T H E VEGAN SOCIETY Founded
, Purley, Surrey. , Ewell, Surrey.
H I L D A HONEYSETT.
W I N I F R E D SIMMONS,
Minimum subscription, which includes "The Vegan," 7s. 6d. per annum, payable in January. Life Membership, £7 7s. Od. All subscriptions to Mr. L.
, Dovercourt, Essex.
C . WARREN,
THE VEGAN JOURNAL OF THE VEGAN SOCIETY Editor:
, Betchworth, Surrey.
Board: Mrs. MURIEL DRAKE, Mrs. Miss CHRISTINA HARVEY, Mr. JACK Manager:
E L S I E B. SHRIOLEY, SANDERSON.
. London, S.W.10. Published quarterly: Annual subscription, 4s. 6d. post free: single copies. Is. 2d. post free. Obtainable from the Hon. Secretary. JACK SANDERSON,
BRANCHES O F T H E SOCIETY A N D SECRETARIES LONDON.—Miss Mavis Lardge, YORKSHIRE.—Miss Stella Rex, Nr. Leeds. M I D L A N D S —Mr. Don Burton, Warwicks. MANCHESTER —Miss Ann E. Owens,
, London, N.6. , Garforth, , Stratford-on-Avon, , Northenden.
SCOTTISH SECTION —Miss Dina M. Sutherland, Liberton, Edinburgh, 9. (Please communicate with your nearest Branch Secretary)
THE VEGAN Journal
of the Vegan
EDITORIAL The consumption of cows' milk by man is one of the great illusions that beset humanity : it has assumed even to the lactovegetarian that inevitability which characterises the attitude of the majority of westerners to the consumption of animal flesh. To break down this illusion is one of the objects of the Vegan Society. We do not seek to convert, that is forcibly to alter the dietary habits of others ; but we do seek to get others to investigate impartially, and thence to admit the injustice and the moral inadequacy of the monstrous dependence of civilized, mature man on the bovine race. Veganism stands for more than this, however. It Stands for a doctrine of monism, pointing to the all-pervading unity that manifests in and through all forms of life. The recognition of this unity calls for responsibility and love. In these terms we develop to something higher, and in so developing draw upwards on the scale of evolution those whom we have hitherto beaten and trodden underfoot, drawing off their strength, their vitality into that " innocent pint of milk ". Do we speak in too strong terms? Only to those who are still trapped within the nets of that comfortable illusion. Yet it is a trap and it is a net. Let us do away with it once and for all and admit that the dietary practices of civilised man have gone sadly astray. Both responsibility and maturity beckon. Courage asks that decisive steps are taken. We need, all of us, in the simplest, most basic act of daily livingâ€”the eating of foodâ€”to acknowledge, to be true to, our kinship with all life. And what better time of year, when tables groan with festive fare, to conduct a little painstaking analysis into the origins of those animal substances that so many take for granted. Responsibility begins very much at home. JOHN HERON.
AUSTRALIAN WELCOME Australian Newsletter from our Australian A. L.E. Clark
After five weeks of weather varying from snow to temperatures over 90°, the S.S. Strathmore docked at Melbourne late Good Friday evening. The following morning I was called to the telephone (now connected from ship to shore) for our first contact with Australian vegans, Arnold and Freda Robert. Warm greetings of welcome were followed by an invitation to spend the Easter with them. Promptly at 8 o'clock that evening we were conveyed from the docks in the Robert's car. The journey took us through the heart of Melbourne, and various places of interest were pointed out to us until at last we struck open country. I think it must have been 1 o'clock Sunday morning before we retired—the evening seemed to pass away all too quickly, engaged as we were in lively conversation. We learnt that vegetarians and vegans are few in number in the Commonwealth, but at the same time are consolidated in small vegetarian societies in each state, in addition to an Australian Vegetarian Society with head office at Sydney. Catering is mainly carried out by the Sanitarium Health Co. (organised by the Seventh Day Adventists). Sad to say, the nut butters and creams so readily available in the U.K. are nonexistent here. Peanut butter and Copha—a coconut fat suitable for cooking—are obtainable. There are one or two brands of margarine that might be vegan and I hope to contact the firms for guarantees. To offset this, fruit is very plentiful and, whilst dear at present with winter prices, is of a wide range and cheaper in the summer. Vegetables are reasonably priced and all the varieties usually grown in England are to be had with a few other Australian vegetables besides, i.e., sweet potatoes, chokoes, apple cucumbers. Arnold and Freda explained that they buy almond nuts in quantity at an approximate cost of £54 for a year's supply and, with an electric vitamizer, produce a nut cream. They were, however, envious of the consistency of the English cream. (We had presented them with some cashew nut cream.) Certain nut meats are advertised by the Sanitarium Co. and bear names similar to English counterparts, i.e., Nutolene, Gluten Steaks, etc. It is unfortunate that manufacturers are not required by law to disclose the ingredients of products. The following day we had the opportunity to see the garden and have a close look at the house. Simplicity, with artistry, have gone to make a home comfortable in a modern style pleasing to the eye. Built in a rectangular fashion and single storied, most rooms have glass windows stretching from just above the floor to 2
near the ceiJing and running the whole length of the room. Glass doors on outside walls allow the sunlight to penetrate into the interior from every possible angle. On a moonlight night it is possible to sit in the lounge and survey the countryside, giving the impression that you are actually sitting out in the garden. It is no exaggeration to say that the windows are as large as shop type. Freda and Arnold are enthusiastic naturalists and the time and trouble they have put into realizing ideals has had its reward in good health and contentment. Anthony, the Robert's 3-year-old son, is a suntanned sturdy youngster with an intelligence, I should rate, well above average. Raw food, mainly fruit, forms the basis for the Robert diet even to the extent of having very little bread. It goes without saying they are keen food reformists. Most of the furniture has been specially designed by Mr. S. Krimper, a professor of woodcraft, originally from Austria. Contemporary in style, simplicity here once again shows beauty and craftmanship. The Professor has works of art in the National Galleries of Melbourne and Brisbane. Wood used for the furniture is of the finest Commonwealth hardwoods and has been blended with imported woods to give a combination of shade, colour and graining. All the Krimper works of art, as they might better be described, are original in design, as may be expected. A polished finish has been obtained by continuous rubbing down with very fine sandpaper until an effect much like the gloss of ivory has been produced. The garden has come similarly under the guidance of another expert, a Miss Edna Walling, who has combined a fruit, vegetable and flower garden to blend suitably into the surrounding landscape. A rather interesting feature is the extensive use of mulch covering the ground around vegetable and flower beds to a depth of 12 inches. Besides acting as humus for the soil, the mulch keeps the weeds down and makes digging and watering practically nil, and gardening a lot easier! Rainwater is collected in a tank and used for drinking and cooking purposes in the house, as the Roberts believe in avoiding the chemicals that are used in the main supply. Orange, lemon and other fruit and almond trees add a finishing touch to the garden. Later on in the morning we were taken for a drive in the surrounding countryside, known as the Dandenong Ranges. In some ways the rolling downs and woods reminded us of Kentish scenery. Perfect weather prevailed with temperatures between 70째 and 80째, making the trip the more enjoyable. The rest of Sunday was spent in discussing a hundred and one subjects ranging from theosophy (Arnold and Freda are members of the Society) to the preparing of compost heaps. Another drive around the Dandenong hills Monday morning and then, alas, came our time to depart. On the way back to the ship we talked of the possibility of the Roberts removing to Queensland, a little further north than Brisbane (our destination). 3
Arnold is very keen on the idea of a fruit farm. In next to no time we were thanking our new friends for a lovely week-end and waving farewell from the boat. And so we sailed on from Melbourne to Sydney, leaving behind " Tranquil Meadows" tucked away in the hills surrounding Melbourne; a haven of peace and contentment, a home of culture and beauty, a spiritual light burning in that vast continent, Australia. The Roberts, by their example, are showing a new way of life to a meat-loving community, and we can feel happy in the knowledge that the torch is being carried in capable hands. Best wishes, Arnold, Freda and Tony, and thank you for such a hospitable welcome to Australia!
