Page 1

Party Cookless Cuisine • Aninials-in-Lavv • Inside Egypt • Shoparound

Editor: Richard Farhall Design and production by Up Studios Printed by Geerings of Ashford Ltd Text printed on 100% recycled paper, supplied by Paperback Ltd, London The Vegan is published quarterly by The Vegan Society Ltd Publication Date: March, June, September, December Copy Date: 1st of preceding month ISSN 0307-4811 © The Vegan Society Ltd

T h e Vegan Society The Vegan Society Ltd Registered Charity No. 279228 33-35 George Street Oxford OX1 2AY Tel. 0865 722166 President: Arthur Ling Deputy President: Vacant Vice-Presidents: Serena Coles Freya Dinshah Jay Dinshah Grace Smith Donald Watson Council:* Harold Atkinson Amy Austin Sandra Battram Terry Bevis Kaylie Day Vincent FitzGerald Adrian Ling Arthur Ling Tim Powell Ted Richardson Richard Savage (Chair) Hon. Treasurer: Vincent FitzGerald General Secretary: Richard Farhall Office Manager: Amanda Rofe Administrative Assistant: Jim Crawford Prison Liaison Officer: Sandra Battram * Louise Molyneux resigned 19.10.89


Information Veganism may be defined as a way of living which seeks to exclude, as far as possible and practical, all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, animals for food, clothing or any other purpose. In dietary terms, it refers to the practice of dispensing with alt animal produce — including meat, fish, poultry, eggs, (non-human) animal milks, honey, and their derivatives. The Vegan Ethic challenges all who preach compassion yet acquiesce in institutionalized animal abuse, especially the cruel practices inherent in dairy, livestock and poultry farming. Abhorrence of these practices is probably the single most common reason for the adoption of veganism, but many people are also drawn to it for health, ecological, spiritual and other reasons. The Vegan Society was formed in England in November 1944 by a group of vegetarians who had recognized and come to reject the ethical compromises implicit in lacto-(i.e. dairy-dependent) vegetarianism and consequently decided to renounce the use of all animal products. Since those early days it has grown considerably in both size and influence, reflecting the increasingly wide recognition of veganism's ethical, health, ecological and other advantages. The Society now has the status of an educational charity, whose aims include encouraging the development and use of alternatives to all commodities normally derived wholly or partly from animals. If you would like more information on veganism a free Vegan Information Pack is available from the Society's Oxford office in exchange for an SAE. If you are already a vegan or vegan sympathizer please support the Society and help increase its influence by joining. Increased membership means more resources to educate and inform. Full member-

ship is restricted to practising vegans, as defined above, but sympathizers are very welcome as associates of the Society. Both members and associates receive The Vegan free of charge. Vegan Society Publications The Society publishes a wide range of leaflets and lowpriced books and booklets of interest to the newcomer. See the section in the magazine entitled Publications and Promotional Goods. This Section also lists a number of works which although produced independently of the Society and not necessarily vegan in viewpoint are nevertheless felt to be useful and informative. Vegan magazines In addition to The Vegan — the official organ of the Society — the following independent publications may be of interest: Vegan Views 6 Hayes Avenue, Bournemouth BH7 7AD. An informal quarterly with articles, interviews, news, reviews, letters, cartoon strip. Subscription rate for four issues: £2.40 (Europe and surface mail overseas: £2.80). New Leaves 47 Highlands Road, Leatherhead, Surrey KT22 8NQ. Quarterly Journal of The Movement for Compassionate Living — The Vegan Way (see below). Annual subscription: £3.00. Cheques/POs payable to: 'Movement for Compassionate Living'. Y Figan Cymreig (The Welsh Vegan) Bi-lingual quarterly. Annual subscription: £1.25. The Vegan Community Project, an organization independent of the Vegan Society, exists to form a contact network between people who are interested in living in a vegan community and to establish one or more such communities. While some of its members seek merely to live close to other vegans, others wish to

establish a vegan land project or centre for the promotion of a vegan lifestyle. Newsletter subscription (4 issues): £2.00. Contact:

The Vegan Families Contact List provides a link between parents throughout the UK seeking to raise their children in accordance with vegan principles. To receive a copy of the list and have your name added to a future edition, please write in to the Oxford office — marking your envelope 'Vegan Families Contact List', enclosing an SAE, and giving your name, address and names and dates of birth of children. The Movement for Compassionate Living — The Vegan Way, an organization independent of the Vegan Society, seeks to spread compassionate understanding and to simplify lifestyles by promoting awareness of the connections between the way we live and the way others suffer, and between development, consumption and the destruction of the planet. Co-ordinators:

Veganism Abroad There are active vegan societies in Australia, the Netherlands, Sweden and the USA, as well as contacts in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, and New Zealand. The views expressed in The Vegan do not necessarily reflect those of the Editor or of the Vegan Society Council. Nothing printed should be construed as Vegan Society policy unless so stated. The Society accepts no liability for any matter in the magazine. The acceptance of advertisements does not imply endorsement. Contributions intended for publication are welcomed, but unsolicited materials will not be returned unless accompanied by an SAE. The Vegan, Winter 1989


1989 AGM Report Highlights



Cookless Cuisine Disconnecting the cooker


Young Vegans Go For It! 8 The column for under 14s s we go to press 1,566 farms, mainly in Wales and the south-west, have been identified as having used cattle feed (imported rice bran) c o n t a m i n a t e d with lead. Eighteen calves have succumbed to lead poisoning. The resulting Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) ban on sales of milk and beef from affected farms could lead to financial ruin for some as arguments over compensation continue. Ministry figures show that 31% of milk samples taken from 289 'contaminated' — aren't they all? — farms were below the lead 'trigger' level of 50 micrograms lead/litre. Apparently, people can drink such ' f o r t i f i e d ' milk for long periods without their health suffering. However, we can confidently conclude that the remaining 69% of the samples must be risky-very risky (a s o m e w h a t less vague description than that supplied by the Ministry). Given this, and the duff advice dished out by the Department of Health on killing off salmonella in eggs (see News), theoretically, the average milk-drinker and beef-eater should draw little comfort from officialdom's pronouncements. But we all know this is not the way it w o r k s — even though, like its predecessors, this latest (but by no means last) scare, will result


3 The Vegan, Winter 1989

in an i m m e d i a t e drop in demand. To us, the message consumers should be receiving is glaringly obvious: animal products can seriously damage your health; yet, people are so conditioned to seeing these products as essential food, that most seem quite happy to desert one evil for another, and/or resume consumption of the subject of a scare at a later date when media interest has taken its usual short-lived course. Unfortunately, independent thought has become a scarce commodity. Conditioning is a hard nut to c r a c k , but in the meantime some people will see a flicker of light and will begin to make connections. However, without a guide many will lose their way and will return to the security of that which is familiar. O r g a n i z a t i o n s — including the Vegan Society — can provide guidance but they can never become the guide: they are too remote. The guide must be in a position to fully understand the requirements of the awakening individual and meet those needs in the most appropriate way. It is up to all of us to communicate with those showing signs of realization and to offer our support and encouragement. The selfrighteous a m o n g us can help, by climbing an 'ivory' tower, and staying there. • Richard Farhall

Healing Options: 10 Acupuncture Alternative health care

Healthwise— Natural Remedies During a Vegan Pregnancy A Vegan in the Family Megan converts Santa!

An Invitation to a Festive Party 18 Seasonal nibbles with the 'Caring Cook' Retrospect A vegan pioneer looks back


Inside Egypt




Sounding Off Pregnarn

Attitudes and food

Animals-in-Law: 14 No Rights, No Status, No Limit A barrister's view









Publications & Promotional Goods




Cover illustration ('Hobbits') by Jacqueline East

News N e w Council The 1989/90 Council will be introducing itself in the Spring 1990 Vegan.

No-film Cameras As predicted in the Spring 1989 Vegan, gelatine-free photography is now a reality. The Canon Ion camera is in the shops for about £500. Instead of using film it uses a two-inch floppy disk similar to those used in computers. Immediately after pictures are taken, the camera is plugged into the ariel socket of a TV and the pictures appear on the screen. No processing is required and the 50-image capacity £5 floppies can be erased and re-used an almost indefinite number of times. Although not intended to produce prints, this is now possible using desktop publishing systems. Meanwhile, Toshiba and Fuji have joined forces to produce the IC Memory Card which uses a card containing 18 individual 1 -megabit chips. Its makers claim that the resulting pictures are superior to those produced by the Canon Ion. Retailing at around £2,000, the IC Memory Card will be available by Christmas. Daily Telegraph 29.9.89 New Scientist 11.11.89

S o b e r i n g Stats Realeat — purveyor of the ' Vegeburger' — is distributing credit certificates which become valid when a customer shares its product with a beefburger eater. The idea is to highlight the impact beefburger makers have on rainforests: "Up to 25 square feet of rainforest is destroyed to produce one 2 oz beefburger." Those burgers not containing rainforest-derived meat are, of course, bad news too: "Did you know that half of the European landmass is devoted to agriculture and 70 per cent of this is used to feed animals — not people?" The credit note concludes: " . . . the animal industry needs to be propped up with special laws and subsidies. These cost Europe over £50 billion each year." Here's Health 12.89 4

'Varmints' Australia has authorized the killing of 3.7 million of its 18 million kangaroos. Of 49 kangaroos species, eight are extinct or endangered; five are 'at risk'. Cattle ranchers see the 'varmints' as competition for scarce resources. Rabbits may be next on the hit list. An Australian virologist, Harvey Westbury wants to import and test a virus — viral tracheopneumonia — which has killed 32 million rabbits in Italy alone. It attacks the liver and spleen. The rabbits die quickly, but scream for about four hours before death. Animals' Agenda 10.89 New Scientist 16.9.89

'Green Meat' By now, the RSPCA's 'green meat' campaign should be in full swing. 'Green meat' is nothing to do with meat that has passed its 'sell-by' date — it's meat that has been "humanely reared and killed". The Society is setting up a labelling scheme for supermarkets, with a symbol, so that shoppers will know what happened to the meat before it reached the shelves. "While not wanting to put consumers off buying meat altogether the Society does want people to have a clear choice when it comes to buying a product, spokeswoman Helen Jessop said." Essentials 11.89 Meat Trades Journal 12.10.89

Successful Shops Hot on the heels of cruelty-free — i.e. totally vegan — shops Time for Change (Southsea, Hants) and Whole in the Wall (North Wales) comes the Radical Carrot (53 The Tything, Worcester). The premises are in two parts — food store and campaign shop (stocking charity merchandise). Opening hours are: Mon—Fri., 9.00-6.00; Sat., 9.00-2.00. All three shops report increasing sales; all having to identify more space! Whole in the Wall is about to go a step further by moving to bigger premises at: 23 Wellfield Court, Bangor, Gwynedd. Tel. 0248 364518 (effective 1.1.90).

Bugs Live On For months, the goverment has been advising people to cook

eggs well to kill any of those nasty salmonella bugs that seem to crop up so often. However, scientists from Exeter, Poole, Sheffield and London have demonstrated that the bacteria, which are present in the yolk of eggs, are able to survive cooking. The yolk of boiled eggs, or eggs fined yolkup, fails to reach 80 °C, the temperature that kills salmonella. New Scientist 23.9.89

Celebrations Next year Plamil Foods celebrates its Silver Jubilee by virtue of having started trading in 1965 when it pioneered a British-made soya milk. The company would appreciate suggestions as to the form celebrations could take throughout 1990. One idea, which could be enlarged upon, is a competition for children. Write to: Plamil Foods Ltd, Bowles Well Gardens, Folkestone, Kent CT19 6PQ.

Dietary Scale Following a visit to the Home Office by Prison Liaison Officer, Sandra Battram, the Vegan Society-pioneered Vegan Dietary Scale has been made available to all inmates via prison libraries. Previously, prisoners were denied sight of a copy. 'Prison Eye' returns in the Spring 1990 Vegan .

Fur Shocker Why not copy the section below and hand it to any furclad humanoids daring to walk the streets this winter? Perhaps someone could produce something similar for leather jacket and woolly jumper wearers? ONE AVERAGE FUR COAT = 130 - 200 chinchillas 1 6 - 2 0 beavers 10 - 24 foxes 100 - 400 squirrels 6 - 8 foals 1 2 0 - 1 6 0 hamsters 20 - 30 domestic cats 20 - 30 raccoons International Society for Animal Rights Report 6.89

BSE & BST Update Scientists, doctors and consumer groups have warned that 'mad cow' disease or bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) (see The Vegan, Spring

'89) could spread to pigs. BSE appeared in cattle in 1986 after they were fed sheep protein [rendered carcass] infected with scrapie, a disease found only in sheep. Although the practice of feeding sheep protein to cows was banned last year, pigs and chickens are still given it. The European Commission has banned the use of bovine somatotropin (BST) — a milkboosting hormone that has found its way into milk supplies — for 18 months, despite claims by its manufacturers, Eli Lilly and Monsanto, that it harms neither cows nor milkdrinkers. If it is so harmless one wonders why MAFF suppressed the views of its advisory veterinary products committee. Guardian 8.8.89 New Scientist 23.9.89 Observer 17.9.89

Meaty Decline A report suggesting more people are reducing their meat consumption and that vegetarianism will increase from 3% to 6% has been "misinterpreted", so ruleth the Meat and Livestock Commission (MLC). The Leatherhead Food Research Association found that 48% of Britain's adult population is avoiding meat to a greater or lesser extent and the level of vegetarians remains unchanged at 3%; a further 2% avoid all meat except fish [living proof that fish-consumption does not enhance intellectual capability]. MLC marketing director Gary Dobbin complained: "There is no mention of the number of lapsed vegetarians who, for all sorts of reasons, start to eat meat again." Meat Trades Journal 2.11.89

Fun Run Congrats to the vegan and vegetarian runners who all put in commendable performances in the 1989 Sunday Times National Fun Run held in Hyde Park on 24 September. The all-vegan 'Runner Beans' came first in the 'Other Clubs' category and a very impressive 66th out of 1,284 teams. Well-known vegan runner Katie Fitzgibbon successfully fended off 373 other competitors, winning her category (Women 27-29yrs, 4km) in a time of 14.08. Other 'individual' vegans earning Gold certifiThe Vegan, Winter 1989

cates were: John Chambers (1989 Plamil Half-Marathon winner), Bill Fraser, Roger Grimshaw, Clare Hobsley, Sophia Howard, Sylvia Howard, Gill Langley and Peter Whittaker.

Ostersoy From December/January Farley's Ostersoy will be avaiable in 450g tins marked 'suitable for vegans'. The ready-tofeed Ostersoy (available in hospitals) is not yet vegan; the animal derived D3 should be relaced within the next few months.

the alpaca and guanaco (close relations of the llama and definitely not native to Britain) in the Welsh hillsides. Scientists at the Welsh Plant Breeding Station, Aberystwyth, Dyfed and the Institute of Zoology at Regent's Park, London, are carrying out a £150,000 three-year research project to assess their potential for specialist fibre [wool] production in British conditions. Sheep farmers are looking for new sources of income to replace dwindling EEC subsidies. Is there no end to this insanity? Farmers Weekly 6.10.89 & 13.10.89 The Times 1.11.89

Snippets The Society cannot afford to subscribe to a newscutting service and so would greatly appreciate members, associates and supporters sending in any veganrelated articles from newspapers and magazines. Please do not forget to identify the source of the cutting and the date of its publication.

