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A D V O C A T E S chat man's food should be derived from fruits, nuts. vegetables and grains, and E N C O U R A G T . the use of alternatives to all products of animal origin. Minimum

subscription, ,5s. per annum, which includes " T h e Vegan " quarterly. Life Membership, £5.

LITERATURE AVAILABLE. An Address on V e g a n i s m " By Donald Watson Vegan Viewpoint " By Fay K Henderson Man and Nature " By Leslie J Cross Should Vegetarians eat Dairy Produce? By Donald Watson Vegetarian Recipes without Dairy Produce " By Margaret B Rawls ( N e w Edition) Is Milk a Curse?" By James A. Goodfellow, M.B.C.M. M a n ' s Natural Food " By Dr. Sydney M. W h u a k e r T h e Vegan " 1347 Numbers each Set of four complete . . . . Spring, Summer and A u t u m n , 1948 FROM T H E SECRETARY, RYDAL LODGE, WESTMORLAND.



post free.







lOd. 2/6 10d.

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L O N D O N . — M r . D. Cross, , Hatch End, Middx Y O R K S H I R E — M r s . H. Green, Cross Gates, Leeds. M I D L A N D S . — M r s . K V. Mayo, " , Streetly, Staffs. B R I S T O L . — M r s E. Hughes, „ Knowle, Bristol 4. M A N C H E S T E R —Miss A n n E. Owens,, , Northenden. S C O T T I S H S E C T I O N . — M r . R. J. Handley, ad, Bafllieston, nr. Glasgow; Miss D/ M. Sutherland, Road, Edinburgh. (Please communicate with your nearest G r o u p Secretary).



Quarterly Journal of The Vegan Society Editor:


Vol. IV

W I N T E R , 1948

No. 4

EDITORIAL Relationships r P H E function of The Vegan Society is to develop one definite facet of Truth, that, in the fulfilment of natural law, mankind should live entirely on the plant products of the earth. The present parasitical dependence of man on animal life and its products is an unfortunate digression and a deplorable hindrance to universal development. A philosophy is a recognition of facts and their wise application to daily life. Veganism is a philosophy concerning the inter-relation' ship to all forms of life-—but it is not a religion as it does not attempt to interpret the alliance between the Godhead and the individual. There are a number of religious groups which include veganism (or vegetarianism) among their tenets, but there is no actual link between the vegan principle and religion. The Vegan Society stands alone to advocate a relationship of non-exploitation between man and the animals. Primarily this affects food and its production and profoundly influences agriculture and soil treatment: but inevitably certain clothing and commodities will undergo reformation in both origin and manufacture. In current journals there is frequent comment on the vegan attitude to food and references to austerity and restriction, to agriculture and to propaganda. Some of these criticisms are unfair and beside the point, as they concern neither vegans nor the vegan movement. W h a t is fundamental, however, is that the basic principle of veganism is founded on Truth and therefore stands impregnable; its followers adopt it according to their own interpretation and conscience. The Vegan Society was organised to advocate the vegan principle by all suitable means, and to encourage its adoption both individually and nationally. Let us strive therefore to keep our true principle and main purpose always before us and refuse to be side-tracked by irrelevant issues. A Progressive Vegan Year to You A l l !



T H E T W O F U N D A M E N T A L D I E T E T I C ORDER L A W S Extract from the unpublished translation of Dr. Bircher-Benner's boo\, " The New Doctor," by Marion Reid I.

T h e Law of Organisation


I ^HE Creator has appointed for the human organism a range of -*- foods of the highest organisation value, hence of the highest dynamic and biological potential efficiency. This range of foods comprises, in suitable and palatable combination, all plants or parts of plants that are edible in their natural condition. The exception to this vegetable diet, but only apparently so, is mother's milk for the human baby. II. T h e Law of Harmonious Balance in the Combination of Foods T h e human organism requires all the food factors in harmonious balance and in the right quantitative proportion to. each other. T h e baby finds this balance, partly in the milk of a mother on the correct diet, and partly in precise supplies of certain food factors, which are sufficient for a definite period and which are brought with him into this world. A f t e r he is weaned, the diet corresponding to the organisation law supplies him with all the food factors rightly balanced. Amongst these food factors are all the principal food substances (proteins, fats and carbohydrates), all the necessary mineral salts, ail the vitamins and food hormones, all enzymes, all materials for growth, activators, reversible and irreversible redox* systems, and any other food factors future dietitians may discover. A s mother's milk is destined for the period of most vigorous growth, when the need for building material is greatest, its composition teaches us that the human organism is adjusted to a protein supply in small amounts, in the same proportion as in plant life, as Rubner has pointed out. Mother's milk contains only 7.3 per cent of the calories in protein. W h e n I discovered these two dietetic order laws, I realised that man's ideal food is drawn from the vegetable kingdom—fruits, nuts, roots, buds and green-leaved vegetables. But this theory involves a revolution in diet and it is opposed in every way to the usual diet of civilised nations. It can be maintained, with obvious good reason on the grounds of common experience, that modern man fares badly on the orthodox diet. People see great progress and many advantages in the highly developed art of cookery. They do not know and they d o n o t want to know that, through this very art and other transgressions of the two order laws, civilised man is constitutionally weakened and debilitated in his teeth and his digestive organs. They do not know that special knowledge and skill are required to induce • This is a term in physiology originating in the " Breslau" School of Science. It is explained in Professor Werner Kollath's book, " Hypothese zur Einheit der Heilkunde" (Theory of the Unity of the Healing Art).



him to take food in its natural order. During my many years' experience as a doctor I adopted a method which demonstrated the superficial character of all the orthodox objections. A highly organised, balanced diet tan be made acceptable even to invalids. My experience shows that such a diet tends to correct prevalent physical deterioration through the introduction of regenerative processes. It shows also that this diet possesses an amazing healing potency. A few moments' reflection will show \yhy this is so. The natural organisation of food cannot be improved by any arbitrary influence. On the. contrary, every arbitrary or imposed change in die condition of food substance leads to weakening of its organisation and to decrease of its potential efficiency, i.e., to disorganisation. Such changes of condition damage the food, as by storing, drying, fermentation, rotting and—last but not least—by heat in boiling, baking, frying, roasting or sterilising. The harmonious balance of all food factors, which is inherent in man's natural food in a natural condition, cannot be improved by any arbitrary action, but it can be destroyed through all sorts of treatment. Such treatment takes place en masse and in ignorance of the consequences. I name: inadequate manuring of the soil; the peeling and coring of apples and pears; the removal of the germ and husk of grain to produce white flour, white bread and polished rice; the separation of refined sugar from the texture of the sugar-containing parts of the plant; the addition of superfluous quantities of protein to the daily menu in the form of meat, offal, eggs, cheese and great quantities of cow's milk; the addition of superfluous quantities of fits, salt and even chemicals (saltpetre, boric acid, benzoic acid, salicylic acid, etc.), the blanching of vegetables in the kitchen. A particular form of disturbance; of balance arises from the operation on the nervous system of alkaloids (tea, coffee, cocoa), of alcoholic drinks and of narcotics. This short summary alone is sufficient to convince the thoughtful reader that the present diet of civilised nations is, in great measure, disorganised and unbalanced, and that such a diet (as McCollum says) is equivalent to an experiment on a national scale, whose disastrous consequences are evident to-day. This devalued food is the commonest and most serious cause of physical and psychical disease and of constitutional degeneration. Notwithstanding all its superfluous supplies of protein, carbohydrates, and fats, so highly recommended, such a diet can never satisfy the body's organisation and balance needs, for it lacks the right proportion of potentials, mineral salts and vitamins.

