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T h e Society affirm? that man ha? no right to exploit animals, advocates that man's food should be derived from fruits, nuts, vegetables and grains, and encourages the use of alternatives to all products of animal origin.

Minimum subscription, which include? " The Vegan," 7s. 6d. per annum, payable in January. Life Membership, £~1 7s. Od.

Honorary Mrs. HIUXA HONEYSETT, Honorary Mr. L. C. WARREN,

Secretary: , Ewell, Surrey. Treasurer

: , Dovercourt, Esse*



, Reigate, Surrey.

Board: M r s . MURIEL DRAKE, M r s . E L S I E B. SHRICLEY, M r . GORDON R . M C G I N L E Y , M r . J A C K S A N D E R S O N .





, London,

Published quarterly: Annual subscription, 4s. 6d. post free: single copies. Is. 2d. post free. Obtainable from the Hon. Secretary.




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M A N C H E S T E R . — M i s s Ann E. Owens, S C O T T I S H SECTION.—Miss Liberton, Edinburgh, 9.


Middlesex .

M I D L A N D S . — M r . Don Burton, Warwicks. BRISTOL.—Mrs.








, Northenden Sutherland,

(Please communicate with your nearest Branch Secretary)




Journal of The Vegan Society Vol.



No. 9

EDITORIAL r | THE doctrine that man should live without exploiting animals is surely one that is going to have an increasing importance in the years that lie ahead. Far from being considered a sentimental and unrealistic conception, it will be seen to lie at the very centre of a philosophy which acknowledges man as the archetype and potential overlord of all natural creation. The basis of evil is undoubtedly found in a disturbed relationship between the various aspects of planetary life, human, animal and vegetable. Of great significance is the deep bondage of man to animal and of animal to man. The consequences of this double enslavement are numerous, but primarily it results in an appalling circumscription upon the capacity of the human consciousness to perceive what is just and right with respect to man's place within the vast scheme of creation. Man has become so involved in his preoccupation with the utilization of animal substances for innumerable purposes, that the finer perceptions of his mind and spirit, the true stirrings of his deeper sympathies, have become dulled, blurred and shifted from their correct orientation. And this makes for an increased insensitiveness to those ideologies which point the way out of the spiritual impasse of blind exploitation. A negative spiral sets in, a retrogressive circuit, from which a minority painfully endeavour to extricate themselves, so that there may be some hope for the future of the race. The clarification of issues which results, so to speak, from the severance of all dependence, particularly in the sphere of diet, upon the lower forms of sentient life, sets the mind free to contemplate themes which do not disclose themselves where man stands in any less emancipated relationship to the animals. The time is past when veganism should be considered a remote ideal. It is ours to apply and to test at the present moment of time, so that we may assure oureelves that the freedom of spirit which it cultivates within is an indication that man has a true and correct position with respect to the rest of creation, that his true diet reveals his true destiny for the future— a mastery of the natural world in which full compassion and wisdom reveal true power. The humanitarian teachings of veganism alone have no skeleton in the cupboard.




It is the potentialities of veganism as the foundation, of a fuller way of life that may be considered as a spur to its ever greater propagation. It matters little that this greater fulness can manifest only very partially at the present day. W e are too hemmed in by a corrupted civilisation to experience all that veganism implies in the way of emancipated human consciousness. But a beginning can be made, and it can be made with the realization not that we are applying a distant ethical dream, but that we are standing on the threshold of possibilities so great that they supply us with the power to live according to a great ideal in circumstances where ideals have but little favour. J.H. S U B S C R I P T I O N S : PLEASE R E A D From the Honorary Treasurer: " At the time of writing (February), about fifty members had paid their subscription promptly. Special thanks are due to them for putting the vegan cause high on their list of good resolutions! Since our Annual Meeting in November, our expenditure has been running twice as fast as income. Therefore I appeal to the three hundred whose subscriptions are overdue to send in as soon as they read this notice, and thus prevent our finance dwindling to a point where even the publication of the magazine would be in danger. Finally, we are particularly grateful to those friends who are able to contribute more than the minimum amount, of which at least four shillings is immediately swallowed nap in supplying The Vegan." L.C.W.

THE BABY BUREAU There appear to be some parents who would like their children to become vegans but are doubtful concerning the omission of milk. By giving cashew nut cream or almond cream with a well balanced diet for the rest of the day, there is no reason why a child should not thrive equally or, in my opinion, better than one fed on milk. Until the age of seven years I always gave a gill of nut milk for breakfast and later in the day a blanc-mange made with nut milk and gelozone, flavoured with fruit juice and a little sugar (but no sugar for breakfast). Now-a-days, at eight-and-a-half years, I give a slightly thicker gill for breakfast and an occasional blancmange. One dessertspoonful of cream makes half a pint. W e shall be glad to hear of the experiences of other mothers who consider that their offspring are safely launched without milk. What were your methods? Please let us know as we are still pioneers. W e want to scatter the doubts of the would-be vegans. Please send all communications regarding the baby bureau t o : — Mrs. S. N. Coles, , Purley, Surrey.

I N T E R N A T I O N A L V E G E T A R I A N Y O U T H CAMP, 1954 This will be held from August 1st to 14th, in a beautifrul location in the French Pyrenees, at T h e Vega, a Vegetarian Centre at St. Arroman, Hautes Pyrenees, France, about 40 kilometres from Lourdes. Either vegan or lacto-vegetarian fare provided. Accommodation will be either in the house or in tents. For reservations and further details write the Secretary, I.V.U., 247, Tottenham Court Road, London, W . l .







L i V E R Y morning from nine to nine-thirty we have Prayers. The ' children's favourite hymns are those dealing with "God's tiny creatures." These are sung with gusto and deep sympathy, for the child realises that in relation to the creatures he is as a god. He feels the wonder and the majesty manifest in all creation: "the coral coated lady-bird, the velvet humming bee." Every day from twelve to twelve-thirty we have canteen dinner. Here the mangled remains of some animal are devoured by mouths that recently sang of the infinite love of God. Only a way of life that considers ethic and practice in separate compartments can countenance the infliction of such conduct on our children. And to-day's child is heir to a heritage that reeks with blood and thunder. From the Old Testament he learns of the men who knew and walked with God. And of how these patriarchs cemented this friendship with the Almighty by altar sacrifice. Abraham is prevented from offering his son Isaac and in his stead kills the ram "caught in a thicket by his horns" as a token of a merciful deliverance. With Jesus the Bible throws aside its primitive blood-letting approach to heaven. Here is Divine Teaching that is true compassion. But in his history lessons the child sees men fighting and killing for Christ. How utterly incongruous; and how miserably have priest and laity failed to apply the Christian ethic, for history's pages are drenched with blood by those who slaughtered for the Prince of Peace. What attitude can the vegetarian teacher, dedicated to a life of harmlessness, adopt in the face of such a heritage of violence and with a class of children conditioned by environment to accept the infliction of pain without question? In St. Francis of Assissi I see a vital rallying ground for teachings of compassion and decency. Skilfully treated, the stories of the Saint and of symbiosis in nature can be the seed of "free thought" regarding diet, that will come to fruition in later life. But in one's fervour one can go too far. The child, who tells his mother that "teacher says we mustn't eat animals because Jesus and St. Francis loved all creatures," could in the end cause one to be moved from the school and severely reprimanded by the Education Authority. Therefore one must be subtle, leaving the child to make up its own mind in time. " W h a t a hope!" you say. I agree. But the alternative is teaching in a vegetairian school, leaving one's previous pupils with no glimmer of light. My headmaster is sympathetic to vegetarianism. His regular remark is: " I f only one thought how meat reached our plates we




would all be vegetarians." My heart warms to hear it but I know full well that after the expression of this lofty sentiment he retires to his study for his dinner of lamb chop. In the same boat are the rest of the staff to whom vegetarianism is a cross between Franciscan piety and a sinister cult of body worship. The teacher with the tender conscience, who seeks expression not only in words but in deeds, faces a difficult task in to-day's schools. Almost everything that society does for the child is contrary to the vegetarian's beliefs. The daily dosing with pasteurised milk, cod liver oil for the undernourished, and flesh for meals, have their complement in removal of tonsils, skin rashes, measles, and chicken-pox. Nothing that a bottle of Nature Cure and a box of common sense couldn't cure. But what can one do? One can only look to the future—fifty,' a hundred years hence —when perhaps the teacher will be able openly to teach what is in his heart to pupils who, by upbringing, are similarly in tune with the true interpretation of compassion. Then indeed it will be the Good Life in the School of Life.

BOOK Systems of Feeding, Ltd., 1953. 1/6 net.


by Alfred Hy. Haffenden.

The C. W . Daniel Co.

