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Veganism is the practice of living on the products of the plant kingdom— to the exclusion of all animal foods—proceeding from a wide consideration of man's true place in nature. T h e objects of the Vegan Society are to provide in thought and practice for the advance of veganism, and to relate veganism to every aspect of creative co-operation between man and nature.

, Purley, Surrey. Upminster,

President : Mrs. E. B. SHRIGLEY, Deputy-President: Mr. JACK SANDERSON, Essex. Vice-Presidents









Honorary Honorary

Secretary : Mrs. EVA BATT, Treasurer : Miss WINIFRED SIMMONS,

Enfield, Middlesex. London,


Vegan Distribution Secretary : Mrs. S. COLES, Purley, Surrey. Commodities Investigator : Mrs. EVA BATT, Middlesex.

, Enfield,

Minimum subscription, which includes " The Vegan," 15s. per annum (and 7s. 6d. for each additional member of one family at same residence); 7s. 6d. if age under 1 8 ; payable in January. Life Membership, flO 10s. Od.

THE VEGAN JOURNAL OF THE VEGAN SOCIETY Editor : Mr. JACK SANDERSON, Upminster, Essex. Advertisements : H. H. GREAVES LTD., 106/110 Lordship Lane, London, S.E.22.

Published quarterly : Annual subscription, 7s. post f r e e ; single copies, Is. 9d. post free. Obtainable from the Hon. Secretary.


" " " "

Declaration and Rules of the Vegan Society." T h e Reasons for Veganism." 4 page leaflet. V e g a n Protein Nutrition." 12 page leaflet. Is. A H a n d b o o k of Practical Veganism." 24 pages f r o m the H o n . Secretary. Postage extra. 2s.

2 page leaflet. Free. Free. with cover. 6d.


THE V E G A N Journal Vol. XII

of the


Winter, 1961

Society No. 6

EDITORIAL The Winter Solstice and the Season of Goodwill are upon us. We may take the rare opportunity to see the sleeping Mother, the naked Earth, and her unclothed children, the Trees, resting awhile, Spirit withdrawn and Life force subdued. We may ponder anew the mystery of the soil no longer dressed in green and gold but now unveiled in brown and black. The " dead " soil, it used to be thought—the " living " soil we know it now. Apart from the myriads of bacteria and other micro-organisms, each square yard of soil to a depth of one foot may house nearly a million invertebrate animals ranging from the earthworms down to the near microscopic mites. And how we treat the life of the soil (in both senses) will greatly affect our way of life in the years to come. Nature has taken ages to prepare the soil from rock, and if we are not to squander this common heritage we must study this great unknown, the soil ; this living skin of the earth upon which all life depends. We must study its ways and its laws and work in harmony with them. We must look anew at traditional ways, and adapt our methods to Nature's. If this means that the plough is superfluous and the spade over-rated, we must have the courage to say so. If traditional agriculture is wasteful of land and contributory .to world starvation, we must say so. If it exploits the land and sickens the soil, we must say so. Much of our land is in bad heart and vast areas of the world have become, or are becoming man-made deserts. Regeneration of the land and regeneration of our bloodstream have much in common. When the Vegan Society was founded 17 years ago, its members were mainly pre-occupied with finding alternatives to dairy produce under stringent war-time rationing conditions. With the gradual easing of food conditions and a return to world trade, vegans were able to buy a wider range of foods and gradually the emphasis in the 'fifties turned to commodities. The pioneer work of the Vegan Society in this field has had an effect that is incalculable, and other societies, such as the Crusade, and the

" Beauty Without Cruelty," are now also working in this field and real results are being achieved, so that it is daily becoming easier to find vegan commodities in every field of activity. The note for the 'sixties was sounded at a meeting last Summer when one member asked : " How many food commodities are truly Vegan ? " And the answer must be that only a very tiny percentage can be claimed as truly veganic in origin. Some householders and a small number of market gardeners may make the claim, but practically all shop produce, with few exceptions, is grown by traditional methods, using animal manure and artificial fertilizers. Nuts and fruit are likely to have least animal manure, whilst large-scale grain production, e.g., wheat, may use artificials and practically no animals. But even here the former are often sprayed with noxious or toxic chemicals, whilst the latter suffers a reduction in quality. The Committee will give much time to this study of the soil and the veganic production of food, and since most of us are town dwellers we shall naturally turn to those members who are more actively concerned, whether it be as cereal farmers, market gardeners, horticulturists, tree specialists, or private gardeners and allotment holders. We shall co-operate wherever possible with organisations such as " The Men of the Trees " and " Henry Doubleday " group, and gather and disseminate information by meetings, conferences, articles, and letters to editors. A form of horticulture that was commercially successful, and nutritionally exceptional in various locations in England, is referred to elsewhere in a book review in this issue. This subject offers a challenge to us which we shall look forward to meeting in the coming year. Another article in this issue is one of the most important we have ever printed. It calls for a thorough investigation of kindness. Of kindness as a beneficent force. As a force that brings healing to the self and to others. An infectious force that harmonises people and situations. The most powerful force in the Universe. Our strongest link with God. May it go out from us always and especially at this season. JACK SANDERSON. THE VEGAN RECIPE BOOK The response to our request for vegan recipes has far exceeded our expectations and we would like to express our cordial thanks to all who have made contributions. We shall be glad of some more tips for beginners; and generally helpful hints of which our members must have dozens if they think back on what they have learned since they began their vegan kitchen. This book will be our introduction into many a non-vegan home, so it has to be fully comprehensive and as helpful as possible to members and possibly new vegans also.


THE VEGAN SOCIETY Statement of Income and Expenditure for year ending 30th September, 1961 INCOME


The Vegan ... Secretarial A.G.M., 1960 Advertising Balance in hand : Reserve Fund £325 0 0 In hand £306 19 8

Total ... D.


£ s. 192 1 13 1 5 8 4 8

631 19


£846 18




Balance in hand at 30.9.1960 I n t e r e s t on P.O. Savings Account at 31.12.1960 Subscriptions Donations ... Literature Journal A.G.M., 1960 Advertisements Total

463 10 10 10 181 119 22 10 2 35

14 5 15 16 17 5 13

£846 18


Audited and found correct. J.




lsf. 1961.

A MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT This is an excellent Statement of Accounts and all connected with it are to be congratulated. Our Treasurer, Miss Winifred Simmons, has done wonderful work in guiding our Finances from the doldrums of 1954 to the comparative affluence of today. The expenditure on The Vegan does not include the expense of sending out the Journal. This expense is saved for the Society by Mrs. Serena Coles, who writes all the envelopes—a colossal task for which we are extremely grateful. The subscriptions have definitely increased, which means a larger membership. This is chiefly due to the enthusiasm and efficiency of our new Secretary, Mrs. E. V. Batt. The hard work of these Officials will be helped by all Members paying subscriptions promptly, and as much as they can afford. By doing this, and by attracting new members, Vegan ideals can, with wider publicity, reach new people in the British Isles and abroad. ELSIE B. SHRIGLEY. and from the Deputy-President What a wonderful change in outlook has been achieved in the last 12 months. That wonderful group of active people called the Vegan Committee has been strengthened by the appointment of new members, the membership has grown, the financial position is being transformed, and the continuity of our Journal, in question a year ago, now seems assured. 3

That this has been possible is largely due to those officers who carry the largest and most constant burdens, the Secretary and the Treasurer. The work of the former frequently results in lapsing members renewing their membership, and particularly in new enquirers becoming members. But the conserving of our funds, and the placing of the Society on a sound financial basis is more of an expert's job than an amateur's, and we have been extremely fortunate to have the services of our Treasurer, Miss Winifred Simmons. Her work and her wise counsel have been of inestimable value to the Society. To ensure permanence and stability, her aim is to build up a substanital fund in reserve. A most vital way in which we can assist her in this aim is in the donation we are able to send with our subscription, and the extra copies or better still, regular order for the Journal, that we obtain for interested friends. It is this extra which enables us to expand our work through literature, larger issues of the Journal, and the ability to make the Society and its work known to an ever-widening circle. JACK SANDERSON. ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING, 1961 This well attended meeting was held at 53, Marloes Road, on Saturday, October 21st. Our President, Mrs. E. Shrigley, was in the Chair and a very full agenda was resolutely tackled. Including a very few latecomers, 40 members attended. Several who were unable to attend sent regrets and messages of encouragement and support, while a member in Ireland sent a telegram to remind us that " Honey is for the bees." In the unavoidable absence of Miss W. Simmons, the President reported that our Treasurer was pleased with financial progress. Membership is rising steadily and the general outlook for the Society and veganism in general is bright. The Secretary read the minutes of the last A.G.M. and the Committee's Report, explaining that the length of the latter was unavoidable as the year had included many activities, resulting in an increasing number of new members (23 joined during the last quarter). As usual Miss M. Simmons undertook the organising of the buffet as well as making a quantity of the very tasty savouries in advance. The fact that Miss Simmons handles this important duty so frequently and willingly does not make it any the less appreciated. In fact we feel sure that it must be one of the main attractions of our meetings. We would like to express our thanks to Mrs. Thelma Ie Grice for singing to us during the interval, and to her son, Ian, who so ably accompanied her and gave us a piano solo. Both are vegetarians and Ian, who will be 15 in December, sings in the Temple Church Choir.


