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T H E VEGAN SOCIETY Foutided November,


Veganism is a way of living which excludes all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, the animal kingdom, and includes a reverence and compassion for all life. It applies to the practice of living on the products of the plant kingdom t o the exclusion of flesh, fish, fowl, eggs, honey, animal milk and its derivatives, and encourages the use of alternatives f o r all commodities derived wholly or in part f r o m animals. Veganism remembers man's responsibilities to the earth and its resources and seeks to bring about a healthy soil and plant kingdom and a proper use of the materials of the earth.

President : Mrs. E. B. SHRIGLEY, d, Purley, Surrey. Deputy-President: Mr. JACK SANDERSON, Upminster, Essex. Vice-Presidents : Dr. FREY E L L I S , Dr. CATHERINE N I M M O , Mr. DUGALD SEMPLE, Miss W I N I F R E D SIMMONS. Honorary Secretary : Mrs. EVA BATT, , Enfield, Middlesex. Honorary Treasurer : Mrs. SERENA N . COLES, Purley, Surrey. Committee : Mr. H . T . BONNIE, Mrs. P. M. COLLINS, Mrs. M. DRAKE, T H E LADY DOWDING, D r . F . E L L I S , M r . M . M C C U L L O C H , M r . M . S H O L L , M r s . D. T H O M S O N .

Vegan Distribution Secretary: Mrs. M. BARKER, Kingston on-Thames, Surrey.



Minimum subscription, which includes " T h e Vegan," 15s. per annum (and 7s. 6d. for each additional member of one family at same residence); 7s. 6d. if age under 1 8 ; payable in January. Life Membership, ÂŁ10 10s. Od.



JOURNAL OF THE VEGAN SOCIETY Editor : Mr. JACK SANDERSON, , Upminster, Essex. Advertisements : H . H . G R E A V E S LTD., 1 0 6 / 1 1 0 Lordship Lane, London, S.E.22.

Published quarterly: Annual subscription, 7s. post free; single copies, Is. 9d. post free. Obtainable f r o m the Hon. Secretary. LITERATURE " T h e Reasons for Veganism." 4 page leaflet. Free. " V e g a n Protein Nutrition." 12 page leaflet. Is. 3d. post free. " A H a n d b o o k of Practical Veganism." 24 pages with cover. 2s* 9d. post free. " T h e Vegetarian and Vegan F o o d Guide." 2s. 6d. post free. " Unnecessary Cruelties among F a r m Animals." 8 page leaflet. 6d. post free. All obtainable from the H o n . Secretary (cheque and postal orders m a d e o u t to " The Vegan Society.")


of the Vegan


WINTER, 1963

EDITORIAL " Looking back at the past six months, I think that they have been the happiest months in our whole lives. . . . As far as this family is concerned, the vegan way of life is the right and only way. We have never been so happy 'before or felt better, and eagerly look forward to all the work and fun ahead of us."—G.P.M. The above extract from a recent letter is surely one of the most joyous and compelling letters that an Editor of The Vegan has ever received. Every vegan will feel uplifted on reading it, and every family new to veganism will be reassured by its message. How fortunate the children are to belong to such a home and how wonderful it is when the vegan spirit permeates a home—far too many of our members are " odd man out." Despite daily opposition and pressure from their loved ones, friends and colleagues, they continue in the way they have found, knowing that they are part of the vanguard of a great impulse that is destined to save the world from starvation, cruelty and exploitation, and lead it to compassion, understanding and a fair distribution of the good gifts of the earth. The question of giving is uppermost in many people's thoughts just now, and what to give and where to give aire problems which beset us all. Our stewardship and the way we distribute our gifts are a mark of our sense of responsibility, and apart from our gifts to our families and friends, a place can be found for those who are in the greatest need, old people and young in various kinds of distress, in this country and especially in other lands, and almost the whole of the 'larger animals that come in contact with man. In the long run, one of the most useful ways of helping the animal creation is not to use the products from them. When we buy anything new, let us whenever possible buy the vegan alternative. When we are selecting gifts

for birthday and Christmas presents let our friends and families receive something vegan, for let us never forget that we have a duty to support whenever we can those who make the vegan way of life possible. Let us occasionally buy something that doesn't quite suit us, and so encourage those who are pioneering a new product, ibe it footwear or a foodstuff, and perhaps a kindly suggestion from us will 'produce nearer perfection with the next batch. To produce a new model of a shoe, for instance, is a very costly and chancy business, and in our next issue this point will be treated in more detail. Let us each give thanks ourselves for that most priceless gift, knowledge of the vegan way and the joyous courage to pioneer it by practising it in every corner of our lives. JACK SANDERSON. OUR



Mrs. Batt will be on holiday from January 14th for four weeks. Orders for literature, membership application forms, etc., will be dealt with by arrangement from Enfield as usual, and letters marked " U r g e n t " will be forwarded by air-mail to her in the West Indies as before. All other correspondence she will answer as quickly as possible on her return, and we ask the indulgence of our members for these few weeks. (And may she enjoy a well deserved rest.—Editor.) VEGAN MEETINGS February. — On Friday, February 28th at 6.30 p.m. at L.V.S. Headquarters, Mr. W. H. C. Wright, B.Sc., N.D., D.O., M.B.N.O.A., will speak on " Mucusless Nutrition and Children's Health." March.—On Friday, March 13th at 6.30 p.m., at L.V.S. Headquarters at 53 Marloes Road, Kensington, W. 8 (nearest tube station High St. Kensington, then down side of Pontings), Dr. Douglas Latto will speak on " Good Food for Good Health." April.—On Friday, April 24th at 6.30 p.m., at 53 Marloes Road, Mr. Molineux will speak on " Veganic Gardening." June.—The Annual Vegan Dinner will probably be held early, in June. (Details in Spring issue.) OTHER


February. — On Friday evening, February 7th, at Tunbridge Wells, a meeting of the Vita Club for a Brains Trust and Social Evening. For further details of this and a later meeting to be held in April (in the Mayor's Parlour) against the use of performing animals, ring Tunbridge Wells 29078. 2

THE PRIZE LETTER We are happy to award the five-shilling prize to Mr. F. Howard for the following letter which appeared in The Southport Journal. I have held it back until it was seasonable again. This is the kind of letter that all of us can write to our newspapers, and it is well worth remembering that even the editor who looks forward to his turkey is always on the look-out for controversial letters. Why not have a try, and if you are successful please forward a dated-cutting stating title of paper or. magazine. Reader's View THOU SHALT NOT KILL WHAT ? When I saw the picture of the geese on the front page of your issue of December 21st I thought, as a true animal lover, what a nice picture, but I was shocked when I read the words " The Axeman Cometh," etc., underneath. • May I draw the attention of your readers to the humane way of killing geese, as recommended by the Fur Crusade and Humane Trapping Campaign? " Geese and turkeys should always be stunned first by a blow on the head with a piece of wood. Then place a stick; or iron rod, across their necks on the ground, and standing with your feet on both sides of it, take the legs in both hands and pull upwards till fihe neck is dislocated and the spinal cord broken. All poultry can be ibled 'after their necks are 'broken, if required; but this is not necessary. Some people stand with one foot over the bird's neck on the ground just behind the head, instead of using a stick, and this method seems to answer just as well ; but the bird must always be stunned first." A -bit nauseating, don't you think? I wonder how many readers could have done this so that they could eat their Christmas dinner? I challenge readers to visit the abattoir in Blowick and then eat their meat with as much enthusiasm as they did before their slaughter house visit. Pagan people used to eat. aninials because they thought they would gain the animals' strength. I know of one Liverpool Road family who have not had raibbit on thear menu since the children had a pair of rabbits as pets. I wish their garden was big enough to keep in it cows, pigs, ducks, etc. Birds and animals of prey kill other animals because they are specially equipped by nature to do so with claws, fangs and short digestive tract. Human beings, however, are designed to live on the products of the garden, as we are reminded in Genesis 1, 29— " I have given you every herb-bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth and every tree in the which is the fruit of a 3

tree bearing seed; to you it shall be for meat"; and so " Thou shalt not kill " should be applied to animals as well as human beings. I ask all readers to question themselves carefully as to whether they should aid and abet or break this Commandmenton the occasion of the celebration of the ibirthday of Jesus Christ, whose hosts at birth were animals. FRIEDENSTERN HOWARD.