This pamphlet is No. 29 in Mr. Haffenden's well-known series of Tracts. He commences it with a fascinating survey of various dietctic systems— including veganism; he then proceeds to stress the necessity for the reform of human life based upon an emancipated religious consciousness. Of particular interest to vegans, however, is his contention that " the ideals of veganism are second to none in all aspects of the reform of human living." He further stresses his conviction that " the principles of veganism indicate the true way of progress in human feeding " or, again, that " veganism is the paramount practical ideal among systems of feeding for the present day "; but he urges with equal force that the full success of veganism depends upon collateral reforms in the realms of agriculture, food preparation, economic and social life. Mr. Haffenden does not touch upon the specifically social consequences of the vegan way of life. But an interesting conclusion might perhaps be drawn from a consideration of this pamphlet: that there is implicit in veganism a tendency toward the creation of independent social nuclei. In other words, it may be that the complete vegan and allied reforms which Mr. Haffenden considers to be necessary for the regeneration of our civilization can only come about through the founding of self-subsistent groups and fraternities in which the full application of reformed living may be manifest. For how else can the process be effectively instituted? This, however, would no doubt point to some future time. For the present Mr. Haffenden's brochure represents one of those rare occasions when veganism is advocated in print. And vegans will be greatly interested to make their own evaluation of Mr. Haffenden's opinions on, and experience of, veganism. J.H.




is upon us once more, and awakening life is in and SPRING around us. Even in the city where the hedgerow is obliterated

and the good earth paved, there is something in the air which heralds the season of life and growth. As vegans we more than ever feel our one-ness with Nature and that we are all part of a great Whole. As I, in my maritime home, walk along the lane at the opening of the year, I rejoice to see many edible herbs of great dietetic value and at hand for use. These plants are very abundant and few are the folk who trouble about their edible value. They are compost grown and would in most cases not take kindly to cultivation. First and foremost, I see that earliest and most lovely little plant, the Lesser Celandine. W e do not need to wait for the flower which is at any rate very early. The leaf and lower parts and also the flower are all edible and can be dug up and washed for your luncheon salad. I do not care to uproot plants so that I may enjoy them but one little plant is very abundant, and judicious and careful thinning is beneficial. It is called Pilewort, and has great medicinal value. It is well worth your notice. As you gather your Lesser Celandine you will find plenty of young stinging nettles and feel them too. With a glove and a pair of scissors a gathering may be made, washed and steamed. They taste much like spinach and are a good spring blood purifier. The tops and lower white shoots and the roots of the dandelion are of great value; the flower also is edible. Two-year old Dandelion roots roasted and ground, make a pleasant coffee-like beverage. Brewed with a little nut cream and brown sugar, well mixed, you will find it beneficial and stimulating. All through the winter months, and especially here in the West country, a strong growing plant of the Dock variety is obtainable and adds a special flavour to the other ingredients. It is called Sourdock and has a long narrow leaf and a long stalk with a red flower. Young Clover and Wood Sorrel are edible, and the children like to gather flowers to adorn their own little salads. In the woods and by the stream especially wild garlic with its long curved leaves and white flowers grows profusely. As your feet bruise the plants the pungent onion aroma greets your nostrils. A few leaves of this may well be added, and also used as a flavouring for soups and other dishes. Also another edible flower for the children. I come out of the wood into a pleasant meadow with a broad ditch to take the land and hill drainage and, behold! an abun-




dance of watercress. Watercress may be found in many localities. It likes clear and not too rapid water but will thrive equally well in damp situations away from apparent stream or drainage water. When gathering, care is necessary to avoid dislodging the roots. Weed the watercress bed regularly, as other strong growing water plants are liable to choke it. The production is of long duration and the benefit great. Land cress of a large type may be grown successfully from seed in any ordinary garden. This is only a fringe of the free herbs of the countryside provided by Nature for the use and benefit of her children.

FRENCH MENUS E are concerned in this Journal to present to our readers as many versions as possible of the vegan diet. Thus in our last issue we published Mr. de la Torre's advocacy of the exclusive unfired fruit'vegetable-nut regime. Some vegans may be attracted to this; others may consider that it is too restricted for those living in the temperate zone. In the majority of cases, it is likely that vegans will prefer to avail themselves of the full range of foods offered by the vegetable kingdom. But in making a selection from these, what represents a balanced menu? O f the many possible answers to this question, we give below a list of specimen menus for December, reprinted from " La Vie Claire," of November 21st, 1953, by kind permission of the Editor, Monsieur H.-Ch. Geffroy. " La Vie Claire," a flourishing and dynamic vegetarian newspaper, published in Paris, clearly advocates —on health rather than on humanitarian grounds—a diet which excludes flesh, fish and animal products: all the specimen menus which follow are vegan. Wholewheat bread appears in each menu since it is considered by " La Vie Claire " to be an indispensable element in the truly strict vegetarian diet. Analytical data are given in grams. Pears ( 5 0 0 grs.) Red cabbage salad Radishes, vegetarian butter Vegetable soup Wholewheat bread (200 grs.)

Protein 2.5 1 3.5 6 24 37

Carbohydrate 55 5 4 20 96 180

Fat 4.5 10.5 4.5 20.5



Apples (500 grs.) Olives Raw spinach salad Grated raw beetroot and turnip Roasted chestnuts Wholewheat bread ( 2 0 0 grs.) . . .

VEGAN Protein 0.5 6 1.5 1 4.5 24 37.5

Mushroom salad Lamb's lettuce and beetroot salad Oranges ( 5 0 0 grs.) Spinach and carrot savoury Wholewheat bread ( 2 5 0 grs.) ...

Protein 5 1 3.5 3.5 30 43

Clementines ( 5 0 0 grs.) Grated carrot and mayonnaise Endive salad Boiled rice with onion sauce Wholewheat bread ( 2 0 0 grs.) . . .

Protein 2 4 0.5 8 24 38.5

Shaddocks (500 grs.) Vegetable pate Mixed salad Cooked red cabbage, chestnut puree Wholewheat bread ( 2 0 0 grs.) . . .

Protein 2 6 2 6 24 40

Mandarin oranges ( 5 0 0 grs.) ... Radishes, nut puree Lamb's lettuce salad with garlic Wheat and cabbage stew Wholewheat bread ( 1 5 0 grs.) ...

Protein 2 4 1.5 21 18 46.5

Oranges ( 5 0 0 grs.) Cabbage salad, olives Chicory salad Salsify cooked in its juices Wholewheat bread (200 grs.)


Protein 3.5 7 1.5 3.5 24 39.5

7 Carbohydrate 80

Fat —

4 8 46 96

5 2.5 4.5 1.5 1



Carbohydrate 4 4 20 20 120 168 Carbohydrate 15 10 2 50 96 173 Carbohydrate 15 26 18 48 96 203 Carbohydrate 15 7 4 77 72 175 Carbohydrate 20 5 4 40 96 165

Fat 4.5 4.5 —

4.5 1.5

15 Fat —

10 4.5 4.5 1 20 Fat —

4.5 4.5 10 1 20 Fat —

10.5 4.5 9 0.5 24.5 Fat —

9.5 4.5 4.5 1 19.5




Pears ( 5 0 0 grs.) Radishes " a la nage " Vegetarian butter Cauliflower salad Wheaten cake with vegetable cream Wholewheat bread (150 grs.) . . .


Protein 2.5 0.5

Carbohydrate 55 3

1 14 18

5 60 72



Fat —

10 4.5 9 0.5 24


Note from a Correspondent " It was at the house of a Danish friend that I first ate germinated wheat and rye. She used to soak it for two days, then pour off the water and leave about 12 hours more. The grains had only just begun to germinate. She ate the grains with apple and milk for breakfast and supper. Her mother used to chop up her grains as she could not chew them. I used to buy my wheat grains from the Whole Food Society, Wells, Somerset, which still supplies compost-grown wheat, etc. I usually ate them with dried fruit and almond or cashew nut cream and sometimes currantsugar. Owing to a difficulty in obtaining grains, I discontinued the practice for a time, but now I have bought a coffee mill with which I grind ungerminated grains and eat them raw with diluted molasses and fruit."

V E G A N T R A D E LIST, 1953 This is soon to be published and contains details of foods, confectionery, toilet preparations, household products, etc., guaranteed to be entirely free from animal matter. An invaluable booklet to all vegans and vegetarians. Compiled by Miss Christina Harvey after exhaustive enquiries. Be sure to get your copy (price 1/-) from your Health Food Store or from the Hon. Secretary, Mrs. Honeysett, , Ewell, Surrey (1/3 post free).

MIDLAND BRANCH OF T H E VEGAN SOCIETY Post Events On Sunday, October 25th, last year, a pleasant ramble was made from Stratford-on-Avon to Bidford-on-Avon via Welford-on-Avon along the river paths. W e picked strawberries on the way; and returned to Stratford by bus to have tea with the Secretary after an agreeable day. Sunday, January 24th, this year, saw us once more meeting at the Lickey Hills, near Birmingham, to ramble over hill and dale on a fine, sunny but cold day. However, all enjoyed the trip and we returned about 4 p.m. for Birmingham. In Remembrance : Lilley Neumham, January 6th. 1954 An enthusiastic and keen worker for many humanitarian causes. Her cheerful and vigorous personality will be missed by all who knew her, including Midland vegans. Our sincere sympathy is expressed to Les Newnham in his great loss. D.B.



W O R L D CONGRESS OF ANIMAL WELFARE SOCIETIES This will take place during May, at the Caxton Hall, Victoria Street, London, S . W . I . The Congress is being organised by the British Federation of Animal Welfare Societies on behalf of the World Federation of Animal Protection Societies. On Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday, May 17th, 18th, and 19th, sessions will be held morning and afternoon during which most of the subjects dealing with animal welfare all over the world will be discussed. Everyone will be welcome to attend the deliberations, though only delegates may speak or vote. Sympathisers can help by sending one guinea which will entitle them to a reserved seat in the gallery for the whole Congress. A vegan delegation will attend, and a vegan delegate will address the Congress on the principles of veganism. This is an important occasion when a formal statement on the vegan way of life will be made before a wide gathering of those concerned with the well-being of the animal creation. It is hoped that London vegans will make a special effort to attend. At the time of writing the date for the vegan address has not been fixed, but for details of this, and for all other information, please apply to the Congress Secretary, B.F.A.W.S., Room " C," Denison House, 296 Vauxhall Bridge Road, London, S . W . I .