Members came from as far away as Norfolk, Cornwall and Scotland, and we welcome the keen interest and support which this shows. Mr. B. Young, of Perth, has been particularly active in contacting other likely vegans in his district through a series of displayed advertisements in local newspapers. Discussion of the proposed new rules occupied most of the members' attention, and a lively interest was displayed. In general the proposals met with the approval of the members present, and only one (No. 2) was left open for proposals as to the exact wording to be discussed at the next Committee Meeting. The officers were appointed for the current year (see inside front cover), and the subscriptions were adjusted (see separate notice). The 17th Executive Committee's Report, 1960-1961 The increasing interest being shown in food reform in general, and veganism in particular has been commented upon in the last two annual reports from this platform. It is now quite evident that this interest is growing in momentum and the least observant are gradually becoming aware of the need for a less artificial way of life if the population of this planet is to continue to exist. We believe it is the feeling of us all that veganism is of vital importance, not just to vegans, but to humanity in general. We are fortunate to be at the hub of a movement which could one day be the direct cause of saving the world from actual starvation. We may not need the mental picture of starving children and tortured animals ever before us to encourage us to greater efforts in their name, but we feel that the plight of all the helpless and forgotten ones today may well be in our hands. The hope of alleviating even a little of this misery is a spur to drive us on, and may it always move us to ever greater efforts on their behalf. The A.G.M., 1960 The 16th Annual General Meeting was held at Alliance Hall, Caxton Street, on November 13th, when, much to the regret of all, our then President and Chairman, Mr. J. Heron, was compelled to resign from office due to pressure of other duties. The invaluable work done in the past by Mr. Heron in lecturing at various places up and down the country was commented upon and this work must have had a great deal to do with the general advancement of the Society. We remembered that Mr. Dugald Semple, a most active and well-known worker also lectures on veganism both here and abroad. Once again the refreshments were most capably handled by Miss Mabel Simmons and her helpers, and after the business 5

of the meeting there was a general discussion on the work of commodities investigation and questions were asked and were answered by Mrs. Batt. Officers and Committee Our new President, Mrs. E. B. Shrigley, was appointed Chairman of the Committee, and has continued to help the Secretary by sending out Agendas for meetings and in other ways. Miss D. W. Simmons has continued her work as Treasurer in spite of many other duties for other Societies, and Miss M. Simmons continues to produce new and interesting recipes each quarter. Our grateful thanks are also due to Mrs. S. Coles, who still sends out The Vegan each quarter—a truly mammoth and somewhat monotonous task. Also to Miss Harvey who has been looking after the minutes of all the meetings. It is with regret we learn that Miss Harvey must retire from the committee. She has served on this for some considerable time, and helped in many ways also on sub-committees. In particular her work as the first commodities investigator has inspired many others, not only to follow her recommendations, but often to find out for themselves, just how many innocentBooking articles in daily use are, in fact, based on cruelly exploited animals. In extending their very sincere appreciation, the committee would like to include their good wishes for the success of the new work she has undertaken among backward children. Vice Presidents In September the Secretary was instructed to contact Dr. Catherine Nimmo, of California, Mr. Dugald Semple, in Scotland, and Dr. Frey Ellis, of London, to ask if they would consent to act as Vice Presidents to the Society. All most graciously accepted. Oar Secretary Mrs. J. Arnaldi reluctantly resigned her position in March, and our President, once again, coped with the post until Mrs. Batt was able to take over in May. Committee Meetings Your committee have met seven times during the year, all of which have been well attended and harmonious. All but one of these meetings were held in the homes of members, and we are indebted to . Mrs. Arnaldi and later Mrs. Thomson for their help in this way. Dr. Frey Ellis was co-opted on to the committee in July. A sub-committee was formed during the latter part of the year under the Chairmanship of our President (who, incidentally, did


the major part of the work), to make suggestions for rewording, but not reforming, our rules to enable them to comply with the new laws governing charities and voluntary movements such as ours. This committee met three times. Other Meetings Three social meetings have been held for general discussion on various topics at the home of Mrs. S. Thomson, whose hospitality over the past months has been most generous and greatly appreciated. On September 23rd, Mrs. Rosemary Maidwell-Dodd gave a most instructive talk on " Sprouting Grains and Seeds ; their value and propagation," and brought generous samples with her which were enjoyed by the assembled company later together with a delightful vegan supper supplied by our hostess. After the meeting Mrs. Maidwell-Dodd, who is a member of the Beauty Without Cruelty Committee, joined the Society. Membership Membership has increased and enquiries about the vegan way of life are received daily, sometimes from the most unexpected sources, such as the dietician of a London Hospital, who sent the mother of a young baby to us for advice about a suitable and varied diet. The child is allergic to milk, eggs and meat. Through the notice in Ahinsa, the official organ of the newlyformed American Vegan Society, we have enrolled several new members in that country. The Vegan . . Although the voting at the A.G.M. last year was in favour of the Society taking a few pages in The British Vegetarian as an alternative to producing The Vegan magazine, it was decided during further discussion to postpone this for one year in the hope that, by that time, the Society might be better able to continue with our own Journal. This has proved to be the case and four issues of The Vegan magazine have been produced this year under the very capable editorship of Mr. J. Sanderson. Our very sincere thanks go to Mr. Sanderson. Publicity On May 25th the weekly paper, Reveille, reviewed veganism in a rather whimsical and slightly bantering style, but the space given to the story encouraged us to expect some enquiries as a result. These were not forthcoming, however. The Society was invited to take part in an Exhibition organised by Mrs. Cluer, the secretary of the Wimbledon Vegetarian Society, on March 25th. Mrs. Batt undertook the organising of this and members rallied round with help and samples of vegan, food and nut milk which were enjoyed by many visitors. Miss M. Simmons sent some of her always popular savouries and Mrs. Thomson


made cakes and also helped with the serving. Several other members also lent a hand with this as they were able. The Exhibition was very well attended and many question were asked about the samples of soaps, cosmetics, footwear and other goods on display. Vegan literature was distributed and one member joined on the spot. Several others have since written in and some have joined Our thanks were sent to Mr. and Mrs. Cluer who must have worked very hard indeed to stage such attractive and well-organised displays. A good sign is the increasing number of doctors interested in finding out what makes vegans " tick," for they seem to break all the rules of orthodox medicine and still keep fit and well ! Much of the credit for this must go to Dr. Ellis who has been very active on behalf of the Society all the year. There must be quite a few samples of vegan blood going the rounds of hospitals and medical schools at this moment. Some of us, including your secretary, are involved in no less than four investigations right now. Literature Our leaflet, " Reasons for Veganism," is proving a most useful introduction for new members and casual enquirers, and it has been necessary to get a reprint of this. The booklets " Vegan Protein Nutrition " and "A Handbook on Practical Veganism," both by John Heron, are selling steadily, especially in Australia and America. The Plantmilk Society The Society continues to work in close co-operation with the PJantmilk Society and is fully represented on the committee. Dr. Franklin assures us that a stable, nutritious and palatable plantmilk should be ready for marketing within the next year. The Vegan Library Members are reminded that books from the Vegan Library are still available from Mr. Heron at his new address. A list of books and full details for borrowing were in the Autumn issue of the magazine. Commodities The work of investigating Commodities goes on. and Mrs. Batt has been able to introduce several new items from time to time. Especially with regard to shoes, a different pair of which she was able to bring to each of six meetings during the year. Each number of The Vegan has also contained a few pages devoted tf) this subject. But our real task should be to interest the manufacturers in producing special new lines, particularly for those who wish to avoid all animal products, and this part of-'the


work is by far the hardest. As more people are interested in our way of life, however, this will become progressively more possible. The Vegetarian Nutritional Research Council On April 9th, Mr. Sanderson and Mrs. Batt attended the A.G.M. of the V.N.R.C. at Watford, and on July 19th they were also invited to a special meeting of this Council held in Harley House by the courtesy of Dr. Stoddard. The meeting was called to hear Dr. A. D. M. Smith report on the results to date of his investigations concerning smoking and B12. Dr. Smith gave a most interesting lecture which was followed by a lively discussion between himself and his fellow doctors. Although much is still theory, and some points were warmly debated, it was made clear that the dangers to health of the tobacco habit, whether for vegans or anyone else, are as alarming as they are widespread. In all humility, we believe that the ultimate success of the attempts now being made to nourish the hungry in other lands depends—to no small extent—upon the growth of the vegan way of life. And this, in turn, depends on this Society. In fact—on us. We should be proud, and happy, to be in this unique position at this time—to have been bom into a land and age when so much is possible. On our shoulders may well lie the responsibility of proving the success of our way of life. By success we do not mean amassing money; our work lies mainly in experiment and education, both of which cost money. Although all officers in this Society are honorary, the expenses involved (even in postage) are considerable; indeed, our activities are only controlled by our income, which in turn depends upon the size of our membership and the generosity of those members who can, and often do, send donations. We can see no virtue in hiding our message under a bushel, rather we must do everything possible to introduce the vegan way of life to an ever-increasing number of people, to the benefit of all mankind. Thank you. SUBSCRIPTIONS It was with regret and from sheer necessity that the A.G.M. raised the subscriptions to their new values (see inside front cover). But there are new concessions with regard to those under 18 years of age, and when there are two or more vegans in the same family at the same house. Costs continue to increase (a new rise is due soon) and it has been the hope of the Committee for some time to increase the size and usefulness of The Vegan, and to produce other much needed literature. 9

VEGAN MEETINGS February A Social Evening will be held on Saturday, F ome of Dorothy Thomson, (KNI. 0341), Gloucester Road, London, S.W.7, at 5 p.m. You will have a chance to meet old and new friends, and there will be refreshments. (Cornwall Gardens is second left up Gloucester Road, from Cromwell Road, and is near to Gloucester Road Tube Station on the following bus routes : 9, 49, 52, 73 and 74.) March A Vegan Dinner will be held at the Crank's Salad Bowl, at 22, Carnaby Street (behind Liberty's), Regent Street, London, W.l, on Friday, March 16th, at 6 p.m. for 6.30 p.m. As accommodation is strictly limited, early applications please for tickets at 9s. 6d. (inclusive), to our Secretary. (Orders dealt with in rotation.) April On Tuesday, April 3rd, at 34, Westbourne Park Road, London, W.2, at 6.45 p.m., an illustrated talk will be given by Dr. F. Ellis, on blood formation, the title being " The Living Stream." (On leaving Royal Oak Tube Station turn left then second right.) The meetings are open to members and interested friends, and the February meeting in particular will serve as an excellent informal opportunity of meeting experienced vegans.

