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T h e y d o n o t c o n t a i n w h e y (no w a y ! ) nor b u t t e r f a t (they need no buttering up!) nor cows milk nor any animal emulsifier or release agents u s e d in m a n y confections Ethically produced in Plamil's own factory in which no dairy ingredients a r e ever used

Pioneers of Vegan chocolate 1966 Martello bar replaces milk chocolate in creamier taste

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Organic drops also available.

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this issu Season's greetings to all our readers. As winter closes in and days grow shorter (in the northern hemisphere) we all look forward to the celebrations of our different cultures and religions to maintain our spirits. With giving being a traditional activity at this time of year, the magazine is following suit with a host of free offers (see Shoparound). The Society's Annual General Meeting on Saturday 26 October saw the election of three new honorary Patrons - Moby (well known popular musician/singer); Maneka Gandhi (Indian politician) and Kathleen Jannaway (a former honorary General Secretary of the Vegan Society). New officers and members of Council are listed on page 35. I know that everyone, including those of us working on it, is impatient for the edition of the Animal Free Shopper. It is currently at the print stage and will be with us very shortly. The Shopper will be a whopping 320+ pages long with enhanced introductory pages and very keenly priced at £4.99 (plus £1.50 p&p). As soon as we receive the first print run we shall be filling the many orders that have already been placed for the Shopper. This year's World Vegan Day and UK Vegan Week generated the most interest ever with over 400 people receiving WVD packs and participating in promoting the vegan message. Benjamin Zephaniah kindly recorded a message to promote World Vegan Day and this along with vegan recipes was cut on to CDs and distributed widely to radio. George Rodger kicked off UK Vegan Week with a guest column in the Scottish Daily Record on vegan highland dress while Stephen Walsh gave a 20-minute interview on LBC radio in London and was featured in Here's Health magazine answering questions about the vegan diet. Press releases were sent out from Donald Watson House and members and Local Contacts all over the country were organising events and publicity. A big thank you to everyone who put up posters, handed out leaflets, organised meals, events and stalls. For more information and ideas for next year, see I wish you all a happy and prosperous New Year. Rick Savage

The Vegan Society

Donald Watson House

Local rate 0845 45 88244

7 Battle Road

Tel. 01424 427393

Editor Rick Savage
















































PRIZE CROSSWORD St Leonards-on-Sea

Fax. 01424 717064


East Sussex

TN37 7AA


© The Vegan Society The views expressed in The Vegan do not necessarily reflect those of the Editor or of the Vegan Society Council. Nothing printed should be construed to be Vegan Society policy unless so stated. The Society accepts no liability for any matter in the magazine. The acceptance of advertisements (including inserts) does not imply endorsement. The inclusion of product information should not be construed as constituting official Vegan Society approval for the product, its intended use, or its manufacturer/distributor.

Editorial Support Vanessa Clarke, Stephen Walsh, Karin Ridgers Design Doughnut Design Printed by Hastings Printing Company On G-print chlorine-free paper

Contributions intended for publication are welcomed, but unsolicited materials will not be returned unless accompanied by a SAE.

Front Cover photo: gettyworks



The Vegan

Winter 2002

• PUBLIC INQUIRY INTO PRIMATE EXPERIMENTS Plans by Cambridge University for a primate research facility opposite Girton College have met with opposition at every turn, thanks to Joan Court (pictured below) and X-CAPE Cambridge Against Primate Experiments - plus supporters from all over the country. Twice turned down by the City authorities, the plan was nevertheless supported by the Government and is the subject of a public inquiry beginning on 26th November. For further details, see or call 01223 311828.



Vegan Society Founder Donald Watson (pictured above) celebrated his 92nd birthday by climbing Walla Crag in Cumbria.

On World Vegan Day this year the EVU called on the European Union to stop subsidising unwanted meat mountains, desist from exporting factory farming systems and accept the provision of a plant-based diet as a human right in all state-subsidised establishments such as schools, hospitals, prisons, etc. [see www.european-vegetarian.oral The Belgian group. Ethical Vegetarian Alternative, unveiled plans for a new catering guide and a major vegan festival in Antwerp on Sunday 16 th March next year. For information see or contact

• NEW PATRONS & OFFICERS At the Society's A G M on 26th October, three new Hon. Patrons were appointed: Indian politician and animal rights campaigner Maneka Gandhi, veteran environmentalist and vegan activist Kathleen Jannaway and international music star Moby. There is a profile of Maneka on page 7; Kathleen and Moby will follow in future issues. Officers appointed were Stephen Walsh [Chair], Alex Bourke [Vice Chair], Laurence Klein [Treasurer] and Patricia Tricker [Local Contacts Co-ordinator], After the formal part of the A G M , Gianbattista Montagna gave a very professional vocal recital and Kathy Silk a delicious cookery demonstration.

• RAISING THE STANDARD Tesco Vegetarian Magazine has adopted the Vegan Society logo as being 'more recognisable' to indicate vegan recipes and the winter issue includes a Vegan Society membership offer. The new Sunflower Standard was launched with a press release during National Vegan W e e k , extending our successful trademark to authenticate restaurant and caterer meals.

I4The Vegan

Winter 2002

• TRADING PLACES At the Organex trade show in October the Vegan Society had lively and useful discussions with manufacturers and caterers as well as a friendly public debate with the Vegetarian Society. W e explained that rather than being just 'suitable for vegans', delicious vegan food was suitable for everyone and could be marked as such with the Vegan Society's trademark. This message was reinforced by reports that the NHS has banned certain types of chicken found to have beef or pork fat and water added to keep the weight up and the price down. People with religious objections to certain meats and those catering for them can now opt for animal-free meals that everyone can enjoy.

• FOR DENSER BONES EAT YOUR FRUIT AND VEG A study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2002; 76:245-252) provides further evidence that fruit and vegetables help to maintain strong bones. The study divided participants into six groups according to habitual diet. Men with a high intake of fruit and vegetables showed the densest bones, while men and women with a high intake of sweets showed the lowest bone density. This adds to other research suggesting that potassium and vitamin K from fruit and vegetables are at least as important as a good calcium intake in maintaining healthy bones.

• FOX HUNTING - INEFFECTIVE AS WELL AS CRUEL The ban on fox hunting in many areas during the foot and mouth epidemic provided an opportunity to test claims that without hunting the fox population would increase dramatically. Results published in Nature magazine on 5th September 2002 showed that numbers were unaffected by the ban and that "a permanent ban on hunting is unlikely to result in a dramatic increase in fox numbers". W e hope that the unspeakable will now abandon the pursuit of the inedible but fear that fox control was only ever a feeble pretext for this particularly gruesome activity.

• VEGAN & SUNFOOD FESTIVAL IN SURREY Thanks to Monica Lilley and her colleagues, Saturday shoppers in Guildford on October 5th were invited to taste free vegan food prepared with a delicious variety of raw fruit and vegetables. As well as chatting with local vegans, visitors could purchase cakes, pasties and other goodies from local wholefood traders and buy books and other items in aid of animal charities.

• KEEP THE OLD FORESTS New Scientist on 26 t h October reported the result of CarboEurope - a Europewide programme that has pioneered research into the carbon budget. Forest soils contain three to four times as much carbon as the vegetation above. When the ground is cleared, the rotting organic matter in the soil releases a surge of carbon dioxide which would take at least ten years for newly planted trees to absorb. The Kyoto protocol with its provision for carbon credits for newly planted forests is therefore based on a scientific fallacy and even provides a perverse incentive to cut down old forests and plant new ones.

• GM CROPS - COUNTING THE COST A report published in September by the Soil Association claims that genetically modified crops have cost the US billions of dollars due to contamination of crops, compensation for low prices and loss of trade in Europe. The report, 'Seeds of Doubt: Experiences of North American Farmers of Genetically

Modified Crops' is available from the Soil Association, price £12. Telephone 0117 929 0661.

Copies of the CD are still available: email or telephone 0845 458 8244 x828.


Our website was a great success and very cost effective, with the number of page views rising steadily to a total of nearly 50,000 by the end of National Vegan Week. As expected, the busiest day was Nov 1st, with 4,842 hits. Apart from the Forum, the most popular feature was the on-line survey asking " W h a t would most encourage more people to go vegan?" Better vegan choices in restaurants and more vegan information in schools were the most popular options.

The first ever National Vegan Week was very successful, thanks to the hard work of local contacts. Council members, other volunteers and Vegan Society staff. W e can only mention a few events here, but please post your World Vegan Day news and pictures to to show everyone what can be done. There were displays in libraries and other venues, Suma had a whole page advert in their catalogue and Nottingham Fast Food Restaurant V1 and Veggies of Nottingham gave out "buy one get one free" vegan vouchers. There was free food in Wolverhampton, a vegan day at Warwick University and special meals and tastings around the country, including Planet Organic and Fresh & Wild shops. There were three Ital/vegan reggae gigs by Rootsman Rak, including the hugely successful event at Brentwood organised by Essex Vegans.

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Nearly five hundred World Vegan Day packs, huge numbers of stickers and 10,000 "next step" leaflets were distributed. Companies ran special offers, some launched new products and ran a competition. In addition to the hundreds of posters sent out by Vegan Society HQ, Smirnoff chose National Vegan Week to launch their new poster. (Pictured below)

Celebrations around the world included 40 Dutch restaurants getting involved, picnicking in New Zealand, gatherings in Germany and events in Nigeria and The fnendfy reggae community and radio station i >> Uganda, to name just a very few. New Fresefts websites were also launched by the Dutch and German Vegan Societies.

A celebration of Vegan and Ital living

-1 ' t i m i Press coverage kicked off with a guest column by George Rodger in the Scottish Daily Record and a feature article in the Coventry Evening Telegraph inspired by local contact Andrea Elson, closely followed by a 20-minute interview by Stephen Walsh on LBC radio while Karin Ridgers featured on local radio stations in Essex. On World Vegan Day The Times directed its readers to our website, declaring that "the 'I don't do dairy' brigade could be on the right track". Benjamin Zephaniah was interviewed in Pure Modern Lifestyle, Stephen Walsh was in Here's Health and Rick Savage got an article into Association Manager. With the help of the Information Group, various members of staff prepared press releases on osteoporosis, vegan bonfire BBQ tips, 50 sandwich ideas, the new Society patrons, the Sunflower Catering Standard and a message from Moby. A CD with a message from Benjamin Zephaniah, five recipes and a song from Vegamp was picked up by several local stations and there was an internet radio interview with Benjamin Zephaniah.

Practice makes perfect, and there's nothing like forward planning, so let us hope that this year's successes will inspire everyone to start thinking about Veggie Month in March, Veggie Week in May and World Vegan Day next November - not to mention our own Diamond Jubilee in 2004 which w e aim to make a landmark in the promotion of veganism.

I5The Vegan

Winter 2002

hoporound Debbie Holman


PLAMIL'S ORGANIC CAYENNE CHOCOLATE W i t h Christmas fast approaching, chocolate is high on every vegan's shopping list and if you want a chocolate that is different then this one is for you! It has a kick like a mule, a deceptively smooth beginning but a tornado ending that wakes up the most sluggish of taste buds. Cayenne pepper derives its name from the Greek 'to bite' and this it does with a vengeance, the innocent cocoa bean and the fiery spice making a surprisingly good duo. If it's an after dinner aphrodisiac you are looking for, this could be the answer! Costing £1.59 for a 95g bar, spicing up your love life will not burn holes in your pockets only your mouth. Contact: Plamil Foods Ltd, Folkestone, Kent CT 19 6PQ

A n e w meat-free roast launched by the animal-free company Redwood could grace the vegan Christmas table this year and provide a welcome relief from the traditional nut roast. The roast comes ready sliced with delicious VegiDeli gourmet sausages wrapped in Streaky-style Vegetarian Rashers and mouth-watering gravy. Served with roast potatoes and a selection of fresh vegetables, this is a Christmas feast fit for a king. The Celebration Roast costs £4.99 and is made from soya and wheat protein with not a turkey feather in sight! Contact:


, *




The first 25 readers to write in to Vegan Magazine Offer, Veganstore, 15 Chichester Drive East, Saltdean, Brighton, BN2 8LD will get a free pack of the Christmas tree chocolates.

I6The Vegan

Winter 2002

This straw gold champagne is made from 100% Pinot Noir grapes and is produced by traditional 'enlightened viticulture' methods ensuring a 'organoleptic quality' drink according to Duval-Leroy. No animal finings are used in the process and the champagne is aged on yeast for a minimum of two years. The result is a superbly balanced drink with powerful aromas of dried fruits, almonds and honeysuckle. A lingering fresh taste that is easy on the palate makes this champagne ideal for Christmas and it is competitively priced at £19.99. It is available mail order by the bottle or the case from Duval-Leroy UK Ltd, 616 Chiswick High Road, London, W 4 5RX. Contact: tel. 0208 982 4276 or email


O u r second chocolate o f f e r i n g is more conventional, but equally delicious. The beautifully covered chocolate snowmen come complete with strings for hanging. Their shiny wrappers will grace any Christmas tree and provide a delicious snack when the festivities are over. The chocolate is rich and creamy and the solid figures are packed in bags of six for £2.99. Contact: Veganstore tel. 01273 302979, www. veganstore. co. uk







Redwood are giving away a Celebration Roast to the first 20 readers to write in to Vegan Magazine Celebration Roast Offer, The Redwood Wholefood Company, Redwood House, Burkitt Road, Earlstrees Industrial Estate, Corby, Northants, NN17 4DT. You should include telephone number, and an email address if you have one, so that delivery can be arranged.

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Duval-Leroy are very happy to offer five bottles of their Vegan Champagne to readers of The Vegan. The first five to write to the following address will win: Vegan Champagne Offer, Champagne Duval-Leroy (UK) Ltd, 616 Chiswick High Road, London W 4 5RX

YAOH LIP BALM Vaoh make hemp seed oil cosmetics, all of them suitable for vegans and all free from synthetic fragrances and colours. The range includes salve, lip balm, shampoo, conditioner and moisturiser. W e tested the lip balms, which come in coconut, mango and spearmint flavours. Each 4 gram tube contains essential oils and herb extracts and costs £2.95. W e found them luscious and soothing with a moist but not sticky feeling that left the lips soft and comfortable. The coconut flavour has the added benefit of sun factor 15 and is perfect for summer months.

All the balms are very economical to use and last even after eating and drinking.

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The first five readers who write to Yaoh will receive a pack containing a bottle of Yaoh hemp seed oil shampoo, a pot of moisturising cream and the three lip balms,

all rich in certified organic hemp seed oil. Contact: Yaoh, PO Box 333, Bristol BS 99 1NF, tel. 0117 923 9053

ORIGINAL SOURCE TOILETRIES Ellen Wakeman, a scandalous Australian missionary's daughter, was the inspiration behind the range of Original Source toiletries. She discovered the healing powers of the plants that grew in the outback and became famous for her Bush remedies. Before she died she wrote down her recipes and many of the herbs she used - tea tree, lemon, lavender and eucalyptus - are used in Original Source products. W e tested four of the products. The essential oil body sprays were beautifully packaged in slim glass phials containing the mood-enhancing sprays. Perfect to grace any bedroom, we found them sensuous and sophisticated with no synthetic fragrances or perfumes, just blended essential oils such as orange, geranium and cedarwood. The sprays cost £6.99 each for 75 ml and include harmonising, uplifting and revitalising sprays. The Pure Spice Bath Foam, also very rich in essential oils, envelopes the body in a protective layer, gently cleansing away dirt and leaving the skin revitalised but also relaxed and scented. The Spice Bath Foam, an excellent Christmas gift, costs £2.99 for 350 ml.

From the range of body washes we tried the Tea Tree and Lavender. Again, the high concentration of essential oils was quickly absorbed by the skin and provided long-lasting moisturisation. The body wash costs £2.99 for 300 ml but is very economical due to its rich formulation. The last product, the Tea Tree and Lavender Handwash was soothing and antiirritant, leaving a pleasant lingering fragrance with no harsh synthetic perfumes. The attractive pumpdispensing container makes for cleanliness and little waste. The handwash costs £2.25 for 300 ml. The full range of Original Source products can be viewed at www. originalsource. co. uk

• VEGAMP CD W i t h words and music by Vegan Society staff and friends, the purpose of this CD is solely to raise funds for animal welfare charities and to highlight the immense cruelty involved in vivisection and live exports. W e all had great fun producing the CD and another is planned for next year involving the same old crew and some new blood! W e hope that vegans and non-vegans alike will enjoy the mixture of poetry, instrumentals and thought-provoking songs, with the odd bit of humour thrown in for variety. Every sale will benefit charities fighting the very cruelties we are singing about. The CD is available from the Vegan Society price £6 plus £1.50 postage and packing. For info, see




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\ Beanie's Health Foods (Wholesale) Limited currently have the sole distribution rights for Fry's Special Vegetarian Foods and Bionade isotonic drinks. Fry's frozen foods have wide appeal, being tasty, Kosher, Parev, Shudda, suitable for vegans and free of cholesterol and artificial additives. flu row

Bionade are organic, vegan, mineral rich fruit drinks which are chemical free and contain no added sugar, so they are even suitable for diabetics. For more information please call (01489) 574593 or email


StECfcflL O F F E R Write to 'Vegamp', 10 Baird house, 48/47 Chapel Park Road, St Leonardson-Sea, East Sussex, TN37 6JB and the first five lucky entries will each — be sent a CD.