GOOD FOOD Our Members, Walter and Amy Little, of Uplands, Winscombe, Somerset, are able to supply compost-grown vegetables and fruits to anyone desiring these. Kindly write direct for particulars.



VEGANISM AND HUMUS By Donald Watson . E D G A R S A X O N ' S criticism of veganism in the A u t u m n n u m b e r of " T h e Vegetarian " centres around his belief that veganism would lead t o an impoverished soil through lack of humus. A s M r . Saxon has made a long study of the soil, and as veganism must be abandoned as an impracticable reform if his criticism is sound, the challenge cannot be ignored, especially as it is written in a style not flattering to the mentality of the vegan. In any discussion on soil fertility, the inadequacy of present methods to meet world food needs must be admitted, and since the world's population is rapidly increasing this inadequacy is becoming more serious. Let it be admitted at the outset that this failure arises n o t f r o m a vegan civilisation, but from one supporting hundreds of millions of animals, with the addition of artificial fertilisers. It is unfair criticism of veganism to suppose that a vegan civilisation would do nothing to replace animal manure, for it is impossible to imagine people who are sufficiently moral and thoughtful to become vegan, not being sufficiently moral and thoughtful to solve the humus problem permanently, simply by restoring to the soil all the h u m u s that comes from it. It is extraordinary that Mr. Saxon does not see that the fleshless diet he recommends would itself lead to a drastic reduction in the n u m b e r s of farm animals. This being so, he is not the person to oppose vegan alternatives to present methods of soil management, unless he accepts the need f o r a large meat-eating community to finance t h e production of manure so that a few may follow his advice on food reform. His true position closely approximates to t h a t of the vegan, and it is not easy to understand his implication that the abolition of t h e meat industry and the retention of the milk and egg industries would make good the deficiency of humus in agriculture. To maintain present supplies of animal manure under a lacto-vegetarian system would require all pigs, sheep and bullocks to be replaced by cows, and it would be a prodigious feat to consume all their milk. Moreover, since the old cow would have n o market value as meat, the price of milk would increase and consumption would tend to drop. Inevitably, the general practice of lacto-vegetarianism would lead to less animal manure, and veganism would reduce t h e quantity almost to vanishing point. T h e vegan is prepared to meet this position, and so should the lactovegetarian insofar as it applies to him. Both reforms stand or fall b y their ability to solve the humus problem that would arise. If M r . Saxon needs more animal manure to keep the soil healthy, then he should recommend meat-eating. T h e r e seems no alternative method that would be economically sound.



The vegan accepts, of course, that dung can keep the soil fertile, and that it would be disastrous , to discontinue using it without an •alternative. But it is relevant to ask where, if not from the soil itself, does the animal get the humus which it later returns to the soil as dung? Is it helpful to soil fertility that millions of tons of meat, bone and milk should be taken from the soil annually, never, to return? Can such an agriculture be permanent? From experiments performed it would seem to matter little whether animal manure is included in the humus returned to the soil; The great need is for sufficient humus, of which animal manure is but one of several sources of supply. Under any system of feeding, this sufficiency can be provided only by retrieving wastes, and the method that does this most efficiently and with safety is the one that should be chosen. If nature has reason for giving the carnivorous animals the instinct to bury their putrefying excreta, while no such precaution is needed by those animals living on plant foods, then by a change of diet man, too, could safely use his wastes and so supply the " animal manure " which Mr. Saxon regards as necessary. The importance of the earthworm in keeping the soil healthy should not be overlooked. A soil rich in humus soon carries an enormous earthworm population—as many as 50,000 to the acre according to one investigator. Thus it is conceivable that with proper management the soil could be developed to carry a greater weight of animals in the form of worms than it now carries in the form of farm animals. The manurial value of worm castings needs ho emphasis, and in raising the plant foods from the subsoil the worm performs a service that cannot be shared by the surface animal. Moreover, worms need no tending, nor do they consume foods useful to man. Apart from the above-mentioned aids to soil fertility, a vegan agriculture would compost all plant wastes and make use of green manuring; There is no reason to suppose that such an agriculture would not be successful and permanent. All experiments so far conducted on such lines have been highly successful. Deficient soils have been restored to health and made to produce abundant crops free from disease.

P R O D U C E R CONSUMER W H O L E FOOD SOCIETY LTD. After operating for nearly 18 months, this Society has become' a limited company, and we would advise readers to write to the Secretary at Goose green Farm, Bridgwater, Somerset, for conditions, of membership and particulars of activities. The Society issues a Bulletin regularly and a list of producers who are able to supply foodstuffs grown without chemicals; for which a Whole Food Mark is being registered.





By Fay K. Henderson " D E F O R E his recent retirement from the Food and Agricultural Organisations of the United Nations, Sir John Boyd Orr, in very definite terms, issued this grave warning: " The whole human race is rumbling to destruction. There is only a fifty-fifty chance of getting over this food problem. If it is not solved, there will be chaos in the world in the next fifty years." This is a solemn declaration of a very serious state of affairs which concerns us all, collectively and individually. Must we hand this unhappy heritage over to the future generations, or can we not face the issue now and mend our ways before it is too late? T h e present problem is that the earth is not feeding her increasing millions of inhabitants, and we must analyse the reasons for this failure before suggesting remedies. Firstly, insufficient food is being grown in the world, either through poverty of the soil or lack of labour. Secondly, the crops that are grown are not being put to the best use, as many of them are being directed to feed cattle, pigs, sheep and poultry instead of being utilised for direct human consumption: though they may thus contribute indirectly to the food supply, the lengthy time factor involved makes them too extravagant for times of emergency. Thirdly, inefficient distribution of foodstuffs throughout the world, and the requisite tedious transportation, is responsible for much waste and deterioration in food value; but, fourthly, the wrong preparation of many foods leads to an even greater wastage. As an evample of this, when potatoes are peeled much of their value is completely lost, whilst the refining of wheat, other cereals and sugar is responsible for enormous depletion in their food value. In recent years, mankind has overlooked two fundamentals— the natural cycle of life and man's relation to it. W e can learn much from the cycle of nature. Mineral matter in the soil combined with organic waste, water, air and sunshine, will support all forms of plant life. These plants in their turn will sustain animal life in its various forms, including the human race. Every scrap of waste material from plant, animal and human, when returned to the earth is activated by bacteria and disintegrated into humus, which co-operates with the soil once more in readiness to sustain fresh life. W e must also realise that physiologically the human being is a frugivorous animal, for such organs as the teeth, the skin, and the intestinal tract indicate that his natural food should be derived from the fruits and vegetables of the earth. There are to-day a large number of people who have lived for many years entirely on plant produce, and who have proved this to be not only quite adequate f o r general well-being, but a decided advance on, and in all respects preferable to, the traditional way of dependence on animal foods