LIST OF MEMBERS Several times during the past year we have had requests for a List of Members from those wishing to contact other vegans ; either with a view to forming small study groups or as pen friends. The matter was discussed at the meeting in October and it was decided to produce such a list in the New Year. If there are any members who, for personal reasons, would prefer not to be included on this, will they please notify the secretary as soon as possible. The list will be divided into Countries and Counties and will probably be in the form of a pocket-sized brochure for the convenience of carrying around. It may be possible, also, to include a small amount of detail thus. " Dominey, Mrs. E. V. (Publishing business. Hobby—Antiques). 80, John Street, Yorkshire." Please send details to the secretary, if you would like to co-operate in this way to further the cause of veganism through contact with other vegans. 10

VEGAN FARMING What are the views of vegans on farming ? I imagine that all vegans will at once say, " No animals to be kept or exploited in any way." This raises the problem of how to farm and maintain the fertility of the land without keeping animals of any kind. As far as I can find out there are no farmers at present farming on these lines. I have heard of two vegans who tried to farm without stock but had to go back to keeping animals as they could not manage without them. There are some vegans who are farming but they keep animals of some kind as they say that it is not possible to make a living unless they do so. There are also several farmers who keep no stock but they use large quantities of artificial fertilisers to make up for the lack of animal manure. However, there is a growing body of opinion that thinks that food so produced has not the health giving properties of food produced by organic methods without the use of chemicals. Are vegans content to eat food produced on farms and market gardens where animal manure is used, this being, as it were, a by-product in the production of meat, milk and eggs, etc. ? What is the answer ? Can British farms produce good food by Veganic (vegetable organic) methods, or must farmers use more intensive methods and become market gardeners, for R. Dalxiel O'Brien has shown that it is possible to produce healthy market garden crops without using animal manure or chemicals. Would it not be preferable to have the land worked in this way, in small family units, rather than by large scale mechanical methods, thus getting more people out of the towns and cities and back to a more natural way of life. This whole matter is something about which all vegans should think very deeply. Food is the basis of life, and without food produced by vegan methods how can true veganism exist? VEGAN


Books of interest to Vegan Fanners and Gardeners 1.—Intensive Gardening, by R. Dalziel O'Brien, Faber and Faber, 25s. (The Vegan Gardening book.) 2.—Practical Organic Gardening, by Ben Easy, Faber and Faber, 21s. (Not vegan, but covers all aspects of Organic Gardening.) 3.—Common Sense Compost Making, by Maye E. Bruce, Faber and Faber. (The full story of the Q.R. Herbal Activator.) 4.—Agriculture—A New Approach, by P. H. Hainsworth, Faber and Faber, 21s. (Not vegan. The Scientific reasons for Organic methods of farming and gardening with a very interesting chapter on Organic Market Gardening.) 11

5.—Out of the Earth, by Louis Bramfield, Cassell. (Far from vegan as it deals mainly with stock farming, but includes some very interesting chapters.) 6.—Farmers of Forty Centuries, by F. H. King. (The classic work on Organic farming in China and Japan.) 7.—Soil Restoration, by E. Faulkner. (Nearly vegan, but not intentionally so.) GEOFFREY P .


* VEGANIC FOOD PRODUCTION In two years' time it is estimated that the world's population will be three thousand millions, and with a growth rate of a million a week it should reach six thousand millions by the end of the century. With better housing and the reduction of much, if not all, malnutrition, less land will be available and three times the present food production will be required from it. Clearly the world's desert lands will have to be put to use and Israel is showing the way, whilst the work of Richard St. Barbe Baker, that greatest of all Tree pioneers, is beginning to bear fruit a hundredfold in many places all over the earth. Tihe possibilities of the sea, as yet hardly touched, from a culinary point of view will have to be explored, whilst the land at present under cultivation will have to be put to much better use. Many writers, both inside and outside the vegetarian movement, have amply demonstrated that a non-animal based agriculture could produce much more food to the acre than can traditional methods, but many people still sincerely believe that humans should partake of domesticated or wild animal products in some way, if only through the vegetables and fruit that they eat having been manured by animals. Veganism, in its visionary yet practical application, is showing this to be an erroneous idea which lacks knowledge of the earth power that is released when such practices are abjured. Composting is fundamental to veganic food production, and there are misconceptions here too, e.g., that without animal dung and other organic sewage, etc., there would not be sufficient compost. " Rubbish ! " say those who have proved this to be a fallacy based on rumour, based on misinformation—an idea fostered by those who want to retain animal breeding and farming for reasons other than healthful or ethical. Recent scientific findings demonstrate that some of the worst health risks are of animal origin. The fact that domesticated animal dung can poison and infect the soil is known, but the extent of the infection is not yet determined. Here lies a field of research that is almost untouched—to find how much harm has been caused by eating fruit, cereals and vegetables grown on land * Veganic, i.e., no animal



manured by the wastes and by-products of domesticated animals and by sewage and human excreta. It has, however, been proved under working conditions that if the above are withheld, the soil not dug, and the surface is manured with a purely vegetative, herbally-activated compost with added minerals, a transformation of the soil and a release of earth power take place by natural means, and this is the foundation of the subsequent high quality and flavour of the resulting crop. Furthermore, intensive cropping, using the surface cultivation technique, results in gain to the soil rather than loss. This technique, being a " clean " and humane one that does not involve any cruelty to sentient life, would have a wide appeal and might eventually arrest the drift from the land and cause a drift from the town to healthier and happier living. Veganic Intensive Gardening is of equal importance to home gardens and to larger horticultural interests. Fundamentally, the principles of surface cultivation and composting waste are the same whether the area ibe large or small or whether it be in the East or the West. This alternative gardening method is ideally suited as a subject for the most scientifically advanced techniques of automation more favoured by Western thought, and is equally ideal in countries like India and China where hand work is considered desirable. Religious ideologies would not be offended—in short, a method for the East and the West, the old world and the new. Some Dutch people introduced Dutch light gardening into this country about 30 years ago. This glass protection enables many out-of-season salad crops to be grown in this country and this form of protein is fully described in a new technique of intensive food production. This is the kind of thing that only happens every few thousand years, and because it is a veganic method we cannot praise it too highly or welcome it too much. Now all may read and know, and try out and prove for themselves. INTENSIVE GARDENING, by R. Dalziel O'Brien. Faber & Faber, 24 Russell Square, London (25/-, plus postage). From any bookseller. The book describes a new system of horticulture which results in a great saving in time, labour and materials. It is demonstrated beyond doubt that it is possible to produce healthy market garden crops without animal manures or added chemicals. In addition to. compost, surface applications according to crop requirements are made of granulated seaweed, old domestic soot, granite dust and silver sand. Tremendous patience must have gone into the observations made, in the book, and the most detailed and efficient instructions are given from beginning to end of the various processes'.and movements involved. . , The book is a mine of information and can be read and re-rfcad with advantage. 13

Its chapters include the following : Starting from scratch. Site planning. Assembly of Dutch lights. Cropping and intercropping, and rotation. Ventilation and watering. Cultivation and cutting. Weeding and green manuring. Packing and marketing, etc., etc., etc. Mechanisation in modern agriculture emulates the plough and the spade, turning the soil over to an ever increasing depth and compacting it with heavy machinery—both prevent the earth power from manifesting itself in the way it can when only surface soil is moved and there is no compaction (the grower keeps to the paths). This new method makes the plough obsolete and only rarely uses the spade. Such creatures as the wireworm and carrot fly—prevalent in the district—have given no trouble since digging was stopped. By cultivating only the top few inches of soil, conditions are provided under which the whole soil population can carry out its work more efficiently, and flavour and quality are built into the produce. There is already a measure of automation in modern horticulture with its mobile glasshouses, automatic sowing, plantLag, watering, heating, grading, packing and labelling, and there is much scope for the application of the art of the electronic engineer towards a vision of the complete release of the human feeing from manual work in food production. . Buy a copy of the book for yourself and your friends, learn faow to use your scrapper, and if you can resist the temptation to buy a Dutch light frame and start to grow your own food I shall be surprised. J . SANDERSON.