S U M M A R Y OF AN A D D R E S S ON V E G A N I S M T O BE G I V E N T O T H E W O R L D CONGRESS OF ANIMAL W E L F A R E SOCIETIES LONDON, MAY, 1954, B Y A D E L E G A T E ON BEHALF O F T H E VEGAN SOCIETY M O N G the organisations represented at this Congress, the Vegan Society is probably the youngest, and is undoubtedly the most comprehensive. Founded in England in 1944, its object is to end the exploitation of animals by man. It holds that there is no final answer to any of the problems posed by the relationship between man and the animals except to set the animals free from their bondage to man. It holds that man has no moral right to exploit animals whether exploitation is held to be to his advantage or not. It looks upon its work as being the natural and historical sequel to the movement to set free the human slaves. It seeks to set the animals fiee for the same reasons which moved those earlier pioneers—because justice and compassion demand it, and because the owning of slaves, whether human oi animal, is not good for the spirit of man. To'live without exploiting animals will involve far-reaching changes which can come about only gradually. For example: vegan diet is free from flesh, dairy produce, eggs, honey or other animal product; vegan clothing and fabrics from animal wool or animal leather; vegan horticulture from fertilizers which are by-products of the slaughterhouse. The Society is opposed to hunting; vivisection; the use of animals for labour; and to every other form of animal exploitation. While its first task is to spread the idea of freedom, much is also being done to make veganism a practical proposition. Much, of course, remains, and the Society warmly welcomes the active and moral support of all who are in agreement with its aim.






The Vegan Trade List is at last ready for printing and it is hoped that all Vegans will soon be able to buy copies from their Health Stores. As this list will not be complete, supplementary lists will be available at later dates All products mentioned below are vegan unless it is stated otherwise. Foster Clark Ltd. Custard Powder, Blancmange Powder, Cornflour, Sponge Mixture, Golden Pudding Mixture, Gravet, Gravy Browning, Tinned Fruit aiid Vegetables, Eiffel Tower Products (Bun Flour, Pudding Mixture, Lemonade Crystals, Lemonade Powder), A.P. Products (Macaroni, Spaghetti, Vermicelli, Kiddies Cut, Seed Cut). Atkinsons Ltd. Windermere Mint Cake, Snow Mints. J. and J. Colman Ltd. Three Bears Oats, Farmer's Glory Wheat Flakes, Semolina, Krustoo, Bakemix, Mustards. F.M.S. (Farm Products) Ltd. Prepared Fruits and Vegetables, Herbs, Valley Apple Juice, Pure Apple Vinegar.



J. Green. "Beatall" Products (Batter Flour, Ribbon Noodles, Long Spaghetti, Long Macaroni, Long Vermicelli). Keen Robinson and Co., Ltd. (Tins only, packets contain bone calcium phosphate) Patent Groats, Patent Barley, Fruit Squashes. Mapleton's Nut Food Co., Ltd. Choco-Delice (Dates, Chocolate, Vine Fruits). Libby, McNeill and Libby Ltd. Choice Mushrooms, Deep Browned Beans in Tomato Sauce, A.J.C Asparagus and Asparagus Tips, Sinovick Whole Kernel Corn, Hugo South African Cut Green Eieans. Hugo South African Cream Style Sweet Corn, Italian Naples Tomatoes, Natural Orange Juice. Lewis A. May Ltd. Uncle Mac's Puffed Wheat, Gee Bee Roasted and Salted Peanuts.

11 THE


Alexander Pickering and Co., Ltd. Their new product "Sunda" is an excellent vegan substitute for honey. This energy food contains grape and cane sugar and was supplied to the Norwegian army, hospitals and schools during the war. It tastes like honey but spreads more easily. A 7 J oz. carton costs 11-Jd. W . Prewett Ltd. Flours, Porridge Wheatmeal, Digestive Cereal Food, Scotch Breakfast Oats, Desiccated Yeast, Biscuits (Ginger, Wholemeal Sweet, Old English, Wholemeal Unsweetened, Wheatmeal Shortbread). Bread is vegan too but the emulsion used for greasing the tins is not guaranteed to be free from animal matter. Shearns Frunut, Mincemeat, Nutmeats. Steamed puddings and pastries served in the restaurant are vegan. Xmas puddings, however, contain eggs. Solo Orchards Ltd. Marmalades, Black Grape Jelly, Fruit Juices (Pineapple, Orange, Tomato Cocktail, Lime Juice Cordial, Squashes). Spire Brand Food Products Their Xmas puddings now contain egg9. Wholewheat Flour Co. "Cottage" Wholewheat Flour, "Cottage" Wholewheat Porridge Meal, "Drummer Boy" Whole Rye Meal, "Drummer Boy" Oatmeal, "Cottage" Wheat Germ Flakes. Barker and Dobson Ltd. Supreme Dessert Chocolate, Regal Fruit Drops, Barley Sugar Drops, Choice Fruits, Glace Mints, Almond Pralines. Chocolat Parfait Co., Ltd. Fondants. Harrods Ltd. Boiled Sweets, Plain Chocolate. Elizabeth Shaw Ltd. Chocolate Digestive Mints, Chocolate Orange Creams, Chocolate Assorted Creams, Chocolate Coffee Creams, Chocolate Lengues de Chats (Plain), Chocolate Pastilles (Plain) Chocolate Mint Crisps.




H . W . Carter and Co., Ltd. Ribena, Rosena, Rose-Hip Syrup, Quosh. Shloer, a pure unfermented apple-juice, is free from all animal products, but gelatine is used in the process of manufacture. Goldwell Farms Ltd. "Solaise" Fruit Juices (Pineapple, Tomato, Grapefruit, Orange). Jaffajuice Ltd. Squashes, Fruit Juices and Mineral Waters (Presta and Appolinaris). Presta Tomato Juice Cocktail and all tomato beverages are nonvegan. %

Orchard Products Ltd. Appella. Lucozade Ltd. Lucosade. Pure Lemon Juice Co., Ltd. Natural Unsweetened Lemon Juice, Glucose Sweetened Orange Juice, Grape Juice, Fruit Squash, Non-Alcoholic Wines. Vita Concentrated Juices Ltd. Concentrated Grape Juice. Burroughs, Wellcome and Co. Hazeline Snow (Skin Cream). Chesebrough Manufacturing Co., Ltd. "Vaseline" Petroleum Jelly (Yellow, White, Borated, Capsicum,. Carbolated), "Vaseline" Camphorice, "Vaseline" Hair Tonic, "Vaseline" Liquid Shampoo. Macleans Ltd. Eno's Fruit Salt, Dinneford's Pure Fluid Magnesia, Yeast Vite Tablets, Antiseptic Throat Sweets, Peroxide Tooth Paste, Solid Dentifrice, Hydrogen Peroxide, Lemskin Lemon Hand Jelly. J.C. and J. Field Ltd. Lavender Soap, Lavender Talc, Lavender Bath Cubes, Lavender Shampoo, Lavender Brilliantine, Lavender Water, After Shave Lotion. Pomeroy Beauty Preparations Astringent Lotion, Beauty Milk, Cleansing Cream, Dusting Powder, Eau des Fleurs, Eye Shadow, Fare Powder, Hand Lotion, Hand Cream, Rouge (Liquid and Cream), Talc. Skin Food, Dathos, Day Cream and Lipsticks are non-vegan.

13 T H E


Betterwear Products Ltd. Brushes (except those made from bristle or horse-hair), Sponges. Polishes contain bees' wax. Domestos Ltd. Domestos, Stcrgene. Hudson and Knight Ltd. Vim. Sposs Products Ltd. "Autoss" Car Polish, Fen toss Spot Remover, Octim Cleaner, S.P. Industrial Cleaner, Cement Finish, Chromium Cleaner, Floor Dressing, Floor Seal, Furniture Dressing, Metal Polish, Terrezo Finish, Window Sheen. Astraka Ltd. It was reported that their simulation furs were vegan. W e now discover that milk is used ini the production of the fibre! British Nylon Spinners Ltd. Nylon. Wakefield, Greenwood and Co., Ltd. Terylene Hand Knitting, Luxury Nylaness. W e are most grateful to those readers who have already helped by sending in details of vegan commodities. Please go on sending your information and your questions to Christina Harvey, Hornsey Rise, N.19. C R E A T E A D E M A N D FOR NON-ANIMAL P R O D U C T S A T EVERY OPPORTUNITY!

R E C E N T P R E S S N O T I C E S ON V E G E T A B L E MILK R T I F I C I A L milk is now being developed, and may prove an important contribution to feeding the under-nourished people of the world. Describing ' remarkable progress' in America, Dr. E. G. Woodroffe of the British Oil and Cake Mills, Ltd., in a paper read at the Royal Society of Arts said that many outstanding problems had been solved. The synthetic milk did not as yet satisfy all the requirements for infant feeding, but progress was encouraging. It is being manufactured from plant protein. This would be to natural milk what vitaminised margarine is to butter. This development can be of great importance, because there is in the under-developed countries a desperate shortage of milk. In some a demand has been created by the United Nations Children's Fund making available dried, natural milk to mothers and children. But the countries themselves have no immediate prospects of meeting the demand from their own herds. Synthetic milk may be the answer. The present soya bean milk is not attractive."





