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Britain's oldest Lebanese restaurant, established 1968.

Dr. MARTENS NOW AVAILABLE! DUE TO POPULAR DEMAND, VEGETARIAN SHOES ARE NOW SUPPLYING NON-LEATHER D.M. SHOES WITH GENUINE AIR CUSHION SOLES! Vegetarians and vegans who have been unhappy wearing leather shoes and have found canvas and plastic shoes unsatisfactory finally have a decent choice. These new 'Vegetarian Shoes' look and feel like supple leather but are in fact 100% man-made — the uppers are scuffresistant, water-resistant and most importantly 'breathable' like leather. Combined with the quality, comfort and durability synonymous with Doc Martens we feel we have now produced the ultimate vegetarian shoes!

Only &45.00 per pair plus £3.25 for post and packing (S5.50 outside UK). Make cheques payable to VEGETARIAN SHOES' and send to: VEGETARIAN SHOES, 36 GARDNER STREET, BRIGHTON BN1 1UN. S t o c k s a r e limited s o t e l e p h o n e (0273) 691913 b e f o r e calling in p e r s o n . Send n a m e and a d d r e s s if you wish to b e included on o u r mailing list.


PAIR(S) OF VEGETARIAN SHOES (Unisex full sizes 4 to 11 only)

Post c o d e Full refund (minus p&p) if g o o d s are returned in perfect condition within 14 days Allow 28 d a y s for delivery

We also serve vegetarian and vegan meals. A special set vegetarian or vegan menu at £6.85 per person (minimum of two people) consisting of nine different selections of hot and cold Lebanese hors d'oeuvres (Mezzeh). ALL OUR DISHES BOAST HIGH FIBRE, LOW FAT NATURAL INGREDIENTS, AND POSITIVELY NO ADDITIVES

CALLING AUTHOR: & ARTIST The Editor invites authors, artists and cartoonists to submit material lor possible publication in The Vegan. Negotiable fees payable for work of suitable quality. Please write to: The Editor, The Vegan, 7 Battle Road, St Leonards-on-Sea, East Sussex, TN37 7AA. MSS or other original work submitted to be accompanied by an SAE. 2 The Vegan, Summer 1992

\?gari Editor: Richard Farhall Design and production by Taylor McKenzie Printed by Friary Press, Dorchester on Greencoat Matt and Repeat Offset Display & semi-display advertisement sales: Eco Marketing, 0225 281463 The Vegan is published quarterly by The Vegan Society Publication Date: March, June, September, December Copy Date: 25th January, 25th April, 25th July, 25th October ISSN 0307-4811 © The Vegan Society The views expressed in The Vegan do not necessarily reflect those of the Editor or of the Vegan Society Council. Nothing printed should be construed to be Vegan Society policy unless so stated. The Society accepts no liability for any matter in the magazine. The acceptance of advertisements does not imply endorsement. The inclusion of product information should not be construed as constituting official Vegan Society approval for the product, its intended use, or its manufacturer/distributor. Contributions intended for publication are welcomed, but unsolicited materials will not be returned unless accompanied by an SAE.

The Vegan Society 7 Battle Road, St Leonards-onSea, East Sussex TN37 7AA Tel. and Fax. 0424 427393 Registered Charity No. 279228 Company Registration No. 1468880 VAT Registration No. 448 5973 95 President: Louise Wallis Deputy President: Rick Savage Vice-Presidents: Serena Coles, Freya Dinshah Arthur Ling, Tony Martin, Cor Nouws, Donald Watson, Robin Webb Council: Martyn Allen, Terry Bevis, Harry Bonnie, Dougie Gordon, Arthur Ling, Tony Martin, Bill Poad (Vice Chair), Tim Powell, Rick Savage (Chair), Carl Turner,

3 The Vegan, Summer 1992

Louise Wallis, Robin Webb Joint Hon. Treasurer Terry Bevis Local Contacts Co-ordinators Martyn Allen Dougie Gordon Hospital Liaison Officer Dougie Gordon Prison Liaison Officer Sandra Battram STAFF General Secretary Richard Farhall Office Manager Amanda Rofe Administrative Assistant Kathy McCormack Veganism may be defined as a way of living which seeks to exclude, as far as possible and practical, all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, animals for food, clothing or any other purpose. In dietary terms it refers to the practice of dispensing with all animal produce — including meat, fish, poultry, eggs, animal milks, honey, and their derivatives. Abhorrence of the cruel practices inherent in dairy, livestock and poultry farming is probably the single most common reason for the adoption of veganism, but many people are drawn to it for health, ecological, spiritual and other reasons. If you would like more information on veganism a free Information Pack is available from the Society's office in exchange for an SAE. The Vegan Society was formed in England in November 1944 by a group of vegetarians who had recognized and come to reject the ethical compromises implicit in lacto-(i.e. dairy-dependent)vegetarianism and consequently decided to renounce the use of all animal products. If you are already a vegan or vegan sympathizer please support the Society and help increase its influence by joining. Increased membership means more resources to educate and inform. Full membership is restricted to practising vegans, as defined above, but sympathizers are welcome as associates of the Society. Both members and associates receive The Vegan.

The Vegan Society Trade Mark is the property of the Vegan Society. The Society is prepared to authorize the use of its trade mark on products which accord with its 'no animal ingredients, no animal testing' criteria. Applications for use should be addressed to the General Secretary. Unauthorized use is strictly forbidden.

Contents Chairsay Earth matters




Eco-Vegan Power Creating consumer demand


Salad Ways 18 Farewell dreary salads Growsense 21 A thing named ' c o i r '

The Honeybee 6 A remarkable insect After the Coup II 8 The journey concluded Veganism & Fitness Part 2 — Diet and training


Shoparound New animal-free goodies


Young Vegans Party fodder


W h e n Pigs Had Lawyers 22 Medieval attitudes to animals Contacts N e w s 24 Front line vegan PR Postbag 25 Feedback and views Exotic Vegetables Coping with the unfamiliar

Four Wheels Bad, Two Wheels Good 14 Peddling for the vegan cause A Vegan in the Family 15 Megan survives a day trip


Publications & Merchandise New titles!








Chief illustrator: Suzanne Whitelock Cover by Mark


Chairsay.. m

Li * Countries where the richest 20% of people live now control just under 83% of the world's gross product; 12'/2% more than they did a generation ago. These countries, which include the UK, are sixty times wealthier than the countries where the poorest 20% live. This great disparity of wealth leaves the majority of

News Crisis Level Figures published by the Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) show that cases of salmonella linked to eating eggs have returned to the "crisis levels" of 1989. 1,880 cases of Salmonella enteritidis PT4 were reported in the first quarter of 1992 — a 26% rise on the 1991 equivalent. Official PHLS studies show that around 6 out of 10 broiler chickens in supermarkets are infected with salmonella. Guardian 13.92

Favourite Punchbag First it was self-shedding sheep (see 'News', Spring 1992 Vegan), now Australian scientists aim to genetically modify sheep to be "self-dipping" by inserting a natural insecticide in their skin. Chitinase, a natural plant toxin, has been injected in the genes of mice. If the mice successfully produce the substance in their skin, the gene will be engineered into sheep early next year. The Australian sheep industry spends roughly AS300 mil-

What is a man profited if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul? The Bible, Matthew 16:26

humankind destitute and desperate. The combination of greed and desperation in the world does not therefore bode well for the Earth or for a promising outcome to the Earth Summit in Rio de Janiero. Plans to reduce ozone depleting and 'greenhouse' gas emissions, saving rainforests and

lion a year on pesticides. Also, sheep that are dipped in the pesticides often have a chemical residue on their skin that may taint the lanolin extracted from their skin, as well as the wool and the meat. New Scientist 4.4.92

Confirmation A study of 20 lifelong vegan children aged between 6-13 years by the Department of Nutrition & Dietetics at Kings College, London has concluded that vegan children can be perfectly healthy so long as care is taken to avoid "the known pitfalls of a bulky diet and vitamin B| 2 deficiency". Vegetarian Living, April 1992

Pollutin' Farm Folk Nearly half the farmers in England and Wales are polluting the water supply with manure, fertilizers and pesticides, according to a survey by the National Rivers Authority. Organic farm waste, such as manure, silage or even milk, is hundreds of times more damaging to rivers and streams than raw human sewage. Farm livestock produces about 200 million tonnes of slurry every year, three times as much waste as humans.

endangered species will all be undermined without a general realization by those of us who bear most heavily on the planet — i.e. the rich — that we need to change our basic lifestyles. It's been said before, but it's worth repeating — we need to live simply so that others may simply live; and by others I include animals and plants. We can pledge to use less fuel, cut down our car journeys, not buy products made from tropical hardwoods, recycle as much as possible etc. and, of course, these can help, but until we all adopt a philosophy, an ideal that reveres all life and the world that supports it, these actions will ring somewhat hollow. For me, veganism is the only possible choice: it starts with the absolute basics, what we eat — a function we have in common with all animal life. By eating only plant foods, one can live both simply and healthily; the

Taiwan's pig population has topped 10 million, one pig for every two people. Each pig produces 3.5 kg of manure and urine a day, 35,000 tonnes daily have been pouring into the country's lakes and rivers, turning them black and devoid of oxygen. Financial Times 24.4.92 Guardian 22.1.92 The Times 22.1.92

New Leaflet The Society is pleased to announce the long-awaited production of a new A5 leaflet. Why not order as many as you can afford and help promote the Society and its message? See page 27 for ordering details.

diet requires 7/g ths less agricultural land and avoids ingesting the pain and suffering involved in rearing or exploiting farm animals. Beyond that, the aim of veganism is to live with as little impact on the planet as possible. In short, it gives 'soul' to the ecological arguments. Veganism is a positive and life-affirming ideal that addresses itself to and interlinks those who are concerned with the health and well-being of themselves (the health-conscious), of their fellow creatures (animal welfarists/conservationists) and of the world itself (environmentalists). For all these groups it brings a message of hope rather than a counsel of despair. No opportunity should be missed to put forward the case for veganism and I hope the new general leaflet the Society has produced will assist in this. [Ed. See page 27 for order form.] Rick Savage

Cruelty-Free Raffle Apologies for sending members and associates a few more books of Grand Cruelty-Free Draw raffle tickets — it's the Society's main fundraising event and it needs the money! Like everyone else the Society has suffered as a result of the general economic climate. Please note that this year the deadline for return of ticket stubs has been extended to Friday 31 July. If your tickets are unwanted please dispose of them as you see fit.

Sheep Damage Dr Ronald Campbell of the Tweed Foundation has suggested that sheep nibbling away bankside vegetation in the upper reaches of rivers could be responsible for the dramatic decline of salmon and trout in Britain. Overgrazing has destroyed the natural oak and alder vegetation of the upland nursery streams as hill farmers have been rewarded by the EC for increasing sheep numbers. As a result, banks have collapsed, streams have widened and gravel has been washed down by floods, destroying spawning grounds. Daily Telegraph 27.4.92 4 The Vegan, Summer 1992

Bovine Longevity The oldest cow in the world (according to the Guinness Book of Records) is now in her 49th year. Bertha, who resides at a farm in Black water Bridge, County Kerry, Eire is believed to have produced 39 calves. Daily Telegraph 17.3.92

Scaling New Depths Northampton shoe designers Lori Duffy and Nicky Lawler claim to have solved the technical difficulties involved in turning waste fish skins into footwear. Previously, attempts to use fish skin floundered because it shrivelled up when subjected to the intense heat and cold needed to make a shoe's toe and back parts. The new process, a trade secret, uses skins unwanted by the Scottish salmon industry. One pair of shoes comprises the skin of four salmon. The Times 3.3.92

Council Changes Council welcomes to its ranks co-optees Martyn Allen and Dougie Gordon, both Local Contacts. They take over from Terry Bevis as Local Contacts Co-ordinators. Dougie Gordon, a Health Service worker, has additional responsibility for hospitals liaison, an area relinquished by Tim Powell. Lance Cruse resigned from Council in January; Barry Emptage resigned in March.

Cheap Travel Many readers will find a Freewheelers joining form enclosed. Not only could you make substantial savings by joining and participating in this liftsharing venture, the Vegan Society will receive £2 from Freewheelers for each completed application form.

Heavy Meal According to Captain Robert Mitchell, a borough councillor in Coleraine, Northern Ireland, some Irish farmers are secretly feeding their cattle cement in the mistaken belief that it converted fat into lean meat. "The problem is very hard to detect," he said. "Many of them are also involved 5 The Vegan, Summer 1992

in construction work and it is quite natural for them to buy cement." John Dallat, a Social and Democratic Labour Party councillor, has called for an investigation but admits there is no "concrete evidence". The Guardian 16.3.92

OBITUARY Jonathan Pemberton Vegan Society member Jonathan Pemberton died in early March 1992. Jon was a vegan for over five years and had been an active member of Boston Animal Rights and later Coventry Animal Alliance. He was a dedicated campaigner who devoted much of his time to animal rights causes whether it involved protesting, leafletting, hunt sabbing or direct action. Jon spent most of the last three years abroad, campaigning in countries such as Israel and Spain. Whilst living in Gibraltar Jon decided to take his own life. Although the real reason is still unknown to his many friends he was frequently disturbed by the abuses he witnessed and seeming unconcern of the majority of people. Although only 27 years old Jon was able to promote compassion and personally help many animals. Helen Lear

cauliflower, cress and other vegetables of the cruciferae family are good providers of a chemical known as sulforaphane which, in humans, raises the level of phase two enzymes — enzymes which detoxify cancer-causing molecules. Independent 16.3.92

Deformities Between 50% and 70% of British broiler chickens have leg and bone defects, and 30% of all culled laying hens have been found to have one or more broken bones, according to the Agricultural and Food Research Council. In 10 -20% of cases the deformities impair the birds' welfare and in 1-2% they can lead to death through starvation or dehydration. Farmers Weekly 27.3.92

Healthier Britain? The results of the National Food Survey 1991 reveal that Britons are consuming less fat, sugar, fish and meat. Meat sales have declined more than a sixth since 1980. The use of butter has fallen from more than a quarter of a pound each week in 1980 to about one and a half ounces today. Consumption of fresh fruit and cereals is up. The Times 25.3.92 Daily Mail 25.3.92

Return of the Carrot Another Fine Mess Hot on the heels of a £35,000 fine imposed on Dewhurst butchers by Warwickshire magistrates (see 'News', Spring 1992 Vegan) comes a £14,000 fine imposed on the same company by Barnet magistrates for running a shop in North Finchley where "hygiene has been totally non-existent". Barnet Council reported infestation "with a variety of insects and pests". Meat Trades Journal 19.3.92

Cancer Protection? Eating a diet high in broccoli and other vegetables from the cabbage family may provide protection against cancer, according to scientists at John Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA. Saga broccoli, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi,

Worcester's Radical Carrot is back and trading as 'The Carrot Returns' — a vegan cafe and shop. The cafe produces standard vegan food, including a "chocolate cake that people have travelled yards to obtain and a Passion Cake that has seen grown vegans in tears". The shop carries 500 lines of vegan foodstuffs as well as cosmetics, cards, magazines, organic vegetables and bread. Check it out. The Carrot Returns, 10/12 Angel Place, Worcester.

Tanita's New Diet Singer/songwriter Tanita Tikaram has adopted a vegan diet after seven years' of vegetarianism. She has just released her fourth album. Eleven Kinds of Loneliness. The Observer Magazine 26.4.92

In Brief • More than 1,000 week-old lambs are estimated to have died in heavy rain which swept through Peeblesshire and Berwickshire. Farmers Weekly 10.4.92 • The Vegan Society's main banker, the Co-operative, has announced that it will cease to do business with companies involved in fur farming, tobacco growing, arms sales to repressive regimes, testing cosmetics on animals or field sports (except angling). Daily Telegraph 25.4.92 • The Meat and Livestock Commission has predicted that up to 50% of British lamb could be exported by 1995. Meat Trades Journal 6.2.92 • McDonalds is negotiating with the Guy's Hospital trust in south-east London to open a branch there. Independent 1.4.92 • In his new book The Third Revolution Paul Harrison, an environmental researcher, forecasts that population growth between now and the end of the next century will engulf up to 4 million square miles of virgin forests, savannah grassland, wetlands and mountains. Independent 23.4.92 • Six years after the Chernobyl explosion the Ministry of Agriculture still cannot say when restrictions on sheep movements from areas of radioactive contamination in Cumbria can be lifted. Farmers Weekly 15.92 • Russian police have concluded that a man found dead with his hunting rifle in his left hand was accidently shot in the stomach by his dog as he tried to free it from a trap. Guardian 6.3.92 • A rabbit hunter was found dead, stuck up to his waist in a rabbit warren. Greater Manchester police concluded that he had either suffocated or frozen to death after the earth collapsed as he tried to retrieve a dog or ferret. Daily Telegraph 27.1.92


•he most popular bee for honey production *is the European Apis f mellifera. In common l: with all insects it has a brain and several smaller ganglia (sub-brains) running through its body. In proportion to its size, the brain of the bee is very large. The ganglia have nerve fibres connecting them with the sensory endings on the outer layer of the insect. Other fibres carry nervous impulses f r o m the ganglia to the muscles and internal organs, regulating their action.