In Brief The Whole Hog Britain's gourmets may soon have the opportunity to stuff themselves with wild boar hamburgers. The Wild Boar Association (WBA) has been formed to represent the aspirations of an increasing number of ex-pig farmers and 'enthusiasts', all hoping to cash in on a new "luxury market". Of course wild boar are not new to Britain — they used to roam the forests, until they were hunted to extinction. True wild boars are rare and so Britain's pioneer farmers have had to buy from zoos. Crossbreeds are more readily available and, as the WBA has elected as its Chair Dr Derek Booth, an animal geneticist who — surprise, surprise — works at a " . . . Babraham research institute near Cambridge," are likely to become the subject of further genetic tampering. On a similar theme, a welcome could soon be awaiting 5 The Vegan, Winter 1989

• A survey published by Barclays Bank shows that young people bom in the 1970s are most concerned about cruelty to animals, pollution and racial discrimination. On average, 60% of a poll of 20,000 young people aged 11 to 19 said they cared greatly about cruelty to animals. The Times 6.11.89 • Muc — sorry, McDonald's recently opened its 10,000th restaurant in Dale City, Virginia, the good ol' US of A. During the last 10 years McDonald's has opened an eating hole every 17 hours. Since Ray Kroc opened the first in Des Plaines, Illinois, in 1955, McDonald's has dished up more than 65 million hamburgers. If laid end to end, these would stretch from the earth to the moon and back 16 times. Tricorn Journal Aut '89 • According to the RSPCA more than 60,000 farm animals died in fires in 1986. Intensively farmed birds accounted for 92% of all

deaths. In one fire 24,000 ducks died. The RSPCA report blames misued and faulty electrical equipment, gas heaters and arson. Farmers Weekly 20.10.89 • 50,000 male goat kids are slaughtered at birth every year in the UK because humans want to drink their mother's milk and goat meat is unpopular. Agscene 8/9.89 • A survey conducted by the Institute of Food Research in Bristol has found that nearly a third of battery hens in Britain have broken bones before they are slaughtered. Several thousand battery, perchery and freerange laying hens were assessed. Free-range enthusiasts should note that 14% of the free-range birds in the study had freshly broken bones just prior to slaughter. Guardian 4.10.89

Infectious Bursal Disease, an AIDS-like virus which has killed millions of hens throughout the summer. Independent 7.11.89

• The SEC Meat Company, which recently finalized plans for a £20 million abattoir and meat processing plant in Scotland — capable of butchering 3,000 lambs a day— has gone into liquidation. Meat Trades Journal 5.10.89 • After five months' deliberation the EEC Commission has decided that snails should be categorized as fish, not meat. The Euro-MP who posed the question is unsure why he asked it. Daily Telegraph 8.11.89 • The Pig Improvement Company, Oxford has won a £2.16 million contract to supply 2,160 'geneticallyimproved' breeding pigs from Scotland to the Ukraine in the first deal of its kind negotiated with the Soviet Union. • George Melland, a Dartmoor The Times 1.11.89 hill farmer who represents south-west England on the • In order to " . . . describe more Wool Board and is chairman of \ accurately what its members Devon National Farmers do," the Association of British Union's livestock committee Abattoir Owners (ABAO) has was fined £3,500 after an changed its name to the RSPCA inspector found his Association of British Meat Processors (AMBP). sheep in gale force winds and Meat Trades Journal 26.10.89 torrential rain without grazing or supplementary feed. Some were dead; others were stuck in hedgerows. A MAFF vet disFEED THE WORLD covered six recently born lamb carcasses. Forget the record Farmers Weekly 22.9.89 — go vegan • A recent British import is HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH

ETHICAL INVESTMENT LANDMARK • Consideration is being given to the acquisition of permanent premises for the Society's offices. • This would be more sensible than paying rent and a service charge currently amounting to £7,000 per annum. • The Society needs to raise approximately £60,000 to acquire freehold premises. • The most practicable way of achieving this objective is by the issue of debentures — secured loans bearing interest until repaid. • It is envisaged that investment would be in units of £200. Please indicate your interest by completing the form below. Ethical Investment Landmark I/We am/are interested in applying for £ debentures in the Vegan Society for the specific purpose of acquiring freehold premises. Name (Please print) Address

. Postcode. Date


Return to: The General Secretary, Vegan Society Ltd., 33-35 George Street, Oxford OX1 2AY

Raw food enthusiast Karen Noble in\ ites us to disconnect the cooker and get back to our "live roots"

Although a living food is a raw nut, seed, fruit, vegetable or sprout, the major reason we call it 'living food' is due to the growing, germinating seeds that are ten times more nourishing than even the best vegetables. Food that is 'living' . . . tends to prevent health problems, aids in the body's natural healing processes; promotes mental clarity, balanced body weight, and extends the span of life to its full potential. The Eden Foundation


h a v e been a raw food eater for 5 years. I suppose in my long odyssey from meat cuisine to vegan through macrobiotic cuisine the idea of 'no cuisine' was inevitable; but I guess I got my inspiration from Lesley Kenton's Raw Energy. She writes well, and the promise of long life, prolonged youth and freed o m f r o m l i f e ' s ills was e n o u g h to launch me into her 75% raw diet. I ate vegeburgers 'n' salad, pitta ' n ' salad, tofu ' n ' salad — until I got into Victoras Kulvinska's wonderful 6

Survival into the 21st Century, which outlines the philosophy and metaphysics of the 100% raw diet: "Cooked food is totally lacking in enzymes; most of the protein has been destroyed or converted to new f o r m s which is either not digestible by body enzymes or digested with difficulty; many of the vitamins have lost their vitality. To purchase organic food and then to waste precious hours in destroying the nutrients is poor economy and unsound ecology." I invented dips to get the salads and crudit6s down me and must have consumed every permutation of avocado, guacamole and gaspachio — and loads of fruit. I lost weight, felt high, slept like a log and felt my breathing improve. The peristaltic motion which we normally associate only with swallowing came into its own as a total body reflex. Evacuating became a simple, smooth and rapid 'motion'!

Missing Link Last year I found the 'missing link': the theory and practice of 'Instinctotherapy'.

W e have been on this planet for millions of years and our genetic code, which has altered minimally over all this t i m e , is not adapted t o t h e relatively n e w practice of cooking, which is only 40,000 years old Its founder, Guy Claude Burger, claims that cooking is a pathology and that we must re-orientate our medical theories accordingly. We have been on this planet for millions of years and our genetic code, which has altered minimally over all this time, is not adapted to the relatively new practice of cooking, which is only 40,000 years old. He recommends that we sniff all our food in order to reactivate our gastro-olfactory sense and our senses will select what is appropriate for our nutritional requirements. Cooking changes the molecular structure of food; thus, our body sees cooked food as an invasion and, through the process of leucocytosis, (white blood cell mobilization) digests it with enormous stress on the immune system. With the The Vegan, Winter 1989

ingestion of at least 80% raw food this reaction does not occur.

Con When we cook our potato, pasta, rice etc. we have to season it in order to make it palatable! This artificial season-

ing 'cons' our senses. Cooking really is a black out. At a time when we should be considering our energy use, careful minimalization of our cooking would really liberate us. Society should abandon its silly rituals of destroying, processing and then tarting up dead flesh and vegetables.

With a system of veganic agriculture and hunter-gathering of raw f o o d we would be healthier, happier and more in t o u c h with our ' l i v e roots'.

GETTING STARTED Changing your diet from cooked to raw is quite an exciting challenge. Remember, you are coming off an extremely addictive habit of eating denatured, highly seasoned food. Fruits, nuts, vegetables and fungi had a more distinctive flavour before humans modified them by hybridization — and now genetic engineering. Our body-mind complex, though its been fed cooked food since childhood, still harks back through the millennia to those constituents of a stone age diet.

In the Swing

Growing Greens

Once you've got into the swing of eating raw you'll want to be crunching all the time. An average 'raw' day could start with fruit juice, then an early lunch of as much fruit (fresh and dried) and nuts as you can eat, and later a salad with sprouted seeds and beans. Sprouted seeds and beans are easily grown in jars and sprouters and, rinsed daily, are the most nutritious fresh food available. Lentils, wheat and mung can be grown on an earth tray to produce baby greens. Avocadoes can be whipped with oil, lemon, tomatoes and garlic into guacomole. With a blender you can turn almost anything into a dip — carrots, tomatoes, mushrooms, beetroot, green peas . . . Tofu and soya milk make good bulk for dips and dressings but they are cooked. I have tried various recipes for essene or sprouted bread, grinding the sprouts into a sort of a chapatti. However, even during this year's hot summer they failed to 'cook' on exposure to the sun. Muesli is much hailed as a raw food breakfast; you can make wonderful concoctions with nuts, bananas, raisins etc. (Warning: oats are steamed to preserve them.) Leslie Kenton has some nice recipes for seed/nut 'cheese' — Grind nuts/seeds with water, garlic seasoning and herbs; and also raw pie crusts — Grind dates, almonds and oats, moisten, press into a pie dish and fill with pureed fruit and banana (a vegan gelling agent helps keep it intact). The secret of raw food eating is to listen to your body. • Karen Noble

Chlorophyll cleanses, heals and builds the body cells. It removes anaemic conditions very quickly, reduces blood pressure and aids heart action. It frees clogged arteries, smoothes out arthritic conditions and improves peristalsis (muscular contractions which move food through the digestive tract). The Eden Foundation

Sprouting One handful of seeds, pulses or grains provides approximately eight handfuls of sprouts. They are easy to produce and provide a concentrated yet balanced range of nutrients in an easily assimilable form. Popular candidates for sprouting include sunflower, buckwheat, wheat, watercress, sesame, rye, radish, oats (whole), mustard, mung, millet (unhulled), lentil, fenugreek, chick pea, almond, alfalfa and adzuki. Commercial sprouters are increasingly available but a glass jar suffices: 1. Soak the seeds, pulses or grain in filtered or spring water for 8-10 hours (24 for chick peas and soya beans). Change the water frequently to prevent fermentation. 2. Pour off the water and rinse the seeds thoroughly in running water. 3. Place in a clear jar and cover with muslin. 4. Lay the jar on its side in a dark, warm cupboard. Rinse the growing sprouts morning and night. 5. After 3—4 days the sprouts will be ready. Expose the jar to sunlight on the last day to allow the chlorophyll ('life juice') to develop. 6. Store in an airtight container. Rinse before eating. 7 The Vegan, Winter 1989

Baby greens — notably wheatgrass, buckwheat and sunflower — are one of the best sources of chlorophyll. 1. Soak the seeds overnight in tepid water. Rinse thoroughly and sprout for 24 hours. 2. Fill a tray with 2.5cm potting-type compost or a half compost/earth mix. Wet soil with a hand sprayer until damp. 3. Place the seeds side-by-side on the soil and spray with a little water. 4. Place in a plastic bag with holes for ventilation. Keep in a warm place for 3 days. Spray every morning. 5. Remove from the plastic bag and place on a window sill. Spray daily. 6. Harvest after 7 days or when the grass has reached 135-300cm. Cut and sprinkle on salads or chew, swallowing the juice and spitting out the pulp.

Contacts • The Eden Foundation, 5 Baden House, Great Bedford Street, Lansdown, Bath BA1 2UA (vegan). • Hippocrates Health Institute, 1443 Palmdale Court, West Palm Beach, Florida 33411, USA (vegan). • International Biogenic Society, Box 205, Matsqui, Canada VOX 150 (vegetarian).

Books • Love Your Body — Live Food Recipes, Victoras Kulvinskas, Hippocrates Press (US). • Raw Energy , Lesley Kenton, Thorsons. • Raw Energy Recipes, L & S. Kenton, Thorsons. • Raw Foodist Propaganda, Joe Alexander, Pelican Pond Publishing (US). • Recipes for Longer Life, Anne Wigmore, Avery Publishing Group (US). • Rejuvenation, Stephen Blauer, Green Grass Publications (US) • Survival into the 21st Century, Victoras Kulvinskas, Hippocrates Press (US). • The Complete Sprouting Boole, Per and Gita Sellman, Turnstone Press

People breed them, sell them and make a lot of money out of them. Animals are bred in their thousands — many with deformities which breeders say make them look better. However, it isn't always the fault of the professional breeders. Nearly everyone allows animals to multiply. You probably know someone who has let their dog or cat have puppies



h a t i s a p e t ? A p e t is a n a n i m a l k e p t for p l e a s u r e o r c o m p a n i o n s h i p . T h e y c o m e in all m a n n e r of s h a p e s a n d sizes. You are p r o b a b l y f a m i l i a r with the c o m m o n ones — cats, dogs, g o l d f i s h , budgies, hamsters, gerbils, rabbits, g u i n e a p i g s a n d s o o n — b u t t h e r e a r e also exotic p e t s s u c h as snakes, parrots, terrapins and small species of monkey.

Raw Deal It may be fun owning pets but we d o n ' t h a v e any way of knowing what they think about the a r r a n g e m e n t ! The very word ' p e t ' implies property rather than living, feeling creatures capable of experiencing pain and suffering. Pets have to do what they are told, eat and drink when they are told, play when they are told and some are even trained to go to the toilet when and where they are told — e.g. dogs and to a lesser extent, cats — because it is convenient for us.

Prisoners It may seem like an odd idea to consider pets as prisoners but many are just that. Think of those fully grown rabbits squashed into tiny hutches. Many pet owners condemn battery hen farming because of the cramped, inhumane conditions yet quite often their pets are no better off! Many budgerigars are so accustomed to their cages that they w o u l d n ' t fly lUustr. J. Breese 8

off even if you left the cage door open. Most have only ever flown around the sitting room or lounge anyway. Many pets are captured in the wild to be sold in pet shops. Exotic birds are one such example. Some are taken as fledglings from their nests in tropical rainforests and shipped to the UK to be sold in tiny cages. Pet

shop owners think this is ethical because these birds 'know no different'. However, it doesn't alter the fact that they retain natural instincts which make them want to fly around and hunt for food.

excuses just wanted her to have one litter of kittens/puppies because I think it will make her healthier". It doesn't seem to matter to them that thousands of pets are being destroyed each week because they are unwanted and thousands more are living a cold and hungry existence on the streets.

Population Explosion

Pets and People

Pets are now a huge industry.

Many parents and guardians think that children should have a pet because it will make them kinder and more caring but there is no evidence to show this is so. Schools also keep pets for children but the conditions often leave a lot to be desired. The animals — usually mice, rabbits, hamsters and gerbils — are kept caged most of the time and the standard of care and handling varies enormously. Everyone wants to hold the animal, stroke it, feed it and take it home. Not everyone is, however, as considerate as they should be. Some children are very rough with small animals and unless properly supervised can frighten or injure them. During school holidays a family with no experience of handling or caring for animals may have the responsibility of caring for a school pet — The Vegan, Winter 1989

sometimes with dreadful consequences. If the animals are left at the school during the weekends or holidays they are vulnerable to attack by hooligans. There are many cases of pets being stolen or brutally killed by school intruders.

Petfood Others who make money out of pets are those in the petfood industry. Large numbers of farm animals are slaughtered every week to feed Fido and Tibbies. In the old days people used to feed their pets scraps from the dinner table. Nowadays there are all manner of tins and packets to buy, some containing the most obnoxious ingredients. Most dogs and cats are fed on meat although we are happy to say there are alternatives — Happidog and Vegecat (both advertised in this issue of The Vegan ) are two popular vegan alternatives. It is a sad state of affairs that we allow farm animals to be bred and killed to feed animals we keep purely for our own pleasure and amusement.

points below should give some general guidance. • Always obtain animals from animal sanctuaries, rescue groups or the RSPCA (the RSPCA usually destroys the unwanted animals it cannot home). Be prepared to sign an adoption form and pay a small fee for the animal. • Never buy an animal from a breeder or a pet shop. Both make money out of breeding more and more animals. • Never allow any animal to breed. Always have dogs and cats spayed or neutered by a qualified veterinary surgeon. • Never take in a 'caged' animal unless it can be provided with the companionship of other animals, a large housing area and a long 'run'. • Always provide proper care and attention. For example, don't overfeed animals or leave them for long periods of time without food or water and never let animals roam about on their own unsupervised as they could injure themselves or stray and get lost. • Never make animals do tricks and don't handle animals unnecessarily or roughly.

Above all, people should think about the animals they care for as individuals and not just property — or pets!

Competition Results Thanks to all of you who entered our competition to write an essay on Why People Should Become Vegan . The winners are as follows: 1st Prize (a selection of Plamil chocolate bars ) — Sheena Lyn Rowley aged 10, from Ettiley Heath, Cheshire. 2nd Prize (Cookery book and pen ) — Corinna Domegan aged 11, from Ballylickey, Ireland. Joint 3rd Prizes (Cookery book and pen) — Jonathan Risley, aged 13, from Tonbridge, Kent; Jacqueline Rowley aged 8, from Ettiley Heath, Cheshire; and Paula Rowley aged 8, also from Ettiley Heath, Cheshire. Unfortunately, there isn't enough space to print all the winning entries, so here is the entry submitted by the overall winner — Sheena Lyn Rowley. . Amanda Rofe

Stop Pet Keeping and Start Caring If you know someone who is thinking of having a pet (as opposed to a 'rescued' animal), why not suggest they do one of the following things instead? • Create a wildlife habitat in their garden so they can see animals where they really belong — in the wild. They could make bird boxes, bat boxes, bird baths and ponds. Details: The Urban Wildlife Group, 11 Albert Street, Birmingham B4 7UA. 021 666 7474. • Visit conservation centres (not zoos or safari parks!) • Sponsor an already abandoned animal at an animal sanctuary or an injured animal at a wildlife hospital (see Yellow Pages) or contact: The Little Animal Rescue Centre, 'Homemead', Birmingham Road, Blackminster, Nr Evesham, Worcs WR11 5TD. who run a sponsorship scheme. • Raise money for local animal sanctuaries or wildlife hospitals or give them voluntary help (again see Yellow Pages ). If you know anyone thinking of homing an animal the 9 The Vegan, Winter 1989

QUICK NUT ROAST 8 oz mixed nuts, finely chopped OF ground 2 oz wholemeal bread, crumbled 1 medium onion, chopped 1 medium carrot, grated 2 oz soya flour 1 large teaspoon yeast extract mixed in a little hot water Mix all the ingredients together and place in a greased baking tin. Bake for 30 minutes at 400 °F/200 °C (Gas Mark 6). Serve with hot vegetables such as carrots, brussel sprouts, roast potatoes and roast parsnips.

Why People Should Become Vegan by Sheena Lyn Rowley, age 10 At times, persuading people to become vegan can be very difficult. Even though there are many good reasons to choose this way of life. Perhaps the most important reason for many people is that every animal has a right to live on Earth without being exploited by humans. Man has no right to use animals for experimentation, so called 'sport', or food. In the laboratories, experimentation serves no purpose at all — except to increase the profits of the manufacturers. For many people, avoiding eating animal products and byproducts is essential if we are to help the starving people in the Third World countries. At first this reason may seem a little too far fetched to the nonvegan but does make sense, as I will now explain. In rich countries such as ours we use an enormous amount of land to graze animals which will eventually become food for people in that country. The land which the animals graze on could be of much better use as it is a fact that a few animals grazing on 'farm' land is wasteful. Instead, this land could be of greater use by growing crops, rice and beans, and harvesting huge amounts of grain. If this were done, there would be enough food for all the poor countries in the Third World. Another very important reason for veganism is our health. Animals have chemicals inside them to make them grow quicker or to make their skins a certain colour. These awful ingredients enter human bodies if we eat dead animals. No-one knows what these chemicals can do to our bodies but one thing is certain — they don't do any good to us. Compassion is our final argument. Think of the poor cow who has her baby taken away so that humans can steal her milk. Think of the sheep stripped of their wool only to lavish the ignorant, and what about the thousands of rabbits and other animals forced to smoke in laboratories, or are implanted with cancers or are simply shot with a gun to see what the damage will be? Veganism is the only way.

Healing Options

blood pressure; a dominance of yin might be experienced as dull aches or pains, chilliness, fluid retention, discharges and fatigue.











western word meaning 'needle piercing', a c u p u n c t u r e is an ancient Chinese medical system, principally involving (in the west) the use of fine needles at specific points on the b o d y s u r f a c e to r e s t o r e or maintain health. It has enjoyed i n c r e a s i n g popularity in the western world during the last t h r e e d e c a d e s h a v i n g been revived and developed to treat a wide range of disorders.

Origins A c u p u n c t u r e has been practised in China for several thousand y e a r s . It is believed to have originated with massage of tender points on the body to relieve remote disorders — leading to the evolution of the t h e o r y of ' c h a n n e l s ' (see b e l o w ) . Later, crude needles m a d e of b a m b o o and stone were used. Gold and silver need l e s h a v e b e e n found in the tombs of ancient emperors.