" Adequate substitutes for milk can probably be provided from plant resources," says a report, " Plant Proteins in Child Feeding," published by the Medical Research Council. It is based on trials of plant mixtures fed to schoolchildren and orphans in Germany. " Children who have enough milk," it states, " are usually healthy and grow well." But m'ilk scarcity in many parts of the world made urgent the need to develop other foods from locally available raw materials. Dr. R . F. A. Dean, author of the report, was in a team which studied under-nutrition in Germany in 1946-49. Its tests suggested that food mixtures entirely of plant origin might ultimately rival milk in nutritive value. Combinations of barley, wheat and soya, with different amounts of milk, seemed to be nearly perfect substitutes. T h e report says that the Councril has established a research group at Kampala, Uganda, to study indigenous protein sources and other aspects of infant nutrition. T h e value of soya should not prevent the search for other protein sources. Sunflower seed meal and groundnut meal, another protein-rich food, deserved a trial in infant feeding.

From the Daily Express,

September 5th, 1953





U L L O C K S that give milk. That's a fact. Whole herds of prize cattle being shipped abroad in a picnic vacuum flask.. That may well be a fact very soon. Dr. John Hammond, a scientist from Cambridge University, told the British Association about it at Liverpool yesterday. Farmers, he said, may soon be able to increase their milk production by milking bullocks in the same way as cows. Scientists have found that a bullock can be made to yield milk if a few small tablets are painlessly inserted under its skin. The tablets contain a synthetic substance called stilboestrol which stimulate? the male animal's milk-produoing tissues so that a small udder forms. Dr. Hammond also outlined a scheme which will enable pure-bred Guernsey dairy cows to give birth to pure-bred Aberdeen Angus beef calves. T h e calves will be taken from their Aberdeen Angus mothers when they are so small that they will be barely visible. They will then be transplanted to Guernsey cows which will serve as " incubators" and eventually give birth to the calves. This system, which should work with any breed, could substantially increase the beef in the country, Dr. Hammond claimed. Dairy cows must give birth to a calf every year or they would not go on yielding milk. Few of these calves are needed to replenish dairy herds. The rest are discarded because they do not grow into good beef cattle. Transplantation could ensure that every dairy cow gives birth to a useful calf. T h e switching of mothers has already been done successfully in America. Baby rabbits taken from does in America have been flown across the Atlantic and successfully transplanted into " incubator" does in Dr. Hammonds laboratory in Cambridge. Dr. Hammond claimed that these experiments point the way to a new method of exporting British cattle without shipping animals out of the country. The calves could be removed from pedigree cows when no bigger than pin heads and be sent abroad in vacuum flasks. There they would be incubated in poor quality cows until birth.

15 T H E





Artichoke Soup Chestnut Savoury or Stuffed Butter Bean Roast Red Cabbage Roast Potatoes Spinach Apple Compote Oatmeal Biscuits Coco-nut Dates ARTICHOKE SOUP 1 1 1 1

lb. artichokes. onion. potato. oz. margarine.

l i pts. stock (made from outer peelings). 1 bay leaf. Seasoning.

Prepare artichokes and onions; cut into small pieces; place in saucepan with margarine, simmer 5 minutes. Add rest of ingredients; cook gently. When cooked press through sieve, re-boil, garnish with chopped parsley and serve with croutons of fried bread. STUFFED BUTTER BEAN ROAST $ J 1 4

lb. butter beans. lb. wholemeal bread crumbs. onion. lb. tomatoes.

i teaspoon sage. 1 oz. margarine. Seasoning.

Soak butter beans over night. Remove outside jacket. Cook in as little water as possible; when cooked drain and pass through sieve. Chop onion finely, fry golden brown. Mix beans, bread crumbs, seasoning, onion together; form into roll. Cut through centre, place thick slices of tomato on one half, re-place the other half of roll; cover with greased paper; bake in hot oven, serve with parsley sauce. CHESTNUT lbs. chestnuts. 1 lb. tomatoes. 2 large onions. 2 oz. margarine.

SAVOURY ÂŁ teaspoon sage. Seasoning. Bread crumbs (wholemeal).

Cover chestnuts with cold water in saucepan. Bring to the boil. Peel outer and inner skins. Cook gently with very little water. Cut onions into rings, fry golden brown, sprinkle over sage. Place alternate layers of onion, chestnuts, tomatoes. When the dish is full, sprinkle over bread crumbs, and add a few knobs of margarine.




A P P L E COMPOTE i lb. sugar. 1 pt. water.

6 or 8 apples.

Pare and core apples. Boil water and sugar to syrup. Drop in apples and simmer until soft. Place on glass dish with spot of cashew nut cream on top, also i glace cherry. OATMEAL 1 lb. medium oatmeal. J lb. margarine. 2 oz. sugar.

BISCUITS 2 oz. choppcd sultanas,. Rind of 4 lemon.

Rub fat into flour, add sugar and sultanas, mix into stiff dough with lemon juice and water. Roll out thinly; cut into rounds. Place on greased baking sheet. Bake golden brown 15 to 20 minutes. COCO-NUT DATES 4 lb. dates. 2 oz. desiccated coco-nut.

2 oz. shelled nuts.

Stone dates, fill each with a nut, roll in desiccated coco-nut, put in paper cases.




A R E you wearing a little polyethylene terephthalate to-day? Or perhaps some polyacrylonitrile, or even a bit of polyhexamethylene adipamide? Wait! Don't shake your head in horror and say " N o ! " so quickly. For, if you're clad in any garments made of Dacrcm, Orion acrylic fibre, or nylon—in that order—the answer is " Y e s . " Because the chemical names of the new synthetic textile fibres are so long and complicated, it is virtually necessary to identify them by trade names. Even a research chemist will not often stop to say " polyhexamethylene adipamide " when he can substitute a name as brief, simple and distinctive as nylon. However, since the number of new synthefiic fibres has rapidly increased in the last few years, and since in a number of cases several companies are making the same type of fibre under different brand names, no one can blame consumers for becoming more and more confused. Rayon and nylon mean something very definite to the buyer. But what do you know about the characteristics of the following fibres: Dacron, Orion, Terylerte, Vicara, Acrilan, Dynel, Saran and Ardil? All these names identify new textile fibres which are at

17 THE


present commercially produced, or which will be in commercial production by 1954. Each can win acceptance only by offering something to the consumer. The diversity of names is, at first glance, bewildering. The intelligent consumer will realise that all the new fibres are produced for good reasons; that they offer special qualities and advantages and often, in terms of wear obtained per dollar spent, are better bargains than the conventional fibres. Therefore, isn't the possibility of making a better buy worth the trouble of investigating the qualities of each fibre? Luckily, it is possible to classify all important textile fibres— both natural and synthetic—into five marin groups. The members of each group have a large range of characteristics in common, and will often be substituted for or blended with each other. But, before the classification, a few generalities. The new synthetic fibres have quite naturally received much publicity. At present, almost 25 per cent of the fibres used for clothing and industrial cloths on this continent are synthetic, and the production of the new synthetics is growing at a faster rate than ever before in the textile industry. The new fibres will in many instances supplement the natural fibres. T o a large extent the relationship between the old and the new will be complementary. Many of the fabrics of the future may be blends of several fibres, in which the outstanding characteristics of both natural and synthetic will be retained. Fabrics will be made to order"—with almost any combination of desired properties It is well to remember, however, that this time is still quite far in the future. Undoubtedly, other new synthetic fibres will be developed. Some of those now commercially produced may be eclipsed. An experienced textiles authority estimated recently that another five years of exhaustive testing will be required to determine the relative merits of the new fibres, and probably ten years will elapse before they take up a stabilised position in the textile markets. Here are the five main groups of textile fibres: Group 1.—The Cellulosics Members: Cotton, Linen, Rayon, Acetate. Cellulose is the main fibrous constituent of wood and most other plants. It is obtained naturally from cotton and flax plants. The first man-made fibres, the rayons and acetate, have become quite inexpensive and are now competitive with cotton. With the advance of textile technology, the cellulosics are obtainable in an ever-increasing range of qualities, and adaptable to more and more clothing and industrial uses. The recent invasion of the men's summer suiting market by rayon is an example of this. These fibres including those for industrial purposes such as rayon for tire




cords have become very important articles of commerce and will continue to be. Group 2.—The Proteins Members: Wool, SKllc, Vicara, Ardil, and others. Wool and silk, the natural protein fibres, are alike chemically though so different in qualities. Many of the new fibres discussed below have wool-like characteristics and have been processed to develop these qualities. T h e outstanding qualities of wool—warmth, crease resistance and versatility—are found to some extent in synthetic protein fibres. Vicara, made from a chemical extract of corn in the United States, and Ardil, made from peanuts in the United Kingdom, are perhaps the most important. There are also protein fibres made from the casein of milk, from soybeans, egg albumen and from chlicken feathers. Vicara, presently entering markets in this country, has certain advantages over wool. It is more resistant to alkali chemicals, it is moth and mildew resistant and has less tendency to shrink. The makers of Vicara thlink of it as an important blending fibre of the future; they point out that blends of Vicara with wool retain the excellent properties of wool and in addition have a cashmere-like softness without loss of strength or wear resistance. Additionally, the blended fabric tends to be more dimensiionally stable (shrink resistant) than pure wool. With all these advantages, Vicara can be produced to sell competitively with wool, and its use should increase. Group 3.—The Poly amides Members: Nylon, Perlon. T o speak of polyamides on this continent is to speak of nylon. Perlon, a fibre with siimilar qualities, is produced in Europe. T h e outstanding qualities of nylon are its wear resistance, elasticity, and easy-living features. Men have been trying to wear holes in nylon socks ever since they were introduced, but the market for nylon mending yarn lis still very, very small. The elasticity of this fibre, most easily seen in the ability of nylon stockings to retain their original shape after long wear, is superior even to that of silk. Nylon is also shrink resistant, moth-proof and resistant to many chemicals. Nylon's qualities have won it acceptance as the first of the important wholly-synthesised fibres. It has taken much of the market once held by silk, and has created new standards of quality in lingerie, men's shirts, and many fabrics for women's dresses, blouses and skiirts. The more recently developed fibres, discussed under the two succeeding groups, are more likely to expand into new fields than to take much of the market now enjoyed by nylon.