London, S.W.16. A




At a meeting in Dr. Alan Stoddard's rooms in Harley House, London, on November 21st, 1963, Drs. Frey Ellis and Frank Wokes described to volunteers taking part in the recent investigation the results of treating vitamin B12 deficiency with vegetable milk and other vegan foods containing the vitamin. Diagrams summarising the findings and prepared for the Sixth International Congress of Nutrition at Edinburgh in August, 1963, and for a meeting of the Thames Valley branch of the Association of Clinical Pathologists at Kingston Hospital on November 9th were exhibited and explained. Dr. E. D. West kindly gave an account of the E.E.G. (electro-encephalograph) tests he has been carrying out on some of the volunteers. Full details of the findings will be published later. Briefly, they show that regular consumption in usual quantities of a vegan food containing suitable amounts of vitamin B12 can raise the serum B12 level to the normal range in two or three months and alleviate the defects of B i2 deficiency. Of several vegan foods that are in use and contain Bi2, Velactin (A. Wander Ltd.) proved acceptable and effective, daily intakes of 3 oz. of the powder during two or three months giving excellent results similar to those given by vitamin B12 tablets (Cytacon, Glaxo). The volunteers had low serum cholesterol levels, suggesting that the vegan diet might well be effective for prevention of coronary thrombosis. Intakes of calcium and of iron, present in Velactin in concentrations higher than in cow's milk, appeared to be satisfactory. The findings were discussed at length. It was decided that if such data, especially E.E.G.'s and other indications of effects on the nervous system, could be obtained on a number of volunteers before and after they adopted the vegan diet, important results might be obtained. Drs. Ellis and Wokes agreed to send a notice to this effect to the vegan and vegetarian journals. The meeting closed with hearty thanks to Dr. Stoddard for his hospitality and keen interest. F.W. AN


The Scientific Sub-Committee of the Vegetarian Nutritional' Research Centre would like to contact any vegetarians or others 4

who are proposing to change to a vegan diet and to arrange the carrying out of certain tests which should provide valuable information. Will those who are willing to help in this important investigation please write either to Dr. Frank Wokes, 1 ElLwood Gardens, Garston, Watford, Herts, or to Dr. Frey Ellis, Pathological Laboratory, Kingston Hospital, Kingston, Surrey, before changing to the vegan diet.


(The writer has a Degree in Town and Country Planning from the University of Manchester, and five years' experience in Local Government Planning Offices.) "Ah, well, I suppose we'll all have to be vegetarians in the end! " This is the remark of someone who realised the significance of the economic argument for a vegetarian diet—but who did not wish to be a vegetarian himself; but there is more truth in this than he perhaps realised. New developments are taking place in our economy. Many vegan products are successfully competing with animal-derived articles in the open market. Winter clothes produced from wood, coal, and chemicals are being found superior to woollen clothes. Now that people can afford to buy as much animal food as they want, many are eating too much. Doctors are beginning to be worried about unlimited free milk in schools. As the medical profession becomes aware of the dangers, so the prevailing superstitions about the virtues of animal protein will give way to healthier beliefs about fresh cereals, seeds, fruit and vegetables, and nuts. It is possible that a vegan economy is not as far away as it seems to be. This will have some important effects on town and country planning. In some ways it will make planning easier, in others, more difficult. INDUSTRIES

In a vegan economy, many industries would change. There would be an expansion of the glass industry to cater for the increased demand for greenhouses to produce winter fruits and vegetables. If less heat were used for cooking after harvesting, then more heat would be available for hothouse ripening, a method of cooking far closer to nature's own inimitable ways of preparing food. The coal-based industries will run out of coal, sooner or later. 5

By that time, an afforestation programme could be well advanced. Those industries (for. example, nylon spinning), which are now based on a diminishing supply of coal, could be based on a replaceable supply of wood. South Wales, Lancashire, Yorkshire, and Tyneside are desolated in many parts by the thoughtless exploitation of coal, minerals and forests. Such areas would take on a new lease of life as new factories are set up to turn wood into artificial fibres for winter clothing, leather substitutes, plastics, and a hundred other useful things. Already, Sweden replaces the wood she uses year by year, although half her exports, are based on wood. • Some industries may suffer a decline, such as drug production, chemical fertilisers, wool processing, but the changeover will be very gradual, and the unwanted factory labour will be needed for the care of newly established fruit and nut orchards, and market gardens. At present, there are predominantly industrial countries, such as Britain, relying on export of machinery, etc., in exchange for food,, and food-producing countries, such as South Africa, which produce cash crops for export. Such food is artificially ripened, like bananas, or denatured on arrival. Molasses and wheat are made, into sugar and. white flour, for instance. If food is to be consumed fresh, then each country must produce its own basic food requirements. Our land of Britain could feed sixty to seventy million people instead of about thirty million, as at present, if most of them were vegan. I shall expand this later on in the section on agriculture. Our industrial troubles have been diagnosed at great length by Wilfred Wellock. We are too dependent on industrial production for our living. We must produce unwanted .and superfluous articles such as expensive "labour saving " kitchen gadgets, or armaments, and then persuade people to buy them. In the next hundred years, industry in any one country or locality must become more diversified, if we are to avoid war and famine. Fortunately, raw materials are already tending to be processed and used in the countries of origin, for cotton mills are being set up in India, while those in Lancashire are declining. Peanuts are being used to offset malnutrition in Africa, instead of being sent over here to be made into indigestible sweets. It is rare for peanuts to be regarded as a main dish in England, although red-skinned peanuts are good food when eaten with green salad. We shall be forced to produce more of our own food and less of other people's machines as the developing countries build up their own industries, and our markets contract. The cry of politicians must be not " M o r e Exports," but " M o r e Food." We must rely less on raw materials from other countries, as we shall not be able to afford them. We shall have to rely more on our own resourecs. 6

If intelligent direction is given by Governments, we shall be able to control the location of new forestry and other industries, and towns will tend not to grow beyond that size which can be supported by local and national resources. This is not to say that specialization will end, but our survival as a civilized race depends on a proper balance in each country and locality between agricultural and industrial production. No one can assert that our industrial towns are truly cultured. The living theatre is neglected. Few people are well enough , to really enjoy living, and the general appearance of most towns, is one of activity without order or beauty. For a rich life, we need a beautiful combination of town and country. This will only be possible in a vegan economy. OBNOXIOUS INDUSTRIES

The processing of animal products is nearly always obnoxious. So much so that all industries using decaying organic products are put in a class by themselves. It is not permitted to convert any buildings or land to this use without planning permission, not even if these are already used for industrial processes involving fumes, smoke, dust, grit or noise. The object of this is to keep these industries away from houses. This is not always possible, and they sometimes have to be allowed in odd corners amongst old and sub-standard residential properties. Unfortunately, many have the legal right to remain, as they were there before planning control began (1947). The only way to remove them is for the local council to compulsorily acquire them. This is generally only done when the whole street block is to be redeveloped. The absence of these industries with their unpleasant smells would make these old areas much more pleasant to live in. It would also make them more attractive to redevelop. New flats are often surrounded by damp insanitary houses, interspersed with the yards of rag-and-bone merchants, etc. Private enterprise builders will not consider trying to sell houses in such an area. The only industries of this class not involving animal products are the storage of cereals for animal consumption (which attracts rats) and compost making. SLAUGHTER HOUSES