The Theory T r a d i t i o n a l a c u p u n c t u r e is based on the principle that our health is dependent on the bal10

anced function of the body's motivating energy, known as Chi. Chi flows throughout the body but is concentrated in c h a n n e l s beneath the skin, known as meridians. There are twelve pairs of meridians, connected by deeper pathways with twelve organs or functions, and a further two single meridians passing up the front and back of the body. The points by which the acupuncturist regulates energy flow lie along these channels. There are over 600 points on the main channels.

Object T h e a i m of treatment is to restore the harmony between the equal and opposite qualities of chi — the yin and the yang. Yang e n e r g y represents the aggressive principle — light, heat, dryness; whereas yin is characterized by receptivity, tranquility, darkness, coldness, mositure and swelling. In their literal sense the terms mean the s u n n y and shady side of a mountain. Excess yang manifests itself as acute pain, inflammation, s p a s m s , h e a d a c h e and high

Acupuncture needles are now made of stainless steel and are so fine that only a slight tingle ('needle sensation') may be experienced. They are either inserted and withdrawn immediately or are left in for 20-30 minutes, during which time a heaviness of limbs and feeling of relaxation may be experienced. Moxa may be used. This is a dried herb which is burned in small cones on, or near the point, to generate a gentle heat in a process known as moxibustion. Other methods of treating acupuncture points include massage and tapping or pressure with a rounded probe. These techniques are particularly sutitable for children or those with a fear of needles! Two modern methods which may be employed are electroacupuncture and laser treatment, in which the acupuncture points are stimulated by a lowfrequency electrical current or firifely tuned laser beams. Practitioners try to diagnose the nature of the disharmony in the body by questioning and observation. Analysis of the state of the pulse figures prominently.

Inexplicable? Scientific attempts to interpret acupuncture have been frustrated by the absence of any physical basis for the all-important network of meridians: they do not correspond to the nervous or any other physiological system. One of the most interesting discoveries in recent times is that the stimulation of acupuncture points induces the release of morphine-like substances by the brain. These 'endorphins' have pain-relieving properties which explain why acupuncture has been used successfully in surgical operations. However, it is still not understood why treating different combinations of points benefits different ailments. Wide-ranging though acupuncture may be in its ability to treat disease, leading exponent Dr Felix Mann main-

tains that it is "mainly suitable for diseases which are physiologically reversible, i.e. it may cure asthma; it may help (but not cure) the early stages of chronic bronchitis; whlist the later stages of chronic bronchitis, bronchietasis or emphysema are not helped except in so far as they have an element of spasm".

Practitioners Anyone may use the title 'acupuncturist' whether or not s/he has been trained. The only way of being sure that a practitioner is fully trained in the theory and practice of acupuncture is to consult one who belongs to an association affiliated to the Council of Acupuncture. It should be borne in mind that there are various types of acupuncture and even the techniques of practitioners in the same school vary. Members of the British Acupuncture Association and Register (B.A.A.R) have to use needle sterilization techniques approved by the Department of Health. B.A.A.R states: "These are considered to be completely effective against the hepatitis and AIDS viruses." Many practitioners use disposable needles. . Richard Farhall Further Information Send £2.00 plus a 9"x6" SAE to: • The Register of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 13 Elizabeth Terrace. Eltham. London SE9 5DR.

Further Reading • Acupuncture, M. Nightingale, Optima, £3.95 • Acupuncture: A Patient's Guide, P. Marcus, Thorsons, £2.99 • Acupuncture Energy, H. Wollerton & C.J. Maclean, Thorsons, £3.90 • Acupuncture Treatment of Pain, L. Chaitow, Thorsons, £7.99

Practitioners For a list send £1.50 to: • The British Acupuncture Association and Register Handbook, 34 Alderney Street, London SW1V 4EW or • The Traditional Acupuncture Society, Dept. HH. No.l The Ridgeway, Stratford-upon-Avon, Works. CV37 9JL.

The Vegan, Winter 1989



he vegan mother-to-be will wish to maintain her chosen lifestyle whilst ensuring that both she and her unborn child enjoy the best of health during her pregnancy. Diet plays an important part, of course, and it is important to eat well across a wide range of foodstuffs, in order in to achieve a proper balance. But even the most scrupulously healthy diet cannot prevent common problems occuring during pregnancy. The vegan lifestyle encourages the most natural remedies to alleviate many of these problems. These combine a mixture of common sense and some simple, often traditional, herbal remedies.

Morning Sickness The is no one set pattern in the way morning sickness can strike. It can occur at different points during the day, to varying degrees, and for differing periods of time. Some women are fortunate enough to experience only mild nausea in the mornings during their early months; others experience extreme sickness for virtually their entire pregnancy. Simple strategies include: a slow start in the morning, preferably preceded by a light warm drink and a nibble on a dry piece of toast or biscuit; eating little and often; avoiding rich, spicy foods; plenty of fluids, (but not with meals) sipped slowly. Ginger tea (2 tablespoons of fresh, grated ginger simmered in 4 cups of water for 20 minutes), raspberry leaf or peppermint tea (1 teaspoon of either, steeped in one cup of boiling water for 5 minutes) sipped in the morning or when feeling sick, can be helpful.

the stomach, chest, mouth or throat. Preventative measures include avoiding rich foods; eating small light meals regularly; bending from the knees rather than the waist; sleeping with extra pillows. Soya yoghurt [see 'Dairy Dodging', The Vegan , Summer 1989] can be very soothing. Peppermint tea (above) can also provide some relief.

Faintness This often occurs during the early weeks of pregnancy. Preventative measures include keeping cool, wearing loose clothing, avoiding standing for long periods of time, and steering clear of stuffy, crowded places. Rushing about is not a good idea either. If overcome by faintness, then sitting down (using the floor if necessary) preferably near some fresh air, with the head lowered, should help.

months when there can be considerable discomfort. There are some useful precautions that can be taken, although the best caution in the world may not totally prevent backache. Every possible strain should b e a v o i d e d Bending properly — from the kness — is vital. So too is supporting the lower back with cushions when sitting down. Every possible strain should be avoided. It is amazing how many household chores can be done sitting down. Ante-natal classes teach a woman how to position herself. Standing straight against a wall can give tremendous relief. Massage can help too, especially if given by a sympathetic partner. Aromatic baths may only soothe for a brief period, but they do give a nice lift.

Leg Trouble Aching legs and varicose veins are common. If they become severe, or there is considerable swelling, then a doctor should be consulted. Remedies include sitting with the legs raised; moving and walking around regularly; taking gentle exer-

Backache This can occur during several stages of pregnancy, but tends to be worse during the later

Heartburn This is the burning sensation in The Vegan, Winter 1989

lUustr. J. Breese

cises — e.g. a short walk. Tired feet can be soothed by soaking in a bowl of warm water to which has been added 2 cups of water (previously boiled) with a couple of handfuls of comfrey leaves. Strain the liquid before adding to the bowl of water. Flexing the foot can help with leg cramps. Avoid sitting for too long in one position too.

Tiredness & Stress Even if they are sleeping regularly, many women feel quite tired — especially during the early and late months of pregnancy. Early bedtimes are one solution, as are daytime naps. For the working mother-to-be, it can be more difficult to get rest during the day. She needs to lessen her workload as much as possible and, at regular intervals, take short breaks with her feet up. It is an occasion of great c h a n g e — particularly for t h e f i r s t - t i m e mother Despite the glowing pictures, pregnancy can be an extremely stressful time. It is an occasion of great change — particularly for the first-time mother. Her body will be behaving strangely, she and her partner need to adjust to impending parenthood, and may be busy making preparations. ; Relaxation is very '" important. Ante-natal classes, where relaxation techniques are taught, not only prepare women for labour, but also how to reduce stress. Simple breathing and muscle exercises can be a great help, as can some gentle yoga tech-

niques. A lack of B vitamins can be a contributory factor in tension during pregnancy. B 6 deficiency in particular, can contribute to most of the problems mentioned so far. Avocado, banana, beans, brown rice, broccoli, brussel sprouts, 11

dates, peas, peanuts, prunes and watermelon are all useful sources of B 6 . Yeast extract, fortified foods and TVP contain B[2 which is the least readily available vitamin in the vegan diet and is e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t during pregnancy. Teas made from hops, scullcap and catnip can also help (see below).

Insomnia This can be a particular problem during the latter stages of pregnancy, when it is difficult to f i n d a n y p o s i t i o n that is comfortable, or when the baby is moving vigorously, or when a w o m a n is s u f f e r i n g f r o m backache. The liberal positioning of p i l l o w s may h e l p , together with relaxation techniques. A gentle back massage can be comforting too. Having a bedtime routine — warm aromatic bath, reading a book in bed with a warm drink — can also help. Herbal teas to aid sleep can be bought f r o m the chemist. Alternatively, blend your own using hops, catnip and scullcap (3 teaspoons to one cup of boiling water, steeped for 10 minu t e s ) . C o m m e r c i a l or h o m e made hop pillows can encour-

age sleep. A deficiency in calcium is also thought to lead to insomnia. This can be remedied by r e g u l a r intake of almonds, dates, figs, green vegetables, m o l a s s e s , seaweed, tofu and sesame seeds. A balanced diet, plenty of e x e r c i s e a n d relaxa t i o n w i l l all f u r t h e r t h e c h a n c e s of a n enjoyable pregnancy If any of these p r o b l e m s persist of become severe, it is i m p o r t a n t to seek medical advice. A balanced diet, plenty of exercise and relaxation will all further the chances of an e n j o y a b l e pregnancy. Using natural remedies if problems do arise is a healthy, vegan way of self-care during pregnancy. . Linda Wood

MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION "There are a thousand hacking at the branches of evil to one who is striking at the root". — Henry Thoreau. 1858 W h y not support — or perhaps just find out more about — those working positively towards an end to all animal abuse and the widespread adoption of a more ecologically sound way of life? Simply fill in the form below Please tick as appropriate: • PLEASE S E N D ME A FREE VEGAN INFORMATION PACK — for which I enclose a stamped addressed envelope. • I WISH TO BECOME A MEMBER of the Vegan Society Ltd and undertake to abide by its rules as set out in the Society's Memorandum and Articles of Association*. I declare that I am a practising vegan. 'Available on request for £1.00 incl. p&p or may viewed without charge at the Society's registered office. • I WISH TO B E C O M E A N ASSOCIATE of the Vegan Society Ltd. Although not a practising vegan, I agree with the Society's aims and would like to support its work. I enclose payment as follows (please tick as appropriate): Cheques/POs should be made payable to: The Vegan Society Ltd • • •

Individual £12.00* Unwaged individual £6.00 Junior (under 18) £6.00

• Family £15.00* • Unwaged Family £10.00 • Life Membership £250.00

'Includes complimentary Cruelty-Free Shopper. Please tick box if you do

not wish to receive a copy •

Books of Interest (Available from the Vegan Society) Pregnancy, Children and the Vegan Diet, Dr Michael Klapper£5.70 (inch p&p) The Home Herbal, Barbara Griggs £4.59 (incl. p&p)

• I WISH TO SPONSOR your work, for which purpose I enclose a donation of

£5.00 • £ 1 0 . 0 0



Title (please delete as appropriate) Miss/Mr/Mrs/Ms Name (please print) Address (please print) Postcode (please print) Signature Date Return to: Vegan Society, 33-35 George Street, Oxford OX1 2AY.







• £



The Vegan, Winter 1989

doctor so advised. I felt pressured but knew in the end that it was my decision, though it was not made until we had nearly reached the hospital; we drove straight past and visited a friend. She lent me a book by an American midwife, Spiritual Midwifery by Ina May. It contains accounts of births (mostly home) and the women featured have a vegan diet. My mind at rest, I reverted to veganism.

Sounding Off


Do you have a pet, vegan related hate? Do you need to let off steam? Think you can do it in no more than 700 words? If so, this column's for you!

PREGNANCY would like to draw attention to the many oppressed pregnant women. Last year, to my delight, I became pregnant and had my first child, Nammu. When going for the required check-up at the twelve week period, I was asked numerous questions about myself and family medical history. On telling them that I was a vegan the doctors instantly condemned me. One very arrogant and obnoxious male doctor told me that by having such an unsatisfactory diet I was putting my baby at risk.


Doubt We attempted to defend the vegan diet but the doctors refused to discuss it with us. My first visit to the hospital saw me leaving doubting all my abilities as a woman. I began to have cow's milk on my cornflakes in the morning — in case I lacked calcium or B,2. At six months' I returned to the hospital for a check-up. The doctor (not the arrogant, obnoxious male one) examined The Vegan, Winter 1989

me in an equally brusque fashion and without saying a word wrote 'BABY AT RISK' on my card. He then suggested I should go for a scan. When Nammu's dad, Griff, asked what damage this did to the baby's hearing, the doctor replied: "Nothing has been proven." At this stage I had decided on a home birth, but the doctor advised me to go to I felt pressured b u t k n e w in t h e end t h a t it w a s m y decision

From then on it was my pregnancy. The midwives acknowledged this and merely advised me on the drugs available and the last minute dash to hospital. They did not try to coerce me in any way. My last visit to a doctor was I left in tears, convinced I had g r o w n a 41b m u t a t i o n three weeks before Nammu was due. The doctor told me that Nammu was far too small — although he could not tell me how big she was either. He referred to veganism as a "bloody stupid diet" and advised me to eat red meat. I was perfectly healthy with a normal pulse. I left in tears, convinced I had grown a 41b mutation.

On 18 April I gave birth to a beautiful 71b baby girl — healthy in every respect. I had a home birth, was completely relaxed and the whole labour took one hour. Nammu came out to the sound of an owl hooting, close to the bender. Since my experience of childbirth I have talked with many women about their births and, more often than not, I hear a horror story. Why is it that something which has been happening for so long should suddenly be treated as an illness? Male doctors are dealing with something they cannot experience; they have no idea of the emotional state of a pregnant woman. Their paranoia and use of words is far more dangerous than any diet or hereditary problems (I had none). Without the support of Griff and my family I would have succumbed to their paranoia. I hope that any doctors reading this will take note that all pregnant women need is a smile of encouragement — not a mouthful of medical words and a cold, white room with machines on either side of them. It is no wonder difficult births occur. Any pregnant women reading this must realize that if anyone knows what's going on, it's you. You can say no; it's not wrong. • Stacey Johns

IMPORTANT On Wed 29 November a quantity of post was stolen from the Vegan Society's office. If you wrote to the Society just prior to this date, and you have not received a reply, please contact the Office Manager, Amanda Rofe.

hospital because as it was my first baby I was in the 'high risk category'. What sort of person uses words so powerful as this to a pregnant woman?

Advice During the weeks before the scan I discussed it time and time again with my family, Griff and close friends. All the women advised me to go for scan; all the men advised me not to. The women had experienced births in hospital and were convinced that this technology was necessary if the

B« o«tht look otft for ihose anii-hunt




Barrister Noel Sweeney, specialist in criminal law, examines the legal status of animals. Property includes money and property . . . real or personal. creatures, tamed or untamed, regarded as property . . . Theft Act 1968,

all other . . Wild shall be Section 4


t is, and always has been, their lot to be e x p l o i t e d . T h e y h a v e b e e n abused, burnt at the stake, hanged at the gallows, tried and executed as criminals, vivisected and used as weapons of war. They have been subjected to every cruelty imaginable for reasons of econ o m i c s , h e d o n i s m , politics, science, sport and war. T h e y h a v e b e e n , and remain, the perennial victim enchained in bondage by law. Their rights extend to the right to be killed at will and eaten. As to w h o and why the reason is the same: animals because they are animals.

have chosen deliberately to deny such rights to animals. Our choice rests on two assumptions, both borne of self interest: we have a moral claim because of our superiority, and animals are not deserving of moral rights. It has been accepted by Littlewood and Brambell that animals feel pain mentally and physically. If an animal is sentient and in some ways our kindred spirit, why is it so often treated as property — a thing to be owned, used and c o n s u m e d ? The a n s w e r lies in what Ryder has termed 'speciesism': human life being treated as having special priority over animal life simply because it is human. That is at the root of our selfordained control and power over animals.

Fundamentals Moral Superiority Although it has not always been so, most human beings now have 'rights' because they are human beings. In essence these allow a person to act freely providing he does not infringe another's rights. This state has arisen because of our special s t a t u s as a r a t i o n a l , s e n t i e n t b e i n g . However, these rights have not been limited to human beings who are rational. They apply to all within the category of homo sapien — but that is the limit. We


Much of western thought in terms of philosophy and religion — and so expressed in law — was influenced by Aristotle. He believed slaves, women and animals were inferior to freemen (significandy he belonged to the last group). Aristotle considered that: "since nature makes nothing p u r p o s e l e s s or in vain, it is undeniably true that she has made all animals for the sake of man". (Strange that this p h i l o s o p h e r should simply assume a state and presume it is a universal truth.)

