The Vegan Winter 1974

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No. 4

Winter, 1974

CONTENTS Editorial : Seeds o f the F u t u r e



Some Evolutionary Aspects of Human Diet T. H. V e g e t a r i a n i s m and the Early C h u r c h


Hope for the Future



Reports for









Lane Mather


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Founded 1944 - Registered Charily Veganism is a way of living on the products of the plant kingdom to the exclusion of fish, fowl, eggs, animal milk and its derivatives^ it . encourages the study and use of alternatives for all commodities normally derived wholly or partly from animals. The objects of The Vegan Society are to further knowledge of, and interest in, sound nutrition and in the vegan method of agriculture and food production as a means of increasing the potential of the earth to the physical, moral and economic advantage of mankind. President: Dr. Frey Ellis Deputy President: Mr. J. Sanderson Vice-Presidents: Mrs. E. Batt, Mrs. S. Coles, Mr. J. Dinshah, Mrs. M. Henderson, Dr. C. Nimmo, Miss W. Simmons, Miss M. Simmons, Mrs. E. Shrigley. . Council: Mrs. E. Batt, Mrs. S. Coles, Dr. F. Ellis, Mr. J. Sanderson, Mrs. G. Smith, Mrs. T. Wade, Mr. W. Wright. Treasurer: Mrs. G. Smith, but all subscriptions, donations, etc. should be sent to the Secretary, 47 Highlands Road, Leatherhead, Surrey. Secretary: Mrs. K. Jannaway, address as above. Librarian: Mr. W. Wright, Hatton House, Church Lane, Che shunt, Herts. Local Contacts Secretary: Mr. Hugo Stearn, The Leys, Manor Estate, Horrabridge, Yelverton, Devon. Subscriptions: ÂŁ1.25 yearly, in January. Additional members at same address not requiring an extra Journal, pensioners, juniors and students 63p THE VEGAN Quarterly Journal 60p per annum. FREE TO MEMBERS. Single copies 15p. Post free. From the Secretary, address as above. Editors: J. Sanderson & K. Jannaway. Scientific Adviser: Dr. F. Ellis. Advertising Manager: Mrs. D. Hanson,


The Editorial Board does not necessarily agree with opinions expressed by contributors to this magazine, or endorse advertisements. Published: March 21st, June 21st, Sept. 21st, Dec. 21st. Copy Dates: 1st of preceding months.

SEEDS OF CHANGE. Editorial by Jack Sanderson. We fold brotherhood Like a cloak; And place it in a box Marked "Do not open Till Christmas" Jenny Gage. As the northern hemisphere moves towards its winter solstice and the southern hemisphere towards its summer, the West moves towards its greatest time of feasting and much of the East towards its greatest time of starvation and malnutrition. In the homes of the West, Christian and non- Christian alike.most are infected to some degree: the spirit of kindness and giving unfolds like a flower , and like a flower fades after a few days. The bud tight with concerns of self and often with fear, opens like a Christmas rose to a seasonal compulsion that draws out an inner beauty and reveals the inner potential of the human soul and the possibilities of human society. Wonderful as this time can be for the child, the parent and the family, it has within it two great flaws - this spirit of brother hood is all too fleeting in time and it does not reach out far enough. For some it does not reach beyond the four walls, for others the circle stretches out in ever wider circles, but for far ,ÂŁar, too many as yet the circles are far too small they do not by any means encircle the earth itself and all the life the earth contains Yet only such an outlook is going to solve the world's problems of hunger, over population, earth pollution, the running out of energy and scarce resources and the fear of war. Most of our problems are inextricably wound together and only a great and swift change of outlook and atmosphere is going to lead to solutions. Present trends will lead to chaotic conditions if we do not change our traditions. The days of time honoured habits of flesh-eating and flesh growing in this and other lands are numbered. The feeding of a growing world population and the continuous revelation of the unfairness and inefficiency of current land-use methods will demand and lead to change or to increasing conflict. It will not be possible much longer to sweep under the carpet the half of the truth, that Christmas and other festivals do not express brotherhood to the animal creation and that Harvest Festivals generally ignore the animal harvest. There was recently much concern about the great slaughter of calves in this country because of lack of feed but little concern for the millions regularly slaughtered. The shortage of grain should draw the attention of the people of the West to the fact that they are not only using their own land inefficiently, but they are feeding their cattle with the grain that should be feeding the undernourished peoples of other continents. The year 1972 produced relatively low world grain harvests; Russia bought large quantities of the U. S. A. reserves mostly to feed its cattle. The world's grain harvest of 1974 has again been less than hoped for and this time there are no reserves. The world is now living hand - to- mouth. As 2

its population grows by that of Greater London every six weeks, it is rapidly moving into a situation where money cannot buy food and therein lies the seeds . of war. We have reached a watershed in the story of man. Continue in our present ways and we face disaster , swift and sure. Change them , the selfish ways of the West, ( and it will not be easy) and there is hope. This change will involve co-operation and mutual unlimited caring. Achieve this and we will be at the dawn of a new age with limitless possibilities. As Sir Bernard Lovell said in a recent interview, "Science is only a partial avenue to truth." This man who through the radio telescope has a great knowledge of the universe, suggested that truth might equally have its roots in philosophy and theology. Vital seeds sown in our time have been the recent world conferences which, for all their faults have helped to direct man's collective attention to world problems - at Stockholm on the environment and pollution, - at Bucharest on the world's growing population, - at Rome on food and agriculture. Pope Paul has now called for "A change in our orientations away from the obsession with industrial growth and back to agriculture, putting food production at the top of our priorities." Another, smaller butyet significant seed is the "Fellowship of L i f e " which seeks to unite Christians and all others concerned in exercising a true dominion over God's animal creation. Supplies of its literature for display in church vestibules may be obtained from Mrs M. E. Lawson, Eynhallow, GROY, Inverness. Man's attitude towards Zoos and circuses has changed in this generation with the growth of safari parks and wild life preserves, but the process has been reversed for millions of farm animals which once roamed the fields but now spend their pitiful lives in cages more cruelly confining than those of Zoos. Yet last November Mr John Grant said "Britons should eat less meat and keep fewer pets to help ease the plight of the world's hungry nations. We give to our pets huge quantities of food that could be saving lives in developing nations. Producing meat takes a disproportionate quantity of scarce grain. For the vast majority a cut in meat eating habits could hardly be rated harmful when there are many other acceptable foods which are unavailable in developing countries. Britain could not hope to play a part in the life and death problems of the world without some inconvenience and sacrifice." Mr Grant, a United Kingdom Government Minister, was only reiterating what many of the world's leaders have been saying in recent months. Vegans for many years have been pointing out that the use of animals to produce food for humans wastes many of the precious resources of the world. So as we approach Christmas, let it not be like a summer holiday, two weeks quite different from the other fifty, but may the spirit of Christmas which is the spirit of compassion be a natural and permanent part of our life ever seeking to better the conditions and environment of all life upon the earth. " Give us (all) this day our daily bread."


SOME EVOLUTIONARY ASPECTS OF HUMAN DIET We are faced, in 1974, with mountainous problems of survival. However, glimmers of insight into the course to follow are appearing through the labours of conservationists and scientists. Connections between the health of the soil, the value of its products to itself, animals, and human beings, and our personal welfare, are in the process of being recognised as the pathway to the perfection of which Nature is capable. Science is probing gingerly ever deeper into these links, one of which is protein exchange between soil, animal and man. This article suggests a line of thought which has started to compete with the fat/sugar theories that surround discussions on overweight and heart disease. Our "western" eating has made us'into a sick people. One must not forget that length of life expectancy is no criterion of general good health. The true yardstick is whether we have needed medical help to save our lives. For instance, the writer of this article - and a multitude of others - would have died if tonsils had not been removed; the same principle applies to the appendix. Work done overseas has recently exposed the fact that tonsil disease may be healed by strict avoidance of cowmilk in all its forms. Indeed, this applies also to many inner ear inflammations. This observation stems from studies carried out into the diet/disease patterns of different races. The number of people examined in a racial group which suffered from tonsil disease was compared with the number of tonsil sufferers in a different race group. The diets of the two groups were contrasted, and it was found that those who ate freely of cow-produce, eggs, and pork suffered more tonsil and inner ear disease statistically. This raised the suspicion that too much animal protein of the wrong type had a bearing on the ailments.