These are hardly mentioned in planning legislation. They are not classed as industry of any description—and they can hardly be described as agriculture. The result is that buildings can be converted to or from slaughter houses without planning permission from the local council. The reason is, speaking in legaltechnical language, that there is no " change of use." Often they occupy back yards amongst old houses where there is no landlord control. The building and operation of slaughter houses is controlled by 7

the smallest local planning authorities. A butcher can pay £1,000 fine without going bankrupt, and a wealthy man can often avoid complying with the wishes of a small local council. The worst example I have ever seen of post-war lack of planning was a slaughter house, built to within six inches of the backs of dwelling houses, against all bye-laws. Bye-law control is usually enforced by a meat inspector, who is sometimes also building and drains inspector. Slaughter houses are supposed to be cleaned out every 24 hours, and meat should be free of disease. Now that tuberculosis has been eliminated it is even more difficult to tell from the appearance of meat whether or not it is diseased. It is not always easy for the underpaid meat inspector to speak with authority to a butcher. If he threatens to take away the butcher's licence—well, it is not unknown for bribes to be accepted by local authority councillors. Local councils are reluctant to grant permission for new slaughter houses though the old ones are notoriously bad. No wonder, if they are so difficult to control once they are established. REFUSE DISPOSAL AND COMPOST

One of the most unpleasant things about emptying dustbins is the large amount of decaying vegetable matter that they contain. It is difficult to know what to do with it. A kitchen rubbish heap is an unsightly feature in a small urban garden, and it attracts flies and rats. If the value of such material were more widely appreciated, there might be even more of these. People might be taught how to run a compost heap. On the other hand, many people have no gardens and the answer might be to make compost collection a parallel public service to the present dustbin refuse collection. At present tipping of domestic refuse is carefully controlled. Tips are limited in height and extent, and must be covered with earth within 24 hours of tipping. If vegetable rubbish was collected separately, these tips would not be so unpleasant. Compost could be made by the local authority and sold at a profit.* Perhaps compost beds could be sited near the sewage works, where smell is already a problem. Alternatively, it could perhaps be made in compost houses where heat and moisture could be more easily controlled to produce a good compost in a few weeks. PUBLIC


If all that is known about nutrition were applied by the general population, there would be far less sickness and crime. Dr. Weston Price has found that primitive societies eating only foods taken direct from nature simply did not need hospitals, doctors, • T h i s is done in many places already—Holland for instance.


lunatic asylums, prisons, psychiatrists and social workers. Yet these very same tribes only a generation later were dying from cancer, muscular dystrophy, and other diseases ; and immorality and crime were rife. While it is a slow business changing eating habits, it is possible to imagine a great improvement in health in the next two generations, due to the increased knowledge of the cruel consequences of ignorance. Nutrition should be a basic subject in all schools. There should be lectures and classes for adults ; there should be leaflets and handbooks on nutrition in every welfare clinic and doctor's surgery—emphasising the penalties of bad eating and the rewards of good nutrition. At first the emphasis would be on more healthy meat, fresher milk — then the emphasis would shift to really fresh fruit and vegetables and later to sprouted grains, nuts, etc. HOSPITALS AND PRISONS Many hospital beds in this country are occupied by people who are ill simply because their bodies and nervous systems have never received proper nourishment. Fifty-two per cent, of hospital beds in this country are occupied by the mentally ill. A hospital for mental patients in the Southern U.S.A. feeds all incoming patients on an orthodox diet including whole grain foods, fresh fruit and vegetables. After two months, many return home cured. In this country, the same could happen if people were not kept ill by continuous feeding on white bread, hardened fats, white sugar, too much animal protein, and almost complete absence of fresh fruit, salads and whole nuts. Scientific food combining is ignored, although it is simple to understand. Its value is evident to anyone who has tried it. It is based on a knowledge of the limitations of the human digestive system. The main rules are, eat fruit alone, eat starchy foods with green salad only, eat protein foods with green salad only. Protein-starch, acid-starch, and acid-protein combinations lead to indigestion and later on to ill health. They are particularly dangerous for people suffering from diseases or injuries. In a vegan society, hospitals would become Health Schools, where people could learn to live according to the rules of health. They would learn to prepare meals with a minimum of cooking, cutting, grating or otherwise spoiling nature's perfect foods. Nature's cooking is the best. Gardening would be taught. There would be sun and air bathing, an amount of exercise suited to each patient, and an emphasis on being in the fresh air. Also, unlike most modern hospitals, there would be ample opportunity for real rest. Ill patients would not be woken at 5.30 a.m. for an endless routine of temperature-taking, washing and cleaning, nor would they be kept awake till 11.30 p.m. by bright lights and 9

activity. If these principles were followed, our hospitals would' soon be half-empty, just as we imagined they would be when the National Health Service was set up 40 years ago. Soon there would only be left the old and unwanted, and the casualties of our present way of life. These are the mentally and physically deformed. Twenty-two per cent, of babies now born are physically imperfect. Perhaps ten per cent, are incapable of full development, and will need special care all their lives. However, even spastics and mongols respond in some degree to love and natural living. Our prisons and Borstal institutions must follow the same programme if those shut away inside them are to become useful members of society. On an orthodox diet their success is remarkable. Given an improved diet, it would be still better. All delinquents have suffered from nutritional inadequacy, and it has been shown that they respond, in every case, to an improved diet. Eventually some of these hospitals and institutions could be turned over to more constructive uses — adult institutes, technical schools, conference centres. These could become the physical environment for the sprouting of new culture, and the spread of ideals based on the supreme importance of knowing and obeying the laws of life. (To be continued in the Spring issue)



We know that vegan children are not so prone to colds and catarrh as children brought up on the "daily pinta milk," but we should not take advantage of this factor and neglect simple day-to-day hints that are designed to promote both a healthy approach to the long winter days and a sound state of health until the daffodils make their appearance and remind us that better weather is ahead. Our greatest friend is fresh air, and we should see that our children enjoy themselves out of doors as much as possible. With school-going children there is no choice other than to go out every day, but there is a tendency with some mothers who have younger children not to venture out every day. It is well worth making an effort to inhale fresh air! Plenty of exercise is preferable to sitting around a fire. It is advisable to see that the children's bedroom is both warm and well ventilated because young children do not automatically cover themselves. Make sure that their hands and feet are kept warm.. Sometimes severe cold affects the capillaries in the hands and causes oedema. If this condition is 10

allowed to persist it may cause damage to the tissue. An idea for what it is worth is to put young children into a sleeping bag and provide them with warm mittens, making sure that the outside layer is cotton so that they do not choke on pieces of fluff if their hands stray to their, mouths. Now we come to one or two simple hints on diet. Remember that raw fruit and vegetables are just as important in the winter as the summer. Ensure an adequate intake of heat-promoting foods,- such as fats (this does not mean fried foods) in the form of nut butters, nut creams, brazil nuts, etc. Instead of some cold summer drinks give warm fruit juices, vegetable juices, Marmite, Vecon, Barmene, Velactin, etc. We hope that the new Plantmilk (containing vitamin BI2) will soon be available to those who live in the Greater London area. Parents of vegan-children Should not be over fastidious toward their children's health, but they should endeavour to give attention to these simple hints and help prove that the vegan diet, combined with a sensible and rational approach to life, is as sure a guarantee as any of getting through the Winter months happily in robust health. to write to me for any specific advice— , Coulsdon, Surrey. FOOD RECIPES We regret that many commitments have prevented Miss Mabel Simmons from sending us her greatly valued recipes this time—there have been few issues in the last decade when we have not had the benefit of her rich experience. Perhaps we can use this occasion to draw your attention to the following: — 1.—Six Recipe Leaflets issued by the Vegan Society at l/10d. post free, or 6d. for one post free. There are over 100 recipes, and they cover a full range of soups and purees, roasts and moulds, salads and savouries, biscuits, cakes and tarts, sweets and puddings, etc. Try them and extend your range, and send the comments of your family (favourable or otherwise) to the Secretary—by so doing, and sending your own favourite recipes you will be helping to produce that recipe book that the Society hopes to publish one day soon. 2.—Mrs. Kathleen Keleny's illustrated cookery book entitled " Quick and Easy Recipes for Joyous Living " contains.fourteen daily menus of various recipes for all meals, and is available at 2/9d. post ifree from the Secretary.