A n i m a l s are legally classified as a c o m m o d i t y or chattel, no different t h a n a plastic duck, a porcelain hen or a w o o d e n rocking horse N e v e r t h e l e s s , this notion is the premise on which our legal rights over, and duties towards animals, is based. Animals are legally classified as a commodity or chattel, no different than a plastic duck, a porcelain hen or a wooden rocking horse. This property concept led to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the 111Treatment of Cattle Act 1822, which was the first English statute prohibiting cruelty to animals. Despite opposition it became law because it protected the rights of owners. This bias is prevalent throughout English law. In 1895 a society formed to promote the abolition of vivisection was held to be a charity. The judge said: "cruelty is degrading to man and its suppression advances morals and education among men". Although that view was valid for 50 years, it did not persuade the judges in England's highest court. The House of Lords reversed that decision in 1948, holding that the abolition was outweighed by the advantages of its continuance:

The Vegan, Winter 1989

The scientist who inflicts pain in the course of vivisection is fulfilling a moral duty to mankind which is higher in degree than the moralist or sentamentalist who thinks only of the animals. Nor do I agree that animals ought not be sacrificed to man when necessary. A strictly regulated pain to some hundreds of animals may save and avert incalculable suffering to innumerable millions of mankind. I cannot doubt what the moral choice should be. There is only one single issue. Lord Wright This Aristotelian spirit places each and every animal below anyone within the category of homo sapien. But is there really only "one single issue"? Is it not pure prejudice to consider without question that that which you have control over is thereby morally and legally inferior? " H o w e v e r it is l o o k e d at, t h e life a n d h a p p i n e s s of h u m a n beings m u s t be p r e f e r r e d t o t h a t of a n i m a l s " Lest it be thought his words were limited to the issue of vivisection, the judge made his position plain, boldly stating: "however it is looked at, the life and happiness of human beings must be preferred to that of animals". He further s p e c u l a t e d t h a t the law a c c u r a t e l y reflected the indifference of the public: "if that (vivisection) involves some measure of pain at times to some animals . . . they feel it is due to a regrettable necessity. Similarly a man who has beefsteak for dinner if he thinks at all about the slaughter of the beast reflects that it is inevitable in the present constitution of society." Really this is legal speciesism writ large.

Permitted Animals are exploited because in law their status actually allows for it. The misnamed Protection of Animals Act 1911 defines an animal as one who, "is tame or has been sufficiently tamed to serve some purpose for man". Thus, the animal is not deemed to count in its own right. Its status is dependent on its use to us. In the important case Ford v Wiley the judge considered that an owner may subject an animal to suffering to make it serviceable: as an illustration of a class of cases in which some degree of apparent illtreatment may be justified in fitting an animal for its legitimate use I may point to a horse which though designed for draught and riding pur-

The Vegan, Winter 1989

poses, is not in its natural untutored state so fitted. To prevent it from being unruly and unsafe, it requires to be broken, sometimes with a degree of severity, occasioning pain, which without such necessity would be utterly unjustifiable. (Hawkins J.) It d e f i e s l o g i c to say a h o r s e is "designed" for a purpose but in its "natural state" is not so "fitted" for that very purpose. Can it really be that a horse was created so that it may be muzzled, saddled and made to pull barrels of beer? Whilst the judge was attempting to be practical, his example assumes a humanmade role for animals and then gives the assumption legal effect. The problem is the premise is false.

Voiceless Animals are treated as they are because they have neither voice nor vote. Bentham claimed — in comparing their plight to slavery — that their "rights have been withheld from them by the hand of tyranny". This is because they are the "weak". Anywhere that a person has others in his/her control so that they are mentally and/or physically weak, the opportunity presents itself. That is why experiments have been performed on Jews and continue to be performed on persons in hospital and prison. Animals' lack of status and consequent treatment is endorsed by English law. In T h e a c c e p t a n c e of a n i m a l rights a n d h u m a n d u t i e s u n d o u b t e d l y causes p r o b l e m s — for h u m a n s the legal sense an animal as defendant is tried by a human prosecutor, judge and jury. It has neither a defence counsel nor a defence, for the crime it has committed is simply being born. It is immoral to assume rights for your own species only. Otherwise, by corollary, it would be just to deny rights to children, blacks or women. Indeed, in general the r e v e r s e occurs. The law attempts to protect the weak such as minors, the blind, mentally ill and those liable to discrimination on the grounds of race or sex. With greater intelligence comes compassion and responsibility. Thus, in civil and criminal law there are s p e c i a l e x e m p t i o n s and p r i v i l e g e s extended to those who might otherwise be disadvantaged. In terms of logic and morality such protection should apply equally to animals.

Nothing to Gain? The acceptance of animal rights and human duties undoubtedly causes prob-

lems — for humans. Experiments on animals would be illegal, but then so are they on humans unless they consent. It would mean eating meat would be an offence; yet, cannibalism is illegal and a taboo. Moreover, it is not an exchange but a gift. Therein lies the problem: if we extend legal protection to other species on ethical grounds we have no tangible gain. C o n v e r s e l y , o u r loss is r e a d i l y apparent — as it was to the slave-trader and wife-seller. So the public's pleasure and profit is all that is considered and the unwelcome moral question is ignored by common consent. All living creatures have a right to live and die with dignity. Animals must take their place in the community or outside it, in either case their worth being recognized by law. As Henry Salt, the real father of animal rights, has written: "to live one's life — to realise one's true self — is the highest moral purpose of man and animals alike". There should be Far f r o m b e i n g t h e c e n t r e of t h e world, w e are no m o r e important than a dung beetle an honesty in aim and intention so that no life is without value. Far f r o m b e i n g t h e c e n t r e of t h e world, we are no more important than a dung beetle — nor, indeed, less important. It would be wise for us to ponder the thoughts of Henry Beston that animals are "not brethren, they are not underlings; they are other nations, caught with ourselves in the net of life and time, fellow prisoners of the splendour and travail of the earth". Law is our attempt to convert ideals into deeds. At its centre is the intention to unite morality with justice. A system that sanctions tyranny over another species is immoral and unjust. On that charge English law proves itself guilty. lllustr. J. Breese

1989 AGM REPORT 30 September 1989, Conway Hall, Red Lion Square, London

the amended set of Accounts and explained the reasons for their inclusion. Revenue was up but legacy income was down from £14,000 in 1987/88 to £1,000 in 1988/89. The Treasurer answered questions on investments, the cost of promotional materials sold and royalty payments. The Annual Accounts were adopted after lengthy discussion on the background to the decision to issue an amended set. Our allotted time expired, the Chair adjourned the meeting to an unspecified date and venue for the purpose of considering unfinished business — Appointment of Auditors, Proposals for Special and Ordinary Resolutions, Election of Deputy President, Election of Vice-Presidents and A.O.B. (Members and associates will receive 21 days notice of the adjourned meeting.)

Thanks To . . . Amy Austin and Royce Mitchell of Pure Food Catering; Dave Wetton for tak-



n his welcoming address, President and AGM Chair Arthur Ling asked over 100 members and associates to observe a minute's silence in m e m o r y of former Vegan Society Vice-President, the late Eva Batt. Later in the meeting, Arthur was re-elected President.

Annual Report The Annual Report was adopt16

ed after lively debate on the 'cruelty-free' standards of, and the Society's relations with, kindred organizations.

Annual Accounts In accordance with Section 240(4) of the 1985 Companies Act, the meeting voted to accept the amended Annual Accounts as though they had been duly sent at least 21 days before the AGM. On delivering the Annual Accounts, Hon. Treasurer, Vincent FitzGerald highlighted the additional items reflected in

ing the Chair when required; John Fitter, Stuart Graham, Caryne Pearce-Steedman and Trevor Stoddart for undertaking a variety of voluntary tasks; Bernard Drake, Lyndsay Gamsa-Jackson, David King and Carol Rapsey for acting as tellers; and Conway Hall's caretaker for services over and above the call of duty. A summary of the Minutes will appear in the 1989190 Annual Report and Accounts Stalls — Stalls were held by the Vegan Society, Whole in the Wall, Plamil Foods and Chris Philips (Sunday Times Fun Run) Catering — The Chair thanked Pure Food Catering for providing lunch and refreshments Creche — What promised to be an excellent creche by Camden Playbox was abandoned due to insufficient demand Apologies — Apologies were received from: Henrietta & Malcolm Door, Mrs C. Tomlinson and George Walker.

There must be many readers who would like to offer financial support to the Vegan Society in its unique work but have limited means at their disposal. There is, however, an easy way of helping regardless of present circumstances—by including a legacy to the Society in your Will. Great or small, such legacies can make a real and enduring contribution to the promotion of vegan ideals. For those who would like to make a bequest to the Society the following form of words is suggested: "I bequeath to the Vegan Society Ltd, Registered Charity no. 279228, presently at 33-35 George Street, Oxford OXl 2AY, the sum of£ , and declare that the receipt of the Treasurer or other authorized officer of the said Society shall be good and sufficient discharge of such legacy." Property left to the Society is another valuable contribution to our cause. If you wish to will land or property to the Society, please write for details of how to arrange this.

The Vegan, Winter 1989

st invention ^ ^ ead

New So 100% vegetable margarine Now Becoming Available in your local supermarket The Vegan, Winter 1989



I N V I T A T i o N



. . .

Seasonal nibbles with 'Caring Cook9 Janet Hunt Garlic Croutons Tahini Dip >/4 pint (140ml) tahini >/8 pint (70ml) vegetable stock 2 tablespoons lemon juice I s m a i l onion, finely chopped Tabasco sauce seasoning to taste 1 carrot, finely grated roasted sunflower seeds parsley to garnish (optional) Mix the tahini into the vegetable stock, add the juice, onion, a sprinkling of sauce and seasoning to taste. Stir in the carrot. Adjust the texture (it should be like a thick cream) and flavour if necessary. Tip the mixture into a dish, smooth the top, decorate. Chill until needed. This dip can be varied by adding other vegetables instead of the carrot — e.g. leeks or courgettes, or stir in a mashed avocado.

Herbed Tofu Dip 10 oz (285g) soft tofu 1 tablespoon chopped parsley 1-2 tablespoons other chopped, fresh herbs (e.g. chive, thyme, oregano, mint) l / 2 red pepper, finely chopped garlic salt celery salt ground black pepper watercress to garnish Drain the tofu and then nut into a hlender to make a


4 thick slices wholemeal bread 1 tablespoon vegetable oil 2 oz (55g) vegan margarine 1 clove garlic, crushed

*Herbed Tofu Dip *Curried Vegetable Pate Raw Vegetables

Trim the crusts from the bread and cut into even-sized cubes. Heat the oil with the margarine and cook the garlic for a few minutes. Discard the garlic. Use the flavoured oil to fry the bread cubes, turning them frequently so that they are crisp and brown on all sides. Drain well. Serve warm or cold. Use this same method to make onion flavoured croutons — or add some caraway seeds. The croutons can also be served plain, of course.

*Tahini Dip

le.g. celery. carrot, parsnip, fennel. peppers, cauliflower florets, button mushrooms)

*Garlic Croutons Crisps Tortilla Chips French Bread *Sesame Biscuits *Spiced Nuts ^Christmas Fruit Cake Fresh Fruit Bowl


lthough Christmas is traditionally a time when families reunite over one special meal — we won't go into what that traditionally consists of!

Sesame Biscuits 1 '/joz (45g) vegan margarine 1 teaspoon sugar >/3 pint (200ml) boiling water 8 oz (225g) wholemeal flour good pinch of salt 2 oz (55g) sesame seeds, lightly roasted Add the margarine and sugar to the water and stir to melt the fat. Mix in the flour, salt and seeds to make a soft dough. Knead this for a few minutes then set aside in a covered bowl and leave for half an hour. Break off small even-sized balls of dough and roll out as thin as possible. Arrange on an ungreased baking sheet. Bake at 400 °F/200 °C (Gas Mark 6) for 5-10 minutes, or until crisp.

u t a i u j jjmvtuitoii wiui a iwiiwin uiv uuiw ingredients. Tip the mixture into a bowl, cover and chill for at least a few hours — preferably longer to allow the flavours to blend. If the dip is too thick adjust with some lemon juice or a drop of oil. Serve topped with sprigs of watercress to add colour.

Curried Vegetable Pate 3 tablespoons vegetable oil 2-3 teaspoons curry powder 4 oz (115g) mushrooms, cleaned and chopped V2 small cauliflower, broken into florets 1 small leek, cleaned and chopped 4 oz (115g) peas, cooked 2 oz (55g) creamed coconut tomato slices to garnish Heat the oil and gently fry the curry powder for a few minutes. Stir in the mushrooms, cauliflower and leek, add a drop of cold water, and cover. Cook gently for about 15 minutes or until the vegetables are tender, add the peas and continue cooking uncovered for a few minutes more to thicken any remaining liquid. Grate the coconut and stir into the vegetables. Mash them to make a thick puree. Turn into a bowl, chill well. Serve topped with a ring of tomato slices.

office get-togethers, end of term celebrations, after carol warm-ups — whatever the occasion, something to nibble along with the drinks makes them go that much better. The plus for vegans is that party food really is easy to prepare without any need to resort to animal-derived ingredients. In fact, even the most conventional buffet table is likely to include a variety of things you can eat — for example, peanuts, crisps, pretzels, celery sticks, and hummus with tortilla chips. Add to that, patd and dips based on tofu, tahini, lentils and beans; 'sausage' balls made from one of the many packet mixes now available; some interesting breads and savoury biscuits — and you've got more than enough to offer a hoard of hungry revellers. Of course, if you're prepared to spend all day putting together some more unusual snacks, you could also include such things as vegetable vol-au-vents (make the white sauce with soya milk), flans, pizzas and so on. You could add potato salad sprinkled with walnuts, coleslaw made with tofu mayonnaise, or vegetables coated with batter and fried (good hot or cold). For something sweet, how about mini fruit and nut kebabs using cocktail sticks? Nothing beats a fresh fruit salad — serve it in a cutout pineapple shell and make it the centre piece. You can also make delicious and healthy sweets by simply mashing up dried fruit, rubbing in some ground nuts (using your fingers), binding with fruit juice — before rolling into balls and dipping in coconut or carob powder. Though apricots and almonds are a good combination, dates and peanuts are cheaper and equally tasty. The menu provided would fill a table, offer a variety of tastes, and wouldn't cost a fortune or take too long to prepare. Use it as a starting point, adding your own favourite nibbles, substituting ingredients you already have for those you don't like or can't get. And do keep in mind the appearance of the foods you finally choose to serve — this is a party, so as well as garnishing individual dishes, why not use holly, baubles and candles to set the mood? The pate and dip recipes are for four average servings. An asterisk before a | menu item indicates that a recipe is supplied Ilium. J. Breest



8 oz (225g) cashews, almonds or peanuts (or a mixture, or any other nuts) 1 oz (30g) vegan margarine approx. >/4 teaspoon cayenne pepper V4 teaspoon ground cumin salt Sautd the nuts in the margarine for a few minutes, stirring frequently. When they have coloured slightly, remove them from the pan and drain off any excess fat. Toss them at once in the spices and salt, mixing well. [Cayenne pepper can be very hot so use carefully!]

Christmas Fruit Cake 8 oz (225g) vegan margarine 1 pint (570ml) cold water 8 oz (225g) sugar l 1 / 2 lbs (680g) mixed dried fruit (e.g. raisins, currants, sultanas, chopped dates, apricots) 1 teaspoon cinnamon 1 teaspoon ginger 1 teaspoon allspice >/2 teaspoon nutmeg 2 teaspoons vanilla essence 2 tablespoons syrup 2 teaspoons bicarbonate of soda 1 tablespoon lemon juice 2 tablespoons grated lemon or orange peel 14 oz (395g) wholemeal flour 2 oz (55g) soya flour 2 oz (55g) chopped almonds 2 oz (55g) chopped walnuts 1 tablespoon brandy or liqueur (optional) Put the margarine, water, sugar, fruit and spices into a large saucepan, and boil for 10 minutes. Leave to cool. Add all the remaining ingredients, making sure the mixture is thoroughly blended. Lightly grease a large cake tin and pour in the mixture. Bake at 300 °F/150 °C (Gas Mark 2) for 2 hours.


5 REASONS TO BUY WHOLE EARTH 1. 100% VEGAN. Not one product from Whole Earth contains any animal product, not even honey, whey, or milk powder. 2. MO SUGAR ADDED - We look for a lighter, less sweet taste, and use natural sweeteners. 3. NO CRUELTY - We test our peanuts for aflatoxin using high pressure liquid chromatography. 4. NOTHING ARTIFICIAL - Of course we don't use preservatives, colouring, and artificial flavours, but we also avoid modified starch, hydrolysed vegetable protein, hydrogenated fat, and soy protein isolates. 5. 20 YEARS OF COMMITMENT - We opened a vegan macrobiotic restaurant in London in 1967 - Europe's first. We have been true to our founding principles ever since. For free recipe leaflet write to: Whole Earth, 269 Portobello Road, London, W l l 1LR.


Britain's restaurant,



oldest Lebanese established 1968.

We a/so serve vegetarian and vegan meals. A special set vegetarian or vegan menu at £5. 75 per person (minimum of two people) consisting of nine different selections of hot and cold Lebanese hors d'oeuvres (Mezzeh). WE ARE OPEN FROM 12 NOON TO 12 MIDNIGHTSEVEN DA YS A WEEK

VICCO Vajradanti Unique Ayurvedic Toothpaste A completely natural product containing IB valuable herbs. VICCO Vajradanti is made in accordance with the ancient Indian science of Ayurveda. Highly Concentrated — Long lasting Pleasant Fresh Taste — Fresh Breath Contains No Sugar — Flouride Free NOW AVAILABLE FROM WHOLEFOOD SHOPS OR PRICE £1.25 FROM: Mandala Imports. 7 Zetland Road. Redland BRISTOL BS6 7AQG

Contains no animal ingredients

tested on animals

iting more than 180 references in its 121 pages, Vegan Nutrition is the most comprehensive survey ever undertaken of scientific research on vegan diets. This landmark publication will appeal to vegans, vegetarians and other would-be vegans, as well as nutritionists, researchers, dietitians, general practitioners, and community health workers. Includes summaries of main sections, highlighted major points, information on all essential nutrients and their availability in vegan diets, easy-to-use tables of food souroes of key nutrients, and a detailed index. Orders to: The Vegan Society (Merchandise), 33-35 George Street, Oxford OX1 2AY. Cheques/POs payable to:

The Vegan Society Ltd.