The first 10 people to write in will receive a £5 voucher to spend in Beanies' shop. Please write to: The Vegan magazine offer, Beanies Health Foods, 77b High Street, Fareham, Hants, P0167AW

I5The Vegan

Winter 2002

Vegan For Life?


W h y not remember the Vegan Society in yourwill ?

6th Edition Our most popular book is also the most


For nearly 60 years we h a v e been helping the world go v e g a n . O u r work has changed the lives of many t h o u s a n d s of people, saving countless animal lives and preventing immeasurable suffering in the process. W e want to help you help us go further. Phone 0 8 4 5 4 5 8 8 2 4 4 and request our will and legacy pack, which contains advice on making a will or a codicil, including a drafting form and answers to common questions. Legacies are an important source of funding for our charity, and help us to do so much. Thank you - it is with your help that we will continue to thrive. The Vegan Society

The sunflower lottery

to vegan products ever. Make compassionate shopping easy, with sections on chocolate, household goods,


toiletries and much

(+ £1.50 p&p)

more. This handy

Send a cheque made

pocket-sized guide is

payable to

ideal for use when

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out shopping, and it's

or phone 0845 458 8244

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Animal Free lifestyle.


Cash prizes every month There's more Every year, the winners of the preceding 12 monthly sunflower lotteries are entered int a 'Super' Sunflower Lottery for a chance to win

The Sunflower Lottery Allows you to make regular donations to the Vegan society and stand the chance of winning cash prizes every month.


How it works Every month three cash prizes - comprising 50% of that month's entry money - are drawn. A monthly entry is £1.50 but you can pay for as may entries as choose. The draw takes place on the last working day of each month. A list of winners is published in The Vegan Name

To enter Fill out the form below and return it with your remittance for 3, 6 or 12 months as required. Don't worry about forgetting to renew - you'll be reminded in good time. Good luck!

August 1st 2nd 3rd

£74.25 £44.55 £29.70

September 1st 2nd 3rd

£73.50 £44.10 £29.40

October 1st 2nd 3rd

£59.62 £35.78 £23.85

Address Postcode

Please enter me for: 1 entry for 3 months @ £4.50 • 2 entries for 3 months @ £9.00 • •

comprehensive guide

6 months® £9.00 •

6 months ® £18.00 •

Number •

Name on card

12 months @£18 •

12 months® £36.00 •

I enclose a cheque/PO payable to 'The Vegan Society' for £ •

• •



or •

Starting Month entries for •

months @ £

Please debit my Visa/Mastercard/Switch/Visa Delta/Connect Card •

Start date •

Expiry date •

Today's date •

• •

Switch Issue No • •

Return to: The Vegan Society, Donald Watson House. 7 Battle Road, St Leonardson-Sea, East Sussex TNB7 7AA Tel 01424 427393 Fax 01424 717064 Participation is restricted to those residing in the United Kingdom


The Vegan

Winter 2002 i



Vanessa Clarke

Maneka Gandhi is of one of modern India's most remarkable figures: a leading environmentalist, animal activist a n d advocate of a v e g a n diet, she is also an author, political commentator and television personality as w e l l as a longstanding Member of Parliament and several times a Government Minister.

tireless and fearless campaigner for animals, people and the environment - the three pillars of the Vegan Society mission statement, which she sees as indissolubly linked - Maneka Gandhi is doing for the animals of India what Mahatma Gandhi did for the people. She created an official Animal Welfare Department in the Indian Government, the first of its kind in the world. She also chairs Rugmark, which provides care and education for children rescued from forced labour in the carpet industry - in keeping with her belief that human and animal rights are one. Founder of People for Animals, India's largest animal welfare organisation (www.peopleforanimals.orQ). she is an icon for a whole generation as a politician who dares to care.


Having worked in Parliament half my life and become something of a connoisseur of politicians, I would never have imagined travelling for five hours to listen to one, but Maneka was worth every minute - and despite her formidable reputation, also great fun to be with. She illustrated vividly the connection between animal exploitation, deforestation, drought, famine and ultimately war, demonstrating the truth of Tolstoy's maxim that "where there are slaughterhouses there will always be battlefields". She told the audience: "In the West, man has separated himself from nature, mastered it, he believes, and used it to serve his own purpose. Love of animals and of nature in the West is a personal attitude, not a natural law. This, then, must be the challenge of our times: to regenerate and rejuvenate the basic values of Hindu culture towards a global consciousness of Ahimsa and acceptance of vegetarianism as the means to restore balance and unity to a troubled earth." Interrupting her studies at the age of 18 to marry Sanjay Gandhi, son and political heir apparent of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, Maneka was widowed in her early twenties when her husband was killed in an air crash. Learning the

hard way how difficult it can be for a widow in a largely traditional society, she nevertheless set about carving out her own place in the world and raised her infant son on a vegan diet despite considerable hostility. Feroze Varun Gandhi is now a strapping young man and an accomplished poet as well as his mother's most ardent supporter.

Maneka's books include children's stories from Indian mythology, animal quiz books, works on vegetarianism, Hindu and Muslim etymology, a law manual and a medical guide. She has also written a play and the lyrics for a rap song. Her popular and influential television programme, Heads and Tails, brought the Indian animal rights movement into being. She is regularly sacked from Government for speaking out against cruelty, hypocrisy and corruption wherever and whenever she finds them, including the milk, silk and leather industries in a country where the treatment of cows is quite as appalling as in the West and the consumption of milk almost a religious must. A particularly powerful attack on the dairy industry brought a phone call from the

Prime Minister threatening the sack if it was reported, though on that occasion she got away with it. In Croydon last month 300 women and children from the local temple were horrified by her statement that every silk sari in the room had cost the lives of 50,000 butterflies. She added that she herself had been married in a cotton sari [hand woven by Pandit Nehru in prison] and that this did not make her any less of a person. Earlier in the day, her description of the way milk cattle are exploited and the horrors of the slaughterhouses made hardened British politicians wince. Maneka Gandhi has changed the face of modern India with ground-breaking achievements in animal welfare and environmental protection, laying the legal basis for environmental tribunals and initiating the ecomark scheme for environment-friendly products. Internationally, she negotiated the Montreal Protocol for India and brought about the Polluter Pays system. Still only in her mid-forties, she has lived up to both her powerful mother-in-law and her most famous though unrelated namesake. Her latest project is a National Animal Welfare University: this is temporarily on hold as she has been sacked from Government yet again [this time for exposing cruelty and misuse of funds in the animal testing industry] but she'll be back. Maneka's admiration for recent issues of The Vegan and for the Sunday Times article on our Dairy Challenge was most gratifying and w e were delighted when she agreed to be a Patron of the Vegan Society. Her appointment will make it clear to the Indian community in the UK who are concerned about the cruelty of the dairy industry that veganism is the answer and that they are more than welcome within the Society. Let us hope that w e shall all be inspired by Maneka's example and live up to the confidence she has shown in the Society.

I7The Vegan

Winter 2002

Georgia Wrighton explains how growing bulbs in your garden can help counteract habitat destruction and provide valuable early food for wildlife.

I t h o u g h t for this article I'd cheer us all u p by w r i t i n g a b o u t early f l o w e r i n g bulbs t h a t appear b e t w e e n Christmas a n d e a r l y Spring, w i t h t h e parallel b e n e f i t t h a t t h e y p r o v i d e vital early pollen for emerging bees a n d other insects. H o w e v e r , as m y research progressed, I discovered t h a t our w i l d daffodil a n d bluebell g r o w i n g provides a crucial c o n t r i b u t i o n t o replacing t h o s e u n d e r t h r e a t in t h e w i l d .

BEAUTIFUL BULBS The beautiful bluebell wood that many of us remember from childhood is an increasingly rare sight for several reasons. The primary reason is habitat destruction for development, but there is also commercial exploitation for garden centres and bulb growers. More recently, bluebells have been found to contain 'pharmaceutically active substances' which may pose a further threat from medical companies. Half the ancient bluebell woods in Britain have been destroyed since 1950 and the remainder are so threatened that bluebells have been placed under the protection of the Wildlife and Countryside Act. It is therefore illegal to sell, offer for sale, advertise or transport for sale any bluebells from the wild. They can be sold only if grown from seed, commercially grown or obtained with permission of the landowner. The age-old threat from habitat destruction is also far from over. Stockton Wood in the West Country, a bluebell wood also known for its deer and badger population, is under threat from a proposed major trunk road, part of a much wider threat to habitat destruction also affecting the West Wiltshire Downs and Cranborne Chase in Dorset. This is despite the Government's 10-year transport plan which pledged a 'presumption against' building roads through areas of outstanding natural beauty and despite Ministers' initial opposition to further road building in this country. Wild daffodils, snowdrops, snake's-head fritillaries and meadow saffron are all British wild flowers which can be bought as bulbs or corms but are so rare in the wild that they are likely to originate outside the British Isles. The problem is exacerbated by the fact that woodland plants do not produce mobile seed in the way that wasteland plants do, so when a woodland is destroyed they are easily lost forever.



The problem is lack of labelling as there is no statutory obligation to label the source of bulbs. Flora and Fauna International produces a Good Bulb Guide which lists firms who never knowingly sell wild bulbs or who clearly label the origin of their stock.

Grow Vegan Puzzler Prize this month: Hemp Wallet What has been the greatest threat to native bulbs in the UK?


(a) garden centres & commercial growers (b) pharmaceutical companies (c) habitat destruction for development The correct answer to the Autumn Grow Vegan Puzzler was (b) Crataegus Monogyna (Hawthorn) and the winner was Newport, Wales.

THE INTERNATIONAL SCENE Just because bulbs are not taken from this country does not mean that they come without cost to animals, the environment and people elsewhere. Foreign stock may also be more vigorous than the native UK type and may cross-pollinate with local colonies thereby weakening them. In Eastern Europe bulb collecting has been an extra source of income for villagers in mountainous areas for many years, despite the fact that the lion's share does not go to the villagers, who may earn as little as ÂŁ2 for 1,000 bulbs. The scale of bulb collection has increased so massively since the late 1970s that it is only in the remotest and most isolated areas that a few remnants can be found of the flower meadows that once existed. An organisation called Flora and Fauna International has helped to stem this tide by setting up a project aimed at helping villagers to propagate and sell native bulbs via well known companies, but there is still concern about unscrupulous wildflower traders establishing elsewhere in the world.


The production of bulbs commercially can also involve the application of significant quantities of chemicals, both as fertilisers and to combat fungal diseases which are common in intensive growing. Organic growers employ methods such as wider spacing of bulbs which help overcome fungal problems caused by poor ventilation. The only way to be sure of the origin of bulbs is to purchase only from growers you can trust. Chase Organics, producers of the Organic Gardening Catalogue, offer bluebell, snowdrop and wild daffodil bulbs for planting in the autumn/early winter to flower in late winter/early spring. Suffolk Herbs offer bluebells, snowdrops, wild tulips and daffodils.

SOURCES Baines, C. 'How to Make a Wildlife Garden', 2000. Published by Frances Lincoln Ltd. Organic Gardening Magazine, October 1999 edition. Subscriptions and accounts P.O Box 29 Minehead TA24 6YY. Tel/fax: 01643-707339 Email: The Guardian newspaper Saturday October 12 2002.

The Organic Gardening Catalogue 2003. Chase Organics Tel: 01932-253666 Email: Website: Suffolk Herbs catalogue 2002 Tel: 01376- 572456 Email:


It's so convenient to use SeagreensÂŽ pure wild seaweed products to detox, alkalize, balance, regulate and strengthen your whole system every day. Certified Organic, Vegan and Vegetarian, endorsed by nutritionists, herbalists, homeopaths, dietitians and the British Society for Mercury-Free Dentistry, Afhz /er you fancy - illustrated information, stockists or a Therapist's Guide to Seagreens* tel 01444 400403, e-mail, visit, or shop at

I10The Vegan

Winter 2002

DAY Slrcticjrtsk



Stephen Walsh, PhD

The little known amino acid homocysteine has been the subject of great interest in t h e medical community since t h e early 1990s as evidence accumulated that even moderately elevated levels w e n t hand in hand w i t h increased risk of heart disease, birth defects, dementia, depression and death. Independent studies in Israel, USA, N o r w a y and Holland have shown homocysteine to be strongly associated w i t h mortality from all causes combined and thus a potentially greater risk factor than cholesterol: every 10% increase in homocysteine is associated with an 8 % increase in mortality from all causes and a one year reduction in life expectancy. part from kidney disease and certain rare genetic defects, low intakes of any of three vitamins (folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6) can cause homocysteine levels to rise. Supplementation trials using folate, B12 and B6 to reduce homocysteine showed a reduction in symptoms of heart disease, including the rate of progression of atherosclerosis. Supplementation with 4 mg per day of folate reduced the incidence of neural tube defects such as spina bifida by about 70% while 0.8 mg of folic acid plus 4 micrograms (pg) of B12 reduced neural tube defects by 100%.


At first, there was considerable optimism that on a plant-based diet homocysteine levels would be lower, due to high folate levels, and a recent trial showed that homocysteine levels decreased within a week of switching from a typical Western diet to a vegan diet with plenty of vegetables. However, other studies have shown that many long-term vegans have blood homocysteine levels around 15 pmol/1 compared with desirable levels below 10 pmol/l, while other vegetarians averaged about 12 pmol/l. This trend is not found in vegans ensuring B12 intakes of 3 pg or more per day, who show the expected benefit from high folate and plentiful B6 with homocysteine levels around 8 pmol/l compared with a Western average of about 10 pmol/l. The bar graph shows the results of recent studies on homocysteine and diet.

Serum homocysteine, micromol per litre 30 25 20 15 10

5 0

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i i L n L _ n f t- Ji l L |

• Vegans

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• Other vegetarians • Meat eaters


With the exception of one study in the USA in 1999, the highest levels of homocysteine were observed in vegans, with lactovegetarian levels also higher than meat eaters. The critical role of B12 can be seen from the comparisons of B12 and folate intakes in the same studies. The B12 levels of vegans were generally the lowest, while the B12 levels of other vegetarians fell between those of vegans and meat eaters. In contrast, the vegan folate levels were generally higher than or similar to the other groups. In the 1999 USA study, the vegan B12 levels matched those of the meat eaters and so did the homocysteine levels. To remove any shadow of doubt as to the cause of the high homocysteine levels, the Chilean study subsequently monitored the effect of B12 supplementation: the

homocysteine levels of the Chilean vegetarians dropped from 13 to 8 pmol/l with no other dietary changes. Average vegan homocysteine levels are about 15 pmol/l. Based on studies in the general population, this degree of excess homocysteine could be associated with a 40% increase in mortality, particularly from causes other than cancer. Low vegan cholesterol levels would be expected to reduce heart disease deaths by about 50% compared with meat-eaters, so the overall result would be expected to be 30% less heart disease but 40% increased mortality from other causes, with little difference overall. This is almost exactly the pattern observed in the only study to report direct observations of vegan mortality (UK, USA and Germany 1999). The table shows the relative risk of death per year. Regular meat eaters (eating meat once or more per week) are taken as the reference point. The results are highly consistent with mortality expectations based on reduced cholesterol and elevated homocysteine combined.


Heart disease Other non-cancer causes All causes^

Regular meat eaters




Occasional meat eaters




Fish eaters














The evidence suggests that getting adequate B12 could result in vegans living about 4 years longer than meat eaters and 2 years longer than lacto-vegetarians. It should be noted that the "regular" meat-eaters in this study ate less meat than the general population in their countries and none of the groups included many smokers. Mortality in the general population is about 1.6 in terms of the above table, so although the vegans studied lived no longer than the other groups they were already living about five years longer than their more typical compatriots. Homocysteine rises significantly long before B12 stores drop to the level associated with classical B12 deficiency. Current UK Government recommendations of 1.5 pg per day are based on reliably preventing classical deficiency and are more than O

I9The Vegan

Winter 2002



3 adequate for that purpose. However, they do not take into account B12 requirements to minimise homocysteine. At least 3pg per day are required to achieve this by maintaining blood B12 levels at 300 pmol/l or more. If the main source of B12 is a supplement taken daily, at least 10 pg should be taken. If it is taken weekly, 2000 pg is required. The variation in recommended weekly intake is because absorption of B12 is best at small doses below 0.5 pg, where about 7 0 % of available B12 is absorbed. As the dose approaches 10 pg, the amount absorbed flattens off at about 1.5 pg and only about 0.5% of further increases in dose are absorbed. The absorbed amount from 2000 pg is therefore little more than 10 pg, which is just enough for one week, while the same absorbed amount can be obtained from 3 pg per day spread across several meals or from a daily supplement of 10 pg. A single weekly supplement of 2000 pg has the advantage that absorption does not rely on intrinsic factor in the small intestine, which is required for efficient absorption of small amounts of B12 and is occasionally absent, particularly in the elderly. All forms of fortified foods and supplements avoid the more common B12 absorption problem in the elderly, namely inability (usually due to declining stomach acidity) to separate the B12 in meat from the proteins to which it is bound. B12 supplements should be chewed to ensure reliable absorption. From conception to death, elevated homocysteine casts its shadow, but the risk can be straightforwardly minimised by ensuring an adequate intake of vitamin B12 from fortified foods or supplements and consuming a varied plant-based diet with plenty of fruit and vegetables. This should allow the full potential of the vegan diet to shine through, giving vegans a clear lead over other dietary groups.