THE GOOD LIFE " Amicus " Living the Good Life, Helen and Scott Nearing. The C. W. Daniel Co. Ltd., 21 /-. Man's Search for the Good Life, Scott Nearing. The C. W. Daniel Co. Ltd., 15/-. (The C. W. Daniel Co. Ltd., Ashingdon, Rochford, Essex.)
" Living the Good Life," by Helen and Scott Nearing, is undoubtedly a modern classic on husbandry. It is a clear, vigorous, masculine account of their 20 years' experiment in selfsubsistence on a Vermont homestead. For economic, hygienic, social and ethical reasons the Nearings left the disturbances of city life in the autumn of 1932 and started a pioneering venture whose main purpose was to carry on a self-subsistence economy and to provide an oasis of sound, healthful, basically sane living in a teetery world. This experiment was from the start distinguished by mature intelligence, diligence, careful planning and sustained executive capacityâ€”wedded to an extraordinary instinct for the noble simplicity of the craft of country living. " Living the Good L i f e " describes from the technical, economic, sociological and psychological aspects what the Nearings tried to do, how they did it, and the degree of their success. This is a very remarkable book. Perhaps its primary moral is that fundamental happiness derives from a thorough application to the constructive solution of life's immediate problems. The Nearings certainly applied themselves with great, but by no means slavish, thoroughness to their rural economy : the satisfaction they reaped must have been commensurately great. Chapters deal with the economic organization and development of their farm (including " sugaring"), the building of stone dwellings by hand, the cultivation of the soil, health-giving food, community projects, and so on. The whole is, in fact, a comprehensive theoretical and 4
thoroughly practical handbook for any couple between the ages of 20 and 50 who wish to break out of the competitive, acquisitive urban civilization of the day and pioneer with self-subsistence in the rural life. Self-discipline, the capacity to make a plan and stick to it, would seem to be prime requisites in this type of undertaking. But the wise provision and maturity of the Nearing's approach was that they apportioned only half the day to bread-labour, keeping the other half free for the pursuit of varied avocations and for relaxation. Vegetarianism and later veganism were integral to their practice of the good life; similarly organic gardening; and, of course, whole food and considerable raw food. And their presentation of these elements is reinforced by a profusion of references and quotations which are in themselves a source of rich delight and inspiration. The project was an emphatic success " as a venture in economic self-containment and an experiment in economy, frugality, self-discipline and day to day training for a new way of life," and " in terms of individual health and happiness." However, they consider that socially and sociologically it left much to be desired. There were never more than four or five adults in the householdâ€”insufficient for a fully labour-saving economy; and co-operation and mutual aid among neighbouring farms and families was not attained on any significant scale. While fullscale co-operative enterprises undoubtedly belong to the future, this account of the unusually good life to which the Nearings themselves attained for two decades is impressive, instructive and extremely encouraging. For those who would pioneer in a similar fashion, the authors of " Living the Good Life " have bequeathed a very valuable legacy. *
In " Man's Search for the Good Life " Scott Nearing presents a broad analysis of the historical, social, political and economic factors relating to the basic issues of the good life. After practising it for 20 years he is entitled to a dissertation on its theoretical implicationsâ€”and he is well-equipped to do so. From 1906-1914 he was an instructor in economics at Philadelphia University. A powerfully active social conscience made him prominent in several controversial issues ; and as an author of over 40 books, he is well versed in the philosophy and history of economic and social life. Briefly speaking, his thesis is as follows. Western civilization is dying: it is dying because it is predatory, acquisitive, competitive, expansive, militaristic, egocentric and hence self-consuming and self-destroying. Therefore " we must separate ourselves psychologically from the old and dedicate ourselves enthusiastically to the new." The good life to-day is, then, the devoted and courageous pilgrimage of the pioneer towards the new land; and it involves a synthesis, a harmonization, of individual and collective aims. Thus group pioneering is symptomatic of the emergence of 5
the new social order. Meanwhile social engineers must formulate, popularize and implement purposes and plans that are in accord with a true balance of personal and public wants. Scott Nearing strikes an optimistic note. He believes that men seek the good life, will continue to seek it, that some men do and all men can potentially live the good life. He asserts that it is primarily social limitations by which we are hemmed in and that these can be modified by " an individual or a community with the wish and the will to do so." His call is undoubtedly to the pioneer. And his style and exhortation is in the great and vigorous tradition of that inner emancipated core of American liberality. ANNOUNCEMENT Books by Professor Arnold Ehret In the Spring, 1952, issue of " The Vegan," the Editor drew attention to the life and work of that great pioneer Professor Arnold Ehret, and stated that his books could be obtained from J. Regan, N.D., D.O., " Onaway," Downend Park, Horfield, Bristol 7. Many vegans wrote to Mr. Regan for Ehret's books, but he was not able to meet all their requirements. Mr. Regan now writes to say that he has received a limited supply of Ehret's books from the U.S.A., particularly " The Mucusless Diet Healing System." This is an important opportunity for vegans to enrich their libraries with classics by one of the fathers of the naturopathic movement, and by one who advocated a vegan diet. Please write to Mr. Regan direct for full details.