The Vegan, Winter 1989

Retrospect Donald Watson continues his regular column on our movement's early history vegan diet drastically reduces the level of cholesterol, and hence the risk of coronary thrombosis. By eliminating foods at the end of food chains we avoid the poisons that build up in animals' bodies. Also eliminated is the guilt associated with animal abuse, leaving the conscience clear. There is nothing therapeutic about a stricken conscience. Veganism started by offering a disciplined, sciDonald Watson,firstSecretary of the Vegan Society entific approach to a changed lifestyle to help Vegetarian propagandists stem man's physiological have often said that if people had to do their decay. The position today is own killing there would be even more urgent than it was fewer meat-eaters. Similarly then, despite advances in vegans can say that if people medicine. Palliative measures had to do their own suckling cannot control the onward there would be no milk- march of chronic diseases that drinkers. Here nature has given have replaced the zymotic disus a powerful disincentive; eases caused by unhygienic livman is left to choose whether ing. The new plagues kill more or not he heeds it. On such sim- cruelly because they kill more ple logic the vegan movement slowly. Moreover they seem destined to kill nearly everywas founded. The few who turned vegan one. Veganism would appear to nearly fifty years ago had rea- offer us more hope than medison to wonder whether it would cal science based on vivisecwork. Our theories seemed tion. The vegan movement develflawless, and our faith was strong, but with drastic war- oped directly as a form of natutime food rationing we had nei- ral evolution from the vegetarither the choice nor the quantity an movement, without any religious or political influence. In of the foods we needed. Recruits today need have no the early years great care was such apprehension. The neces- taken to prevent the cause from sary foods are here in a profu- being purloined by other irrelesion never before seen in histo- vant cults. This vigilance is still ry. Literature and cookery needed, and perhaps always books are available, and visual will be. aids abound in the form of thousands of vegans and hear Indebted vegans who have 'done it'. The few of us who were there at the start were all vegetarians Advantages of long standing. Some of us Many advantages are there for had been secretaries of socithe new recruit from day one. eties affiliated to the then two The risks of food poisoning, national vegetarian societies, which threaten everyone else, operating from London and are virtually abolished. So too Manchester, with Frank Wyatt is the great scourge of constipa- and James Hough as their section which is caused mainly by retaries. The vegan movement the costive foods, eggs and owes much to these two men cheese, and their products. (It who bought and distributed our is significant that the bowel is literature before we had a now the second commonest site Society to do it ourselves. It for cancer in males.) The was, of course, their duty to do The Vegan, Winter 1989

this, since the definition of vegetarianism contained the words ". . . with or without the addition of eggs and milk and its products (butter and cheese)," but they cooperated with an enthusiasm that went beyond the call of duty, since not all their members approved. Some of the most prominent were as much addicted to dairy produce as other people are addicted to meat. James Hough was one of the friendliest of men — a model for us all to keep cool in the heat of debate. I became a great friend of Frank Wyatt, helped by the fact that I was able to buy a cheap day return rail ticket from Leicester to London on Saturdays for five shillings (25p). I would arrive at his office off the Strand just in time to walk with him for lunch at 'Shearus' in Tottenham Court Road. Older readers may remember this marvellous vegetarian restaurant above a fruit, vegetable and flower shop which gave the whole establishment the semblence of a Garden of Eden. Frank always insisted on paying for me — from a fund he said he kept for feeding secretaries of his affiliated societies who were helping him in his ten-year plan to convert the nation. He really believed he could do it by working day and night and snatching a few hours sleep from time to time on his office floor. Alas, he died at his post in the attempt. I have since wondered whether he had heard the old Chinese saying — 'If you would eat much, eat little, for by eating little you live long, and by living long you eat much.' As with food so too, it seems, with work. Great dedication needs to be applied in carefully measured doses. There is a lesson here for all. A Wyatt story worth recording has a direct link with our Cruelty Free Shopper. In the 1930s Frank applied himself vigorously to opposing public ox-roastings that were then becoming popular on civic occasions. He referred to them in his press letters as "butchery on parade". So long as he dwelt on the cruelty aspect of these gory events his campaign met with no response. Only when he referred to them as "vulgarising spectacles" did he succeed in getting some of them

cancelled. Authorities that did not mind being associated with cruelty took action when accused of vulgarity. In our present age, which is awash with vulgarity, it is doubtful whether such language would be as successful, but fortunately we have a word that can be. It is the word ' n o ' . It is our ultimate weapon, under any sort of government, to fell all the evil empires.

Landmark Just before the Vegan Society was formed in 1944, Frank and Kathleen Mayo, who ran the Coventry Vegetarian Society, staged a 'Vegetarian Supper without Dairy Produce'. It was the first public vegan meal ever produced in this country, and reference to it as a landmark in humane food reform was made in The Vegetarian News — the magazine of the London Vegetarian Society. Later Kathleen became the Baby Bureau editor of The Vegan . At about the same time an American entrepreneur, wishing to advertise the versatility of the soya bean, produced a supper consisting of nothing else. It started with a soya soup, followed by soya croquettes fried in soya oil, followed by soya ice-cream, and ended with soya coffee with soya milk. It was not a good example of a balanced vegan meal but it did illustrate the potential of just one plant food. From its humble beginning of non-dairy vegetarianism, the vegan ethic has developed apace because there is no logical point where it can be stopped short of a new relationship with the rest of sentient creation. The purpose of the vegan movement was, and is, to meet head-on the religious heresy that animals were 'sent' for man's use. 'Sent' implies a sender — a view as unacceptable to the atheist as it should be blasphemous to the theist. It is the most evil concept ever to engage the mind of man. It drenches the world with the blood of innocent creatures; it distorts the natural order, and it leaves man with a burden of guilt which points directly to much of his own adversity. We suffer as a race because collectively we deserve no better.



hen I was 23 I married a young Egyptian and, soon after our son was born, went to live in Egypt. As accommodation is u n o b t a i n a b l e in Cairo, we shared a r o o m in m y i n l a w s ' overcrowded f l a t . S h o r t l y before the move I became a Moslem.

Let Down


Lynne Beshir recounts her experience of the country and its treatment of non-human animals

I was attracted to the S u f i mystical doctrine that all is O n e and divinity is present in everything. However, usual Islamic attitudes f a l l f a r s h o r t of Sufi ideals. My father-in-law liked to f e e d the b i r d s and was tolerant of the feral cats living on the roof, but he never questioned the notion that animals had been created by G o d f o r the p u r p o s e of h u m a n k i n d ' s exploitation. Our neighbours, when bored, shot at those same birds. T h e E g y p t i a n authorities regularly e x t e r m i n a t e d s t r a y c a t s and d o g s . E m a c i a t e d d o n k e y s still teeter under mountainous burdens while being goaded on with sticks and stones. Fowlers string live birds f r o m poles to entice buyers; they flutter helplessly, some-

V i l l a g e u r c h i n s t o r m e n t anim a l s in f r o n t of t o u r i s t s t o extract a f e w pence 'ransom' money times with broken wings, until they die of exhaustion. Village urchins torment animals in front of tourists to extract a few pence ' r a n s o m ' money. They free the unfortunate creatures only to repeat the performance for the next coachload of sightseers. This uncaring attitude extends to the whole environment. Cairo lies under a permanent pall of smog and it is rare to see the sun. The pollution is generated by growing industries. No longer able to cope with the throwaway culture, the authorities simply have it carted outside city limits and d u m p e d . The prestige High Dam has brought more harm than benefit and has upset the ecological sys-


tem of the Nile Valley — perhaps irrevocably. The teeming wildlife portrayed by the ancient Egyptians has almost disappeared.

The Norm Moslem attitudes to animals are reinforced by passages from the Koran and from the Hadith (sayings and actions of T h e M o s l e m a n d J e w i s h ritual slaughter of livestock . . . is s o m e t i m e s carried o u t over o p e n drains in t h e street

the prophet Mohammed). All of these were quoted by my father-in-law when I declared myself a vegetarian. I had considered the Moslem and Jewish ritual slaughter of livestock — which in Egypt is s o m e t i m e s carried out over open drains in the street — to be unacceptable. I was at once warned that not eating meat is unnatural and I would damage my health. My mother-in-law — who had married at fifteen and knew little of the world — had never heard of vegetarianism. Such attitudes may seem strange, but this is a culture where meat-eating has great status value. When consignments arrive f r o m cattle-rich Sudan, queues resembling those of Eastern Europe form outside butchers' shops. Egyptians who can afford it eat meat at every meal —

even the scrambled eggs at breakfast have minced beef liberally added. Such a meal is generally regarded as superior to the traditional peasant b r e a k f a s t which is, incidentally, vegan.


Nobody envied me. My aberration was tolerated for a while, but every mealtime brought the same question: "Still not eating meat?" The meat dishes were deliberately placed in front of me and lUustr. J. Brtest my father-inlaw chewed noisily on the bones, declaring how delicious it all was. Perhaps they believed that I would yield to temptation and come to my senses. But I persisted and their amusement disappeared. Things were bound to come to a head — and they did. The storm broke when my sister-in-law fed my son, Omar, some minced chicken behind my back. A vicious argument ensued, during which I was labelled with a favourite Egyptian epithet 'Magnoonah!' — crazy woman. Shortly afterwards it was discreetly suggested I might benefit from a visit to a psychiatrist.

Uncertain Future It would be easy to point the finger at Moslems for animal abuse, but we need to remember that they are not alone, our own culture is far from perfect. For centuries poverty, disease and ignorance has sapped the Egyptian spirit. Egypt has reached the stage that England reached about a century and a half ago, with the industrial poor envying the affluent whose diet is rich in meat, butter and soft, white bread. Luxury hotels sprout everywhere but thousands still live in slums along streets running with sewage. Villages still have as their only source of water a river that has always been a source of sickness. One half of Egyptian society apes westem lifestyle while the other is caught up in fundamentalist Islamic revival —

The Vegan, Winter 1989

rejecting all that comes from the West, including the concept that animals have basic rights and needs. It is hard to say in which direction Many of Egypt's traditional foods are vegan; the problem at first was in finding them. When we arrived at our hotel in Luxor (the French-run 'Etap'), we found an 'international' buffet, which meant bits of meat even in the salads.

Ups and Downs Two E g y p t i a n f a v o u r i t e s , fool medames (cooked brown beans) and ta'amaia (bean fritters like the Israeli falafel) appeared in the buffets of some of the other hotels but only at breakfast, as though being meatless that was the only part of the day someone not of peasant status could eat them. I couldn't face such foods first thing in the morning so our first ta'amaia was bought in the non-tourist part of Luxor f r o m a street vendor. S t u f f e d into wholemeal pitta bread with a spicy salad, it cost about six pence and was absolutely delicious. Unfortunately, a few hours later we were struck down with food poisoning which incapacitated us totally for 24 hours and the effects lingered on for many days after. (It is worth mentioning, however, that out of necessity we later ate a similar street-side ta'amaia in Cairo with no ill effects at all, and that the great majority of tourists who eat nothing outside their hotels still come d o w n with something.) Our first chance to really enjoy Egyptian food came in Cairo at a w e l l - k n o w n restaurant called 'Felfela' (there is a city centre location and two branches out at the Pyramids). The food was so good that we followed up our first dinner there with lunches on the two subsequent days. This establishment makes a feature of fool medames, a dish prepared in nearly a dozen different ways. The first one I tried was 'Dakka', described as having a spicy garlic sauce. Another interesting variant which was rich and very tasty (also spiced) was fool mashed with tehina (tahini mixed with lemon juice and garlic and thinned to a runny consistency).

Egypt will swing, either way it could be bad for animals. There is no general animal welfare organization in Egypt and, to my knowledge, no legislation to pro-


meat in it, I was asked if I was vegetarian. Naturally the restaurant offered other things beside fool. Baba ganouj is a delicious strip of grilled aubergines (the slightly charred flavour is one of the most appealing things about the dish) mashed with tehina. Bessara is a cold pureed bean dish with a lovely minty flavour and a topping of crisp fried onions. Cairo attracts many business people from the Far East and therefore offers types of cuisine not available elsewhere in E g y p t . J a p a n e s e and Chinese/Korean restaurants made a nice change.



' F e l f e l a ' restaurants cater for both tourists and locals. Prices are incredibly cheap (it would be difficult to spend more than about £3 or £4 on a meal), and it was the only place where, when I enquired if a particular dish had

The first Egyptian buffet we encountered at a hotel was at the Sheraton in Hurhada on the Red Sea (Friday nights only but even their 'international' cuisine on other nights offered a reasonable choice). This was absolutely won-

The Vegan, Winter 1989

tect animals. Egypt has learned western science and technology; it remains to be seen whether she will learn from western mistakes. derful: two different cold aubergine dishes, lentil and bean s a l d s and spreads, tabouli salad, and even a hot dish of macaroni with lentils and chickpeas accompanied by a vinegary tomato sauce. This was also my first chance to try an Egyptian sweet, two in fact. A cornflour-based pudding which is made from purged apricots was lovely. I also found the one type of pastry which does not have butter in it — deep-fried balls made from a yeast dough and It w o u l d b e difficult t o s p e n d m o r e t h a n a b o u t £3 or £ 4 on a meal coated with a plain sugar syrup. A word about drinks. Mineral water is what one drinks most of, but there is a very pleasant (sweet) local drink called karkade, which is actually hibiscus. Chilled, it is very refreshing and apparently in winter it is also drunk hot, like R i b e n a . Our hotel in Aswan o f f e r e d two o t h e r local drinks as well. One of them was tamarind, which was 'interesting'; the other was called dome and was not at all palatable. Tinned mango and guava juices are readily available but heavily sweetened. A non-alcoholic cocktail which all the hotels offered and which I got hooked on was 'Florida Cocktail', a mixture of mango, guava and orange juices laced with karkade. When we got back to Luxor the Etap hotel had r e - o p e n e d its ' O r i e n t a l ' restaurant where f o r our last three nights we were able to indulge in the Egyptian buffet. There were two or three different bean spreads each night plus tabouli, lentil salad, haricot bean salad, marinated aubergines, baba ganouj etc. One final Egyptian dish that I was able to eat in Luxor (at the 'Maharba' restaurant opposite Luxor Temple) was meatless moussaka — fried aubergines with tomato sauce (very tasty it was too). It is a pity the standards of hygiene are so poor in Egypt, but it says a lot for the country that in spite of that awful bout of food poisoning I had a wonderful holiday and my memories — of the sights, the people and the food — are very happy ones.


Reviews k t 4 ! 11 i H 0 LI BAY

The Complete Healthy Holiday Guide Catherine Mooney Headway £6.95 Pbk, 188pp I'll start with the book's virtues, which are manifold. Considering that the author was not able to visit all 300 hotels and guest houses listed in the guide, the descriptions are remarkably good at conveying astmosphere and giving the reader a pretty good idea of whether he or she would fancy a place or not. Also, the facts about each establishment are spelled out with exceptional clarity. Thus, a vegan will know in each case whether vegan food is always available, available with advance notice, or not available at all. Fortunately, the trend of the times being what it is, the latter category is a very small one indeed. The book is attractive to look at and easy to read. But a word of warning: The 'health' orientation of this guide (by a self-confessed 'demi-vegetarian') means there are remarks (not to mention a drawing of fish on the front cover and shrimp on the back) which will certainly jar on vegans. For example, an entry on page 88 begins: "You are almost guaranteed to get good, healthy, fresh fare on a farm" (oh yeah?). Or, try this one: "Although they produce (sic) their own beef and lamb, the Austins are very considerate towards vegetarians . . . Under healthy local activities, under more than one hotel fishing is listed — quite apart from its unhealthiness for the fish, what is healthy about sitting for hours on a river bank? And on a 'health' criterion I 24

also find it quite amazing that the author can include establishments (albeit few in number) that have no restrictions on smoking whatsoever. Imagine how healthy one would feel surrounded by cigarette fumes the whole of one's holiday . . . This is the second edition of the guide and apparently contains double the number of entries that the first edition did. It is just a pity that the author could not find anyone to give her up-to-date information on Scotland, because the Scottish section is pathetic. At least Bamhills farmhouse, the wellestablised vegan guest house in the Borders, is in, but some of the nicest places I stayed at in the summer of 1988 (listed in The Vegetarian Guide to the Scottish Highlands) aren't included, while the listing for Ben Tian Avaig is unbelievable, as the proprietor described sold the place before the 1988 season! And Scarista House, that magical place in the Western Isles, flagship of healthy eating in Scotland (vegans no problem) isn't in either. If you are looking for a place to stay for a weekend or holiday in Britain and want the fullest possible information about it, then this guide is worth getting —just be prepared for its negative features. • Leah Leneman

The Status of Animals: Ethics, Education & Welfare (Eds) David Paterson & Mary Palmer CAB International £12.50 Pbk, 257pp The material in this book is based on papers presented at an

international conference held at the University of Nottingham and is published on behalf of the Humane Education Foundation. It consists of seven main sections: Ethics — Our Moral Obligation to Animals; Education; Farming; Experimentation; Human/Animal Interaction; The Role of the Veterinarian in Animal Welfare; and, Animals and the Media. Most of the views expressed are from what might be termed 'The Establishment', although perhaps from its more enlightened members. Some of the papers are rather academic, longwinded, and not very easy reading, but are interesting and thought-provoking. The first paper, for example, by Steven Clark, Professor of Philosophy at Liverpool University, asks us to examine the philosophical basis of our beliefs about animals. He argues that the sort of selfstyled 'practical' people who refuse to examine their beliefs are quite often ignorant of the principles upon which they act and careless of the long-term consequences of what they do. Several authors allude to the activities of so-called 'extremists'. In the section 'Veterinarians and Animal Welfare', one author states: "Many veterinary surgeons are revulsed by the scientific illogicality and criminal action of the extremists." Further on he writes: "If criticism is to be effective in stimulating and encouraging the tide of change, it must be well-founded and constructive otherwise it will arouse antagonism and defensiveness." The emphasis throughout tends to be on the improvement of animal 'welfare', rather than the more fundamental consideration of animal 'rights'. Some of the authors come up with statements far removed from the vegan ideal. For example, Richard Guy, founder of the Real Meat Company which markets "organic humanely reared [and slaughtered?] meat", starts with: "Working on the assumption that meat consumption by humans is part of Nature's grand strategy, it is the methods by which the livestock are obtained where ethics become involved..." The section on animal experiments is particularly

interesting, with encouraging examples given of successes in replacing animals in experiments. However, it also catalogues the painfully slow process by which alternatives are being accepted, even when they are shown to give superior results. The tremendous inertia of the system and the many vested interests combine to keep change to a minimum. Although most of the authors fall far short of a vegan perspective, the book does show that at least some of 'The Establishment' are beginning to consider the use and abuse of animals in our society. That surely cannot be a bad thing. • Diane Armstrong-Roberts

How To Be Green John Button Century Hutchinson £4.99 Pbk, 233 pp What sort of book is this? Apparently we should share our potato peelings with our neighbours (for their compost heaps, you understand) and we should wash out our tins, cut both ends off, and flatten them for recycling. All gripping stuff, but try telling that to the folk at flat 1201, Eagleview Towers. It seems too, that we really don't have to wash our Greenpeace T-shirts that often; they don't smell that much (although they might if you keep them in the same cupboard as your compost store). The thought of people nationwide struggling towards work lumbered with odious bags of rotting vegetable waste certainly allows the reader a moment's relief. But on the whole this is one of those books you can read without gaining anything in either inspiration or knowledge. The statistics are plentiful enough — to the point of tedium. A joy The Vegan, Winter 1989


for Party Bores, no doubt. And that sums up this book. (Why do ecologically-sound books have to be so boring?) It's a pity. After all, the book is well laid out: carefully structured to present 'The Problem', and 'What Needs To Change' on the left, and 'What You Can Do' and 'Benefits' (to yourself, to others and to the environment) on the right, with one page per issue. The problem is that it doesn't really work. It has the effect of putting a Really Important Issue such as 'Lead in the Environment' on an apparently equal status with lesser topics such as 'Growing Your Own Beansprouts'. And one does tend to ask oneself if growing your own beansprouts will really contribute to the safebeing of all life as we know it while the Megadeath Factory next door is pouring chloride into your living room. Not that the book isn't consistent — after all, it is printed on recycled paper. And the monotonous lists of 'What You Can Do for Your Bit' acts as an admirably appropriate somnifacient for those who prefer a holistic approach (page 148) to sleeplessness. I'm sure all greens anxious to promote their footpath-credibility will feel they should have this on their reclaimed-timber bookshelves. Reading it, you get the feeling that John Button has his head not in the clouds, but perhaps in a thick smog. Like so many books with laudable aims it doesn't deal with the real world. The idea of minimum consumerism, for example, is taken for granted without any serious attempt to argue the issue. Through John's greentinted spectacles we should search out the darning needle, abandon our coffee grinders and electric toothbrushes, and throw out all those useless presents Auntie Beth and Uncle Lionel gave us. The former gives more exercise, apparently, and the latter more space to do it in. Is the book accurate? Well not precisely, but it is certainly within the limits of acceptable journalistic licence — for example, there is a rather simplistic opinion presented that a cessation of trade with Third World workers will automatically mean a return to a better life of subsistence farming.