References Germany 2002: Abstract 18, Lome Linda Conference on Vegetarian Nutrition, Cobalamin and homocysteine status of vegans - results of the German Vegan Study, Jochen Koschizke Italy 2002: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2002; 46: 73-79, Effect of vegetarian diet on homocysteine levels, L Bissoli et al. Germany 2001: Clinical Chemistry, 2001; 47: 1094-1101, Total homocysteine, Vitamin B12, and total antioxidant status in vegetarians, Wolfgang Herrmann et al. Taiwan 2001: Journal of Nutrition, 2001; 132: 152-158, Plasma homocysteine levels in Taiwanese vegetarians are higher than those of omnivores, Chien-Jung Hung et al. Czechoslovakia 2000: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2000; 44: 135-138, Homocysteine levels in vegetarians versus omnivores, M. Krajcovicova-Kudlackova et al. Australia 1999: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1999; 53: 895-899, The effect of diet on plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy male subjects, NJ Mann et al. Chile 1999: Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 1999; 81: 913-917, Vegetarians and cardiovascular risk factors: hemostasis, inflammatory markers and plasma homocysteine, Diego Mezzano et al. (plus reduction of homocysteine by B12 supplementation) Thrombosis Research, 2000; 100: 153-160, Cardiovascular risk factors in vegetarians: normalisation of hyperhomocysteinemia with vitamin 812 and reduction of platelet aggregation with n-3 fatty acids, Diego Mezzano et al. USA 1999:American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1999; 70: 586S-593S, Dietary intake and biochemical, hematologic, and immune status of vegans compared with nonvegetarians, Ella H Haddad et al. UK, USA and Germany 1999: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1999; 70: 516S-524S, Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies, Timothy J Key et al.


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The Vegan

Winter 2002 i


C o n w a y Hall w a s bursting at the seams and t h e c r o w d w a s o v e r f l o w i n g into much of Red Lion Square, especially t h e gardens, on a beautiful w a r m sunny afternoon. The d a t e w a s Sunday 29th September and a n o t h e r National V e g a n Festival - the fifth - w a s in full swing. f anyone came along thinking that there would not be much variety in the stalls at a 100% vegan event they were soon proved wrong. An amazing diversity of stallholders included voluntary organisations such as Vegfam, Viva!, the Movement for Compassionate Living and the Vegan Society itself as well as commercial organisations selling food, books, toiletries and cosmetics, T-shirts and other clothing, non-leather footwear, even beer, cider and fruit wines.


Prominent among the commercial companies were Redwood Foods, with a vast range of "mock meats" on show, including freshly cooked free samples of their newly launched fishless fingers. Plamil also managed to run a stall despite boss Arthur Ling's car breaking down on the way there. The voluntary organisations covered areas such as farm animal welfare, campaigns against fox hunting, angling and shellfish farming, rehoming rescued animals, famine relief, prisoner welfare and a host of other good causes. The festival seems to get bigger and better every year. On this occasion it took over the entire ground floor: the main hall, including the stage, two small halls, the foyer and lobby, the kitchen, with even the corridor being used as a food servery by Veggies of Nottingham, who were cosponsors of the event with the Vegan Society and I did not get to sample Veggies' wares myself this time, but they must have been good as there was a long queue throughout the day. Veganstore, strategically placed high on the stage, displayed their usual eclectic mix of food and non-food items, including an all-vegan coffee creamer.

by Julie Rosenfield and published by the Vegan Society, while Julie herself was on duty for much of the day happily signing copies of the book while taking admission money at the door. There was a full programme of talks, video presentations etc on a variety of subjects, including a video clip of a lively exchange between Johnny Vaughan and Vegan Society Trustee Alex Bourke, who could also be seen at his own Vegetarian Guides stall putting the finishing touches to the new edition of Vegetarian Britain [see review page 27] in between chatting up customers. The kids were not forgotten. There were special art workshops laid on for them and one of the footwear stalls had vegan children's shoes - the first time I have seen them on sale. Everybody seemed to do well on the day. All the stallholders seemed to be taking money and all the visitors seemed to be enjoying themselves. A great many, like me, arrived in the morning soon after the start and stayed until the end or very near it. A couple of live musicians played from time to time during the day, which helped to put people in an appropriately festive mood, as did the the Eco-Warrior beer. More than a thousand people came to the event, not counting stallholders and helpers. No doubt some of those attending were new vegans, or not even

vegan at all, but there were many longestablished vegans as well. I met "auld acquaintances" from Vegan Camp, Vegan Summer Gatherings, past AGMs and Local Contacts days, even some from the International Vegan Festival in Bedfordshire in 1992 when I first started to become involved in organised veganism. It was good to see them all again - I hope they were also pleased to see me. The whole event was organised, as usual, by CALF (Campaign Against Leather and Fur) in the persons of Robin Lane and Alison Coe. Many people attending events like this have no idea how much work goes into the preparations for weeks and months beforehand, and even then there are always last minute glitches to sort out on the day. So thanks Robin, and thanks Alison! While most people at the festival were from the south of England, there were quite a few from much further afield, including mainland Europe and even the United States, many of whom went away dreaming of organising just such an event in their own area. It would be good to have more visitors from Wales, Scotland, Ireland and the north of England on future occasions, so if you are planning a visit to the London area around September next year why not plan to include the festival? Check out the website for the exact date. Perhaps I'll see you there!

There were several stalls selling cakes and other goodies, including one run by Ronny, author of the famous "Cake Scoffer" book. The cake stalls all sold out well before the end. There were also stalls selling Vietnamese and West Indian food as well as more conventional (well, conventional to vegans!) items. There were some nice lunch platters on offer from Cavanagh's, who would be catering for the Vegan Society AGM the following month. As always, the Vegan Society's own stall was in prime position in the foyer beside the entrance to the main hall. There was a prominent display of Vegan Stories, edited

I11The Vegan

Winter 2002

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Wefce^e Bronwyn (life vegan ) is 6. Aisha her sister is

Festive fun quiz (as simple as A,B,C) Which year w a s the first Christmas that there w a s a Vegan Society? a) 1944 b) 1066 c) 2004 W h e n is the Vegan Society's birthday? a) 14th February b) 1st November c) 25th January What's the traditional night for eating vegan haggis? a) Bonfire night b) Midsummer night c) Burns' night W h o most benefits from the sale of vegan sporrans? a) Red Deer b) Seals c) Woolworth's

c) Jesus

W h e r e did the tradition to watch a tree slowly die over Christmas originate? a) Queen Victoria and a German Prince's office party b) A poem by Robert Burns c) A Canadian lumberjack's Norwegian blue parrot's winter perch W h o wrote "Should auld acquaintance be forgot" (Auld Lang Syne) a) A Scottish tax collector b) A Vegan Society chairman c) Benjamin Zephaniah W h y is the day after Christmas called Boxing Day ? a) Family feuds were traditionally settled with a punch-up on this day. b) Nobility used to hand out boxes of food or gifts on the feast of Stephen. c) This is the day that people traditionally box up their unwanted Christmas gifts of animal products and take them back to the shops for a refund. W h o said "Let them eat cake"? a) A French Queen on hearing about the revolting peasants. b) Santa Claus c) Buddha

Answers to all this and more can be found in the Vegilantics Forum at

/ ? i e Ct\X~iS>fn?&> 2 0 0 2


and has been vegan as long as B r o n w y n and vegetarian since before she w a s born!

Thank you very much for all your letters. I have been very busy answering them.

W h o invented Christmas? a) The Romans b) The pagans


Aisha: Since we last wrote, we have been to Vegan Camp, Newchurch, the Uncaged March in London, some SHAC demos and the Vegan Festival. Bronwyn: I have also helped Mummy make Aisha's birthday cake and find vegan prezzies for all our friends. Aisha: We have also been working on the Christmas menu as I don't like greens very much and also trying to cut down on the vegan chocolates this year. Bronwyn: I love all vegetables: spinach, broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, tomatoes ... Aisha: I used not to like cauliflower, but I do now. Anyway, because I'm not overly keen on heaps of vegetables, last year Mummy steamed them all cauliflower, broccoli, mushrooms then blended them, stirred in a little olive oil, provengale herbs and marmite, and made a p3t6, which we ate with warm bread. It was so gorgeous that I have asked Mummy to do it again this year. Bronwyn: I've asked if we can make a special Christmas cake with a banana filling and cherries on top.

Here is a poem sent in by Aurora Dove, aged 6: "Mummy, mummy, why are they stealing our milk?" "They are just being horrible for no reason!" "But mum, what should w e d o ? " Mum said, "I don't know." The calf said, "Maybe more people should be vegan." Aurora also sent in this illustration:

"Mummy cow is sad because her calf was taken away".

A M a k e your o w n festive [and edible] decorations

Aisha: To keep you entertained while the cooking is going on, Bronwyn and I have been making up some anagrams. A CHIMP GRINDS DUST DEER KNIT RUNNY ON ROB COLIC A LICE FUR OWL


Get one of those new ice cube trays in the shape of stars. Melt a bar of your favourite vegan chocolate in a bowl resting in hot water. Mix in a tablespoon of soya cream and spoon into the moulds. Cool in the fridge and then tip out. Wrap a length of cotton around the chocolate stars, then cover them with foil leaving two ends of cotton protruding from one end. Tie on to cupboard doorknobs, bedposts, mother's ears, etc.

ECHO A CLOT We would love to hear from you: Why are you vegan? What do you like about being vegan? How do you persuade your friends to become vegan? Please send your stories, poems, pictures & photos to: Bronwyn & Aisha's Vegilantics c/o The Vegan Society, Donald Watson House, 7 Battle Road, St Leonards on Sea, East Sussex, TN37 7AA or Email with "Vegilantics" in the subject line.

Top ten presents for people w h o have nearly everything A vegan drum The Animal Free shopper A bottle of hemp or flax seed oil A plant milk maker Vegan Stories A new pair of vegan shoes Some vitamin B12 tablets A sprouting kit A hemp jumper or socks in their favourite colour Life membership of the Vegan Society

I13The Vegan

Winter 2002


FREE COVERNMENT MONEY FOR VEGANISM There aren't many people w h o are happy paying tax, and that probably goes double for vegans. Whether w e like it or not, w e taxpayers are funding and subsidising animal abuse and its consequences in a thousand different ways and w i t h tens of billions of pounds a year. Needless to say, there isn't much government money for veganism, but there is o n e thing y o u can do to redirect some money out of government coffers and into the vegan cause. 2 2 % of £1.28) at no cost or bother to the donor once the declaration has been made. This means that on the old rate of £17 for an individual membership subscription the Society reclaims £4.79 each year, and on the new rate of £21 it reclaims £5.88. (If you start paying your subs by direct debit when you renew your membership before 30th June 2003, you'll still pay the old rate for one more year.)

hrough the Gift Aid scheme, charities such as the Vegan Society can benefit from tax paid by their donors. If a person pays income tax or capital gains tax and gives money to a charity, the charity can claim back from the Inland Revenue some or all of the tax that the donor paid on receiving that money - provided the donor makes a declaration giving the charity permission to make that claim. The declaration need be made only once it will last indefinitely and can be backdated to include all amounts given since 6th April 2000. Gift Aid can apply to Vegan Society membership subscriptions as well as donations.


If your highest rate of tax is less than 2 2 % , the Society can still reclaim the tax as if you had paid at 22% and you won't have to pay anything extra yourself. If you are a higher rate taxpayer, you can claim tax relief at 18% (40% - 2 2 % ) of the gross donation by including it on your tax return.

The reclaim is made at the basic rate of tax, currently 2 2 % , so for every pound donated the Society claims 28p (28p =

If you have family or joint membership, each tax-paying member should complete the form and state their chosen share of the donation or subscription as a fraction or percentage of the whole. If you've already made a Gift Aid declaration, very many thanks - your few moments' effort will benefit the Society for years. If you haven't, please consider filling in the form below (photocopies are acceptable) and sending it to the Society's office. What will you get out of it? You'll get a nice warm feeling that you've done the Vegan Society a huge favour at no cost to yourself and instigated some government funding for veganism.

GIVING TO THE VEGAN SOCIETY • I w a n t all donations I've m a d e since 6 April 2000 and all donations in the future to be Gift Aid until I notify you otherwise.

To qualify for Gift Aid, what you pay in income tax or capital gains tax must at least equal the amount we will claim in the tax year.

I enclose a cheque/PO payable to 'The Vegan Society' for £

Please debit my Visa/Mastercard/Switch/Visa Delta/Connect Card Start date •

Name on card


Expiry date •

Today's date •

• •

• •

• •

Switch Issue No • •

Return to: The Vegan Society, Donald Watson House. 7 Battle Road, St Leonardson-Sea, East Sussex TN37 7AA Tel 01424 427393 Fax 01424 717064


The Vegan

Winter 2002



All around the world, people are worried about genetic modification of animals, but find it a complex issue to understand. This article may help you "crack the code" and deal with the arguments more effectively.

WHAT ARE GENES? Genes are the scripts which direct our lives, giving us our species characteristics and our individual characteristics. Every cell contains 46 chromosomes, each resembling a long string of beads where every bead is a gene and every gene can make at least one protein. An estimated 30,000 genes or 'beads' are arranged on their 46 'strings' in every cell of the human body.

idea of the precise roles of most of the 30,000 or so genes in animals such as mice and humans, so they can almost never predict what the outcome will be. Other complexities also make it difficult to foresee the effects of genetic engineering. Consequently, the success rate is very low and the waste of lives very high. Sometimes genetic modification causes minor effects, but often it produces severe deformities or diseases. Many GM animals die in the womb, others shortly after birth.

Our genes are inherited, half from our father and half from our mother, but many factors affect the way they work: diet, exercise, smoking, age, exposure to radiation or toxic chemicals, and so on, can all modify the activity of our genes on a daily basis.

Adding a foreign gene - i.e. making a transgenic animal - or damaging a natural gene can have profound effects on the animal if it survives. Scientists have little

Genetic modification breaches the intrinsic value of the species and the individual, treating animals merely as a means to an end and causing immense suffering. The Dr Hadwen Trust develops and promotes humane methods of research to understand genes and illness without using animals [2], Its work therefore benefits people and animals.


Genetically engineered animals may be made to suffer intentionally, but there is also much unexpected suffering because the technology is so imprecise.

Many illnesses can involve gene damage, but there are always other interacting causes. If you inherit a gene which increases your risk of heart disease, for instance, eating and exercising sensibly may reduce your risk below that of someone without the gene.

Genetic modification is a technical process whereby an unnatural or 'foreign' gene is inserted into an animal at the fertilised egg stage. Plant genes have been put into rats, chicken genes into mice, human genes into pigs, and many more combinations. A single gene can also be deliberately damaged: this is known as 'knocking out' the gene and the animal thus created is described as a 'knockout' animal.


In the past 25 years the number of animal experiments conducted in Britain annually has fallen by nearly 50%, largely due to growing public opposition and to the development of non-animal methods. However, this trend may soon be reversed, as the use of genetically modified animals has increased by 1,300 per cent in 11 years, from 48,255 in 1990 to 630,759 in

If genes are the scripts which direct the way our bodies are made and how they work, the proteins that they produce are the players acting out the script. Occasionally a gene is damaged by exposure to radiation or certain chemicals, or by an error during normal cell division: this is called a mutation. Some mutations are passed down as hereditary illnesses such as cystic fibrosis or Huntington's disease.


cows, sheep and goats have also been produced.

Those who survive may suffer heart failure, brittle bones, limb deformities or absent limbs, damaged immune systems, ulcers, arthritis or dysfunctional behaviour. In an American laboratory male mice were genetically modified by knocking out a gene called NOS [1]. The knockout mice appeared normal, but each morning one or two were found dead. Eventually the researchers realised that knocking out the NOS gene made the mice intensely aggressive, fighting and killing each other and relentlessly raping the females - highly abnormal behaviour and a totally unexpected outcome. Most but not all animals genetically modified in laboratories are mice, but GM rats, rabbits, chickens, monkeys, pigs.

The same gene inserted into different species, or even into different breeds or genders of the same species, can also have profoundly different results. For example, the Ren-2 gene caused severe high blood pressure in rats but not in mice [3]. And no one can predict which species or breed, if any, is likely to be similar to humans. Intrigued by the increased aggression in the male knockout mice, researchers knocked out the same gene in female mice. The result? The females became less aggressive and more peaceable. Trying to understand human medical problems by creating genetically modified animals is a poor research strategy. If one or two human genes are put into a mouse in an attempt to create a human-style genetic illness, the other 29,998 are still mouse genes. The transgenic mouse still has mouse physiology, mouse anatomy and mouse biochemistry. Mice and rats are quite closely related separated by only about 16 million years of evolution - yet there are many differences o

I15The Vegan

Winter 2002





between them. Mice and humans are separated by 60 to 80 million years of evolution, causing far greater species differences and making it even more difficult to interpret rodent results for humans.

more susceptible to Alzheimer's disease. This was discovered through post-mortem study of human brain tissue while researchers elsewhere are still trying to create mouse 'models' of Alzheimer's disease.