Save the Seals. Have you put in your plea on behalf of the seals ? In our Spring, 1961 issue, it was suggested that members should write to Mr. George R. Clark, Deputy Minister of Fisheries, West Block, Parliament Buildings, Ottawa, Ontario, appealing to Canada to make a firm stand against the excessive exploitation of the seals, which are hunted each year in their hundreds' of thousands for their pelts and for the oil from their bodies. You are now urged to write to the Canadian Prime Minister, Mr. John Diefenbaker, with the same appeal. Music. Ian Lough, who played the piano during the interval at the A.G.M., can be heard in a duet with Robin Lough singing " The Souls of the Righteous," on record number GES5808, and also as a soloist singing " Jesu Blessed Saviour," record number CLP1452 (both H.M.V. records). 14


VEGANIC COMPOST MAKING FOR THE SMALL HOME GARDEN As the name implies this form of compost making is of a vegetative nature. No ingredients of animal organic origin, chemicals or sewage of any kind are included. It is housed in containers made of raw untreated wood, straw or other natural materials, and activated by a herbal solution (e.g. a Quick Return activator of the Maye Bruce type). No turning or other attention is required once a heap has been completed. In spring and summer maturity is reached in five or six weeks ; late autumn and winter a few weeks longer. Your vegetable garden will automatically yield the most composting material if it is intensively cropped. If a surface-only (non-digging) system of soil cultivation is adopted which calls for the ground to be divided into beds, the work being done from paths in between (compaction of the cropping area of the soil thus being avoided), intensive methods will benefit the soil. The compost materials are put in the container in layers after a few pieces of charcoaled wood have been placed on the soil inside. The " green " layers should be kept to a depth of 6 to 8 inches and put in fresh, not allowed to wilt. If old corn straw or carvings are available they make a very useful addition—start building the heap with a 2 to 3 inch layer of these if you have them. Then a layer of green " waste" a whitening of lime, a covering of fine soil, and repeat in this order until the container is full. Moisten the heap as it is being made up by spraying with water. Keep covered to prevent drying out and to protect from rain. The activating solution may be added at intervals as the heap is made or on completion. Make one heap at a time. Additional materials for the vegetative layers are short grass mowings, vetch grown as a catch crop, seaweed, herbs—if not woody. A few comfrey roots planted in a permanent position away from the vegetable beds will yield " cuts" from April to November when established (roughly chop the leaves and add whilst fresh). In estimating the size of the containers—as well as the number —the area of the vegetable plot, and the amount of additional material likely to be available, should be taken into consideration. For example, a plot 35ft. by 25 ft. would need a minimum of two containers, each one measuring 2ft. 6in. square and 2ft. 6in. in height. R . DALZIEL O ' B R I E N .

Obituary. We regret to announce the passing of Miss Emily Jones, of Kingston-on-Thames, on Friday, October 13th. Miss Jones; a member of the Society, was in her 92nd year. 15

A LIFE VEGAN! We are becoming familiar with the term " life vegetarian," but a life vegan is, in this country, relatively rare—most of us embraced veganism in adult life. John Stewart Coles was born on August 25th, 1945. His mother had been a vegetarian for two years, but by the time he was born She had realised that the true way of life was, for her, to be a vegan, although she did not finally become one until 1948. His father is not a vegetarian and, therefore, the emotional life has not been easy. John, however, is a lifelong vegan in spite of the difficulties of obtaining the necessary nut creams and other foods suitable for a young baby during the aftermath of a war. He was breast fed and finally weaned at the age of months, and was nearly 9 months before his first tooth showed ! At 10J months he was walking everywhere, including climbing the stairs. A doctor who saw him thought that his mother was asking for trouble in allowing him to enjoy this adventure ! ! Unfortunately, his mother had not been on food reform long enough to eradicate all her catarrhal tendencies in those days and John inherited these together with some bronchial trouble. They were most noticeable when he was cutting his teeth, but a day or two on pure fruit juices and vegetable broth, together with cold compresses on the abdomen, always reduced any temperature. At two years old he was in daily contact with chicken pox but did not have it. His only real illness before schooldays was whooping cough which he caught from his mother! (She was thoroughly ashamed of herself.) The above treatment was applied and John was soon on his feet again, much to the astonishment of the local doctor who had prophesied many unsavoury things because the child was not immunised. At the age of five years John went to a preparatory school and, from then onwards until he was nine years old, he had catarrh for the first few weeks in every new form ! This is mentioned to accentuate the fact that food alone is not the cause of illnesses, and parents should always endeavour to seek the psychological disturbances before blaming a vegan or vegetarian way of life. John always went home to dinner until he was eleven years old in order to avoid any feelings of being different and to ensure that he had the necessary nut and pulse proteins. Epidemics during the first three or four years at school always appeared as though they were going to pass without affecting him, but he would usually end up by being the last one in the class to contract the disease and he had mumps, (German measles, and measles. Each one was treated in the same way—by fasting and compresses, and then a gradual return to normal diet when the temperature had remained normal for twenty-four hours. Fortunately, when he was years old, he was introduced to a doctor who believed in these methods of healing. He encouraged the


mother to continue with the diet in order to eradicate the bronchial tendencies, and these completely disappeared by the time he was ready for school. During the last seven years John has lost eight days of schooling. He has recently passed his G . C . E . " O " level examina-

tions in four subjects and he hopes to lake three subjects at the advanced level in the future. He still does not know what he wishes to do when he leaves his grammar school, but we can only hope that he will be able to uphold the principles of veganism in whatever path he chooses. S.N.C.

(Members are encouraged to send in photographs. The longer you have been a vegan the more we shall welcome a photo with suitable personal information.—-EDITOR.)






M.D. (Lond.)

1 would like to talk to you about kindness and cruelty and their relationship to health and disease. Firstly, let us consider kindness. Kindness is an actual power which exists in us, but does not appear to be part of our material body. It is an eternal and invisible power, like electricity, which we can, and do use in our everyday life. We recognise this power which we call kindness by its inner effects upon our brain and mind. For example, if we see an animal in trouble, immediately we are aware of a feeling within us of the power of kindness, by which we are led to act in a compassionate manner. There is no compulsion, and we have the ability and freewill to decide whether we will obey this inner instruction, or deliberately ignore and act contrary to. it. Should we do the latter, we are guilty of cruelty. Kindness then, is a positive and great power, perhaps • the greatest power that is available for the use of man. When used properly, it produces in the body and mind, the feeling of peace, joy and enthusiasm, as well as enabling us to obtain harmony with all our external affairs, including our relationship with other people. The correct use of kindness is essential for continuous happiness. How then do we use this power to achieve these results ? The answer is simply to obey without argument and rationalisation whatever demands kindness makes upon us. We must, however, learn to. distinguish between the inner voice of compassion and the worldly clamour of the brain. This is necessary, because if we follow the demands of the intellect alone, our actions can never be kind, for reasons which 1 will discuss later. ">, It is a remarkable fact that man studies and obeys the laws Of electricity, sound, gravity, radiation, etc., in order to gain the greatest possible benefit for himself, and yet throughout his existence he has made little attempt to study and obey the Jaws underlying the correct use of the power of kindness. There has never been a serious attempt by scientists to research into the nature of laws of kindness, yet I have no doubt that to do so would result in such knowledge that man would cease to slaughter and exploit animals. Orthodox medicine as we know it would cease gradually. At first sight there would appear to be little connection between cruelty and health. However, the more we consider the possibility, the more it becomes evident that there is a very important relationship between the two. Lt is necessary to establish what we mean by cruelty, and for the purpose of this talk I will define cruelty as an absence of kindness. Hence it follows that any act of man that is influenced 18

by hatred, callousness, meanness, jealousy, avarice, resentment, spite or a desire to inflict suffering or pain, is a cruel act, and az a result, generates cruelty. The act does not have to be physical, as this is merely the end result of the mental attitude, therefore we must not think of cruelty as being confined to unkind physical actions. As thinking is an active process, which results in the generation of force—this force must have an effect on whatever it is directed against, whether this be living or non-living. Before going any further, I would ask you to consider the intellect and intellectual reasoning, as well as science and the scientific method. The intellect is that part of the mind which produces answers to everyday problems. It does this by computing and analysing the information we feed into the brain from our sensory organs. Intellectual or inductive reasoning is performed solely by using this information. Such information is nearly always unreliable in forming correct conclusions, as it is based on the observations and thoughts of others, e.g., books, plays, films, television and conversation, as well as our own imperfect observations. Imperfect because our observations of the material world are almost always coloured by our particular mood at the time, and so we give our intellect facts perverted by our emotions. Only when our observations are completely impartial and objective can we provide our intellects with their true working material. The intellect is the executive of our mind, our own personal servant, essential for carrying on our daily affairs. We must be aware of the fact that because much of the information we give it to work on is imperfect and distorted its conclusions are often incorrect. The intellect must be treated and respected as a servant, but never allowed to be master. One of the greatest dangers facing the world today is the worship of the intellect and intellectual reasoning. Let us consider briefly science and the scientific methods. Science means knowledge ascertained by observation and experiment. The scientific methods are two. The first is simply the acquiring of facts by observation. The second is the formation of a hypothesis and then proving or disproving its validity by experimental methods. By this method, all the wonders of modern living have been developed. There are two types of hypothesis. The first is that formed in the mind of the scientist by his own effort, using only the learning he has acquired from outside sources. The second type of hypothesis is a revelation given to the mind of the scientist by universal mind, which may use in this process that part of his human learning which is necessary. This hypothesis is the one that should be followed by experimental proof—the former man-made hypothesis always proves to be untrue. All great scientists have had the humility to distinguish between the two. The scientist who lacks humility is a very dangerous person and produces for the world, false 19