• •


On average, a colony comprises 42,000-60,000 bees and can survive up to 20 years — although the lifespan of individual bees is very short. There are approximately 200,000 bee colonies in England and Wales. China, in contrast, has an estimated 6 million colonies. Within the hive there n are three types of bee: the worker, the drone and the queen. The worker carries out most types of jobs necessary to keep the colony ticking over including cleaning, feeding larvae, manipulating the wax, processing the honey, and foraging or defending the colony. After the first 20 days or so of its life it acts as a forager, or flying bee, collecting nectar and pollen. The life of the worker lasts about 30 to 35 days. As far as is known the drone's only function is to mate with the queen bee, after which it dies. Under 'wild' conditions the queen lives for five years or so. She has two main functions in life: to mate and lay eggs. She is a very important part of the colony because she passes on her characteristics and controls its size by the number of eggs she produces.


Amanda Rofe investigates a remarkable insect and the ways in which it is exploited for commodity manufacture and dubious human health claims


are able to decide when to return to the hive. A study in the US discovered that bees discriminate between flowers before alighting to ascertain whether the available nectar will bring the best return for energy expended. More recently, Austrian biologists discovered that bees actually leave a pheromone to mark flowers which they have recently visited, allowing them to forage more efficiently. They also concluded that bees increase their body temperature to advertise a new food source to their fellow workers. Bees exhibit preferences for certain types of flower and nectar; a further study in the US suggested that, like vertebrate animals, bees are able to store landmarks in their memories. Using different combinations of these landmarks they can follow unfamiliar routes. Upon returning to the hive, foraging honeybees communicate food sources to fellow foragers by means of the "waggle dance" which involves an intricate series of circles and movements.

Manipulation Landmarks Dr Karl Von Frish, former Professor of Zoology at the University of Munich, spent much of his time studying bees. He determined that only our own species has a form of communication more complicated than, and superior to the honeybee. An Oxford University study concluded that bees are capable of measuring their total energy expenditure over a foraging period and thus

Honeybees live in artificial — usually wooden — hives designed to facilitate easy removal of the combs. At any one time, hundreds of bees will be crawling over the combs, so when the beekeeper removes or returns them after inspection, even with the utmost care, bees will be crushed and killed. In order to calm the bees and move them from areas of the combs where they might get crushed, smoke is inserted into the hive. Ted Hooper, in his useful book Guide to The Vegan, Summer 1992

Bees and Honey, advises a judicious use of smoke because "it sometimes annoys bees who are trying to struggle through the slots down out of the way". The desire to remove honey from the hive quickly has led to the use of many chemical repellents. Almondscented benzaldehyde is claimed to "work the best" — although too much will inhibit the bees' movement entirely. In some systems powerful streams of air are used to separate the bees from their hard-earned honey.

Bees are able to store landmarks in their memories Comb manipulation enables the keeper to examine his/her bees for disease and loss of the queen — as well as permitting the removal of honey and wax, etc. Bees can be removed from the combs by shaking; the older bees fall off first then, as the comb is shaken harder, the younger bees are forced off.

Disease Bees are transported regularly around the world — where they face new diseases, enemies and alien environmental conditions. "A little consideration of the colonies . . . will reduce the damage done by subjecting bees to the unnatural and stressful conditions of moving" (Hooper). Such ventures can result in disaster for the bees and runs the risk of spreading diseases — including nosema, acarine and varroa. Nosema is recognized by the presence of dysentery and failure of the hive to expand. It is treated by a specific antibiotic called Fumidil B. Acarine is caused by a small mite which multiplies in the trachea of the bee. The parasites suck the blood, seriously weakening and killing the bee. It is sometimes treated by the placing in the hive of strips of cardboard which have been soaked in chlorobenzilate — an insecticide which, as a suspected carcinogen, has been banned in Ecuador, East Germany, New Zealand and Turkey, and withdrawn in Sweden and Finland.

Even with the utmost care, bees will be crushed and killed Varroa, another parasite, lives on the blood of the bee and can ultimately cause the death of the colony. At the beginning of the year only a handful of cases of varroa had been notified in the south east of England; however, at the time of writing some 65 outbreaks have been identified and a ban has been imposed on the movement of hives and colonies in the whole of the south of the country. Some diseases such as American Foul Brood and European Foul Brood require by law the destruction of the bees and the frames. This is done by pouring petrol over the hive (containing the bees) 7 The Vegan, Summer 1992

and setting it alight. Other factors can affect the health of the bee including poisoning from pesticides and starvation. Lack of food may be the result of a bad summer (a shortage of flowering plants) but is usually because the honey and pollen have been removed from the hives. When the bees' food supply is removed, or is poor, extra food in the form of white sugar can be provided to keep the colony going. White sugar is an inferior food source and some of it can find its way into the honey. As well as feeding sugar syrup, US beekeepers have fed pollen substitutes and supplements to their bees for years to create larger colonies. Pollen may be substituted or supplemented with brewers' yeast or fat-free soya flour (both are made up into a stiff dough and pressed on to the top of the frames) — or it may be replaced with the genuine article. The growth of rapeseed in the UK is proving to be rather infuriating for beekeepers. Rapeseed flowers open quite early and keepers are struggling to increase the number of bees in their winter-depleted colonies at the speed required to take full advantage of this plentiful pollen source.

Destruction Honeybees fall victim to predators such as birds and mice; American beekeepers have to contend with skunks and polecats. Wasps will also raid hives and keepers are encouraged to destroy their nests with fly spray. The use of cyanide is discouraged because keepers could kill themselves by mistake! If an offending wasp nest cannot be located, jars containing a sugar solution are placed around the hive to divert the wasps and cause them to drown. In parts of the US bees used for fruit tree

Their food supply is removed pollination are destroyed when orchards are sprayed with insecticide. In Canada bees are killed at the end of the clover season, prior to honey collection, since it is cheaper to fly new colonies up from California in the spring rather than over-winter them. In India the best quality beeswax comes from wild honeycombs. To obtain it a fire is lit under the comb, the bees are driven away and the comb is crushed along with all the eggs, larvae and trapped bees. The honey is squeezed out and strained, then the crushed comb is heated, cleaned and purified. For every honeycomb used to make beeswax, 5,000-35,000 tiny lives are lost.

This feature continues in the Autumn 1992 Vegan with a look at the 'life' of the queen bee and an examination of the health claims associated with bee products.

BEE PRODUCTS Honey — Predigested food made by bees from nectar. The bees collect the nectar from flowers and store it in their primary or honey stomach. Here it is partially digested and converted into the substance we call honey. It is a food source of the bee and is stored in the hive for the lean winter months. The metabolism of honey by the bee creates heat which maintains the temperature of the hive at 17-34 °C. The colony requires approximately 200 lbs of honey a year to survive. It is used by humans as a food, medicine and in cosmetics and toiletries. Beeswax — Secreted from eight small wax glands underneath the abdomen of the bee. The soft wax pours into eight pockets beneath the glands where it solidifies. It is then removed and passed to the mouth where it is worked into hexagonal cells called combs which are used to form the basic structure of the hive. It is used in cosmetics, toiletries, pharmaceuticals, polishes and candles. Propolis — A resinous substance gathered by bees from trees. It is used to fill holes, and varnish and strengthen the hive. Bees also use it as a natural antibiotic, antiviral and antifungal agent. It is gathered by humans by either scraping it off the hive or collecting it on specially made frames. It is used as a medicine and food supplement. It is sometimes called 'bee glue'. Bee Pollen — Collected from flowers and brought back to the hive as a load on the hind legs. It is a food source for the bee and is stored in the hive. A colony requires approximately 60 lbs of pollen per year to survive. The collection of pollen involves fitting special traps to the hive. These scrape it off and are just big enough to allow the bee through. Bee pollen is used as a food supplement. Royal Jelly — A creamy-white, sticky fluid which is a blend of two secretions from the glands of the worker bees. It is the sole source of nourishment for the queen bee throughout her life. Since royal jelly enables the bee to become a queen, some people believe they can recapture their lost youth by eating it. China, where cost saving techniques have been devised for gathering it, is a major exporter of royal jelly. Details of methods of collection are a closely guarded secret. It is sometimes called 'bee milk'. Venom — The sting of the bee. Its collection involves the stretching of an electrically-charged membrane in front of the hive. When the bees fly into it they receive an electric shock and sting the membrane, thus depositing the venom. Venom is prized by some for its supposed medicinal qualities.


n 14 November I met with small groups of vegetarians and those concerned about the variety of foods available and the cost. Dalia Jakaite, a sixth year medical student and aspiring paediatrition, showed me the different grains available if you knew where to buy them. She had millet, white rice, barley and wheat berries. She lives on 200 roubles a month with her husband in a one room flat and was concerned about the new free price policy. On checking with the Lithuanian officials I realized a visa to Russia could not be obtained. Officials check visas when people travel in cars, on buses and inter-Soviet flight. However they are not checked so often on trains. I decided to go on with my scheduled itinerary and pray a little . . . again, no train tickets are available to Moscow. Erunus, a physics professor and vegan, was my guide for the afternoon. He made a few enquiries and was able to get a second class ticket to Moscow for ten times the original cost. 8

Eduardas, with a small group of vegetarian friends including Erunus and his mother, intended setting up the Lithuanian Vegetarian/Vegan Society. Roma made me a delicious Russian salad and I asked for the recipe. Her reply was: "You go to the market and see what is available to buy, then cut it up in small pieces and mix it together." Potatoes get mixed with everything as they are a daily food staple for vegetarians and vegans in Lithuania. An old borrowed coat and scarf completed my disguise to travel into Russia. The second class train car had open dorm style beds. I waved goodbye to my friends in Vilnus and tried to disappear with the crowd in my compartment.

No Way Out! Trying to sleep was useless since at every stop I wondered if the militia would check

for my visa and cart me away. Fourteen hours later I was in the main train station at Mockba (Moscow). There were masses of people everywhere and a woman named Natalia who spoke broken English met me at the station platform. There were no checkpoints, militia or anyone caring who I was or why I was there. The subway system was one of the nicest I had ever seen with its marble pillars and golden art. After a few trains, trams and buses, I arrived at the home of Tatayana Pavlova and her rescued dog, Rusty.

The food situation was bleak I toured Moscow briefly and noted Pizza Hut, McDonalds and Estee Lauder cosmetics on Gorky Avenue, the Fifth Avenue of Moscow. The city was overcrowded, dirty and depressing, like any other major megatropolis. People have exhausted looks on their faces and look much older than they actually are. The Vegan, Summer 1992

The food situation was bleak. The next time you are in the supermarket looking at your watch and complaining of the long wait, think of those who queue all day outside with hundreds of others to get a little food. I was told that people wait eight hours or more to get half a pound of butter or a few pieces of sausage. Bread, dairy and other products go in and out of supply quickly creating temporary shortages. The bakeries are putting more yeast in the bread to make more out of the dough. I visited a market to check prices and availability. I actually saw some melons amongst other things. Sunflower oil sold for 60R per pint. Tatayana refused to buy it. The cucumber looked almost too nice. Tatayana said they were full of nitrates. Prices are more expensive overall than in the Baltic Republics and the rouble is worth less. In a shop I waited in line at a counter for a drink of something called apple juice. It was very diluted, full of sugar and tasted disgusting. Tatayana said she was shocked when she tasted real juice in England as it was very concentrated and there were so many different varieties. We ate a simple dinner of potatoes and I made up my emergency packet of Miso soup. Rusty ate semolina noodles which Tatayana queued an hour for.

We visited the vegetable shop and found it to be 90% empty Tatayana Pavlova has been an ethical vegetarian for twenty one years. She works part time as a Professor of English and devotes all else to the Soviet Vegetarian Society. She is the Society and its office her flat, where piles of information, journals and books on vegetarianism, veganism and animal rights sit. One supporter is a doctor who helped Tatayana write a book on vegetarianism in Russian. The doctor herself does not eat meat, chicken or fish yet does not believe one can exist without consuming dairy products or eggs. Research and evidence from foreign countries on medicine, ethics or the possibility of human testing as opposed to animal testing is not accepted by the United Soviet States (Russia's new name). All research must be conducted in Russia to be validated. Tatayana hopes to raise enough funds to set up a centre for the ethical treatment of animals and work with human live cell and tissues to prove animal testing is not necessary. The Soviet Vegetarian Society was established in 1989. Unfortunately, in a country where there is a lack of food to eat people do not want to be told what they should or should not eat and why. The group is also restricted because of lack of funds, support and manpower. People are afraid to get involved. Tatayana hopes, with the recent changes in policy, that new foreign investments will open up the economy and allow for the flow of Western information and education. Video tapes are now allowed to 9 The Vegan, Summer 1992

be mailed into the country and if the package reaches its destination, a tax is levied on the contents. By 16 November I had begun to feel less nervous walking around Moscow, although I still had foreign currency hidden in both my socks.

Lost in St Petersburg 17 November and everything had gone too smoothly. I arrived at the station and felt a lot less tense than when I arrived in Moscow. There were fewer people around and a different atmosphere. Two hours passed and my guide had not arrived. I ate an apple and without attracting too much attention tried to find someone who spoke some English. I cannot read Russian and even the train schedules were in Russian symbols rather than Roman alphabet letters. It also came to mind that I did not have a visa. After what seemed an eternity a woman from Latvia was able to reach my guide. Larissa had expected me a day earlier. I was really happy to finally be united with her and be able to see more of St Petersburg (Leningrad) than the giant mosaic picture of Lenin that hangs at the train station. People still queue for things but it is not as bad as in Moscow. Larissa is an instructor in culinary science and very interested in the environment. We visited the vegetable shop and found it to be 90% empty. One unique item was large jugs of water with whole grapes floating in them — St Petersburg's version of grape juice. Larissa shared with me her secret recipe for Russian Salad and Borscht Soup — all vegan of course. That evening I met Alexander (Sasha), a Waste Management Specialist. We discussed the nuclear accident at Chernobyl. Three years later the Government tells people that produce is safe to eat from that area. Sasha said it is not and food from BilaRussia and Kiev are also affected. The real horror and truth of this catastrophe will never be told. Today hundreds of children with cancer are in hospitals all over the USS and the Republics. The day after the accident was sunny and beautiful so people went to the beach not knowing that there had been an explosion. I took my last overnight train from St Petersburg to Tallin, Estonia where I began my journey. On 18 November I felt cold and pretty tired. The weather had changed to a sleetrain combination. My guide, an eighty year old Estonian Vegetarian Society member named Ukla, met me at the station. She became vegetarian three years ago for health reasons and feels a noted improvement. I went to her flat where I met the familiar friendly face of Ulla Troeng, President of the Swedish Vegan Society. She had been assisting the Estonian Vegetarian Society by giving lectures, and radio and TV interviews about being vegan. The Estonian Vegetarian Society is the

most organized of all the groups located in the Republics. It publishes a monthly newsletter and operates a vegetarian store called Vegetans which sells produce, herbs and books on vegetarianism, herbs and cooking. A recent project was the opening of the first vegan cafe in the Baltic States in

A recent project was the opening of the first vegan cafe in the Baltic States December 1991. Baar Vegan serves sprouted wheat berries, raw salads, juices and a vegetarian ice cream substitute made out of vegetables. Located in the historic old town of Tallin at 22 UUS street, it is sure to be a hit with tourists, vegetarians and vegans alike. Ulla and I discussed what we could do to let the world know of the developments, projects and hopes of vegetarians and vegans in the Baltic Republics and the United Soviet States. Soon it was time to board the ferry back to Sweden. A little tired, I reflected on the trip and felt that I had fulfilled my quest for the real story about vegetarianism in the Baltic Republics and Russia. As I unrolled my sleeping bad, I fell quickly to sleep with my last thoughts being with Tolstoy and the first step towards an ethical life.

Useful Addresses If you want to help please send donations, books, literature, journals and information in English on vegetarianism, veganism, animal rights, ecology and alternative therapies directly to the societies listed below. Write 'gift' on the customs form. • The Vegetarian Society of Latvia, Riga 226001 Latvia. • The Vegetarian/Vegan Society of Lithuania, , Antakalnio 67-17, Vilnus, 232040 Lithuania. • The Vegetarian Society of the Soviet Union, Volzsky Bulvar, Moscow 109264 Russia. • Estonian Vegetarian Society, Tallin 200013


Also, V e g f a m International, a U K vegan relief organization, has set up a fund to assist the initiation of two self sufficient natural f a n n i n g projects in the Ukraine and Siberia. Contact: Vegfam International East Europe Project, The Sanctuary, Nr Lydford, Okehampton, Devon EX20 4AL.