There are five main reasons why animals are genetically modified. UNDERSTANDING THE ROLES OF DIFFERENT GENES Researchers want to find out what all the different genes do. This is often basic or fundamental research with no practical short-term application, but with the idea that studying mouse genes may some day open up new ways of treating human illnesses. Alternative ways of studying genes include research on cell cultures and studying people with unusual traits. A pair of newborn identical twins attracted medical interest when one had an unusual inherited form of cleft lip while the other did not [4]. As they were genetically identical, a new mutation must have occurred after the fertilised egg split into two embryos. Scientists searched for the single difference between the twins and managed to identify the gene (and its protein) which caused the condition. A new genetic test is one potential outcome; the results also shed light on the possibility that a viral infection during pregnancy could cause cleft lip. 'MODELLING' H U M A N ILLNESSES IN A N I M A L S A second reason why scientists genetically modify animals is to try to cause illnesses which resemble human diseases, with the idea that new treatments can then be tested on them. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited human illness caused by mutations in a single gene. The same mutations have been inflicted on mice, but they do not develop the same illness because their lungs and pancreas are different from ours and because of differences in important enzymes and other molecular level reactions [5, 6], Yet CF should have been a relatively easy human disease to 'model' in mice, being a single-gene condition. Undaunted by failure, researchers are now considering genetically modifying sheep instead. The Dr Hadwen Trust takes a different approach. In one project our scientist has shown a link between a particular gene and a virus which can make some people

I 16

The Vegan

Winter 2002

Xenotransplantation - transplanting cells or organs between species - is a third area of genetic modification. Researchers have tried to develop transgenic pigs whose organs and cells might resist rapid rejection if transplanted into humans, and typical experiments have involved organs from transgenic pigs being transplanted into monkeys. Until recently this work was led by the Cambridge company Imutran, whose experiments were publicly exposed by the organisation Uncaged [7]. Leaked internal documents revealed the dreadful suffering of monkeys whose own organs were removed and who slowly died as the transplanted pig organs were rejected. Despite the suffering, xenotransplantation is scarcely nearer to providing any solution to the shortage of transplantable human organs. A more humane approach would include amending legislation, as in Belgium, so that people have to opt out of being organ donors rather than opting in. In the longer term, some diseases which increase the need for organ transplants could be prevented if more was known about them. The Dr Hadwen Trust has funded research into kidney and lung disease to see how they could be prevented, or diagnosed earlier allowing more effective treatment. ANIMAL 'BIOREACTORS' A fourth application of genetic modification is to create animals, usually goats, cows or sheep, who produce useful but unnatural proteins in their milk or urine, such as hormones, enzymes, antibodies and growth factors which some people lack. This approach views sentient animals as little more than mass-produced factory bioreactors. As a humane alternative, the carefully contained use of genetically modified plants or plant cell cultures to produce such proteins is now a practical possibility. SAFETY TESTING AND G M ANIMALS The fifth main use of genetically modified animals is in safety testing, especially for chemicals which may cause cancer (carcinogenicity). Traditional animal tests are time consuming, expensive and of doubtful value in predicting safety for humans while causing great suffering to countless laboratory animals. Despite several years of attempts to develop new

tests for carcinogenic chemicals, using mice genetically modified to develop cancer over a shorter period, the goal is far from being achieved. Sadly, the same effort has not gone into promising methods using cell cultures in the test tube.

SUMMARY Genetically modifying animals is unethical, treating them merely as a means to an end. As a technology, it has great power to harm as well as being extremely wasteful of animals' lives. It has already caused untold suffering to millions of animals and threatens to reverse the worldwide decline in animal experiments since the 1970s. Genetic modification of animals does not overcome the major problems of species differences in animal experiments designed to understand human conditions. Overemphasising the role of genes in human diseases also risks oversimplifying and possibly misunderstanding human health problems. Most illnesses are a complex interaction of genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors which cannot be mimicked in animals. Researchers who think that genetic modification is the yellow brick road to therapeutic breakthrough are more likely to be leading themselves up the garden path. A more humane and effective strategy is to understand, prevent and treat human illnesses by developing relevant non-animal methods. The Dr Hadwen Trust has demonstrated the value of this approach over more than 30 years by funding top quality research into a wide range of illnesses without causing a single animal to suffer References 1. Nelson, RJ et al. (1995). Nature. Vol. 23, pp 383-386. 2. See Dr Hadwen Trust website uk 3. Mullins, L and Mullins, J (1991). Current Opinions in Cell Biology, Vol. 3, pp 192-198. 4. Cohen, P (2002). New Scientist, Vol. 2359, p16. 5. Snouwaert, JN et al. (1992). Science, Vol. 257, pp1083-1088. 6. Collins, FS and Wilson, JM (1992). Nature, Vol. 358, pp708-709. 7. See Uncaged website Dr. Langley is scientific adviser to the Dr Hadwen Trust, 84A Tilehouse Street, Hitchin, Herts. SG5 2DY. Tel: 01462 436819. Fax: 01462 436844. email:


Farm Animal Rescue, a vegan-run sanctuary near Stratford on Avon, provides a home for ill treated, sick and unwanted farm animals, many of them considered by their previous custodians not to be worth the cost of veterinary treatment or even a painless end. Nursed back to health and strength, they have their own unique personalities, answer to their names and enjoy life to the full. Medical attention is never refused and no sanctuary animal ever finishes up at the Tenderers - not even after death. Here are just a few of the characters you might meet: B A B E was found lying by the roadside as a tiny piglet, cold, weak and very hungry but now lives life to the full. GROMIT, an ailing calf disowned when his medical bills at the veterinary college exceeded his monetary value now a handsome Friesian bullock. HENRY (see picture), a Hebridean ram who failed to make the grade at a rare breeds auction because his horns were not symmetrical. Left over at the end of the day, his magnificent horns dragging dejectedly in the dust, nobody wanted him even when the auctioneer pleaded "Give me a tenner - it must be worth that to kill".

GOT AWAY To my mind, the life of a lamb is no less precious than that of a human being.' Mohandas Gandhi

PETAL, an injured and neglected goat who arrived with a broken leg and in very poor condition, has adapted well to life at the sanctuary and still loves people despite her previous experiences. R E M U S , a three-legged ram who seems unaware of his disability, was rescued from a transporter with a leg so badly broken it couldn't be saved - a painful experience, but preferable to the fate of his companions. J U N E , an affectionate ewe, belonged to an alcoholic farmer whose only reaction when she was found in agony with a torn and broken leg was to mutter that he would shoot her the next morning. F.A.R. arranged for a vet to give her a painkiller and she was moved to the sanctuary, along with her close friend Jupiter the ram who had stayed beside her throughout her ordeal. The injured leg had to be amputated, but the vet was willing to do this when he saw that Remus had been happily trotting around on three legs for years. STAR, a chocoholic ewe who will settle for rich tea biscuits - a star turn at negotiating latches and getting into places where she thinks there might be chocolate. GIZMO, a special breed ram whose mother did not make the grade and was destined for the freezer despite her advanced pregnancy. She gave birth to Gizmo just three days after being rescued. He is now getting on in years and suffers from cataracts, but seems not to notice his visual disability. EMILY, a beautiful foal born at the sanctuary to Bella, who arrived very sick, very weak and very pregnant. Sadly, Bella died suddenly less than a year later but Emily continues to thrive and has been adopted by the other horses after being orphaned at such a tender age. The sanctuary is run almost singlehandedly by Carole Webb, who had her own share of misfortune when her husband, her daughter and her mother all died following a horrific drunk driving accident and her income all but disappeared. The sanctuary is financed entirely by donations and

adoptions, but gets no tax breaks because saving so-called food animals from the butcher's knife is not regarded by the authorities as a charitable purpose. Children in particular enjoy the adoption scheme (just £2 per month brings a certificate, a photo and a letter from the chosen adoptee - a marvellous Christmas gift) while £150 secures a life sponsorship. Visitors are welcomed to the sanctuary by appointment on summer weekends when the animals are delighted to meet and show off to their sponsors, including a number of Vegan Society members and trustees. Donations, adoptions and ideas for future fundraising are gratefully received by the sanctuary's official trustees. Tee-shirts, sweatshirts and Christmas cards are also available. Info: 59 Edgell Road, Staines, Middlesex TW18 2EP. T. 01784 461360. Email:




by Shel Silverstein

Thanksgiving dinner's sad and thankless Chistmas dinner's dark and blue W h e n you stop and try to see it From the turkey's point of view.

Sunday dinner isn't sunny Easter feasts are just bad luck W h e n you see it from the viewpoint Of a chicken or a duck.

How I once loved tuna salad Pork and lobsters, lamb chops too Till I stopped and looked at dinner From the dinner's point of view.

From 'Where the Sidewalk Ends' by Shel Silverstein © 1974 by Evil Eye Music Inc. Reprinted by kind permission

I17The Vegan

Winter 2002




f & S



ARE YOU FRYING TONIGHT? B e a n i e ' s Health Foods has the exclusive rights for Fry's S p e c i a l Vegetarian Foods in Great Britain and Ireland. Approved by The Vegetarian Society and suitable for vegans. All productsare Kosher, Halaal and Shudda. r i a n S o c ^




Unit 6, Cherry Tree Industrial Park, Botley Road, Burridge, Southampton S03 1BQ Tel: 01489 574593 Fax: 01489 582003 email:

One of the saving graces of winter food is that it is sometimes the only w a y to tempt friends out of hibernation. A n d if you are looking to make the journey really worth their while, w h y not throw the menu away and t h r o w a party instead! Even if you aren't entertaining, these party snacks are well w o r t h making - they will get you through hibernation too.

VEGETABLE CRISPS You definitely do not need a party, a bank loan or an excuse to have posh 'handmade' crisps from now on. A mandoline will make life easier, and crisps crispier, but a decent sharp knife will do at a push, especially for the carrots and parsnips, which both benefit from a thicker cut. For flavouring, experiment with spices, salt, and even sugar. My favourite is a pinch each of smoky paprika, sugar and salt, mixed and sprinkled over the warm crisps. Salt and freshly ground black pepper are also very good. potato parsnip large beetroot carrot oil for deep frying Slice the veg as finely as possible, leaving the beetroot till last to avoid turning everything purple. Get the oil really hot, and cook just a handful of crisps at a time. Cook the beetroot and carrot at a slightly lower heat than the other veg to avoid burning - keep an eye on them as they do burn quickly. Drain well in a couple of changes of kitchen towel and serve straight away.

WALNUT, CRANBERRY & ORANGE TARTS It is hard to say whether these are sweet or savoury, but they are intensely tasty little morsels, perfect for the buffet table. To make them you will need small paper cake cases, a pastry cutter and a little patience - or, better still, an assistant. For the pastry: 100g plain flour pinch of salt 25g solid vegetable oil 25g vegan marge water to bind


Sift the flour and salt into a bowl and rub the fat in well. Add a very little water to bind, cover the pastry well and leave in the fridge until the filling is made.

When I made these for a Christmas present last year I thought they'd be far too sweet to eat, but the tastes go really well together, they look great and are a doddle to make.

For the filling: juice and zest of one orange 1 teaspoon cornflour 25g dried cranberries roughly chopped walnut halves

as many dates as you w a n t a small amount of marzipan unsalted pistachio nuts, popped from their shell and skin but still w h o l e

Mix the cornflour with a little of the orange juice, then add to the remainder of the juice, the zest and the cranberries. Cook over a medium heat for a few minutes until the liquid thickens.

Make a slit along the length of each date and gently prise out the stone. Shape a small piece of marzipan (about the size of the stone) and slip it into the date. Press a pistachio nut into the centre of the marzipan and serve.

To shape the tarts, roll the pastry out to about the thickness of a pound coin. Cut with a small pastry cutter, to fit the size of the paper cases. One by one, place a paper case inside the pastry cutter, then place a circle of pastry into it. Press down gently to shape the pastry, and remove the cutter. In this way, prepare all the tarts and place them on a baking tray. Fill them first with two or three cranberries, then place a walnut on top. Reserve a little of the syrup and pour this over the top to glaze. Bake for 15 minutes in a preheated oven set at 190째C/gas 5, allow to cool, and remove from paper cases before serving.

MULLED COFFEE The perfect pick-me-up for cold winter nights, especially if taken with a little slab of dark chocolate. coffee 1 stick of cinanamon allspice berries Make some fresh coffee as you normally would, then cook it over a low heat for 10 minutes in a pan with a stick of cinnamon and a couple of allspice berries - ground allspice is fine. A little sugar helps take the dryness from the spices and is recommended.

I21The Vegan

Winter 2002

Graeme Reekie

SAGE & ONION PINWHEELS This pastry is a good one for party food. The raising agents make it nice and light and the roughly ground semolina gives it a good bite and a mellow golden colour. They are also an ideal accompaniment for stews. For the filling: 2 m e d i u m onions, finely c h o p p e d 8 large sage leaves, f i n e l y c h o p p e d , or half a t e a s p o o n dried s a g e a f e w chestnuts ( o p t i o n a l ) oil for cooking Cook the onions slowly with the oil and a pinch of salt in a covered pan. If using chestnuts, add these as well. After about 20 minutes, remove from the heat and add the sage. Stir well, season, and leave covered until ready to use. Meanwhile make the pastry. For the pastry: 100g semolina 100g plain flour 2 level t e a s p o o n s b a k i n g p o w d e r level t e a s p o o n s b i c a r b o n a t e of soda pinch of salt 50g f a t - half a n d half solid v e g e t a b l e oil a n d v e g a n m a r g e 75ml w a t e r Razz the semolina in a spice mill or blender for a couple of minutes to make a fairly coarse flour. Mix this in a bowl with the flour, bicarbonate of soda, baking powder and salt. Rub the fat into the mixture until it resembles fine breadcrumbs. Add a little water at a time, kneading it into the pastry until it is absorbed. Cover the pastry well and leave in the fridge for about 20 minutes. Roll it out into a large oblong, approx 30cm x 20cm. Spread the filling mixture evenly over the pastry. Roll the pastry carefully into a long round, then cut it into 10 to12 slices. Place some greaseproof paper on an oven tray and grease it with a little fat. Put the slices flat on to this and bake for 15 minutes at 190째C/ gas 5. Allow to cool for a couple of minutes before removing from paper.

I 20

The Vegan

Winter 2002

ROASTED MIXED NUTS These are a delicious treat as a snack or as a party food. Use whole nuts, preferably blanched and skinned. Try any one, or a mixture, of almonds, pecans, hazels, cashews, pistachios. Place them on a baking sheet and toss lightly in a little oil. Sprinkle with sea salt, toss again, place in the oven at 150째C/ gas 2 and cook for 15 to 20 minutes. Allow them to cool before eating - if you can.

CANDIED CHESTNUTS / MARRONS GLACES I have made these with both fresh and tinned chestnuts - you get lovely delicate sweets either way. If using fresh chestnuts, cut a shallow cross into the pointed end with a knife and boil them for about 20 minutes. The shell and skin should come away easily by the time the nuts are cooled sufficiently to handle. If using tinned chestnuts, select only the plump whole nuts (broken or unused chestnuts can be used in the Sage and Onion Pinwheels). Bigger than the difference between fresh and tinned nuts, I feel, is the valuable difference made by using vanilla sugar. 20-25 chestnuts, prepared as above 50ml water 25g sugar (sugar in which a vanilla pod has rested for a f e w weeks is ideal) some icing sugar to decorate Bring the sugar and water to boil in a pan and simmer for a few minutes until the sugar is dissolved and the liquid slightly reduced. Add the chestnuts. Over the next 10 to 15 minutes, stir them occasionally over a low heat as they soak up, and become coated in, the syrup. When the syrup has just about gone, remove the chestnuts one by one and place them in petit four cases to cool. When completely cooled, sprinkle with icing sugar.



Graeme Reekie


As vegans, it is easy to miss out on the pleasures of drinking and cooking w i t h wine. W h e n w e learn that w i n e may have fish, dairy and slaughterhouse by-products in it, w e either wisely never touch the stuff again or unwisely carry on regardless, alcohol often being the last thing w e are prepared to question in terms of suitability. Perhaps because of this, supermarkets and w i n e retailers are pretty poor at supplying or drawing attention to t h e vegetarian wines on their shelves. In the meantime, specialist mail order firms and wholefood shops continue to get our business. Spaghetti Sauce

f you are new to vegan wine, it is well worth sampling a few bottles of different kinds before going crazy in the shop or putting in for a mail order mixed crate. Much as I have enjoyed many of the wines I have tried, I still think there are only three important things to know about wine:


Crush 3 or 4 cloves of garlic and cook for a couple of minutes with a pinch of salt in a few tablespoons of olive oil. Add a good tablespoon of tomato puree, stir well, and add a glass of red wine. Stir and simmer for a few minutes, just enough for the alcohol to evaporate and the wine to cook. Simple but rich and tasty. Serve on top of freshly cooked spaghetti.

• There are red and white types, and something in between. • Recipes involving wine are extravagant and a fuss, and are therefore ignored. • Food and wine go quite well together. The recipes which follow make the most of these facts: two with red, two with white, and one for pud. Easy, not at all extravagant (compare the price of a bottle of any kind of cook-in sauce with the equivalent amount of wine) and, of course, suitable for your conscience as well as your palate. White Wine with Leeks Cut a leek into thick slices and cook in vegan marge with a little salt and pepper for 5 to10 minutes until quite soft but not browned. Add 125ml dry white wine and cook for another 5 minutes. When the wine has mostly reduced, pour in about half a tablespoon of soya cream. Cook a little longer, then serve. Great for lunch on toasted granary bread. Serves 2.