Group 4.—The Acrylics Members: Orion, Dynel, Acrilan. The newest and most rapidly expanding synthetic fibre field is the acrylic group. A t least four of the most important United States chemical firms have begun production, or erection of plants to produce these fibres. The acry&cs display a wide range o f qualities. The chemical compound from which they derive their name is polyacrylonitrile; but whereas this chemical makes up nearly 100 per cent of Orion, it is only present to the extent of about 40 per cent in Dynel, a quite different fibre. The outstanding characteristic of Orion is its resistance to sun and weather. For this reason it will be used widely in industrial fabrics, in awnings, and in curtains and drapes. Used in clothing fabrics, it is warm and soft, will not shrink or stretch appreciably, and needs almost no ironing. In common with almost all the synthetics, it is moth resistant. Group 5.—The Polyesters Members: Dacron (Terylene). The latest fibre to appear in fabrics for men's socks, fine shirtings and suitings is Dacron (pronounce: DAY-cron), which is also produced in England under the name of Terylene. Outstanding in its wrinkle-resistance, both dry and wet, Dacron will go into clothHng that virtually never requires ironing. Most important also to the buyer is the high wear resistance of this fibre. It has a resiliency equal to that of wool—meaning that Dacron fabrics have the warmth and feel of top-grade woollen cloths. It is superior to wool in its resistance to shrinkage, moths, wear and wrinkKng. A life-long crease can be " pre-set" in Dacron clothing, and it is extremely stable to moisture and humidity changes. These are your textile fibres. Never since the beginning of history has the development of new fabrics to exhibit desired properties been more rapid than at the present time. In this development, the new synthetics permit results believed impossible only a few years ago. —Reprinted from the C.I.L. Oval, Montreal, August, 1952. INDIAN CONGRESSMEN AND


" Congressmen are always experimenting with their diet. My companions were all pure vegetarians and did mot eat even eggs or cheese; some did not touch onions, spices, or garlic—most villagers in India are pure vegetarians and many orthodox people do without spices for certain days or after a certain age. Some of us had neither breakfast nor dinner; others fasted every alternate day, and others ate only fruit; another never touches sugar. All look on drinks as we do on opium. These eating habits which appear to us as fads are in fact strong ties with the countryside where self-control is universally admired." (An extract from A Bombay Tour, by Taya Zinkin, Manchester Guardian, 14.11.53).







A N Y of you may think that the Health Council has been hibernating during the winter. W e would, however, hasten to assure you that a great deal has been put into action in the way of tests of various kinds on human " guinea pigs," and a vast amount of correspondence has taken place in connection with the third Questionnaire. A meeting of the Health Council was held on December 1st, when the data given in those replies to the third Questionnaire already received were discussed. The more detailed information which has been provided is enabling us to draw up quite a helpful picture, and it was decided to ask those who had not sent in replies to let us have them as soon as possible, in order to make the picture still more complete. More than 70 have now come to hand, and as the details given arc being examined at great length by Professor Witts and Dr. Sinclair at Oxford, we should still be pleased to receive any more completed, or partially completed Questionnaires. A number of people have already volunteered to visit Oxford for medical examination, and it is hoped that any more who can possibly do so will help in this investigation work by sending in their names without further delay. At the time of writing, several have already been to Oxford for the tests (there is no need to stay overnight), and we are pleased to say that the number of volunteers has increased considerably since the original handful submitted their names for this purpose. When the results of the Oxford tests have all been assessed, we hope to publish some details in The Vegan. This will show the purely physical approach, and the following quotation from one of the letters received indicates how much the investigations which Dr. Wokes is carrying out so painstakingly are being appreciated, as some obviously feel that we are approaching the root of the matter. FROM J. T . — " I believe that the approach which the (Vegan) Society is making to vegant'jm, witness the present investigation, is the right one, and if point after point can be justified by investigation, the Society's influence will extend rapidly because of the reasonableness of its arguments." There is one aspect of the matter which was not included in the Questionnaire, because of its non-scientific bearing, but we have found that many have mentioned it notwithstanding, and this has been most helpful. W e realise that many are not interested in the analytical approach because it does not give a complete picture without the mental, emotional and spiritual aspects of each individual being taken into consideration. Furthermore, some do not approve of the analytical approach at all, bait however much each one in the above category decries this aspect, nevertheless we do have to make use of an earthly body, temporary though it may be, and to leave the physical side out of the picture altogether shows just as much lack of balance as the method of concentrating on that aspect alone. W e should now like to quote from two or three typical letters which were received with the Questionnaires to illustrate the point of view of the many who feel that due attention must be paid to other aspects than the purely physical. FROM F. G . — " I would life to add that the exigencies of my circumstances and environment have greatly increased during my transition periods from meat eating to vegetarianism ( 1 9 3 6 ) and thence to veganism • ( 1 9 4 8 ) . ' Man shall not live by bread alone ' and there is a source of supply for all our needs. The power of Assimilation is not physical. Unless there is some understanding of the Spiritual Laws, physical effects





u>i!l be unbalanced. It is the motive that prompts the action that matters. The highest motive is humaneness." FROM I. and O. W . — " While appreciating the sincere endeavour to put a non-animal dietary upon a s:ound nutritional basis, we cannot help feeling that this Questionnaire and the nutritional survey are unlikely to be of any real value, in that they presuppose a material basis to the whole matter. " In the name of material science, the wording of the Questionnaire indicates that statistics may be obtained which will be put down to a> vegan dietary—whereas there are many other contributory /actors, and diet may indeed be purely incidental. " WJven an orthodox eater is ill. he expects and receives help and sympathy, but when a vegetarian is ill, the world is all too eager to blame his dietary. With a vegan the case is the same, but) those who include dairy produce in their diet anxiously join in the clamour at blaming the vegan dietary! Obviously, the matter involves the mind and emotions as well as the physical vehicle. " There is no universally right diet in health, any more than there is in diseiase. The fact is,> that the further up the scale of evolution one reaches, the lew possible it is to say that one should take so many calories, so much protein, so much of the carbohydrates. The further one evolves the more sensitive one becomes, and frequently mental and spiritual development is only gained by detriment to the physical vehicle. The/ adoption of a vegan dietary is a small part of this development—it is rarely a step talyen with primary consideration of the physical body; one need only read a few articles in the last issue of " The Vegan " to realise this. " When such a step is taJ^en urith the mind and mill, and for good purpose, the system frequently adjusts itself, even in apparent defiince of some physical laws. In other words vegans, as a rule, select their dietary primarily for reasons apart from health; because their mind 'is convinced of a moral right, the physical vehicle quite often adapts itself to different amounts of nourishment. When this is not the case, it is possible that the increased nervous sensitivity is happily accepted as part of the price paid for other gains. " We are most emphatic in our belief and advocacy of the fact that a vegan way of life is the only right and proper one to which all must attain eventually. But) we also* feel that it would not be reasonable ta judge it essentially upon a physical basis. Man is a domplex being, and those changes which occur and are wrought in any part or vehicle, must result and inculcate variations in the remainder of his constitution." FROM E. H . — " J consider the mental, emotional and spiritual aspects of fundamental importance. That is the main reason I had to cease being 100 per cent vegan. One has to live with people—and how little understanding there i s ! " The final quotation strikes a different note, from a dietetic point of view, and should be of especial interest to more than a few: — FROM W . M.—"I am of the opinion that most vegans and vegetarians (who) suffer ill-health (do so) largely through the use of self-raising flour, and excessively fatty caJ{es, pastry, etc., raised urith baling powder, such as are so often given in both vegan and vegetarian coo\ery boob recipes. It has been stated by marly authorities tfiat baling powder in; self-raising flour or for raising calces, etc., destroys Vitamin B . " There are so many different aspects to be considered in the work of the Health Council, and it is a tremendous help to know how each one approaches the matter, as we have found that temperament plays a large part in veganism, because of the over-sensitivity produced by the vegan diet if insufficient Vitamin B is taken.




I will end this report with a word of apology to the many whose letters I have not had time to answer. It is most encouraging to observe from the overwhelming amount of correspondence received, the vital interest that is being shown in the Health Council work. I only wish I had a large part of every day at my disposal in which to cope with the replies! Most of the letters are extremely interesting, and would that I could answer them ail, but I shall endeavour to reply to as many as I am able, in the sincere hope that other correspondents will not feel neglected! It would be a great help if letters could be kept as brief as possible.