CHILD AND BABY BUREAU Dear Children, I have been asked to write especially to you this time as it would be very interesting for the Vegan Committee and others, who are endeavouring to lead the vegan way of life, to hear from some of you. Of course, we would really like to hear from all the children, but I expect there are many who are too small to write; as I don't receive letters very often from mummies and daddies, I expect they are too busy looking after you. I wonder whether any of you keep pets? Even if you have managed to bring them up as vegetarians, you will have begun a very good piece of pioneer work for the creatures, and we would very much like to hear about it. Or if you have any other news that you know we would like to have, do please write. May love and blessings in abundance surround each one of you. SERENA COLES. Purley, Surrey. 6
RETREAT OF THE VEGETARIANS George Merrill Hawkins,
Human, somatic, evolution was completed centuries a g o ; normalized chemically and formally. Human psychical evolution is a fluid process that proceeds, unequally, throughout the race, into the future. The true vegetarian is representative of that element in society that has arrived at the recognition of Life Obligation, the concept that all those endowed with life in human degree are under obligation to serve and conserve life in all degrees on the planet Earth. That is the logic to which monism reaches, the understanding that Earth and all its elements form a unity, are all parts of an organism. The essence of life is metabolism ; metabolism is the life of the body. That fact is now getting recognition in wider and wider circles. It means the partaking of and the appropriation of food and the elimination of residues of oxidation. It is now beginning to be understood that food is the most important element in life and the fundamental factor on the expression of life and the fundamental factor in the expression of the various tissues of the body registered as health. The three stages of the living process, infancy, maturity and senility, mark the degrees of the food needs and capacities of appropriation, that the body passes through. These capacities are determined by the supply of the " ferment of ferments ", the adreno-oxidative secretion, that the body can produce and varies as time passes. This secretion is of the utmost importance to the life, growth and health of the post partum infant. In the first or embryonic stage of life this essence of life is supplied to the bodily cells of the embryo direct from the maternal blood, being transfused from the mother's blood vessels into the tissues of the embryo through the placenta. When birth occurs, the discontinuance of placental attachment occurs, but the demand for the " ferment of ferments " by the infant does not cease for the reason that the infantile glandular system has not developed far enough to supply the infantile body an amount adequate to its needs. Nature again comes to the support of new life, furnishing the essential substance in the secretion of the mammary glands, milk. Milk being the exudation from maternal blood partakes of the qualities of that blood : it is basically blood serum. The milksupplying function completes the process of sex, a fulfilment capable only by a maternal being. The first quality of it is its adaptation to the offspring that were first nourished by that blood through the placenta of any given mother. Woman's milk is adapted to human babies : cow's milk is adapted to bovine babies; mare's milk is adapted to equine babies; goat's milk is adapted to hircin babies; sow's milk is adapted to porcine babies, and so on throughout mammalian 7
families. Milk, therefore, is the provision of Nature for the sustenance and welfare of infantile life. Maternal blood is qualified by the substances from which it derives support and renewal, originating in the digestive tract and inspired by the respiratory tract, and by emotional responses to environment. It in turn transmits those qualities to the milk. As the health of the mother is also qualified by those conditions, milk must take on the degree of health of the milk-giver. An investigator of infant nutrition, in the present age, will be convinced that breast feeding of human infants is in a decline. The main drive of education for women, the principal life objective of women themselves in this day, is cerebral culture. Civilized, industrialized, urbanized, guanidized, alcoholized, nicotinized, caffienated, salicylated, barbiturated, masculinized, neurasthenic, denatured woman, depleted in glandular power is losing breast function. This pathological astringency is choking the stream of life at its source, for genus homo sapiens. The function underlying woman's racial role is glandular. School rooms, offices, airplanes, legislatures, the arts, the military, the sick, utilize feminine, cerebral activities; motherhood demands metabolic power, glandular vigour. This is confusion of biologic order determined by gender. The former directing feminine, cosmic energies, in reverse, is a product of the schools and desire for extravagant living; the latter is the product of green meadows and sweet hay raked by Maud Mullers. Industrialism, established for less than a hundred yearsâ€”its culture. The increasing nutritional misfortune, if no other, into which civilized infants are born is being met in a stopgap manner, as the situation emerges, by the use of the milks of lower animals. The cow is being more steadily drafted to foster-mother human young. Milk designed by nature to nourish bovine young, of quick growth, large bones, bulky muscles and witless brains, must be used to sustain human young of slow growth, small bones, small muscles, and dominant brains. Logical thinking would say that such fothering procedure is not laden with good fortune for numanity. This conclusion is borne out by the colicky wails and sour pukings throughout civilization, beginning links in subsequent chain reactions. In steaming tropical jungles, native women with full functioning breasts, of guileless rondure, nurse their babies for two years sequestered in paternal domicile, for that period unexcited by husband contiguity. Exemplars they of normal motherhood ; a primitive, oriented ethic; instinctive, biologic service; sex for reproduction; motherhood supreme. It is not controversial to say that milk is a good foodâ€”for the calf. The calf thinks so, too, when it is getting its nourishment warm from the maternal teats, in small jets, easily digested. But this contentment is only for a short period of time in its life. A few weeks from its birth it feels the need of and demands different 8
food, discontinuing the taking of milk while it is yet immature. Not so the human. He not only is urged to but does use milk freely in his maturity. It is amazing that human adults do not know as much as the calf, concerning the ordination of Nature. Is it possible that instinct is more clarified, is a more direct channel for World Mind, than reason? Human adults of the strongest metabolic powers and slow reactions apparently appropriate milk and milk products in their regimen without acute and prominent repercussions; but the sensitive person, with quicker responses, experiences prompt and unhappy reactions to the consumption of milk and milk products. The age of senility is the age of decline in the supplies of ferments, enzymes, the essences of metabolism, the fires of life. The ageing man feels an encroaching weakness and turns to milk as a supportive food. But a food that is supportive of one life species in infancy, when vitality is on the upsurge, has little affinity for another life species that is losing power. In that stage stimulation hastens complete exhaustion and the taking in of outside agents to substitute for secretions the body has been supplying itself but no longer does so, hastens the final failure of the only supports of life. Longevity is curtailed. Milk is, basically, the exuded serum of the blood, cow's milk being the exudation of cow's blood. Modern dairy practices stimulate cows to exude every drop of milk possible over a period of time greatly prolonged beyond normal, natural, lactation periods. This is done by stimulative feeding and intensive breeding. These measures result in bovine abnormality. Cows become temporarily sterile; they are treated for that. If they become pregnant many of them abort; Bang's Disease ; they are treated for that. Foot and mouth disease has its seasons, tuberculosis has its seasons, lumpy jaw makes its appearance ; the highly stimulated, intensely bred cows develop mastitis, they become rheumatic, their constitutions are wrecked by the overstimulated milk flow that drains their blood and tissues of essential elements. The symptoms of disease and abnormality are preceded by changes in the animal's blood long before the symptoms appear, and the disease and the treatments by inoculation profoundly modify and deplete the animal's blood. The insecticides developed by scientists and now in use in cattle barns, are absorbed into the bodies of cows and are eliminated in the cow's milk. Now the somewhat new and ingenious tampering with the delicate polarity of reproduction, artificial insemination, will also add its influence to the denaturing of cows. The consumption of cow's milk by humanity is a slow method of slaughter, a pitiless exploitation of the intention of Natural Law, by which a maternal creature, because she was born a female, must give her body to sustain her infant. It is also a method of swift slaughter, supplying every veal market and rennet shop in the land. 9