Gulab Jamun with W h i t e W i n e Syrup This is not quite the authentic way to make the little Indian syrup dumplings, but using semolina means you don't need to deep-fry them. Instead of wine you can use a couple of drops of orange flower water to flavour the syrup. Warm-Spiced New Potatoes in W i n e In a spice mill or mortar, grind about an inch of cinnamon stick with 2 cloves, half a teaspoon of coriander seeds, half a teaspoon of black peppercorns and a few cumin seeds. Put 500g / 11b new potatoes into a frying pan with a tight-fitting lid. Add the spices and 250ml dry white wine. Cook on a medium heat with the lid on for about 20 minutes, until the wine has all been absorbed or evaporated. Serves four if part of a meal, or two with light salads. Red Wine Sauce This may be a little extravagant, but when you taste the rich velvety sauce it is worth it - for this reason, use a decent wine you'd be prepared to drink. Boil threequarters of a bottle of red wine rapidly until it has reduced by two thirds. Good with vegan haggis and roast potatoes. For a less extreme version, use half the quantity of wine, then add a knob of marge to which you have added the same quantity of plain flour. Continue to cook for at least ten minutes to thicken.

Crack open 4 cardamom pods and put them into 200ml soya or oat milk to boil, along with 25g sugar. In another pan, melt 25g vegan marge, then add 75g semolina. Stir and cook over a low heat. When the soya or oat milk has boiled, simmer to let the cardamom infuse for a few minutes, strain the liquid into the semolina and stir really well. Allow to cool before forming into balls - try to get six from the mixture so they are not too big. For the syrup, boil and then simmer 200ml white wine with 50g sugar for ten minutes. Add the semolina balls and continue to cook gently until the syrup is thick and there is just a little of it left. Serve each ball with a teaspoon of syrup.

I23The Vegan

Winter 2002


ADDI Dickie Brooks

Bull's B l o o d m a y n o t b e y o u r idea of a f a v o u r i t e w i n e label, but it is o n e of Hungary's most famous wines. The l e g e n d b e h i n d t h e n a m e is t h a t in 1552, d e f e n d i n g their t o w n against t h e Turks, the inhabitants of Eger d o w n e d t h e i r local red w i n e a n d rallied t o t h e attack w i t h t h e w i n e still dribbling d o w n their beards. Thinking their attackers w e r e f i g h t i n g m a d a f t e r d r i n k i n g bull's blood, t h e Turks fled in terror a n d the t o w n w a s saved.

o are the stories w i n e having blood added to it just a piece of folklore? Not quite. For centuries, winemakers have added dried ox blood during the process known as "fining" and only in very recent years has the practice widely been made illegal. The European Union banned the practice in November 1997 after scientists raised the possibility of a link between BSE or 'mad c o w disease' and the human brain disorder CreutzfeldtJakob disease.


However, banning a practice does not necessarily end it. In 1999 it w a s reported that French health inspectors in the Avignon region had seized 66,000 litres of w i n e suspected of being treated with ox blood powder, together with 200 kilograms of the powder itself. British w i n e merchants w e r e quick to assure customers that they did not sell any such wines, but those w h o had been across the Channel on a 'booze cruise' for cheap w i n e were not so sure. In Australia a Food Standards Code specifies which substances can be added to wine. Anything else is illegal, and blood is not an approved additive. Yet only last year the Australian W i n e and Brandy Corporation found it necessary to remind winemakers of the illegality of this practice w h e n an Argentine company began targeting wineries in Australia as potential customers for blood products as clarifying agents. Blood is by no means the only issue. In practice, the vast majority of commercial winemakers use fining agents at some point to remove microscopic particles suspended in the juice which w o u l d otherwise cause a w i n e to be hazy, unstable or harsh to the taste. Off flavours and unwanted colour can also be rectified in this way. W h e n added to the wine, these agents work on the principle of


The Vegan


Winter 2002

negative/positive attraction. If the particles in the wine are negatively charged, a positively charged agent will attract them, and vice versa. As the particles are drawn together they become too heavy to remain in suspension and drop to the bottom as sediment. The problem is that many of the commonly used agents are derived from animal products. France's top wine regions, Bordeaux and Burgundy, have for centuries used egg white to soften the astringency of their red wines and it is now a worldwide practice. In the small oak barrels known as barriques, which hold 225 litres of wine, perhaps two or three egg whites would be used. Gelatine, produced by boiling down animal remains such as skins, tendons, ligaments and bones, is widely used to clarify red, rose' and white wines. According to the type used, up to a kilogram would be used per thousand litres of wine. Other producers, generally of white wine and including some Champagnes, use isinglass from the air bladders of fish. Skimmed milk and the milk protein casein are also used. Chitin from the shells of crustaceans such as lobsters, crabs and shrimps is popular with some winemakers, up to 4 kilograms of chitin being used per thousand litres of wine. A synthetic material known as PVPP, somewhat similar to nylon and insoluble in wine, is also used, but may be combined with casein as in the Californian proprietary brand Polylact. There are, of course, other fining agents which are not animal based, of which the commonest is bentonite, although this is often used as well as rather than instead of gelatine. Many wine producers argue that fining agents are not "additives" at all as they do not dissolve in the wine and are subsequently filtered out.

Some claim that the final wine contains no traces of the fining agents at all, others that any remaining traces are "negligible", but few people would class a wine as vegan on this basis. So how do you know if a wine is vegan? The problem is the lack of relevant labelling regulations. Wine labels do not have to say what the wine contains or whether animal products have been used in making it, and they rarely do so. Just occasionally, the words "unfiltered and unfined," or "suitable for vegans" appear on the back label, or a vegan symbol is shown. Thousands more wines are actually vegan, but many producers say that their practice varies from wine to wine and from year to year so they cannot give any guarantees. Many organic wines are also vegan, but this is not necessarily so. Some organic regulations ban the use of gelatine and isinglass, but permit the use of egg whites provided the eggs are free range. However, wine merchants who specialise in organic wines also stock many which are certified vegan. W h a t of the future? Environmental public awareness is undoubtedly growing, but it does not always help the vegan cause. In Australia the latest research to combat powdery mildew, which attacks grape vine leaves and fruit, costs the Australian wine industry an estimated 30 million dollars a year, involves spraying the vines with milk and whey, the liquid waste from cheese production, and organic producers, anxious to stop the use of chemicals, are reportedly enthusiastic. On the other hand, the giant New Zealand producer Montana Wines recently announced that it is discontinuing the use of gelatine, though there is no indication that this is part of any widespread movement.

VEGETARIAN NON-DAIRY PARMESAN STYLE SEASONING Ready-grated parmesan cheese is a great standby but if you are vegetarian or allergic to dairy E4R/.t\


products or cannot eat them for ethical reasons, then Parmazano is for you. It's a new vegetarian parmesan grated seasoning, which is now available in branches of Tesco stores, displayed next to the pastas, and now from Sainsburys, in their Well Being section. Unlike regular parmesan cheese, containing animal rennet, Parmazano is non-dairy; it is based on cultured non-genetically modified soya milk. No pasta, spaghetti, pizza, risotto, quiche, baked potato or gratin-dish is the same without a sprinkling of cheese on the top, so Pamazano makes a welcome, versatile addition to the kitchen store cupboard for vegetarians, vegans and healthy eaters alike. Approved by the Vegetarian Society, Parmazano comes in 60g shaker packs and retails at around 90p through branches of Tesco & Sainsbury stores, as well as through independent health food & grocery stores.

SUNDRIED TOMATO RISOTTO Serves 4 • 2 tbsp olive oil • 1 medium onion, finely chopped • 1-2 cloves garlic, finely chopped • 500g/1lb Arborio rice • 1.2L/2pints hot light vegetable stock • 750g/1,5lb fresh broad beans • 3 tbsp sundried tomato sauce/paste • 50g Parmazano • basil leaves or rosemary to garnish Heat the oil in a large deep saucepan, add the onion and cook over a medium heat for 5 minutes or until

GRILLED POLENTA WITH ROASTED TOMATOES AND BASIL DRESSING Serves 4 • 900ml/1.5 pints water • 175g/6oz instant polenta • 60g tub Parmazano • 250g/9oz small cherry tomatoes on the vine • 1 tbsp olive oil Dressing: • Small handful basil leaves • 4 tbsp olive oil • 1 tbsp white wine vinegar To make the polenta, put the water in a heavy based saucepan. Pour in the polenta in a steady stream, stirring all the time. Cook over a low heat for 5 minutes, it will thicken after 1 minute and continue to thicken during cooking. Take the saucepan off the heat and beat in the Parmazano. Pour into an oiled tin about 18 x 25cm,

tender and golden. Add the garlic and cook for a further minute. Add the rice to the pan and stir well for 1 minute. Add the stock a ladle at a time, stirring until absorbed. The rice will be cooked in about 20 minutes. Add a little more stock if needed, the consistency should be creamy and slightly sloppy. While the risotto is cooking shell the broad beans which will yield 225g/8oz approximately and boil for 4-5 minutes until tender. Drain then slip the beans out from the skins. Stir the sundried tomato sauce, Parmazano and broad beans into the risotto then cover the pan and allow to stand for 5 minutes. Season the risotto if needed and serve garnished with a few shredded basil leaves or sprig of rosemary. (7x10") and level with a palette knife. Allow to cool then cover with cling film and chill for at least 1 hour. Can be kept in the refrigerator for 2 days. Heat the oven to 200C/400F/gas 6. Put the tomatoes in a roasting tin and drizzle with the olive oil Roast in the oven for 15-20 minutes. To make the dressing, put the ingredients into a blender and pulse until the basil is finely chopped. Turn the polenta onto a board and cut into 8 triangle shaped pieces (there may be a little left over). Preheat a griddle pan, brush both sides of the polenta with oil then grill on each side for 3-4 minutes. Arrange on a plate add the tomatoes and drizzle the basil sauce around. Other roasted vegetables can be served with the polenta, such as fennel, peppers, courgettes, aubergine and mushrooms.

The Overseas Aid Charity for Vegetarians & Vegans is



(Registered Charily No. 2 3 2 2 0 8 . Inland R e v e n u e Rcf XNBX55I

FEEDS THE HUNGRY WITHOUT EXPLOITING ANIMALS T h e Fragile Environment of Dev eloping Countries cannot support TW O populations Humans and their Food Animals For o v e r 30 y e a r s V E G F A M has provided short ami long-term Relief to People w h o have been the v i c t i m s o f Drought. Flood. C y c l o n e or W a r in over 4 0 countries. Our Supporters control how m u c h of their Donation g o e s o n Administration since V E G F A M operates three separate Funds for the use o f D o n o r s T e s t a t o r s the particulars of w h i c h are: G E N E R A L D O N A T I O N S paid into Will be apportioned (by % s h o w n ) between PROJECTS (91%) Administration Expenses (7%) O f f i c e Building Fund ( 2 % )

a/c N o 6 5 0 2 3 3 0 7 0 0 a/c N o 6 5 0 2 3 3 2 3 00 a/c N o 6502 3310 00 a c N o 6 5 0 2 3 3 3 6 53

T h e Co-operative Bank pic. 242 High Street. E X E T E R . F.X4 3 Q B . Sort C o d e 08-92-00 (Midland Bank a/cs retained for u s e b y existing Donors)

S U P P O R T E R S A R E INV I T E D T O P A Y D O N A T I O N S D I R E C T T O A N Y O F T H E S E A C C O U N T S T e l / F a x L y d f o r d ( 0 1 8 2 2 ) 8 2 0 2 0 3 or ( 0 1 5 5 0 ) 7 2 1 1 9 7 for m o r e details - Covenant F o r m * Bankers Order F o r m s etc (& self catering vtsitors a c c o m m o d a t i o n ) or write ( S A E appreciated) to: V E G F A M . " T h e Sanctuary". Nr L y d f o r d . O K E H A M P T O N . Devon. E X 2 0 4 A L Website:hnp//'vegfanV Email:


Claridge House Centre for Healing. Rest & Renewal j Registered Charity So 228102 j O w n e d b y the F r i e n d s F e l l o w s h i p of Healing. C l a n d g c House o f f e r s a relaxing a n d tranquil a t m o s p h e r e T h e H o u s e , set in b e a u t i f u l g a r d e n s , is situated in a peaceful south-east c o r n e r of Surrey, close lo S u s s e x , a n d Kent country side. It is easily reached by train f r o m L o n d o n G u e s t s arc w e l c o m e t h r o u g h o u t the year on o u r special w e e k e n d o r m i d - w e e k b r e a k s at \er> r e a s o n a b l e prices, including full board x eganA e g e t a n a n a c c o m m o d a t i o n . G r o u n d f l o o r r o o m s a v a i l a b l e with facilities for disabled guests. W e a l s o o f f e r a w ide range of w e e k e n d c o u r s e s i h m u g h o u t the year, based on health a n d h e a l i n g t h e m e s , all led bv qualified instructors For a course p r o g r a m m e a n d details of o u r special b r e a k s , please c o n t a c t T h e W a r d e n s . C l a r i d g e H o u s e , D o r m a n s R o a d . L i n g f i c l d , Surrev R H 7 6 Q A Telephone: 01342 832150 Fax 0 1 3 4 2 8 3 6 7 3 0 Email: w e l c o m e 速 c l a r i d g e h o u s c Website: w w w . c l a r i d g e h o u s c . l r e e s e r v e . c o . uk




For advice or more details contact: David Walters Financial Services Horseshoe Cottage, Brownbread Street, Ashburnham, East Sussex TN33 9NX Tel. 0800 0183110 David Walters is a member of Animal Aid and the Vegetarian Society A member of DBS Financial Management PLC which is regulated by the Personal Investment Authority




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THE ORDER OF THE C R O S S (VN), 10 DE V E R E GARDENS, LONDON W8 5AE Telephone: 020 7937 7012




DO YOU CARE ABOUT THE WORLD? You may think there is very little any individual can do to help the environment, prevent large scale animal abuse and so on. However, the power of investment is immense. The more of us who indicate that we care about what happens to the money in our pension funds, endowments and other investments, the better o f f we will all be.


fellowship whose members are vegetarian or vegan and pacifist, was founded in 1904 by John Todd Ferrier. The Order seeks to follow a mystical, spiritual path and "to proclaim a message of peace and happiness, health and purity, spirituality and Divine Love". Its Message is universal in its scope, revealing the essential oneness of all religious aspirations, the continuity of life, and the unity of all living creatures in the Divine. It touches the deep issues of life and explains our relationship to the Eternal World through our spiritual constitution. The Cross is seen as a symbol of spiritual being in which the life attains uprightness and balance. Regular public meetings and worship services are held on Sundays at 11 am and Wednesdays at 7 pm (except during the Summer recess) at the Headquarters of the Order as below. Meetings are also held at other centres throughout the UK, as well as in the USA, Australia and New Zealand.

Feeding the World with Compassion Registered Charity No. 1075420

A vegan charity that helps animals and p e o p l e .

HIPPO is working around the world to help hungry people to obtain and where possible produce their own high protein foods to overcome malnutrition. Whilst many overseas aid agencies encourage the expansion of livestock production we emphasise the value of vegetable proteins. This reduces the pressure on land and watersupplies that keeping livestock inevitably causes, and also saves animals from the cruelty of being exploited for food. In the developing world we support projects run by local people and supply food for orphanages and the homeless. Our staff are volunteers and our costs are very low. Please send donations and/or enquiries to: HIPPO, LLANGYNOG, CARMARTHEN SA33 5BS Tel: 01267 241547 email:


M a n y readers w i l l h a v e noticed the

announcement in The Vegan about the Order of the Cross, an informal Christian fellowship founded in 1904 by John Todd Ferrier. All members of the Order are pacifist and vegetarian or vegan. Before founding the Order, Reverend Ferrier was a minister in the Congregational Church. In his farewell address, given when he left the Church in 1903, he spoke these memorable words: "I have heard the cry of the animal world, and I leave you that I may in one form of my future work fight the battle of the souls that are down lower than myself in the scale of evolution, but which some day will come up to bless the life that has had compassion upon their helplessness. But I have seen and heard more than that. I have seen it as a vision before me that man will continue to have a thousand diseases with which he is afflicted, and that he will never he healed of them till his vision of life is truer, his ambition higher and less earthly, and his sympathy and love become like the sympathy and love of God and the Christ whom he professes to revere and serve".

Reverend Ferrier's numerous addresses and writings constitute the Teachings of the Order of the Cross, published in more than fifty books and pamphlets. The scope of these Teachings is vast, including such themes as the nature of the human Soul, the reality of Angelic ministry, the path of a Soul's growth through many incarnations, the Fall which interrupted that growth, and the eventual return of the Earth and all Souls to a state of harmony, peace and joy. The latter process is the true Redemption, embracing "Purity in diet, humaneness towards all creatures, compassion for all who have known misfortune, justice for the oppressed, truer and nobler thoughts concerning social questions, more reverence for womanhood and parenthood, greater desire to reach out unto the realisation of loftier manhood and womanhood, and so to live and serve for the blessing of all." Much is written about the Master, known as Jesus, and his mission. We learn that the names given to him, Jesus, Christ and the Lord, were not his personal titles but

indicated states of life or consciousness attainable by all Souls. The word Jesus, for example, signifies the pure life which naturally implies compassion towards all humankind and all creatures. Throughout the Teachings the theme of Divine Love is dominant; thus we read "Let Love distinguish you. To be the child of Divine Love, both in its realisation and manifestation, is more to be desired than earthly inheritance and power. For Love enriches the life. Love exalts the vision. Love enobles purpose Let the Good of Love, and the Truth of Love, ever be expressed in all your ways. For the Good of Love is its healing power, and the Truth of Love is its Radiance". The above quotations are from the book "Life's Mysteries Unveiled". Longer quotations and further information about the Order can be found on the Order of the Cross website

SPROUTING Pauline Lloyd

O n e of the best w a y s t o improve your diet

Alfalfa sprouts are especially nutritious, providing amino acids, many vitamins, calcium and iron. Fenugreek also contains iron and seems to grow well even in winter. If you are in hurry, then almonds, quinoa or sunflower seeds are ready in a day or two. Lentils also grow fairly quickly and are a surprisingly good source of vitamin C and iron.