From this starting point, people with diseased arteries were put to

the same test, and again improvement was noticed when cowmilk, beef, eggs and pork were avoided. One at once seeks justification for the possibility that the bodies of tonsillitis and coronary disease sufferers have sustained damage from unsuitable and excessive dietary animal protein. In nature, there is a clear-cut principle governing successful life which lays down that change of any kind must be introduced gradually into the environment of any one species. A sudden switch of long-term habit, whether it is internal (e. g. food) or external (e. g. climate) is only tolerated smoothly by a proportion of those whom it affects. These will survive, indeed flourish, reproducing similar "quick-adapters", in accordance with the process that we call Natural Selection. It is important not to interfere with the pattern laid down by the reproducing genes, lest weak and diseased variants are to all intents and purposes forced to stay alive. After all, they will procreate in turn, and tragedies will result from contact with an unfavourable environment.


Now, it is our duty to consider both the environment and ourselves. As regards environmental factors, we have changed our dietary habits in devastatingly rapid fashion over the last few thousand years. Refrigeration, canning, and packing, have favoured over-production and prolonged storage of new foods of immense and unexplored potency, "new" in the context of human evolutionary experience. The last few hundred years have been a crash course in evolutionary insult. In the very beginning, two million years ago, early man crushed vegetable matter in his search for food. The Makapansgat stones in South Africa provide archaeological evidence of this. The initial diet was quite adequate, as we know that the juice from leaves and grass can yield ten times as much protein per acre as beef. Protein vegetables such as beans, it may be noted, produce two and a half times as much protein per acre as beef. So harmony between the nomadic host and his vegetable diet must have become well-established. Throughout the early ages, therefore, our ancestors roamed the lands healthfully, taking in what vegetation they could gather, until they commenced to settle near fish-giving lakes and rivers. Fish and seafoods are generally well-digested nowadays, acceptable as a rule in the coronary diet, a fact that may relate to our extremely long historical familiarity with its proteins, some 22,000 years. Incidentally, pleistocene big-game - elephant, rhino, and hippo - was presumably eaten, but as we do not eat it now the question is academic. Wild maize-pollen remains have indicated that this crop was available to folk on the move some eighty (80) thousand years ago, a fact which we should pointedly contrast with our more common grain, wheat, which dates - initially in small quantity, now virtually staple - from only nine thousand years ago. This approximate date marks the true plant domestication that we regard as the end of nomadism and the beginning of settled monocrops and civilisation. With large-scale wheat cultivation came a sudden digestive change, which invokes the principle that any sudden increase in a type of food must mean ill effects to sensitive strains in that community. One of these is the coeliac group, in which wheat protein severely disturbs the bowel lining and would lead to death if not recognised. The principle that the longer man has eaten a food the less disease he suffers from it would suggest that even in equal quantity maize is more uniformly acceptable than wheat to our community digestion. Following this reasoning further, evidence has indicated that fish and fowl eating - before 20,000 B. C. - long preceded the arrival of the cow. In fact, the very early humans knew little of this animal and its produce, the earliest cattlebones being dated from 5,000 B. C., less than 0. 5% of our developmental history. Domestication of Bos Taurus (wild cattle), the precursor of the bovine, is known to have taken place some 8,500 years ago. The cow was the last of the major food animals - after sheep, goats, and pig - to be domesticated, and its milk is on record as having been freely drunk in Egypt at the relatively late date of circa 3,000 B. C. When one considers the rapid development of cowmilk production, storage, and consumption over the last one hundred years (since 1870 western dietary protein has multiplied it5

self five times, fats and carbohydrates eleven times) especially in relation to the aeons of time during which hardly a drop of any but human milk was ingested, one can readily understand the difficulties under which our digestive systems labour. One may even construct a simple graph in which the protein intake line bursts through the speed-of-adaptation gradient (presumably uniformly steady in Nature) into an unfamiliar and unnatural quadrant. It is surely feasible to think of cancers of various types (e. g. leukaemia) lying in wait in such a milieu as this. protein intake

time We can conclude from these considerations that our world protein administration must needs protect people FROM as well as by protein. It is customary to regard the word "malnutrition" as applying to kwashiorkor or similar deficiency state, but it is now becoming clear that it includes the condition of- OVERSUPPLY of protein, and should be defined as a state of disease caused by the ingestion of an excess of, inter alia, unsuitable protein. In everyday life as we know it, the plethoric man of great size, chin, and wealth is malnourished. On the grounds mentioned previously it is therefore wise to reverse our ingrained attitudes. The breastfed interval is of such duration and suitability that it requires no limitation. However, the growing tendency to compress it into a few days presupposes the introduction of a flood of foreign i.e. cow - protein, whose several end-results are as yet unrevealed, but suspect of being broadly deleterious to health in the unadapted system. It may be recalled here that certain Asiatic strains of people have been found to be deficient in lactase, the enzyme that digests milk-sugar, which poses a serious challenge to the western habit of exporting excess dairy produce to South East Asia. Sensitive recipients develop bowel disorders when cowmilk sugar is given to them as a gesture against undernutrition. One postulates that the inhabitants who are affected have not, throughout prehistory, imbibed enough cowmilk to remove, through death, the lactase-deficient amongst them. As an exercise in curiosity, how will we behave if we become healthy? If we become in tune with our natural environment? I say " i f " and not "when" because history is not studded with examples of man's intellect being given priority over his prejudice. More placid, perhaps, certainly more agreeable. There could possibly be a change in man's obstreperousness, his refusal to bend, his selfishness, his aggressiveness. Economically, the benefits would be enormous. While we live at odds with Nature, arteries will continue to 6

thicken and block, and those who own them will continue to be responsible for decisions that direct our course. From heart attack figures, and the dropping age level thereof, it is clear we are steering against Nature's stream. Wars, it may be commented, start from perverted thinking which is hardly helped by cemented blood vessels. However, the power of Natural Selection is that DESPITE man's exertions there may yet be forced upon him a salutary correc" tion. My conviction is that the process has already started, which statement I base not on the acute miseries of the animal-protein farmer, and the gathering expense of his trade in the face of poor earnings, but on recent Ministry of Agriculture submissions. These report that, in 1970, the average person ate 131.1 pounds of meat and 138.8 pounds of vegetables, whereas in 1973 the figures were respectively 126. 5 and 147.5. So quite against our wishes and palate we are being forced willy-nilly by our socio-economic conditions which comprise our environment - into more beneficial channels. The subtle and unrecognisable forces at work may be construed as being part of Nature's fight-back. Given that the human body is not fully suited selectively to dairyprotein intake - the tonsil/ear and various allergy studies bear this out - and that beef cattle give us poor value in protein per unit area of soil, and considering the damage that cows cause to the soil itself (please read, and cause to be read, "Conservation for Survival" by Kai Curry-Lindahl, Victor Gollancz Ltd.), it is necessary to think deeply about the other side of the coin, that is, the value of dairy farming to the nation's economy. Fertile land area is being reduced at an alarming rate under the impact of Industrialisation and housing. Farmlands are becoming progressively more important as a source of nutrition, while their area diminishes. We know full well that as the nation's balance of payments becomes more unfavourable, so should every inch of soil be more wisely cultivated to reduce the expense of importing food. In the light of this, it is therefore vital to assess the relative values of farming occupations, both animal and crop. This is beyond the scope of a short article, but it has been placed on record, as a pointer to the worthwhileness of further study, that the cost of processing a pound of powdered cowmilk protein is five times the cost of processing a pound of soyprotein. Furthermore, soybeans yield, per unit area of soil, more than seven times as much protein as beef. In observations such as these lies sufficient reason for the reappraisal of the whole farming structure of any country whose national dietary relies on the importation of food whilst good soil underfoot is capable of giving adequate support to the home nutrition. In this connection one cannot ignore the United Nations warning that replacement of beef, pork and poultry by soy or similar substitutes is essential if the world is to be adequately nourished in the future (Report discussed at the World Population Conference in Bucharest, 1974). The choice of soy or other vegetable protein should also be considered in the context of evolutionary suitability. It Is exciting to conclude on the note that we have a practical linkage between our expensive disease processes, the farming economy, and the national balance of payments, with a realistic remedy available for the improvement of all three, based on the most natural of life influences, evolutionary selection. 7 . T. H. Crouch, MB ChB.