In Central Africa there are people who exploit cattle for blood. They are boldly sanguineous, unashamed, forthright direct actionists : they open the veins of their cattle and drink the blood as it gushes forth. White exploiters of cattle for blood, with less intestinal fortitude, are somewhat squeamish at such practice; they choose the indirect approach preferring to drain their cows through their udders. Evolutional, human cunning, marking the back track that was taken when man made the pivotal turn away from the practice of a great and pure humanity; away from the period of compassion for and symbiosis with his zoologic sojourners, freedom from fear throughout all forms, extending for thousands of years and to which the exalted Christian, Thomas-iKempis, in vain, calls mankind to a recollectedness : " If thy heart were sincere and upright then every creature would be unto thee a living mirror and a book of holy doctrine," Monism, unity, applied, not just talked about; and increasingly unheeded in the exploiting of docility ; the exploiting of maternity; the exploiting of gastronomic capacity multiplied quadripartite. The rural family, prompted by thrift, keeps a cow for family milk supply. The children feed her delicacies; they stroke her neck ; they " drive her home from the pasture, up through the long, shady lane " ; they drink her milk; she is the family pet, their best friend, giving her living substance to her friends. What greater test of friendship? One day it is found that time has taken its toll of bossy ; she is not as serviceable as she was, her milk supply has fallen off. In that hapless hour " O l d S p o t " meets her denouement, she experiences her betrayal. The butcher is called ; she is carted off to the slaughter house, hit in the head with a poleaxe, flayed and dismembered. Is her flesh eaten by her good friends, her former beneficiaries? She may be saved that final indignity ; strangers may consume her carcass. Life Obligation has been realized by those leading the intuitive life, through the centuries, but their teachings and examples have become more obfuscated as the race has aged ; senility depleting alertness. The criteria of this fact being the importance given to the obligation to life : " Thou shalt not kill " ; that has been issued from time to time in succeeding historical periods by the clairvoyant clansmen of God and the votaries of evolutional probity. When Moses carried down from Sinai the tablets of clay it occupied sixth place ; by the time Saul of Tarsus sustained his stroke of rationality, which fired his ambition to carry on a mission of hate, persecution, extermination and assassination, dedicating his heart to a Devil's promenade, to promoting the evangel of pity, compassion, love and mutual aid, man's lethal tendencies had so increased as to place it second, preceded only by the forbiddance of the unavowed act of begetting; presently, despite its former exalted prolocutors, it has been advanced to the first of man's responsibilities, in exigency of his most devastating sin, by the vegans, who, in their philosophy, intolerant of offence, have 10
explored and mapped the extended latitudes that bound morality in the modern age for all pioneers of advancing culture. They see that other creatures than man have fallen among thieves on the Jericho Road and include, unto themselves and afi who aspire to a clarified perception of what being human entails, all creatures as their neighbours to whom must be tendered the courtesy and the service set forth in the ordination of the Pauline curriculum, tincture of Greek, wherein is taught the application of symbiosis, the prohibition of flesh, the abjuration of alcohol (tobacco, cocoa, barbituric acid and the poppy had not then been introduced to man and had not received oesophageal and subcutaneous invitations to become guests that sequentially betray the vitality of their hosts), whereby the reformed mobster out Christianed Christ. The sincere and alert student who seeks the basic causes of the impairment of human health should make a painstaking investigation of the part played by the attempted adaptation of the tissues of the human body to the use of animal milks as food in the development of the febrile diseases of childhoodâ€”eczema of children, enlarged tonsils and adenoids, mucous membrane troubles, tooth troubles, coryza, colitis, constipation, inflammation of the lymphatic system, deafness, cataract, undulant fever, cancer, mental obtuseness, juvenile delinquency with its moronic practices â€”and leave the obsolete dispute as to which should be used, raw milk or partly cooked milk, to the solicitous champions, fearful for the welfare of humanity before the onslaught of bacteria that, through the microscope, look so formidable and who spend their time making traps and poisons for baccilli, viruses, cocci, spirilli, etc. Milk, the culminating phase in maternal sex life, is, of evolutionary record, a slime. It is aliment for beings who have not arrived at the age of discrimination and nutritional selection. As soon as the ability to discriminate is obtained and a degree of fastidiousness, as to sources and contents, is arrived at, it takes a well fortified solar plexus to stomach it. This is probably the reason that adolescents, in whom the instincts have not, as yet, become completely nullified, must be cajoled by politicians, government beaurocrats, schools, parents and profiteers and tempted by sweetners, flavourings and colourings, to get them to consume it in quantities. This also may be the reason so many nominal vegetarians can use it, for few civilized persons have a more vigorous abdominal brain than the vegetarians ; but it is a misuse of strength when the abdominal brain is allowed to dominate the cephalic brain, rendering the latter a poor conductor of World Mind. It then becomes an attempted perversion of cosmos; a dangerous proceeding ; the practice and encouragement of the culture of chaos. Lacto-vegetarians and lacto-ovo-vegetarians are hybrids; they are stations in an evolution backwards, to carno-vegetarianism ; a 11
retreat to carnivorous living wherein vegetarians lose integrity, distinction and significance. The search for the part played by animal milk in the human dietary as a contribution to the generation of disease should be carried on without missionary objective. It should be implemented by the pure desire to know truth, gain understanding, to divulge if nemesis trails hubris ceaselessly, if exploiters must pay a toll for their exploitations, and to discharge the first obligation in Life Obligation, the obligation to become intelligent. What is love? What is compassion? What is fellowship? The Jains, apprehensive of humanity's increasing acquisition of the trend to conflict and the use of violence, its studied expansion of capacity for destruction, answered in the East, five hundred years before Christ was born. The vegans answer in the West to-day. Where does " Peace On Earth," so fervently prayed for and so urgently needed, start, and which when Origin is ignored makes a hollow pretence, a vain hope and builds an inevitably devastating karma? The most important ethical principle, for modern man, is an understanding and obligatory application of the basic general unity that generates and supports special, biologic diversity. Outside the merciful consideration of all units there is no comprehensive unity. That was understood by the great interlocutor, Moses, when he wrote the Commandment: " Thou shalt not kill," so flagrantly violated by the commanded. Where lies duty? I have a little flickering light to show the way but on the bleak, windswept ridges of observation and experience, it is all but extinguished by a ruthless, unregenerate mob.