such as meat, milk, cheese and eggs. If more people could be taught to realise the delightful efficiency of such simple living, less livestock would be required and automatically more crops would become available immediately 'to feed the peoples of the world. The solution- of this problem' lies as much in the homes of the people as in the organisation of Governments. Every individual can contribute some effort to growing more food, and endeavour to return to the soil every scrap of waste. Each home can contrive to live on fresh plant produce locally grown, so as to conserve food values and transport energies. All food preparation within the home should be arranged so as to retain the vital qualities of each food material. Much of it can be used raw as fruits and salads. Some may be lightly cooked, but as far as possible wholeness should be the guiding principle, utilising whole-grain products, fruits in . their entirety and complete' vegetables, the outer portions as well as the more succulent hearts. If any of these should be too coarse to be easily edible they can be utilised for vegetable stock, which contains valuable minerals. This quality of wholeness will ensure both variety and balance in the diet, but only experience, can reveal the delights of this way of living. • In planning an improved state of affairs, dairy and stock farming could be omitted, bearing in mind that it is not only unnecessary and extravagant, but that it is also extremely cruel because there' is enforced frequent breeding, and killing of unwanted bull calves and old milch cows. Instead, agriculture, the science and art of cultivating the soil, should be more fully developed. Many fruit and nut trees native to this country and could easijy be grown in greater abundance, while root and grain crops could be increased enormously. Add to this a greater yield of soft fruits, salads, green vegetables, etc., from private gardens, allotments and market gardens, and it would be found that the total supply of clean, fresh food available in this country could be made adequate for the requirements of- the human inhabitants. Give-and-take is a good rule in all phases of life, and it specially applies to our relationship -with the soil.

COOKERY CLASSES Special Courses of Instruction in Food Preparation will be given by Mrs. Fay K. Henderson at Rydal Lodge, Ambleside, during the two weeks April 30th to May 14th. Lectures, Demonstrations, Practical Work, Garden Advice and Open Discussions will be included. Full details and programme will be sent on request. Bookings are. invited for either or both weeks, during which excursions will be made to some of Lakeland's beauty spots. May is a lovely month for a visit to this district:.



CORRESPONDENCE From Her Grace the Duchess of Hamilton and Branden T h e r e can be p o doubt that if we wish to live in accord with the highest principles of attuning ourselves to Divine Love, the vegan diet of fruit and vegetables is t h e best. But it does present difficulties to " the man in the street " as it would no longer be possible to dine or take meals outside home, except with t h e " converted." Life has become so rapid that it would be difficult, if not impossible, t6 find a farmer w h o will plough his land by the slow ox, thereby preserving his bull calves—it is even hard to find the man who will plough with horses— otherwise on a farm where the land was ploughed by oxen, and sheep kept only for their fleece, then and then only could milk, butter and cheese be eaten without the dread shadow of the slaughterhouse. T h e vegetarian who lives on vegetables, grain and fruit, plus milk, butter, cheese and eggs, has taken a step in the right direction, for though this diet does not preclude the continued use of slaughterhouses, the more people w h o become vegetarian, lessens the multitude of animals slaughtered, as at present, f o r t h e meat-eater. But every vegetarian should take care to enquire into t h e m a n n e r in which the cows providing his milk are kept. Their sufferings are great when sent to market just before or just after calving or with udders swollen f o r many hours, and often beaten and overcrowded in the marketplace. A t the present time, vast hordes of living sentient animals are daily slain ruthlessly, to meet the demands of multitudes of people who live in the delusion that meat alone gives them strength. It is heart-rending t o read accounts of huge herds of cattle being driven hundreds of miles to the slaughterhouses. A t t h e same time, vegetarians should not feel an " ' unco * c o n c e i t " of themselves that they are better than the rest of the world, because so long as they consume dairy products their action partakes of the slaughterhouse. It is even questionable whether those w h o eat fish (I do not myself like fish)— provided it is not the whale, which is a mammal—are not greater humanitarians t h a n those who. esrhpwing fish> eat Hairy products w^uch entail sending calves and old cows to the slaughterhouse and market. Rabbits and Milk Y o u may be interested to hear that when in town I had animated arguments re milk with my brother, a doctor, and my nephew, a final-year student in medicine. T h e latter was really interested and took Dr. Goodfellow's leaflet and the one on proteins which luckily I had bought at the A.G.M. as h e was asking about them. H e told his father later that he wasn't giving me a n y more ammunition as he thought I had plenty—but someone had recently conducted an experiment on 20 adult healthy rabbits, feeding only milk. All developed atheroma which, my brother tells me, is a common trouble in older people a n d u n k n o w n in animals in their natural state. It was a new disease to me, so I venture to explain it is a roughening of the lining of the arteries, slowing u p circulation and having other deleterious effects. If by any chance this is news to you and you would like chapter and verse of the experiment, I'll try and get it. Of course, I also detest animal experiments, but I suppose it is as well to point out to these " scientists" that even their own results go to bear out our contentions. M.H. (If forthcoming, an account of the experiment will appear in the Spring issue.—ED.) The

Fifty-first In reply to the Appeal " Urgent and I m m e d i a t e " I think the best way in which I can help is to send a cheque for £ 5 as a Life Subscription. M y [Concluded at foot of opposite page



THE VEGAN BABY BUREAU By Kathleen V. Mayo Questions and Answers from Recent Correspondence Question: I am trying to bring up my youngster on vegan and "Health for A l l " lines, and in the November issue of that paper I notice that Mrs. Margaret Brady says " it is doubtful if any child should have more than a total of four teaspoonsful of blackcurrant juice per day." My child has at least two bottles of blackcurrant juice per week; I give her this so that she gets ample Vitamin C. Can you suggest other drinks I can give her? Answer: Bought Blackcurrant Juice has considerable sugar added and it is therefore easily possible for a child to take too much. For drinks, I recommend home-made fruit juice, vegetable broth and tomato juice, the fruit juice being made thus: Take two mediumsized apples and grate them, add two cups cold water and allow to soak overnight, strain through muslin and sweeten with a little barbadoes sugar. With regard to Vitamin C, good sources are mustard, cress and raw brussels sprouts. In fact, the: latter contain twice as much Vitamin C as an equal weight of oranges. The sprouts can easily be finely grated and mixed with the children's salad. It is, of course, advantageous to grow one's own cress and sprouts and gather just before serving as the loss of Vitamin C is considerable: if as much as 48 hours elapses between .the time the vegetable is gathered and is eaten. • Question: What are the best vegan proteins 'to replace dairy products for growing children? Answer: The proteins contained in nuts, peas, beans and lentils are all excellent and many protein dishes can be made from these very good foods. Uncooked rissoles can be made from freshlygrOund nuts, brown breadcrumbs and tomato juice or sieved fresh tomatoes. * Question: After doing a lot of homework, my schoolboy son requires or demands some supper. What do you recommend to replace the usual cup of cocoa made with milk? Answer: A hearty serving of any fresh fruit available, with a spoonful of nut cream, or a good serving of the Bircher Muesli (adapted from a traditional Swiss peasant's dish by the late Dr. Bircher Benner). The value of muesli lies in the fact that all the ingredients are uncooked and Dr. Benner used to recommend it for family and I cannot believe that The Vegan Society will have to cease active existence now or at a later date, and regard it as a privilege to be able to make a modest contribution towards banishing such a possibility. H.V.G.O.