Water Fluoridation. So much more material continues to become available on this subject that the article which was projected for the Autumn issue has been deferred until the Spring. 11

THE B.W.C. BOUTIQUE From January 29th the address of the Beauty Without Cruelty Boutique will be 9a, St. Mary Abbot's Place, off Kensington High Street, W.8. The well-deserved success of this venture has necessitated this move to larger premises. The Boutique will be open on Wednesdays from 2—8 p.m. and Fridays and Saturdays from 2-6 pjm. Various members of the Committee will be on hand to answer questions and help and advise shoppers. Vegan articles are w d l represented, and all members will find much to interest them. Quite a number of the lines we recommend will be on show or for sale. More will be added as space, finance and " woman-hours " permit. This may be a fitting .time to express our sincere appreciation to Mr. and Mrs. R. White for the use of part of their home for so long and all the work and inconvenience it must have been, especially in the beginning. The initial success of the venture was largely due to their very willing help and co-operation. We are grateful, too, to all those ladies who regularly give up their " half-day " to help in the Boutique. We wish it all the success it deserves. Visitors coming some distance are advised that the proprietors of the Kon Tiki Restaurant on the corner of Kensington High Street and St. Mary Abbot's Place, although not vegetarians, have agreed to serve light vegetarian meals on request. St. Mary Abbot's Place is a .request 'bus stop for buses 28, 49, 73 and 270. Nearest Underground Station, Kensington High Street. WORTHING Our Secretary was warmly received by the Worthing Group of the Sussex Vegetarian Society when she gave a talk on " Veganism in Practice " last October. After explaining a few of our reasons for adopting this way of life, Mrs. Batt gave lists of vegan alternatives for dairy products, wool, silk, leather, soaps, etc. A quickly prepared display of footwear, gloves, synthetic chamois and an Indian banana silk sari created much interest. The articles were examined and admired after the meeting and many questions asked about availability. We were delighted to note, once again, the keen interest in veganism which is felt by an increasing number of lactovegetarians today. Samples of the Society's literature were distributed, and several members also bought copies of the Food Guide and our Recipes. There were several vegans in the audience and one or two people asked for membership application forms. 12


From time to time we receive a letter asking why such and such an article has been dropped from our lists of vegan products. Invariably it is because the ingredients have been changed. The following paragraph in a letter from the Technical Research Department of the Co-operative Wholesale Society Ltd. emphasises our difficulties in keeping these lists up to date: " The composition of those products is liable to vary from time to time owing to the availability of materials or to the progress in new materials and new ideas, so that if we are able to give you a precise answer t o your question now, in six months' time our statement might no longer be true." It is always advisable, if buying tinned or pre-packed foods, to read the label carefully, although it is not required by law that all ingredients must be listed. However, it is useful to remember that, although " mono-sodium glutemate " may ibe used to impart a meaty flavour, it is a vegetable product, whereas " hydrolysed protein " may well contain animal protein. At the Bakers' Exhibition at Olympia this year we noted that Soya Foods Ltd., Mincing Lane, London, E.C.4, were recommending their Diasoy, enzyme-active unprocessed full-fat soya flour (20% fat, 40% protein) to 'bakers as an efficient bread improver and yeast food. It is only available in bulk to bakers at present, but if generally adopted by the trade it should improve the commercial product considerably. We shall continue to bake our own, however, adding a little soya flour as usual. We cannot know what qualities were sought in judging the bread, but after seeing some of the sliced, wrapped, bleached, rubbery award winners masquerading as the staff of life, we know that purity, nutritional value and flavour were not among them. Additions to Food Guide " Lima " (Belgium) cereal products are guaranteed organically grown, without chemicals or animal products. Moti Rice Crackers (made from rice and sea salt, and fried in first-pressing oil). F.M.S. (Farm Products) Ltd. " Swel" High-yield Vegetables. Mixed Vegetables, Instant Potato, No-soak Garden Peas, French Beans, Sliced Onions. Th. Winborg & Co. (Sweden). Horseradish.

Rose Hip, jars of Baby Beets, 13

Barrington Mills, Holbeach, Spalding, Lines. Wheat flour (all grades). ; Assis Ltd., Israel. Unsweetened fruit juices—Orange, Grapefruit and Lemon. Tomato Juice. Canned Melons, Figs, Grapefruit, Pickled Cucumbers, Green Olives. Canned Okra Sauerkraut. . Thompson's Dandelion Coffee and Essence, Slippery Elm Food. We are pleased to 'be able to introduce a new vegan biscuit, R'.'jM.-Scott's Ginger Nuts. • The larger size, old fashioned " Huntin' Nuts " ginger biscuits are also vegan and now available in biscuit 'barrels. All Keddies pickles (sweet and sharp), chutneys, : sauces, relishes, capers, onion and garlic salts are vegan. We have been asked several .times albout Kemp's Wyri-a biscuits. Although these do riot contain milk products, part of the fat content is at present of animal origin. Rational Diet Products. Garlic tablets. Safflower seed oil. . Messrs. Rational Diet. Products .write to say they- have recently perfected' a new vitamin A, C and D tablet. This ,is based on blackcurrant extract and vegetable oils. •'; :. These one-a-day-tablets are-designed to replace fish-oil capsules and tablets. They are easier to digest and pleasant to ; take. To introduce them, the manufacturers generousiy offer-to send a full week's supply, post free, to any member. - '• Please mention The Vegan when writing. See advertisement pages! -, . The new vegan savoury foods from Messrs. Eustace -Miles are just about ready for marketing now and we shall have full details and prices in our next issue. We have not yet received samples, but pur member who has been following the production of these quality foods speaks most highly of them. A member tells us that bean sprouts are available from- some stores in plastic bags at 1/-. This is only for the ra///y lazy, but could be useful in an emergency. The problem of white sugar (probably, bone "bleached) in preserves, confectionery, etc., has not yet been thoroughly investigated (through lack of time, not interest!) However, we are tackling this very shortly and hope to have some results for the next issue. One member who is very concerned about this has most generously offered to offset some of the expense. The list, wihen, formed, will be very short indeed, but well worth all the work such investigation will entail. •14

Indiacraft. Health Food London, W . l : Godrej Godrej Godrej

New vegan toiletries from India available from Stores and Messrs. Indiacraft, Oxford Street, — shaving stick, 3/6d. talcum powder, 5/-. sandalwood perfume, 5/-.

David Thorn & Co. Ltd.

Green soft soap.

British Weleda. We have very much pleasure in telling our readers that Rosemary Toilet Soap from British Weleda Ltd. is now " strictly vegetarian." Apart from Its* improved lather, it is particularly suited to delicate skin, and its high content of rosemary oil freshens • and stimulates the skin. • Other new lines from the same company are: —Pre-Shave Lotion and After-Shave Lotion. Gloves Gloves will present no problems for vegans this winter,. We have seen excellent samples in the new P.V.C. materials for men, women and children in various colours in all parts of the country. Mostly they are very reasonably priced and often have nylon or cotton gussets, which add to .the appearance and comfort. Unlike wool, they also make good driving gloves. Example: Style No. 40L10. Smart ladies' glove in Vinyl with stretch nylon insets. Warmly lined. In several colours..._ 8 / l i d . plus.6d. postage from Gamages. For'those who prefer the knitted "woollen", type glove,;the 100% orlon are warm, washable and. h'ardwearing.., Not forgetting everyone's favourites, the apparently everlasting " Wynelga " 100% nylon gloves. These are now available, in several colours from the B.W.C. Boutique, including size 8£ in beaver shade for men. Blankets • A. Frame Ltd., Danvel, Ayrshire. "Inner-Space" cellular health blankets, mothproof and easily laundered. .: Footwear If the present trend towards more and better leather substitutes continues, those responsible for writing this section of our lists will, happily, become redundant in a few years'. This state of affairs will not be the result of a more humane outlook generally, but rather .the automatic outcome of bur economic evolution. • Whatever the cause, however, one more aspect of the vegan Wa'y.of living will be made much easier. Messrs..Dupont are building a $3 million plant in St. Louis, U.S;A.f for the production of synthetic shoe leather and should be in production during" the next twelve months. This "is,the 15

result of a satisfactory response to a house-to-house sale of shoes made in the new material (writes one of our members from America). Even this winter, no-one who can shop around at all need resort to leather footwear, whether their requirements are for sensible, durable, comfortable, watertight boots and shoes or the smart, fashionable styles. In the first category we can again include all the models in " Flexon " imported from France by Messrs. Borg Agencies, 10, The Minories, London, E.C.3. For those who must be out in all weathers we can recommend the heavy-duty Brea model, half-length snow bootees in black or brown Flexon, with fleecy pile lining, low heels and medium toe. Also a 'braid-trimmed model, a similar style in black only, and another ankle boot which is available from Woolworth's Stores only. For children Anny shoes in tan Flexon, with tartan pattern insert. Sizes 10—2.