The Vegan, Winter 1989

Phrases like 'culture reversal' spring to mind. John Button seems to think it necessary to find benefits all round for his proposals. This is not always necessary — some arguments stand on their own merits. In an attempt to justify the ideas, though, John has not so much presented justifications as drawn them out — like teeth, and just as painfully. And repeated them again and again, never mind how tenuous they may be. I mean, do we really want to know that the benefit of preserving topsoil is so that others can watch birds pulling worms out of your garden? And so we come to meat. Apparently, there's nothing intrinsically unecological about eating meat. (Not a word about the effects of overgrazing, fish farming or monofilament fishing nets.) To be fair, John does commend vegetarianism and urges people to eat less meat and 'healthy' meat (whatever that is). But if we can do without our new furniture and our coffee grinders I'm sure we could advocate a life without eating animals. But never mind, we can at least relax in the knowledge that in John Button's world people will be too busy darning socks and washing out their tin cans to have time to walk (yes, of course) to the butchers. Finally, we come to the 'I wish I hadn't said that' category. You know the sort of thing: jogging, and eating foods like rice is more healthy. But wait a minute — watch out for the fumes, and didn't I just say rice paddies are a major Contibutor to the greenhouse effect? And so on. As I say, having read the book one does tend to think "OK, I've put my salt cellar back in the cupboard, I've stopped buying Pot Noodles, and I take my own plastic bag to the shops. But there must be something I've missed." And it's then that you get knocked off your environmentallysound cycle path by the local bottle-recycling juggernaut. But you can relax in your alternative-medicine hospital because the piles of recycled newspaper and aluminium mountains will almost certainly save you from the effects of a thermo-nuclear blast. OK, I'm being sceptical and

a litde bit flippant. Perhaps its something to do with my organo-phosphate intake (page 62). It's unfortunate, because for all my cynicism the book has one or two valuable comments and observations. The problem is that they are hidden among 235 pages of recycled rhetoric and disposable drivel. The more sensible pages are hidden at the back, long after the average reader has given up in a sense of despair. Would I buy the book? No, although I might keep the review copy, if only to bore the pants off people at parties. But on reflection I think I will take John Button's advice on getting rid of unwanted junk. Excuse me, I must go and sniff out a fresh-ish T-shirt... • Robin Howard

The sleeve notes proclaim the album to be "the ultimate in a field of ambient music" and "an electronic symphony to the memory of the forgotten millions of animals who have died needlessly". The whole record is synthesized, piped and layered with distorted cries and electric saws that labour, their motors straining against flesh and bone. It is music for the slaughterer's Walkman, for the insanity of the industry, an exploration of anger, a journey into madness. Jean-Michel JarTe it is not.

There is nothing pleasent here. No compromises and nothing commercial. Whether it is self indulgent or an attempt at portraying the idiocy of the abattoir is a matter of personal taste. Some of my friends found it unlistenable — but they play guitars and listen to Radio 1. Muzak for Abattoirs won't sell and won't change a thing unfortunately. If you're that way inclined it may add a touch of militancy to your views, for it certainly has a full spectrum, if nasty emotion wound in there; it evokes reaction, and that maddening buzz is as close as I can get to describing it. • Dave Spence *

Muzak for Abattoirs Decomposed and played by Black Phlegm AKA Ellis Dee Magic Mushroom Records* £6.99 Muzak: those anonymous, background sounds that are drifted around department stores and elevators to soothe and stop the silence — music for shopping to. Muzak for Abattoirs is exactly what you'd expect it to be — a dissonant 50 minute grind of anger and repulsion. I went to an abattoir once; I remember the bleating, the clang of gates and bolts, the slush of blood, guts and hosepipes, the steam spurting into the cold air, and that maddening buzz right between the eyes. The same maddening buzz that I get when I pass a wagon full of transported animals on the motorway. That 'buzz', the one that could so easily push you over the edge, has been translated onto vinyl by Ellis Dee.


Vegetarian Children Sharon Yntema Thorsons £3.99 Pbk, ISSpp Some readers may recall Ms Yntema's earlier book Vegetarian Baby which was published many years ago; Vegetarian Children deals with childhood. Vegetarian Children is not a cookbook, it is a consideration of the aspects of rearing children in a meat-eating society. It includes the views of many vegetarian and vegan parents



and how they approached problems as they arose, and contains sections on Child Development, Peer and Other Society Pressures, Children's Health and Moral Development. As the father of a six year old boy (a life vegan) I have to say straight away that I found myself disagreeing with the suggestions offered by a lot of parents in the book. This is probably because I felt that the moral convictions of those contributing were not strong enough. Moral issues should be broached at the earliest opportunity (I suggest two years) and explained in an understandable, yet not understated, way. One has also to distinguish between vegetarian/vegan food and wholefood. This must be clear in the child's mind. In areas of morality, Vegetarian Children is often confused — for example, while it is, no doubt, undesirable for children to eat lots of 'junk' food, it is not morally wrong. These somewhat negative comments should not be taken to suggest that the book has nothing to offer; there are some useful ideas and suggestions

and it is interesting to compare other parents' approach to situations and how they dealt with them. If you feel isolated or a little unsure, then this book may well boost your confidence in your ability to rear vegetarian/vegan children. • Vincent FitzGerald Reviewers Diane Armstrong-Roberts is a free-lance editor specializing in environmental subjects Vincent FitzGerald is Vegan Society Hon. Treasurer Robin Howard is a former RSPCA Council member and former Hunt Saboteurs Association Committee member Leah Leneman is author of The Single Vegan (Thorsons) and Soya Foods Cookery (Routledge & Kegan Paul) Dave Spence is a freelance writer specializing in music

CALLING AUTHORS & ARTISTS The Editor invites authors, artists a n d cartoonists to submit material for possible publication in The Vegan. Negotiable fees payable for work of suitable quality. Please write to: The Editor, The Vegan, 33-35 George Street, Oxford OX1 2AY.

MSS or other original work submitted to be accompanied by an SAE.


Published by Bloomsbury Publishing Ltd. in association with the Vegan Society.

£3.99 + 60p p&p The second edition of the UK's best-selling guide for vegans and would-be vegans seeking assistance in choosing products completely free of animal ingredients and testing as part of a lifestyle free from animal exploitation. Uniquely comprehensive T h o u s a n d s of entries Informative section introductions Easy-to-consult H a n d y pocketbook f o r m a t Cruelty-free criteria R e c o m m e n d e d reading lists G u i d a n c e on additives Orders to: The Vegan Society (Merchandise), 33-35 George Street, Oxford OX1 2AY . Cheques/POs to be made payable to The Vegan Society Ltd.


The Vegan, Winter 1989

Shoparound Lis Howlett surveys the latest vegan products fter that marvellous summer,we cannot really complain now as the nights draw in and the mornings are damp and cold. It just means we can indulge in steaming bowls of porridge and mugs of hot soup.


New Temptations A number of manufacturers have been busy developing new products to try to tempt you away from old favourites. Since the recent wave of publicity suggesting that the consumption of oats can help reduce blood cholesterol levels, there has been a huge surge in demand for oats. (Readers may be interested to know that in their best-selling book The Quick Cholesterol Cleanout Peter Cox and Peggy Brusseau use entirely vegan recipes.) Consequently Quaker Oats have relaunched their Porridge Oats and added a couple of other vegan products: Quaker Oat Bran and Quaker Oat Bran Crispies. Both can be used as breakfast cereals and in home baking, though many will find the Crispies rather too sweet for their taste, since they are aimed at the mass (i.e. sugaraddicted), rather than the health-conscious market. Beware, however, of Quaker Oat Bread which contains whey and Quaker Oat Bran Muesli, which contains honey. Talking of bran, if you are a fan of the tasty square oat biscuits which accompany the mini-tubs of Tartex in those snack packs, you will be pleased to learn that these are now available as Vessen Bran Oatcakes and they are free from both sugar and wheat.

Savoury Samples Following on from their successful Vegetarian Stock Powder Just Wholefoods have launched a new range of savouries under the Cotswold Kitchen label comprising three soups and three grain dishes. And the first fifty readers to write in to the company at: Unit 7, Esland Place, Love Lane, Cirencester, Glos. GL7 1YG will receive a free sample pack. The soups come in Potato The Vegan, Winter 1989

& Leek, Garden Vegetable and Tomato & Lentil, and the grain dishes are Mixed Grain Choice, Golden Rice and Bulghar Wheat Pilaf. All very tasty and so simple to prepare — a real boon to have in the store cupboard. For those occasions when you want a single serving of something hot and savoury there are two new products, or at least one new and one relaunch. The London Herb & Spice Company has relaunched its Natural Break low-calorie soup in a tea-bag (each bag comes wrapped in a foil sachet) and under the Hiigli label there is Tomato Instant Soup Mix, which comes in a pack of five single-serving sachets. Finally on the soup front, among a new range of exotic tinned soups made by Campbell's the Mexican Chilli Bean Soup is vegan. Another company that is extending its range of exclusively vegan products is Goodlife Wholefoods. Formerly available from the chilled cabinet, six of their savouries are now available as frozen foods — with the added advantage of storage which that brings. Look out for: Bean Bangers in Herb and Spicy varieties, Falafel, Nut Cutlets, Tandoori Cutlets and Vegetable & Sesame Seed Cutlets.

Good Companions Vecon Easy Blend has been such a success that Modern Health have just brought out two companion products which could well prove equally invaluable in the kitchen. With their all-natural ingredients Vecon Curry Easy Blend and Vecon Barbecue Easy Blend will add flavour to many a dish. Why not make a sauce to go with a dish of Brown & Wild Rice? Haldane Foods have just brought out this tasty mixture following on the success of their Country Wild rice mix, and both are available in larger packs, enough for 5-6 servings. A host of new tofu items has just been announced by Cauldron Foods, Britain's leading producer of tofu prod-

ucts. The company is clearly intent on introducing tofu and its amazing versatility to a wider public. From the chilled food cabinet try Crispy Tofu Grills, which come in three varieties: Farmhouse, Italian and Tandoori, and Tofuloni in Spicy and Country flavours. Tofuloni comes in a pack of thin slices and aims to be a non-meat salami.

Cake-Break Although well served for biscuits, when it comes to cakes vegans have generally had to bake their own. Of course there is nothing to beat good home baking, but for many reasons, which can usually be bundled under the heading of 'convenience', it is handy to have a manufactured product to fall back on, or to recommend to a friend or relative unversed in the art of vegan baking! Two ready-made vegan cakes to look out for then are Stem Ginger and Date & Pecan wholemeal cakes, available from the Everfresh company under the Sunnyvale label. As we enter the festive season the usual range of traditional foods are appearing on the shelves. Readers are advised to consult the pages of the new Cruelty Free Shopper for a list of vegan Christmas foods. But new on the market and staking its claim to serve as the centre-piece of a Yuletide vegan spread is a Cashew Nut Roast mix made by Granose, described in the promotional hand-out as "ovenable as well as microwavable". Try serving in a casing of flaky pastry with all the usual trimmings. Beware of the same company's mincemeat, however — it contains honey. And to round off seasonal items, the carob specialists at Earthlore have once again come up with something new: as well as their sophisticated confections for adults there is now a variety of novelties for children — including decorations to hang on the festive tree — in the dairy-free range.

Role-Playing In this last 'Shoparound' of the eighties it's worth pausing briefly to reflect on the past decade and to look ahead to the next as regards vegan consumerism. Whilst the eighties have

undoubtedly been a boom period (remember the days when even in a big city finding any vegan margarine or soya milk was a major challenge?) much remains to be done if we are to see the wholesale adoption of vegan values by mainstream, rather than purely fringe consumers. Key factors in achieving such a breakthrough will be price and ease of availability. Cruelty-free commodity prices need to fall to the point where they are within the means of all, rather than just the more affluent members of the community. Health-food sector take note. And there must be no artificial barriers to the availability of cruelty-free commodities — hence the need to encourage their sale through every possible outlet, including supermarkets and multiples. The Vegan Society has an important role to play here. As we are poised to enter the last decade of our century let us hope that chronic underfunding and understaffing do not prevent it from playing that role. Roger Coates of Whole in the Wall reports . . . Just in time for Christmas comes Brazil Nut Bake from Triangle Foods. It does not require any pre-mixing as it comes ready-to-heat in a sealed metal container. Herbs have been added to Sosmix to produce Sosmix Country Herb Style. A welcome addition to the Meridian range is a 250g block of marzipan. The attractive and sensible foil wrapper make this otherwise sticky mess into an easily controlled goody for those with a sweet tooth. Following on from the launch of their Cheddar and Gouda Scheeses in soft spread form, Green Dragon Animal-Free Foods have now launched hard versions. Both can be used cold or hot and can be sliced. They are currently available in North Wales health/wholefood shops but will be available in the rest of the country as soon as you put enough pressure on your local shop! STOP PRESS. The Societv, has recieved a cop\ of a Idler

IVom Sarakan Limited daied S.I I,<Sl) which slates that cochineal (a dye consisting of dried and crushed insects) is used in iis toothpaste 27


For your Christmas enjoyment there is a selection of NINE tasty CHOCOLATE and CAROB bars. Make sure you have some PLAMIL MINT CHOCOLATE after dinner.

Made by Vegans for Vegans

Please send me literature I enclose a S A E

Available exclusively at Health Stores. Enjoy too at Christmas PLAMIL SOYA MILK with vegan calcium & vitamins B2,B12 & D2 for vegan nutrition, concentrated in 500mls and ready-to-use (sugar-free) 1 litre cartons.




You don't have to be a member of the Vegan Society to be sure of a regular delivery of The Vegan direct to your door. Complete the form below* and the next four issues of The Vegan — published quarterly — will be sent to you as soon as they are published. * If you do not want to spoil this issue, photocopy the form or send the details requested on a separate sheet Please send me the next four issues of The Vegan Name Address Post Code. I enclose a cheque/PO for £5.00 payable to: The Vegan Society Ltd Return to: Vegan Subscriptions, The Vegan Society, 33-35 George Street, Oxford OX 1 2AY.

0 1

name. address



GIFT SUBSCRIPTION Why not give a gift subscription of The Vegan to a friend, relative or colleague? Simply complete the form below* and the lucky recipient of your gift will recieve the current Vegan, the next three issues and a card with your message. * If you do not want to spoil this issue, photocopy the form or send the details requested on a separate sheet Your details: Name Address Post Code Recipient's details : Name Address Post Code. Message (max. 20 words)

I enclose a cheque/PO for £5.50 payable to: The Vegan Society Ltd Return to: Vegan Subscriptions, The Vegan Society, 33-35 George Street. Oxford OX1 2AY.

The Vegan, Winter 1989

Postbaq Contributions to Postbag are welcomed, but accepted on the understanding that they may be edited in the interests of brevity or clarity. Send your letters to: The Editor, THE VEGAtf, 33-35 George Street, Oxford OX1 2AY

Acrylic, nylon, plastic etc. causes pollution during production and disposal — causing the lingering deaths of millions of animals. Equally, it's hypocritical to slag off CIWF, BUAV etc. for their use of 'cruelty-free' when there are items in die CrueltyFree Shopper which aren't organic and biodegradable. By 'cruelty-free' we really mean 'less cruel'. • Nik Wilson, London Ed. Veganism has never claimed to have all the answers but, at the very least, it addesses deliberate cruelty to animals, offers a practical alternative, and is a weighty step in the right direction.