VEGAN COMMODITIES Christina Harvey Britvic Ltd., Chelmsford, Essex. Tomato Cocktails, Tomato Juice, Pure Fruit Juices (orange, grapefruit, pineapple, apricot, peach). Pure Fruit Juice Cocktail (goldâ€”a blended cocktail of several fruit juices) are vegan. All these products contain pure fruit juices with the addition of a little sugar. Calgary Farm, Tobermary, Isle of Mull. Potatoes are grown from seed, on seaweed manured land, which is guaranteed free from artificial fertilisers. The price is about 27/6 per cwt., plus freight, which would be from 10/- to 12/to London. Wand M. Duncan Ltd., Edinburgh 7. None of their confections is vegan. 12
Gilberts Organic Farm, Sultana, Calif., U.S.A. This enterprising American farm supplies organic, natural dried fruits. They are not treated with chemicals or oils. Nor are they cooked, canned, frozen, or exposed to supersonic or active rays of any kind. The fruit is stemmed, cleaned, washed and packed after orders are received. Orders can be accepted from Great Britain. J. Jessop and Co., Exchange House, Old Change, London, E.C.4. Date Delight is a new vegan product. It is a pure syrup of dates, free from any chemicals or preservatives. It is the pure natural fruit sugar syrup. There is a very high percentage of Lacvulose, which is one of the two basic nutritive carbohydrates, the other being Glucose. Date Delight can be spread on bread, biscuits or breakfast cereals. It can also be used in puddings and pastries or mixed with ground almonds or walnuts to make a delicious spread. Date Delight is sold in jars of 15 oz. at 2/6 and 8 oz. at 1/6. 1\ oz. sample sizes are also available. George King and Co. Ltd., Kingsbury, N.W.9. Barmene Yeast Extract no longer contains milk and is now vegan. 4 oz. and 8 oz. cartons cost 2/3 and 3/10 respectively. Sprite beverage is vegan, too. It contains pre-cooked wheaten flour, malt extract, sugar, cocoa, barley malt, flavouring, yeast, dried vitamin B.. Butter Brazils, Walnuts, and Apricots all contain dairy butter. London Health Centre, 9, Wigmore Street, London, W.l. All cakes contain dairy products. Rissoles, sometimes on sale, are vegan. Shearns, 231, Tottenham Court Road, W.l. Gooseberry Jiffi-Jell is now available as well as the other varieties mentioned in the Autumn issue of " The Vegan." Remember to send your discoveries regarding vegan commodities to Christina Harvey, Hornsey Rise, London, N.19. All correspondence is very greatly appreciated. VEGAN COOKERY DEMONSTRATION A Vegan Cookery Demonstration will be given by Miss Mabel Simmons (Teacher of Vegetarian and Vegan Cookery), at 50 Gloucester Place, London, W.l, on Friday, March 9th, 1956, at 7 p.m. This will give you an opportunity to bring your friends and show them how wholesome meals can be provided without the use of dairy produce. It will be possible to purchase demonstrated foods afterwards. TRADE DISCOUNT It was decided at the Committee Meeting, on November 5th, 1955, that commencing with the first issue in 1956 the Trade Discount for "The Vegan" will be 25%.
J t (Kljristmas Mabel
Parsnip Cream Soup Pine Kernel and Cashew Nut Roll with Chestnuts Parsley Balls, Gravy Cauliflower, Braised Carrots, Roast Potatoes Christmas Pudding, Mince Pies Coffee, Home-made Sweets PARSNIP CREAM SOUP 1 i 1 1
lb. parsnips. lb. potatoes. onion. oz. margarine.
2 pints stock. 1 bay leaf. Seasoning.
Slice parsnips and onions; cook gently in margarine; add potatoes cut small, also stock, bay leaf and seasoning. Simmer until cooked. Rub through sieve, garnish with chopped chives or celery. PINE KERNEL AND CASHEW NUT ROLL â€˘i i i 1 2
lb. milled cashews. lb. milled pine kernels. lb. wholemeal breadcrumbs. large onion (i lb). oz. margarine.
Seasoning. Âą teaspoon powdered sage. Wholemeal sauce. 1 lb. chestnuts (cooked).
1 lb. chestnuts put in saucepan in cold water. boil, peel, then cook slowly in a little water.
Bring to the
Mix nuts, breadcrumbs, seasoning together. Cut onion finely, fry golden brown, sprinkle over sage. Place onion on top of mixture. Pour over about 6 tablespoons wholemeal sauce. Make into a stiff dough, form into roll, cut through centre (oblong), place cooked chestnuts on one half, cover with other half. Place on greaseproof tin. Cover with greaseproof paper, bake in hot oven \ hour. Garnish with tomatoes and parsley balls. PARSLEY BALLS 1 2 1 1
lb. wholemeal breadcrumbs. oz. margarine. small cooked onion, chopped. tablespoon chopped parsley.
1 teaspoon thyme. 1 lemon rind grated. Seasoning. Celery salt.
Mix all dry ingredients together, bind with wholemeal sauce; form into small balls, roll in fresh breadcrumbs, bake in hot oven 10 minutes. 14
CHRISTMAS PUDDING Âą i i i i i i
lb. lb. lb. lb. lb. lb. lb.
currants. sultanas. seedless raisins. stoned raisins. mixed chopped peel. grated suenut. brown sugar.
i grated nutmeg, 2 oz. chopped almonds. 6 oz. fresh wholemeal breadcrumbs, 2 oz. wholemeal flour, 1 cup of orange juice or red moselle.
