaden our horizons. We must, above all treat patients and not illnesses, and we must be concerned with the Whole person and not part of him. It has been said that dis-ease is a result of too little or too much energy, energy misused or channelled in the wrong way. This is, perhaps, one basis on which we may reach out towards an understanding of that which by definition has no limitations - the art of making Whole. Kirlian photography - see "Psychic Discoveries Behind the Iron Curtain" by Ostrander & Schroeder (Abacus). "Design for Destiny" by Edward Russell - Neville Spearman 1972. Hugo Stearn.

Feb. '75





II "Fairwynds" Vegetarian Guest House

Vegetarian/Vegan Holiday Centre


overlooking Hayle Estuary.


(C. H. and H&C in all rooms)

with Natural Whole Foods Compost Grown Produce

SPIRITUAL HEALING by arrangement (John Blackaller N. F. S. H.)


Brochure, etc., from

Elizabeth Burton

Vegan Proprietors

(V. C. A. member) John & Miss Hazel Blackaller.

Tel: 62085


ACCOMMODATION AMSTERDAM Young Dutchman, Vegan, has room to let. Use of kitchen, bath room, etc. Rent f. 100(about £20)month. If interested write to The Netherlands. References may be had from the Secretary, Dutch Vegetarian Society (N. V. B.), Meor W. M. EikeboomBroekman, Amsterdam. DUBROVNK Vegan lady offers accommodation in her cottage. Self-contained pavilion, sleep 2-5, also available. Co-operative employment available. Write: Mrs. Lowne, Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia. DORSET - WEYMOUTH Vegetarian and Vegan families welcomed. please to Mrs. Cox, Weymouth. Tel. 2402. FOLKESTONE Holiday Flatlet for 2 Self-catering. Own meters. £7 each p. w. Mrs. Allen,

S. A. E.

Completely furnished. . Tel:0303-56327.

LAKE DISTRICT - ORCHARD HOUSE, Borrowdale R d . , Keswick. Small Vegetarian Guest House in good centre for walking etc.: lovely views from the back. Home baking and some home grown produce. Miss D. Ryall. Tel: Keswick 72830. PERTHSHIRE - BROOK LINN, Callander. Vegetarian & Vegan meals carefully prepared and attractively served. Comfortable Guest House. Near Trossachs and Western Highlands. Mrs. M. Choffin. Tel:Callander 30103 (STD 0877). NEWQUAY Cottage accommodation overlooking Newquay Harbour, for vegans and vegetarians. Bed, breakfast and evening meal. Miss Doney, Newquay, Cornwall, TR7 1EZ. ISLE OF WIGHT - Marilyn & Terry, "Oatlands", Copse Lane, Freshwater, I. O. W. Vegetarian cooking. Vegans catered for. Children welcome. SURREY t easy access to London and open walking country. Vegan guests welcome. Term's by arrangement. S. A . E . please. Box no. 639. UP TO DATE LIST of vegetarian guest houses and restaurants from Coombe Lodge, Wooton-under-Edge, Glos. Stamp please. OTHER


FOLKESTONE - DEVA WHOLEFOODS & NEW AGE BOOKS, 12 Church St., Folkestone, Kent. We stock a wide range of natural wholefoods suitable for Vegans, also herbal cosmetics, incense and books on diet, cookery, meditation a n d P r i c e list available on request.

NATURALLY VEGAN RESTAURANT (basement) 606 Kings Rd. Fulham SW6. (736-7373) Nearest Tube Station Fulham Broadway or 11 or 22 bus from SloaneSq. 5 pm - 10pm Mon. - Fri. Wednesday last orders 11pm. Log fire. Live music some evenings. Menu changes daily e. g. french onion soup watercress soup, avacado walnuts, melon & ginger, mushrooms tempura, salads, woodland casserole, seaweed special, ratatouille, pumpkin, nutmeat kebeb on rice, falafel rissoles, baked bananas, tropical fruit salad, chestnut delight, apple fritters brown rice, couscous & exotic side vegetables. Reasonable prices. Party & luncheon bookings welcome. SITUATION WANTED. Personable intelligent youthfully middle-aged lady seeks resident post with raw food addict, if possible. Salary not vital issue. Fully domesticated, musical, interested veganic gardening, amiable temperament. AHIMSA - bi-monthly magazine - veganism, natural livilng, non-violence. Organ of the American Vegan Society. Annual sub. 83 or ÂŁ1.25. Write for free sample booklist, information. P. 0. Box H. Malaga, New Jersey 08328. U. S. A. VEGAN ACTION. Electronics technician, 48 years old, concerned at deluding norms found in social and youth work, is interested in early meeting with other not self health motivated vegans, keen to promote more meaningful examples of successful, totally concerned living. Interested in mutual support advantages of shared Vegan House. Also requires urgently temporary storage for collection of books and youth activities equipment, and parking for large caravan.