Veganism and Fitness Part 2: DIET AND TRAINING Former vegan professional footballing brothers Neil Robinson (FA Coach) and John Robinson (BA in Sports Studies) continue their regular column


he words 'health' and 'fitness' must rank as the most used words in the English vocabulary in recent years, and they are certainly two of the most important words that we should all remember if we desire longevity. But 'healthy' does not necessarily mean 'fit', or vice versa. Similarly, a vegan diet does not automatically mean healthy, and diet alone does not make you fit — although we would contend that the vast majority of vegans are more health conscious than the general carnivorous population.

DIET Fats and Carbohydrates You will have your own specific reasons for wanting to change to a vegan diet, and by eliminating all animal products from your diet you will have already embarked 10

on a journey of good health. Hopefully, one of the reasons for becoming vegan was for the many health benefits that can be derived. For those not-so-healthconscious individuals we would like to recommend that you also adopt the fundamental principles of the 'Pritikin' diet i.e. a low fat and high carbohydrate (preferably unrefined) diet. The Pritikin diet was devised by Nathan Pritikin in 1955 after learning that at the age of 40 he was seriously ill with heart disease. Although not a vegetarian, he virtually eliminated cholesterol (found only in animal produce) from his diet, adopted a low fat/high carbohydrate diet and coupled this with a sensible aerobic exercise programme, and he was thus able to reverse this life threatening condition. The Pritikin diet is not a vegan or vegetarian diet, but having already eliminated cholesterol

from our diets, it is quite easily adapted to a vegan diet by reducing fat intake (10% of total calorie intake) and increasing carbohydrate (70% of total calorie intake) and substituting all animal foods with vegan alternatives. Why, though, should you reduce your fat intake? Firstly, excessive fat intake may contribute to obesity, and whilst carbohydrates were erstwhile thought of as fattening foods (potatoes, bread, pasta, rice etc.) and an excessive consumption of carbohydrates without any form of exercise will eventually cause an increase in weight, fat may do it more readily because fat has over twice as many calories as carbohydrates: lg fat = 9 cals, lg carbohydrate = 4 cals. Secondly, global scientific research associates excessive fat consumption with the development of many diseases, the most

notable of these being coronary heart disease, which is most strongly associated with the consumption of solid, saturated fats, found mainly in animal foods such as meat and dairy products. There is also evidence to suggest that excessive fat consumption may be linked to cancer of the breast, womb, pancreas, prostate and colon. So what has all this talk of fat and carbohydrates to do with training? Well, to perform at its best the body requires the right type of fuel. So no matter what training/sporting activity you do, carbohydrates are the best source of fuel to help enhance stamina and prevent fatigue. The fats in our body are not solely derived from the fats in the food we eat; they are also metabolized from carbohydrates and proteins. Fat and protein are only required by the body in small amounts (any excess food type is converted to fat) but if we consume enough unrefined food to provide us with the calories we need, we will also obtain enough fat. There are three main constituents of all fats: saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The first two can be made in the body and are not a requirement from diet. Polyunsaturated fat cannot be made in the body but can be adequately provided for in the diet as it is found primarily in nuts, seeds, grains and legumes, with smaller amounts in fruit and vegetables, as well as in some animal foods. All unrefined foods have some fat so there should be no need to add fat to your diet provided that your diet is well balanced. And although polyunsaturated fat is essential for health and all fat is a concentrated form of energy, the preferred fuel for athletes, or anybody exercising, is carbohydrates: • Energy is stored in the form of fat in the adipose tissue, and in the form of glycogen (carbohydrate) in the muscles and liver • Glycogen is released as glucose during muscular work and used as a fuel for muscles • Although fats and proteins can be metabolized to produce energy, athletes always run out of glycogen before fat and protein stores are exhausted • A low fat, high carbohydrate diet promotes high glycogen muscle storage. The Vegan, Summer 1992

For those individuals who may be addicted to fatty foods we suggest you avoid frying your food. Throw away your chip pan and frying pan and replace them with a non-stick frying pan or non-stick wok, or grill foods instead. Try not to cook with fats that are solid at room temperature. Instead, cook frugally with olive oil and polyunsaturated oil, if at all. Reduce your use of fat spreads i.e. margarine. Saute foods in water, or a combination of water with only 1-2 teaspoons of oil added.

with less effort • More blood flow means an increase in the oxygen supply to the heart • Lowering of blood pressure.


3 Increased HDL cholesterol

The Department of Health's recommendations for protein are 68g a day for sedentary or moderately active men, and 54g a day for women, although the general consensus of expert sporting opinion is an intake of 1.2-2g of protein per kilogram of bodyweight for sports people. This equates to 84g-140g of protein a day for an 11 stone man, and 65g-108g for an 8'/2 stone woman. These latter protein requirements can be met on a vegan diet (tofu, tempeh, soya milk, pulses, nuts, seeds and grains) which is particularly high in soya products.

TRAINING As we mentioned in our previous article (Spring 1992 Vegan), there are two main methods of exercise: aerobic and anaerobic.

Aerobic Exercise Aerobic exercise ('with oxygen') is the preferred method for healthrelated fitness, and although each form of aerobic exercise benefits the specific muscles used in getting you fit — i.e. running makes you fit to run; cycling makes you fit to cycle; swimming makes you fit to swim etc. — the cross-over, and most important benefit of each form of aerobic exercise is to make you 'healthy' fit, of which the many benefits include: 1 Improved cardiovascular function • Sustained aerobic exercise is related to an increase in heart size and also to the vessels supplying the heart • Lower resting pulse rate which means the heart is able to pump more blood with each beat, and 11 The Vegan, Summer 1992

2 Reduced body fat/body weight • Exercise speeds up the metabolism so that the body uses more calories thus preventing/ controlling obesity. • Lower fat is associated with lower LDL cholesterol — the 'bad' type associated with cardiovascular disease.

• The 'good' cholesterol, of which higher levels are associated with a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease. 4

Lower blood sugar

Improves the ability of the body to metabolize glucose (sugar) 5

Increased bone density

Osteoporosis (loss of bone density and calcium) associated with ageing is slowed down because bone responds to extra loading (exercise) by becoming denser.

Anaerobic Exercise Anaerobic exercise ('without oxygen') does not bring about the health benefits associated with aerobic exercise, except for an increase in bone density. But for all-round fitness, we recommend that some form of anaerobic training be undertaken in the form of muscle conditioning. As mentioned in our previous article, muscles become conditioned when a resistance is applied to them. The finest form of resistance exercise is weight training — but don't be put off at the thought of working out with weights and developing your body into a Mr/Ms Universe. This extreme form of development requires a lot of hard work, time, and dedication, and is also limited by each individual's genetic potential. What we are recommending, though, is a basic muscle conditioning programme to prevent the muscles from weakening and wasting from inactivity. Actually, it would be quite erroneous for us to say that weight training is only an 'anaerobic' form of exercise. It can be utilized as an aerobic activity by using

light weights and high repetitions (20+) in a 'circuit-training' routine. This type of training not only promotes aerobic benefits but also conditions the muscles at the same time, though not to the degree of a purely weight training routine. Most sports require both aerobic and anaerobic fitness and if you already incorporate, or would like to incorporate, a sport in your lifestyle, then quite obviously a combination of aerobic and anaerobic exercise is required and this should also include sport specific training i.e. actually practising or playing the sport, and maybe some speed work (sprinting). The benefits of incorporating anaerobic exercise into your health and fitness lifestyle, therefore, are that it: • Promotes and maintains muscular strength • Increases muscle tone and size (depending in the limiting factors described above) • Increases speed • Increases bone density. We also suggest that a basic flexibility routine be included in your weekly workouts to help maintain full range of movement of the

joints and muscles. So, in conclusion, we hope that you are now sufficiently motivated to become even more health conscious by slightly modifying your diet and also by introducing a regular programme of exercise into you lifestyle. We also hope that you echo, along with us, the words of Dr Ernst L Wynder (Founder and President of the American Health Foundation) that we "die young as late in life as possible".

References • Ashton, David & Davies, Bruce — Why Exercise?, Blackwell, 1986 • Bassey, EJ & Fentem, PH — Exercise: The Fads, Oxford University Press, 1981 • Cooper, Dr Kenneth H — The New Aerobics, Bantam, 1981 • Fairfax, J B — 'Fitness Food', 1991 • Haas, Dr Robert — Eat To Win, Viking, 1985 • Langley MA PhD, Gill — Vegan Nutrition, The Vegan Society, 1988 • Pritikin, Robert — The New Pritikin Program, Pocket Books, 1991 • Pritikin, Nathan — The Pritikin Program for Diet And Exercise, Bantam, 1981 • Pritikin, Nathan — The Pritikin Promise, Bantam Books 1985 • Melville, Dr Arabella & Johnson, Colin — The Long Life Heart, Century Arrow, 1986.

The Cruel Naughty Boy There w a s a cruel naughty b o y , W h o sat upon the shore, A-catching little f i s h e s by The dozen and the score. A n d as they squirmed and wriggled there, He shouted loud with glee, "You surely cannot w a n t to live, Y o u ' r e little-er than m e . " Just then with a malicious leer, A n d a capacious smile, Before him from the water d e e p T h e r e rose a crocodile. He e y e d the little naughty boy, Then heaved a blubbering sigh, A n d said, "You c a n n o t want to live, Y o u ' r e little-er than I." T h e f i s h e s squirm and wriggle still Beside that sandy shore, The cruel little naughty boy W a s never heard of more. Anonymous Contributed by Rick Savage


and sultanas) and Manna Onion Bread. They sound completely unmissable, and they contain, I am told, unusually (for a bread product) high amounts of vitamin B 12 .

Great Pretender Redwood's Vegetarian Rashers not only smell like bacon when fried — they taste like it too! The choice is yours. Available from an increasing number of whole/healthfood stores.

Liquid Warning

Annie Brosnan searches out new vegan products


iet Care is a new company which caters especially for those with food intolerances by supplying food mixes, including pizza base, pastry, sponge, biscuit and drop scone mixes. Directions specify that they can be made dairy free, by substituting the likes of eggs and animal milks. Available mail order from: 34 Saxon Road, Hove, E Sussex BN3 4LF (0273 417157).

Nice Rice From that paragon of vegan virtue Whole Earth comes Ready Rice. It comes in two varieties — Organic or Basmati — pre-cooked, in a tin, all that's needed is reheating! Marvellous!

Fruity! Also from Whole Earth — an extra 20% free with three popular flavours of Pure Fruit Spreads (Orange Marmalade, Strawberry and Wild Hedgerow). Summer couldn't be summer without news of delish' desserts . . . So from Berrydales we have a new formulation of the existing Bitter Chocolate Ice which is, 12

wait for it, completely vegan! The other Ices in the range are sweetened with honey, but this one only with raw cane sugar. Another delight for those long and balmy summer days, drifting along at the lazy pace of the warm intoxicating sunshine (till it rains, anyway!) are Summer Fruits and Tropical Fruits, two frozen fruit mixes from Shearway Foods. They can be eaten as they come or used in puddings. For an up-to-date Animal-Free Shopper errata slip please send an SAE marked 'AFS Errata' to the Vegan Society office.

Bread Head New from The Manna Food Company is a range of Manna Breads. Well, I say new, the idea (manna or essene bread) has actually been around for more than two thousand years . . . But these particular products are new. There are three types — Manna Multigrain Bread (with organic barley, oats, rye, millet, pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds and sesame seeds), Manna Fruit Bread (with organic dates, raisins

Some information I have just received from the soft drinks manufacturer Schweppes is of interest. Here are Schweppes drinks that do contain animal ingredients: Kia Ora drinks for consumption after dilution — flavours Orange, Orange and Passionfruit, and Orange and Pineapple. (Ready-to-drink Kia Ora is OK.) Also Schweppes drinks for consumption after dilution — flavours Lime Cordial, Peppermint Cordial and Roses Lime Juice Cordial.

E For 'Ealth? From G R Lane Health Products, another addition to the Earthlore range of vitamins and minerals, in the form of a new Vitamin E Tablet, in a new vegan composition.

Sure Footed For many vegans, what goes on the feet is more of a problem than what goes into the stomach. Beginning by following instructions from a library book about how to make shoes, and using old car tyres as soles, Robin Webb [Ed. Not to be confused with the Society's Council member of the same name!] has made a name for himself by manufacturing 'Vegetarian Shoes'. He has come quite some way since those early days, and now offers quality boots and shoes at affordable prices (remember — they are handmade) made from a new breathable leather-like material. He even supplies Dr Martens-type footwear, and hopes to expand into more original and artistic designs. For more info, contact him at:

36 Gardner Street, Brighton BN1 1UN (0273 691913).

Hair T o d a y . . . Moving upwards from the feet, Dolma has just introduced a Wet Shaving Fluid to their range of vegan products. All Dolma products are suitable for vegans, so send an SAE to: Dolma, 19 Royce Avenue, Hucknell, Nottingham, NG15 6FU. Distributors Jica have brought us Apres Wax, a product from Australia billed as 'The Ultimate Moisturiser'. It is 100% jojoba oil, quite a miracle substance as far as skin care goes! It is suitable for all skin types, used after waxing to prevent in-growing hairs, itching and soreness. Available through beauty salons, you can also ring 081 979 7261 for a mail order service.

Face Paint And moving upwards still further, more products from the Colourings stable are fine for vegans. Complete colour is an all-in-one product for the eyes, cheeks and lips, combining powder and cream in a stick. It comes in two colours — Rosewood and Terracotta — and is available only from The Body Shop. Also from Colourings comes Tinted Moisturiser and Tinted Bronzing Powder. The new Retractable Blusher Brush, however, is made from goat hair, and so of course is a no-no.

Hardware On the subject of water filters — from one water filter manufacturer: "All water filters throughout the world use charcoal made from vegetable matter", so you all stop panicking about the note in the Animal Free Shopper! Finally, I am informed that the Co-op Furniture Polish, listed in the Animal-Free Shopper, is no longer vegan — animalbased emulsifiers are listed among its ingredients. Finally, finally, Mocatan (producer of vegan footwear and clothing etc.) has sadly gone into liquidation. The Vegan, Summer 1992


f you are thinking of inviting some of your friends home or fancy having a party then you'll need plenty of food! Have a go at making some of the recipes listed on this page or ask a m e m b e r of your family to help you. Even your non-vegan friends will be impressed with these tasty, 'cruelty-free' eats.

BRAZIL & HAZELNUT RISSOLES lOOg ground brazil nuts lOOg ground hazelnuts lOOg wholemeal breadcrumbs 1 tbsp mixed herbs l / 2 tsp yeast extract 1 tsp tomato puree 2 tbs hot water to bind ground nuts to coat Dissolve the yeast extract and tomato puree in the hot water. Mix with the dry ingredients and form into small ball shapes. Roll in ground nuts to coat. Fry until golden brown.

ON STICKS slab Tofucheese or Scheese tin pineapple chunks or small jar of pickled onions Cut the Tofucheese or Scheese into cubes. Insert one cube of Tofucheese/Scheese and one cube of pineapple or onion on to cocktail sticks. To make an interesting arrangement for your table place half a large orange or grapefruit cut side down on a dish and push in the cocktail sticks.

SOSMIX ROLLS These should satisfy the

appetite of any non-vegan used to 'real' sausage rolls. Makes approx. 24. 300g Sosmix with Country Herbs cold water to mix 454g pkt frozen Jusrol Puff Pastry soya milk to glaze & seal pastry Thaw the pastry and cut into two pieces. Roll out both pieces into long oblong shapes approximately 45cm long and 11cm wide. Set aside. Make up the Sosmix mixture and divide into two halves. Roll out into a long sausage shape to match the length of the pastry. Lay the Sosmix on the pastry. Score the edges of the pastry with a fork and brush with a little soya milk. Bring the pastry over the Sosmix and seal with a fork. Cut the large roll into smaller ones about 4cm wide. Make two small cuts on the top of the rolls with a knife and brush over with soya milk. Lay on a greased baking sheet and cook for 15 minutes at 190 °C/375 degrees °F (Gas Mark 6).

STRIPEY VEGGIE PLATTER 2 large carrots 2 sticks celery 250g nuts (blanched almonds, brazils or peanuts) 8 small or 'cherry' tomatoes red pepper yellow pepper Cut the carrots, celery and peppers into small 'sticks'. Lay out the vegetables and nuts in stripes across the plate, alternating the colours

to make it look attractive.