VEGETARIANISM AND THE EARLY- CHURCH (I use the more widely known term Vegetarians, which of course will include Vegans for the purpose of this paper.) The Bible and other writings are often quoted against us; but let us look more closely at the question and see what we can find. We will use the Authorised Version of the Bible and will not quote from material later than 300 A. D., and only from recognised Early Christian authorities, using works which can be found in any good theological library. There are many pseudo-Gospels and Acts, many of which are interesting and informative, but as they are doubtful for our puipose, we will ignore them. The finding of the Dead Sea Scrolls has widened the view of Biblical scholars. Regarding the term "meat" in the scriptures- this does not mean flesh, but merely food of all descriptions. It is obvious that God intended the world to live on a vegetarian diet for we find in Genesis 1. 29/30, "And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat. And to every beast of the earth and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was s o . " You will see that not only men were to be vegetarians, but the animal kingdom and even the insects were to live on the green herb. Idealism is expressed many times in the Old Testament, especially in the well-known passages in Isaiah, then all the animals shall lie down together and "the lion shall eat straw like the ox and they shall not hurt or destroy in all my holy mountain. " A vegetarian diet was. more common among the Israelites than most of us believe. We have the four Israelite princes, in Daniel, who refused all food except pulses and water, and after a test, they amazed the King Nebuchadnezzar. Coming to New Testament times, all the Gospels tell us that John the Baptist lived on locust beans and wild honey. We are told by Eusebius (264-340 A. D.) the historian of the early church, that James, the Lord's brother, abstained from animal food and fermented liquors and, in addition, wore linen and not woollen garments. Jesus had four brothers and two sisters and one wonders if this was a vegetarian household. James was very influential in the early churchand became the leader in Jerusalem after the death of Jesus. John the Baptist was a Relative of Jesus and it is now generally assumed that James and John the Baptist were Essenes. The Essenes were a strong movement at the time, as set out in Josephus and other writers, and although not mentioned in the New Testament, they seem to have been as prominent as the Pharisees. They were a vegetarian group. We know more about them since the finding of the Dead Sea Scrolls. We know that Peter and Matthew were vegetarians; Pet er took bread 8

and olives (Clementine Homilies, Clement of Rome, died about 100 AD); Matthew lived on seeds and nuts, fruit and vegetables without flesh (Clement of Alexandria, died about 200 AD). The Clementine Homilies also tells us that Jesus put out the fires under the altars when he cleared the money changers out of the Temple in Jerusalem. Was this because He objected to animal sacrifice? He often quoted from Hosea "The Lord requires mercy and not sacrifice - " . Paul may also have been a vegetarian because he said both in Romans 14-21 and 1st Corinthians 8-13 " - It is good neither to eat flesh nor to drink wine — " The question of Jesus eating fish is difficult - nowhere does it actually say he actually did eat fish, except in the dubious event,after the Resurrection, on the shore of the Sea of Tiberias. Jesus in all the appearances after the Crucifixion, is shown as a shadowy figure, - often his disciples did not at first recognise him - so we can discount his actually eating or taking part in other forms of normal life. You will remember he disappeared as quickly as he appeared. He was no doubt often present before the Crucifixion, at meals when fish and possibly meat was eaten, but he may not have eaten such food himself. Personally, I feel that he was a vegetarian. There is also the question of the Last Supper. It is now generally accepted that John's chronology is correct and the Last Supper was not the Passover meal but an ordinary supper on the evening before the Passover; so the sacrificial lamb would not be used. Both Luke and John mention that many other works were written about Jesus and it is a pity that they are nearly all lost and only odd little fragments remain. Some have been found on leaves of papyrus, dug up in the dry sand and some quoted in works of the early Christian Fathers. Papias, a disciple of John, who died about 160 AD, wrote five books on the Sayings of the Lord. Only scraps have come down to us. One which is too long to quote, visualises plenteous Harvest of grapes, wheat, fruits, seeds, grass and herbs and continues " - all animals using for their foods what is received from the earth, shall become peaceful and in concord - ". A further saying from another source is " I came to put an end to sacrifice - " . To sum up, it seems that vegetarians can take a more positive line in regard to the Bible and other works of the early Christian Church and insist that the "Meateaters" read the Scriptures more intelligently. Origen (one of the Christian Fathers, martyred in AD 202) thought that the Gospels were the Word of God, but should be read in the Light of the Spirit, which can sift the Truth in the Bible. Tertullian (another of the Christian Fathers died 220AD) used a now lost Latin Version "of the Gospels, because he felt that the Greek version was corrupt. Comparisonbetween the doctrines of the Essenes and the Sermon on the Mount suggest-that Jesus was familiar with them. Mention of them may have been suppressed at a very early date. Vegetarianism may have been more widely spread in the early church than is apparent in the New Testament. q Terence Lane.

HOPE FOR THE FUTURE Many people today are distressed to see all the indifference and cruelty of man's treatment of animals and;like a recent correspondent, they feel worry, fear and anxie ty taking hold of them and despair that this situation will ever be remedied. Despair would be the worst state to fall into as this would help neither the individual concerned nor further the cause for which we stand. It is better to try to find reasons for hope. Looking at the long history of man, we can see that humanity has progressed out of many original barbarities. Cannibalism and human sacrifice are now viewed with horror by 99% of the world population. Slavery was abolished in the last century, so was the working of children down mines or as chimney sweeps aid similar practices which seem unthinlable to us today. As far as animals are concerned, bear baiting and cock fighting have been made illegal and there are many laws regulating man's treatment of animals. The fact that we may consider these laws inadequate is proof that we do still progress in our attitude. In the 1 ast few years nuch advance has been made in the development and acceptance of alternatives to vivisection. We therfore have some cause to believe in progress. We should be conscious that we personally are part of that progressive movement. We can allow ourselves a sense of relief that by our way of living, we as vegans are lessening the suffering that would be inflicted on animals if we were still in the camp of the exploiters. More positively, we can doubtless help by giving thoughts of sympathy or ccmpassion to any suffering or dying animal that we may meet. We can even help by thinking of them in general. We should be aware of them not as those broken tormented bodies but as souls striving to something higher and we shoud try to help these souls with our thoughts, sympathy and prayers. Their very suffering may be the impulse that will liberate them to a higher plane. We do not have to understand these things. The important thing is to do something positive to help. We should also present our point of view and way of living to others but should avoid sounding too superior in doing so or trying so hard that we appear as cranks and spoil the good effect. The important thing is to live right. Be healthy and happy, then others will have to agree: that person looks fit and happy on the diet. If you try too hard, others may say: the vegan way of life produces unbalanced people. Do your best; but remember others are also at work and truth is on our side. It will prevail. Although progress may seem slow in terms of one life-time, it becomes visible in a historical perspective. Others say that they see no sign of progress and on the cont rary people today are obviously mere cruel than a decade or two ago; that pets are abandoned when their owners tire of them or wish to go away on holiday; that animals are viewed only as means of producing meat or milk without consideration for their natural instincts; in short, that a great quantity of suffering is inflicted on animals. The answer to this Is that this cruelty and suffering would continue to the point 10