KIND HOME WANTED for Collie Dog - age 6 yrs. Vegan fed. Dinton, Nr. Salisbury, Wilts. BACKWELL, AVON.

Help wanted in |acre garden.

Mrs. E. Dawkins,

Mutual benefit terms. Box 84.

MARTINUS INSTITUTE International Summer Seminar 1975 at Kosmos Centre by the sea northwest of Copenhagen. All individuals or groups spiritually involved in the rapid changes taking place in the modern world view are welcome to our course at Klint where the purely logic scientific and spiritual world picture developed by the intuitive mind of Martinus will be lectured on and discussed together with comparative ideas. The annual lecture week will be from 26/7 2/8, 1975. All lectures and discussions will be conducted in English. The restaurant is fully vegetarian. Bookings, leaflets and literature and all information from Martinus Institute, Mariendalsvej 94/96, 2000 Copenhagen F. SHARING. I would like to join other/others in looking for or sharing a simple country existence. Interests - healing; World Harmony, communicating Love and Truth. Preferably Southern England. M a i M H l i H A i t a i ^ H M H ^ M H r t r Advertisements for the next issue (now 2p a word) must reach the Ad. Manager Mrs. D. Hanson, . , Colchester, Essex by May 1st.






. EDINBURGH . DUNDEE (Lincolnshire)



MEET THE OPPOSITION by telling them of


OPPOSITION TO MEAT! Let us talk facts. Number One. If anyone uses any of the three varieties of I T O N A TVP we defy them to tell the difference between TVP and the meat it replaces. Fact number t w o . . . a pack of Itona TVP makes the equivalent -of I l b s . of prime beef or ham. But i t costs a whole lot less! More facts . . . Itona TVP is vegetable based窶馬ot animal. So if the doubters think it's inferior, tell them that the protein in TVP is 5 0 % at 6 % moisture (roughly equal to prime, lean Scotch beef), the fat content is 1 % (against an average of about 5% for ordinary meat), and the texture and biteability is the same as meat. As Vegans, we eat Itona TVP because it's non-animal and totally reliable in high protein value. People who aren't Vegans or vegetarians w o n ' t know much about that. So tell them that TVP is simply better value. If looks meat, it tastes like meat, it's better than meat and it costs a lot less. Facts! ITONA TVP Beef Flavoured M i n c e / H a m Flavoured C h u n k s / B e e f Flavoured C h u n k s


CRANKS HEALTH | FOODS| Shop and Restaurant Marshall Street, London, W . 1 (restaurant closed Saturday shop open Saturday mornjng only)

Restaurant and Farm Shop In Heal's, T o t t e n h a m Court Road, London, W . 1 (open all day


Shop and Restaurant/Juice Bar 3 8 Castle Street, Guildford, Surrey (open all day


C r a n k s Restaurants provide a continuous b u f f e t service of fresh salads, f r u i t & vegetable juices and vegetarian savouries. Vegans catered for. C r a n k s Shops have the best selection of unadulterated and unrefined vegetarian foods. Other branches : Cranks Health Shop, 35 High Street, Totnes, Devon and 13 Foss Street, Dartmouth, Devon.

PLANTMILK (dairy milk replacement) •

DELICE (cream replacement) •

SA-VREE (for savouries, soup base, sandwich spread)

CHOCOLATE • Please place regular order with your HEALTH STORE to ensure our products always being in stock and these vegan foods displayed

Informative literature (S.A.E. w o u l d o b l i g e ) : -


Plamil House, Bowles Well Gardens, Dover Road, Folkestone, Kent.

The Vegan Spring 1975