Pullman child's sandal in Flexon. Sizes 10—2. Menton child's lace-up shoe in tan Flexon. Sizes 10—2. Misti tan sandal for toddlers. Sizes 6—9. With heel. For Men Misti and Pullman style sandals are also available in men's sizes. All the above are Vylar brand and are on sale in most branches of Character Shoe shops and some other stores. Also from all Louis's shops in the Midlands. All are hard wearing- and very moderately priced. Samples may be seen at The Beauty Without Cruelty Boutique in Kensington, London, or send to The Vegan secretary for illustrated list. Several mail order houses can offer non-leather footwear. We have just bought an attractive, warm, calf-length boot in cream plastic from Messrs. Grattons of Leicester. These can be ordered -with every confidence direct from Mrs. D. Steel, 39, Winkworth Road, Banstead, Surrey. In all sizes (and half sizes), 4 2 / l i d . plus 2/- postage. Cash with order, on approval. Once again the free illustrated 'brochure from The Bury Boot and Shoe Co. Ltd., Brandlesholme Road, Bury, Lanes., contains a few vegan lines: — Bootee W.246. Low cut, lace up, lined. Uppers of washable suedette, soles and heels of crepe rubber. Extra broad fittings. 32/-, plus l / 9 d . postage. W.270. Similar to W.246, with zip front fastening. Both in black only. 33/9d., postage l / 9 d . 16

W.142. Inexpensive broad fitting casual shoe. Elasticated for comfortable fit. Crepe soles and heels. Uppers of lined Norzon, punched vamp. In black or brown. 26/6d., plus l / 6 d . postage. Jane Barricoat wrote in her column in the Evening Standard last September, " The new plastic boots are already in the shops and being snapped up as soon as they appear. They are more waterproof than leather ones. . . ." She was referring to some of the fashionable models from Lotus, Raoul, Lilley & Skinner, Saxone, etc. Lilley & Skinner. Coloured Wellington boots, fleecy lining (not yet known if this may include wool—ask) and fur fabric

cuffs. Saxone. Imitation crocodile boots with medium heel. 59/ l i d . Raoul. Mock calf, velvet trim, fleecy lining. 4 9 / l i d . Lotus. Very high boots in mock calf, low heel, zip side. £5/15/6d. " Petruska " model in " Pattinex." Medium slender heel, zip side. £6/6/0d. " Svetlana " model. High boot, wedge heel, zip in " Deltex." 89/lld. " R o m a n o f f " model. High 'boot in soft Deltex material or black mock crocodile. With tartan-lined over-knee cuff. £5/I5/6d. Also a high iboot in red or black mock calf, with the new chunky heels. 8 9 / l l d . Note: Borzoi model is fur-trimmed. Children's Models Weatherby Junior. Calf length or knee high in super soft Deltex in black, brown, red or white. Sizes 11—2. 4 5 / l i d . All from Lotus and Delta shops and some agents. " Pattina " is the name of a shiny synthetic leather used for some Lotus fashion shoes. Unlike patent, Pattina will not crack! . Charmaine, a bow-fronted low court style with \ \ " LXV heel, in black, coffee, white, blue or red "Pattina," 5 5 / l i d . .(Warning. Shop carefully. Charmaine shoes are also made in suede. Ask for " Pattina.") Three other fancy court styles in gay coloured Pattina are: — Bo-Peep. B fittings. Low heel. 4 2 / l i d . Joanna. B fittings. slim heel. In various colours. 49/lid. Penelope. B fittings, i f " slim heel. In black or two-tone Pattina. 4 9 / l i d . All these are in the " Penny Bright" range. One big drawback is that these four styles still have leather quarter linings (around the heel). We suggest everyone writes to Lotus of Stafford about this, and so help us to get it remedied. 17

Health and Beauty The South London Beauty Therapy Salon, 7, Streatham Road, MLteham, Surrey. Nearest station: Tooting Junction or Tooting Broadway Tube. Buses: 220, 88, 64. Mrs. M. A. Middleton Lewis, M.A.B.TH., DIP INT. School of Beauty Therapy, Dip. Academy of Beauty Culture, in in personal attendance on all clients and specialises in remedial therapy. Not needing this (luckily), we spent a most luxurious hour being deep Viennese massaged, toned, relaxed, etc., in fact enjoying the whole beauty treatment. If anyone does not look and feel 100% after this, the fault can certainly not be in the treatment, which is extremely thorough and conscientious. Mrs. Middleton Lewis makes all her own creams and lotions, so she can give us an unqualified assurance on their claim to vegan status, as well as on their quality and purity. If we ever feel the need for remedial therapy we shall certainly have no hesitation in making another appointment. Ring MITCHAM 5472. NEWS AND COMMENT Banker's Order. The question of paying the annual subscription by banker's order and various other financial matters (suggested by our good friend Mr. Edgar Hewlett) are being looked into by the Committee. Once we have been established as a charity one or two ways of saving money open up to us, and news of these will be given out as soon as possible. A Passing. W e have had news from one of our Life Members, Mrs. R. W. Hunter, of the passing of another Life Member, Miss Helen W. Watson, formerly of Largs, Ayrshire, where she was President of Largs Vegetarian Society, and recently of Arran. " She nobly upheld the principles of veganism in the face of strong opposition and has left a lovely memory of her gentle, gracious embodiment of all that meant so much to her." Germs and Milk. The Empire Rheumatism Council is investigating the possibility that arthritis can be caused by a germ sometimes found in cow's milk. The tests will 'be carried out on people who live in or near to Wantage, Berkshire. They appear to toe specially prone to outbreaks of undulant fever, which is often associated with arthritis, and this fever can be set going by a germ in cow's milk.—(From a report in the Evening Standard of 10th December, 1963.) R.S.A. Lecture. We must congratulate Mr. Kenneth D. O'Brien on the excellent illustrated lecture he gave recently in a top rank series arranged by and given at the Royal Society of Arts. We hope to print this lecture in our Spring issue. 18



We must congratulate Miss Gwen Barter on her effective anti-broiler campaign in connection with the recent Royal Dairy Show at Olympia, London. Not only were her large notices seen by those members of the public who went into Olympia, but also by the readership of the Daily Telegraph next day—an excellent way of bringing before the purchasing public one aspect of the cruel and unhealthy broiler industry.

(Reprinted by kind permission of the Daily



Far more people are likely to appreciate the fact that the denatured products of the 'broiler industry are likely to affect themselves adversely than are Ijkely to respond on grounds of cruelty alone, but having responded they may begin to look for and recommend better ways to their friends ; and once a person has taken Che first step in becoming food-conscious they may take the road that we are on—the path that leads to the nonexploitation of the animal kingdom by man. J.S.