FRUIT JELLY & 'ICE CREAM' 1 banana sliced into rings pineapple chunks pint pineapple j u i c e l i 2 pint orange j u i c e 1 rounded tsp agar agar Bring the fruit juice to the boil in a saucepan and sprinkle the agar agar on top. Stir in and boil for 2—3 minutes. Place the fruit in the bottom of a bowl and cover with the fruit juice. Allow to cool and set overnight in the fridge. The jelly can be served with vegan ice cream such as the Sunrise Ice Dream or Granose Soya Ice Cream. Both are available from health/wholefood shops.

CUSTARD CREAMS A delicious vegan substitute for custard cream biscuits. Makes approx. 25. 250g vegan margarine 1 tbs soya flour 1 tbs vegetable oil l 1 ^ tsp baking powder 90g custard powder 280g plain flour 125g icing sugar 1 tsp vanilla essence Filling: 125g castor sugar 2 tbs vegan margarine 1 tbs concentrated soya milk l / 2 tsp vanilla essence sugarless j a m for filling Cream the margarine and sugar until light and f l u f f y . Add the soya flour, vegetable oil and vanilla essence. Sift in the dry ingredients and mix

well. Shape into small balls and flatten onto a greased baking sheet. Press the tops with a fork. Cook for 15 minutes at 180 °C/350 °F (Gas Mark 4). Remove f r o m the oven and cool. Filling: Cream the margarine and icing sugar. Add the soya milk and vanilla essence. Spread the icing on one side of each biscuit and sandwich a layer of j a m inbetween.

THICK & CREAMY MILK SHAKE 1 litre of Sugarless Concentrated Plamil Soya Milk (chilled) 1 2 5 - 1 5 0 m l concentrated fruit juice Whisk the soya milk and fruit juice in a liquidizer for 1 minute. Serve immediately.

Correction The chocolate cake recipe in the Spring 1992 Vegan Aid not include instructions for the all-important topping! All you need is one bar of vegan chocolate. Melt the chocolate in a double basin (i.e. boil a small amount of water in a saucepan, sit a heatproof dish inside the pan and melt the chocolate in the dish). Once melted spread on the top of the cake and allow to set. This sets hard and smooth. If you want a slightly softer topping then before spreading add 1 fl oz of boiling water to the melted chocolate and stir well.

Happy eating!

Please send me your ideas, drawings, jokes, questions or useful tips — anything you think other readers would be interested in.

13 The Vegan, Summer 1992



he important thing about veganism is that it d o e s n ' t end at the dinner table. T h e reason it d o e s n ' t is because of where its roots are. Unlike vegetarianism, it's not a belief b o m solely f r o m squeamishness or t r o u b l e d c o n s c i e n c e s . V e g a n s are vegans for reasons other than these. High a m o n g t h e m are c o n c e r n s for ecology, health, resource use and h u m a n spirituality. Given this, it's surprising so may still drive cars. Cars are the antithesis of those conc e r n s . T h e y ruin the envir o n m e n t , j e o p a r d i z e our health, r a p e the w o r l d ' s r e s o u r c e s a n d desensitize our spiritual lives. It doesn't m u c h m a t t e r if you drive a gas-guzzling Mercedes of a 2 C V with protest stickers in the w i n d o w s — a car is a car, and the car culture is destroying the world. If, as a vegan, y o u ' d rather not contribute to this, then the altern a t i v e c o u r s e of action is disarmingly simple: Get on your bike.

The internal (or infernal) combustion engine is possibly the greatest ecological threat the world has ever seen. Every one of the millions and millions of cars on our planet pumps out its own weight in toxic gases every year. The fumes contain carbon monoxide, which poisons people in the same way that smoking does; carbon dioxide, which hastens the greenhouse effect; nitrous oxides, which cause acid rain; hydrocarbons, such as benzene — a known carcinogen; and so the list goes on. As well as the problem of air pollution, there's the unsavoury fact that a growing demand for cars (up to double in twenty years) means a growing demand for roads — which means more of our countryside will disappear under tarmac. The growing demand for oil threatens the ecologies of Alaska and the Arabian Gulf. More transport of oil will make spillage more likely. The bicycle, on the other hand, produces no air pollution and no noise pollution, and will run for a thousand miles on a thimbleful of oil.

Animal Rights The connection between anim a l r i g h t s and cars m a y s e e m unclear. I t ' s there — that and the m u c h stronger c o n n e c t i o n with h u m a n rights. A car is about 3,000 lbs of fast-moving metal. It is i n e v i t a b l e that cars will m a i m and kill animals, and m a n y d o . O n any c o u n t r y r o a d the e v i d e n c e is abundantly clear. So much so that I ' d hazard a guess that most people w h o kill wild animals in this country d o n ' t aim at t h e m d o w n the barrel of a g u n , but r a t h e r d o w n the bonnet of their car. Of course, the car driver d o e s n ' t intend to kill the rabbit in the way that the hunter does, but it d o e s n ' t make a great deal of difference to the rabbit. In m o r e u r b a n areas, pets die in d r o v e s . T h e real crime, h o w e v e r , is

Health Driving, particularly in heavy traffic, causes stress and fatigue. Much of this may be caused by a build up of carbon monoxide — the World Health Organisation has noted that C 0 2 levels are higher inside cars than at the roadside. The main effect cars have upon health, though, is this: driving a car means that you're. not exercising. Human beings are physiologically designed to move themselves. That's why around 40% of your body weight consists of muscle. Lack of exercise leads to unfitness and (this is unlikely to a problem for

Vegan peddler Dan Joyce explains his belief that can use is incompatible with the spirit of veganism


against people. More die on the roads every year than die in all armed conflicts across the world. If this slaughter came from any other source there would be an international outcry. Yet it is a price w e are apparently prepared to pay for cars.

The Vegan, Summer 1992

vegans) obesity, with all its attendant health risks. If you cycle instead of drive, you'll become fitter, stronger, you'll think better (exercise improves the blood flow to the brain) and you can even expect to live longer. If y o u ' r e overweight, you'll lose some, and if y o u ' r e underweight, you'll gain some since your appetite will increase. By riding to work you can avoid having to waste time and m o n e y in the gym, because y o u ' l l be getting a good work-out from your every day routine.

Resource Use Cars represent an appalling waste and misuse of natural and human resources. The drain on fuel and land has already been mentioned, but there's also a drain on human labour and on wealth. Billions of pounds and labour hours are spent on

The car driver doesn't intend to kill the rabbit in the way that the hunter does, but it doesn't make a great deal of difference to the rabbit making, fuelling and maintaining cars. And to what end? Three tonnes of highly engineered machinery, powered by gallons of a non-renewable, polluting fuel is used to move one 180 lb human — at a speed, moreover, of less than 10 mph in

an average city. It's crazy. It's like using a nuclear reactor just to boil your kettle. A bicycle will transport the s a m e person using no fuel (except f o o d ) , simple mechanics and less than one hundredth of the raw materials. A n d bicycles can be available to anyone; cars will only ever be the vehicle of the privileged few.

Spiritual The cult of the car is one that preaches covetousness, pride and sloth. Your car determines your social standing; your car gives you e f f o r t l e s s acceleration at the push of a pedal.

It's like using a nuclear reactor just to boil your kettle But life isn't that — i t ' s not about materialism, and i t ' s not a b o u t being whisked passively along without any e f f o r t . Life is about being and doing. Passivity is stultifying. Self motivation, self-dependency and s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t are good for the soul. Home grown veg. tastes better than bought veg. precisely because of the effort you put into growing it; travelling by bicycle rather than by car is more rewarding for similar reasons.

Practicalities In terms of benefits to the individual and to the world, bicycles beat cars h a n d s

down. How practical are they? For those w h o have v i s i o n s of s t r a i n i n g along in streaming rain, here are some comforting thoughts: • Cycling isn't hard. It uses less e n e r g y even than walking. If y o u ' v e struggled in the past, then y o u ' v e been on the wrong bike. A correctly sized, well-maintained quality bicycle will be a revelation. Try it! • Cycling is quicker than driving in urban areas. Whilst cars will be lucky to average 8 mph, on a bike you can a v o i d t r a f f i c j a m s and so y o u r average speed will be higher, about 12 mph. You w o n ' t have to spend hours hunting for a parking space either. O v e r l o n g e r d i s t a n c e s , t a k i n g a bicycle by train is usually q u i c k e r t h a n driving, and it will leave you feeling a lot fresher too. • It rains, on average, less than one day a week in Britain. Even w h e n it does, the increasing availability of b r e a t h a b l e water-proofs means that riding in the rain need not be unpleasant. But if you really can't face the rain, take a bus or a taxi. If you don't run a car you can afford them. Giving up c a r s , like g i v i n g up a n i m a l products, isn't easy. Once y o u ' v e done it there's no looking back.

Suggested Reading Richard's New Bicycle Book, R i c h a r d Ballantine Autogeddon, Heathcote Williams New Cyclist magazine Q


15 The Vegan, Summer 1992







ravelling is an ordeal. Quite apart from the physical strain of being jolted about in a train, or the stress of avoiding the speedcrazed drivers on our overcrowded roads, there comes the dreadful moment when you are half way to your destination, with several hours still to travel, and feeling hungry. Possibly the hardest part of being a vegan is having to plan all meals in advance, even when travelling. Motorway services and other wayside restaurants simply do not cater for vegans. Motorway food is notoriously dreadful in this country. The restaurants still assume that travellers are so exhausted that they d o n ' t care what they eat, or else they believe that travellers actually prefer food cooked to the lowest standards. Still, meat-eaters can get something to eat, even if it is greasy, over-salted, badly-cooked and tasteless. It may not be healthy, but at least they d o n ' t keel over f r o m hypoglycaemia. Vegans, however, do not have this option, and they are limited either to whatever they have brought with them, or going hungry. On a recent trip, I stopped at a motorway services, and I was pleased to discover that they had introduced a vegetarian option. Indeed, it was a regular feature, and was labelled 'vegetarian choice' on the menu, rather than actually naming the dish itself. I suppose that the restaurant assumed that vegetarians would be grateful for getting anything meatfree, and wouldn't care what it was.

Ten Per Cent It might not seem much of an advance, but ten years ago vegetarian food was thought of as freakish extremism, and mainstream caterers did not regard it as necessary to provide vegetarian fare. Vegetarians could always patronize the minority of eatingplaces which did cater for them, of course, but that's no good when you're hungry on a motorway. Now, with 10% of the population

How long will it be before vegan dishes begin to appear? vegetarians, even motorway services have noticed that they exist. Even motorway services want to cater for vegetarians, not 16

cater for vegans until they face a demand for vegan catering. Vegans must use their economic power. It is simple to use eco-vegan power. Vegans must ask at restaurants — ordinary restaurants — what the vegan options are. If there is no vegan dish available, you should ask to see the manager, and explain why you will not be eating there. There is no need to be impolite, nor to debate the issues, simply to flex the economic muscle. Many restaurants have suggestion boxes or comment books. These provide a simple — and even more non-confrontational — means of registering the fact that, if they offered vegan meals, you would have eaten there.

No Retreat It will take time; months, or even years. It took a long time for vegetarian options to become standard. However, only eco-vegan power will convince those whose job it is to supply consumer demand. Retreating to a vegan ghetto is Motorway services your time easy, but it will not change the attitudes of outsiders — and the prohas come! Alison Brooks urges visions made by mainstream us to join her campaign to widen restaurants. It is in vegans' own interests to be able to find vegan the availability of vegan meals food when travelling, and this is why I suggest targeting motorway services and so forth rather than just any restaurants. It won't take custom because of any moral argument, but simply away from normal vegan restaurants, either. because 10% of the population is a great many people, and the caterers see them as profitable. So vegetarians can now consume macaroni cheese at a random stop at an ordinary motorway service station. How long will it be before vegan dishes begin to appear?

Creating Demand As things stand at the moment, the answer is never. Because vegans know that they will not be able to get food in ordinary restaurants, they take their own food, or go to restaurants that specialize in vegan dishes. As a result, no-one asks for vegan meals, and restaurant owners do not see any demand for them. It has become a self-fulfilling prophecy. Vegans are less numerous than vegetarians, but however many they may become, restaurant owners will not

Apart from the increased amenity to vegans, the success of this eco-vegan power will publicize vegan ideas to all the other members of the travelling public who use the restaurants. So the effort needed in the campaign will pay a double dividend.

The success of this eco-vegan power will publicize vegan ideas Mind you, if the macaroni cheese was anything to go by, vegans will eat no better than the rest of the population. In fact, once eco-vegan power has made a vegan option standard in British motorway restaurants, I want vegans to lead all travellers in another eco-power campaign for decent food for everyone! The Vegan, Summer 1992

The Vegan

The Vegan


CLUB DRAW Cash prizes every


If you enjoy a bit of a flutter why not help the Vegan Society at the same time? Each month, three cash prizes will be drawn comprising 50% of that month's pool. The monthly stake is just £1.50 and you can enter as many times as you wish! On the last working day of each month, the winning entries will be drawn.



Simon Walton




K J Elliot


Just complete the application form below and enclose your remittance for 3, 6 or 12 months as required. Don't worry about forgetting to renew — you will be reminded in good time! All results will be published in The Vegan.



Mrs E Makeham



The Vegan


March 1992 1st


Anita Wade




D Bovingdon




M Rossiter & M Connel


Name Address Postcode Please enter me for

Tel.No. stake/s for


I enclose cheque/PO payable to The Vegan Society' for £

April 1992 1st


N Biggs


3 MONTHS (£4.50 per stake) 6 MONTHS (£9.00 per stake) 12 MONTHS (£18.00 per stake)



R Savage




A Whitehead


Return to: Club Draw Organizer, The Vegan Society, 7 Battle Road, St Leonards-on-Sea, East Sussex TN37 7AA.

The Vegan Society

GRAND CRUELTY-FREE D RAW 1992 First Prize • £1000 Second Prize • £250 Third P r i z e * £ 1 0 0 Plus 10 consolation prizes of £10 The draw will take place on Friday 31 July 1992 at the Vegan Society office Requests for books of Grand Cruelty-Free Draw tickets should be directed to: The Vegan Society (GCFD), 7 Battle Road, St Leonards-on-Sea, East Sussex TN37 7AA. (Tel. 0424 427393) Ticket stubs and monies must be returned no later than Wednesday 29 July 1992 Cheques/POs should be made payable to 'The Vegan Society'

GOOD LUCK! 17 The Vegan, Summer 1992

This form may be photocopied

The word 'salad' derives from the Latin herba salta meaning salted herbs. The first salads were, then, fresh vegetables seasoned with salt. Today, however, it is harder to say what salads are. They can be raw or cooked, hot or cold, and contain any combination of ingredients — fresh, dried or preserved. Nonetheless, we know a salad when we eat one. Here are seven recipes for a selection of salads using a variety of ingredients and cooking techniques. All quantities serve two

QAl AHSS O/xl—rAI—^

WAYS SPINACH, SMOKED TOFU ANt> TOMATO This is well suited to serving with Mediterranean food. Whether you are cooking, say, a pasta dish, a risotto or stuffed peppers, it makes a delightful accompaniment and one full of protein, vitamins and minerals. 2 handfuls of leaf spinach 2 oz smoked tofu 4 cherry tomatoes 1 very small clove of garlic 1 tablespoon olive oil l / 2 teaspoon vegan red wine vinegar squeeze of lemon ground black pepper Thoroughly wash and then finely chop the spinach. Place in salad bowl. T o this then add the smoked tofu, finely crumbled, and the cherry tomatoes, quartered. T o m a k e the dressing, finely chop the garlic and add it to the olive oil, vinegar 18

your salads lustre? no further, h n k n i Richard Youngs has some bright ideas...

and lemon juice. Season with freshly ground black pepper. Pour the dressing on to the spinach, smoked t o f u and tomatoes. Toss and serve.

POTATO AND HOUMOUS A vegan alternative to mayonnaise dressed potatoes and high in protein, this recipe makes enough houmous for two servings of salad, as well as a generous dip that will keep in the fridge for several days. 8 oz waxy new potatoes 8 oz pre-cooked chickpeas 1 tablespoon tahini 3 tablespoons sunflower or unroasted sesame oil juice of 1 lemon 1 clove of garlic water as required salt and pepper

Clean, but do not peel, the potatoes and steam or boil until tender. Remove from heat and drain, if boiling them. Cut into quarters. To prepare the houmous, liquidize the chick peas, tahini, oil, lemon juice and garlic to form a smooth paste, adding any water necessary to give a pleasing consistency. Add salt and pepper to taste. Mix half the houmous with the potatoes. Serve the remaining houmous as a dip or with toast.