breakfast and supper. A vegan adaption is prepared thus: Soak one level tablespoon raw pinhead oatmeal in three tablespoons water for twelve hours. A d d the juice of half a lemon (if available). A level dessertspoon Alnut Cream (mixed with a dessertspoon boiling water), one teaspoon brown sugar, two large grated apples (including the skin and most of the core) and mix thoroughly together. Muesli makes an ideal supper for schoolboys and generally they do not tire of it, even if they have it night after night, and the taking of raw oatmeal nightly keeps them very healthy. Question: What do you recommend when a vegan toddler gets a cold? My child only likes fruit juices if a lot of sugar is added, and I do not feel that keeping him on fruit juices and sugar is an ideal cold cure? Answer: You would be wise to delete sugar altogether from his diet while the cold persists and, in view of your particular difficulty, I recommend an " onion day." All drinks during the day can be of onion stock, prepared from 1-lb. of onions, washed but not skinned, boiled in one pint of water and then strained. Give the child no breakfast, but plenty of onion stock during the morning, and for lunch let all the family have baked onions. Wash the onions well and put in a baking dish and bake in the oven with a little water (no fat) for about \ \ hours. It is best that none of the family have potatoes or anything starchy at this meal so that the child will not want. them. Follow by fresh fruit if desired. For tea, make onion sandwiches by cutting thick slices of apple and putting a little raw onion in between. After one onion uay, the child generally shows improvement. Before going on to a normal diet give him stuffed baked onions for his lunch and supper. Remove the centres of the onions and mix with Pitman Crumbled Bran, a slice of Kosher margarine and half a teaspoon of Marmite or Betox. Put the mixture in the onions and bake till tender. Cook the onions with the outer skins on and remove just before serving. . Onions are a valuable source of mineral salts and are wonderful " cold chasers." In their raw state, they have valuable antiseptic properties and are useful in cases of constipation. Baked onions are good for children at mid-day when they have been sitting down at school all morning. They contain 1.6% protein and so are not too lowering for growing children. Births In June, Margaret Tester, of Hayes, Middlesex, a sister for Anthony Francis and Mary Cecilia. O n October 19th, Richard Gregory Owen, of Mitcham, Surrey, a brother for Geoffrey.

(Kindly address all Baby Bureau correspondence direct to " Braeside," Thornhill Road, Streetly, Staffs.—K.V.M.)



ATTRACTIVE RECIPES By Margaret B, Rawls Unfired Carrot Savoury 1 tablespoon peanut butter or nutcream, 1 dessertspoon olive oil, 1 medium-sized onion, 3 large carrots, large cup of ground nuts, half-cup of Froment, cup ofhot water, Vesop to taste, chopped parsley if available. Put the peanut butter or nut cream into a bowl and mix in the oil to make a smooth mixture, then very gradually add the hot water. The mixture should be smooth and creamy. Add the onion finely chopped, also the nuts and Froment. Grate in the carrots to make the mixture fairly stiff, but not dry. Add Vesop and parsley. Celery and Nutmeat 1 head of celery, 1 tin nutmeat, 1 tablespoon flour, vegetable stock or water, Yeastrel for flavouring. Wash, 'trim and cut into small pieces the outside of the celery. (Use the heart for salad). Cook the celery in the stock until tender. Mix the flour to a smooth paste with cold vegetable stock or water and stir into the cooked celery. Allow to boil, stirring all the time. Add a generous quantity of Yeastrel and the nutmeat cut into cubes. Keep the mixture hot, but not boiling for 10-15 minutes. Cottage Pie Small tin tomato juice, 1 onion, 1 grated carrot, 1 teaspoon mixed herbs, ground nuts, wholemeal breadcrumbs, Vesop to flavour, mashed potato. Chop the onion into a bowl and add the grated carrot, herbs andtomato juice. Mix in equal quantities of nuts and breadcrumbs to make a fairly soft mixture. Season well with Vesop and turn into a well-greased baking dish. Bake in a moderately hot oven for about twenty minutes. Cover with a generous layer of mashed and seasoned potato, return to the oven and bake until, brown. Flap-Jacks 5 ozs; fat, 4 ozs. sugar, 1 tablespoon syrup, ÂŁ lb. oats, 4 ozs, ground nuts. Warm fat, sugar and syrup together, beat well and stir in the oata and nuts. Press into a shallow tin and bake in a moderate oven until brown. Leave until cold before cutting. Chocolate Rockies 4 ozs. plain chocolate, 4 ozs. cake or biscuit crumbs, 1 ozs. sultanas or chopped dates, 1 oz. fat. 'Warm the fat and the chocolate in a basin standing in a pan of hot water. Stir well and add the crumbs and fruit. Put small



lumps on a paper or slightly greased tin. Leave to set. Superfine Chocolate contains no animal matter.


Apple Charlotte 8 ozs. breadcrumbs, 1 lb. apples, 1 oz. ground nuts, 3 tablespoons sugar, 1 oz. fat, 1 oz. sultanas, a little grated orange or lemon peel. Put the breadcrumbs into a mixing bowl and add the nuts, sugar, sultanas and peel. W a r m the fat and stir it in and then the apples coarsely grated. Mix all the ingredients well together, turn into a well-greased dish and bake in a moderate oven for about one hour. Treacle Pudding 2 ozs. plain wholemeal flour, 2 ozs. S.R. wholemeal flour, 2 ozs. breadcrumbs, 2 ozs. fat, 2 ozs. sugar, \ teaspoon Gelozone, 3 tablespoons cold water, 3 tablespoons diluted nut milk, black treacle or syrup. R u b the fat into the flour and breadcrumbs, then add the sugar. Mix the Gelozone very carefully with the cold water, and use with the nut milk to make the mixture into a soft dough. Into a wellgreased basin put a large spoonful of treacle and then the pudding mixture. Cover with paper and cloth and steam for two hours. Chocolate Mould pints cold water, 1 dessertspoon cocoa, 2 teaspoons Gelozone, 2 dessertspoons nut cream, 2 tablespoons sugar, a little vanilla essence. Mix the Geloiuiie very carefully with ÂŁ pint of cold water. Boil the remaining one pint of water. Use about half to mix the cocoa and allow to cool. Mix the nut cream to a smooth milk with the other hot water. Put the Gelozone liquid and the cocoa into a pan and bring to the boil, stirring all the time. Allow to boil for a minute or two, then stir in sugar, nut milk and essence. Pour into a mould and leave to set. Orange Oatcakes 4 ozs. fat, 3 ozs. sugar, 1 teaspoon treacle, 4 ozs. flour, 4 ozs. rolled oats, 1 tablespoon hot water, grated orange rind. Cream the fat, syrup and sugar, add the water, then stir in the flour, oats and peel. Spread the mixture in a shallow tin and press down well with a knife. Bake in a moderate oven until brown. C u t into squares and leave in the tin to cool. (All enquiries and suggestions on food preparation should be addressed to Mrs. Rawls, at 220 Northenden Road, Sale, Cheshire. A f e w of these recipes have been taken from the revised and enlarged edition of Mrs. Rawls' booklet, " Vegetarian Recipes W i t h o u t Dairy Produce," 6d. post free).