facts and knowledge which lead into a vast wilderness of darkness. Scientific experiment based on the man-made hypothesis is devoid of love, and uses any method, however useless or unkind, in an attempt to prove its validity. This false science is developing into a vast octopus today and doing great harm. I mention the intellect and science so that we will not be led astray by either, in considering this matter of cruelty and health, or any other matter we may investigate. Now let us come back to the consideration of cruelly and its effects, it is necessary to see what may happen to the doer and recipient. A person who consciously or unconsciously is guilty of cruelty is disobeying the universal law of compassion, and it is not possible to act against any law, either divine or human, without suffering adverse effects. Ignorance is no protection in contraversing this great universal law. A person who is ignorant of the danger of electricity is not protected should he touch a live wire. Our bodies and minds are made up so that we may experience love, joy and peace. If then we allow our minds and bodies to practise the reverse, that is cruelty, we are using them wrongly, and inevitably some or all of our tissues will depart from normal activity and hence a disease process is initiated. We all know that before acting in an unkind manner, it is necessary to harden our hearts. The physiology of this process has, to my knowledge, never been investigated. Whatever may be the change brought about in the chemical structure of our body tissues by this process, it is obviously detrimental to our health. If we deliberately allow this process to continue daily, monthly and yearly, we will eventually produce such changes in our body that it will no longer be able to fulfil its normal functions. Joy, love and peace are experienced no more, and disease will result. After a while the warning process no longer works, or else we become impervious to it, and slowly but inexorably the body starts to decay, wither and die. I believe that many of the chronic degenerative diseases that beset us today are caused by this process and that we will not be free of them until we learn to act always with compassion. In conclusion let us consider as an example of cruelty, the modern dairy industry, and the implications that it has for each one of us. The majority of the Western races consume a vast amount of dairy produce, and consider it ethical and proper to do so. Milk is a product evolved by nature over millions of years for the purpose of sustaining the infant life of each particular mammal. The milk of each animal is peculiar to it and not suitable, except in emergency, for any other species. After infancy, all mammals, except man, give up milk and take a diet suited to their adult status. Man, however, continues to take milk in its various forms throughout most of his life and this may well be one of the causes of the perpetuation of his infantile thought and behaviour—for example, the sport of shooting birds. In 20

order to consume milk, the bovine species are treated with unbelievable cruelty and indignity. Most cows today are artificially fertilized, often hundreds being so treated by a specimen from one bull. Calves are taken away from their mothers, usually when a day or so old, and either slaughtered at once or at a later date. It would be difficult to conceive of a more unkind action than this. Man, in full power and control, takes away the infant calf from the mother who has been prepared by nature, for . the feeding and loving of her offspring. Neither the cow nor the calf can plead for mercy. Having formed the inescapable conclusion that this industry is based upon cruelty, let us regard the matter from a scientific and medical viewpoint. 1. Milk is meant to be consumed direct from the milk glands. When allowed to stand outside the body it is a perfect medium for bacteria, and in order to make it not immediately dangerous to humans, a vast and expensive method of sterilisation is necessary. 2. Cow's milk lacks certain fatty acids which appear to be essential for maintaining the integrity of the blood vessels. 3. Milk contains an excess of cholesterol which may well be a contributing cause to thrombosis. 4. Cases of ulcerative colitis have recovered completely when treated with a dairy free diet. These cases immediately relapse when any milk products are taken. Early artificial infant feeding appears to increase the liability to ulcerative colitis in later life. 5. Circulating antibodies to milk proteins have been demonstrated in normal individuals. Such antibodies tend to be present in a higher dilution of serum in ulcerative colitis. 6. Milk may contain growth factors necessary for the rapid tissue division which occurs in the infant. If so, such growth substances might be harmful in adult life. Perhaps there is a relationship between the incidence of cancer and the consumption of dairy produce. 7. There is no medical evidence to show that milk or its products are vital to human nutrition—rather the evidence proves the reverse. • All the tremendous propaganda which persuades man to consume large amounts of dairy produce, may well prove to be one of the most deadly and misinformed instructions given to the human race. Here, then, we have irrefutable evidence to show that this vast industry based on cruelty, brings in its wake a great deal of harm, the beginning of which we are only just beginning to perceive. "'vThus when we look impartially at any of man's activity that is. not in accordance with the laws of kindness, we are slowly but • inexorably led to the necessity of disassociating ourselves from them. This change takes place within us gradually, and 2E

each new step forward leads us nearer to the life of perfect joy, harmony and freedom. The way of compassion has been taught by those men and women who, throughout history, have ascended to a higher degree of consciousness than the rest of mankind. When we examine their teachings, we are aware that they are based upon universal laws and not built upon the temporary structures of human intellect. And when we recognise it, we start on a lifelong journey towards a distant land of glory, the reality of which is a mere speck to our human perception. " B u t Buddha softly said, ' Let him not strike, great King! ' And therewith loosed The victim's bonds . . . Then craving leave, he spake Of life which all can take but none can give ; Life which all creatures love and strive to keep, Wonderful, dear and pleasant unto each, Even to the meanest; yea, a boon to all Where Pity is, for Pity makes the world Soft to the weak, and noble for the strong. . . . None may lay Upon the brow of innocent, bound beasts One hair's weight of the answer all must give For all things done amiss or wrongfully. Alone—each for himself—reckoning with The fixed arithmetic of the Universe, Which meteth good for good and ill for ill, Measure for measure, unto deeds, words, thoughts." SIR E D W I N ARNOLD.

(Part of the above article appeared in the July-August issue of " With Sword and Shield " and I believe that it is of such importance that we have made use of the " article exchange" arrangement that we have with the " Crusade Against All Cruelty to Animals."—Editor.) A REMINDER In our Autumn, 1961, issue, Dr. Ellis invited vegans to fill in a questionnaire and to send a personal blood sample. He is anxious to proceed with the survey and would like more vegans to co-operate as soon as possible (see Autumn issue for details).

Sprouting Seeds. An excellent and practical talk was given in Kensington on September 23rd by Mrs. R. Maidwell-Dodd, on "Sprouting Seeds and Grain." A report of this talk will appear in our Spring issue. 22

MOMENT OF TRUTH " Dad, can we go to Spain for our holidays next year ? " said Donald Sutherland as he placed the handful of vividly coloured brochures he had spent the afternoon collecting from various travel agencies on the sitting-room table. " Why Spain, Don ? " replied Dr. Sutherland, glancing through "the top half of his bifocal spectacles at this fifteen-year-old son. " T h e Wilsons, they've just come back, and Brian says . . ." " That they all went to see a bullfight ? " " Yes, Dad. Brian saiys you get a real kick out of it . . . everybody's going." " No, not everybody, Don. We're not, to begin with . . . not to see bullfights, anyway . . . there's nothing wrong with Spain itself, very interesting country in fact." " B u t , Dad, Brian's wild about bullfighting." " Brian's a lad like yourself, a nice lad, and he'll probably change his mind about bullfighting when he gets a bit older." " D a d . . ." " When I was a medical student . . . sit down, Don. I want to have a talk with you . . . when I was a medical student, I chummed up with a Spanish chap who was over here doing medicine. When we qualified . . . we were in the same year . . . he took me to his home in Madrid for a holiday . . . and what I got to know about bullfighting then put me off it . . . for good." " But that was ages ago, Dad. Things have changed." " No, Don, things have not changed, not the things that really matter." " Brian says . . . " " Never mind, Brian . . . bullfighting is downright cruel, Don, and barbarous, and it's a pretty siokening commentary on us that so many go from this country every year to see it." " But these booklets, Dad, they say it's all right . . . and I've seen it in films, jolly good films, and it didn't seem cruel." " They make it seem not cruel, Don, that's how they advertise, by glossing over the worst of it. Oh, I know it comes on telly . . but it's all part of a campaign to get bullfighting established in this country." " Well, wouldn't that be a good thing, Dad . . . I mean, people would spend their money here, instead of taking it to Spain, and . . . England might get rich again." " Not by allowing bullfighting, my boy. No good can possibly come of it, mark my words." "Still, it could be given a trial, after all . . ." " T h a t would be fatal . . . they'd get a foot in . . . after that there'd be no stopping them. Listen, Don, old chap, even some Spaniards are trying to humanise bullfighting, and they're asking people from this country not to go to them . . . in fact they're blaming us and other tourists for making the wretched business pay for the first time in history." 23

" Brian didn't say anything about this, Dad." " Hasn't been told, probably. Do you really know what it's like, in Spain, at any rate ? " " Bullfighting, Dad, I suppose not, really." " Then I'll tell you. First the bull always loses . . . it's life as well as the fight, if it can honestly 'be called a fight. It can't win. Now, does that strike you as sporting ? " " Can't says it does." " Secondly, a Spanish bullfighter, a torero . . . and he's an expert, does not fight an experienced bull . . . it's always the bull's first time." " Doesn't seem very fair, either, Dad." " It doesn't, Don, and it isn't. The bullfighting team very cleverly arrange for the bull to attack, not themselves, oh no, but the capes and muletas . . ." " What's a muleta ? " " It's another piece of cloth they use .in the business . . . near the end. Then, after the cape performance, that gets the bull into the middle of the ring, comes the worst of it. Before the torero takes the risk of facing the bull the poor creature is wounded in the withers by a picador on a blindfold horse with a long lance affair, not once, but often . . . then, as if that wasn't enough, six banderillas are stuck into the poor animal's lance wounds." " What does a banderilla look like, Dad ? " " It's a thing with a steel barb . . . the haft is about two or three feet long. They stick in the wounds and make them hurt more when the animals move." " Dad, I didn't know it was like this . . it makes you feel . . ." " Sick ? " " Yes." " I know, that's how I felt in Madrid. Then, when the bull is about all in, comes the 'moment of truth."' " Of truth ? " " Yes, truth . . . and a pretty hellish moment it is . . . a sword is stuck right into the animal, to kill it . . . blood runs from its nose and mouth; you see, Don, the >poor thing's lungs have been penetrated by the sword . . . the sword may have to be stuck in more than once . . . the point sometimes gets stopped on a bone. And sometimes the unfortunate animal has to be finished off with a dagger." " Sounds more like a slaughterhouse . . . " " It's worse; animal killing in slaughterhouses is reasonably humane, but in the bull-ring . . .! " " And what about the horses, Dad ? " " You're pretty fond of horses, aren't you ? " " E v e r so." . :: ' " T h e n you won't like this . . . the horses often get bruisied, and sometimes a ibull manages to .get its horns under a horse's so-called protective padding . . . and rips its belly open." 24

" Dad ! " " I know, it's terrible, but it's allowed, and it might be allowed in England if we're not careful." " It mustn't be, ever, Dad." " I thought you wouldn't like it . . ." " I must tell Brian . . ." "And that's not all about horses, Don . . . these poor animals spend so much of their lives in a state of fright that they get bad heart trouble . . . the abnormal beating can be felt in the rider's left leg." " D a d , that's enough, please . . . but they mustn't ever let it happen in England . . ." " They mustn't . . . the whole rotten business must be kept out. Now where do you want to go for your holidays next year, Don ? " " Mm . . . Southend might do, Dad." DRUMMOND ELLIS.