MEDIEVAL SAU\D Once British cookery went heavy on the herbs and spices. As much a means of preservation as a matter of taste, a diet of strong, robust flavours developed. What salads were eaten made use of the many fresh, wild herbs to be found. Recently, such herbs have begun to appear in the shops making it possible to create salads in the style of bygone times. Here is one such salad. 1 medium leek 1 small onion 1 clove of garlic generous handful of fresh mixed herbs such as parsley, sage, rosemary, thyme or basil 1 tablespoon sunflower oil salt Shred the leek and onion. Roughly chop the garlic and herbs, and add them to the leek and onion along with the oil and salt. Toss and serve.

RED CABBAGE, APPLE AND TOASTED ALMOND A quick, easy and refreshing salad with an interesting combination of hot and cold. 3 oz red cabbage 1 medium apple 1 handful of flaked almonds The Vegan, Summer 1992



1 tablespoon olive oil i 2 teaspoon vegan cider vinegar squeeze of lemon salt and pepper

Shred the cabbage as finely as possible and grate the apple. Toast the flaked almonds in a ungreased pan over very high heat. Make sure that they do not stick by stirring them with a wooden spoon. As soon as they are browned add them to the cabbage and apple, along with the other ingredients. Toss and serve immediately.

CHILLED RATATOUILLE Often thought of as a hot meal, ratatouille is served on the Continent as a cold hors d'oeuvre. As such it is a form of salad. 3 tablespoons olive oil 1 small onion 1 small aubergine 1 small courgette 2 small tomatoes 1 tablespoon tomato puree salt and pepper i

Cut the aubergine into l / 2 inch cubes and rub with salt. Leave to drain for 45 minutes. Rinse and pat dry. Finely chop the onion. Cut the courgette into l i 2 " lengths. Immerse the tomatoes in boiling water until their skins shrivel, them remove from water, peel and dice. In a small pan over low heat saute the

onion in the olive oil until transparent. Add the aubergine and courgette. Increase heat and cook for 3 minutes, stirring gently. Next add the tomatoes and tomato puree. Bring to a simmer. Cover and lightly cook for a further minute. Season to taste. Allow to cool and then chill before serving.

CUCUMBER AND CHINESE LEAF WITH GADO-GADO SAUCE Gado-Gado is a classic protein-packed Far Eastern sauce that goes well with the crisp freshness of cucumber and Chinese leaf. Again, the combination of hot and cold is one to savour. l

CRUDITES WITH GUACAMOLE DIP A salad combining the elegant simplicity of French crudites with the smooth, fiery Mexican guacamole. Ideal as a first course. selection of fresh vegetables such as carrots, celery, cauliflower, peppers, courgettes and radishes 1 avocado 1 clove of garlic l / 2 chilli pepper squeeze of lemon salt Prepare the vegetables, cutting them into bite-sized portions. Arrange them on a plate. These are the crudites. To make the guacamole, peel and remove the stone from the avocado, them remove the seeds from the chilli, washing your hands afterwards (chilli juice is vicious if it gets into cuts or eyes). Liquidize the avocado, garlic, chilli and lemon juice. Add salt to taste and serve with crudites.

i 2 cucumber 4 pieces of Chinese leaf 2 oz peanuts 1 tablespoon groundnut oil 1 small onion 1 clove of garlic l / 4 pint water or stock 1 / 2 teaspoon molasses squeeze of lemon salt and pepper Finely slice the cucumber and shred the Chinese leaf. Set aside equal portions in two individual bowls. Toast the peanuts in an ungreased pan over a high heat until brown. Allow to cool. Place the toasted nuts in a paper bag and using a rolling pin, finely crush them to a powder. Chop the onion and over medium heat saute in the oil until transparent. Add the crushed garlic and water or stock, along with the molasses and the toasted, crushed peanuts. Bring to the boil and then simmer f o r 10 to 15 minutes, when the sauce should be nicely thickened. Remove f r o m heat. Add the lemon juice and salt to taste. Pour gado-gado sauce over the cucumber and Chinese leaf. Serve immediately.


The International Vegan Festival, which is coming to Britain for the first time ever, looks as if it will be fully booked. At the time of writing (May), the indoor places are almost filled, half of the on-site camping places taken, and a number ofpeople have booked as non-residents. Anyone interested who has not yet written for details, is asked to telephone 0245 359534 to check the availability of places. (It is possible that there may be one or two cancellations at the last moment, so, even if your preferred accommodation is full, you can put your name on a waiting list.) ALL PARTICIPANTS, INCLUDING DAY VISITORS, MUST BOOK IN ADVANCE, DUE TO LIMITED SPACE IN THE LECTURE HALL AND OTHER FACILITIES. The event will be a combination of conference and holiday, including lectures, workshops, videos, games, yoga, circle dancing, visits to places of interest and more! The venue is l/4 hour's train journey north of London. The main themes for the 4 days of lectures and workshops are: (1) Campaigning for Animals (2) The Environment, Agriculture and the Third World (3) Health and Nutrition (4) Veganism in an Omnivorous World Speakers include: Mark Gold, Joyce D'Silva, Dr Alan Long, Kathleen Jannaway, Michael O'Connell, Dr Gill Langley and Dr David Ryde, Costs range from £5 a day (£30 per week) for non-residents without meals, to £25 a day (£160 per week) camping and £225 per week indoors with meals.

19 The Vegan, Summer 1992

ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING The Society's 1992 AGM will be held on Saturday 5 December at Conway Hall, Red Lion Square, London. Further details will appear in the 1991-92 Annual Report & Accounts, distributed in September.

PROPOSALS FOR RESOLUTION Proposals for resolution to go on the 1992 A G M a g e n d a must be received at the Society's office (7 Battle Road, St Leonardson-Sea, East Sussex T N 3 7 7 A A ) not later than Friday 31 July. For your guidance, proposals must: • be proposed and seconded by paid-up full (i.e. not associate) members; • in the interests of economy and clarity, not exceed 100 words; • propose some form of action; • propose one single action — i.e. they must not be composite proposals;

• not simply comprise a statement of opinion.

with Article 32(a)(i) each nomination must be:

Proposers are requested to limit their proposals to two.

• duly signed by a proposer and seconder who are members (not associates); • accompanied by a profile of the candidate stating, in 100-200 words, his/her full name (and previous names), skills, experience, views and intentions, if elected.

NOMINATIONS FOR COUNCIL Nominations for members of 12 months or greater duration at the time of appointment — i.e. 5.12.92 — to serve on the Council must be m a d e in writing, signed and received at the o f f i c e (7 Battle Road, St Leonards-on-Sea, East Sussex TN37 7AA) not later than Friday 31 July. In accordance

P r o m o t i n g a diet free from all animal p r o d u c e a n d a more compassionate w a y of liv ing that seeks to avoid exploiting animals for any purpose S O C I I T V

W H E R E THERE'S A WILL THERE'S A WAY There must be many readers who would like to offer financial support to the Vegan Society in its unique work but have limited means at their disposal. There is, however, an easy way of helping regardless of present circumstances — by including a legacy to the Society in your Will. Great or small, such legacies can make a real and enduring contribution to the promotion of vegan ideals. For those who would like to make a bequest to the Society the following form of words is suggested: / bequeath to the Vegan Society, Registered Charity no. 279228, presently at 7 Battle Road. St Leonards-on-Sea. East Sussex TN37 7AA. the sum o f f , and declare that the receipt of the Treasurer or other authorized officer of the said Society shall he good arul sufficient discharge of such legacy. Property left to the Society is another valuable contribution to our cause. If you wish to will land or property to the Society, please write for details of how to arrange this.

Profiles and ballot papers will be issued with the 1991-92 Annual Report & Accounts, distributed in September. Ballot papers must be returned to the Society's office not later than noon on Monday 30 November. The results will be declared at the AGM.

National Demonstration Against Laundry Farm meet 12 noon on Saturday 4 July 1992 at Parkers Piece, Parkside, A1131, Cambridge City Centre for march to Laundry Farm, Barton Road Owned by Cambridge University, Laundry Farm breeds and supplies animals for vivisection.


ORGANIC WINES Over 50 vegan wines, juices, beers and ciders available by mail order. * Nationwide Delivery * Q / X * 5% discount for Vegan Society members V e g a n M i x e d C a s e ( 1 2 btls) Vegan Special Selection

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The Vegan, Summer 1992


Good Soil in a Nutshell Professional horticulturalist Julie Walsh discusses the main alternative to peat — coir


here is a lot of talk about coir. It is a new growing media and there is a lot of confusion about it generally. My postbag suggests to me that some readers feel it might be a gigantic con trick played by retailers to boost their trade figures — customers are wooed away from peat and made to pay for an inferior product. Others indicate that

21 The Vegan, Summer 1992

it has far superior qualities to peat and is helping to save the peat bogs of the world. As a professional horticulturalist I have recently been involved with trialing some of the coir products. The trials have been involved with using coir for a range of containerized plants including house plants, hardy nursery stock and hanging baskets.

The Product Brown coir fibre pith — the correct term — is the dust that remains after the long fibres have been removed from coconut husks for use in rope, coconut matting and other products. The coconut is really an amazing gift of nature. The fruit provides food, drink, oil and utensils, with the long fibres being used for cloth and ropes. And now we are making use of the only bit that used to be regarded as waste. In Far Eastern countries there are million of tons of it. In Sri Lanka pith heaps are what pit heaps used to be in Britain. Some of them mountainous. Coir dust is an entirely renewable reOsource — in Sri Lanka alone the coconut mills produce up to two million cubic metres of it annually. I mention Sri Lanka because that is where ICI buys the dust that it processes into coir multi-purpose compost for gardeners. Clearly there are other parts of the world where coconuts are harvested and produce similar useful waste. Brown coir fibre is a relatively inert, fibrous material which is not composted. Plant nutrients and lime are added to it to produce the compost. Coir fibres retain their structure (it is more honeycombed than peat and therefore potentially much more stable) and bulk, keeping the compost open, and the material itself does not break down readily. When the coir dust is taken from the pith heaps it is compressed into brickettes for transporting purposes and the material is expanded again for compost making in this country. Contrary to popular belief its relatively high cost is not due to industrial composting processes in Britain. We can expect the costs to come down though and ICI tell me that their prices are similar to imported peat based products. You can expect to pay about £3.00 for a 10 litre bag and £9.00 for an 80 litre bag. There is no doubt that UK produced peat can be much cheaper.

Test Results The results of my trials on coir mixes have generally been excellent. The loose structure is beneficial for drainage and aeration — thus favouring strong and rapid root development. Whilst it

appears to dry out on the surface like peat, it has better water holding attributes below the top layer. Because it is less likely to compact you use less coir than you would peat to fill a net volume. Coir will last longer for container plants as it breaks down slower — this will no doubt be of greater value than peat in terms of general soil conditioning. When liquid feeding, coir seems to retain phosphate for a longer period than peat thus causing less stress to the plant. Whilst I am still training my staff in the techniques of handling this 'new' product — for example, a whole new approach to irrigation has to be adopted (in fact watering has been reduced, so I have to be careful that staff don't overwater plants!) — I feel the current extra cost is worth it. This season I shall try coir grow-bags. If you have any experiences, good or bad, with coir then please let me know, as often the problem is not the product itself, but the method of processing it has gone through, or the production methods you are adopting.

Topical Tip You have probably all by now made up your hanging baskets and summer tubs in order to be assured of a riot of glorious technicolour cascading over your patio or terrace during the summer months. In order to ensure an even longer effect try this — push a few Nasturtium seeds into the basket or tub. These will grow through the summer plants and flower late into the season when the abundance of main flowers is diminishing. Summer is also a good time to take tip cuttings of many herbs so why not try pushing tips of thyme into the basket, again to give a late flowering plant — loved by the bees — and to give you extra valuable herb plants? Happy Gardening

Julie may be contacted by post via: The Vegan Society, 7 Battle Road, St Leonardson-Sea, East Sussex TN37 7AA. Please enclose an SAE if you require a reply.


dmiration and unspeakable cruelty; affection and hard-headed economics: the medieval attitude to animals. In Medieval Europe, animals were central to the economy and the foundation of the wealth of nations. England's wealth came largely from the production of wool, while Flanders grew rich by processing the wool into cloth. Animal products were essential to all aspects of life, f r o m wool, leather and furs for clothing, and bone for combs, to skins which made the parchment for books. Many medieval antipollution laws attempted to prevent tanneries from being sited upstream f r o m towns. The poisonous chemicals and animal debris from tanneries were a menace to drinking supplies. All too o f t e n , though, the polluters ignored laws which did not suit them. A n i m a l s were essential for food, too. Ordinary people ate more of animal products (especially cheese) than the animals themselves. Most animals were too valuable alive to be slaughtered until their productive lives were over: sheep produced wool and milk; cattle gave milk and worked as draft animals. Pigs, which p e r f o r m e d much of the refuse disposal in medieval cities, were the only animals raised solely for food.

viewed as wicked and devilish, the main beasts of the hunt were admired or liked by their persecutors. Deer represented God in complex allegories, while deer hunting became a metaphor for human sexual affairs. The wild boar, although black (a colour of negative connotations in medieval times) raging and devilish, was nonetheless

impressive for its supposed sexual prowess. The bear was endearingly anthropomorphic. The fox was admired for its guile. The lowly hare, a main victim of hunting, was even pitied by the hunters. Still, all this admiration did not lead to mercy for the animals. Instead, it lead to complex rituals for the butchering of the carcass, usually by the most senior man on the hunt, before it was taken back to the manor or castle. Hawking was another favourite sport; monarchs and kings often kept mews of hundreds of hawks, while peasants might keep a single goshawk or sparrowhawk to hunt small game for the pot. Despite the care and affection lavished upon some favourite birds, they were not treated well by modem standards. Taming the birds was a process which might involve weeks of sleep-deprivation for the bird (and trainer). Hoods were introduced in the twelfth century, having been invented in the Middle East. When the bird could not see, it did not panic and try to fly when tethered. Previously, this same result had been achieved by the infinitely more cruel process of lacing the bird's eyelids.

Royal Patronage

The Hunt Noble and royal tables served more meat than the lower classes, meat which was both farmed and hunted. Although hunting was extremely popular with all classes, even among the nobility it remained a practical activity, and most hunted animals were consumed afterwards. One exception was the bear which was still hunted in Spain and Portugal long after it became extinct in Britain in about the eighth century. Wolves and foxes were also hunted because they were a threat to domestic animals (and, in the case of wolves, people).

All was not cruelty, however. Noble lords lavished great care


Apart from wolves, which were


Alison Brooks discovers that even in Medievel Europe animals had rights of sorts

Other animals were treated even more cruelly. 'Sports' such as bear-baiting and cock-fighting were extremely popular; indeed, watching bear-baiting was one of Queen Elizabeth I of England's favourite pastimes. Casual cruelty towards beasts of burden was common, not surprisingly for an era when casual cruelty towards fellow humans was also frequent. Sometimes the parallel between the two types of cruelty was explicit, as in the story from Boccacio's Decameron (fourteenth century) in which a husband afflicted with a disobedient wife is advised to emulate the behaviour of a man he sees beating a mule.

The Vegan, Summer 1992

on favourite hounds, hawks and horses. King Edward I of England even paid for his hounds to have a long seaside vacations, bathing in the seawater. Doubtless lesser folk were just as fond of their own pets, and took care to treat well the farm animals on which their livelihood depended. A twelfth century bestiary waxed lyrical in its high regard for animals, recounting tales of owners' lives being saved by their faithful horses or hounds.

King Edward I even paid for his hounds to have long seaside vacations Medieval ideas about animals still persist in our modern thinking. We still think of the lion as the noble king of the beasts, and the fox as the crafty trickster, even though we no longer believe that bear cubs are born formless and literally 'licked into shape' by their mothers. The monkish writers of bestiaries aimed not merely to describe animals to the best of their ability, but also to draw the morals encoded in the animals by God. The wolf was more than a nuisance which happened to feed upon domestic animals; it was not just choosing to commit evil acts: it was an active emissary of the Devil. The dog faithfully guarded the flock not because it was trained to do so in return for food; not simply because it was loyal and brave: but because it was also teaching the proper role of the preacher protecting his flock of human souls.

Legal Identity The legal attitude to animals in medieval terms appears to be the furthest from our own. Although owners were responsible for their animals if they strayed into a neighbouring field, if an animal injured someone, it was the animal which paid the legal penalty. The law assumed that animals were as intelligent and morally responsible as people. Indeed, a philosopher of the early sixteenth century, Hierolymus Rosarius, even believed that animals were more intelligent and moral than humans.