HEALTH ADVICE BUREAU "\7"EGANS who desire information on health and diet are invited to * state their case fully through the Editor, and Mr. C. C. Abbott, the well-known Health Practitioner, will give advice. Q U E R Y : My little son, aged three years, has a blemish on the right side of his face just beneath his eye. This appears white against his pink cheeks and is about an inch and a half in diameter. There is a pale pink scaly patch on the inside of the white part. This sounds rather like ringworm I know, but I don't think it is, as he has had it since he was a year old and it shows no sign of fading: in fact, it seems to be getting larger. It seems a different pigmentation to the rest of his skin. On his left cheek he has a small red mark, which also shows no sign of disappearing. This looks like a small naevus: the surface is not raised—there is just a red mark that shows up more at times. D.G., Salisbury. R E P L Y : The condition you refer to does not sound like ringworm, but more of a pseudo-psoriasis condition probably due to adrenal dysfunction. You could assist in overcoming the hyperemia of the tissue by obtaining a little white bryony root or comfrey root or chickweed in a fresh state and rubbing this over the affected area for a few moments each day. Incorporate in the diet soya, nettles and dandelion leaves. The small red mark on the opposite cheek is probably a capillary eruption arising from the adrenal disturbance and will clear away on its own accord. C.C.A. QUERY: I have had inflammation of the gums for quite 12 years and treatment from dentists with no avail, and this must be the cause of my present ill-health. For nearly a year I have had continual headaches, sore throats and stomach trouble with sickness, also catarrh of long standing. I have been lacto-vegetarian for nearly four years, and still have a little dairy produce as I have lost so much weight since the birth of my little girl, now 2J years. My doctor can find nothing wrong: a T.B. X-Ray was negative. M.E.T., Dorset. A N S W E R : In all probability in your early life you suffered from acidosis and this has not been entirely eliminated, resulting in alveolar inflammation. Do everything possible to attain a good blood stream as by so doing no diseased states can exist. Regulate your diet as much as possible with fresh fruit and vegetables, endeavouring to take an abundance of apples. The following diet would be a reasonably good guidance: — Breakfast—2 or 3 large apples well masticated. Lunch—a large green salad with a good supply of carrot and cress. Third meal—fruit with some cereal, bran, Froment, etc. Rub the gums with a hard apple several times daily. Rub a little of the following herbal lotion well into the gums each night on retiring: Oil cloves, 5 drops; Oil Pimento, 5 drops; Tr. Gum Myrrh, 4 drams. This can be obtained from any good herbal stores or a Homeopathic chemist. Chickweed and bistort leaves included in your salads would be an added advantage. C.C.A. Q U E R Y : Will you please recommend a remedy for aches between the shoulder blades which are permanent, or rather have been up to now for many years. I have chronic bronchitis, nearly always a cough, and am very much debilitated: rest seems to be the best remedy. I have occasional heart pains and pains in the centre of the chest, very itchy at times both back and front. " Itchy Feet," Southport. A N S W E R : You are suffering from brachial and scapula neuritis apparently from a torpidity of the liver which rather puzzles me in view of the fact that you are a vegan. The trouble can easily be overcome as follows: Incorporate in your diet about a tablespoon olive oil once or twice a day and a decoction of the following herbs which can be obtained from any reputable



herbalist or Health Food Stores. Elderflowers, 1 oz.; meadowsweet, i oz.; crushed dandelion root, i oz. Place these in a pan with two pints of boiling water and simmer very slowly for 10 minutes : when cool, strain off and take a wineglassful three times daily. I shall be very surprised if your trouble is not cleared up within three or four weeks. C.C.A.

N E W S F R O M U.S.A. A ^ / E have also received a report from Mr. Abramowitz on his * * endeavours to start a Vegan Group or Society in the United States. It can be surmised that there are many vegans over there, and the problem is to make contact with them. A small advertisement in a recent issue of The American Vegetarian produced quite a number of replies, and following are extracts from some of the letters received : My every good wish to you in organising what we true vegans need most — a group who have excluded meat, fish, dairy products, honey, eggs and leather. G.R.S., California. I am not yet qualified to become a member as I still use honey and leather, and regarding these would be pleased to hear from you further, with any comments and information you can give. I thought honey in small quantities was a pretty good food, especially when impossible to get properly grown tree-ripened fruits. And about leather, is there any practical work shoe on the market yet, not made of leather? I have never heard of any, and with my work it is necessary that I have good, stout shoes to protect my feet. J.R.D., California. Very much interested. Am subscriber to the Society in England. About time we caught up with them on this side of the Atlantic. I have been a vegetarian, fruitarian, raw-foodist, vegan and other variations for almost 20 years. However, took a backward step 10 years ago when I got married. Did it as a compromise in order to make it easier for my wife to change from meat-eating to vegetarianism. Now I am on vegan diet again, having given up cheese. Have always believed that only fruits, nuts and salad vegetables are fit for human consumption, but occasionally slip back to the cook pots—grain, potatoes, etc. However, one animal product I have never been able to do without is shoe leather. Working in a conservative office as I do, I cannot wear outlandish shoes and I have never seen any nonleather shoes I could get by with. I would gladly welcome the change. W h a t do you wear and where do you buy it? Let me in on your plans, am ripe to join. I expect to remain a vegan the rest of my life. S.G., California. W e would be glad to hear about your plans. So far, we have found noproper substitute for leather dress shoes, nor for work shoes in winter. W e use no eggs, flesh or fish. Honey is our only sweetening at present. For fat we use margarine and wish it could be had made from soya beans. W e will change over to raw vegetable juices when we find a juicing machine that will really work and be easy to clean. At least we are well on our way out of the swamps of dirty living! V.R.M., New Hampshire. How are you organising vegans—country-wide or in a community? Have you such a community started? I want to live in such, but my husband hasn't yet given up dairy products. W e are coming to California this winter to look for a permanent acreage or home in a fruitarian-vegetarian community. If my husband can be taught to like avocadoes, perhaps he can give up dairy products. C.L.S., Iowa.