The Vegan Wine Offer For the Record I fear Donald Watson may have mislead your readers on Henry Salt's opinions of those who eschew milk and eggs as well as meat (Retrospect, Autumn 1989). In his book The Logic of Vegetarianism (1899) it is clear that Salt was concerned that those who are really opposed to any form of humane diet were arguing an 'all or nothing' reform of diet in the hope that most would choose the latter — given the difficulties of a complete transition of diet in those days. Here is part of a fictitious exchange Salt made up to explain his case: Superior Person: But in this case I understand that it is quite possible to be consistent. There are individuals, are there not, who live on a purely vegetable diet, without using milk or eggs? Now these are people whose action one can at least appreciate and respect. Vegetarian: Quite so. We fully admit that they are in advance of their fellows. We regard them as pioneers, who are anticipating a future phase of our movement. Superior Person: You admit, then, that this extreme vegetarianism is the more ideal diet? Vegetarian: Yes. To do more than you have undertaken to do is a mark of single merit; but no discredit attaches on that account to those who have done what they undertook. We hold that "the first step", as Tolstoy expressed it, is to clear oneself of all complicity in the horrible business of the slaughterhouse. Superior Person: Well, I The Vegan, Winter 1989

must repeat that, were I to practice any form of asceticism, I should incline to that which does not do things by halves. Vegetarian: Of course. That is invariably the sentiment of those who do not do things at all. • Simon Wild, Chichester

Confusion Massive demand for 'crueltyfree' has arisen since the Green's election boom and the stopping of all animal tests by Benetton, Avon and Revlon. However, the major animal campaigning groups are ill-prepared for it and people are getting more and more confused by the variety of 'cruelty-free' lists and companies' declarations. Major groups must get together without delay to fulfil the demand for a joint up-todate reference of all that is truly cruelty-free. The list should be computerized, accurate, updated and available. There is no room and no time for half measures. The Vegan Society is on the right track with the CrueltyFree Shopper, but this research needs the support of all, otherwise it's too little and too late. • Pat Mear, Croydon

Ethical Dilemma It's all very well vegans saying don't buy wool or leather but what's ethical about the alternatives? Cotton is produced by low paid workers (often children) on plantations owned by multinationals. Rubber is another Third World cash crop.

We all need to drink but alcohol is not like water, its immediate effect is to make us feel happier, more confident and we even appear healthier. 'Mine Host' appears on Christmas cards and while we spend over £40,000,000 on it per day our brothers and sisters round the world die through want of water. Where I live, every day I see people in the street lying in their own vomit and urine and they too used to feel happier, more confident and looked healthier. I have practised veganism for twenty years, do my utmost to promote it and bear witness to the great benefits of this diet. I also equally firmly believe that alcohol is the greatest scourge of society above all other drugs. Some of my friends have suffered its ills from professional failure through to death in the gutter and it is because of this and in their honour and memory that I am not prepared to compromise my abhorrence of it. Giving information to vegans who as yet have been unable to give up alcohol is one thing, to actively promote its sale is quite another. • Gordon Carr, London At the Vegan Society AGM an unsubstantiated statement was made that the the Vegetarian Society was attempting to take over the Vegan Society. As a member of Council of the Vegetarian Society and a former Council member of the Vegan Society I think I might reasonably be called upon to answer the claim: it is totally false. What the Vegetarian Society

does desire is an amicable and close working relationship with the Vegan Society to the benefit of both societies and to the detriment of institutionalized animal abuse. • Paul Appleby, Oxford

Waste I understand Susan Millington's reservations about veganic farming (I prefer to call it 'vegan organic' so as not to confuse it with Kenneth O'Brien's techniques) and want to suggest that vegan organic farming can only become the norm when we return all our human waste to the soil. I understand that 'veganic' teaches not to return excreta to the soil for growing food for humans — not even when treated in a biodigester to make methane gas. I don't see any problem. At present we throw most of our excreta in the rivers and seas and will be doing so for decades. Rural vegan organic communities could recycle much more of their waste than urban communities probably ever will. This is one of the aims of the Vegan Community Project of which I am now central contact. • Bob Howes,

Anarchic Thoughts Congratulations on a much improved Vegan — let's hope the magazine continues to reflect the political concerns of vegans, as opposed to a narrow preoccupation with individual consumption and 'lifestyle' choices. The article on anarcho-veganism was interesting but it didn't explain why anarchism specifically implies veganism and vice versa — and thus wouldn't convince the many non-vegan anarchists of the error of their ways. Indeed it could be argued that a more authoritarian system could more easily 'impose' veganism, whereas in an anarchist society vegan and non-vegan communities could presumably exist side by side, if the latter remained unpersuaded by the former. There are possible answers to these questions but the article does not supply them. As a piece explaining anarchism (as opposed to anarcho-veganism) it was reasonable enough. • Barry Maycock, Oxford 29


Noticeboard Diary Dates 28 November-23 December. Green Christmas Fair at the London Ecology Centre, 45 Shelton Street, Covent Garden, London WC2H 9HJ, 10am-6pm, Mon-Sat, admission free. Tel. 01 379 4324 . 25 December. Hazel ton Laboratories vigil, Otley Road, Harrogate, llam-4pm. Lunch provided. Accommodation can also be arranged. Contact (in advance): Harrogate AV Group, PO Box 135, Harrogate, Yorkshire HG1 5AX. 3 March. Animal Charities Fayre, Town Hall, St Albans, Herts. 10.00-4.00. Admission 20p. Organized by the Vegetarian Society (St Albans).

Subscriptions Annual subscriptions — the Society's principal source of income — are due 1 January 1990; members and associates will find a Subscription Renewal Form enclosed. Those currently paying by Bankers Order/Covenant are requested to alter them in line with the Society's new subscription rates. Those not paying their subscription by Bankers Order/Covenant are requested to do so in order to reduce the administrative burden of processing renewals.

favourite charity — No, the Vegan Society! — whilst keeping fit and saving the world at the same time, then help is at hand in the form of the Aluminium Can Recyling Association. It will give you cash for (aluminium) trash. Details: Aluminium Can Recycling Association, I-Mex House, 52 Bulcher Street, Birmingham B1 1QU. Tel. 021 633 4656

Save Save Save Vegan Society members (with valid membership cards) are able to obtain a 10% discount, Monday to Thursday, on purchases over £5 at: Beano Wholefoods Collective Ltd, 36 New Brig gate, Leeds 1. Tel. 435 737. Less energetic members may wish to take advantage of a 10% discount on wholefoods and household products delivered by JD Home Deliveries, Unit 12, Staveley Workshops, Works Road, Hollingwood, Chesterfield, Derbys S43 2PE. Tel. 0246 473818. Again, you will need to produce a valid membership card.

Help A German physician is currently compiling a dissertation on die benefits of vegan and vegetarian diets. If you are able to assist by completing a questionaire write to:

Leg Work Vegans or vegetarians interested in running a half marathon some time next year, or raising sponsorship for such an event,

Apology Regretfully, the credit was omitted from 'The Old Man Who Cried' (The Vegan, Autumn 1989). Sincere apologies to the author of this wellreceived story — Gordon Carr.

Fundraising If you're wondering how you can raise money for your 30

Fasting Over Yuletide Two members of the Animal Rights Education Network, Glasgow will be fasting for a minimum of seven days commencing Christmas Eve outside Porton Down Chemical Defence Establishment, Salisbury, Wiltshire. They will carry out a peaceful demonstration throughout the fast and hope to raise awareness at a time when over-indulgence by humans and the abuse of animals is at its peak. At the same time they will be raising money for local and national groups. If you are in the area why not pay them a morale-boosting visit?

Vegan Survey

More Research

David Ryde — a vegan doctor — is currently compiling information on morbidity (illness) and mortality (death) in vegans. He would be pleased to receive the following details relating to vegans readers have known: age at death, sex, state of health in the final 10 years of life, cause of death, length of time as a vegan, and unhealthy habits e.g. over-indulgence in tobacco or alcohol. He would also like information on the progress of vegan mothers at different stages of pregnancy, and the progress of vegan babies until some months after birth.

Free-lance writer and vegetarian, Theresa Rose is currently researching a book on vegetarianism. She would like to interview (by post) vegans and vegetarians. If you can help send an SAE to: 'British Vegetarian Interview', PO Box 604, Belleville, NJ 07109, USA. Karen Mitchell is a third year Home Economics student writing a thesis on the relationship between the vegan diet and levels of cholesterol and calcium. She would be pleased to receive details of readers' typical weekly di d

If you wish to receive a reply you should enclose an SAE.

Labour Party Anyone interested in setting up a group to campaign for animal rights within the Labour movement should contact:

All The Way A Lancashire restaurant is pleased to announce that it is now totally vegan! The Sunflower Vegan Restaurant would be pleased to see Vegan Society members. Rather than give you a discount, 25% of your bill will be donated to the Society. All workers are voluntary so if there are any vegans in the area who would like to help out please get in touch with Sandra or Robin at: The Sunflower Vegan Restaurant, 153 Old Street, Ashton-ULyne, Lanes OL6 7SQ. Tel. 061 3393332.

Songster A new single just out is A Song for the Animals by Peter Poet. It has received some excellent reviews including one in the Daily Telegraph: "A Song for Animals delightfully irritates the carnivorous conscience! Lovely record". It is distributed by Jet Start/EMI. Order from your local record shop or contact: Hits With Heart Records, 19 Gerrard Street, London W1V 7LA. Tel. 01 4376255.

Vegans International The 5th International Vegan Festival will take place near Hengelo in the eastern province of Gelderland in Holland from 21 to 28 July 1990. Hengelo is approximately 2 hours (by public transport) from Amsterdam. Accommodation will be available in a large old countryhouse now used as a vacation and conference centre. Good food, an interesting programme of lectures, workshops, information on vegan societies from all over the world, entertainment, cycling, tours, dancing and singing are on offer. Further details will be available shortly. Organizers: The Dutch Vegan Society, Postbus 1087, 6801 BB Arnhem, Netherlands.

Business as Usual If you enjoyed reading the oldstyle Animal Liberation Front (SG) Newsletter, with its listing of 'actions', you will be pleased to learn that a new (independently-produced) newletter, Business as Usual, fills the void. Contact: Business As Usual, BM B.A.U, London WC1N3XX.

Down Under The Australian Vegan Society would like to hear from vegans intending to visit its neck of the woods/make a donation! Contact:

The Vegan, Winter 1989

Local Groups

THE COUNCIL, OFFICERS AND STAFF Extend the wormest Seasonal Greetings to readers and wish to thank those who have contributed to the Society's work during 1989

SEASONAL MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT Being in the fortunate position where my work-a-day life brings me into constant touch with vegans, I always feel concerned about those of you who have no vegan friend near at hand and who feel isolated. So, in sending seasonal greetings may I express a confident hope that the Society may be able to involve you more and more in its work in 1990, with the added bonus of enabling you to make more vegan friends. A sad event in 1989 was the pasing of Eva Batt, who served in so many ways for over three decades from Secretary to VicePresident and from commodities investigator to Chairman of the Council. It would be a fitting memorial to her for the Society to acquire freehold premises as its HQ so I invite you to turn to page 5 and read the notes under the heading 'Ethical Investment Landmark'. I wish you every encouragement in all you do for the vegan cause in 1990. â&#x20AC;˘ Arthur Ling The Vegan, Winter 1989


Publications & Pzomotional Goods T h e items shown in this section are just a selection from the range stocked by the Vegan Society. Please send an SAE m a r k e d ' P & P G ' for a full listing. Prices exclude postage and packing (see Order Form for rates). Items marked [ V S ] are published by, or in association with, the Vegan Society. All titles are paperback, unless otherwise indicated. O r d e r s are processed within just five days of receipt.

PUBLICATIONS Background Reading W h y Vegan? Kath Clements A mass of facts and figures ably presented in a simple and straightforward exposition of the case for veganism. £2.95 Food for a Future Jon Wynne-Tyson A classic work, powerfully arguing the moral, economic, ecological, physiological and nutritional case for vegetarianism and veganism. Packed with information, statistics, literary quotations, nutritional and dietary data. £4.99 Compassion: The Ultimate Ethic Victoria Moran An examination of the history and philosophy of the vegan movement. £4.95 The Extended Circle: A Dictionary of Humane Thought (Ed.) Jon Wynne-Tyson. Award winning collection of quotations concerning our treatment of non-human species. Hardback. £7.95 Food: Need, Greed and Myopia by Geoffrey Yates Review of the world food situation and land use, including the vegan alternative, with useful facts and figures. £3.95

Reference Guides [VS] The Cruelty-Free Shopper Lis Howlett Brand-new, much-expanded edition of best-selling guide for vegans and would-be vegans seeking assistance in choosing 100% animal-free products as part of a lifestyle free from animal exploitation. Thousands of entries organized into easy-to-consult sections 32

(Food Products, Toiletries & Cosmetics, Homecare Products, Additives, etc). Complete with informative section introductions, recommended reading lists and index. Indespensable. £3.99 f V S ] T h e Vegan Holiday & Restaurant G u i d e Colin Howlett Standard guide to holiday accommodation and eating places in the UK catering for vegans. More than 600 entries organized under county and town, with a helpful tariff grading system and other selection aids. Includes section on specialinterest holidaymaking abroad. £2.99

The 1 9 8 9 — 1 9 9 0 International Vegetarian Travel Guide (Ed.) Viv Preece A rich assortment of eating out and holiday/travel-related information of value to lacto-vegetarians and vegans alike. Complements The Vegan Holiday & Restaurant Guide. £3.99

Animal Rights T h e Struggle for Animal Rights Prof. Tom Regan A leading philosopher lucidly puts the case for animal rights. Chapters on farm and laboratory animals, hunting, dissection, plus autobiographical sketch. £3.50 T h e Case for Animal Rights Prof. Tom Regan A classic, scholarly contribution to the philosophy of animal rights. For the more serious student of the subject. £7.95 T h e Dreaded Comparison: H u m a n and Animal Slavery by Marjorie Spiegel A penetrating study in picture and prose, loaded with shocking comparisons of human and animal slavery, of racism and speciesism. £3.95 Voiceless Victims Rebecca Hall A wide-ranging examination of human abuse of animals. Chapters include: bloodsports, slaughter and farming, animals in entertainment, vivisection, and anthropocentric conservation. Includes extensive 'what you can do' sections. £5.95 Assault and Battery Mark Gold A critical examination of factory farming and its effects on animals, people and the environment. £5.95 The Cruel Deception: T h e Use of Animals in Medical Research Dr Robert Sharpe A detailed study demonstrating both the barbarism and scientific invalidity of vivisection. £7.99 Animal Liberation: A Graphic Guide Lori Gruen, Peter Singer and David Hine. A powerfully illustrated introduction to the subject. £4.95

Cookbooks [VS] T h e Caring Cook: Cruelty-Free Cooking for Beginners Janet Hunt A bargain-priced and easy-to-follow first vegan cookbook, written The Vegan, Winter 1989

expressly for those new to crueltyfree living. Offers a comprehensive selection of everday and specialoccasion recipes, plus a mass of hints and tips. Durable, wipe-clean cover. £1.99

The Single Vegan Leah Leneman Tailored to the needs of vegans living either alone or in non-vegan households, this is a book to persuade you that it really is 'worth the bother' for one. £4.99

ans. Includes highlighted major points, easy-to-follow tables, chapter summaries and detailed index. £4.95

Vegan Nutrition: Pure and Simple Michael Klaper MD An American physician demonstrates how sound vegan diets can satisfy all the body's needs and play a major role in the prevention

and treatment of many degenerative diseases. Includes nutrient tables, meal plans and recipes. Large format. £4.95

children on a 100% animal-free diet. Includes nutrient tables, meal plans and recipes. Large format. £4.95

Pregnancy, Children and the Vegan Diet

Barbara Griggs A handbook of simple remedies. £3.99

Michael Klaper MD A practical guide to ensuring health and balance throughout pregnancy and to raising healthy

The Vegan Cookbook Alan Wakeman and Gordon Baskerville 200 richly varied and carefully graded recipes, ranging from the quick and simple right through to the unashamedly gourmet. Complete with nutrition notes and checker. £4.95

PROMOTIONAL GOODS T-Shirts Adult: Two designs on 100% cotton: 'Give Bottle the Boot' — red and white on navy blue (small, medium); 'Ban Blood Foods' — red and black on white (small only). £3.50 Children's: Multi-colour 'Famous Vegans . . . ' design on white cotton. Sizes: 22", 26", 28". £2.75

The Vegan Health Plan Amanda Sweet More than 300 recipes, plus nutritional information and hints on buying and storing foods, suitability for freezing etc. £4.95

Button Badges (11/2")

Cooking with Sea Vegetables

[VS] Vegan Cookery An updated [1985] and restyled edition of the first major cookbook ever published. More than 300 appetizing, nourishing and economical recipies, plus a wealth of practical advice and nutritional information. £3.50

[VS] What Else is Cooking? Eva Ban

Companion volume to the above, with a further 300 recipes and more practical hints. Spiral-bound, with wipe-clean cover. £2.99

SPECIAL! Vegan Cookerv and What Else is Cooking? bought as a set. £4.50

Nutrition and Health [VS] Vegan Nutrition: A Survey of Research Gill Langley MA PhD The most comprehensive survey ever undertaken of scientific research on vegan diets. Ideal for nutritionists, researchers, dieticians, GPs, community health workers, vegans and would be veg-

The Vegan, Winter 1989

Home Ecology Karen Chri stensen Packed with practical advice on how ecological principles can be applied in the home, enabling the individual to improve his/her environment and quality of life. £5.95 Kenneth Dalziel O'Brien A comprehensive, yet easy-to-follow guide to the subject by the system's greatest living exponent. £6.99

Leah Leneman First-rate introduction to this vast subject, with hints and more than 100 adventurous recipes for soya yoghurt, soft 'cheese', mayonnaise etc. £4.99

Eva Ban

Home and Garden

Veganic Gardening

Soya Foods Cookery

Peter and Montse Bradford A vegan macrobiotic guide to the culinary use of the 'harvest of the oceans'. £3.99

The Home Herbal Book

ORDER FORM After calculating the total sum owing, including postage and packing, send your cheque or postal order to: The Vegan Society (Merchandise), 3 3 - 3 5 George Street, Oxford OX1 2AY. Cheques/postal orders should be made payable to The Vegan Society Ltd. TOTAL COST OF ITEM(S) ORDERED £ POSTAGE & PACKING (See below ) £ Inland : Total Cost of item(s) ordered £2.99 or less — add 35p: £3.00 to £3.99 — add 60p; £4.00 to £5.99 — add 75p; £6.00 to £9.99 — add £1; £10 to £20 — add £1.50: over £20 — free Eire and Overseas : Please increase total payment by a further 10% to cover additional surface rate postal charges. (NB Goods sent airmail by special arrangement only.) DONATION £ TOTAL PAYMENT* £ •Orders to be sent to Eire or overseas must be paid for by International Money Order or by Sterling cheque drawn on an English bank. I enclose a cheque/postal order for £ made payable to : The Vegan Society Ltd. Name(PLEASE PRINT) Address (PLEASE PRINT)

Two colours. Please specify design(s) required using letter code. (A, B, C, D only) 25p each, four for 90p

Stickers (11/2") Same designs and colours as button badges, in sheets of 12 of same . Please specify design(s) required using badge letter code (B, C, D only). 20p per sheet, five sheets for 90p

Ballpen Red and black casing with slogan 'Ban Blood Foods' printed in white on clip. 35p

Notelets Printed on high-quality, 100% recycled paper. Colour scheme: chocolate brown on cream. Pack of twelve, with four different seasonal designs. £1.25

Bookmarks Printed on high-quality, 100% recycled card. Colour scheme: chocolate brown on cream. Set of four different designs, with recipes on reverse. 45p

Envelope Savers (Reuse Labels) 100% recyled paper, non-animal gum. Two designs: 'Globe' — black and green on white; 'Bottle' — black and red on white. £1.15 per 100 (of one design)


, r/Vv

Welcomes Vegans

ACCOMMODATION A C C O M M O D A T I O N for fit vegan in exchange for property maintenancertiousework and voluntary help for Vegfam. Write to 'The Sanctuary', Nr Lydford, Okehampton, Devon EX20 4AL.