Simon crept softly out into the calm July night. He could still hear them arguing about the bomb and Hiroshima's unspeakable fate, there in the softly shaded light of the country inn. He often spent a few hours in the " Blue Ball" which nestled like a kitten at the foot of the Quantock hills. It was a few miles from his cottage in the little village of Stogumber which lay between Taunton and Minehead. A warm red glow came from the latticed window and he could see them waving their arms excitedly in the heat of the argument. They seemed to Simon almost like silhouettes from Dante's Inferno as their vague shapes rose and fell in the red light. The Colonel's clipped speech rose above the others, rapping out sentences like a typewriter, Simon thought. Although he gave the impression that he had pronounced the last word upon the subject, one knew that he was mustering up strength for the next ferocious onslaught. The languid pacifist with the cold grey eyes was lounging in the most comfortable chair, holding forth upon the principle of non-violence in a pious voice. That the next meal of beef steak that he would relish came from an animal that had met with violence for this specific end, never for a moment occurred to him— his approach to this principle was of a very limited nature. He could faintly hear the voice of the whining little widow. She was negation personified, lamenting her departed spouse with a sentimentality of which only the insensitive are capable. From what Simon had heard the poor man had been completely subordinated to this domineering little woman. But as is usually the case with this particular mentality, distance lends enchantment with the result that he who could do nothing right in his life, in death seemed to have been incapable of doing anything wrong. She was agreeing with everything the Colonel said: " Why, of course they should have bombed Hiroshima. Think of all the Western lives that were saved. Why, the war might have gone on for years." " My God ! " thought Simon, " they almost 20

make it seem an act of compassion in their attempt at self-justification." What did these robots know of Hiroshima, or of right or wrong, or of anything fundamental? Were they not so conditioned from birth that the weeds of propaganda and cruel custom choked the blossoms of creative thought? How could they reason at all in the true sense of the word? For nearly two hours he had listened as platitudes slipped from puerile lips. They had quoted proverbs with voices as profound as though they had brought these veterans to birth. When would the human spirit break through these self-made barriers, a free and winged thing towards the star of truth? Stupidity alone could anger Simon, who could 'be so tender with all living things, feeling the one spirit flowing through them all. Cruelty to the defenceless sickened his soul, for it seemed to him to strike at the very core of life which is rooted in co-operation and love. Like a highly tuned instrument he vibrated to every touch of life and his identification with pain was a continual source of suffering. He had wanted to understand when the outrage of Hiroshima had struck at the very centre of his being and had shaken it to the foundations. Like a stricken tree he had been bowed beneath the storm of his own conflict. He had felt bereft as if the branches of his mind would never flower again. He remembered how his misery had taken him to Hiroshima, and his sense of personal guilt that had made him want to suffer as they were suffering. He had wanted to write and tell the world how bitterly wrong they were. He was so young then ; he had believed they would understand. He shuddered now as he recalled his impressions when he had seen those hopeless figures which even now moved in nightmare procession in his dreams. It was the terrifying acceptance of and familiarity with pain of those poor doomed figures waiting for death that had been the cause of his own mental and physical breakdown. But the answer never came. He had not written a word. Even when much later the troubled waves of his mind had subsided no Muse reflected its face in the calm waters ; only blank negation looked from its smooth surface. Nevertheless he knew that deep down within himself was the potentiality of creative liberation, but like a maimed bird he dragged his broken wings upon the ground, remembering the lofty regions of his former creative days. So he had laid aside his pen and the music was stilled. Only a vague cadence would sometimes steal stealthily through his brain, then he would close the shutters of his heart and mind. Somerset had laid its magic on him, an enchantment that stilled the conflict in his breast. Here the red earth glowed beneath the sun and impatient for Spring the wild flowers pushed their way through the rich soil in early March. The streams ran like banners of silver washing and foaming over the clean brown stones. Everywhere in Somerset is the sweet mur21

mur of water by hedge and wood and field and the great clouds hang low as they move majestically over the crest of the Quantock hills. This poignant beauty helped to still his restless spirit and he drank it deeply as a drunkard seeks forgetfulness, without satiety, feeding upon its own desire.. But-it could not still the unanswerable questions that filled-his mind. It was but an anodyne to bring a temporary release. Always he had wanted desperately to know and understand the truth in all things. Even now he wondered why the man staying at the inn who during the argument had quoted sanctimoniously, " Thou shalt not kill," had nevertheless killed birds and rabbits without remorse. Illogical and inconsistent,-yet dissatisfied, they beat like restless waves upon the rock of their own early conditioning. Their voices became a faint murmur as he walked down the lane which was heavy with the scent of honeysuckle. Beyond the gently rising patchwork of ploughland he could see the soft line of the Quantocks. Stoic and sublime they wore the 'fickle weather like garments changing with every mood. Sometimes they flaunted saffron and green with patches of dusky brown. In brooding storms the great grey wings of cloud would hover above them throwing strange shadows upon their sides. Then a twilight mystery hung about them, an enchantment Simon preferred to their more flippant days of green and gold. There was peace up there, close to the clouds, where the heather grew four feet high on their steep sides, and among it grew grape-blue wortle berries like beads on their strong stems. As Simon walked on the moon lit the leaves with a ghostly light, and in the fields beyond the hedges the sheep showed whitely humped in innocent sleep. His long legs took him towards the pinewoods where small lives lived without the conscious torturing pain which is the human lot. Once in the wood how still the night seemed! A light wind touched the pines with delicate fingers and their scent descended like a balm upon his spirit. He sat beneath them on the slippery pine needles and looked up where the full moon was rising like Aphrodite from a sea of silver. Here in the silence and close to the dark earth was peace. Only the whirr of a wing stirred as a white owl descended moth-like from a nearby branch. His mind seemed suddenly to be suspended in space without thought. The peace of the July night was so calm and still that feeling alone flowed through his being like an elixir. Suddenly out of the silence came the sound of breaking twigs followed by a loud report. A pain which he scarcely recognised as such pierced his left breast. "Damn !" yelled an angry voice, " missed him." Then came another report with, " Got him this time," as the rabbit fell with a scream which seemed to tear the night apart. Then came the sound of breaking twigs as they came quite near to collect their prey. Simon remained unseen in the dark shadow of the pines. The 22

poachers moved on talking and laughing, unconscious that a man lay mortally wounded a few yards away. They had made their kill. Simon could have called but some strange instinct, inexplicable even to himself, prevented him. His eyes were growing misty now as he looked up at the clear night sky. where cold and pure and impersonal the stars looked down upon his lonely pain. He saw like an opening flower the crimson stain expanding on his tweed jacket, and without remorse he felt his life ebbing slowly away in a dark stream. Now he and the dead rabbit and the pine-scented night seemed one; one with the void and its clustered stars that swept the Milky Way and moved as he did towards some inexorable goal. The dark ocean of pain closed in around him and receded. He remained motionless and expectant. He suddenly felt light and a mystery enveloped him which he vaguely tried to understand. It was then a surge of pity for the whole swept him like a wave upon its flood—liberating him. In this moment, out of becoming he was being, one with all that is and ever was. In a flash he saw the tormentor and the tormented as one. He knew at length in this complete rounded moment of time which is eternity the answer he had sought, why a wild thing screamed in the night and a cloud of smoke mushroomed up like an evil genius in quiet places, spreading pestilence and decay. Never more would the illusion of separation spread its net upon his heart. His ears had been deaf to the music of life. He had not heard the.symphony but listened to the separate notes. Compassion was the theme that would persist until its message was echoed throughout the universe. With these last thoughts his spirit spread its wings to freedom and to peace.

THE ANIMALS FAIR The Animals Fair this year, November 22nd and 23rd, was blessed with fine weather. Visitors were able to buy health foods and fruit juices from Mrs. Muriel Drake on the Vegan stall. Other helpers were selling home-made cakes and savouries, sprouted beans, salads and jellies all made and kindly brought along by members. Free " tasters " of shortbread were much appreciated. Quite a few people took copies of our " Reasons for Veganism " and other free literature and many vegan booklets were sold—also some vegan shoes. Due to the generosity of members (one of whom sent a cheque as she was unable to come along), the venture was a success and many people had their first introduction to the vegan way of life. E.B. 23

A QUESTIONNAIRE TO VEGETARIANS O N PEACE The following questionnaire was answered by 50 people who attended the Intervega Camp at Chigwell, Essex, last August. The average number of residents per day for the whole fortnight was 167. Intervega is the international association of vegetarian youth organisations (formed in 1958) and the 183 lactovegetarians, 14 vegans and 23 non-vegetarians present included representatives from the United Kingdom, Germany, Holland, France, Poland, Canada, the U.S.A., New Zealand and Mozambique. Hence the answers are of special interest. (A politician visiting the group commented on how unusual it was that four out of five of the questions he had answered were on world affairs.) PERCENTAGE OF SAMPLE

1. Are you Non-vegetarian ? ... } Lacto-vegetarian? >100% Vegan ? ... ) 2. If vegetarian, are you so f o r : Ethical reasons 1 ... ... ... ... Heath reasons ? Both ? Other reasons ? (82% gave ethical reasons, either alone or in combination with other reasons) Do you agree with the following statements :— (a.) Is it wrong to kill animals for food ? (b.) Is it wrong to kill animals which eat crops intended for human use ? ... (c.) Is it wrong to kill animals except in selfdefence, i.e., when actually attacked by the animal ? (d.) Do those who accept the killing of animals more readily accept the killing of people? (e.) Wars began when men started to hunt animals for food ... (f.) Was the original cause of war the domestication of animals for food, causing over grazing of pastures, turning of fertile lands into desert and fighting for the remaining good land? (g.) Is hunger a contributing cause of war ? ... (h.) Will hunger continue as long as the - richer nations raise meat instead of vegetables —-fruit and nuts ... ...