Pigs... occasionally found their way into houses, where an unwatched baby could make a tempting snack This sort of attitude led naturally to legal punishment of animals. Pigs were particular victims. Because pigs were commonly allowed to roam in search for fodder, they occasionally found their way into houses, where an unwatched baby could make a tempting snack, and lead to a murder trial 23 The Vegan, Summer 1992

and execution. The animal was solemnly assigned a defence lawyer, witnesses for prosecution and defence were examined at the trial, and pleas for mercy entered, exactly as though the defendant was human. If sentenced to death, the animal was given a public execution, after which the body was sometimes buried, sometimes sold for meat. The Duke of Burgundy in 1379 pardoned two herds of swine which had been convicted as accomplices of three sows which had killed a child; the three sows were executed. Cattle and horses which injured or killed people were often confiscated, rather than executed. This was partly a pragmatic decision, because the confiscated animals were valuable to the authorities; but it was also because pig and dog murderers were tainted with the additional crime of eating human flesh. Animals were also executed for 'unnatural' crimes. Beasts convicted of cohabiting were sometimes executed alongside the man who had molested them. In 1474, a cockerel was sentenced to burn at the stake in Basle for the crime of laying an egg.

Some medievals thought of aninmals as superior to humans Legal processes for removing plagues of vermin were also laid down in law. In the fourteenth century, Swiss peasants brought a complaint against a plague of flies, which were summonsed to appear before the court. The defence lawyer persuaded the court that, in view of the defendants' small size and their being under the age of majority, they need not appear. The flies were ordered to depart, but the defence lawyer obtained the

grant of a piece of land for them to retire to. In 1519, the defence council for the moles of Tyrolean commune obtained a safe-conduct to allow them to depart from the fields without being attacked by dogs. Once the legal process proved unsuccessful, religious remedy was attempted. This was based on the idea that the vermin were actually small devils playing tricks and wreaking harm on people. The vermin were presented with solemn curses from senior clerics, although it is doubtful whether these were more successful than the legal injunctions. In short, the medieval attitude to animals spanned the whole range of human sentiment, from cold practicality to cruelty to affection or pity. Animals were given anthropomorphic personalities familiar to this day as the stuff of childrens' tales. Monks struggled to find in the natural world confirmations of the morality and philosophy they already believed in, just as sociobiologists of the twentieth century have tried to justify war, racism and sexism by presenting biased and partial accounts of animal life. Some medievals thought of animals as superior to humans, an attitude also found in our century. There was even the assumption that animals had rights — that vermin had the right to exist unmolested if they kept away from crops, and that animals accused of crimes had the right to legal defence. The idea of animal rights is the great rediscovery of the twentieth century! Admiration and unspeakable cruelty; affection and hard-headed economics: the medieval attitude to animals was not so very different from that of our own time.

Contacts News Glasgow Local Vegan Contact Keith Robertson holds regular meetings at the Bay Tree Cafe on the second Saturday of every month. Activities include both educational and social, with musical evenings to be featured in the near future. Keith would welcome support for a Living Without Cruelty Fair to be held locally, possibly in the autumn. A regular newsletter will help to exchange information and ideas. After her sterling work at getting the East Sussex group off the ground, Anabelle Walkden in Brighton has had to relinquish her activity due to extended working hours and moving house. Dave Martin of Worthing has taken on the task of developing the group further, ably assisted by Winifred Winton and existing group members. Further participation is needed from vegans in the

area who should ring or write to him at the address listed below. Pat Mear, the Croydon Contact for Surrey, has been active — including highlighting the hazards to wildlife and the environment of using garden chemicals. On 29 March she and other members of Croydon Animal Aid handed over a 2,000 signature petition to former Speaker of the House of Commons, Bernard Weatherill. The petition supported the 'Election Manifesto For Animals', a copy of which was sent to every MP in the country. She hopes to have a stall at the Carshalton Green Fair to be held on August Bank Holiday Monday. Any members interested in this and other activities are invited to contact Pat as soon as possible. Clevedon Contact Paul Ridden has extensive informa-

tion on projects and products of interest to vegans in his area. Local campaigns are featured in the Cleveland Action For Animals newsletter. Consumables are dealt with in the 'Guide to Cruelty-Free Shopping in Cleveland' — an inexpensive complementary pamphlet to the Vegan Society's Animal-Free Shopper. Martyn Allen in Ipswich is another provider of topical, useful information. His Suffolk group members have been hard at work scouring the countryside for restaurants offering vegan fare. At the time of writing some 30 local eateries are including vegan meals on their menus. These are listed in a 'Where to Eat Guide', available at no charge from Martyn. If this whets the appetite, a vegan feast will be part of the September open meeting (I'm packing my fork

and spoon now). The open meetings, where all are welcome, are held on the second Tuesday of every month at 19 Tower Street, Ipswich, starting at 8pm. The June 9 meeting discussed animals and religion. Wiltshire Contact Monica Harvey reports that the recent vigil at Porton Down was attended by some 20 people, nearly all of whom were vegan. She anticipates following this up with a demonstration at the same place in late summer/early autumn. Please contact Monica for further details. Anyone who has written to Dougie Gordon (Lanes Contact) in the last two months are requested to write to him again at the new Lancashire Vegans address (see below). There have been problems with the operation of the PO box in Rochdale. Terry Bevis



Important On 10 May Council co-opted Local Contacts Martyn Allen and Dougie Gordon to act as Local Contacts Co-ordinators, thereby allowing Terry Bevis to concentrate on the Society's finances. All communications relating to the administration of the Local Contact Network should be addressed to:


The Vegan, Summer 1992




lixeVeasvi Sod&tu 7Sawle "Road u 5* Leo loards- cm-See £ a s t Sussex 3-7

Contributions to Postbag are welcomed, but accepted on the understanding that they may be edited in the interests of brevity or clarity. Send your letters to: The Editor, THE VEGAN, 7 Battle Road, St Leonards-on-Sea, East Sussex TN37 7AA

At a Loss We run a wholefood vegetarian/ vegan guesthouse and have done so for the last 3 years, and we advertise in every issue of The Vegan.

Despite the fact we are the only guesthouse to provide vegan food in the area and the fact that vegans usually complain that it is difficult to get vegan food when on holiday, we have had very few vegans staying. Of those that do stay most eat at local pubs, none of which serves vegan meals. This contrasts with vegetarians, of which we have a sizeable number, most of whom eat in the guesthouse despite the fact that several local pubs do provide vegetarian meals. Given these facts, if vegans are not prepared to support specialist places catering for them, they cannot complain if places cease to exist. We would be interested to know why vegans, unlike vegetarians, are reluctant to support 25 The Vegan, Summer 1992

specialist guesthouses such as ourselves. • Wendy Foss & John Harvey, Cumbria.

Over the Limit? Has the the Vegan Society Council too much power? Surely on really important issues like expelling members the whole vegan membership should decide? • Harry Bonnie, London

Along the Way Normally vegetarian and vegan societies concern themselves with what is eaten rather than worn or used. The Vegan Society's membership application form only requires a member to keep to a vegan diet so it does not exclude the use of items derived from animals so long as they are not consumed. In a society which exploits animals in all possible ways it is

very difficult, if not impossible, to live without being affected by this. Our homes, our clothing, our cars etc. all rely to some degree on animal exploitation and abuse. Can and should the Vegan Society expect members to go beyond a dietary promise? If it continues to restrict its demand of members to keeping to a vegan diet, then should members castigate other members for not going as far along the vegan path as they have chosen themselves? Surely this is a topic which members will wish to comment upon. • Maxwell Lee, Cheshire

Reversal After various American holidays I have written about the wonderful non-dairy ice creams and other vegan delights that I found there, wishing the UK would offer such a choice. This time for a change I can report that the situation has completely reversed itself. That marvellous product, Tofutti, is no longer even available. Although two brands of non-dairy ice creams, Farm Foods and Rice Dream, can be found in health food stores, they taste like health foods. Supermarkets carry one brand, but it is artificially flavoured and not very nice at all. In place of Tofutti are rows of dairy ice creams said to be 99% fat free. My assumption was that those who used to buy Tofutti because of its lack of cholesterol were now buying these products, and I wrote to Bill Shurtleff at the Soyfoods Center who confirmed that Tofutti had been a 'fad food'. He agreed with me that the UK and the rest of Europe are now the pioneers of soya products. Britain already gets Sojasun soya yogurt from France, and when I was recently in Paris I discovered other brands of delicious soya yoghurts as well and other soya desserts (plus various burgers and savoury dishes). I have no idea where the impetus comes from on the Continent, but in Britain at least I think we can be confident that these are not 'fad foods*. • Leah Leneman, Edinburgh

Misleading Having read the article 'Towards the Vegan Ideal of Genesis' (The

Vegan, Winter 1991) and although agreeing with a lot of what was written (e.g. the Annecy Report guidelines and the steps to get closer to the ideal), I feel I have to respond to some of the misleading comments on The Bible and verses taken out of context. Firstly, the "general vision of Genesis" is not that, "We are fellow creatures of everything else in the cosmos." God put us to rule "over every living creature that moves on the ground" (Genesis 1:28). The fact that man has abused this power is disgusting; agreed! It is generally assumed that animals do not have souls, as God would not allow them to have been used as food and clothes. Paul did not say he had chosen the vegetarian way of life; he spoke in the conditional tense and said //what he ate caused his brother to stumble then he would not eat meat. The reason that he might cause his brother to stumble is given in the rest of the preceding verses in that chapter and is to do with food sacrificed to idols, not on any issue concerning the animals themselves. Romans 14.3 sums up with these words: "The man who eats everything must not look down on him who does not, and the man who does not eat everything must not condemn the man who does." • Julie Woods, Hants

• * • Star Letter

• • *

Dear Ed It's a sad state of affairs when the Editor of a magazine has to write to his own Letters Page bemoaning the lack of contributions. Surely every reader (though perhaps s/he doesn't realize it) has something interesting to say? • Richard Farhall, Editor, The Vegan, St Leonards-on-Sea Ed. I agree entirely.

Deadline f o r the A u t u m n 1992 Vegan: 25 J u l y 1992


hot Mexican dip. It will also bake to be served hot — 380 °F for 15 minutes.

Breadfruit Is roughly round with a thick, waxy skin. It is yellow in colour and changes through green to brown as it ripens. The flesh is pale and pulpy and it contains a large core. At the green stage it is supposed to taste like freshly baked bread — hence the name. When ripe its flavour is mild. The breadfruit should be eaten when brown (ripe) and cooked either by baking whole or in slices. It can also be sliced or diced and fried in oil.


/ / W / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / W / / / / / / /

Janet Lyle outlines some easy ways of preparing unfamiliar vegetables


egetables can make up a large part of our diets. The well known varieties are w o n d e r f u l l y versatile and can be served as starters, main courses or accompaniments. T h e lesser known vegetables or exotics are equal in their versatility and well worth trying for their distinctive tastes and qualities. They make interesting and delicious additions to the vegan diet. As well as the ethnic shops many of our large stores now cater for the different racial and national groups who live in Britain. They display vegetables from far afield. We often don't buy these 'oddities' because we are not sure how to prepare, cook and serve them. The following are a selection of lesser known vegetables with some suggestions on how to enjoy them.

Aubergine This is also known as the 'eggplant' and is available all year round. It is shaped like an elongated egg and its skin is purple-black and glossy. It will keep fresh in the fridge for up to two weeks. An aubergine is best eaten when it feels firm, like a tomato. To prepare for cooking wipe and trim the ends. 26

It can then be sliced, diced or halved, sprinkled with salt and left for 20-30 minutes to 'sweat' out the bitter juice. Rinse and dry the portions which can be coated with flour and fried. Alternatively the halves can be stuffed and baked.

Avocado Available all year round the avocado can be either green and shiny or dark brown and bumpy. It has a delicate 'buttery' flavour and should be eaten when it begins to soften. Hard ones may be kept at room temperature until they ripen. They are better when not left in the fridge for more than a few days. Test for their ripeness — the skin will yield when pressed lightly. Cut the avocado in half lengthways to prepare and twist the halves apart to remove the stone. The flesh will discolour unless it is rubbed with lemon juice. It can be served as a starter with vinaigrette or filled with fruit and a vegan dressing. Remove the skin and slice or dice for use in salads. Avocado will also make pate and dips. Try mashing it with chillis, onions and garlic to make guacamole — the very

This is a versatile vegetable which is a bulbous root resembling a rough skinned turnip. It is available from late autumn through the winter. It will store in the fridge for up to two weeks. With a mild flavour the celeriac can be eaten raw or cooked. To prepare wash and peel, it may then be diced, sliced or coarsely grated. It should be cooked in water with a little lemon juice until tender and served with a sauce — white, herb or mushroom. Alternatively thin strips may be fried in batter and served hot or thin strips blanched, cooled and mixed with a dressing for salads. It is delicious when mashed with potato and vegetable margarine plus a little mustard and lemon juice.

Fennel Or 'Florence fennel', to distinguish it from the herb, is available all year round. It resembles a small celery with a large, fleshy and bulbous base. It has long green feathery leaves — which can be used as a garnish — and a strong aniseed flavour. To prepare a fennel wash it well and remove the leaves, base and tough outside flesh. Cut in half or quarters and cook in boiling water until tender but still crisp. Serve with a white or herb sauce. Fennel can also be sliced thinly and used in salads or cold dishes.

Globe Artichoke This vegetable resembles a green water lilly. It is available all year round and has a fine flavour. Make sure that you buy one that is firm and heavy and has no dry edges on the leaves. To prepare, cut off the stalk and rinse thoroughly. Cook in boiling water for 30-45 minutes and drain upside down. It is usually served with a sauce or with vegetable margarine, but can also be eaten cold with a dressing. Eating a globe artichoke may be seen as rather inelegant. Each leaf is removed and the base dipped in the sauce. The tender part is then sucked or chewed and the rest is discarded. After the leaves or scales have been removed the hairy centre or 'choke' is revealed. This is removed with a teaspoon to reveal the heart or 'fond' The Vegan, Summer 1992

which is then eaten with a knife and fork. It sounds messy but it is really quite delicious.

Kohlrabi A turnip-like vegetable with shoots from the bottom and sides. It is available from late summer through winter. Buy when they are young and small — large ones can be tough. Kohlrabi can be stuffed and baked or peeled, quartered and either boiled or steamed. It may also be grated in salads. Try cooked slices dipped in batter and fried. It is usually eaten with a white or herb sauce. Its leaves can be cooked like spinach for about 10 minutes or chopped for a garnish or in a salad.

Jerusalem Artichoke This is no relation to the globe artichoke. It looks like a knobbly root and is available from late autumn through winter. To prepare scrub well and peel thinly. To avoid discolouration put in water with a little lemon juice added. Cook for 15-20 minutes in boiling water or fry. Alternatively they may be boiled in their skins in water with a little vinegar added. Jerusalem artichokes are good in soups and purees. Try artichoke rissoles — mash them and deep fry.

Mangetout Flat juicy pea-pod like with a sweet, delicate flavour. They are bright green and smooth and are available during the summer

months. Top and tail them and cook in boiling water for 5 - 1 0 minutes — they should still be slightly crisp. Mangetout may also be used raw in salads.

Muli Or 'Indian radish' they have a taste and texture similar to our own radish. Long and white resembling a carrot in shape. This vegetable is peeled and cubed to add to vegetable casseroles or curries. It may also be grated and used in salads.

Okra 'Ladies fingers' are green with a fur-like skin, 2"—4" long with five sides and white seeds inside. To prepare top and tail them. Slice and add to curries or soups. Or cook alone in boiling water, just enough to cover the vegetable, for 5 minutes. Drain and add vegan margarine and cook for a further 10 minutes until tender.

Salsify Also known as the 'oyster plant' or 'vegetable oyster'. There are two varieties — white or salsify available in the autumn and black or scorzonera available during the winter months. For salsify cut into 2" lengths, place in water and a little lemon juice then cook in boiling water with a little vinegar for 30 minutes. Salsify can be scraped before cooking or peeled after cook-



500 —


1,000 —


2,000 —




ing. Serve with a White sauce. Scorzonera may bleed when prepared so scrub to remove the dirt then cook whole in boiling water for about 40 minutes. Trim the ends and rub off the skin before serving. Both salsify and scorzonera can be baked or pieces dipped in batter and fried.

Sweet Potato This vegetable is not related to the potato at all. It is available all through the winter and has reddish skin and pale orange flesh. It is irregular in shape and has a sweet taste. Sweet potatoes can be peeled and boiled or roasted. They may scrubbed, wrapped in foil and baked or sliced and fried. Try sweet potato mashed with vegan margarine and cinnamon.

Yam Or 'Indian potato'. Yams are available during the winter. Their skins are brownishpink and their flesh milky white. They may be boiled, roasted or fried and have a taste similar to the potato. Excellent to add to casseroles and curries.