To get started you need a supply of (preferably organic) legumes, seeds, nuts and grains to sprout and some glass jars or plastic trays to sprout them in. Readymade sprouting jars are readily available by mail order, but are usually quite expensive. It's much cheaper to make your own from large glass jars: cover the top with a square of muslin (or nylon stocking) held in place with a strong elastic band.

Did you know that raw sprouted chickpeas make tasty hummus? Or that haricot, aduki and black-eyed beans sprout well in jars and also provide vitamin C and iron? Wheat and oats are good grains to try, the latter being an excellent source of B vitamins, especially B6. Try adding some wheat sprouts to your breakfast cereal or lunchtime salad, or use them to make the health drink rejuvelac. They can also be baked at a low temperature to make a wonderfully sweet sprouted wheat bread, or grown on in trays of soil and used to make wheat grass juice.

and ensure that you get all the nutrients you need is to grow your own sprouts. Bursting with vitamins and enzymes, sprouts are really cheap to produce. You don't need a garden either, just a brightly lit but not too sunny window sill or kitchen surface. So sprouting is something that anyone can do. It's easy why not have a go?

W h a t t o Sprout:

For a chlorophyll boost try sprouting mustard, cress, broccoli, radish, red clover or alfalfa.

When growing your own sprouts, remember to rinse and drain them well every day. In summer you will probably need to rinse them twice daily - and don't leave them baking in the sun. it is also a good idea to soak large seeds first. Follow these simple rules and you should be well rewarded for your efforts. What could be fresher than a handful of tasty sprouts taken from the jar just moments before eating? Moreover, your sprouts are unlikely to be devoured by marauding slugs getting there before you do. For more information, see Hlt14503010r Hit 1 4 5 0 3 0 1 0 V rd/sprout-htm or The Sprouter's Handbook by Edward Cairney (Argyll, 1997), a useful book for beginners which can be obtained from The Organic Gardening Catalogue, Riverdene Business Park, Molesey Road, Hersham, Surrey, KT12 4RG (Tel: 01932 253666) who also sell sprouting jars and seeds for sprouting.

I25The Vegan

Winter 2002

Megan the Vegan •



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Winter 2002

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Profit from Emerging Dietary Trends

Profit f r o m Emerging Dietary Trends - Ten S t e p s to Success ( J o h n Hartley, ISBN 0-9538-160-0-X, £9.99) Available

from the Society.


A brilliant introduction to By J o h n Hartley veganism for restaurateurs, cleverly disguised as a manual for increasing profits.

Ten Steps to


The author, a Vegan Society member and experienced catering trainer, refers first to the growing number of vegetarians and vegans, adds ethnic and religious groups and those with food-related allergies and diseases, and then presents a powerful case for turning problems into profit by adding vegan dishes to the menu as food that everyone can enjoy and with big profit margins because the ingredients are cheap. Creating and marketing vegan dishes is explained, together with vegan nutrition and ingredients. A table of vegetarian dishes indicates those suitable for vegans and how to adapt the others - especially edifying for desserts, where so many restaurants fail. Additions to the larder (including vegan wine) are listed to maximise variety while minimising inventory and workload. There is a plan for phasing in new foods and getting the word out to the public, and even cooking instructions for foods such as tofu and quinoa. The final touch is a comprehensive list of wholefood distributors and some recommended cookbooks. A godsend to forward-looking restaurateurs trying to accommodate dietary diversity, as well as for local contacts, groups and individuals interested in getting better vegan food in their area.

In t h e S h a d o w of M a h a t m a G a n d h i ( J o a n Court, I S B N 0-9543-452-0-7, £7.99)


from the Vegan


Nowadays Joan Court is better known as a tireless campaigner against vivisection [see picture page 2], live exports and all forms of animal abuse than as a campaigner against poverty and disease in pre-lndependence India and one of the first experts on child abuse in the UK. This first volume of Joan's autobiography describes an unhappy childhood with an

alcoholic mother, the added trauma of her father's suicide and her training as a nurse at St Thomas' hospital. We then follow her adventures as a nurse and midwife in India and later in North America, where she did a Master's degree in social work, followed by years of pioneering work in the UK protecting children from cruelty and neglect. The book ends with Joan's arrival in Cambridge, a couple of years short of official retirement age, to read for a social anthropology degree. The next volume will deal with her leading role in the animal rights movement and her attempts to bring together campaigners for animals, people and the environment. While littered with instances of care for nonhuman animals - cutting wire snares in the countryside, rescuing starving kittens, even feeding a family of mice - this volume illustrates most clearly Joan's compassion for deprived and exploited human beings, particularly women and children. There are also some exotic love affairs and some marvellous pictures taken by Joan in India - not least a superb one of Mahatma Gandhi (when accompanying him she always walked in the ditch to minimise the height difference) whose ideas profoundly influenced her life.

" E a t , drink a n d b e h e a l t h y " - the Harvard Medical School G u i d e t o H e a l t h y E a t i n g ( W a l t e r C. W . W i l l e t t M D , I S B N 0-7432-232-2-5


£7. SO from


One of the world's most eminent researchers on nutrition and health, Willett is not a vegetarian but his recommendations stress the dangers of dairy products and the benefits of whole plant foods. The recommendations are presented as a pyramid with the core recommendations at the base and items to be used sparingly, if at all, at the tip. The base of the pyramid is daily exercise and weight control. The next three layers are: whole grain foods and plant oils; vegetables and fruit; nuts and legumes. Animal products are all near the tip of the pyramid and there is a powerful critique of

dairy products not only as a dangerous source of saturated fat but as the dietary factor most consistently linked with prostate cancer. Low fat dairy products are dismissed with the observation that "once a cow is milked, the fat from that milk is in the food supply and someone ends up drinking or eating it." An authoritative indictment of the standard Western diet, this book gives the vegan alternative due recognition as a healthier alternative and is ideal for convincing health professionals and others of the virtues of a plant-based diet.

VEGETARIAN BRITAIN (Alex Bourke a n d Katrina Holland, I S B N 1-902259-04-1, £7.95)



the Vegan


With twice as many entries as previously and the addition of 300 wholefood shops, arranging the book by county rather than region makes browsing a lot easier. There are side tabs telling you which county you're in, clear maps of certain counties and city centres with eating places marked. This is in fact a vegan guide to Britain, with only vegan dishes listed as examples by the two vegan authors. Guesthouses have examples of their vegan breakfast offerings, what to do in the area, websites and directions. Restaurant listings have sample dishes with prices and whether they offer vegan desserts. We are also told whether children and/or pets are welcome, if smoking is permitted and whether credit cards are accepted. The Top Ten destinations list has introductions to each area and the London chapter has maps showing hotels, hostels and campsites as well as West End cafes and tourist attractions. •There are also new chapters on Northern Ireland and Eire, the Channel , ftowihe » * Islands and the Isle of Man. A good buy for a vegan Christmas stocking.





I29The Vegan

Winter 2002

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Sandra Hood, BSc (Hons), SRD

Since 4 5 % of men and 33% of women in the UK are classified as overweight (Department of Health 1997) it is not surprising that diseases such as diabetes (also known as diabetes mellitus) have increased enormously. In the UK diabetes affects 1.4 million people and there may be as many as 1 million more w h o remain undiagnosed. Worldwide there are over 150 million cases and the total is expected to double by 2010. Diabetes has major implications for disability and mortality and represents a phenomenal burden on the National Health Service, consuming an estimated 8 % of resources.

iabetes occurs when the mechanism for converting glucose to energy no longer functions properly. This causes an abnormally high level of glucose in the blood, giving rise to a variety of symptoms. High glucose levels over several years can damage various parts of the body.


Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, is needed to convert glucose into energy. If the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or if the body cannot utilise the insulin, diabetes occurs. There are two different types of diabetes, type 1 and type 2. In type 1, usually diagnosed before the age of 40, there is complete or near-complete absence of insulin due to destruction of the insulinproducing cells, insulin treatment is essential for survival and treatment is by insulin injections and diet. The cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown, though there are many theories. In 1987 (Diabetes Epidemiology Research International) a report stated that 60 to 95% of cases of type 1 diabetes could be prevented, with diet playing a significant part. Dahlquist & Mustonen (2000) report on the rapidly increasing incidence of childhood diabetes in Sweden and suggest that the correlation with gross domestic product may suggest risk factors associated with wealth such as high growth rate in children, a known risk factor for childhood diabetes. In Europe the incidence of type 1 diabetes in children has risen by 2 to 5 % annually, with an increase of 50% in about ten years (Silink 2002). Diabetes is noticeably rare in parts of the world with a traditional non-Westernised diet and lifestyle. It has also been suggested that cows' milk consumption may be linked with type 1 diabetes, but studies are inconclusive (Silink 2002). In type 2 diabetes, the body still produces insulin but either there is not enough of it or it is not working properly. Treatment is either by diet alone or by tablets and diet and sometimes with insulin. In the past, children and adolescents were assumed to develop

only type 1 diabetes with type 2 affecting only people over the age of 40. However, an epidemic of type 2 diabetes is now sweeping the world and affecting ever younger children. Only this year, the first cases of adult-type diabetes were found in four overweight teenage children in the UK. It has been suggested that 80 to 9 5 % of cases could be prevented and in Finland last year it was shown that with lifestyle interventions, increased activity, low fat diet and weight loss, risk was reduced by 58% (Tuomilehto et al 2001). Type 2 diabetes is associated with the consumption of energy dense foods, inactivity and obesity. Obesity is a major factor, with 8 0 % of sufferers being overweight. The risk is doubled for the overweight and tripled for the obese. [The most frequently used measurement is body mass index (BMI) which is weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in metres. A BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 is regarded as healthy, while 25 to 29.9 is regarded as overweight and 30 or above as obese.] The World Heart Federation states that "as many as 22 million children throughout the world are overweight" and the World Health Organisation reports that "one billion people are now overweight or obese", which it links with the Westernisation of diets with fruits, vegetables and whole grains being replaced by junk food high in saturated fat and added sugar (The Observer 29/9/02 p9). Type 1 diabetes cannot be cured, but in many cases type 2 diabetes can be prevented and vegans may be at reduced risk of developing the disease. One small study (Nicholson et al. 1999) showed that changing to a low fat vegan diet reduced weight and improved serum glucose concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Other studies have shown that reducing saturated fat, increasing fibre, reducing weight and increasing physical activity can reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes significantly (Tuomilehto et al. 2001).

Meat consumption has been positively associated with diabetes (Snowdon & Phillips 1985) but other dietary components may also be involved. For instance, meat eaters tend to consume less fruit and vegetables, fibre and complex carbohydrates such as beans, legumes, wholegrain bread and fruit than vegans and vegetarians. It has also been shown that saturated fat may increase insulin secretion and possibly lead to insulin resistance (Collier & O'Dea 1983). There is much controversy about the relationship between the amount and types of dietary fat and carbohydrate and the risk of diabetes. Current recommendations promote low fat, high carbohydrate diets for the prevention of diabetes, heart disease and other chronic diseases. However, it is now increasingly appreciated that the types of fat and carbohydrate are important. There is strong evidence that vegans are at reduced risk (Davis & Melina) due to • • • •

Less obesity. High intake of fibre. Low intake of saturated fat. High intake of magnesium.

OBESITY The vegan diet is natural for promoting healthy weights. It is low in fat, particularly saturated fat, high in fibre, and tends to have a larger proportion of complex carbohydrates such as whole grains than a non-vegan diet. Vegan children tend to be lighter than their peers (Sanders et al 1978; Sanders & Manning 1992), and overweight children are at increased risk of obesity in adulthood, increasing the risk of diabetes. In England between 1984 and 1994 the proportion of overweight boys increased from 5.4% to 9 % and the proportion of overweight girls from 9 . 3 % to 13.5% (Pharmacy Magazine 2001). Continuously taking in excess energy (kcals) increases the body's need for insulin while at the same time producing surplus fat stores which make the body more resistant to insulin and reduce its effectiveness.

I31The Vegan

Winter 2002

Santo Hood. BSt (HOnst SBD



A high intake of saturated fat is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (Mann 2002) and animal products are the greatest sources of saturated fat in the Western diet. Plant fats are from 6 to 2 5 % saturated, with the exception of tropical oils which are 50 to 8 5 % saturated but usually form only a small part of the diet. Saturated fats should not provide more than 1 0 % of total calories.

Diabetes has been associated with low levels of magnesium (Ma et al. 1995), which may also help to prevent complications of diabetes such as deterioration of the retina. Vegan diets are rich in this mineral and sources include whole grains and nuts.

Substituting non-hydrogenated polyunsaturated fat (found in natural vegetable oils, nuts and seeds) for saturated and trans-fatty acids (such as those in vegetable shortening and hard margarines) could appreciably reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (Hu et al 2001). Trans-fatty acids occur naturally in dairy products and in meat as a result of the hydrogenation process in the animal's lumen, but nowadays many processed vegan foods also contain hydrogenated fats and these are as harmful as saturated animal fats.

FIBRE Vegans generally have a high fibre diet with less reliance on refined carbohydrates. Vegan diets tend to be rich in whole grain products and pulses, fruits, vegetables and oats which contain soluble fibre. Three servings of whole grains per day are recommended to reduce risk of type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease and certain cancers. Only 1 in 40 Britons eats this amount and almost one third of the population eat none at all! (IVFS 2002). Studies have shown that vegans may consume twice as much fibre as omnivores (Thorogood & Mann 1990; Sanders & Manning 1992; Draper et al 1993). Whole grain products and soluble fibre decrease the rate of absorption, producing slower glycaemic and insulinaemic responses i.e. slower release into the bloodstream compared with highly processed grains. Studies suggest an association between increased intake of whole grains and reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (Fung et al. 2002; McKeown et al. 2002). Researchers at Harvard University have been testing the hypothesis that whole grain consumption improves insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese adults. They have found a 1 0 % decrease in developing diabetes when the amount of whole grains in the diet is increased. Whole grains also contain beneficial antioxidants, vitamins, phytochemicals and magnesium.

I32The Vegan

Winter 2002

Diabetes, particularly type 2, has been shown to be a preventable disease if diet and exercise are taken seriously. Genetics undoubtedly also play a part and certain people are at greater risk. In recent years the diet of vegans and vegetarians has also changed considerably with many high fat, high salt, high sugar convenience foods now available and an increasing number of vegans and vegetarians eating poor diets, taking less activity and putting on weight. There is no doubt that a vegan diet can be protective and could lead the way in preventing and perhaps treating diabetes, but only if it is based on unrefined whole foods and not on processed and refined convenience foods. REFERENCES Collier & O'Dea K (1983) The effect of coingestion of fat on the glucose insulin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses to carbohydrate and protein Am J Clin Nutr 1983 37 941-944 Dahlquist & Mustonen L (2000) Analysis of 20 years of prospective registration of childhood onset diabetes time trends and birth cohort effects Swedish Childhood Diabetes Study Group Acta Paediatr Oct 89(10) 123-7 Davis B, Melina V (2000) Becoming Vegan. Book Publishing Co. p33. Department of Health (DH) 1997 Health Sun/ey for England 1997 Summary of Key Findings London DH Diabetes Epidemology (1987) Research International Preventing Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: the environmental challenge British Medical Journal (Clinical Research) 295 6596 479481 Draper A, Malhotra W, Wheeler E (1993) The energy and nutrient intakes of different types of vegetarians: a case for supplements? British Journal of Nutrition 69 3-19

Fung TT et al. (2002) Whole-grain intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes: aprospective study in men. Am J Clin Nutr Sept 76(3) 535-40 Hu FB, van Dam RM, Liu S (2001) Diet and risk of Type II diabetes: the role of types of fat and carbohydrate Diabetologia 44 805-817 International (7^) Vahouny Fibre Symposium [IVFS] (2002) Royal College of Physicians Edinburgh Ma et al. (1995) Association of serum and dietary magnesium with cardiovascular disease hypertension diabetes insulin and carotid arterial wall thickness: the Aric Study J Clin Epidemiol 48 7 927-940 Mann Jl (2002) Diet and risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes The Lancet 2002 360 783-789) McKeown NM et al. (2002) Whole-grain intake is favourably associated with metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the Framingham Offspring Study, Am J Clin Nutr 2002 Aug 76(2) 390-8 Nicholson AS, Sklar M, Barnard N et al (1999) Toward improved management of NIDDM: a randomised controlled pilot intervention using a lowfat vegetarian diet Preventive Medicine 29 87-91 Sanders TAB Ellis FR Dickerson JWT (1978) Hematological studies on vegans Br J Nutr 40 9-15 Sanders TAB Manning J (1992) The growth and development of vegan children Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 5 11-21 Silink M (2002) Childhood diabetes: a global perspective Hormone Research 57 (suppl 1) 1-5 Snowdon DA, Phillips RL (1985) Does a vegetarian diet reduce the occurrence of diabetes? American Journal of Public Health 75:5 507-512 Thorogood M, Mann Jl (1990) Diet and plasma lipids in a group of vegetarians and omnivores Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 49 59A-61A Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson JG, Valle T, et al. 2001 Prevention of Type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance 344 18 1343-1349

welcomed, but accepted on the understanding that they > of brevity or clarity.