Cash gifts Sale of other gifts and of goods purchased wholesale

£ s. d. 6 0 0 29 13 10 jE 3 5 13 10


Cost of stall Cost of goods purchased wholesale, etc. T a x i fares Postages and duplicating

10 10 0

19 18 10 15 0 1 0 0 £32

3 10

T h e above statement of accounts differs from the previous ones chiefly in the amount of profit, j£3/10/-, and in the amount taken on the stall. There were several factors contributing to this. T o begin with, things were very much quieter at the Animals' Fair than in past years, the number of people visiting the Fair being only a small proportion of that in other years. In the second place, we found that at the Hall, salad meals were being served downstairs, together with soft drinks, a factor which made a considerable difference in our sale of ready-to-eat foods and fruit drinks. A third reason was the fact that firms were not so ready to supply free gifts this time, so that a larger proportion than usual of foods on the stall was purchased at wholesale prices. Very few friends were able to make cakes for the stall in this instance, due to pressure of other things, but we are very grateful to those who did make the effort to send along some home-made cakes, etc. Especial mention is due to Connie and Eileen Cross, who spent hours making savouries and cakes of all kinds, as well as being responsible for the stall during the whole of the first day. They had the "honour" of answering a number of questions put to them by a very friendly Press representative of the Manchester Guardian. T h e result of this was that on the next day (November 21st) the following report was published in " Our London Correspondence " columns:



" Is milk a curse?" asks one of the posters at the Animals' Fair which opened to-day in the Royal Horticultural Hall. The casual visitor, picturing happy pussies lapping contentedly at well-filled bowls, may be understandably baffled, for it appears from the articles on display that milk is one of the scourges of mankind. This particular booth—one of four being operated by vegetarian societies during the fair—has for sale such delicacies as pots of cream made from cashew nuts, butter made from soya beans, wheat embryo,



yeast extract, and " meatless steaks in rich g r a v y " (made from gluten). " Everyone who uses cow's milk is responsible for the slaughter of innocent calves," declared the woman in charge of the booth. " O u r society maintains that if you don't use the ground for cattle you can produce far more grains and greens for the national larder." Special Shortbread T h e proprietors of the 26 other booths at the fair, representatives of the orthodox animal welfare societies, looked on somewhat askance at the activities of their proselytising vegetarian neighbours. " W h e r e do the cattle go to, if they want them cleared off the fields?" muttered a non-believer, darkly. But the vegetarian woman only smiled sweetly and held out a huge dish of shortbread. " Made without milk or butter," she said. " Just wholemeal and natural oils and sweetening." W e tried a piece and it was delicious. This report would not be complete without a special word of appreciation to Donald Cross and Serena Coles, who very valiantly took in their cars all the goods for our stall at the Fair. Indeed we should like to thank everyone who helped in any way, as the propaganda aspect at the Animals' Fair is a most important one, however small the profit may be. M.E.D.

TREASURER'S REPORT A T T H E ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING HELD AT FRIENDS' HOUSE, EUSTON ROAD, LONDON, N.W.I, O N NOVEMBER 7th, 1953 •HIS report is being written whilst I am no longer Treasurer of the Vegan Society, but as the relinquishing of the work almost coincided with the end of the financial year, I have been asked to write this year's report, and the new Treasurer has kindly assisted me in supplying final figures. The note of cautious optimism expressed in last year's report cannot wholly be' maintained, as this year there was an excess of Expenditure over Income of £39. This, however, can be put down to the I.V.U. Congress at which it was vitally important that the Vegan Society should be represented. Even so, the delegates generously shouldered the greater portion of their expenses. A further outlay of £ 1 4 in connection with the Congress was due to the printing of extra copies of the Summer number of The Vegan, and probably most of this must be considered as a propaganda expense. Although a balance in hand of J£132 is shown, well over half this sum will be required for expenses before the end of this year. This balance is £39 less than last year, and this is due to several reasons, apart from the I.V.U. Congress already mentioned: ( 1 ) Decrease in subscriptions, ( 2 ) Increase of Travelling Expenses (Treasurer's necessary visits to London), (3) Increase in Postages (Vegan Commodities and Health Council work), ( 4 ) Increase in Printing and Stationery, ( 5 ) Cost of Animals' Fair Stalls for both 1952 and 1953 included in this year's figures. Taking it all round, we appear to be neither gaining nor losing financially, and whilst it is satisfactory to continue maintaining a credit balance, it means that we cannot do much more than hold our own. Propaganda and the printing of new literature are held up owing to the small margin of our credit balance. The decrease of £7 in the amount of subscriptions is a matter of concern, especially as the 50 unpaid subscriptions as at September 30th, this year, is half the number of last year. There were 37 new members or associates and 3 Life members during the year, but against these there were 26 cancellations of current members,




the majority again giving the cost of living as the reason. There were also cancellations of a further 80 cards where, in spite of reminders, subscriptions had not been paid for two years, and in some cases, longer. The " live " membership now stands at 397, and there has been a steady weeding out of " dead " members during the past two years. W e do earnestly hope that our present 400 members will continue loyal and keen so that our finances may at least remain steady. But there is so much we should like to do to make known the vegan idea, and this all depends on a larger membership and the generosity of our present members. W e were sorry the profit on the Animals' Fair was £10 less than last year, in spite of the great efforts of Mrs. Drake and her helpers, and once again we trust that members will remember this annual event and its help to our exchequer. Since 1951 when the renewal date of subscriptions was fixed as January 1st, a number of members have delighted the Treasurer's heart by paying their subscriptions early in the year. The greater number of you have needed only the one reminder sent with the Spring magazine, but there are quite a few who need several reminders. May I ask you to be kind to your new Treasurer—also in an outside full-time job like all your Committee —and send him your subscriptions promptly, with a little extra if possible, for the Society's sake. E.



£ 171 194 39 26 20 1

Cash in hand and at Bank, 30/9/52 Subscriptions and Donations Advertisements in The Vegan Sale of Literature Animals' Fair (net profit) 1952 Proceeds from A.G.M., 1952


Printing The Vegan Printing, Stationery and Advertising Postage, Carriage and Telephones Travelling Expenses (Secretary and Treasurer) I . V . U . Congress (Contribution Delegates' Expenses) A.G.M. Expenses, 1952 Socials Animals' Fair (cost of 1953 stall) Sundries Cash in hand and at Bank, 30/9/53




171 34 37 26 25 9 5 10 1 132 £454

Audited and found oorrect by Mrs. C. Cross, Uxbridge. October. 1953.




s. d. 3 0 5 0 16 1 2 9 15 0 18 9 0


s. d. 18 7 13 7 0 1 7 10 0 0 10 4 13 6 10 0 4 9 1 11 0




The Steak Wasn't Meat At A l l ! This heading, appearing in the " Middlesex Advertiser." 1953, introduced the following report of the Cross family, vegans. An admirable bit of publicity for the cause'.

of March 30th. well known to

O U S E W I F E who feeds her family of four without using meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, or animal products of any kind, is Mrs. C. Cross, of Denham. For the Cross family. Mr and Mrs. Cross, Jon (10) and Sally (7), are vegans. They adhere to the doctrine that it would be not only more humane but advantageous for man to live without exploiting animals. One thing this means is that their food is strictly vegetarian. Members of the Vegan Society adopt their way of life as the result of considerations which are principally ethical and moral. But some nutrition experts, faced with a serious world food problem, have for economic reasons begun to examine the possibility of meeting human food requirements in a similar manner.


Meatless Steak When Woman's Page was the guest of the Cross family this week, the lunch which Mrs. Cross served did not appear greatly different from the lunch we might have had at home. But the " jteaJf " in the steak and vegetable pie was a meatless steak— though we could have been forgiuen for misdating it for tender fleshmeat. The pastry was made with wholemeal flour (with a small addition of soya for added protein). The fat used was a vegetable cooking fat of fine quality. The oustard sauce served with the fruit was made with " milk " which had never been within a hundred yards of a cow. In Mrs. Cross's food cupboard were no products of animal origin—not even eggs. There were two types of butter—cashew cream butter and soya butter—and vegetarian margarine. These are rationed, but the ration is slightly more than that allowed on the ordinary ration book. There was also a variety of nutmeats, rissole mixtures, and other vegetarian protein foods. And a jug of creamy looking milk. Unbounded energy How does she get the " milk " ? " I mix nut-cream, which I buy from a Health Store, with hot water in an electric mixer to whatever consistency I want it." And the children? They are perfectly healthy and their energy is unbounded. Is a vegan diet monotonous? " On the contrary. 'Once the basic nutritional needs have been grasped, only a little imagination is needed to ma\e it •attractive and varied." And on this point, Mrs. Cross has the backing of no less an authority than Philip Haj-ben, who, during vegan cooking demonstrations on television, declared that there was no reason why such a diet should not be interesting, varied and attractive. All the subtle and delightful flavours, he said, come •in any case from the vegetable kingdom.




CORRESPONDENCE It is with a sincere wish for the furtherance of the vegan cause that I write this letter. It comes to me at times that we are trying to be too scientific from the mental side, for when we reach out in freedom into the purely spiritual aspect of those multitudinous things which have been given us (and the creatures) for the nourishment of our bodies, we commune with the true Ideas which have produced them for our good. There is so much value in so many of these " gifts " that if we feed only from the heart all will be adjusted by Nature, and as the body grows finer, our intuitions will tell us what is best for us: food is such a very individual need in each way. It depends so much on the particular work for which an individual has come to this planet, for this determines his needs accordingly; and all are so amply provided for on all planes. Vegetables for the manual worker and fruit for the mental—with those many more gifts from the middle kingdom which help to balance up the whole. (Tomatoes occur to me as one of the chief of these, with their wonderful vitalising properties, for balancing the earthly kingdom with the higher). It is the thought behind all which is so much needed : then the fear of some foods which so many people have would disappear. Perhaps we tend to mix too many of the good things together, and that a stronger " thought " taken in a simple way would be of more benefit. Also the fear of cooked foods is apt to be exaggerated, because if cooked in the right way, the juices are easily assimilated into the blood and become easier to digest by some people who have not been life vegans or vegetarians. I feel the cause would be so much helped by a greater awakening to the spiritual significance of diet with less emphasis on the scientific aspect, because the freedom of a spiritualised consciousness brings so much influence with it. I am not decrying scientific research in any way, but hoping that it may come to this higher freedom from that mental standpoint which has done so much for the evolution of humanity. However, many are coming to the knowledge that much more will be discovered for the furtherance of humanity by a deeper understanding of spiritual forces rather than by the purely mental activity of detached scientific analysis, for it is the heart which must rule in the New Age. If we go by the Christ Law, at the back of all, it leads us to a greater freedom and to a deeper realization of all that is to come about in the minds of men —who will ultimately establish the liberation of the creatures. Then the only fear will be the breaking of that Law. Hastings.