where it will be plain beyond doubt to the majority that this abuse of animals is wrong. A great change would then come about in man's relationship to all the animals. Most reforms seem to have been made only when the practices that were condemned had reached a high stage of abuse. Speaking personally, I long accepted the view that an animal was suitable food for man. It was only when factory farming became more widespread and it was obvious that animals were being deprived of life in natural conditions, that I began to realise that they might be entitled to a natural death as well as a natural life. Factory farming also illustrates the principle that when a wrong course is followed, it leads us further in the wrong. Thus, if we accept that animals are intended as food for us, then it is logical to treat them merely as food production units and their feelings are only considered to the extent that it may affect their development as food for us. The worse the excesses of factory farming become,' the stronger will come the realisation that the original premise was wrong. On the other hand, man's interest in the animals does not decrease. Thousands visit zoos and safari parks. Great efforts are made to preserve rare species or to preserve wild animals threatened by floodings for new reservoirs in Africa. Television programmes about the wonders of animal life in natural setting arouse great interest. Surely the majority will eventually contrast the wonders of nature to the ugly artificiality of the creatures under man's dominion. The chief stumbling block for most people is their conditioning for the taste of meat and for the very idea that it is essential for nutrition. Vegans are therefore important as proving the possibility of living without using (let alone abusing) the animals. It is therefore also important that vegans should appear as healthy, happy people and not as fearful and anxiety ridden. These last two years have provided examples of how abuse of the world's resources has led directly into several crises. Petrol, paper and sugar once thought of as plentiful and cheap have suddenly become scarce and more expensive. Those who condemn irresponsible exploitation have been proved right. The price of meat has also risen and cattle feed is becoming scarce. Our economic as well as our humanitarian arguments are being proved correct. The t ime may not be far off when veganism will expand even more rapidly. We must at least hope so,for to despair causes one to give up trying .but hope leads one forward and upward and will infect others with our optimism and enthusiasm. So work and pray and above all, be happy. You are in the right and. for that you have cause to be thankful and it could also be that a new day is dawning amid the darkness that surrounds you. Leave the rest to the working of the Divine Plan of the Universe. Harry Mather.

by Mabel Cluer 50p post free. A practical, clearly illustrated booklet about choosing and using the fresh foods around us. Send for despatch EARLY IN THE NEW YEAR. I enclose Name...,

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copies of "Saladings". Address




1974 was another growth year for the Young Vegan Section. Our member ship has increased and now stands at over 200. However it is realised that some of these 200 may have let their membership lapse but we have no way of telling at present. Several events have been organised during the last year and these have given publicity to veganism especially among young vegetarians. In March we visited Colchester to the home of Audrey Desbois who is attempting to set up a vegetarian restaurant in the locality. This was of the form of a working weekend. . Thirty two attended ttPweekend at the home of Kathleen Jannaway in Leatherhead and had very lively discussions. We feel that some social events are necessary in order to publicise the Young Vegan Section. In August we returned for a second W/E in Colchester and hope to revisit in February 1975. At our A. G. M. (see report below by Ian Tolley) the following were elected to serve on the Y. V. S. Committee : - John Strettle, Michael Mott, Keith Bryan, Bob Colby, Ian Tolley and Bridget Middlemas. John Strettle has been appointed Chairman, Michael Mott , Secretary and Ian Tolley, Treasurer. • Michael Mott, Muswell Hill, London N10 Report on Young Vegans' A. G. M. October 25th - 27th. The last week-end in October saw a gathering of fifteen young vegans at the Brick Kiln Centre near Woodbridge, Suffolk. (Kindly leased us by Ted Dunn who hopes to turn the Centre into a meeting place for many peace groups) The rural setting proved a suitable place for our meeting, and the atmosphere seemed to stimulate a good deal of wide ranging discussion. The A. G. M. itself took place on Saturday afternoon, during which a new committee of John Strettle, Mick Mott, Bridget Middlemas, Keith Bryan, . Tolley and Bob Colby was elected. Karl Farrell and Clair Richardson decided not to stand for re-election, and we extend our thanks to them for the work they have done for the Y. V. S. in the past. Although different opinions on the state and direction of the Y. V. S. were given, the general feeling seemed to be that much potential existed within the Y. V. S., but that much of this had remained dormant over the past year. The mood for the next twelve months was predominantly optimistic, however. During the remainder of the week-end, a variety of activities took place. Some visited Ipswich, while others visited Douglas Hardie, who has written several books on Buddhism, and we participated in his direct and straightforward exercises, akin to the flavour of Zen, aimed at increased awareness 12

and some sort of spiritual enlightenment (although he himself did not like this term). On Sunday most of us went for a walk through the Suffolk countryside. Attendance at the week-end could have been better, but possibly the distance most vegans would have had to travel was offputting to some, but generally it was felt the week-end was a constructive one, and if a fraction of the ideas put forward come to fruition, the next year should be a more notable one for Young Vegans than the last. Y. V. S. HOLIDAY We will be organising a week long trip at Easter on a long boat, probably on the Shropshire Union Canal in North Wales.

The week would be either

Sat. March 29th to Sat. April 5th, or Sat April 5th to Sat. April 12th. Cost per person for hire of the boat would probably be around ÂŁ9. Bookings will have to be made in January. If interested please contact (as soon as possible) Malcolm Home, , Exmouth, Devon EX8 1QR. I. Tolley.

NOTELETS Design as above - slightly bigger - folded in four to measure 4 "by 5" No wording, so suitable for Xmas, birthday or just letters. No envelopes provided. Try W. H. Smith's "Jumbo" C4 or Basildon. lOp for a packet of 6. DISPATCHED BY RETURN on receipt of order with remittance. S. A. E. appreciated. 13

RECIPES CAKES AND PUDDINGS WITHOUT SUGAR ROCK CAKES 8 ozs. wholemeal flour 3 tsps. baking powder Flavouring 4 - 6 ozs dried fruit

3 ozs. oil 6 ozs. water Pinch of salt if liked

Mix flour, baking powder, flavouring Stir in cleaned fruit. Stir together oil and water and tip into flour. Mix well. Cook in bun trays for 25 - 30 minutes at 3500F. RAISIN AND NUT CAKE 8 ozs. flour 6 - 8 ozs. raisins 2 - 4 ozs. chopped walnuts

3 tsps. baking powder Pinch of salt 3 ozs. oil 6 ozs. water

Stir oil and water together and blend lightly with the mixed dry ingredients. Tip into oiled tin and cook for 1 hour at 350째F. MOLASSES FLAPJACK 1J tbs. molasses

10 ozs. rolled oats 8 ozs. Tomor (or Nutter)

Melt fat. Stir in molasses. Remove from heat and stir in oats. Mix well and press into flat baking tray. Bake for 30 - 35 minutes at 300째F. Remove when half baked and press down firmly. Press down again when baking is finished and before marking into squares. Let it cool before removal from tin. APPLE CRUNCH 1 lb. sliced apples 3 ozs. dried fruit

4 ozs. oats 2 ozs. oil

Put apples and dried fruit in layers in a pie dish, beginning and ending with apples. Stir oats into oil until all the oil is taken up. Spread on top of the apples. Cook 30 minutes at 300째F. BAKED APPLES

can be stuffed with dates instead of sugar.