BACK NUMBERS OF " THE VEGAN " We have a few of these still available, which can be obtained from the secretary. Single copies Is. 3d., five copies 5s. 6d., ten copies 10s. 9d. All post free. Summer, 1946. Autumn, 1946. Spring, Autumn and Winter, 1947. Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter, 1948. Spring and Winter, 1949. Spring, Summer and Autumn, 1950. Summer, Autumn and Winter, 1952. Spring and Autumn, 1953. Autumn, 1954. Spring and Summer, 1955. Spring, Summer and Autumn, 1958. also the following booklets : " A Handbook of Practical Veganism " by John Heron, 2s. 6d. " Vegan Protein Nutrition," Is. 3d. " An Address on Veganism " by Donald Watson, 9d. " Vegan Viewpoint," by F. K. Henderson, 9d. " Vegetarian Recipes without Dairy Produce " by M. B. Rawls, 9d. "Aids to a Vegan Diet for Children" by K. V. Mayo, Is. 3d. (All post free) The leaflet " Reasons for Veganism " s.a.e. only. A few copies are also available of the following booklets published by the Vegan Society of India : " Symphony of Compassion " by D. C. Desai, Is. 9d. post free. "The Philosophy of Veganism" by A. S. R. Chari, Is. 9d. post free. (Application and money should be sent to the Secretary). 25

HOT SAVOURIES FOR COLD DAYS By MABEL SIMMONS Carrot Stew with Wholemeal Dumplings ÂŁ lb. carrots. 2 pints water. 2 onions. Bay leaf. 1 parsnip. Seasoning. 1 oz. margarine. Parsley. Slice vegetables and braise in margarine, add water and bay leaf, cook gently. When cooked add seasoning and garnish with chopped parsley. Serve with baked potatoes in jackets, and dumplings. Wholemeal Dumplings \ lb. wholemeal flour. Cup of water. 3 oz. nutter or margarine. Rub fat into flour, mix into a dough not too soft, and divide into 12 pieces. Make into balls, roll in flour, steam 15 minutes or drop in stew just before the vegetables are cooked. Vegetable Pie 2 carrots. 2 tomatoes. 2 turnips. 2 parsnips. 2 onions. Seasoning. Cut vegetables in thin slices, put alternate layers of each in a pie dish, cover with water and oook in oven with cover on until tender. When cooked let vegetables cool, add seasoning. Place wholemeal pastry crust on top. Bake in hot oven for 30 minutes. Wholemeal Pastry \ lb. wholemeal flour. Cup of water. | lb. nutter. Rub fat into flour. Mix into a fairly stiff dough, roll out gently, place over vegetables in pie dish. Curried Vegetables with Butter Beans 2 carrots. 1 oz. margarine. 2 onions. 1 dessertspoonful curry 2 turnips. powder. 2 artichokes. ÂŁ lb. cooker butter beans, 1 oz. sultanas. soaked overnight. 1 apple. Melt margarine in saucepan, slice onions and cook in margarine with curry powder, then add all vegetables cut into dice, cover with water, cook gently. When cooked add sultanas and apple


grated, mix all well together. Place cooked butter beans in centre of dish and add curried vegetables around. Garnish with chopped watercress. Barley Stew, Wholemeal Dinner Rolls 2 oz. margarine. 2 leeks (large). 2 carrots. Seasoning. 1 swede. Bay leaf. \ cauliflower or white heart 2 oz. cooked barley, of cabbage. Melt margarine in saucepan, cut up vegetables finely, braise in saucepan, then add 2 pints of water and bay leaf. Cook gently. When vegetables are cooked add barley. Garnish with chopped parsley. Serve with wholemeal dinner rolls. Wholemeal Rolls 1 lb. wholemeal flour. | teaspoon baking powder. 3 oz. margarine. | pint of stock or water. Add baking powder to flour, rub in margarine, mix into soft dough, knead on board, form into a roll, cut into sections. Bake in hot oven 20 minutes. Steamed Chestnut Pudding 2 lbs. chestnuts. 2 onions. 1 small head of celery. 2 oz. margarine. Prick chestnuts, put in saucepan in cold water, bring to boil. Peel, taking one out at a time. Cut celery and onions into small pieces, braise in margarine, add sufficient water to cover, add peeled chestnuts and cook gently. When cooked add seasoning and let cool. Line a basin with wholemeal pastry, put cooked mixture in, cover top with pastry, steam 1 hour. Serve with parsley sauce. Sweet Corn with Tomatoes 1 tablespoonful chopped 2 cups sweet corn. \ cup bread crumbs. parsley. i lb. tomatoes. Seasoning. Celery salt. Cut corn from cob, cover with water or nut milk, simmer, add seasoning. When cooked put alternate layers of corn and tomatoes in pie dish, the last layer being sliced tomatoes. Sprinkle over chopped parsley, then bread crumbs on top. Bake in moderate oven for 20 minutes. Serve with baked potatoes • in jackets and brussels sprouts. All enquiries about recipes should be sent to Miss Mabel Simmons (Teacher of Vegetarian Cookery), , London, N.W.I 1. 27

COMMODITY AND OTHER NEWS Vegetable Milk Some of us have been a little concerned as to the nature of the " decolorising carbon " used by the Plantmilk Society in their experiments. We have the assurance of Dr. Franklin, however, that no bone charcoal is used ; neither is there any likelihood of any such animal by-products being used in the future by this Society. The carbon in use at present is made from nut shells and seems to be proving quite efficient. We may expect a stable, palatable plantmilk of high nutritional value to become available in the coming year. Cosmetics Although the Burne-Jones range of toilet articles is pure and free from any harmful chemical additives, they have, until now, contained some small quantity of non-vegan ingredients, e.g., lanolin, milk, etc. Now we are very happy to introduce an entirely new range from this Company made especially for vegans; and at the same time express our gratitude to the members who have been largely instrumental in bringing this about. Face Powder. This can be supplied in trial sizes at 5s. 6d., in all natural shades. An interesting point about this product is that Messrs. Burne-Jones have found a way of using the silky inner skin of bananas for " sifting " the powder, in place of the pure silk normally used. • Vegan Lipsticks are made of cocoa butter and vegetable colouring. This new range will be ready in time for Christmas. 10s. 6d. each. A trial size of this also may be available in the New Year. There is also a Special B 1 2 set of Milk, Foundation Cream and Night Enrichment. Send for list of Vegan Beauty Products to : Messrs. Burne-Jones, Pages Down, Barham, Canterbury, Kent. Vegecos Beauty Products, London House, Great Square, Braintree, Essex. This Company have now added Face Powder to their range of vegan beauty products. 6s. 9d. post free from the manufacturers. Also " Innocence" Perfume, Trial size 6s. 9d., and " I n n o c e n c e " Skin Fragrance, 2 oz. bottle, 13s. Send to the ab.Qye address for details. Salads " Hot and Cold " is the name of a brand of Mustard and Cress that is all compost grown. We understand it is pretty generally available in the South. 28

CRUSADE AGAINST ALL CRUELTY TO ANIMALS The growing number of naturalist programmes on radio and television should do much to foster a desirable sense of healthy curiosity and wonder about the living world around us and not least could assist the appreciation of the beauty and interest to be enjoyed by observing animals behaving naturally in their own environment. It is to be hoped that the creation of a sense of wonder and reverence—so lacking in this sophisticated and spoonfed age—in at least some of the listeners and viewers will result in more adults and children fallowing the basic tenet of the true nature lover, namely, " Watch it and leave it alone." This simple slogan is one we are instilling into children on our visits to schools and through our junior magazine, The Young Crusader. An absorbing interest in natural life may, we hope, open the eyes of still more children and adults to the seamier side of the practice of making animals perform in circuses and shows for the entertainment of the patrons. A mind and heart alive to natural beauty recoil in disgust and pity from the degrading spectacle of comically-dressed elephants being forced into unnatural poses, performing dogs " waltzing " under the vigilant eye of their jailer, aind lions, tigers and other once-proud beasts now cowed and impotent beneath their trainer's dominance. Man's actions are motivated by his power of choice. Evolving man—and child—will rejeot performing animals only when he sees through comparison with things and actions of beauty and worth that the practice of forcing animals to perform for man's entertainment is degrading and hurtful both to the natural beauty of the animal and to the mind and personality of man himself. We have been delighted and greatly encouraged in our visits to schools to discover how much aware in their simple way some children between the ages of 7 and 11 are to these basic truths. We are able through our school work and in The Young Crusader to draw attention to the cruelty of keeping and of training animals in the circus, and we are quite sure that in accordance with their promise to us many children " d o not clap" if they see an act containing performing animals or, better still, do not go to see it. An essay competition run between the schools we have visited yielded some very fine efforts on this subject. We are more than hopeful from the response we have had from a great number of children that our efforts in spotlighting the realistic and less glamorous side of the business of performing animals will help to bring nearer the day when the British people will no longer countenance this form of cruel exploitation. A more enlightened generation of children may well win the day on this issue eventually, but in the meantime there is much that adults can do in addition to making the facts known whenever 29