My wife and I read in a book about herbs that the leaves of Dwarf Elder have a smell that " drives away mice and rats, even from granaries." W e should have been glad to know this last autumn when we had a boisterous, squeaking troupe of mouse-acrobats come to stay with us. However, we were —and are—-glad we didn't drive them away, possibly into the house of people who might have trapped or poisoned them. W e came, in the end, after trying to block up their entrances and exits and after protecting our food from them, to set out apple and orange seeds for them at night, which they seemed to enjoy (cracking them and eating only the centres) up to the time of their voluntary departure. During their stay with us they became progressively better behaved, and we had all learned,, so it seemed, by the time they left, to live in amity together. A L B E R T BROWN. Edinburgh.

27 T H E


Very many thanks for the Winter number of The Vegan. T h e magazine is always interesting but this last number is especially so to me. T h e article by Mr. de la Torre is most helpful and I hope that you will be able to print some more by him. He doesn't give the value of cashew nuts and as these are the most easily obtainable in this country it would be helpful to have it. The one menu that he gives certainly simplifies the diet. I am sure that the fruit and vegetable diet is right if one can manage it. Bonne Nuit, Jersey, C.I. (Miss) NORA FARO. Congratulations upon the very practical nature of the Winter issue of The Vegan, and for taking on the task of editing The- Vegan. It is, I suppose, one of those jobs where you can't " please all the people all the time," but I have always felt that the ignorance of folk about alternatives to fish, meat, and dairy produce, is one of the chief obstacles to their joining our movement: they just do not realise these things are there, nor how much more refreshing they can be both to the palate, and to the soul in its knowledge that man has at last broken free from his subservience to the animal kingdom and can now enter into that fulness of life wherein love has conquered fear and peace comes to us all. Woolwich,




May I congratulate you and the Editorial Board on the recent numbers of The Vegan. There is much food for thought, and to those of us who have been vegans for some time many changes, superficial mostly, have been made. However, it is all progress, and as the Society will be ten years old in 1954 there is great reason for congratulation and hope. I hope that there will be a special birthday edition of The Vegan. The birth of the Vegan Society, brought about by Donald Watson and some founder members, and its vicissitudes, are of considerable historical value. T h e end of the first decade, with all its difficulties, finds the Society firmly established. W h a t of the next? I am very glad to see that you have Arnold de Vrie's Fountain of Youth in the Vegan Library. He certainly advocates " the vegan w a y " with compost raised fruits and vegetables eaten raw. In this case there is no question of chemicals or dehydrated, frozen, or even canned foods. All the above and more may be allowed to a vegan. In fact, there are many deleterious aspects of a diet within the vegan scope, as you know. T h e vegan way is a big step forward in vegetarianism for those who are sufficiently advanced to grasp and follow it. In time no doubt disease will be greatly minimised by a wholesale back to the land exodus where enough is as good as a feast and social class a myth. One could write a lot on the subject but it only remains to express the wish that the vegan way may be made clearer to very many during the next decade, and that circumstances may lead ordinary folk to appreciate a more natural way of life. It will, of course, take much longer than this.

Criccieth, N .




T h e article by T . de la Torre on " Oleaginous Seeds " is interesting as a record of one man's experience, but the cost of his diet would be prohibitive to most of us in Great Britain : 6 ozs. Brazils—3/-; 8 ozs. dried figs—8d.; 6 ozs. dried pears—10d.; 2 glasses orange juice—1/2. Total cost, 5/8 per day, or £2 per week. Few of us can budget for £2 per head for food per week. Most dieticians would condemn his diet as being too concentrated; not nearly bulky enough for healthy bowel action; lacking in freshness. Many would reject human milk as a proper standard for adult requirements. Milk is for infants, and their bodily needs are very different from those of adults. Therefore, to base a dietary on the chemical analysis of milk seems a mistake.




I doubt if a scientist would accept Mr. de la Torre's article as of real scientific value, and I should certainly hesitate to recommend it to the attention of prospective vegans. I should expect them to be put off veganism as " cranky," extravagant, and extremely impracticable socially. Skipton, Yorks. S. D. SMITH. Editor's Note.—The only evidence of real scientific value, in the realm of dietetics, is that which derives from direct human experience. The fact that Mr. de la Torre "obtained such wonderful results, while on the fruitvegetable-nut diet " surely speaks for itself. My husband thinks I should have enclosed this information on cattle just in case you may not have seen this report of the British Association Meeting. He thinks it one of the finest pleas for veganism he's yet come across. "Bullock's mill{_\" he says disgustedly, " w h a t is this world coming to." It does seem like black magic to us. How can people expect to grow sane and healthy on such insane mehods of feeding. If the poor, misguided public must have its beef and milk, it ought to insist on getting it from naturally bred animals, even as I feel those who must have their eggs should insist on battery produced ones being stamped as such, and so boycott them. T h e trouble is the scientists see nothing wrong with these bright ideas— but what will the mentality of the nations be who are reared under such practices? One shudders to think of it; hence all the greater urge to prove and testify the true, pure way. Edinburgh.

( M r s . ) ROSA W . HUNTER.

As creature welfare workers who are striving hard for the cause need every encouragement I must impart to you some helpful items of interest. There is so much work to do and too few enlightened creature lovers to accomplish it. W e must wholeheartedly try to hasten the Creature Emancipation Day by eliminating life-exploitation, a cause of war, and our efforts must be concentrated on the orthodox Churches more than ever in various ways, bringing home to the ministers their inescapable moral responsibilities involved in creature welfare or the relationship between man and all of God's creatures. They are supposed to be the spiritual leaders and should be the foremost in this work of compassion. Their attitude towards the cause is misleading to their congregations and also quite a wrong interpretation of the true teachings of lesus Christ whom they profess to serve. If we do not alter these deplorable conditions, who is going to change them? Someone has to, and it is a task in itself. One has been and is trying to help in this phase for the past 20 years, and met with some success to a certain extent regarding domestic cruelty, but not with commercial barbarism. I am firmly convinced that the stressing of the moral aspect of cruel businesses, blood sports, etc., in the churches is just as essential as the teaching of humane education in Sunday Schools. It is illogical and discouraging to persuade children to be kind to creatures when their parents uphold cruelty, indulging in hunting, also allowing them to use air-guns, whips, fishing rods, toy firearms, etc., or condoning or supporting the fur, meat, and other trades which involve cruelty. Yes, we all have an arduous missionary task to achieve in the orthodox Churches themselves! T h e Canadian Meat Board stated not so long ago that it had in one month, sent to Britain and Europe meat representing the production of 4 2 1 , 0 0 0 pics. 112,000 cattle. 100,000 lambs and 20,000 sheep. If placed end to end these poor animals would form a line over 650 miles long. About 10.000,000 sheep and lambs arc killed for meat every vear in Australia. Australia's first churkeys, a cross between turkeys and chickens, have been hatched at Glenfield, N . S . W . It is said that Russian scientists have already produced the cross.

29 T H E


A few years ago in Durham, England, a 15-year-old boy was charged with cruelly treating a dog. " The boy habitually goes to a slaughter-house," said a court witness, " where he has seen pigs killed and he seems to have served the dog as he would a pig." " I took the dog to a colliery," stated the teen-ager, " and tied it up with rope and beat it. I have seen pigs killed this way at the butcher's place." (Cruelty breeds cruelty.) This proclamation is most encouraging : " As Mayor of Quebec City, I hereby proclaim a Kindness to Animals Week in April, and urge our citizens to join humane organizations in observing this period in the real spirit of good treatment to all creatures. I also urge our children, women and men to follow throughout the year the principles of the week, which means not only enriching their own lives but giving deserved recognition to creatures who daily prove themselves in many fields as worthy of being known as ' Man's best Friends.' " Dr. H. Lewis, Chief Federal Migratory Bird Officer of Ontario and Quebec, says there is great need for people to co-operate in Bird Protection Work by making known the value of birds, feeding them in winter, providing bird houses in spring and summer, and by respecting laws for the conservation of bird life. He says that insect-eating birds are of great value in protecting crops, forests, and man himself against harmful insects. It is estimated that the annual value to Canada of this service is $100,000,000. Most of the song birds, robins, swallows and orioles, are taking part in this work. Night-hawks feed to a large extent on mosquitoes and black flies. As insects form the greater part of the diet of birds, the latter assemble in large numbers wherever an outbreak of insects occurs. The Government Bird Sanctuary, at Perce, Gaspe, annually records over 20,000 visitors who provide a revenue of 100,000 dollars. The aesthetic value of birds, though quite beyond the scope of measurement, is equal to their economic value, is the conviction of Dr. Lewis. Kerry Wood, the Canadian Naturalist and creature lover, tells this touching tale of Canada geese. On its flight south with a flock, a gander was wounded by a farmer's gun. The flock flew on, leaving the wounded goose on an island with his mate and two young ones; there was the slowly healing wound and cold winter approaching. Finally the goslings left but the mate stayed on faithfully resisting all calls by other flocks to leave, until one day they were both able to join a late flock and fly south to safety. In Butler, Pennsylvania, a short time ago the maternal love in animals was demonstrated when a sow escaped from a local abattoir with her litter of 15 squealing newly-born pigs. Recently, Murphysboro residents in Illinois passed by an unknown white dog for three days before they discovered why he kept vigil at Hager Hill. Becoming curious, they called police who found he had been standing guard over two other dogs trapped in a storm sewer beneath him. When the captives were freed, their saviour joined them and disappeared. This article, concerning an uncle of mine and two birds in his grocery shop, was in the Hants and Berths Gazette (England) not very long ago: — Mr. Henry J. Pratt, Hartley Wintney, Hampshire, writes: " This amazing incident will, I am sure, appeal to your readers who are interested in birds. Yesterday a lad saw a starling descend from the roof of the hotel opposite my shop with a big hawk in hot pursuit. Any port in a storm, the starling made for the shop's open doorway where it presumably halted momentarily only to be seized in mid-air. The hawk, with its impetus, carried the scared starling into and around the shop, much to the consternation of my lady assistants who fled to the cellars. Meanwhile, the hawk with its prey had contacted a window, causing it to release its victim who made a further bid to escape by zigzagging around the store with the determined hawk still in pursuit. The starling suddenly disappeared behind the door when the hawk alighted on the coffee-mili, and after a quick survey