Wash fruit and dry, mix all dry ingredients together, grate in suenut and nutmeg. Lastly stir in orange juice or moselle. Let mixture stand over night. Put into greased basin, cover with greaseproof paper and cloth. Steam 8 hours, turn out of basin when cooked. ALMOND OR CASHEW NUT CREAM i lb. nut butter or cream. Rind of i lemon.
1 teaspoon soft sugar. 6 or 7 tablespoons hot water.
Beat all ingredients well together. When cold it is ready for use. MINCE PIES i i i i i
lb. lb. lb. lb. lb.
currants. sultanas. seedless raisins. stoned raisins. apples.
i lb. brown sugar. i lb. chopped mixed peel, i lb. grated suenut. Rind and juice of lemon, i nutmeg.
Wash fruit, chop finely, add grated apple, lemon rind, suenut, nutmeg. Mix all well together with a fork, lastly adding lemon juice. Put in glass jar, cover. PASTRY FOR MINCE PIES | lb. wholemeal flour. i lb. nutter.
2 oz. soft sugar. Cup of water.
Rub nutter into fiour, add sugar, mix with water into soft dough. Roll out thinly. Line patty tins, place mincemeat in, cover with pastry, prick top. Bake in hot oven 15 to 20 minutes. CHRISTMAS CAKE | 6 i i i i 1 2
lb. wholemeal flour. oz. nutter. lb. currants. lb. brown sugar. lb. seedless raisins. lb. sultanas. lb. stoned raisins oz. cherries.
2 | i I 6
oz. chopped peel. teaspoon agar agar. grated nutmeg. teaspoon baking powder. tablespoons of hot water, for agar agar to be dissolved in. I juice of orange.
Wash all fruit, and dry. Rub fat into flour, add all dry ingredients gradually. Mix into soft consistency with orange juice and agar agar dissolved in hot water. Beat well. Place mixture in thickly lined cake tin, put in slow oven, bake for 3 hours. 15
SWEETS STUFFED DATES i lb. dates.
2 oz. almonds.
2 oz. desiccated
Stone dates, place half almond in, roll in coconut. paper cases.
MARZIPAN POTATOES i lb. soft brown sugar. i lb. ground almonds or cashew nuts.
Juice of 1 lemon. Almond essence,
Mix sugar and nuts together, mixing with wooden spoon. Add juice of lemon sufficient to make mixture firm. Form in potatoes, roll in chocolate or cocoa. STUFFED CARLSBAD PLUMS Stone plums, replace with marzipan mixture, roll in ground nuts. MARZIPAN WALNUTS Cover walnuts with marzipan. Roll in ground walnuts.
THE VEGAN STORY Leslie J. Cross (A talk given to the Hastings and St. Leonards Branch of the Sussex Vegetarian Society, July, 1955). The first thing I would like to do is to draw your attention to the title of this talk—The Vegan Story. I have called it that, because I wanted to underline the manner in which I am going to try to approach the subject. What I am hoping to do is just what the title suggests: to tell a story; the story of what veganism is, what it sets out to do, and why it sets out to do what it does. In the course of the story I shall put before you certain facts and certain considerations, but I shall not—at least, not consciously —try either to convert anyone or to conduct any propaganda. Just in case there may be some of you who feel that this is perhaps a somewhat spiritless approach, I would like to explain that to my way of thinking, it is the right approach. For while I regard the spreading of information, the free flow of information, as being vital to the growth of new ideas, I do not regard it as any part of my duty to try to be consciously persuasive. I think you will probably agree with me that a man should settle upon his way of life as the result of inward conviction, and not as the result of outward persuasive pressure. With that preamble, let us begin the Vegan Story. And in doing 16
so, we must put first things first; that is, we must know what we are talking about. Fortunately, the word "veganism" has a precise and simple meaning. It means: the doctrine that man should live without exploiting animals. Because the question of definition is so obviously an important one, I am going to ask you to be kind enough to commit it to memory, so that when we use the word "veganism" we shall all be thinking of the same thing. Veganism, then, is the doctrine that man should live without exploiting animals. This definition is written, in exactly those words, in the constitution of the Vegan Society, so that no-one joins the Society as either a full member or an associate without knowing exactly what he is supporting. It is important to notice that one of the results of this definition is that it makes veganism a principle. It is, of course, a principle from which certain practices naturally flowâ€”but it is in itself a principle, and not a set of practices. A further point to notice is that this principle, this doctrine, is concerned with one matter only. A big matter, it is true, but a clearly defined one: the matter of the right relationship between man and the animals. What it says in effect is this: it says that the relationship generally accepted by the world at large is a very imperfect one. It says in effect that we shall not dp away with the many wrongs done to animals, nor shall we do away with the harm which results to the soul of man, until we alter that relationship. It is necessary, therefore, to look at the present relationship between man and the animals and to ask what is wrong with it. What is wrong, according to veganism, may be summarised into one word: exploitation. If we look clearly and simply at this relationship we can see that it is almost entirelyâ€”not quite, but almost entirelyâ€”based from man's side of the fence upon the idea that he has a moral right to use animals for his own purposes. Again, if we look clearly at this question of relationship, we can also see that broadly speaking there are two ways in which we may regard the animals: (1) as creatures to exploit; (2) as creatures to love. If we want to understand veganism, if we want to assess its value, we are bound to examine at least briefly these two broad views of the relationship betwen man and the animals. First, let us look at the majority view, the view that animals are here for our use, and that we have a moral right to use them for our own ends, provided that we reduce hardship and suffering to the minimum compatible with what we require of them. This view is held by the majority of people quite automatically. For example, farmers talk quite casually about "growing more bacon," just as you or I might talk about "growing more cabbages." 17
Again, the majority view is that we have the moral right to use animals for labour. To the majority view there is no fundamental questioning of our right to harness horses, bullocks, camels, and so on, and make them work to our orders and our requirements. In practice, of course, there are considerable variations in the manner in which men do in fact use animals. These variations stretch from the comparatively harmless to the downright cruel. But the really important thing, it seems to me, is to notice the direction in which the doctrine of exploitation takes us. If we wish to illustrate this direction, we might quote vivisection perhaps; or the fact that work in the slaughterhouse often blunts the finer feelings of the men who work there. Another point we are bound to notice is that there are some exploitations in which suffering to animals is inherent. That is to say, that if we abolished the suffering, we would automatically abolish that particular form of exploitation. Once again vivisection is an obvious example. Another is dairy farming, principally because of the necessity of separating the baby calf from its mother. It is hardly possible to escape the conclusion that when man decided he had a moral right to exploit animals, he quite inevitably opened the door to a new and man-made form of suffering, much of which ends only in one form of slaughterhouse or another. There is, however, yet another aspect which arises from this question of exploitation, and it is an aspect which by no means receives the attention it