>• ( 6 <84 I 8

z — — —

a — — —

42 24 52 24
















24 80

24 8

72 12





(i.) A peaceful world must be a vegetarian one GO Peace is not possible till everyone is vegetarian (k.) Vegetarians know the way to get peace (1.) Vegetarians know how to persuade everyone else to be vegetarians and so get peace ... (m.) How to get peace is a more urgent problem than how to persuade everyone to be a vegetarian ... (n.) All the above statements are obviously true or false (o.) Some of the statements are very debateable (p.) It would be useful to study these questions further (q.) It is urgently necessary to do serious research into the above questions ... (r.) Action is necessary—not research ... (s.) Action is no substitute for understanding ... (t.) Research would be an ineffective form of action as the findings would be ignored (u.) Research causes people to think and thinking causes people to act (v.) This questionnaire is interesting and possibly useful





20 36

48 26

32 38







16 92

46 4

38 6




84 10 54

4 40 8

12 16 32

17 6

— —








— •




COMMENTS ON THE ANSWERS Is it wrong to kill ? The first four questions were about the ethics of killing animals. Four out of five felt it was wrong to kill animals for food, but they are not so sure whether it was wrong to kill those animals which eat crops which humans need for food. Over a quarter were uncertain about this. Three out of four felt it was wrong to kill animals without being provoked by the animal, that is, except in self-defence. Over half felt that the acceptance of killing animals would lead to a more easy acceptance of the killing of people in war time, though a quarter strongly disagreed with this view. Many pacifists are not vegetarians. The causes of war. Is it connected with eating flesh foods ? Only a quarter of the respondents felt that the hunting of animals, the consequent brutalisation and physical deterioration or the raising of tame animals for food, with the consequent over-grazing of land and lessening of the regard for animal life—were causes 25

of war. A few disagreed, but the majority were uncertain. Four out of five would agree that hunger was a contributing cause of war, as indeed it can be. In South Africa people live above thelevel of actual starvation and hence have the energy to organise and educate themselves politically—but not as much as they want. This kind of hunger is socially explosive. Seven out of ten felt that the solution to the problem of hunger was a mainly vegetarian diet for most people, but only half felt that a mainly vegetarian world was necessary for peace between nations, and few people felt it necessary to eliminate meat-eating altogether in order to secure peace. Have vegetarians a contribution to make to World Peace ? A good third thought that vegetarians definitely know the way to get peace •— but half of these were uncertain as to how to impart this knowledge to other people who are not vegetarians. Most of the respondents thought that the problem of how to get peace was a more urgent problem than how to persuade people to be vegetarian though one or two felt that vegetarianism would come naturally in a peaceful world. Would vegetarians be interested in Peace Research ? Most of the respondents felt that the problems discussed above should be studied further, and that some serious research was urgently necessary. Ten per cent, were actionists, impatient of research ; one in six considered that a combination of research and action was necessary-—that action should be modified by knowledge and understanding. However, a good proportion—four out of ten— thought research was more important. Over half of them agreed that action was no substitute for understanding. The problem was put to them of what would happen when the research was completed. Would the findings be ignored? A surprisingly large proportion—over half—felt that reseach findings properly used and in the right hands, would not be brushed aside — and three-quarters agreed with a statement that once people had been presented with research findings, thought and action would follow. Those who felt the questionnaire uninteresting, stupid or irrelevant did not fill it in and hence are not included here. Of those answering, most felt the questionnaire to be interesting and useful. This opinion survey was done on behalf of the Peace Research Centre, Langthwaite House, Lancaster. If you would like to know more about it, please write to: Miss Frances Pearson, c / o "Young Vegetarian," or the Secretary of the Peace Research Centre, Langthwaite House, Lancaster. F.P.


CRUSADE AGAINST ALL CRUELTY TO ANIMALS There is no law at present which prevents the incarceration of any of our farm animals and birds in broiler houses, therefore it is to be expected that in this materialistic age many will jump on this " get-rich-quick" band-wagon. Neither, however, is there any law against the consumer exercising the right of choice as a free individual, and in this fight for better things the housewife holds the key. In the face of mass advertising and subtle sales propaganda, she must be made aware of the facts and encouraged to take a stand. Through our Humane Farming Campaign, which is stimulating action throughout this country and also abroad where the broiler system is growing, we are constantly sending out informative literature far and wide, and increasingly the cry comes back: â&#x20AC;˘" We had no idea of these facts. What can we do?" And back goes our answer: " U s e your power of choice and insist upon buying meat and chicken produced by more natural methods of rearing." Although vegan readers will not be interested in the consumers' angle , of this problem, they can nevertheless lend their weight to this urgent campaign, by helping to make tihe facts still more widely known. Please send for our leaflets " Cheap Food? Yes! But is it Good Food?" and " Stop this Wretched Trade!" and use them widely in enlightening others. One man in the broiler chicken industry has forecast that within ten years Britain will not have a domestic bird or animal running free in its meadows. Do we need any further indication that the time for action is now or never? The attitude of the Ministry of Agriculture makes it clear that they do not intend to antagonise any section of the farming or business world by pronouncing against broiler methods. It is also only too evident that in the crucial time before the General Election, when all parties are intent upon vote-catching, that' politicians will be wary of committing themselves to any step likely to be unpopular with a wealthy section of the community. Economic loss is apparently the only factor which will make any difference to the broiler industry. People who deplore intensified methods must show that they mean business too. Pressure must be applied by the growing public (a) opposed to the incarceration of our farm animals in broilerhouses, and (b) determined to fight for the availability of the wholesome food they want for their families. Antibiotics in Broilers Antibiotics are added as a routine to the feed of broilerproduced chickens and turkeys because they make them grow 27

faster. Dr. Franklin Bicknell explains in his book " Chemicals in Food and in Farm Produce " (Faiber & Faber) that birds grow faster with antibiotics because they destroy bacteria in the gut which, though not causing obvious illness, do impair growth. As suoh 'bacteria are passed from bird to 'bird, or are harboured in poultry houses, infection is inevitable when, say, 24,000 " broiler" chickens, weighing 2 to 3 lb. each, are all reared together in one enormous shed allowing only half or threequarters of a square foot of floor to each bird. Dr. Bicknell goes on to say that as it is impossible under such conditions, or where " battery " hens are kept to lay eggs, to control a serious infectious disease once it appears, in order to prevent a pandemic sweeping through the flock, antibiotics have to be given before the infection occurs. " Therefore virtually all commercial chickensâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;broilers, boilers and caponsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;and all commercial eggs are contaminated with aureomycin or terramycin or, less commonly, penicillin. No-one knows what the long-term effects on the nation's health will be of this constant feeding of minute quantities of antibiotics, to mention only one form of adulteration of food. There is a tremendous amount of work to be done in educating the public regarding the above facts and enlisting their support against intensified methods of rearing which are undesirable not only for their victims 'but equally so for the potential consumers of their " f o r c e d " flesh. Those of us who are aware of the benefits to be gained from a wholesome diet have, it seems to me, a moral duty to do all in our power to awaken the public regarding the inherent dangers in the modern " civilised' diet. There is a growing interest in the value of wholefoods. Let us do all we can to foster this for the sake of the farm animals and the health of mankind. Some words of Laurence Easterbrook, well-known farmer and journalist, ring with a truth which we must at all costs make known to an ever-widening public: " I believe we are advancing into great danger. History teaches that no nation can debase the living world around it and survive ; for we are part of it, and in debasing it we invite selfdestruction." In the eight years the Crusade has been in existence it has made a tremendous impact upon the public mind through the vigour and forthrightness of its approach to the problem of cruelty to animals. Free literature and a'specimen copy of our magazine will gladly be sent to any enquirer. MARGARET A . COOPER,

Secretary, Crusade Against All Cruelty to Animals. 3, Woodfield Way, Bounds Green Road, London, N . l l .