THE VEGAN By Rubin Abramowitz, of California, U.S.A. Out of the centuries and the gloom Of time arise new concepts, and A way of* life completely different, Passing strange, " Veganism." Its Appeal is grounded strongly in basic Principles—humus-filled, mineral-packed Earthy—and roots of plant, tree and Bush sucking its nutrient solutions, Giving forth the rich harvest of Color, fruit, blossom, grain, herb and Leaf. Orchards—odoriferous, delightful To scent and palate, filled with red Apple, yellow peach, red pomegranate, Purple plum, golden orange, green melon, Luscious grapes, russet pear—each a /Joy to behold. Meadows and fields with Waving wheat, crested corn, rye, millet, Oat and barky. The soy-bean, pinto, kidney, Pink and white, the green pea and attendant Legumes. W h o can resist the great-leaved Cauliflower, cabbage and lettuce, the Dark green celery, the shy cucumber, the Fiery tomato, the imbedded carrot and potato? Last come the nuts, exotic with intriguing Flavors and tastes—pignolia, cashew, coconut, Filbert, walnut, pecan, almond, hickory, Peanut—rich with oils and protein, the Sustainers of life. The tropics, too, yield The yellow bananas, mangoes, plantains, Papayas, pineapples, sapotes and many strange Foods almost unknown to men of the North.. This is the food of .the Vegan, who loves. The earth with its precious burden, the Tossing grain, the heavy-laden fruit trees And the waiting rows of vegetables. Without Fear or favor he takes his share of earth's Bounty—there is plenty for all, no denial Here. The Vegan looks square in the Eyes of men and knows his hands are Clean of blood, of scream and torture, Of trap and exploitation. In the advance Of man's evolution there is no room for Slaughter of man or beast, no room for Vivisection or violence. W e must walk



In the ways of peace, living simply, with Few wants, and co-operating wherever Possible to make a happier, truly Civilized world. The gentle man, the Freedom-loving animal and the good Fruits of earth—that is our destiny !. A n d Veganism is a gigantic step Forward in this vast scheme of things.



By Alec Martin E are now at that time of the year when the gardener works by the fireside, reviewing the year that has passed and formulating projects for the one that has come. W h a t of the past year? It has been a most unusual one in many respects; trees and plants have behaved in extraordinary ways, the result of weather conditions and temperatures differing from the average. Possibly the greatest disappointment has been with outdoor tomatoes, with no crop at all in many places. The weather is so o f t e n the chief factor and the respective merits of natural-composting v. artificial fertilisers, double-digging v. no-digging, and the like, all have to bow to weather conditions. The value of some form of protected cultivation is evident in such a year as this. As an example, eight tomato plants in a small, experimental coolhouse yielded 40-lbs., growing in compost with very little watering and n o hormone spraying; corresponding plants grew well in sheltered parts of the garden and under the south side of a high protective wall, but produced no ripe crop. The value, too, of the little house early in the year was shown in the production of seedlings of sprouts, cabbage and celery, from seed sown direct into compost on the ground. Corresponding seeds planted outside were affected by the weather and also by a furious attack of flea beetles which came with the one week or so of dry weather. Large barn cloches have also proved their worth, but in an ordinary garden breakages are a factor. W i t h all the care in the world to put them on open ground away from trees and paths, accidents will happen. Just a touch by a hoe and bang goes a sheet of protection: carelessness, perhaps, until one gets a real respect for the frailty of glass. Even so, on open ground there is wind to contend with and also that will-o-th'-wisp solitary apple from the top of a tree many yards away, which decides to full—or glide— pump into a cloche; or the bird-box, detached from a tree by the wind, bowls along to come to rest in another. A n d , of course, it is as well not to leave a pet slug in a row of cloche with the Christmas lettuce, for he, too, will appreciate the


protection and enjoy his winter salad. There is no doubt that protective cultivation-—and 'the term includes many methods, even to a sheet of glass or a few twigs—is a great asset in getting seeds started and seedlings established.* It has been a good year for celery; a pinch of seed resulted in hundreds of tiny seedlings; these were pricked out into open ground at an early stage and they have grown without check during the dull, damp summer and are now excellent eating, a fair com' pensation for the dearth of apples.* Not that all trees have been without apples, for some have produced bumper crops, whilst others not far away were bare; the weather factor again, of frost pockets and wind streams. On the other hand, broccoli intended for spring have matured this autumn owing to mild, damp weather. Very welcome, but it means less in the spring. Looking ahead, gardeners are always optimists and hope springs again with the arrival of the seed lists. The law of averages applies and even this unusual year has had its compensations; few will complain of their root crops—soon it will be time to put in the first seeds and so another year begins. 1948 will be remembered for its flowers, possibly because flower seed is again available and the eye appreciates the return of colour: there has been second blooming of many spring and summer varieties. To crown all, the autumn tints have been superb; what a riot of vivid yellows in contrast to the more usual browns and sepias. And so the leaves drop and decay; the cycle of life goes on; it all" gives us heart and we extend to each and all the Compliments of the Season and Best Vegan Wishes for the New Year. •





The following comprehensive reply to the query about bracken has been received from Mr. T. W. Packer : " The quickest way to eliminate is to cut down at the top of the stored growth, about 9th June. This will almost destroy it, if it is then limed well and the secondary growth cut again in the autumn. Bracken provides very excellent compost high in potash." He also forecasts that bracken will be in great demand as its nature gives an open texture to a compost heap and helps aeration considerably; this will be a consolation to those who are fighting bracken, for the complementary processes achieve two purposes, just as ordinary weeding does not appear so futile when one sees in it the storing via the compost heap of vitality for the next .crop. (Vegans can assist one another greatly by an interchange of methods, ideas, ex Please submit these direct to Mr. Martin at Bishop's Stortford, Herts.)