deserves. I refer to the aspect by which man harms himself. When there is interaction between two or more entities, the effects of the interaction are not confined to one entity only, but each is in some way affected. What, then, is the effect upon man of the interaction which he has created between himself and the animals? The effect upon man cannot differ as to its essential nature from the nature of the interaction itself. That is perhaps a rather complicated way of saying something which was said much more simply long, long ago: as we sow, we reap. What do we sow? What do we do to animals? We breed them in millions in order to slaughter them for food. We exploit their sex functions in order to make them yield milk. We then take the baby calf from its mother so that we and not it may have the milk. Often, we then kill the baby calf and we eat it as veal. When its mother is worn out as the result of one unnatural pregnancy after another we kill her, too, and we eat her as beef. We hunt animals for fun. We vivisect them. We castrate and harness them. What kind of a relationship can it be, whose symbols include the whip and the bit and the harness and the slaughterer's knife? If these are the things we sow, then these, too, are the things we reap. The form in which our harvest comes to us outwardly may be 18
seen in some of our diseases, in much of our imperfect health, and possibly also in some of the violence between man and man. But the form in which our harvest comes to us inwardly can be nothing less than a restraint upon our own spiritual evolution. For just as a balloon is prevented from rising so long as it is pinned to earth by its cable or the weight of its ballast, so also is the soul of man held down by the chains and the ballast which constitute the demands of his own lower nature. This aspect of the relationship between man and the animals is one which requires more thought perhaps than some of the more obvious aspects, but I believe it is one of the most serious of all the varying results of living according to the doctrine of exploitation. We tend to forget, for example, that one of the most stringent tests of the character of a man, and hence of his ability to rise higher, is how he behaves toward those over whom he possesses power. When he meets the world of the animals he comes up against this test in its most acid form; for it will not be denied that animals cannot successfully resist his will. Instead of living toward them with love and understanding, which one would expect from a compassionate heart and an enlightened mind, he lives toward them as an overlord, in many instances as a parasite, and often he is the cause of considerable suffering to them. All this arises because he begins by assuming the moral right of exploitation. There lies the crux of the whole matter, and there, too, lies the only place at which we may, if we will, effect a reconciliation. Until we do effect such a reconciliation, we shall go on reaping what we sow. Until we learn that the fruit of human happiness cannot grow upon the tree of exploitation, so long will the pain and suffering which we inflict upon our lesser brethren return like boomerangs upon our own heads. So much for the first and majority viewâ€”the view that we have the right to use animals for our own ends. The second view, as I earlier remarked, is to regard the animals as creatures to love. Now it seems to me to be self-evident that when we love, we do not exploit. In the moment of love, there can be no thought of exploiting that which we love. It also seems to me to be self-evident that love is free. No-one can force love; no-one can bind it with restrictive covenants. Love and freedom go hand in hand. If, therefore, we accept in principle that it is better to love than to exploit; if, stumble and fail at various points as we may, we still believe it is better to keep our eyes on the goal of loveâ€”what, then, should we do about the animals? Surely the answer is clarity itself: set them free! And that is precisely what veganism wants to do. It wants to set the animals free; free from exploitation by man, just as in the last century Lincoln, Wilberforce and the other pioneers sought to set free die human slaves. 19
Veganism is essentially a doctrine of freedom. It seeks to free the animals from bondage to man and man from bondage to a false beliefâ€”the false belief that he has the moral right to use animals for his own ends. It is, of course, a proper question, after we have decided what is right in principle, to ask how such freedom may be brought about. Clearly, the change-over from the practices which arise from exploitation to those which would arise from love will be an enormous undertaking. One has only to think for a moment of the immense ramifications of animal exploitation, and it becomes evident at once that the change-over can come only in stages. We must take the most urgent steps first, and the others gradually as we come to them in order of urgency. One of the first steps is to develop alternatives to those products of animal origin which most men believe to be necessary to their well-being. That is why at the present time the emphasis in the vegan movement is upon food and commodities. Here is where we may see the relationship between the vegan and the vegetarian. For the vegan diet is one which does not rest in any way upon exploiting animals; in other words, it is vegetarian in the strictest possible sense, excluding eggs and dairy produce as well as flesh. The vegetarian diet, in this strict sense, is one of the many practices which flow from the vegan principle. But, as I have indicated, veganism is a general principle which if adopted would result in many changes as well as changes in diet. It would, for example, result in the abolition of vivisection, of hunting, and all other forms of exploiting animals. And while we are agreed that in practice it can be adopted only gradually, nevertheless there is one thing that can be done now and all the time: the spreading of the belief that animal emancipation is not merely a worthwhile cause, but one which cannot be indefinitely postponed. This belief must seem as revolutionary to the present generation as did the emancipation of the human slaves to an earlier generation. But revolutionary or not, I believe that ultimately it is inevitable; that is, if we are ever to live truly in peace upon the earth. For surely it is to say the least illogical to pray to a Heavenly Father for peace and goodwill among men, and at the same time to conduct an unholy war against our lesser brethren. Hitherto, the idea that we have a moral right to exploit animals has been almost universally accepted. But part of the upward progress of man depends upon his ability to see the false in that which has hitherto been regarded as true. For when we see the false as the false, then it drops away from us, and another bondage is gone. It is the true, and not the false, which liberates. The false cannot lead to freedom, it cannot lead to love. For this reason alone, it seems to me, this young movement whose goal it is to set the animals free has its feet upon a true, if a long and arduous road. 20
THE USE OF GLUTEN Dr. Pietro Rotondi GLUTEN STEAK 5 lbs. flour or wholewheat flour. 1 cup soy sauce (or substitute). Olive or vegetable oil. 9 cups boiling water. Mix flour with cold water to form a very stiff roll. Then wash with cold water until all the starch is gone and only the gluten left. Form the gluten in a long roll and cut one inch thick. Drop in boiling water to which soy sauce has been added. Cook 40 minutes. Drain and roll in wholewheat flour, then fry in oil. GLUTEN GRAVY 2 onions. 2 tablespoons wholewheat flour. Olive oil. Liquid drained from steaks. Saute onions in oil, add wholewheat flour, and Gradually add liquid until of right consistency.