—deciding it was no place for hawks—made for the largest window, doubtless thinking it was the outdoors. The impact this time was so great that it fell down apparently dased as it allowed my son to catch and release it. He then caught and freed a much-bedraggled starling who, with some effort, flew to the hotel roof—' to think it over.' It is worthy of note that in this wild bird chase, beyond a few things becoming displaced, nothing was broken!" (This tale was broadcast over the B.B.C.). Seven beavers saved the Manitoba Government 800 dollars by building a dam where engineers planned it on a creek near Lake Winnipeg. You will be interested to know that there are about four Beaver Sanctuaries in Canada where beavers are protected by Indians. The first one was made in Quebec about 13 years ago. In Colorado, beavers built a wall more than 1,000 feet long. A few years ago an S.P.C.A. in Canada held a fashion show and I am sorry to say that " lavishly fur-trimmed coats " were shown—an intolerable inconsistency which is hard to oomprehend. By upholding that which involves life, exploitation and cruelty, any S.P.C.A. is defeating its own high ideals of love and mercy! Now I will close, hoping that the enclosures will help you in the cause's advancement. All humane workers, and creatures are remembered daily in prayer by colleagues, you may be assured. Your past and present co-operation is gratefully appreciated. Toronto, Canada.




It was agreed at a meeting of the Executive Committee on January 30th, 1954, that the greater size of " T h e Vegan," now 32 pages, would necessitate raising the price from 9d. to Is. This increase takes place as from the present issue. W e hope that the journal may still claim to give good value for its price.

31 T H E


MISCELLANEOUS ADVERTISEMENTS (Two lines 5/-: extra lines 2/- each; 20% allowed on four consecutive issues.) HIGHER LIFE S O C I E T Y . Our Society is dedicated to the Natural Sciences and also the Occult Subjects. For information, kindly address: Joseph Reiss Activities, 3932 Blaine Street, N.E. Washington 19, D.C. " L E T T E R S OF A S E E K E R . " Free specimen copy from Ernest Brever, , Plumtree, Nottingham. MAN who likes letter-writing to those interested vegetable, fruit growing, would exchange ideas woman, tiny income, annuity later.—Box No. 14. N A T U R A L Grown Dried Bilberries. Valuable nutritional source of potassium, iron, etc. A truly organically grown food. Delightful flavour. Grows only wild. Packet sufficient for 20-24 servings, 6s. l i d . post free, or Trial Package 2s. 3d. post free. Quotations larger quantities. Easy to prepare. For enjoyment and for your good health. Central Health Stores, 4, Clarence Street, Brighton. " ORGANIC H U S B A N D R Y — A Symposium" compiled by John S. Blackburn. 2/9 post free from the Secretary, 38 Stane Way, Ewell, Surrey. SPEAKING & W R I T I N G lessons (correspondence, visit) 5/-, classes 1/6.— Dorothy Matthews, B.A., , N.W.J. PRImrose 5686. WILL COUPLE join another in lovely Forest of Dean. Share ex's, large garden, apples, pears, etc. Great possibilities.—Box No. 15. ESTABLISHMENTS CATERING FOR VEGANS (First two lines free ; extra lines 2/- each ; 20% discount on four consecutive issues.) BIRMINGHAM.— Thackeray House, 206, Hagley Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham 16. BROMLEY, KENT.—Furnished accommodation with or without breakfast. Half-hour London. Comfortable, friendly atmosphere.—Mrs. Muriel Drake, . R A V 2809. CALLANDER, Perthshire. Brook Linn Vegetarian Guest House. First class accommodation. Lovely mountain scenery. Muriel Sewell. T e l . : 103. COOMBE LODGE, Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire, a household where visiting Veganj say they feel they " belong." Bircher-Benner diet if desired. All fruit and vegetables home-grown and compost-grown. Ideal for week-end conferences. Beautiful views of valley from terrace. Excellent centre for lovely walks in Cotswold Hills. Children always welcomed. Write to Kathleen Mayo. CORNWALL.—Vegans welcomed, lovely roseland garden to private beach Brochure from: Trewithian Cove House, Portscatho (75), nr. Truro. DUBLIN New Health Group welcomes visitors. 49 Adelaide Road, Dublin. Tel. 67047. EASTBOURNE.—Board Residence. Bed and Breakfast. Mrs. Clifford, s, Eastbourne. Tel. 7024. HINDHEAD.—Mrs. Nicholson, ; garden adjoins golf course. Children welcome. Tel.: Hindhead 389. KENT, Westgate-on-Sea. An inexpensive holiday is provided by our popular one-roomed holiday flatlets, equipped for self-catering, 30/- to 50/- per week each guest, or with choice of lunch and dinner. Strictly Vegan. Inclusive August term 4$ gns. Bathing from the house, sandy beach. No smoking. Stamp for leaflet. Mr. and Mrs. Arnaldi, " . Tel. 31942. (Continued on page 3 cover)

keep old age at bay • •

. . . w i t h p l e n t y o f V i t a m i n E, o f t e n called t h e anti-sterility v i t a m i n , y o u c a n b e y o u n g a t seventy. T h e richest n a t u r a l s o u r c e o f V i t a m i n s B i a n d E is t h e w h e a t g e r m a n d F R O M E N T is just this. T a k e F R O M E N T daily to prevent or treat d i s o r d e r s o f o l d - a g e a n d to maintain vigour and alertness. FROMENT strengthens the whole n e r v o u s s y s t e m . C e t F R O M E N T to-day a n d s t a r t feeling younger. E n j o y its n u t t y flavour f r u i t or w i t h milk.



F r o m all H e a l t h Food Stores a n d 1 / 7 1 (7 ox.) a n d 3 / - (16 ox.).



FROMENT Replaces

" Half Health " with " Full Health "

JOHN H. HERON Ltd., Hook Road Mills, Goole, Yorkshire


A VEGAN-VEGETARIAN DAME Saturday, April 24th, 1954 A t Abbey Community Centre, 29 Marsham Street, London, S . W . I , from 7 p.m. to 10.30 p.m. Bus No. 88 to door, nearest Station—St. James' Park. A pleasant evening of Ballroom Dancing. Admission by ticket only, 3/6 each, obtainable from— D. BURTON 28 Maidenhead Road, Stratford-on-Avon, Warwickshire

your meals with VESOP CONCENTRATED LIQUID E X T R A C T OF PURE VEGETABLE ORIGIN. It intensifies the taste of cooked food. A most appetising addition to soups, stews, vegetables, gravies, etc. Season your salads with a few drops of VESOP. Vegetarians and Vegans everywhere, ask your Health Food Store for VESOP. 1/8 per bottle, net weight 8 oz. ( R e c i p e Book o n


VESOP PRODUCTS LTD. 4 9 8 Hornsey Road, London, N . 1 9 Telephone: ARChway 24S7

(Continued from



K E S W I C K . — H i g h f i e l d Vegetarian Guest House, T h e Heads, offers beautiful views; varied food and friendly atmosphere.—Anne Horner. T e l . : 508. LAKE D I S T R I C T . Rothay Bank, Grasmere. Attractive guest house for invigorating, refreshing holidays.—Write Isabel James. Tel. 134. L E A M I N G T O N S P A . — " Quisisana." First class guest house with every modern comfort, vegetarian or vegan diet. Mrs. H. Newman, Tel. 2148. L O N D O N . — S m a l l vegetarian guest moderate. Mrs. M . Noble, WIMbledon 7163.





London. Terms S.W.19. Tel.

N O R T H W A L E S . — V e g a n and vegetarian guest house, nr. mountains and sea. Lovely woodland garden. Brochure from Jeannie and George Lake, Plas-y-Coed, Penmaen Park. Llanfairfechan. T e l . : 161. P E N A R T H — " V e g e t a r i a n Guest House," Rectory Rd. Rest, change,relaxation. Ideal situation. Pleasant holiday lesort Overlooking sea. Attractive, generous catering. Sun Lounge. H. if C. Send for new Brochure. S C A R B O R O U G H . — S e l e c t guest house overlooking both bays. Highly recommended by vegetarians and vegans. Mulgrave House, Tel. 3 7 9 3 . S C A R B O R O U G H . — U p l a n d s Private Hotel. Prince of Wales Terrace. Tel. 2 6 3 1 . ST.

C A T H E R I N E ' S S C H O O L . Almondsbury, Nr. Bristol.—Progressive co-educational boarding school for children of all ages, specialising in music, dancing, crafts, etc., in addition to usual academv- =ubjecr-. 400 ft. up, overlooking Channel and Welsh Hills. Own produce. Please


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The Vegan Spring 1954