T H E V E G A N SOCIETY REPORT FOR YEAR 1947/1948 T h e Society has now completed its fourth year of active life, and the past twelve months have witnessed a steady development of its work. There has been a modest increase in Members, but this has been accompanied by an improvement in their status since the 2s. 6d. contributors to our Journal have either taken up membership or been replaced numerically by others. During the year Committee Meetings were held in London on 2 Jrd November, 1947, at Helidon on 24/25th April, at Rydal on 28th/29th August, and again in London on 27th November, 1948, the average attendance being seven. Committee mOnbers have, of course, borne their own expenses in attending these Meetings, but the hospitality extended by our hosts at Helidon was greatly appreciated. T h e range of our activities has comprised: — T h e publication of " The Vegan " each quarter. This, in its new distinctive cover, is mailed to all Members and is sold in Health Food Stores and elsewhere. Other publications have been " Man and Nature," the reprint of an article in " T h e Vegan," by Mr. Leslie J. Cross, and " Vegan Viewpoint," being the reprint of four articles by Mrs. Fay K. Henderson which appeared in " T h e Ve'getarian." A Calendar for 1949 has also been produced and has been well received. T h e Food Advice Section is in the capable hands of Mrs. Rawls, who has revised her Recipe Booklet for early publication. T h e Baby Bureau is conducted by Mrs. Mayo. It has increased both in numbers and activity and a considerable volume of correspondence has been handled. As a result, it has been decided to publish Mrs. Mayo's comprehensive booklet " Aids to a Vegan Child's Diet." Advice on soil and gardening is given regularly by Mr. Alec Martin. There is now a Health Advice Bureau in which Mr. C. C. Abbott deals with numerous queries submitted by Members. Each of these " experts " contributes to " The Vegan " articles which are much appreciated by readers. Cookery Demonstrations by Mrs. Henderson have been given during the year in Largs and Edinburgh, while Lectures by Officials of the Society have been conducted in The Hague, Belfast, Dublin, Glasgow, Letchworth, London, Birmingham and elsewhere. T h e Society had a Stall at the Animals' Fair in 1947, and this aroused considerable interest among animal-lovers who attend this event annually. Several new Members were enrolled, a quantity of literature was distributed, and many enquiries were answered. A Stall has again been booked for this year's Fair, and Mrs. Muriel Drake will be in charge of it. This year it was hoped to make Soylac readily available to Members and others, but unfortunately regulations have prevented this. However, a similar commodity, Vitasoy, described as a Baby Food, is now on sale at Health Food Stores and Chemists. This makes an excellent milk for all domestic purposes, especially if used with nutcreams which are now in good supply. Efforts to have improved milk substitutes produced are being continued. Many specific enquiries as to the contents of various foods and commodities have been made on behalf of Members, but the comprehensive investigation scheme is still in abeyance pending the appointment of someone able to set up a Bureau to conduct the necessary correspondence and the compilation of complete records. A bootmaker has been found in London, who is able to supply nonanimal footwear of good quality, and it is earnestly hoped that Members will encourage this venture by placing trial orders. Presumably due to the increase in our numbers and to a keener interest in the Society's affairs, a larger amount of correspondence has been handled




during the past year. The letters received have come from all parts of the \vorld, and included many requests for details of the Society and its aims. The appointment of a paid secretary was accompanied by an Appeal to Members from our President for contributions to meet the salary, but the response fell far short of expectations. In an attempt to ensure that the Society might continue active existence, the Committee sent out the. recent Special Appeal to Members. The result has been illuminating as it reveals a strength of individual interest in the Society and an appreciation of the work that is' being done, but the tangible outcome is insufficient to stabilise the present position. To date, ÂŁ234 has been contributed by 116 people: As a study of the Accounts will show, a considerably increased income is still required to continue the Society's work and enlarge the field of its influence. Local Groups were active in Yorkshire, the Midlands, Bristol, Glasgow; and especially in London. Attractive programmes have been carried out, including lectures, discussions and social gatherings. Interesting overseas developments in veganism are reported from both Holland and the United States where national branches have been formed and are carrying out some good work. A keen eye is kept on the daily Press and a steady battery of letters have been sent to Editors from time to time, but few of these have been published. Members are invited to continue to keep the Secretary informed of letters or other interesting items appearing in their local Press. In conclusion, it must be emphasised that there are many handicaps in carrying out the Society's activities. The Committee- Representatives are all particularly busy people in other spheres. They are scattered about the country and have to undertake long journeys to attend meetings. The real work of the Society is performed by a handful of people, and it is on their integrity that our strength has been built up in four years, but the future will depend on the enthusiasm and active support of the rank and file of Members, who could greatly assist by, for example, taking our literature for sale and wider distribution and thus attract new Members to the Society. ' 25th November, 1948. G. ALLAN HENDERSON, Secretary.

" VEGANISM'S CONTRIBUTION TO HEALTH " This was the subject of The Vegan Society's Third Annual Conference -which was held on November 27th at Friends' House, London, and was well attended by Members and their friends. Mrs. Henderson presided and; in opening the Meeting, she-pointed out that health is a physical attribute natural to all living organisms, but, when abnormal conditions are brought about by wrong living, disharmony, disease and ill-health will result: the best way to restore good health is to live simply and naturally. She then introduced the sp'eakers. Mrs. Kathleen M. Gill cited many instances from her extensive practice where cures from serious ailments had been, effected by restricting the diet to fruits and vegetables, or juices made from them. She strongly criticised the use of cows' milk in the diets-of both adults and children. She traced many of the illnesses of childhood to such faulty feeding, and made a sound plea for following the vegan way of. living. Dr. A. Leon Winer delivered a thought-provoking address on the healing methods he had developed through his experiences of the last. 24 years. His belief is that there is a close harmony between the physical, psychological and spiritual natures of our make-up, and to re-attain, normal once this balance has been disturbed, it is necessary to restore the vital forces .within, by adopting a more rational regime, so that an improvement will be brought, about by the body itself in preparation for the cure. His address opened up



such a wide new field of thought that he has been invited to write an article on the subject for a future issue of " The Vegan." Mr. C. C. Abbott commenced by vehemently denouncing the habit of 6moking, and pointed out the deleterious effects this had on the body. H e regretted the apathy of the medical profession in relation to diet, and strongly criticised their persistent adherence to the germ theory. He made out a convincing case for the adoption of the vegan diet and the use of herbs for the restoration of balance in health. After a number of questions had been dealt with, the Meeting adjourned for an enjoyable vegan tea, the home-made cakes for which were supplied by Members. T h e discussion was then resumed, and many extremely interesting points were dealt with from the platform. T h e Meeting closed with votes of thanks to the Speakers for their excellent addresses, and to Mrs. Henderson for taking the chair so capably. ( A t the Committee Meeting held on the following day, it was decided that the subject of the 1949 Conference should be " Veganism and Agriculture." It is realised that there are many problems to be faced in this field, and that Members will welcome this opportunity of having the matter fully discussed. Further, it is intended to enlist the interest of such bodies as T h e Soil Association and The Whole Food Society, Ltd.)

A N N U A L GENERAL MEETING OF THE V E G A N SOCIETY This Meeting was held on Saturday, November 27th, at Friends' House, London, and was very well attended, despite fog conditions. Representatives were present from Scotland, Yorkshire, Somerset, Northants, Leicester, Stafford, Sussex and other counties besides the " Home." The Report on the past year's work was read and approved and appears verbatim in this- issue. T h e Treasurer submitted his Accounts for the year and reported particularly on the response to the Committee's recent Special Appeal. (The result of this up to a more recent date is given below). T h e following subjects were discussed: The financial situation of the Society and the various suggestions which had been submitted for stabilising future income; the relationship between the Society, Local Groups, atiu ihc membership of these; the subscription rate; publications and pamphlets; food and commodity investigations; the secretarial work and arrangements. These are some of the matters which will require the Committee's close attention during the ensuing year. T h e following Officials and Office-bearers were duly elected: President: Mr. Wm. V . Collier. Vice-Presidents: Mr. Donald Watson, Mrs. Fay K. Henderson, Mr. Frank K. Mayo, Mr. C. C. Abbott, Dr. Cyril V. Pink, Dr. A. Leon Winer. (Subject to acceptance). Committee: Mr. Leslie J. Cross, Mrs. Margaret B. Rawls, Mrs. Kathleen V. Mayo, Mrs. Elsie B. Shrigley, Mr. Frank Needham, Mrs. Muriel E. Drake, Mrs. Amy Little, Miss D. I. Maclachlan. Secretary and Treasurer: Mr. G. Allan Henderson. T h e Meeting closed with votes of thanks to the Officials, the Committee, and to the Chairman, Mr. Donald Watson.