The raw food article by Stephen Walsh in the autumn issue of The Vegan refers to the need for B12 supplementation. As a long-standing vegan and a raw vegan for several years, I have never taken any supplements. I believe that there are ample supplies in sprouted grains/seeds such as lentils, chick peas and mung beans, and also in seaweed (delicious in salads) and lettuce, but this is not mentioned in the article. Moreover, the body stores this vitamin, so we do not need a daily intake. I am living proof of this, with plenty of energy and vitality. I run an animal sanctuary by myself, look after my vegetable garden and 130 olive trees and much more - active from sunup to sundown and healthy with it. Janna

, France.

[Stephen Walsh replies: Janna is correct to note that the body stores vitamin B12 and that some individuals appear to thrive for many years without supplements or fortified foods. As explained on pages 9 and 10 (Homocysteine and Health), however, long-term vegans not using such reliable sources of B12 usually show increased blood levels of homocysteine even in the absence of any symptoms of outright B12 deficiency. Raw food vegans are particularly at risk due to avoidance of processed foods, which are sometimes fortified with B12. Sprouting beans will only produce B12 if the sprouts are serendipitously contaminated with appropriate bacteria. No seaweed has been shown to be a useful source of B12 and some varieties, such as dried nori, have been shown to aggravate deficiency. Lettuce and other greens do not contain useful amounts of B12. ]

"Vegan Diets for Infants and Children" by Sandra Hood in the autumn issue states that "solid foods should not be introduced before four months of age" and goes on to list foods to give an infant at four months. The World Health Assembly in June 2001 adopted a resolution (54.2) which states: "support exclusive breastfeeding for six months as a global public health recommendation." The W H A looked at over 3000 papers in reaching this conclusion. Babies under six months are not ready for solid food. Around six months babies are often sitting and may have teeth, plus a more mature gut. Some babies are not ready for solid food until later than six months. The article also states "By six months of age, iron stores in omnivorous, vegetarian and vegan infants will become depleted." I do not have a technical reference for this, but I was advised by my midwife that iron stores deplete early in infants when the umbilical cord is cut too soon. If the cord is left uncut, the newborn baby gets a transfusion to boost iron stores. Additionally, the iron in breast milk (often said to be "low") is optimal for babies and for mothers where exclusive breastfeeding has suppressed menstruation. Nature has a perfect balance, left to its own devices. Thanks for an interesting article, but please do not perpetuate myths about weaning at four months and about babies and iron while failing to point out that continuing to breastfeed up to two years and beyond is important nutritionally and emotionally for infants and greatly reduces parental stress about what solid foods the child is eating. Is even the Vegan Society afraid of offending bottle feeders? Sara

Re your recent interview with Bryan Adams, is that a murdered animal he's wearing? I think w e should be told. A. J. Wandlass, Cambridge. [Editorial comment W e are told that the jacket is made from a synthetic material called Pleather; it had been covered in dirt for filming and is seen in Bryan's video "Here I Am". According to PETA, Pleather is also favoured by rock group Judas Priest and other showbiz folk.]


[Sandra Hood replies: The article stated that " Up to the age of four to six months, the diets of many infants of vegan and of non-vegan parents are identical" - meaning breast milk, "the perfect food for the young infant" - but perhaps this was not sufficiently clear. The World Health Organisation encourages exclusive breast feeding up to six months while UK guidance on weaning is based on the COMA report, 'Weaning and the Weaning Diet' (Department of Health 1994), which states that weaning should begin between four and six months. I believe that the Vegan Society should encourage breast feeding for as long as mother and child wish, support the WHO recommendation for exclusive breastfeeding up to six months of age, and stress the importance of not weaning until at least four months.] After many years of providing vegan food days at Wolverhampton University, we decided to see what response a vegan food day would get among nonstudents. The first venue was a cafe bar in the centre of town with a spare room upstairs. The event was publicised through the local press, radio stations and leafleting and about 300 people turned up. In addition to the tasty food on offer, there was information and advice on diet and health, animal rights and environmental issues. Questionnaires were distributed asking if people would be interested in attending monthly meetings. Those responding positively were contacted and in June 2002 the West Midlands Vegan and Veggie Network was born. The owners of the venue were so impressed that they have given us free use of the venue in the future. They are also looking to put vegan options on their menu to complement the existing veggie selection. Since then, w e have taken part in demonstrations, commandeered a regular monthly spot on a local radio station and formed a food co-operative ordering wholesale from Suma. W e are also arranging a vegan picnic on a canal boat and a Christmas cookery demonstration. W e all hope that the network will continue to grow and show that a cruelty-free diet is the key to a compassionate community. For further information, ring

I33The Vegan

Winter 2002

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ethical WARES is a vegan company supplying extensive range of the best quality animal free f o o t w e a r a n d accessories.




Up to date diaries of other events can be viewed at:

• NOVEMBER Sat 23 r d to Sat 3 0 t h National Anti-Fur Week actions at fur shops and on streets everywhere. Contact: CAFT, PO Box 38. Machester, M60 1NX T. email or: London Animal Action T. or email


Sat 23 r d Vegan Society Local Contacts Meeting in York City centre for existing and potential Local Contacts and others. Contact: Patricia Tricker or email

The next Local Contacts' Day is in York o n Saturday 23rd November.


Tues Cambridge Primate Research Lab Public Enquiry begins. Cambridge University propose building a new research laboratory on the outskirts of the city where primates would be housed underground and subjected to experimentation. T. Sat 30 t h Buy Nothing Day anti-consumerism campaign. T. email

• DECEMBER Sun 1 s t Christmas Without Cruelty Fayre at Kensington Town Hall, Hornton Street, London W8. 10am to 5pm. Stalls, vegan catering and celebrity auction. The Vegan Society will have a stall at this event. See or contact Animal Aid T.01732 364546 Sun 8 t h Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty national demo against those involved with HLS. Details to be arranged. Contact: SHAC T. or visit Tues 10 t h Fifth International Day for Animal Rights - worldwide events including candlelit vigils outside sites of animal abuse. UK coordination by Uncaged T. Thurs 2 6 t h Boxing Day Anti-Hunt Demos - take vegan food to share League against Cruel Sports T

• JANUARY Sat 25 t h Burns Night - celebrate the birthday of 'Rabbie' Burns (1759-1796) by treating yourself and friends to an evening of vegan haggis with neeps and tatties.

• FEBRUARY Month of remembrance for animal activists Jill Phipps (1 st ); Vicki Moore (6 th ); Mike Hill (9 t h ) Fri 14 t h Vegan Valentine's Day - spice up you love life with Plamil's vegan chilli chocolate.

• MARCH All month - Veggie Campaign Month See or contact Animal Aid W e d 12 t h World Day of Action Against Seal Hunting at government offices, embassies, tourist offices. Join demos or write letters to governments concerned. UK or email or T. 07939 264 864 Sun 16th V2-day in Antwerp, the second annual vegan festival to be held in Belgium. T. email:

wrote last time, "I do hope you are enjoying what's left of the Summer as w e have a busy Autumn ahead." Busy is not exaggerating! The Local Contacts' Day in Bristol in September was well attended and very successful. The Vegan Festival the following day was, as usual, bursting out of Conway Hall. It was good to see so many familiar faces, to meet some of you for the first time and to share a Booja Booja or two. Please let me know as soon as possible if you're interested in taking part. These days are not just for existing and potential Local Contacts, but for any Society members wishing to become more active in promoting veganism in their area. Topics will include media work, local groups, nutrition (led by Stephen Walsh) and a quiz (with prizes!) There will be plenty of time for socialising, a shared lunch and a restaurant meal afterwards for those w h o wish. Local Contacts Days generally run from 12 noon to 6 pm. Council member and LC for Aberdeen George Rodger and his Scottish colleagues are planning an event in Scotland next year for the benefit of vegans north of the border, those in the north of England for whom Scotland is easier to get to than southern England and anyone else w h o would like to join in. More details about this exciting event in due course. The long awaited e-mail discussion group is also close to lift-off, thanks to the sterling efforts of Marc Palmer. To take part, send me an e-mail with subject line "discussion group". This is not a chat line, of which there are plenty already, but a forum for members to share information about veganism and Vegan Society aims and activities. If you run a group or are a member of one, let m e h a v e details so t h a t w e can publicise it in t h e magazine It must be a vegan or "vegetarian and vegan" group and the contact person listed must be a full member of the Society. The list has already lengthened considerably, but many groups are still not included because nobody has sent in details. The S w a n s e a group is expanding and a n e w group is starting in Cambridge Both will be meeting on Monday 18 th November. Contact the LC for details. To be an official Local Contact you must have been a full member for at least a year. Rather than having to remember to renew your membership each year, the easiest way for you and for our staff is to sign a Direct Debit authorisation; if you also complete a Gift Aid form (see page 14) the Society can reclaim tax on your subscription. Spreading the word doesn't end with National Vegan Week: w e can all help to promote veganism throughout the year. In pubs, cafes and restaurants I always ask about ingredients, especially when there's chocolate cake on the menu. I look really disappointed that it's not vegan, which shows them that vegans eat "normal" food and not just lentils and muesli, and then I offer them a copy of recipes for two chocolate cakes, fruit scones and fruit cake, all of which fit on one sheet of A4. If y o u ' d like a copy, s e n d m e a n email, a fax or a stamped addressed e n v e l o p e m a r k e d " c a k e recipes" At this time of year, many restaurants advertise special Christmas and New Year meals. Ring and ask if there's a vegan option. Let them know that we're here, we're not going away, some of us like eating out, and w e expect to be properly catered for. Most caterers now think of vegetarianism as mainstream - let's encourage them to think of veganism in the same w a y ! Finally, please remember that I work at home and it is not always convenient to take phone calls during the day. I'm always pleased to hear from members, whether they're Local Contacts or not, so please ring in the evening if possible, any time up to 10 pm, or better still send an e-mail. Warm wishes, Patricia Tricker, National Local Contacts' Coordinator

I33The Vegan

Winter 2002

Note: Local Contacts are Vegan Society members who have offered to act. on a voluntary basis, as a point of contact for those interested in the Society's work. They are not official representatives of the Society. Their levels of activity and knowledge may vary according to their individual circumstances. When writing to a Contact please remember to enclose a SAE. Local Contacts' Coordinator: Patricia Tricker - see under Yorkshire (North)

I 34

The Vegan

Winter 2002

Founder Donald Watson Hon Patrons Serena Coles Freya Dinshah Maneka Gandhi Dr. Michael Klaper Kathleen Jannaway Arthur Ling Moby Cor Nouws Wendy Turner Donald Watson Benjamin Zephaniah Council Alex Bourke (Vice Chair) Chris Childe Vanessa Clarke Roy Heath Laurence Klein (Hon Treasurer) Angus Maclnnes Laurence Main Caroline Malkinson Karin Ridgers George Rodger Patricia Tricker Stephen Walsh (Chair) National Local Contacts Co-ordinator Patricia M. Tricker STAFF Chief Executive Officer Rick Savage Administration/Finance Officer Vacant Head of Promotions/PR Tony Weston Information Officer Catriona Toms Information Assistants Gemma Barclay Debbie Holman Fundraising/Marketing Officer James Southwood Sales & Membership Officer Jason Thornton Sales & Membership Assistant Sundari Poorun


Sales Assistants John Rawden Derek Waller Volunteers Liz Costa Joyce Sandground Erica Wilson

VEGANISM maybe defined as a way of living which seeks to exclude, as far as possible and practical, all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, animals for food, clothing or any other purpose. In dietary terms it refers to the practice of dispensing with all animal produce â&#x20AC;&#x201D; including meat, fish. poultry, eggs, animal milks, honey, and their derivatives. Abhorrence of the cruel practices inherent in an agricultural system based on the abuse of animals is probably the single most common reason for the adoption of veganism, but many people are drawn to it for health, ecological. resource, spiritual and other reasons. If you would like more information on veganism a free Information Pack is available from the Vegan Society in exchange for two first class stamps. THE VEGAN SOCIETY was formed in England in November 1944 by a group of vegetarians who had recognised the ethical compromises implicit in lactovegetarianism (ie dairy dependent). Today, the Society continues to highlight the breaking of the strong maternal bond between the cow and her new-born calf within just four days; the dairy cow's proneness to lameness and mastitis, her subjection to an intensive cycle of pregnancy and lactation; our unnatural and unhealthy taste for cow's milk; and the de-oxygenation of river water through contamination with cattle slurry. If you are already a vegan or vegan sympathiser, please support the Society and help increase its influence by joining. Increased membership means more resources to educate and inform.

Dietary Consultant Sandra Hood Winter 2002 I35The Vegan







Daily Tariff ftom £20 to £40 per prnai All breaks include 4 course Dinner, BAB

PLANNING A HOLIDAY? Finding a vegan/vegetarian B & B , hotel or restaurant is m a d e easy w i t h the f o l l o w i n g guides Available from t h e V e g a n Society catalogue - p h o n e our order line n o w o n 01424 427393, or w r i t e t o o u r standard address with a c h e q u e or credit card details to purchase.

Vegetarian London £5.99

£ 9 m •



Vegetarian E u r o p e £9.95


39 W o o d He Id R o a d , Blackpool KYI 6 A X .






R e l a x in our 12 a c r e s , o r e x p l o r e E x m o o r , N o r t h A Mid-Devon. E n - s u i t e , n o n - s m o k i nnq q ir o o m s , C h i l d r e n <4i ppet ets welcome Cordon V e r t host.


Close t o C i t y c e n t r e


Non-Smoking En-suite Rooms

(Sleeps 4 plus baby) F a x / T e l : - S y l v i a o r C h r i s on 0 1 5 3 9 5 61241 K-mail:w w w . fox.

Vegetarian A Vegan B A B ETC 3 Diamonds Green Tourism A w a r d 132 C o t h a m Brow. Gotham, BRISTOL. BS6 6AE Tel & Fax 0117 924 7398

M Y H O M E IS Y O U R H O M E B e d a n d Breakfast. Country cottage bedroom. Plenty of scrumptious veggie/vegan food. Food lovers and cat lovers especially w e l c o m e ! Cockermouth Town Centre, Cumbria 01900 824045 £35 per couple £20 per person



r T l _ . / £ v > ^ Organic Vegan Guest House • l O ^

St. Ives, Cornwall

Beautiful eco-renovated Victorian House. Overlooks harbour & beaches. Close to Tate. Special diets welcome. Yoga breaks, seal & dolphin tours. Best Vegan Guest House 2000. For a brochure, call Simon: 01736 793 895 w w w . making-waves

garlands Stilus

^juestJiouse Cornwall

'Lnjoy our 'VeqanA 'egetarian sunshine" breakfast and relax in our cozy l 'ictorian <juest .House. .Minutes ivalfi from town, beaches and coastal walks. • Free parking, non-smoking, families welcome. 'Ring SManya + David 01736

I 36

The Vegan

Winter 2002

B E E C H M O U N T SA WREY, AMBLESIDE. CUMBRIA LA 22 OLB Vegetarian/ vegan B&B. delightful country house accommodation. Situates in Beatrix Potter's picturesque village with its olde worlce inn. 2 miles from Hawtsbcad. Lake Windemere (car ferry) 2 miles. Delicious breakfast, lovely bedrooms. Superb lake/country views. For brochure tel. Sylvia anc Richard Siddall. 015394 36356. O r visit our web-site: NEAR

Tel 01253 346143




" S e a p o i n t * E X M O O R NATIONAL PARK Comfortable Edwardian guest house with spectacular views across Porlock Bay and set in the heart ofExmoor's wild heather moorland. Miaous traditional vegetarian and vegan cuisine. Fine wines. Log fires. Candle-lit dinners. Luxurious bedrooms, all en-suite. E T B 2 crowns Highly commended AA 3 Q Recommended 2 day break Nov-Feb incl " £49 pp/DB&B Christine Fitzgerald, Seapoint, Upway, PoHock, Somerset TA24 8QE

14 Harrington Gardens. Edinburgh EH 10 41.1) Winner of The Vegetarian Society's Best ( Award 2001. Situated in the heart of . - ^ e ^ x this beautiful and historic city. 20 minutes walk to the City Centre. We offer an extensive vegetarian/vegan menu. Refreshments in all rooms and en-suite facilities available. Non-smoking. Contact Hugh W ilson and Suzanne Allen on: Telephone: 0131 622 7634 E-mail:



Sedgwick, Kendal, Cumbria. L A 8 0 J P 2 Rooms. 4 miles south of KendaL South Lakes. Strictly n o smoking. Children very welcome. Good local \ralks & marvellous vegan food!