APOLOGY In the Autumn issue the recipe for sago plum pudding was attributed mistakenly to Mrs. Dalziel O'Brien. This was a particularly unfortunate mistake as it recommends cashew nuts of which she does not approve. April 2oth, 8p. m. Southgate Technical College, Eva Batt on "Food & Health. " *


R. S. V. S. U. K.

These initials stand for the Research Section of the Vegetarian Society of the United Kingdom. This is the new name of the Vegetarian Nutritional Research Centre, and the change was made on 1st April, 1974. Dr. Wokes, who was the sole Director of the V. N. R. C. from its inception , lived just long enough to see the change take place, and died happy knowing that his work was well established and now resting on a firm foundation. The Fifteenth Annual General Meeting was held on Sunday 27th October, 1974, at 11.0 a.m. at the new Mandeer Restaurant, 21 Hanway Place, London W. 1. which is one minute away from the Oxford Street/Tottenham Court Road junction on the N. W. side. This vegetarian restaurant which caters for vegans is a surprising and delightful place and an excellent lunch was enjoyed after the meeting. After the formal election of officers, the Chairman, Mr. Bernard Colvin, briefly outlined some of the objectives of the Research Section, and spoke of the need for funds to carry them out. He suggested that further work could include:(a) clinical studies on foods and other matters affecting the health of vegetarians, and assistance with funds for approved researchers. (b) periodical questionnaires on appropriate matters of enquiry. (c) the establishing of the nutritional value of plant foods. (d) the bringing together of manufacturers of products such as T. V. P. to hear of their latest developments and to encourage the use of leaf protein. (e) to help crisis conditions by advising which are the best foods both as regards value for money and their ability to concentrate the most nutrition. (f) to suggest suitable changes in crops. (g) to advise gardeners and allotment holders so as to obtain maximum nutrition from limited land resources. (h) to encourage and co-operate with other bodies (such as Heniy Doubleday under Laurence Hills)who though not specifically vegetarian carry out much work in harmony with our objects. (i) to disseminate information on plant foods through The Vegetarian, bulletins and other literature. T _ GARDENING Twenty three reports on the season's gardening results have been received. They will be commented on in the next issue of the "Vegan" which will be specially concerned with gro wing our own food. Questions and contributions welcomed; before March 1st please. 15

ANNUAL GENERAL'MEETING AND THIRTIETH ANNIVERSARY CELEBRATIONS A grand number,about 100, were able to be with us on November 16th, but we missed the Misses Simmons, Dr Baker, Mrs Newmark, Miss Tyack and others who although they did not send greetings, we feel were with us in spirit. As our President, Dr Frey Ellis, was prevented by professional duties from joining us until later, the Chair was taken by the Deputy President, Mr Jack Sanderson. He expressed his conviction that the "world was going our way as . never before" and that every vegan had an important part to play in helping it. The Minutes of the 1973 A. G. M. were read and approved and the Report for 1974 - see next page- adopted. The treasurer, partly for reasons mentioned in the Annual Report and partly because the A. G. M. was earlier than usual and the volume of business much greater than heretofore was unable to present the accounts. She expressed satisfaction with the healthy financial condition of the Society and promised that an Extraordinary G. M. would be called soon (See below) Michael Mott reporting for the Young Vegans, spoke of some good meetings in what had been a poor year for activities in spite of increased membership. He hoped for greater activity in 1974 with perhaps a stool at Hyde Park Corner. Officers and Council were elected as set out on Pagel. Please note that all subs. etc. should be sent to the office at 47 Highlands R. d, Leatherhead, Surrey. The Rules re-issue, as sent out with the Autumn "Vegan" were approved, though some members expressed concern at the dropping of the word "honey" from the definition of veganism. (5 abstained when the vote was taken and others doubtless would have been happier to see the word included) The idea of holding Autumn Weekend Meetings was warmly approved and the Council undertook to go ahead with arrangements for 1975 probably in Bournemouth, and for 1976, probably in Derbyshire. After a much appreciated buffet meal (many thanks to Mabel Cluer especially) members reassembled to encourage Serena Coles in her efforts to arrange some form of help for elderly vegans and to approve Arthur Ling's suggestions as given on page 24. Eva Batt's reading of verses from her newly published collection (see page 2 J.)wa swarmly applauded and members seemed well content to spend the rest of the time talking with eachother and the'bxperts "who had taken up stands on such subjects as Vegfam, Vegan Children, Research, World Food Situation, Acupuncture, Naturopathy, Plantmilk, Plant Sensitivity and Beauty Without Cruelty. The literature stall was well patronised and many booklets - s e e page 21- were bought and also copies of the new l e a f l e t s - ( p r i c e lp, special terms to group and meeting organisers)'Some Hazards Connected with the use of Animal Milk" "The Power of Kindness", "Wool Factories" (i. e. sheep), Footwear, and Vegan Diet. Orders will be promptly despatched on receipt of stamped addressed envelopes. EXTRAORDINARY GENERAL MBETING-offlcial notice of meeting to consider 1974 Accounts on February 15th at 2.15p.m. at Friends House, Euston Rd. NWl! Followed by talk by Dr Saul Miller on "Some Effects of Diet on Behaviour. ", tea and discussion.

This will be a most interesting and enjoyable event.


Please note.

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL November 16th 1974. "GROWTH THROUGH UNITY IN DIVERSITY " Once again the Executive Council has met regularly each month during the past year under the Chairmanship of Eva Batt. Once again it has enjoyed the privilege of using the premises of the Nature Cure Clinic in Central London. Members of the Council feel able to report a year of united effort that has enabled them to deal expeditiously with a constantly growing volume of work. Lynda Emptage who was appointed Treasurer at the 1973 A. G. M. had illnes in the family to contend with and had to resign the treasurership. The executive part of th'0 office has fallen once more on the shoulders of Grace Smith who managed it so efficiently for so many years; most of the clerical work has been done recently by Yvonne Webber the Secretary's assistant. In order to cut printing, delivery and postage costs most of the leaflets and booklets are now being produced in Leatherhead by Direct Image Printing and Roneo Duplicating. Much of the necessary typing has been done voluntarily by Dorothy Blanks on an I. B. M. typewriter bought specially for this purpose; Jack Jannaway has done the duplicating voluntarily, and a local firm , Jaydon Offset, has done most of the printing comparatively cheaply. It saves time and post, -age to send the literature thus produced locally out directly from Leatherhead, so members are asked to s e n d r e q u e s t s for literature, and to refer all matters concerned with the Jo umal as well as all subscriptions and donations to the Leatherhead office. The Council would like to take this opportunity of thanking Veda Farrell,formerly Literature Secretary, and Linda Emptage, formerly Journal Distributor, for their splendidly efficient work. In answer to requests in the Journal, Dorothy Hanson has come forward to take Donald Scott's place as Advertising Manager for the Journal and Hugo Stearn has taken on the task of putting members in touch with eachother. . It is very much hoped that as a result of Hugo's efforts more local groups will spring up throughout the country. Such groups, varied in constitution and activities to meet local needs, autonomous but using the services of the Council and its educational material, seem to be one of the best ways of spreading the vegan way of life. In this context, the Council are happy to report increasing activity in Cornwall and Bournemouth, new groups functioning in Torquay and in North London and District and others being formed in Exeter and possibly in Kent, Southampton and East London. The great need is for committed individuals convinced that veganism is "an idea whose time has come" to take on the work of initiating such groups. Over all membership of the Society continues to increase steadily but there is evidence of a much larger number moving towards the vegan way of life. Many of these are lacto vegetarians waking up to the inadequacy and illogicality of their half-way stopping place on the road to humane living. Many, alive to the 17