These are just a selection of the exotic vegetables that are now widely available to us. Try them on their own or in tempting new recipes and discover a whole new way of eating.

EAFLE positive wide appeal promotes the vegan diet suitable for mass distribution colour both sides recycled paper A5

ORDER FORM Please send me/us copies of the Vegan Society's new A5 general leaflet. I/We enclose a cheque/PO payable to 'The Vegan Society' for £ Name Address

Post code Return to: The Vegan Society, 7 Battle Road, St Leonards-on-Sea, East Sussex, TN37 7AA. (0424 427393.)


This form may be photocopied or the information submitted on a separate sheet.

27 The Vegan, Summer


Publications & Merchandise PUBLICATIONS

SELECTED TITLES The Animal-Free Shopper

Richard Farhall, Richard Lucas & Amanda Rofe Vegan Society (UK) A shopping guide for those wishing to buy goods which are entirely free of animal ingredients and involve no animal testing. Includes product listing sections — Food, Drink, Toiletries & Cosmetics, Remedies & Supplements, Baby & Infant Care, Footwear & Clothing, Home & Office, Animal Care and Garden & Leisure — and information on animal substances and additives. £4.50

• All titles are paperback, unless otherwise indicated • A n u m b e r of titles listed here lack a vegan perspective but have nevertheless been included on the basis of their informativeness • F o r full details of the Society's range of publications a n d merchandise, please send an SAE marked 'P&M'.


Abundant Living in the Coming Age of the Tree Kathleen Jannaway Movement For Compassionate Living Towards a vegan tree-based culture. Second edition. £1.50



The Non-Violent Revolution — A Comprehensive Guide to Ahimsa



The Philosophy of Animal Rights


Prof Tom Regan Culture & Animals Foundation (US) Useful, easy-to-follow pamphlet comprising ten reasons for animal rights —with explanations, and ten common reasons [excuses] against and suggested replies.


Animal Liberation

The Rose-Tinted Menagerie


Compassion: The Ultimate Ethic (An Exploration of Veganism) Victoria Moran American Vegan Society An examination of the history and philosophy of the vegan movement. Third edition. £4.95

Vegan Nutrition: A Survey of Research Gill Langley MA PhD Vegan Society (UK) The most comprehensive survey ever undertaken of scientific 28

Nathaniel Altman Element Comprehensive guide to the philosophy of 'dynamic harmlessness' and its practical applications. £7.95

Peter Singer Thorsons First published in 1975 and widely regarded as the 'bible' of the modern animal rights movement. 1990 revised edition. £8.99


William Johnson Heretic An impressively thorough global investigation into the plight of animals held captive in circuses, safari parks, dolphinaria and the like.

research on vegan diets. Ideal for nutritionists, researchers, dieticians, GPs, community health workers, vegans and would be vegans. Includes highlighted major points, easy-to-follow tables, chapter summaries and detailed index. £5.95



Animals' Rights

An Exploration of Vogantam


m w

he Vegan

Henry Salt A classic work, first published in 1892. "When this book was written, it was far ahead of its time. Whether its time has come remains to be seen" (Peter Singer). Centaur, hardback £12.00

The Vegan Kitchen Mate David Horton NSW Vegan Society (Aus) 100 simple vegan recipes complete with kitchen tips. £3.25

The Caring Cook: Cruelty-Free Cooking for Beginners Janet Hunt Vegan Society (UK) An easy-to-follow first vegan The Vegan, Summer 1992

cookbook, written expressly for those new to cruelty-free living. Offers a comprehensive selection of everyday and special occasion recipes, plus a mass of hints and tips. Durable wipe-clean cover. £3.45

Simply Vegan — Quick Vegetarian Meals Debra Wasserman & Reed Mangels Vegetarian Resource Group (US) A comprehensive guide to easy vegan living, including an easyto-understand section on nutrition. Each recipe contains a breakdown of calories, protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, iron, sodium and fibre. £6.95

Gourmet Vegan Heather Lamont Gollancz A rediscovered, attractivelypriced cookbook packed with recipes. Highlights include 'Eating to Survive' (on a budget), 'The Vegan Barbeque' and an Anaesthetic Cake! £4.95


Forest Gardening Robert A de J Hart Green Books Turn your garden or allotment into a vegan-organic mini forest — providing fruit, nuts, roots and perennial vegetables and herbs. Minimal maintenance required. Based on the principles and practice of agroforestry or permaculture. £7.95

Multi-Purpose Cards Four original vegan-oriented cartoons by Pete Donohue. Blank inside. Recycled card and envelopes. Black and red on white. Reduced to 95p


LEAFLETS • General A5 (Price includes p&p) 100 —£1.75 500 — £5.95 1,000 —£10.50 2,000 —£19.25 • Are Your Meals Costing the Earth? 100 —£2.50 • Good Health 100 — £2.50 • Milk Marketing Fraud 100 — £2.50 • Slaughter of the Innocent 100 —£2.50 • World Tragedy 100 —£2.50

'Blood Curdling' anti-milk poster by Paul Evans. Recycled paper. Red, pink, green and black. Reduced to 45p

Q Cards lamont


THE VEGAN MAGAZINE (Quarterly.) Four issues. Please state first issue. Price includes p&p. £6.00 Current issue £1.25 Back issue/s. Please state. 50p each

Set of 10 different postcards with telling animal rights quotes. Recycled card. Assorted colours. £1.50

Writing Pad Pad with 50 sheets A5 size bond recycled paper. Each sheet printed 'From a supporter of the Vegan Society'. Green and black on white. Reduced to £1.75

ORDER FORM Description


Sub total Plus

Postage & Packing Up to £2.99— £3.00-£3.99— £4.00-£5.99—

35p 60p 75p

£6.00-£9.99— £10-£20— Over £20—

£1.00 £1.70 free









Eire and overseas: Customers must increase TOTAL payment by 40% to cover additional surface rate postal charges. Payment must be made by International Money Order or by sterling cheque drawn on an English bank. Cheques/POs should be made payable to 'The Vegan Society'. Name


Post code


Return to: The Vegan Society, 7 Battle Road, St Leonards-on-Sea, East Sussex TN37 7AA. (0424) 427393.

29 The Vegan, Summer 1992



A Dud It Is Not

'92 Edition

An impressive report on the welfare of animals at Dudley Zoo has been published by West Midlands Animal Aid. For details of the Dudley Zoo Campaign contact: West Midlands Animal Aid, 3 George Street, Birmingham B12 9RG.

Kendal Vegetarians' 1992 'Vegetarian Directory for the Lake District and Cumbria' highlight places catering for vegans. Send 25p plus A5 SAE to: Kendal Vegetarians, Low House, New Hutton, Kendal, Cumbria LA8 OAZ. 0539 725219.


Diary Dates 13-20 June National AntiAngling Week. Details: Campaign for the Abolition of Angling. 0836 279758. 20 June National Day of Action Against Boots. Protests against local Boots shops throughout the country. Details: London Boots Action Group, do Alar a, 58 Seven Sisters Road, London N76AA. 21 June Dolphin Friends sponsored walks for the Environmental Investigation Agency. Details: 071 704 9441. 26-28 June Glastonbury Festival, Somerset. Several animal groups including Veggies require assistance. Details: Veggies 0602 585666. 4 July National Demonstration against Laundry Farm. Meet 12 noon at Parkers Piece, Parkside, A1131, Cambridge City Centre. March to Laundry Farm, Barton Road. 8 July CIWF lobby of Parliament against battery hen cages. Details: CIWF 0730 264208. 12 July Vegetarian Society Open Day, Parkdale, Dunham Road, Altrincham, Cheshire, 1 lam—5pm. Details: VSUK. 061 928 0793. 20 July-3 Aug 12th Vegan Camp, Coldingham, Berwickshire. Details:

23 July Demonstration outside 30

Boots AGM, Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre, Broad Sanctuary, London SW1. 1 l a m - l p m . Meet 10.30am at Westminster tube. Details: London Boots Action Group, do Alar a, 58 Seven Sisters Road, London N7 6AA. 25 July Jersey Animal Day in the Royal Square, St Helier, Jersey. 9.30am-4.30pm. Goods, literature, raffles, etc. Details: Bridget. 0534 55871. 31 July Deadline for AGM proposals and Council nominations to the Vegan Society office. 1-8 Aug Sixth International Vegan Festival. Details:

12 Aug 'Glorious Twelfth' — start of grouse-shooting. Details: Hunt Saboteurs Association, PO Box 1, Carlton, Nottingham NG4 2JY. 15 Aug Animals & Environmental Fair, Conference Hall, Westminster Cathedral, Ambrosden Avenue, Victoria. 10am-4.40pm. Nr Victoria tube. Details: 072755705. 22 Aug National Demonstration against Life Science Research, Occold, Suffolk. Meet Buckshom Lane car park, off Church Street, Eye, 1pm. March to Life Science. Snacks, speakers and stalls. Details: Breckland Animal Concern and Suffolk Animal Defence. 0638 664150 or 0953 81785. 28 Septal Oct National Vegetarian Week. Details: VSUK, 061 928 0793.

The second Dutch Vegan Summerweek — including camping, dancing, singing, music, games, massage, yoga, picnics and a fairy theatre for children — will be held near Enschede, 13-20 August. Cost: Approx. £100 with reductions for children. Details: Vegan Summerweek '92, pla Peter van der Eynden, Nettelhursterweg 34, 7274 EB Geesteren, Holland.

Veggies Nottingham Veggies Catering Campaign's Animal Rights Contacts List (£2, p&p incl.) provides a co-ordinated means for groups to contact one another. More information is needed for a directory of animal rescue groups, sanctuaries and international organizations. Veggies' facilities at The Rainbow Centre, Nottingham include a meeting room, mail box, computing and printing facilities, office space, telephone, etc. Vegan Society members are invited to use the facilities for the promotion of veganism. Contact: Veggies, 180 Mansfield Road, Nottingham NG1 3HW.

More Discounts MAIL ORDER Wholefood Delivery Service. 21 Laburnum Way, Nayland, Colchester C06 4LG. 0206 263545.5%. SHOPS Holland and Barrett (Ealing Broadway). 10% (orders of £5+).

Reformed VBC The Vegan Business Connection is reforming and would be pleased to hear from anyone interested in supporting the venture. Contact:

School Grub Amy Rowan would appreciate advice concerning her difficulty in securing vegan meals for her daughter who is entitled to free school meals. Write to:

Veganic Produce Evergreen Wholefoods, Yorkshire's only all vegan wholefood shop, has recently taken on Savita Foods — Yorkshire's new and only all vegan bakery. Prices of organic vegetables have fallen but quality has improved. Evergreen also boasts a limited supply of veganically grown produce so get over there quickly before it disappears! Evergreen Wholefoods, 70 Daisy Hill, Dewsbury WF13 1LS. Tel: 0924 457900.

For the Young . . . Two illustrated booklets for young people by Graham Burnett, 'Happy, Caring, Healthy and Sharing' — easyto-understand text and illustrations on a vegan lifestyle for children of all ages; and 'Our Allotment' — a pictorial account, cost £1 each from:

SMIB Two new fact sheets on diabetes and infant feeding are available from: The Soya Milk Information Bureau, PO Box 169, Banbury, Oxon OX16 9XE.

World Congress Lectures, workshops and discussions on morals and ethics, cookery, health and hygiene, medical science, athletes and sports are on the agenda for the 30th World Vegetarian Congress, Madras, India, 5-10 January 1993. Vegan catering The Vegan, Summer 1992

available but India has yet to discover soya milk! Details: The Indian Vegetarian Congress, 17 Damodaran Street (2 nd Floor) Gopalapuram, Madras — 600 086, TN State, India. Tel: 473648. Fax: 91 44 833662. Telex: 041 6670 DUGR IN.

Messiah 'The Animal Messiah' — "The twentieth century revelation of Jesus' secret teachings on vegetarianism/veganism and the correct treatment of animals." Cost: £2.50 (£1.50 unwaged or poor). BCM Redeemer, London WC1N 3XX.

Local Groups (See also 'Contacts News' p. 24) BEVEG (Bromley and

Information Vegan Magazines. In addition to The Vegan — the official organ of the Vegan Society — the following independent publications may be of interest: Vegan Views 6 Hayes Avenue, Bournemouth BH7 7AD. An informal quarterly with articles, interviews, news, reviews, letters, cartoon strip. Subscription rate for four issues: £2.40 (Europe and surface mail overseas: £2.80). New Leaves 47 Highlands Road, Leatherhead, Surrey KT22 8NQ. Quarterly journal of the Movement for Compassionate Living — The Vegan Way (see below). Annual subscription: £3.00. Cheques/POs payable to: 'Movement for Compassionate Living'. 31 The Vegan, Summer 1992

Y Figan Cymreig (The Wales Vegan)

seek merely to live close to other vegans, others wish to establish a vegan land project or centre for the promotion of a vegan lifestyle. Newsletter subscription (4 issues): £2.00. Contact:

Bilingual quarterly. Annual subscription: £1.50. The Vegan Bikers Association aims to promote veganism amongst motorcyclists and set up a fund for the purchase and distribution of alternatives to leather. Enquiries:

The Vegan Community Project exists to form a contact network between people who are interested in living in a vegan community and to establish one or more such communities. While some of its members

The Vegan Families Contact List provides a link between parents throughout the UK seeking to raise their children in accordance with vegan principles. To receive a copy of the list and have your name added to a future edition, please write to the Vegan Society — marking your envelope 'Vegan Families Contact List', enclosing an SAE, and giving your name, address and names and dates of birth of children. The Movement for Compassionate Living — the Vegan Way seeks to spread

compassionate understanding and to simplify lifestyles by promoting awareness of the connections between the way we live and the way others suffer, and between development, consumption and the destruction of the planet. Co-ordinators:

Vegans International co-ordinates the promotion of veganism, encourages the formation of new organizations, and organizes an annual vegan festival. Contact:

Arnhem, The Netherlands. Vegan Contacts Abroad. For a listing, send an SAE to the Vegan Society marked 'Vegan Contacts Abroad'.

Classified ACCOMMODATION A C C O M M O D A T I O N in B e r k h a m p s t e d available to non-smoking v e g a n ( s ) in e x c h a n g e for low rent or help around the house. Vegan shop n e a r b y . L o n d o n 35 mins by train. (0442) 8 6 5 5 6 0 . B o x no. 225.

ACTIVITY HOLIDAYS A / & g i \ / e n t u r e s Activity & Sightseeing Holidays - Great Vegetarian / Vegan Food • • • • • •

Holidays include: Paris Weekends. Peru, "Journeys of a Lifetime". Czechoslovakia. India. Lake District, Fell Walking. Scottish Highland Adventure.

For details and a Free copy of our Vegetarian Holiday Review please write or phone quoting Kef. w l N i g e l W a l k e r , V e g i Ventures, 17 Lilian Rd. Bumham-on-Crouch , E u e « C M O SDS T e l : 0621 7M285

ANIMAL CARE M E A T - F R E E C A T S ! Vegan supplem e n t s f o r h o m e - m a d e vegan recipes. S A E : K a t z G o Vegan, 7 Battle Road, St L e o n a r d s , Sussex T N 3 7 7 A A .

EATING OUT THE BAY TREE the vegetarian cafe Open every day (except Monday) 10am-9pm All food is dairy and egg free. 403 G r e a t Western Road, Kelvinbridge. Glasgow. Tel: 041 334 5898 a workers'


* Breathtaking mountain scenery * Highly acclaimed vegan fare * Free use of bicycles & tandem * 5% discount for Vegan Society members B+B £14, E.M. £9. No smoking

Btackaller, Meadowlands. The Saltings, Leiant, T R 2 6 3DL. (0736) 752418. I S L E O F M U L L . Vegetarian/vegan traditional wholefood dinner, bed. breakfast in comfortable modernized crofthouse. '/ 2 mile from 5 min ferry to the holy Isle of lona. Visit the lovely Ross of Mull, splendid seascapes, lonely beaches, fascinating wildlife. H & C in rooms, bike hire. Tel. 068 17 276. M I D W A L E S . Staylittle (Centre Alternative Technology, Machynlleth, 15 miles). Vegan/vegetarian B&B. Nonsmoking B & B £1 lpppn. Optional evening meal £6.50. Tel 0 5 5 1 6 425.

I Tel (03397) 55759for details or write to *// Bridge Square. Ballater AB35 SQJ




Enjoy a relaxing holiday amidst beautiful coastal and moorland scenery - ideal for walking. Spacious Edwardian house overlooking Poriock Bay. Excellent traditional, vegetarian and vegan food. Log fires on chilly evenings. All bedrooms ensuite with tea/coffee making facilities. Special weekend breaks.