Plus £2.50 p+p


•0 •

Tel/Fax 01769 550339

Tel: 01643 862289


BLACKPOOL WILDLIFE HOTEL 100 % V e g a n Mostly Organic. No Smoking. Winner of the Innovation Award. Highly r e c o m m e n d e d ^ ^ — V "WAv not Paradise for vegans. ^ H bring

Phone 01637 852229for brochure or fax 01637 852227

For brochure telephone/fax Peter C h t z e - B r o w a 01326 280387

France £6.99

nr Lydford, Okehampton EX20 4AL

Tel/Fax 01822

Outdoor Pool. Entertainment. Close to beaches Vegan Owner Choices of Standard, Wg. Vegan at all meals.

LIZARD PENINSULA T H E C R O F T , Covcrack, Cornwall TR12 6TF O f f e r s magnificent sea views from all rooms. Terraced garden bordered b y S.W. Coastal Footpath, stream and cliff edge. Sandy Beach. Exclusively vegan/vegetarian & non-smoking. H o m e cooking, including the bread! T w i n en-suite accommodation. O S ref: S W 7 8 3 1 8 7


D E V O N (Lydford) S/C for N/S visitors at

V E G F A M ' s HQ. SAE t o 'The Sanctuary',

55 En suite Bedrooms

1 Vegetarian

L o n d on



SH ANKLIN ISLE OF WIGHT "BRAMBLES" VEGAN BED & B R E A K F A S T (All rooms en-suite) Non smoking (Dinner available on request) 5 minutes walk to sandy beaches & town John & Mary Anderson Tel ( 0 1 9 8 3 ) 8 6 2 5 0 7

COME TO CRUACHAN Vegan/vegetarian Argyll,


meals. G o o d




w a l k i n g base,


a n d hills, s t a n d i n g s t o n e s a n d o t h e r places o f interest. Special cookery breaks available t h r o u g h o u t the year i n c l u d i n g 'Vegan Versatility', I n d i a n , Italian, a n d h e r b weekends Tel: 01546



bed and breakfast - Minard,

E mail




Paskins Come and enjoy warm flair and style of true Tranquilly situated jus^ in the heart of one perfectly preserved cbnservatii Paskins evokes memories of gracious age. Vegans will particularly appreciate the varied and imaginative cuisine using organic and farm-fresh local produce.

Tel: 01273-601 203 Fax: 01273-621 97

WALES Fraser C o t t a g e B & B Bangor-on-Dee N o r t h Wales Borderlands




Exclusively vegetarian/vegan From £18 to £25 p.p/night Recommended by Which? Hotel and B&B Hay-on-wye 2 miles Black Mountains I mile Brecon Beacons 12 miles Tel: 01497 82000X


ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY B&B and RETREATS Magical Victorian country house, natural carpets and paints, vegan organic meals, overlooking stunning coastal conservation area. Easy for public transport. South West Wales. 01267 241999 PEMBROKESHIRE. A warm welcome & good food (exclusively Veg/Vegan) in modern bungalow. Close to Newgale beach. Coastal paths to explore. Green Haven B&B - Tel. 01437 710756




20 Ashley Rd, Boscombe, Bournemouth, Dorset Tel 01202-309869 email:


NORTH YORKSHIRE Comfortable, homely, exclusively vegetarian/vegan B&B from £16.50 p.p./p.n. at Prospect Cottage situated in Ingleton village. Wonderful walking country. Tel: 015242 41328



10^h Oft tor V»Qan or Vegotarlan Society m m H n Open 7 days - i i :joam -upm 64 High Street Quietly situated, Sui?ly°" overlooking the KT1 1HN River Tel: 020 8546 7992




GREEN/DIY FUNERALS Eco-friendly inexpensive coffins, memorial treeplanting. Please send £1 in unused stamps with A5 size 33p SAE to Box 328

SPIRITUAL VEGANISM - The miniate Belief -


- 0 Spiritual V e g a n s

by Linda Majztik

Kent House, Kent Place

Mezze and soups, main courses, grains, vegetables, salads, breads, desserts etc... £5.99 paperback

Lechlade, Glos. G L 7 3 A W

VEGETARIAN VISITOR 2003 Where to stay and eat for vegetarians and vegans in England, Wales and Scotland Fully revised. £2.50 paperback Available December

You are a Spiritual Vegan (as distinct from a dietary vegan) if you are a vegan whose one and only concern is for the animals, and you believe that these beautiful, intelligent, loving creatures, bred for an already overladen table, have the divine right to live.


POST F R E E from Jon Carpenter Publishing (VS), Direct Sales. 2 Home Farm Cottages, Sandy Lane, St Paul s Cray. Kent BRS 3HZ Tel/fax: 01689 870437

N e w cookbook VEGAN RUSTIC COOKING Wide variety of tasty, nutritious energising recipes. £6.99 incl P&P. Vegan-Organic Tnist (Charity) 10 Charter Rd.. Altrincham. Cheshire. WA15 9RL



- W e hand-craft our soaps using pure plant oils and extracts, carefully blended to create long-lasting bars with rich, gentle lather W e enhance our soaps with organic and biodynamic plant extracts creating beautiful natural colours and scents. Where possible we grow, harvest and process our own plant ingredients or harvest sustainably from the wild for details: Jonathan Code/Daniela Ubsdell ph/Fax 01453 766 931

TEMPEH KITS - it' so easy and cheap to make this PERFECT protein food for vegans at home. Kits comprise enough starter for 10.5kg finished tempeh PLUS a colour instruction/recipe book - £15. Call Polly at PHYTOFOODS -01547 510242

PYRENEES: Vegan B+B, dble room w/shower and organic brek: £27 for two. Contact: Sue or Trev, Le Guerrat, 09420 Rimont, France, Web:'.

WEST WALES, near beautiful coast and mountains. 'Quality with a conscience' Organic vegetarian/vegan B&B. Private, well equipped bedsitting room with riverside garden. N/S Tel. 01970832708 www.peace-meals. co. uk


Tel/fax: 01277 227138 Mobile: 07930 432035

SPAIN. Sunny Almeria house sleeps six. Pool. Holiday lets. Views, Birds. Walks, Beach 25 minutes. Car essential. English owners. 0034 950469304



Catering for all occasions and all diets. Prepared by Leith's and Cordon Ven trained chef. Vegan proprietors.

KERALA, SOUTH INDIA a vegan's paradise Tours, accommodation including selfcatering. Brochure: Tel: 01892 722440, Voice Mail/Fax: 01892 724913. E-mail:


The Old Post Office Llanigon, Hay-on-Wye ^U^J®


WEST CORK self catering apartments for singles, couples and families in peaceful wooded surroundings. Organic vegetables, bread & vegan wholefoods available. Reasonable rates. Green Lodge, Trawnamadree, Ballylickey, Bantry, Co Cork, Ireland. Tel. 003532766146 email web: or Text 353861955451




ANDALUCIA CASA. 'Monchito' Mountain village cottage to rent. Rustic with mod cons. Beautiful area, forests, rivers, views south to the Med and North Africa beyond; easy drive up the mountain from either Gibraltar or Malaga Also, limited number of space available for all-inclusive guided tour of the local area in vegetarian/vegan Hotel 'Monchito'. River swimming and spa bathing in the natural order of the day. Call Sally on 01843 852895

Town House

Vegan, Organic food en-suite shower rooms, non-smoking, ^ dogs welcome. ' T d / F a x : 01978 781068 E-mail:



VEGAN CATS! Animal-free supplement for home-made recipes. In use since 1986. SAE: Vegecat, The Vegan Society, Donald Watson House, 7 Battle Road, St-Leonards-on-Sea, East Sussex TN37 7AA, UK.



Box Numbers When replying to a box number address your envelope as follows:


Dolma offer an exclusive range of quality original Vegan perfumes, skin care and toiletries. Send S.A.E. for new catalogue or £15.95 for boxed set of ten trial size perfumes (includes 2 new fragrances). An ideal gift. Cheques/postal orders made payable to 'DOLMA' Special Xmas Offers available during November and December DOLMA 19 ROYCE AVENUE. HUCKNALL. NOTTING Website: Email:

Box no. The Vegan Society. Donald Watson House, 7 Battle Road, St Leonards-on-Sea, East Sussex, TN37 7AA


I37The Vegan

Winter 2002

wfiVH a m


PERSONAL Continued





The Vegan Society is a smal 1/medium-sized educalional charity promoting an animal-free diet — for the benefit of people, a n i m a l s

W. CORK, IRELAND. New detached house, 1 acre, sea views, roaring water bay, solar panel, two large bedrooms, 8 miles Bantry, 3 m la. Stg £112,000.

ind the e n v i r o n m e n t . CHIEF E X E C U T I V E We are inviting applications for the post of Chief Executive. For details write in c o r f i d e n c e to: T h e Vegan Society. PO B o x 2284, London W I A 5UH


OPPORTUNITIES ENFIELD. NORTH LONDON. Business partner s d venture.

FINANCE A N D A D M I N I S T R A T I O N OFFICER W e are seeking a n energetic,enthusiastic and responsible vegan to join our team in the administration a n d finance area to drive forward l i e development of o t r new accounting and database systems. Previous general ledger, bookkeeping and reconciliation experience is sought. Good keyboard skills are required. F o r further details, send fa- an application pack new.. Hours: 37 hours per week Salary range: £12,291 to £ 1 4 . 0 4 0 3 year renewable contract to b e confirmed on satisfactory completion of a a x m o n t h probationary period.


For an application pack send a la rge (C4) 1st c l a s s S A E marked 'Finance A p p l i c a t i o n " to: Personnel Dept., The Vegan Society, Donald W a t s o n H o u s e . 7 B attle R o a d . St Leonards-on-Sea. East S u s s e x . T N 3 7 7AA



A p p l i c a n t s m u s t b e a t least dietary vegans. Applicants must r e s i d e within reasonable travelling distance of the o f f i c e or b e prepared t o relocate to the Hastings area.

CONDITIONS OF ACCEPTANCE: Advertisements are accepted subject to their satisfying the condition that the products advertised are entirely free from ingredients derived from animals; that neither products nor ingredients have been tested on animals; and that the content of such ads does not promote, or appear to promote, the use of non-vegan commodities. Books, records, tapes, etc. mentioned in advertisements should not contain any material contrary to vegan principles. Advertisements may be accepted from catering establishments that are not run on exclusively vegan lines, provided that vegan meals are available and that the wording of such ads reflects this.

CLASSIFIED ORDER FORM (LINEACE) Please insert this a d in t h e next

issue/s of The Vegan under t h e heading.

4 9 14 19 24 29 34 39

3 8 13 18 23 28 33 43

2 7 12 17 22 27 32 37

1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Please tick as applicable: I

| Box number (add £2.40)


Copy of The Vegan in which my ad will appear (add £1.95)

The total payment due (see Rates and Conditions) is £ I :

11 enclose a cheque/PO payable to 'The Vegan Society' (Eire & overseas payment must be made by stedmg International Money Order or sterling cheque drawn on a Bnbsh bank) Please debit my Visa/Mastercard/Switch/Visa Delta/Connect card number*

Name on card Start date Q

Today's date •



Signature Q




Expiry date •

Switch issue no. •

Address Post code


Return to: Classified Advertising, The Vegan, Donald Watson House, 7 Battle Road, St Leonards-on-Sea, East Sussex TN37 7AA, UK Tel 01424 427393 Fax 01424 717064 * Minimum order value C3.00 Tliis form may be photocopied


The Vegan

Winter 2002

A selection from the Dr Hadwen Trust's VEGAN and CRUELTY-FREE luxury range.

Dr Hadwen Trust Humanity in Research

bout the Dr Hadwen Trust... T h e Dr H a d w e n Trust w o r k s to find a l t e r n a t i v e s to a n i m a l experiments.

Classic Gold (225g). An irresistible selection bringing together the most sumptuous in vegan chocolates. All your favourites centres are here for a mouth-meltingly delicious taste sensation. Handmade to perfection. GMO-free. £5.99.

In B r i t a i n a l o n e o v e r 2 1 / 2 m i l l i o n a n i m a l s a r e u s e d in experiments every year. T h e s e include cats, dogs, rabbits, m o n k e y s a n d m i c e .

Beauty Without Cruelty — their full range of vegan cosmetics: lipsticks, defining pencils, loose and pressed face powder, blusher, mascara, nail varnish, and more — phone or write for details. Shown above are lipstick clover peart (darker colour) and sweet apricot, both £3.95, and clear lipgloss, £2.95.

In c o n t r a s t o u r r e s e a r c h i n t o cancer, diabetes,


disease, dementia and other illnesses doesn't c a u s e a single a n i m a l to suffer. B y R o s e a n d Violet C r e m e s (160g). A top duo for the

chocolate connoisseur. Rich dark chocolate delicately veils the floral soft centres of rose and violet. Impossible to resist. GMO-free. Vegan. £4.89.

finding superior,


alternatives w e c a n


animals from experiments.

By making a purchase or simply sending a donation, Norfolk L a v e n d e r r i c h f o a m i n g bath e s s e n c e ,

300ml. For soft smooth skin and total luxurious relaxation. Prepared using oils of pure English Lavender and rich English Chamomile. Vegan and cruelty-free. £5.95.


y o u r s u p p o r t will c o n t r i b u t e directly to our w h o l l y p o s i t i v e work. Animal-free C h r i s t m a s p u d d i n g (375g). S c r u m m y

sultanas, currants, raisins, candied orange and lemon peel, spices... a family-sized pud that's vegan and absolutely delicious. Microwaves in just 3 mins. Only £3.49.

now on 01462



gmall selection 2




or send the coupon below to: Dr Hadwen Trust, FREEPOST SG335, Hitchin, SG5 2BR • P l e a s e send me information about the Dr Hadwen Trust. • I would like to order: Lipstick Clover Pearl (darker colour shown above) Sweet Apricot (Lighter colour shown above) Clear Lipgloss Norfolk Lavender Rich Foaming Bath Essence Classic Gold Vegan Assortment Rose and Violet Cremes Animal - Free Christmas Puddinq

I enclose a cheque/PO made out to "Dr Hadwen Trust" for


£3.95 £3.95 £2.95 £5.95 £5.99 £4.89 £3.49




Name Address

Donation for Postage I would like to make a donation to the Dr Hadwen Trust's non-animal research

Postcode . Thank you for your support.


Dr Hadwen Trust Trading Ltd (company number 3273710, VAT registration number 700484760) is wholly owned by the Dr Hadwen Trust for Humane Research (registered charity 261096), and trades only to raise funds for its parent charity's objectives.

7/ i


' 4



Send in a photocopy (or original) of the solution to this crossword, together with your name and address by the 16th January 2003. PRIZE: the lucky winner of the draw will be sent a voucher worth £20 to spend with Freerangers, makers of animal-free footwear.





Solution in the next issue. 10








16 17









Across 1 6




12 14 17



21 22 23 24

Treat rich mess (anag) (9,4) Gandhi's birthplace (5) Could be a chocolate one for Christmas (3) It's the animal one we respect! (7) Not the sort you serve with the peas! (5) Become aware of the Christmas weather? It's definitely negative! (6) Mix the Christmas nog and join most of the corolla (6) Associated with them (5) Not a vegan xmas snack! (3,4) Warming breakfast ingredient (3) The first 3 sips of a vegan xmas drink (3) Some of this decorating material can be vegan (5) Wheat (5) Make sure there's a vegan candle in it! (7)

Down 1


3 4 5 8 10 13 15 16 17 19

I 40

Not an acceptable alternative to 'celebration roast' (7) The royal kind isn't vegan (5) Are the women insane? (6) Nice on the Christmas pudding (4,5) White poisoning found on cereals etc (5) Sounds like drinking the beer will end very slowly with a vowel (5) Adorns the house or Christmas cake (9) The chickens lost their eggs! (5) Avoid these Christmas jellies with ....(7) To dominate or enslave, like farm animals in our society (6) Make sure it's not made of leather! (5) Accompanies the nut! (5)

The Vegan

Winter 2002

Solution to The Vegan Prize Crossword




B S E B B 6c| a| r | b| oH _Y D R| A|7T| e|'S aM M




'LulcrTio "b T E E B D B B E E B B B B B D B B B s 5 BiSHfl B Hi B B BiandBB H B O 83 E B B !




I I B 19


I d I E E P F A T F R Y] E R S

w w w f r e e r a n g e r s . c o uk

You don't have to compromise on comfort - t r y a pair of Freerangers and discover how wonderful animal f r e e can be. Every pair is hand made f r o m Lorica ^^^^ - a revolutionary synthetic material t h a t ' s breathable, durable ^ ^ ^ and supremely comfortable to wear You'll be refreshed to know ^ ^ that Freerangers o f f e r style, comfort and individuality unmatched by other vegan shoes Shown above is Trader, below is Lily- j u s t two of our new styles. Send for our N E W 2003 F R E E colour catalogue or see it online a t and discover the range we have created f o r your lifestyle ^^r


Kind to Animals. Kind to your feet.

All products registered by the Vegan Society

Call us for your Free brochure 01661 831 781 e-mail-, Or visit our web site: (Dept. VSM11) 9b Marquis Court, Low Prudhoc, Northumberland NE42 6PJ Tel.(01661) 831781 Fax: (01661) 8 3 0 3 1 7


^ ^ n e w s for turkeys.

M e a t Free Celebration Roast from Redwood. • Ready sliced Cheatin'® Turkey Style Roast • 4 Vegideli® Sausages wrapped in Vegetarian Rashers® • Mouth-watering turkey flavour gravy

theredwoodwholefoodcompany t:01536 400557 f:01536 408878

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The Vegan Winter 2002  

The magazine of The Vegan Society

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