the opportunity occurs. In particular they can exeroise their rights as citizens by endeavouring to enlist the sympathy and support of their local authorities. As Leonard Knowles, a Crusade Patron and a Town Councillor who works tirelessly on behalf of the animals, wrote some months ago in our journal: " In every local authority up and down the country there must be one man or woman willing to make a stand against the circus or against anything else which he feels involves cruelty to or exploitation of animals. Animal lovers in every town should surely be able to find that one man or woman. He or she will, in turn, very probably find, as I did, that other members are thinking along similar lines. It may not be done the first time, but it won't be long before that Council lines itself up against the circus and so on." In addition to seeking out possible sympathisers on your local Council, may we suggest that you do the following : 1. Write NOW, as a resident, to your local Town Clerk telling him : (a) your views about performing animals ; (b) your wish that any circus exhibiting them which applies to the Council should be refused permission to appear ; (c) that you would like him to bring your letter before the Council when next a circus applies for permission. 2. If subsequently permission is granted for a circus to appear, write (a) to the Town Clerk again, deploring the fact ; . (b) to the local papers expressing your views about performing animals and, if they include advertisements about the circus, deploring this fact also ; (c) to the agencies in your town which sell the tickets for the circus. 3. If you visit a town in which a circus is appearing, write to the Town Clerk, the Entertainments Manager (if any), the local papers and the ticket agencies expressing your views. 4. If you see bills advertising a circus which is exhibiting performing animals displayed in the windows of shops which you use, let the shopkeepers know your views and explain that you feel you cannot patronise them while they continue to exhibit such bills. (This has been done with complete success by one enthusiastic Crusader. The offending bill was removed.) 5. When it is announced that a broadcasting company is to televise a circus containing performing animals, write expressing your views and your wish that they should not do so. We hope that all readers will take some of the action suggested above, and may we lastly recommend that you write as briefly as possible. We can help the animals most and further our cause by acting in a responsible and " unemotional" way, and we shall thereby gain the attention and respect for our views which we so much desire. 30

Copies of the leaflet " What YOU can do about performing animals " which incorporates the above suggestions are obtainable from Crusade Headquarters. In the September/October, 1961, issue of our journal "With Sword and Shield " we published an " Open Letter to a Circus Proprietor " written by the Chairman of our Bournemouth Branch which posed a number of straight questions on the performing animals' issue. We sent a copy of the journal to Mr. Billy Smart and are glad to report that Mr. Smart has sent us his replies for publication in our Christmas issue, a copy of which can be obtained, price 6d., from Crusade H.Q. MARGARET A. COOPER, Secretary, Crusade Against All Cruelty to Animals Limited, 3, Woodfield Way, Bounds Green Road, London, N . l l .

A BIRD IN HAND A white cloth spanned The wintry land When in the tree-girt, snow-thick hedge My eye had scanned (As if 'twere planned) A little bird froze on a ledge— A bird in hand. 1 made him nest Beneath my vest And as my own heart strongly beat An echo pressed Within his breast. He raised his head and felt the heat Revive his zest. A white cloth stored My life-staff hoard. He boldly pecked the tempting fare. For my reward— Joy to record— He rose and, flitting here and there, Chirped " Praise the Lord ! " Alas, who ceased Whilst he increased ! A thousand feathered necks were wrung For gruesome feast Of man the beast. The Lord on cross again was hung With these, " t h e least." 31

A white cloth spread Beneath the dead. The holly and the butcher's knife Reflected red A thorn-crowned head. No corpses but the Lord of Life I saw instead. —RUTH


NEWS ABOUT SHOES We are delighted to learn from Mrs. R. Maidwell-Dodd, of the " Beauty Without Cruelty " Committee, that Messrs. Dunlop are soon to put on the market a new looped nylon shoe at 29s. l i d . for men and 22s. l i d . for women. Colours—Nigger Brown and Bottle Green (no half sizes). These are recommended as all purpose shoes and are to make their debut in the 1962 Spring selection. In addition there is a new women's boot with simulated fur tops, in black, brown and green, priced at 35s. with zip and 30s. without. Amongst the firms who have obtained advance supplies are the following : Messrs. Selfridges, Royal Arsenal Co-op. and branches, Bentalls, of Kingston, Greater London Rubber Co., Croydon, Lakers Ltd. (Petts Wood), and branches. Messrs. Woolworths, in many branches, are now stocking a very good value plastic shoe for men in black or brown, suitable for outdoor dry temperate weather or indoor use, at 9s. l i d . It is pleasant to find that the way of a vegan leads to such economic advantages, for the materials used in the above shoes do not require the expensive processing required by modern leathers. J.S. NEWS AND COMMENT Grass for Babies. Scientists at an agricultural experimental station in Hertfordshire have succeeded in experiments to extract protein value from grass and process it into human food. The grass, in powder form, had been sent to Jamaica to help cope with poverty and deficiency, and, according to one member of the research team, reports show that babies are responding well to this food experiment. (From the New Zealand Vegetarian.) Wanton Slaughter of Deer on Exmoor. In the B.B.C. "Tonight" programme it was recently reported that one of our two herds of wild deer—that on Exmoor—had been reduced from towards 400 to about one-fifth that number in the last few years. The normal depredations of the Quantock Stag Hounds have been swelled by the less selective and less refined attacks of some local farmers and " sportsmen" from near and far who shoot for pleasure, some leaving the carcase or the maimed deer behind, whilst others 32

collect the odd few pounds from some local salesman. The term " mixed baggers " is applied to those who shoot deer, rooks or anything that lives. In a recent B.B.C. " F a c e to F a c e " T.V. interview, Lord Hailsham remarked, " I enjoy shooting. Mankind has been hunting for 500,000 years. It's rather late to change that. In fact it would be absurd." ft is to be regretted that in a recent B.B.C. T.V. programme that would be viewed by children, in which the Horse Show commentator Dorian Williams was presented at home, that the film began with competitive show jumping and children's " trials " and ended with Williams moving off for the beginning of a hunt, he being the Master of the Waddon Chase Hounds. It .is to be regretted also that, presumably because of the dictates of protocol, Princess Alexandra, on her Japanese tour, found it necessary to go Duck netting, an ancient sport of Japanese royalty. World Forum. We welcome the return of this, one of the finest1 magazines in the world, and are delighted to see Esm6 Wynne-Tyson in the Editor's Chair. Some of the finest and most compassionate articles ever published have appeared in this magazine and we have no doubt that it will maintain, or even surpass, its own high standards in the future. The October issue contained an article on milk by our Secretary, with biographical notes on the contributor, and the Readers' Forum included an important letter from Dr. F. Ellis. World Forum is published quarterly by our printers (Messrs. H. H. Greaves Ltd.), and the annual subscription is 7s. 6d. Bull Fighting. This theme is subtly and insidiously being edged into our consciousness. The Reader's Digest recently featured a book glorifying the life of a matador, " The Matador who conquered Mexico"; part of the decor at a recenlt large Building Trades' Exhibition in London depicted a bull ring; and a recent T.V. show featured this subject. We shall be glad to hear from our readers of any instances where this distasteful spectacle is referred to in this country. READERS' LETTERBOX Dear Sir,—Here's my answer to the query raised by Samuel Gurney in The Vegan (Autumn, 1961), about pests. We are never justified in taking life as we cannot create it but only foster it. We can control pests (bacteria, rabbits, etc.) by hygiene and preventive methods—however expensive. Nature's prodigality ensures enough food for all of us—man and the creatures—if only we have sensible habits. But we cannot feed the world if we eat meat. No wonder two-thirds of the world needs food. Consider the following : World population about 2,500 millions.