STOP PRESS About 150 Members have now responded to the Committee's recent Appeal, the total amount contributed being ÂŁ274, which includes subscriptions received from new Life Members, who now number 54. The above sum is approximately the amount of the Society's funds on hand at to-day's date. G.A.H., Treas., 17/12/48.



MISCELLANEOUS ADVERTISEMENTS(Two lines. 4 / - : extra lines. 1/6 ea.; 20% allowed on four consecutive LEARN T O SPEAK AND WRITE.—Lessons by v ( 5 / - ) . Classes (1/6).—Dorothy Matthews, B A „ London, N.W.3. PRImrose 5686.

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" VEGAN RECIPES."—By Mrs. Fay K. Henderson. Appetising and Nutritious Fare without animal or dairy products. Revised Edition, price 2 / 8 , ready soon, from Rydal Lodge, Ambleside, Westmorland. W I L L W O M A N VEGAN join another in Brighton (at present Music Teacher). View earning simple living which would be strictly vegan. Suggestions welcomed. Particulars, Cottle, '7 Elm Grove, Brighton, Sussex. T O LET FURNISHED early in 1949. Two bedrooms and living room. Modern conveniences, electric light, gas stove. In country village one mile from Cardigan Town and near seaside. Preference to vegan or vegetarian widowed lady with two or three children. Abstainer and nonsmoker. No dog allowed. No attendance.—-Box No. W.4, The Vegan Society. CAN VEGETARIANS keep out of war? For information write to. P.O. Box 349, East San Diego 5, California, U:S.A. KATHARINE MACDONALD, D.P.Sc., Dietetist. Postal: advice. Have you discarded your glasses? I have!—Health House, 6 Lansdowne Crescent, Kelvinbridge, Glasgow.

ESTABLISHMENTS CATERING FOR VEGANS. BROMLEY, KENT, half-hour London. G Long or short visits. Part board.—Mrs. Muriel Drake, RAV. 2809. CAMBRIDGE.—Colonic irrigation, massage, infra-red radiant heat, diets, etc. —Mrs. E. Jepp (late Champneys), 19B Victoria' Street. Tel. 2867. LAKE DISTRICT.—Beck Allans and Rothay Bank, Grasmere. Attractive . guest houses for strenuous or restful holidays.—-Write: Isabel James. LIGHTBECK Vegetarian Guest House, Underbarrow, Kendal, is happy- to offer warmth, comforts and delights of home with the added interests of lovely books, charming country and new friends. Children welcome. Phone Kendal 578. LONDON.—Vegan accommodation available for single guest. Half-hour train service Euston or West End.—Cross, 49 Park View, Hatch End, Middlesex. P E N A R T H . — " Vegetarian Home," Rectory Road. Rest, change, relaxation.' Ideal situation. Pleasant holiday resort, overlooking sea. Attractive, generous catering. Send for new Brochure. SCARBOROUGH.—Vegans welcomed in p ood residential district. Generous diet.—Miss V. Carr, SOMERSET.—See the beauty of the country in winter" or spring by spending a healthy, restful put-of-season holiday with the right food—compost grown—at Uplands Vegetarian and Vegan Food Reform Guest House. Good Centre for many well-known places of interests—Stamp for brochure to Amy Little, Winscombe. Tel.: 2257. SOUTH DOWNS.—Vegans welcomed on small fruit farm. Composted, produce.—Mr, and Mrs. Everett, Castelmer, Kingston, Lewes. Tel. 524J



S U R R E Y HILLS.—Vegetarian Country Club, 3 acres 700 ft. up. Holidays or short visits. All comforts. N O EXTRAS. Moderate.—Upwood House, Caterham. S C O T L A N D . — W e s t Highland Coast. Vegans welcomed in private house in ng sea-loch. Donald and Muriel Crabb, Tarbert, Argyll. ST. C A T H E R I N E ' S S C H O O L , Almondsbury, Nr. Bristol. — Progressive co-educational boarding school for children of all ages, specialising in music, dancing, crafts, etc., in addition to usual academic subjects. 400 ft. up, overlooking Channel and Welsh Hills. Own produce.

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timl maul/



(formerly Honey-grains)



Some Further Straightforward Facts I n m y p r e v i o u s T a l k s to y o u B r i t i s h H o u s e w i v e s . I s t r e s s e d t h e n e e d o f " F r o m e n t " »o b u i l d u p y o u r shattered nerves, a n d I n o w give y o u a f e w more straightforward facts about this wonderful V i t a m i n Bi n e r v e restorer : — " F r o m e n t " is p r e p a r e d s o l e l y f r o m t h e L I V I N G S E E D in t h e w h e a t - g r a i n , t h e e m b r y o o f the w h e a t - t o - b e . T h i s w h e a t - e m b r y o is a m a z i n g l y r i c h In F I R S T - C L A S S P R O T E I N , t h e s u b s t a n c e e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e repair a n d r e n e w a l o f t h e b o d y ; w h i c h m e a n s t h a t it h e l p s t o m a k e g o o d a n y present or possible s h o r t a g e of s u c h f o o d s a s c h e e s e , e g g s , n u t s , etc., a n d it is m o r e readily a s s i m i l a t e d t h a n a n y o f these. T h e w h e a t - e m b r y o is k n o w n t o b e T H E R I C H E S T N A T U R A L S O U R C E O F T H E B i V I T A M I N , w h i c h is e s s e n t i a l t o t h e b r a i n a n d n e r v o u s s y s t e m , to g o o d d i g e s tion a n d normal bowel activity. It c o n t a i n s L I T T L E O R N O S T A R C H ! F R O M E N T is s o p r e p a r e d t h a t the i n v a l u a b l e oil c o n t e n t ( V i t a m i n E ) r e m a i n s unimpaired. " F r o m e n t " h a s a n o t i c e a b l y f i n e F L A V O U R a n d a n a t t r a c t i v e T E X T U R E a n d its C O L D E N C O L O U R truly i n d i c a t e s its stealing w o r t h . " F r o m e n t " is M O S T E C O N O M I C A L , t h e 3 / - C a r t o n c o n t a i n s 1 8 o u n c e s n e t t , w h i c h w o r k s o u t at approximately O N E P E N N Y A D A Y I t is r e a d y for use. FROMENT


is s o l d in C a r t o n s 3 / - ( 1 8 - o z . ) a n d I / 7 J ( 8 - 0 1 . I a t H e a l t h S t o r e s only.

by H .


LTD., 1 0 6 / 1 0 ,






The Vegan Winter 1948