folly of the rapidly increasing human species wantonly basing its way of life on non-renewable resources, are beginning to appreciate the significance of the unique function of the green plant in making available to other forms of life the vital resources of sun, air, water and earth. Many, inspired by the vision of a new, truly compassionate age , are seeking to free themselves from dependence on the slaughter house and from the crippling ethos of man as the ruthless master of a natural order of which he should be the aware and sensitive servant. The Society, drawing on its knowledge of thirty years of pioneer work can help all these to practical ways of alternative living. (A constant stream of literature goes out from its office) But Man is a social animal, he needs the fellowship of like minds. Too many during the last thirty years have maintained at too great a cost too lonely a witness; too many, fearful of isolation, have hesitated on the brink of commital; too many have succumbed to the pressure of family and society. Local groups of vegans willing to help eachother by common devotion to a way of life free from animal exploitation, but tolerant of individual differences of emphasis and approach can make a tremendous contribution to that alternative • society which must evolve as man advances towards the twentieth century. Members of the Council are able and willing to help local groups by providing speakers and literature so long as arrangements as to dates and meeting places are made locally(private houses are quite suitable initially.) This year has seen a record number of lectures by Eva Batt and other members of the Council; the Leatherhead Garden Party was enjoyed by ninety people in spite of bad weather; several other successful meetings have been held in various places as reported in the "Vegan". One of the most successful ventures was the Cookery Course run by Mabel Cluer, ably supported by her husband. The enthusiastic reponse from people who came to Wimbledon from as far away as North and Central London showed the need for such a practical answer to the ever recurring question "Whatever do you eat then?" The Council was very appreciative of Mabel Cluer's work and hopes to organise similar courses whereever suitable premises can be found. Meanwhile all who in their own homes or elsewhere can demonstrate attractive, easily prepared alternatives to traditional fare can perform valut -able service to veganism. It may not be possible to serve Vitality Meals to 71 guests of the local vegetarian society as did Jenny and Harold Bland but there is plenty of scope for lesser ventures. The "Vegan" , the Society's Journal, remains the chief link between members as a whole, and while efforts to include something for everyone makes it inevitable that some will be critical, the three issues published since the last A. G. M. have been well received and circulation has gone up. "What's Cooking?" continues to sell well - over 2,000 copies have now found homes in 15 different countries. The new recipe booklet "First Hand: First Rate", specially designed for those who wish to live as far as possible on home produced food has sold well over a thousand copies since May. A considerable number of new publications are now available or in the course of production. Dr Frey Ellis's article "The Power or Kindness" has 18

been issued as a leaflet ; he has written a new one on "Some Hazards Connected with the Use of Animal Milk" and is now writing a new booklet on Vegan Nutrition which will be available soon. Eva Batt has written leaflets on Footwear and the Wool Trade. An illustrated collection of verses "In Lighter Vein" has been published in time for Christmas , to amuse and at the same time to stir to greater compassion. Mabel Cluer is writing and illustrating a booklet called "Saladings" about choosing and using the fresh foods around us. It will be invaluable for addhealthgiving variety to any diet with little or no extra cost. Material in answer to the question "Could England be self-supporting on a vegan diet?" is being assiduously collected and a leaflet will be published as soon as possible. Meanwhile the Vegetarian Society 's bookletby Jack Lucas B. Sc. F. R. I. C. "World Food Production in the Balance" is strongly recommended. It can be obtained from the Vegan Society's office in Leatherhead. In launching its "Grow the Food You Live On: Live on the Fo od You Grow. " campaign this Spring , the Council emphasised its belief in the importance' of this aspect of veganism. There are signs that the campaign is being taken up usefully in many parts of the country. The difficulties are great, especially with regard to the acquiring of land on which the superiority of the vegan way can be demonstrated for all to see. Much could be done by local groups to put those who want to garden in touch with those who have gardens that for some reason they are unable to work. The need is urgent and of great importance. We are still constantly told that 'we may be able to maintain our own health without eating animals but their manure is essential to the health of the soil. We must have demonstration plots in every part of the country to prove that the opposite is the truth. The contribution of those who cannot grow food them selves must not be underestimated. By studying the question as fully as possble and handing on the knowledge gained through all the individuals and groups with which they come into contact, they can be of great service in turning men's minds away from the present violent , non-sustainable live-stock production and high technology agriculture to life affirming horticulture practised in harmony with the cycles of -Nature. The need for knowledge of vegan diet based on veganic horticulture grows ever more urgent as the challenge of World Hunger becomes ever more menacing . If Dr Kissinger and others of the affluent world really want to banish hunger in ten years then they must stop encouraging wastefu.l habits of livestock production. Statements supporting the fact, long published by the Vegan Society, that animal foods are a very wasteful way of feeding man, are now being made daily. Unfortunately meat eating and prosperity have long been linked in people's minds , so that as some grow richer, more and more of the grain so urgently needed by the world's hungry goes to feed animals. There is urgent need for vegans to demonstrate that'good eating'is not'Animal eating", that man can be healthier in body mind and spirit by living on a plant diet. In this connection tribute must be paid to the pioneer work of Dr Frank Wokes , one of our Vice Presidents, whose death we mourned in April of this year. The Council miss his readily available advice but continue to draw inspiration from the example he gave. 19

Again with regard to the world food shortage, vegans have an important duty to combat false assumptions that artificial fertilisers are necessary to grow plant food. Such fertilisers , produced by use of fossil fuels , are now, since the oil crisis ,much too costly for the poorer countries. Moreover their polluting effects are such that they will undermine the earth's ability to provide for the much larger world population that we must expect by the turn of the century. Plant compost, green manuring and the careful recycling of wastes can maintain the earth's fertility so that all man's needs can be satisfied. To mark specially the thirtieth anniversary of the foundation of the Vegan Society a little booklet called "Pioneers of the New Age' has been published. Modest in production in keeping with the Councils awareness of the need for economy, its message is clear and important. It comprises articles from twelve vegans of long standing who, from different backgrounds, with different approaches and with, in detail, different dietary systems have followed successfully the vegan way. Its response to the challenge - "It can't be done ! " - is convincing and inspiring. Above all it underlines the importance of the slogan that the Council offers as a rallying call for the way ahead - "Growth through Unity in Diversity: " The pioneer work has been well done during the last thirty years not only by the contributors to our booklet but by many others whose services have not been forgotten. The case for veganism is being set out in a variety of publications that will soon cover every aspect . What is needed is a fully committed, confidently active membership who, able to draw strength from a unifying belief in the truth of the compassionate way can, because of differences, appeal on a wide front to all manner of men. Each individual member has something of value to bring to the movement; each needs to nurture his individual growth in the particular religious, humanitarian or social group to which he belongs; but if the vegan way of life is to be widely followed so as to free highly sentient animals from cruel exploitation, so as to gain recognition as the only way in which mankind's needs can be satisfied at this stage in his development on an overcrowded planet, so as to further the evolution of the species at every level, then it must be followed with mutual tolerance and understanding. We must be willing to learn from eachother and to sink individual differences in a united effort to forward the essential teaching of Reverence for Life. (Kathleen Jannaway).

VEGFAM FEEDS THE HUNGRY : LAND - ECONOMY - WISE : EARTH - PLANT - MAN Donations gratefully received by - The Hon. Secretary, Vegfam, The Sanctuary, Lydford, Devon. Administrative expenses borne by the Trustees. Covenanted subscription forms and/or collecting books supplied on request. 20

Publications by the Vegan Society In Lighter Vein A collection of verses by Eva Batt. Humorous and gay but pervaded by deep compassion for all living things. Attractively illustrated by Jill Bennett.

Pioneers of the New Age

2oP post free

Accounts by twelve vegans of long-standing on how they have fared through the years.

What's Cooking?

ei. 50 post free

The unique cookery book by Eva Batt. Over 250 vegan recipes and valuable information and advice. Written with such vitality and clarity, humour and commonsense that it is a delight to read and own.

First Hand: First Rate

sop post free

A recipe booklet especially written for those seeking to live as far as possible on food they can grow themselves.