READERS' LETTERBOX Dear Sir,—In the summer issue of The Vegan, your correspondent Mrs. Garcia poses a question which has long puzzled me— namely, when considering the humane angle in vegetarian and vegan literature, why is there so much emphasis on the spiritual and religious approach, the assumption being that the three are interlinked? There are many excellent people conforming to no religion, and anything but spiritual, who, nonetheless, are most humane and compassionate. I, personally, know both Agnostics and Atheists who are the most feeling of people where animals are concerned, and I must confess that my own faith is strained to breaking point when the many terrible cruelties inflicted on the animal creation increase so alarmingly. I question why a supposedly All-loving Omniscient God should have given Man free-will and dominion over the animals, knowing how such a trust would be violated. Worthing, Sussex. MRS. T. VIVEASH. Dear Sir,—Looking back at the past six months, I think that they have been the happiest months in our whole lives. We have at last found just the place we wanted and have settled down to growing good wholesome food by veganic methods. Our land used to be a rose nursery and had been almost entirely neglected for five years. As a result this summer has been a battle with the weeds, but in spite of them we have managed to grow quite a large amount of tomatoes and vegetables. . Most of the produce goes to the local Health Food Store and so far we have not been able to meet the demand. The rest we sell here and have built up quite a collection of regular customers. This autumn we are planting strawberries, raspberries and 1,000 dwarf pyramid apple trees to increase our fruit production. We already have a small orchard of Bramleys, but after five or more years of neglect this needs a lot of pruning and cleaning up. We are also building up a stock of herb plants and hope that next year we will be able to supply herb plants and seeds by post. Our three small boys are full of life, and many people have said how well they look and are completely staggered when they learn that they don't drink milk or eat any cheese, butter, eggs or meat. We are entering a photo of Jonathan for the competition in " Health for All." His teeth were inspected by the school dentist last term and found to be perfect, although some of the other five-year-olds had bad ones. Jonathan told the dentist that he 29

was a vegan and that he had a piece of apple after every meal, etc., etc.! As far as this family is concerned the vegan way of life is the right and only way. We have never been so happy before or felt better, and eagerly look forward to all the work and fun ahead of us. MR. G. P.-MOLINEUX.

Glebe Farm Nurseries, Crowhurst, Nr. Battle,


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A G R I C U L T U R E & H A N D - I N D U S T R Y MUTUAL SUPPORT ASSOCIAT I O N . Proposed vegetarian (preferably vegan) community to repudiate all mass ake our own A.H.I.M.S.A. loseph Richard Ledger, Woodmancote. Cheltenham. B L A C K H E A T H H E A L T H FOOD STORES. A warm welcome awaits anyone visiting our Juice and Snack Bar, also small extension for appetising hot meals and generous salads. Nutrition without Cruelty Cruelty — herbal — vegetarian and vegan foods; Science without remedies. Also Beauty without Cruelty — soaps and cosmetics. Plantmilk, nuts, seeds and grains a speciality. Wholewheat bread and cakes. Compost-grown produce. Ofreta Healing Oil, a unique combination of natural oils, wonderfully penetrating in the relief of sprains, burns, rheumatism, bronchitis, etc., 3/3d. and 6/3d. plus 1/postage. Goods sent inland and abroad. Send 6d. in stamps for comprehensive price-list to Mrs. Muriel Drake, HEALTHIWAYS, 5 Tranquil Passage, London, S.E.3. Tel. LEE Green. 5811. B R I T I S H VEGETARIAN YOUTH MOVEMENT. A n organisation for people 12—35.' Social gatherings, holidays, monthly magazine, etc., organised. Further particulars: Secretary, G. Barwick, 35 Wenalt Road, Fonna, Neath, Glamorgan. E N G L I S H and cycles, new Exchanges. Your own Butterworth, Manchester.

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F R E S H VEGETABLE JUICES easily made in your own kitchen. Ask details of new machines. JUICEX, 7 Chantry Lane, Grimsby, Lines. H E A L T H through N A T U R A L HYGIENE. Are you interested in Health achieved naturally and without the exploitation of other human beings and animals? Natural Hygiene is a system of health preservation and restoration which meets these requirements. For literature, send 6d. stamp t o : Registrar (G), British Nat. Hygiene Soc., 49 Ravenswood Ave., Tolworth, Surrey. LESSONS IN SPEAKING A N D WRITING.—Visit, correspondence (5/-) for ordinary, business, or public purposes, adults, ch M D o r o t h y Matthews, T U D o r 7357. (New Address). T H E COMPASSIONATE DOCTRINE OF A H INS A is stressed in the m o n t h l y publication " A H I N S A " (non-killing, harmlessness). Full year, 7s. in British stamps or coins. T H E AMERICAN VEGAN SOCIETY, Malaga, N.J. 08328, U.S.A. V E G A N COMMUNITY ENTERPRISE. Build your own houses fashioned f r o m the bare earth. Grow your own food including nut trees and f r u i t . Plant forests, cultivate the natural arts and crafts. upporting family. Interested, write: Exeter, Devon.


VEGAN VITAMINS—Triovit vitamins A, C and D tablets (free of fish oil); take one a day. 3 / 6 month or 10/- three-month supply. Ask your Health Store or write: Rational DIET Products, 7 Chantry Lane, Grimsby, Lines. WORLD F O R U M . The leading international Vegetarian quarterly. Edited by Mrs. Esme Wynne-Tyson. Advocates the vegetarian way of life for physical health and a true relationship between the human and creature kingdoms—without exploitation and cruelty. l / 6 d . plus 4d. post per copy. 7/6d. per year, port f r e e — H . H . G R E A V E S LTD., 106/110 Lordship Lane, London, S.E.22.

ESTABLISHMENTS CATERING FOR VEGANS (I/id. per line ; 20% discount on /our consecutive muei.) BROOK LINN.—Callander, Perthshire. Vegetarian and Vegan meal* carefully prepared and attractively served. Comfortable guest house. Near Trossachs and Western Highlands. Mrs. Muriel Chomn. Callander 103. EASTBOURNE.—General nursing, convalescence, rest and nature-cure. Out-patients treated. Edgehill Vegetarian and Vegan Nursing Home, 6 Mill Road. Tel.: 627. EDSTONE, WOOTTON WAWEN, W A R W I C K S H I R E (near Stratford-onAvon).—Modern Nature Cure Resort and Guest House with every comfort, and compost-grown produce. (Phone : Claverdon 327.) FRANCE.—Open all year (ideal climate), admirable view, good food, strictly vegetarian, all mod. con., happy atmospher mation write in French to Mr. J. P. Goubeau, (Dordogne), France. (Tel. 27 Plazac). LAKE DISTRICT. Rothay Bank, Grasmere. Attractive guest house for invigorating, refreshing holidays.—Write Isabel James. Tel.: 134. MAJORCA.—Charming flat for two offered. Vegetarian, non-smokers. All comforts. Tranquillity and beauty. Some meals pr arrangement. International stamp please. Mrs. Ritchie: ; Palma de Mallorca. N O R T H WALES.—Vegan and vegetarian guest house, nr. mountains and sea. Lovely woodland garden. Brochure from Jeannie and George Lake, Plas-y-Coed, Penmaen Park, Llanfairfechan. Tel.: 161. " W O O D C O T E , " Lelant, St. Ives, Cornwall, is a high-class Vegetarian Food Reform Guest House in a warm and sheltered situation overlooking the Hayle Estuary. Composted vegetables; home-made wholewheat bread ; vegans catered for knowledgeably. Mr. and Mrs. Woolfrey. Tel.: Hayle 3147. Early bookings for Summer very advisable.



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The Vegan Winter 1963