CUMBRIA. Wholefood vegetarian/vegan B&B. No smoking. Evening meals. Open all year. Spectacular Pennine scenery. Loaning Head, Garrigill, Alston. Tel. 0498 81013. " F A I R P L A C E " . Watermillock-onUUswater, Penrith CA11 0LR. Vegetarian el. ISRAEL. Vegan wholefood guesthouse in peacef

RESIDENTIAL Weekend/Day Courses. Wholefood establishment, no smoke. Norfolk village pub converted. Bunkhouse-style accommodation. SAE Castle Acre Staging House, PE32 2AG.

EATING OUT DEVON. Willow Vegetarian Restaurant, 87 High Street, Totnes. Tel. 862605. Wonderful food, mostly organic ingredients used. Many vegan choices. Special nights every week. S W I N D O N . The Garden Cafe, Milton Road Health Hydro. Tel. (0703) 541304. Open 10am to 5pm Mon-Sat. All wholefood vegetarian/vegan meals and snacks. Mainly organic produce. Also outside catering available for all occasions. W A N T E D . Nice customers for our vegan/macrobiotic restaurant. Caring Green Restaurant needs more nice customers. Tel. 0442 863584. Cooks Delight 340/4 High Street, Berkhamsted, Herts HP4 1HV. Rex or Khai-Eng.


ST IVES, Cornwall. Exclusively vegetarian/vegan guest-house overlooking St. Ives Bay. Close to beach and scenic coastline. Open all year. Central

S H R O P S H I R E . Exclusively vegan wholefood B&B. EM optional, homegrown veganic veg. Lovely peaceful location, adj: Long Mynd. Superb scenery, lovely walks, ideal for touring. Gliding stn. nearby. No smoking. Children and pets welcome. £9.00 p.p. Tel (0588) 61417. SOMERSET.Exclusively vegetarian/vegan accomodation in 16th century listed house. Situated bordering Devon and Dorset. Is an ideal base for touring, country walks or just relaxing. Informal atmosphere, BB & EM. Also self catering available. Vegan proprietors. Details: Merefield House, East Street, Crewkerne, Somerset TA18 7AB. Tel. 0460 73112. MID WALES. Staylittle (Machynlleth 12 miles), vegan/vegetarian B&B for nonsmokers. B&B £9.00 per person per night. Optional evening meal. Tel. (05516) 425.



Vegan GuesI House Bal later

F o r comprehensive list see Special-Interest Holidays and Holidays Abroad

sections or The Vegan Holiday & Restaurant Guide


Th« Saltings, Lelant St Ives, Cornwall W (0736) 753147

( 0 8 2 281) 8 9 7 / 8

Quiet Country Hotel overlooking beautiful Ddalestuary and bird sanctuary. Britain's oldest vegetarian and vegan hotel is fam-


med and stands in its own grounds to beaches and unspoilt coastal walks. Superb cuisine and friendly personal service Some rooms with shower/wc en suite


BEECHMOUNT Hear Sawrey, Ambleside, Cumbria, LA22 OLB

VegeUriaiWeoan MB, excellent country house accommodation. Situated in Beatrix Putter's picturesque village of Near Sawrey with it! Okie . . .

n _,



. .


| .

wonoe nut, i miles rrom nawxsneao, Laxe Windermere (car ferry) 2 miles. (Mghtful bedrooms with tea/coffee, TV. etc.. and lovely views over Esthwaite Water Ideal centre lor lakes. ttra, tells and GrUedale Forest Ambleside, Coniston. and Bowness only a short drive away. For details and booking



£2.99+35p p & p BEXHILL-ON-SEA. Vegan/vegetarian bed & breakfast. £7 per night. Radio, TV, tea and coffee facilities. Completely vegetarian household. Vegan bedding etc. 10 Deerswood Lane, Bexhill TN39 4LT. Tel. 042 43 5153. 34

• Spacious Edwardian House overlooking Porlock Bay • Open log fires • Coastal/moorland walk • Trad/vegetarian/vegan meals • Special diets

Oran Na * Set in the Grampian Highlands of Scotland * Wholesome, healthy cruelty-free food * Free use of cydes for guests SELF CATERING COTTAGE attached. Fantastic scenery, endless walks 10% discount for vegan society members No smoking. Tel. 03397 55759for details or write to II Bridge Square. Ballaier AB3 5QJ

on Dartmoor Elegant I6H1 century and Victorian dining and guest rooms

Ideal location lor walking or touring holidays

Ipway, Porlock, Somerset, TA24 8QE X

Vegetarian Restaurant and Guesthouse


For further information and brochure please contact

S H R O P S H I R E . Bentley House. 18C house in unspoilt countryside, close Ludlow, Strettons, Ironbridge. Exclusively vegetarian/vegan wholefood. Vegan proprietors. Central heating. No smoking. B & B, EM, packed lunches. Tel. 05887 255.

The Stannary

Quality c u i s i n e that is animal friendly with m a n y i t e m s a l w a y s a v a i l a b l e lor v e g a n s a n d t h o s e ol s p e c i a l d i e t s

CA125DE Tel: (07687) 72830

(( PENZANCE. Self-Catering accomodation for 3-4. Two miles from Penzance with large garden, sea and country views. Occasional vegan meals available. Tel. 0736 62242.


Vegetarian Guesthouse in the Lake District offers delicious and varied meals in a friendly and relaxed atmosphere. Vegans always welcome — please advise when booking so we can plan our set menus accordingly. No smoking. Open for dinner lo non-residents (booking essential). or brochure to:


Breathtaking views from this warm and welcoming guest house set amongst the finest scenery in Britain. Ideally situated on the coast of Wester Ross, we offer spacious accommodation, delicious vegan and vegetarian food and lovely views across Lock Ewe from every room. Perfect for touring walking bird watching or Just relaxing with our shelves of books. Self catering flat also available. For details please unite to: phone (044 582) 394.



MAIL ORDER BONITA SKINCARE — an exclusive VEGAN skin care range including bath oils and essential oils. Cruelty-free using natural ingredients. Details from Bonita (CVN4), 23 Archers Close, Droitwich, Worcs. Tel. 0905 771908 IDEAL CHRISTMAS PRESENT. Or give your body a treat. Famous REMED 100% Herbal Remedies. Eg. Herbal Weightloss Course (1 month) £7.99; Herbal Skincare Pack £12.00; Herbal Tonic Course £14.00; Vitamin Mineral Twinpack (3 months) £19.00; Herbal Restful Night Tablets (100) £6.95. FREE catalogue with order or send SAE: P.O Box 766, Swindon Wilts. SN1 3TQ. LIQUID CONCENTRATE is the biodegradable liquid soap derived from coconut oil, which is free from animal products and animal testing. SAE for details: Dept EV, Janco Sales, 11 Seymour Road, Hampton Hill. Middlesex TW12 1DD. RECYCLED STATIONERY by mail. Send two 15p stamps for our catalogue. Full colour exclusive greeting cards, writing paper and envelopes, computer paper, drawing pads etc. Greenscene, 123 Fore Street, Exeter EX4 3JQ. Wholesale service on 0392 215969. VEGAN AROMATIC BATH PRODUCTS, Hair Care, Perfumes and Skin preparations. For full information send SAE to DOLMA, 19 Royce Avenue, Hucknall, Nottingham NG15 6FU. Trade enquiries welcome.

Vegan Beds! Cruelty-free, non-aUergenic, no CFCs, choice of comfort/ support levels, handmade, sustainable timber. For our range of ethical products contact: Designerwares, Y Gorlan, Tynygongl, LL74 8QE. Tel. 0248 852019 The Vegan, Winter 1989

VEGAN CATS! Vegan supplements for homemade recipes. Vegecal £5.85 Vegekit £5.36. Details/Orders: Katz Go Vegan, Box 161, Vegan Society, 33—35 George Street, Oxford OX1 2AY.

VEGFAM feeds the hungry — vegetable foodstuffs, leaf protein, horticulture, irrigation, afforestation etc., The Sanctuary, Nr Lydford, Okehampton, Devon. EX20 4AL. Tel. 0822 82203.

PERSONAL W H O L E I N T H E WALL Vegan Wholefoods A member of the Vegan Business Connection We stock over 900 vegan products in our exclusively vegan shop. We are able to offer mail order on the following: • Green Dragon Nnaises • Green Dragon Scheeses • Disos Wines • Rabenhorst Organic Juices • Hole in the Hedge Essential Oils Wholesale enquiries welcome. SAE for details. Please note our new address w.e.f 1/1/90. We are expanding — the Whole is getting larger Whole in the Wall, 23 Wetyield Gwynedd. Tel. 0248364518




Pre-payment please by cheque or postal order made payable to 'The Vegan Society L t d ' and sent to: The Advertising Manager, The Vegan. 33-35 George Street. Oxford OX1 2AY.

South Wallington. Surrey SM6 9JZ. Tel: 01-647 5435

March, June, September, December.


2nd-4th February To be held at: The Order of The Cross Snelsmore House Nr Newbury, Berks RG16 9BG Tel: 0635 41266

AHIMSA. Quarterly m a g a z i n e of the American Vegan Society. Veganism, Natural Living, Reverence for Life. Calendar Year subscription $15. Address: 501 Old Harding Highway, Malaga, NJ 08328, USA.




A )A K E R S

VEGETARIAN AND U N A T T A C H E D ? Get-together with many hundreds of like-minded members of all ages, locally and countrywide, for introductions, socials, holidays and friendship network - vegans also welcome. For information ring 01-348 5229 anytime or write to Coronation Road, London NW10

Saturday, 3rd March 10.30am-l .OOprn Talks and sharing on the theme Vegetarian/Vegan lunch available To be held at: The Order of The Cross 10 De Vere Gardens Kensington W8 5AE Tel: 01-937 7012

Send for our free introductory brochure. The full T h e r a p y P a c k c o s t s £ 6 . 5 0 , including d e t a i l s of all a s p e c t s of o u r p r o g r a m m e - v e g a n diet, stress-control, psychologcal counselling and healing.

Cancer Help Centre, Grove House, Clifton, Bristol BS8 4PG T e l e p h o n e H e l p - l i n e : (0272) 743216.


The Vegan Society reserves the right to refuse or withdraw any advertisement without explanation. Although every care is taken, the Vegan Society cannot accept liability for any loss or inconvenience incurred as a result of errors in the wording, or the late or nonappearance of an advertisement.

DISPLAY ADS Prospective a d v e r t i s e r s please note that all display advertisements (l/8th page or more) in The Vegan a r e now handled by Geerings of Ashford Ltd. For full details please apply to: The Vegan Advertisement Office, Geerings of Ashford Ltd., Cobbs Wood House, Chart Road, Ashford, Kent TN23 IBP. TeL 0233 633366.

f r F a i t h f u l , loyal c o m p a n i o n s . Most a r e sti'.l being fed m e a t , which is o f t e n declared u n s u i t a b l e for h u m a n consumption. If t h e r e w a s n ' t t h i s h u g e o u t l e t for subs t a n d a r d meat in t h e p e t food i n d u s t r y , m e a t prices would soar. W h a t better incentive for people to consider t h e alternatives.




CONTACT CENTRE is a friendship agency, quite different from all the others. It enables you to choose your friend(s) from detailed advertisements or to write an advertisement yourself without disclosing your name and address. CONTACT CENTRE gives you full scope: you don't even have to complete a form. CONTACT CENTRE operates among other things a British Vegan Service, a British Vegan/Vegetarian Service and the International Vegetarian Penfriend Service without hidden charges and with many offers for a nominal fee. or even free. As we cannot tell all in this advertisement, pl^se find out how you too can benefit by requesting free details from Contact Centre. BCM Cuddle. London WC1V 6XX. Those who had their letter returned, please do write again. You can join at half fees, sincere apologies. Full uanslational services from or into German, French and Dutch.

The only completely balanced, 100% Vegan diet for dogs in the world. Highly nutritious, extremely palatable and very economical. There is NO better diet for dogs. If yours is not one of the 50,000 dogs enjoying Happidog every day, contact for your nearest stockist or mail order form: HAPPIDOG PET FOODS, Bridgend, Brownhill Lane, Longton, Preston, Lanes. PR4 4SJ Tel:(0772) 614952

v^ The Vegan, Winter 1989

The submission of an advertisement is deemed to warrant that the advertisement does not c o n t r a v e n e any Act of Parliament, nor is it in any other way illegal or defamatory or an infringement of any other party's rights or an infringement of the British C o d e of A d v e r t i s i n g Practice.

All prices inclusive of VAT Personal: £4.50 for 20 words (minimum) Additional words: 25p each Commercial: £6.00 for 20 words (minimum) Additional words: 35p each Box No: £2.00 extra Semi-display: £6.00 per single column centimetre Series discount (4 consecutive insertions): 10%

If you want to contact other vegans, consider using Natural Friends. Nationwide - 1 0 0 word ads - bi-monthly membership lists - newsletter - sensible fees - many 100's of members.



Dogs a r e not carnivores but c a n n o t choose for t h e m s e l v e s . Veterin a r y s u r g e o n s a r e daily t r e a t i n g dogs s u f f e r i n g m e a t r e l a t e d dietary problems. In fact, over 500 vets, s i t u a t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e UK, u s e and recommend

THE BUILDERS: Creating Spiritual Space




An explanation of the inner self

Eire and overseas: payment must be by sterling cheque drawn on an English bank or by international money order.

First of preceding month.




For some 5 years, organized small groups have been walking in the loveliest parts of Europe whilst fasting. We cover 10-15 miles every day of the week. For most, it is a rewarding experience, both in losing weight and refreshing our minds and bodies. For further details, please contact

^ 35

1990 1 2 3 4 5 6 7


x W . r v . -


JANUARY 8 15 22 29 9 16 23 30 10 17 24 31 11 18 25 12 19 26 13 20 27 14 21 28

1 2 3 4

FEBRUARY 5 12 19 26 6 13 20 27 7 14 21 28 8 15 22 9 16 23 10 17 24 11 18 25

7 8 9 10 11 12 13

. .

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

APRIL 9 16 10 17 11 18 12 19 13 20 14 21 15 22

23 30 24 25 26 27 . 28 29 .

MAY 14 21 15 22 16 23 17 24 18 25 19 26 20 27

1 2 3 4 5 6

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

JULY 9 16 10 17 11 18 12 19 13 20 14 21 15 22

23 30 24 31 25 26 27 28 29

AUGUST 6 13 20 . 7 14 21 1 8 15 22 2 9 16 23 3 10 17 24 4 11 18 25 5 12 19 26

28 29 30 31

. 1 2 3 4

MARCH 5 12 19 6 13 20 7 14 21 8 15 22 9 16 23 10 17 24 11 18 25

26 27 28 29 30 31

. 1 2 3

4 5 6 7 8 9 10

JUNE 11 18 12 19 13 20 14 21 15 22 16 23 17 24

25 26 27 28 29 30


Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun

. . . . . 1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

OCTOBER 8 15 22 29 9 16 23 3 0 10 17 24 31 11 18 25 12 19 26 13 20 27 14 21 28

27 28 29 30 31

NOVEMBER . 5 1 2 19 26 . 6 13 20 27 . 7 14 21 28 1 8 15 22 29 2 9 16 23 30 3 10 17 24 4 11 18 25

. . . 1 2

SEPTEMBER 3 10 17 24 4 11 18 25 5 12 19 26 6 13 20 27 7 14 21 28 8 15 22 29 9 16 23 30

DECEMBER 3 10 17 24 31 4 11 18 25 5 12 19 26 6 13 20 27 7 14 21 28 8 15 22 29 9 16 23 30

The V e g a n Society p r o m o t e s a w a y of life entirely froe of animal products for the benefit of humans, animals and the environment. The Vegan Society. 3S—35 Gcorgt Stiver. Oxford OX! 2 AY

The Vegan Winter 1989  
The Vegan Winter 1989  

The magazine of The Vegan Society