Arable land needed for that, if vegetarians, about 2,500 million acres (minimum). Meat eaters require much more. Only about 2,500 million acres of arable land is available. Soon more than two-thirds of the world will starve. Portsmouth. C. L. W. Dear Sir,—If an argument arose between a rabbit and myself over the last lettuce I would enjoy watching the rabbit eat it. But I might not be so generous if it meant a human child starving. We have to face the fact that we are living in an imperfect world. If we wish to stay in it while we try to improve matters, there is no alternative but to compromise and sometimes do things we do not like—pay taxes, for instance, which go towards armaments and abattoirs. Killing for food to eat, that is, fleshfoods, is rather different from killing for necessity, and where it is necessary it can be done humanely, prayerfully, and regretting the need. If slugs and caterpillars were given a free hand we might starve, though I would prefer to share my apple with a maggot, than eat one smothered in poisonous chemicals. It is no good moaning that the balance of nature has been upset. The balance of nature (if it ever had one) has been upset. It will remain upset for a very long time, and while human beings increase, will be more upset. Mankind as a whole must pay the price which has set it back to the point where men may have to take on the job of predators—until other methods are devised. Vegetarians and vegans must not isolate themselves as a " chosen people " but be conscious at all times that they are still a part of Mankind, sharing its difficulties, responsibilities and penalties. The further we draw away from humanity the less likely we are to be influential. We cannot hide our heads in a cloud of impractical ideals and allow other people to do the dirty work of ensuring adequate food supplies. If adequate food supplies involve some killing or control of other creatures we haven't much choice—provided we wish to remain here. If vegetarians and vegans have any purpose in the wider scheme it is, surely, to show the way gradually and evolve better and more ethical methods of dealing with current problems. In the meantime we must accept some unpleasantness—if we accept the guardianship of policemen and armed forces we should be prepared to serve in those ways ; and if we accept commercially grown crops or wish to grow commercial crops ourselves. . . . The man who zooms away into the clouds is an escapist and is not bearing his share of the burden. Perhaps it would be cheaper to grow twice as many lettuces as required than to build an expensive fence ? Wilmslow, Cheshire. GEOFFREY L . R U D D . 34

Dear Sir,—Mr. Samuel Gurney's mention of " placing the murder of animals on other people's shoulders " (Autumn issue), prompts me to write on a similar topic, and one which has troubled me for some time. As all vegans are pacifists—or ought to be— the problem of having a police force, which is almost certain to use force at some time, presents difficulties. It is, of course, possible for a vegan to keep to the principles of Ahinsa, but having a police force merely shifts moral responsibility for violence from our shoulders on to others, and this may be a stumbling block to our views. In addition, does it seem Christian to imprison our fellow men, regardless of what they may have done ? I am reminded of a saying of Abraham Lincoln's (recently printed in The Vegan), that he who will not grant freedom to others does not deserve it himself. I should very much appreciate views (and possible solutions) to this problem. The real solution, I know, is a complete overhaul of society ; but before that is achieved, we must have some form of palliative. While writing, I think I must reply to E. D. of Southend-on-Sea, who writes in the same issue on the wearing of animal shoes by vegans. I should agree with him in most cases, but I think there are occasions when wearing animal shoes may be justified, mine being one of them. The pair of leather shoes I am wearing now were bought for me about four years ago, when I was 14 years old—at an age when I seldom, if ever, thought about vegetarianism or veganism. E. D. argues that " anyone who has veganism at heart " should immediately dispense with animal goods such as shoes. To buy animal goods, knowing of non-animal alternatives, I agree is inexcusable, but if one has possession of these goods before one becomes a vegan, has one any moral right to throw these goods away when there must be millions of people without any shoes or even socks ? To give them away would merely be passing moral responsibility. Keighley. H . WILLIAMSON. A reply to E.D. by the President Dear E. D.,—I was shocked to read your letter. You must realise that vegans are in all stages of working towards their ideal. We have members who still have a very little dairy produce which they will soon give up. They join the Society and work very hard for it, giving up very precious spare time because they believe fervently in the non-exploitation of animals. Some members become vegan and then have to go back to dairy produce for a short while. It is better to go slowly than to be ill. 35

Some members who have been vegan for a good while do not think that they can go further than the diet—which is a great step forward. Many of these have done and are doing valiant work for the Society. Some members are completely vegan in clothing and shoes. Most are working gradually towards that aim. It is only recently that bulk synthetic fibres—those that breathe—have been evolved. These have to be found and are expensive. Some people cannot wear rubber soles or synthetic ones. We await the Vegan Soles that breathe. So please, E. D„ come into the Vegan Society—we need your enthusiasm and example and you will have a good welcome. You will have ample opportunity for criticism at Discussion evenings and Debates. E L S I E B. SHRIGLEY. [The Editor regrets that several letters have had to be postponed until the next issue.] M I S C E L L A N E O U S



per line: minimum 2 lines; 20% discount on four consecutive issues.) A C A R A V A N H O L I D A Y in Dartmouth, South Devon. Privately owned new caravan for five ; beautifully appointed, built-in separate kitchen, gas cooker, radio if required. On quiet, private site. Close to the River Dart, in beautiful D e v o n countryside. A perfect all-in holiday with full amenities and complete peace. Free car park. Ideal centre for exploring South Devon. A few summer dates still ven to vegan members. Write Mrs. Batt, Middx. "AHINSA."—Non-slaughter, Non-Violence ; the monthly magazine for Vegans, ethical vegetarians, pacifists, Hygienists. Special overseas rate : 7s., in coin or British stamps, f o r full year.—THE A M E R I C A N V E G A N SOOEETY, Malaga, N e w Jersey, U.S.A. C O S M O P O L I T A N Vegan Community proposed ; if interested please write, Ruth Howard, London, S.W.I6. DIFFICULTIES IN W R I T I N G 6? S P E A K I N G . — H e l p given through correspondence and lts. Matthews, B.A.. E N G L I S H and Continental Scooters and Mopeds, most makes. Motor cycles, new and used. Three-wheelers, Powerdrive, Bond, Reliant. Exchanges. Terms. Models bought. Please write, 'phone or call. Your own dealer, R O N McKENZIE (Proprietor: R. McKenjie Butterworth, Vegan Food Reformer), 961 Chester Road Stretford, Manchester. Longford 2100. H E A L T H F O O D STORE. A wide variety of vegan and vegetarian foods is available, including the new plantmilk. Every effort will be made to acquire those vegan f o o d s which are not easily obtainable, so if you have any difficulty in purchasing certain products, please write to Mrs. Muriel Drake with your requirements and suggestions. Goods willingly al terms and comprehensive price list sent on request. , Blackheath, London, S.E.3. (LEE Green 5811.) • P I N E H A V E N , S I L E N T T H E O S O P H I C A L V I H A R A f o r all religions. F o r meditation, study and prayer. " They shall not hurt or harm in all this holy hill." Enquiries, Mrs. Cumming, , F a m h a m , Surrey. Tel.: Runfold 2046.


PRIVATE S E C R E T A R Y , non-smoking, non-drinking, eager to get a start in life, wanted to help director of a country-club (cultural and sport), located 50 miles from PARIS. M U S T LIKE H I K I N G and b e able to walk 25 miles. May become partner in Parisian export-import firm. Possibility of learning book-keeping, typewriting, Spanish, German and French correspondence ; participate in ridin w r-polo. Send application with photo to Paul Jauzin, , Aisne, France. R A Y V I T S E A W E E D TABLETS are ALL seaweed, with nothing added. They will make good any mineral deficiences in your diet and keep you up to scratch. 100 Tablets 3s. 6d., 500 Tablets 14s. 7d. Rayner and Pennycook Ltd., 16v Oatlands Chase, Weybridge, Surrey. SALES R E P R E S E N T A T I V E of long experience seeks post as representative of vegetarian and vegan foods. G o o d salesman, but as a vegetarian himself would prefer to work in vegetarian and health foods. Write Box 25 ( c / o . Editor). U S E R A Y V I T S U N F L O W E R OIL for salads and all your cooking. 7s. 6d. pint. 27s. 6d. i-gallon. 50s. Od. gallon. Rayner and Pennycook, Ltd., 16v Oatlands Chase, Weybridge, Surrey. WORLD FORUM. The leading international Vegetarian quarterly. Edited by Mrs. Esme Wynne-Tyson. Advocates the vegetarian way of life for physical health and a true relationship between the human and creature kingdoms—without exploitation and cruelty. l / 6 d . plus 4d. post per copy. 7 / 6 d . per year, post free.—H. H. G R E A V E S LTD., 106/110 Lordship Lane, London, S.E.22.

ESTABLISHMENTS CATERING FOR VEGANS ( l / J d . per line; 20% discount on four consecutive issues.) BROOK LINN.—Callander, Perthshire. Vegetarian and Vegan meals carefully prepared and attractively served. Comfortable guest house. Near Trossachs and Western Highlands. Mrs. Muriel Chofnn. Callander 103. COTSWOLDS & C H E L T E N H A M SPA.—Hazel Garth, Novertan Avenue, Prestbury, Cheltenham, Glos. Convenient hills, parks, shops. Excellent transport. Ideal touring centre. Highest quality fare. H o m e baking and produce. H. & C. bedrooms. Every comfort. Mr. & Mrs. Willis. Tel. 7431. DORSET.—Mr. and Mrs. Cox, " Hai-An," Osmington, Weymouth. Tel.: Preston 3285. Small cottage. H. & c. Modern sanitation. Near sea and buses. Parking space. Vegans welcome. EASTBOURNE.—General nursing, convalescence, rest and nature-cure. Out-patients treated. Edgehill Vegetarian and Vegan Nursing H o m e , 6 Mill Road. Tel.: 627. EDSTONE, W O O T T O N W A W E N , W A R W I C K S H I R E (near Stratford-onAvon).—Modern Nature Cure Resort and Guest House with every comfort, and compost-grown produce. (Phone : Claverdon 327.) LAKE DISTRICT. Rothay Bank, Grasmere. Attractive guest house for invigorating, refreshing holidays.—Write Isabel James. Tel.: 134. MAJORCA.—Charming flat for two offered. Vegetarian, non-smokers. All comforts. Tranquillity and beauty. Some meals pr arrangement. International stamp please. Mrs. R i t c h i e : ; Palma de Mallorca. N O R T H WALES.—Vegan and vegetarian guest house, nr. mountains and sea. Lovely woodland garden. Brochure from Jeannie and George Lake, Plas-y-Coed, Penmaen Park, Llanfairfechan. T e l . : 161. " W O O D C O T E , " Lelant, S t Ives, Cornwall, is a high-class Vegetarian Food Reform Guest House in a warm and sheltered situation overlooking the Hayle Estuary. Composted vegetables; home-made wholewheat bread; vegans catered for knowledgeably. Mr. and Mrs. Woolfrey. Tel.: Hayle 3147. Early bookings for Summer very advisable.

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The Vegan Winter 1961