GLUTEN STEAK STEW 1 bunch carrots. 4 large potatoes. 1 eggplant cut in cubes unpeeled. 2 large onions. \ bunch celery. Gluten steak in strips. 1 quart tomatoes (puree). 2 tablespoons olive oil. Cut vegetables. in large pieces. Add tomato juice and oil. Cook 10 minutes. Add eggplant and gluten steak before taking off fire. Thicken with gluten steak gravy. One can also season with pickling spices, pepper and cinnamon. GLUTEN STEAK PIE I quart gluten steak (cubed). Gluten gravy. I cup cooked carrots (cubed). 1 teaspoon salt. 1 cup baked potatoes (cubed). 1 cup cooked celery (cubed). 6 medium cooked onions. 2 tablespoons vegetable oil. Mix together and put in oiled baking dish. biscuit dough and bake in moderate oven.
Cover with rich 21
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MISCELLANEOUS ADVERTISEMENTS (Two lines 5/-: extra lines 2/- each; 20% allowed on four consecutive issues.) T O LET, unexpectedly, in lady's private home ; sitting room, bedroom and kitchen, partly furnished. Temple Fortune, Golders Green, 5 minutes from main bus route. Suitable for one lady. Must be vegetarian and non-smoker. Apply Box No. 24. R. CLAUSEN'STERNWALD, Viennese Health Consultant, available again. Specialist in curative nutrition, drugless therapies and natural rejuvenation. Serious cases only. Write: , Tring, Herts. ELDERLY LADY, vegetarian, seeks resident domestic help. Applicant must be vegetarian or willing to become so, and non-smoker. Near Friends* Meeting House, Kingston, Surrey. Box No. 20. HELP to save animals now from suffering and exploitation. Write: Secretary, St. Francis Fields of Rest, Northiam, Sussex. NATURAL Grown Dried Bilberries. Valuable nutritional source of potassium, iron, etc. A truly organically grown food. Delightful flavour. Grows only wild. Packet sufficient for 20-24 servings, 6s. l i d . post free, or Trial Package 2s. 3d. post free. Quotations larger quantities. Easy to prepare. For enjoyment and for your good health. Central Health Stores, 4, Clarence Street, Brighton. " ORGANIC HUSBANDRY—A Symposium" compiled by John S. Blackburn. 2/9 post free from the Secretary, , Ewell, Surrey. SPEAKING & WRITING lessons (correspondence, visit) 5/-, dasscs 1/6.— Dorothy Matthews, B.A., London, N.W.J. PRImrose 5686. STOP SUFFERING! Write! Describe Ailments! Regd. Naturopath. 49, Adelaide Road Dublin. Reply envelope brings Positive Proof. VEGAN TRADE LIST, 1/3 post free from the Hon. Secretary, Ewell, Surrey. WHY BE ILL? Radiesthesia can find any vitamins or tissue salts that may be missing, thus causing fatigue. Write Box 265, c/o " The Vegan."
ESTABLISHMENTS CATERING FOR VEGANS (First two lines free ; extra lines 2/- each ; 20% discount on four consecutive issues.) BIRMINGHAM.— Thackeray House, 206. Hagley Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham 16. BROOK LINN.—Callander, Perthshire. Excellent position overlooking valley, near Trossachs and Western Highlands. Easy access, station i mile. Good centre for walking and touring. Vegetarian and Vegan meals carefully prepared and attractively served. Comfortable amenities. Special family terms for Annexe rooms with all conveniences. Write for brochure. Muriel Sewell. Tel.: Callander 103. COOMBE LODGE, Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire, a household where visiting Veganj say they feel they " belong." Bircher-Benner diet if desired. All fruit and vegetables home-grown and compost-grown. Ideal for week-end conferences. Beautiful views of valley from terrace. Excellent centre for lovely walks in Cotswold Hills. Children always welcomed. Write to Kathleen Mayo. CORNWALL.—Vegans welcomed, lovely roseland garden to private beach Brochure from : Trewithian Cove House, Portscatho (75), nr. Truro. DUBLIN New Health Group welcomes visitors. 49 Adelaide Road, Dublin. Tel. 67047. EASTBOURNE.—Board Residence. Bed and Breakfast. Mrs. Clifford, , Eastbourne. Tel. 7024. EASTBOURNE. Edgehill Nursing Home, 6 Mill Road. Acute, chronic, convalescent rest cure, spiritual healing. S.R.N., R.F.N., S.C.M. Tel. 627. HINDHEAD.—Mrs. Nicholson, garden adjoins golf course. Children welcome. Tel.: Hindhead 389. (Continued on page 3 cover)
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(Continued from page 23) KESWICK. Highfield Vegetarian Guest House, The Heads, offers beautiful views; varied food and friendly atmosphere.—Anne Horner. Tel.: 508. LAKE DISTRICT Rothay Bank, Grasmere. Attractive guest house for invigorating, refreshing holidays.—Write Isabel James. Tel. 1 34. LEAMINGTON SPA.—" Quisisana." First class guest house with every modern comfort; vegetarian or vegan diet. Mrs. H. Newman, Tel. 2148. LONDON.—Small vegetarian guest house, 20 mins. London. Terms moderate. Mrs. M. Noble, Wimbledon. NORTH WALES.—Vegan and vegetarian guest house, nr. mountains and sea. Lovely woodland garden. Brochure from Jeannie and George Lake, d. Penmaen Park, Llanfairfechan. Tel.: 161. SCARBOROUGH.—Select guest house overlooking both bays. Highly recommended by vegetarians and vegans. Mulgrave House, Tel. 3793. SCARBOROUGH—Uplands Private Hotel. , Prince of Wales Terrace. Tel. 2631. ST. CATHERINE'S SCHOOL, Almondsbury, Near Bristol —Co-educational, hoarding school for children from 7 to 17. 400 ft. up, overlooking Channel and Welsh Hills. Usual academic subjects, also Art, Music, Dancing, Speech Training, etc. WESTGATE-ON-SEA, KENT. Holiday Flatlets, self-catering, for Vegans and Vegetarians, 30/- to 50/- each guest. Occasional Vegan meals available : excellent bathing : no smoking. Stamp for leaflet. Mrs. Arnaldi, " . Tel.: Thanet 31942. Please support our advertisers and mention THE VEGAN to them.
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