Vegan Mothers and Children

30 p post free

Accounts by 12 vegan mothers on bringing up children the vegan way.

f i l l in this coupon and send with cheque/P. O. to 47 Highlands Road, Leatherhead, Surrey, for immediate despatch. I enclose



for Address,

PETS ?. It is said that domestic animals benefit, spiritually, from their contact with man. This may be true of the small minority who have good "owners". What of the others?. Young animals acquired as playthings and cruelly abandoned when the novelty has worn off; dogs mostly kept in solitary confinement, tugged around on often too-short leads; imprisoned in cars and behind bars in shooting brakes. Many cases of neglect and cruelty are continually dealt with by the R. S. P. C. A. and the C. D. L. On top of all this are many millions of vivisection experiments, some diabolical. What all these animals learn from man does nothing to uplift them spiritually, rather the reverse. Do grown up people really need to keep "pets"?. If they have love in their hearts to spare there are many thousands of deprived children all over the country who are spiritually starving from lack of love from their own kind. If God is our Father, these children are our brothers and sisters whom we are to love "as ourselves" according to the Gospels, and thereby help in their spiritual development. Don. L. Phillips & 4 other vegans. SAYING IT WITH FIRES At the moment I and two of my comrades are free in the world. By the time you read this we may not be . The magistrate "took a chance' - we are on ÂŁ2, 000 bail reporting to the police every night. Our crime is caring. As members of the militant animal liberation guerrilla group "Band of Mercy", we carried out attacks by fire and other damage methods on property connected with seal hunting and vivisection. Animals were saved from death and torture. No humans suffered injury- we were very careful. But the state cares more for bricks and mortar and boats and motor vans than it does for animal or even human life and so we will stand trial. It was in the autumn of 1973 that the "Band of Mercy" f i r s t began activities. Raids were carried out on hunt kennels, and hunt vehicles were immobilised in an attempt to prevent "muggers" on horseback fromlnduging in the early season killing of fox cubs. Then in November there were two fire attacks on the Hoechst Pharmaceutical Vivisection laboratory then under construction at Walton, Bucks. In June '74 we damaged two fishing boats which were to be used in the murder of baby seals and later we attacked vans used by breeders to transport animals to vivisection laboratories. Finally two of us were caught on premises where experi:. ments were carried out on animals and where they were bred for this purpose. So why did we do it ? Why did we embark on a series of activities which we knew full well would sooner or later land us in the dock ? I will attempt to outline the reasons. 22

We wanted to directly save animals from suffering and death at the hands of their persecutors. We knew that to do this we had to indulge in acts of sabotage because we were only few in number, and so other action such as the occupying and holding of vivisection centres by large numbers of people was impossible. It would have been better of course to have driven (piloted the vivisection vans)seal hunting boats away for use for a better purpose, but the chances of being caught would have been very high. We firmly believe that our actions did in fact save animals. The administrative functioning of animal breeding centres was severely disrupted; completion of the Hoechst laboratory was delayed by six months (which may have had something to do with our actions); the Wash seal hunt was called off by the Government less than one week before It was due to start, but had it gone on lack of boats would have meant a great reduction in numbers of seals killed. We wanted those who indulge in vivisection and seal hunting to consider the morality of their cruel activities. We knew that damaging their vans and boats would make them angry, but we hoped that they would ask themselves the question "why are people doing this to our property?" and hopefully come up with the right answer, and thereby be persuaded to cease their obnoxious pastimes. We wanted people in general to become aware of the cruelty and unnecessary killing involved in vivisection and seal hunting , and to take action against these things and other persecution of animals. In order to make people take notice of our actions we had to do something which would gain a lot of publicity. The burning and damaging of boats, buildings, and vans, cannot of itself bring about the liberation of animal beings on anything more than a fairly small scale. Indeed, unkind actions towards animals will only cease for good when people come to realise the extent to which animals are subjected to cruelty on our behalf; when they see that there are alternatives to this - a better way (beans instead of meat, alternative medicine and research instead of vivisection, man-made or, better still, plant-made .materials instead of fur); when they realise that their happiness will be increased by kind thoughts and actions towards non-human creatures. And in truth, organisations like the Vegan Society which seek to quietly educate are playing, and will play, a far more important part in the struggle for animal liberation than guerrilla bands and arsonists of the night. But we have our place. There will always be need of someone who will cry out into this crazy world that the lives of sentient beings are more important than bricks and mortar and boats and motor vans, despite the threats of legal violence of the State.

Ronnie Lee is appealing for help with legal costs. , Hockwell Ring, Luton, Beds.

Ronnie Lee. Donations should be sent to

FREE EARTH MAGAZINE Access to alternatives. Catalogue and communication 14p+5p postage. Bi-monthly-year's sub. ÂŁ1. 72 pages. 103 South St, Lancing Sussex. 23

I come from an Anglican family and participate in certain church activities such as choir singing, but regard myself as a Hindu at heart. This change was initiated mostly by the Christian attitude towards animals which, apart from being hypocritical seems contrary to the simple goodness which comes to men in their better moments, and also against the best traditions of my civilisation. The notion of man's brotherhood with animals is ambiguously expressed by writers in the Christian world and even from the pulpits of our churches. , A A new member. In reply to Mrs. Hardwick's letter (Autumn issue, p. 30): Is not all we can do to watch our thinking ? May we not be grateful and happy to know a more satisfying way? Are we not bad promoters of it if we let ourselves be depressed by negative things we see ? Others need these things in order to awake some day when they have become ready. "For the things which are seen are temporal; but the things which are not seen are eternal" (2. Cor. 4:18). Werner Schrader. PLANTMILK COSTS. Plantmilk Ltd. has had to spend endless time in searching the country to ensure continuity of supply of many of its raw materials, and has had to pay dearly in price for them. All this is against a background which has been high-lighted in previous issues of The Vegan, where the milk industry is lavishly subsidised. Plantmilk Ltd. now calls attention to two aspects (l)Cash tokens (2)Rates. To explain - (^Plantmilk Ltd. suggests that non-consumers of dairy milk should (on signing a declaration to this effect)be given a cash token equivalent to the milk subsidy per head per annum. The Ministry of Food* has "noted" this request. (2) Plantmilk Ltd. in pressing for a reappraisal of the rating system with respect of factory farms being de-rated, has had a reply from the Ministry stating that these views have also been "noted" and that a Committee (under chairmanship of Mr. Frank Layfield, Q. C. )will be examining the rating system "and the whole question of the incidence of rates, and of exemptions, is likely to come under review". The Government is requesting the Committee's report by the end of 1975. YOU CAN HELP by writing to the Ministry* asking for (a)cash tokens, and (b)re-appraisal rates to stop benefiting factory farms. Public pressure counts. * Food & Drink Industries Division, Ministry of Agriculture , Fisheries & Food.

Arthur Ling

PLANTMILK LTD. has pleasure in announcing the introduction of P LA MIL SA-VREE. It makes an ideal savoury hot or cold and, by its texture, it can also be used as a base for soups, and additionally as a sandwich spread. It is chiefly available at the moment from Health Stores who are individually proprietory owned, rather than the chain type of Health Store, but it is hoped that this versatile product may eventually be on sale at all Health Stores.


SHOPPING with iVA VEGAN FOODS :NATEX SAVOURY SPREAD from Modern Health Products. WAISTLINE Vinegar and Oil Dressing. BATCHELORS packet Soups:- contain vegetable fat except where otherwise stated on the packet, i. e. beef fat, mutton fat. The hydrolysed protein in these soups is from vegetable gluten, either wheat or soya bean. Therefore Batchelors Garden Vegetable Packet Soup and their Thick Farmhouse Vegetable Soup would be acceptable to vegans. SHARWOOD'S Sweet and Sour Sauce. Although the label states just 'edible oil' the oil used is, in fact, groundnut oil. Legislation concerning the labelling of foods. To help readers when trying to understand labels, we quote the senior chemist at Rank, Hovis, McDougall, 4.11.74. "In general the labelling legislation requires ingredients to be labelled specifically. However, there are instances where the legislation recognises the difficulty in the use of a specific description and allows a general term to be used. For instance, the term Edible Starch can be used rather than specifying the starch according to the source from which it it derived, e. g. arrowroot starch, wheatstarch, ricestarch, potato starch etc. All these starches would of course be edible food starches, and have to comply in quality with the food regulations. It might happen that a specific starch is not available and another has to be substituted. In this case it would be misleading to continue to use the specific name. " "The legislation also recognises that in some cases a general term can have more meaning to a consumer than the specific one. For instance, 'Antioxidant' would mean more 'than, say, 'Butylated hydroxyanisole'." Because of this the present method of labelling foods, although much better than nothing, leaves vegetarians without the information they require; the source, animal or vegetable, from which the various additives are derived. Therefore, if commercially prepared foods are to be included, constant vigil is still necessary. No longer Vegan:Vecon. Due to the general shortage of vegetable glycerine we regret to say that animal glycerine is now being used in this product. We can only hope this will be a temporary measure. At the time of writing Barmene remains acceptable to our members.


Can anyone tell us of a vegetable oil which is guaranteed cold pressed ? This seems to have disappeared of late. Healthilife Sunflower Seed Oil is not.

Footwear News How fortunate we are that Norvic Shoes, which are obtainable everywhere, continue to produce a wide range of non-leather shoes in their Ladies Division, and that they are so helpful in supplying us with details of these. The current range includes twenty-two styles suitable for this weather as well as a number of sling-back models. Those which are available in simulated leathers only are:- Bijou range - Veronica, Wanda, Debbie, Miriam and Marina. Wondergirl range - Sophia and Rachel. Over Twenty-One range - Lara, Sue, Fran, Pru and Phyl. Alfresco range - Roden. Celebrity range - Benville, Everitt, Stanfield, Ingham, Suffield and Claremont. Some models, as usual, are available in either animal leather or a poromeric material such as Clarino. These include, in the Topflite range - Palisade, and Barbara, In the Bijou range - Brenda. Non-leather sling-back shoes from Norvic are:- Audrey, Iris, Millicent, Marylyn, Flora, Ursula, Philippa, Melanie, Jan and Leyton. All are made in sizes 3 - 8 inclusive except Audrey, Flora, Philippa, Marina, Benville, Ingham and Claremont which are also made in size 2.

This winter there are also two Norvic fashion boots which contain no animal leathers. They are styles Chepstow and Newmarket. Sizes 3 - 8 in " C " fittings. I am delighted with the comfort and appearance of my Portland shoes AMELIA (The Vegan Autumn 1974). They are proving stout, waterproof, allweather shoes and the Softee Clarino uppers and broad fitting make for allday foot-ease. If not in stock these can be ordered in confidence from your local Portland Shoes agent, in sizes 2 - 9. _VA tiATT



We believe we are the only producers of pure apple juice made from organically grown app les without toxic or chemical sprays. No add ed chemicals or preservatives. Crushed as picked, no cold loss of flavour. . We supply over 1,000 shops in U. K. (60 in London) We can supply your health shop, ask them. Or you direct by B. R. S. Apply The Cyder House, AspaU Hall, Stowmarket, Sut'olk.


ACCOMMODATION DUBROVNDC Vegan lady offers accommodation in her cottage. Self-contained pavilion, sleep 2-5, also available. Co-operative employment available. Write: Mrs Lowne, Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia. DEVON - ILFRACOMBE "Fairwynds", Vegetarian Guest House offers healthful holidays with natural whole foods. Compost gTOwn produce; home baking. Vegans welcome. Elizabeth Burton. V. C. A. Member. Tel. 2085.

LAKE DISTRICT - ORCH^RD^GUSE. rBorrowdale Road. ISeswick/jAS^li^flj^^ Vegetarian Guest House in good centre for walking etc.; lovely views from the back. Home baking and some home grown produce. Miss D. Ryall. Tel. Keswick 72830. PERTHSHIRE -BROOK LINN, Callander. Vegetarian & Vegan meals carefully prepared and attractively served. Comfortable Guest House. Near Trossachs and Western Highlands. Mrs. M. Choffin. Tel. Callander 30103 (STD 0877). NEWQUAY Cottage accommodation overlooking Newquay Harbour, for vegans and vegetarians. Bed, breakfast and evening meal. Miss Doney, , Newquay, Cornwall, TR7 IEZ. ISLE OF WIGHT - Marilyn & Terry, "Oatlands", Copse Lane, Freshwater, I. O. W. Vegetarian cooking. Vegans catered for. Children welcome. UP TO DATE LIST of vegetarian guest houses and restaurants from Coombe Lodge, Wooton -under Edge.Glos. Stamp please. CORNWALL — "WOODCOTE", The Saltings, Lelant. St. Ives. Overlooking Hayle Estuary.

C. H. & H. & C. in all rooms.

We take pleasure

in catering for vegans. Mr. JOHN & Miss HAZEL BLACKALLER. Tel. Hayle 3147

GARDENERS! Since its introduction five years ago our V. G. (veganic) compost fertiliser has become widely established amongst animal lovers and vegetarians. It is a 100% organic compost and is guaranteed to contain no animal ingredient whatever. It is of the same high quality as our other products and is backed by our 45 years experience of manufacturing and supplying organic composts to commercial growers, nurserymen and gardeners. For full details and samples write to : ROWLINGS, IPPLEPEN. NEWTON ABBOT, DEVON 27

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS TWO VEGANS interested in producing first class crops veganically are offered land to rent, f acre each, in the West Country. Professional advice available if needed. Box No. 31. IMMEDIATE POSSESSION on cash payment of £15,000 modern, solidly built, small, semi-detached house; in pleasant crescent (cul-de-sac)two miles from centre of Reading. Close to schools, shops and park. Near M4. Owned by vegan. Small, veganically cultivated garden. Tel. 0908 315917. ^













M N M l M M M M I B B a M a i FACTS ARE FACTS, but a belief is not a fact anymore than a fact is a belief, but when facts are seen as facts and not a belief in a fact, then you have enlightenment. ENLIGHTENMENT number 2 now ready, send S. A. E. to Stanford, 3 Romney Court, 28 Portarlington Road, Bournemouth, for copy. THE VEGANIC ASSOCIATION promotes the growing of vegetables, fruits, cereals and nuts by the purest and easiest method. Membership £1 to Secretary, 28 Cambridge Terrace, Dun Laoghaire, Co. Dublin. Ireland. AHIMSA - bi-monthly magazine - veganism, natural living, non-violence. Organ of the American Vegan Society. Annual sub. S3 or £1.25. Write for free sample book list, information. P. O. Box H. Malaga, New Jersey 08328. U.S.A. COMMUNES Journal of the Commune Movement. 20p from Steve Fuller, Kircudbrightshire, Galloway, Scotland. lp per word to Ad. Manager, Mrs Hanson, BY March 1st, May 1st, August 1st or November 1st.







LIVING THE GOOD LIFE by Helen and Scott Nearing

A book of Vegetarian Homesteading in U.S.A. Send £1 for this invaluable pioneering book to





H A M FLAVOUR A Complete Vegan Protein Replacement Food made available in all Health Food Stores 36p per 8 oz. packet by:


CRANKS HEALTH | FOODS| Marshall St London W1 O u r shop offers you t h e selection of unadulterated unrefined vegetarian foods.


(dairy milk replacement) •

DEUCE best and

open Monday t o Friday 9 a.m. t o 6 p.m. Saturday 9 a.m. t o I p.m.

(cream replacement) •

SA-VREE (for savouries, soup base, sandwich spread)

CHOCOLATE • Please place regular order with your

HEALTH STORE O u r r e s t a u r a n t offers you a cont i n u o u s buffet service of fresh salads, f r u i t and vegetable juices and vegetarian savouries. open Monday t o Friday 10 a.m. t o 8.30 p.m.

to ensure our products always being in stock and these vegan foods displayed

9 Informative literature (S.A.E. w o u l d o b l i g e ) : -


Plamil House, Bowles Well Gardens, Dover Road, Folkestone, Kent.