N O R M A N D Y C H A T E A U . (15 min Cherbourg). Superb s/c flat in beautiful historic chateau. Sleeps 8. £ 2 5 0 pw. Enquiries 0 2 2 5 316665. N O R T H P E N N I N E S . Wholefood vegetarian/vegan guesthouse. E.M. Licensed. N o smoking. Tea/coffee/washbasins all rooms. Spectacular scenery. Brochure


W o v d c a t e "

The Saltings, Leiant St Ivts, Cornwall T«l (0736) 753147 Quiet Country Hotel overlooking beautiful Ddalestuary and bird sanctuary Britain's oldest vegetarian and vegan hotel is lamilv owned and stands in its own grounds to beaches and unspoilt coastal walks. Superb cuisine and friendly personal service. Some rooms with shower/wc en suite

P O R T S M O U T H . Vegan/vegetarian wholefood B & B , optional evening meal. Near ferries, historic ships, beach and countryside. Phone for brochure.

For further information and brochure please contact John and Pamela Barrett

S / E A S T C O R N W A L L . Camping in beautiful surroundings. Three tents maximum. Close to coast. Abundant wildlife. Vegan meals available. Sorry no children or pets. Tel (0503) 73016. S T I V E S , Cornwall vegetarian/vegan guesthouse overlooking St Ives bay, close to Carbis B a y ' s beautiful golden sands, station and St Ives picturesque harbour. Delicious vegan/vegetarian menus, ensuite rooms, tea making facilities, central heating. Children welcome. Brochure:

V E G A N B&B. 4 miles south of Kendal. Strictly no smoking. Children welcome. Packed lunches & evening meals available. Tel:

W H I T B Y . Falcon Guest House. Vegetarian/vegan B&B. Quiet area, seven minutes walk from centre and harbour. Lounge. Parking on street near house. Teamaking equipment available. £10, with child reductions. Tel. 0947 603507.

Tel 0643 862289

O R G A N I C V I N E Y A R D near Hastings. Bed and breakfast (vegan). Lovely rooms, views and country walks. Sea. castles and country pub/restaurant (with vegan option) nearby. Peaceful surroundings. Tel 0580-830715.

S W A N S E A V A L L E Y . Luxury double bedded room, en suite living room plus optional single bedded room. Well located. Including breakfast. £12pp. 0792 830586.

MAIL ORDER H I G H Q U A L I T Y original vegan perfumes, body, hair, and skin preparations. Send SAE for free brochure or £9.50 for set of seven trial size perfumes to Dolma, 19 Royce Avenue, Hucknall. Nottingham NG15 6FU. Trade enquiries welcome. L I Q U I D C O N C E N T R A T E is the biodegradable liquid soap derived from coconut oil, which is free of animal products and animal testing. SAE for details: Dept EV, Janco Sales, 11 Seymour Road, Hampton Hill, Middlesex TW12 1DD.



Hand made to measure footwear for women and men in breathable top quality synthetic material.

Near Sawrey, Ambleside, Cumbria, LA22 0LB

HOLIDAY ACCOMMODATION A U S T R I A . " A r c h e " is a small, friendly v e g / v e g a n / w h o l e f o o d guesthouse in historical Celtic m o u n t a i n village. H o m e g r o w n delicious varied meals. Is an ideal base for touring, mountain walks, seminars, lectures and treatments on health and diets. Dowsercourses. Please call o r write:

B E A U T I F U L L Y R E N O V A T E D character f a r m h o u s e , sleeps 5, s w i m m i n g pool, beautiful unspoilt valley near coast & G r a n a d a — w o n d e r f u l walks. Foothills of Sierra Nevada. Write: C a m i l l a D n i m m o n d , P O Box 11, 18400 O r g i v a ( G r a n a d a ) Spain. B O D M I N 3 M I L E S Vegan B & B in c h a r m i n g restored cottage; country location; central all coasts, moors, nature reserves. E n suite facilities. T V , 'kettle' all rooms. ( 0 2 0 8 ) 8 7 2 3 1 6 . C O R N W A L L . S p a c i o u s self-contained holiday flat over-looking picturesque estuary, sleeps 4, vegan owners. S A E


S H R O P S H I R E . Bentley House. 18C house in unspoilt countryside, close Ludlow, Strettons, Ironbridge. Exclusively vegetarian/vegan wholefood. Vegan proprietors. Central heating. N o smoking. B&B, EM, packed lunches. Tel. 0 5 8 8 7 255.

Vegetarian/vegan B&B, delightful country house accommodation. Situated in Beatrix Potter's picturesque village of Near Sawrey with its olde worlde inn, 2 miles from Hawkshead, Lake Windermere (car ferry) 2.miles. Delicious breakfast lovely bedrooms with tea/coffee, TV, etc, and panoramic views over Esthwaite Water. Ideal centre for lakes, tarns, fells and Grizedale Forest Ambleside, Coniston and Bowness only a short distance aw»v

For details and booking

S O M E R S E T . Exclusively vegetarian guest house. All meals vegan. Bordering Devon and Dorset. It is an ideal base for touring, walking or relaxing in our 16th century house. Crewkerne 0 4 6 0 73112. S O M E R S E T . Vegetarian/vegan/wholefood B & B . A place to relax — Chestnut Farmhouse, Meare, Glastonbury B A 6 9 T H . Contact:

S T A Y V E G A N IN W E S T C O R K . 8km from Bantry, rural but convenient. Bright, clean r o o m s with cooking facilities and en suite bathroom, linen and towels included. Vegetarian/Vegan cooking only. 2 people from £ 7 5 per week, family of 5 — £110 per week. B & B with en suite shower — £11 each per person sharing.


Cat: sae to Unit 2, Stable Cottage, Derry Ormond Park, Betws Bledrws, Lampeter, Dyfed. SA48 8PA. Tel: (0570) 45557

"New Improved"




Breathtaking views from this toarm and welcoming non-smoking guest house set amongst the finest scenery in Bntain. Ideally situated on the coast of Wester Ross, we offer spacious accommodation, delicious vegan and vegetarian food and lovely views across Lock Ewe from every room. Perfect for touring, walking, bird watching or just relaxing with our shelves of books. Self catering flat and caravan also available. F

S/C b&t

VEGAN HIKING BOOTS Tough, comfortable and lightweight New synthetic suede/nylon cordura uppers. Ideal for hiking, leisure, sabbing etc. New colour olive green. £45.00 incl. post & packing Designer Wares, 8 Ashwell Road, Bradford BD9 4AU Tel: 0274 483390

The Vegan, Summer 1992





All prices inclusive of VAT Series discount: (4 consecutive insertions prepaid): 10% Box No: (per insertion) £2.00 extra Lineage Commercial: £6.00 for 20 words (minimum) Additional words: 35p each Non-commercial: £4.50 for 20 words (minimum) Additional words: 25p each

THE ORDER OF THE CROSS SPIRITUAL AIMS AND IDEALS The Order is an informal Brotherhood and Fellowship, having for its service in life the cultivation of the Spirit of Love towards all Souls: Helping the weak and defending the defenceless and oppressed; Abstaining from hurting the creatures, eschewing bloodshed and flesh eating, and living upon the pure foods so abundantly provided by nature; Walking in the Mystic Way of Life, whose Path leads to the realization of the Christhood; And sending forth the Mystic Teachings unto all who may be able to receive them — those sacred interpretations of the Soul, the Christhood, and the Divine Love and Wisdom, for which the Order of the Cross stands. Regular Services, Meetings and Retreats are held in London and elsewhere. For further information please contact the Headquarters, 10 De Vere Gardens, London W8 SAE, telephone 071 937 7012. HOUSING CO-OP, Shrops, 7 acres and buildings undergoing renovation. 2 veg gardens, greenhouse, orchard. Aims and influences include permaculture, alternative energy and sanitation, recycling, self sufficiency, veganic systems. Field and campers' kitchen available for use by groups for events at low cost. Open to visitors, WWOOF host, new members wanted. Investment welcome (secure, interest payable). Summer events include 'sustainable living' camp. SAE to Earthworm Co-op, Wheatstone, Leintwardine, Salop SY7 OLH.

Semi-display (boxed) Commercial: £6.60 per single column centimetre Non-commercial: £4.95 per single column centimetre WE WANT T O live in a community of vegans (rural but location open) with our own space, but with lots of love, support and interaction, sharing the good times and the not so good, working, growing, celebrating together, strike a chord? Please write! 9 If you are seeking new vegan friends or a lasting partnership, Concordia - Vegis is especially for you: Run by a member of the Vegan Society. Nationwide membership of vegans, fruitarians and vegetarians. Self-selection from our book of members sent to all who join. Ask about our half price membership offer to members of the Vegan Society. Send for our non-glossy, no-hype, recycled details, enclosing stamp. Concordia-Vegis, PO Box 165, Chesterfield Derbys S41 0DT

For some 5 years, organised small groups have been walking in the loveliest parts of Europe while fasting. We cover 10-15 miles every day for a week. For most, it is a rewarding experience, both in losing weight and refreshing our mind and bodies. For further details, please contact:

IF ANYONE has a full copy of the booklet 'Going Fruitarian' will they please sell or loan it to

VEGFAM feeds the hungry — vegetable foodstuffs, leaf protein, horticulture, irrigation, afforestation etc. The Sanctuary, Nr Lydford, Okehampton. Devon EX20 4AL. Tel. 0822 82203.

Tel. 081-341 7696.



believe in God and veganism and speak for the animals.

COPY DATES 25th Jan, 25th April, 25th July, 25th October

AHIMSA. Quarterly magazine of the American Vegan Society. Veganism, Natural Living, Reverence for Life. Calendar Year subscription £12. Address: 501 Old Harding Highway, Malaga. NJ 08328, USA. A VEGETARIAN GUIDE T O IRELAND. Lists B&B's, restaurants, holistic centres catering for vegetarians/ vegans. Please send £2.00 payable to 'Vegetarian Guides' c/o East Clare Community Co-op, Main Street, Scariff, Co. Clare.



GENTLE LIVING vegan centre North Madeira, would welcome experienced carpenter to complete work with house. Also someone for housekeeping. Period summer. Accommodation and vegan food offered in exchange. Write in confidence enclosing recent photograph. Box no. 219.




BETHANY VEGETARIAN Nursing Home caters exclusively for vegetarians and vegans with wholistic therapy. 7/9 Oak Park Villas, Dawlish, Devon EX7 ODE. Telephone 0626 862794.

PERSONAL A GROUP planning a world cycle tour late(r) this year would like to hear from more interested vegans. Plans not yet fixed. Phone 0442 874259. Box no. 226.

CONDITIONS OF A C C E P T A N C E Advertisements are accepted subject to their satisfying the condition that the products advertised are entirely free from ingredients derived from animals: that neither products nor ingredients have been tested on animals: and that the content of such ads does not promote, or appear to promote, the use of non-vegan commodities. Books, records, tapes etc. mentioned in advertisements should not contain any material contrary to vegan principles. Advertisements may be accepted from catering establishments that are not run on exclusively vegan lines, provided that vegan meals are available and that the wording of such ads reflects this. The submission of an advertisement is deemed to warrant that the advertisement does not contravene any Act of Parliament, nor is it in any other way illegal or defamatory or an infringement of any other party's rights or an infringement of the British Code of Advertising Practice. The Vegan Society reserves the right to refuse or withdraw any advertisement. Although every care is taken, the Vegan Society cannot accept liability for any loss or inconvenience incurred as a result of errors in the wording, or the late or nonappearance of an advertisement. IMPORTANT

CONTACT CENTRE is a caring, so lowfees friendship agency, quite different from all others catering exclusively for vegans and vegetarians both in Britain and abroad for any purposes. CONTACT CENTRE enables you to choose friend(s) from detailed adverts and/or to write an advert yourself without disclosing your name and address. CONTACT CENTRE gives full scope to your individual requirements; you don't even have to complete a form. Instead a friendly ear is leant to every member. As we cannot tell all in this advertisment, please write for membership details from:

CO^TRCTCE^RT (MV) BCM Cuddle, London WC1V 6XX

33 The Vegan, Summer 1992

PAYMENT Pre-payment please by cheque or postal order made payable to 'The Vegan Society'. Eire and overseas: Payment must be by sterling cheque drawn on an English bank or by International Money Order.

March, June, September, December

Details from: NURSING




Typesetting service (if required):

Final copy date for A U T U M N 1992: 25 July 1992

When replying to an advertisement please mention that you saw it in . . .

Display and semi-display advertising is dealt with by Steve Hack & Steve Baker at: Eco Marketing, Queen Anne House, Charlotte Street, Bath Avon BA1 2NE. Tel. 0225 481463.

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CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENT ORDER FORM Please insert the following advertisement in the next


issue/s of The Vegan under the heading (Please use capital letters)



















































Continue on a separate sheet it necessary. This form may be photocopied •

B o x N o . (£2.00 extra). Tick it required

I enclose cheque/PO for £

L i n e a g e c h a r g e s . See Rates and Conditions'. • C o p y . (£1.50). I require a copy of The Vegan in which my ad will appear

payable to T h e Vegan Society Ltd.'


Address Post code

Tel. No.



Return to: The Advertising Manager, The Vegan Society, 7 Battle Road, St Leonards-on-Sea, East Sussex TN37 7AA. (Tel. 0424 427393)

E T H I C A L I N V E S T O R S GROUP ootfooaa^Otl














C o n c e r n e d about ANIMAL EXPLOITATION <?a including Cosmetics/Drug Testing


a n d the Meat



Ethical Investors Group, the leading Independent financial advisers on ethical investment, has exclusivelyand uniquelydeveloped the Cruelty Free Investment Funds. These funds, as well as tackling the main issue of ANIMAL WELFARE, also consider other issues such as armaments, South Africa and the environment. We can arrange; • Personal Pensions • Additional Voluntary Contributions • Pension Transfers • Life Assurance • • Regular Savings • Mortgage Endowments • Lump Sum Investments • If you are concerned about the treatment of animals and need financial advice geared to your ethical principles talk to us. Meetings can be arranged throughout the country. We also pledge to distribute at least 50% of our profits to the groups and charities chosen by clients. For d e d i c a t e d ,

jtmm** ^ ^ ^ ^

18 H a z e b r o u c k


financial a d v i c e c o n t a c t : L c c C o a t c s A.C.I.I. E T H I C A L I N V E S T O R S GROUP (ADMIN.


Close, Hatherley, Cheltenham,

GL51 5 Q A .

Tel: ( 0 2 4 2 )


(please note that the value of Investment c a n fall as well as rise)


The Vegan, Spring





Adjuster to secure child Folds flat for storage or transportation



Strong Cordura outer with P.V.C Trim. £59.95 (incl. P&P )

TO ORDER Phone 0341 - 422195 with your Access or Barclaycard details or send cheque to CADER IDRIS 00TD00R GEAR, Eldon Square, DOLGELLAU, Gwynedd LL40 1PS Thor-Lo's Foot Health™ acrylic yarns help to reduce Ihe c h a n c e of blisters. These high-quality yarns a n d unique construction work together to w[ck moisture up a n d away Irom your feet, leaving them dry a n d healthy



Ixlfo Yarn

r ri'igo

Recommended by the fool Oociors of A m e r i c a

T h o r l o - P a d d s h i k i n g s o c k s . The V e g a n rind V e g e t a r i a n f a v o u r i t e . D M A c r y l i c , 15?; N y l o n s t r e t c h . N n v y , r e d or o l i v e . Ankle length 17.50 ; knee length £9.50 Please state second colour choice and w h e t h e r l a d i e s ' or m e n ' s .



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VEGAN WALKING FOOTWEAR Approximate C o n t i n e n t a l


/ British

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y o o a i n o s i a a i a 3 a v o HVBO y o o a i n o s i a a i d 3 a v 3 HV3D a o o a i n o SIHQI «3AV3 YV3D a o o a i n o s i a a i YSAVO


Promoting a diet free from all animal produce and a more compassionate way of living that seeks to avoid exploiting animals for any purpose




Post c o d e



Profession/Skills Signature Tick as appropriate: • I a m interested in veganism and enclose a large SAE for an Information Pack • I adhere to a vegan diet and wish to become a Vegan Society m e m b e r . I undertake to abide by the Society's Memorandum and Articles of Association (£2 or may be viewed without charge at the Society's office) • Although not a vegan I support the Society's aims and wish to b e c o m e an associate member • Individual £15 • Family/Joint £20 Q U n w a g e d individual £10 Q Unwaged family/joint £14 • Junior (under 18) £8 • Life £250 • Donation I e n c l o s e cheque/PO payable to 'The Vegan Society' for £ (£ membership + £ donation). R e t u r n to: The Vegan Society, 7 Battle Road, St Leonards-onSea, East Sussex T N 3 7 7AA

Deed of Covenant A Deed of Covenant substantially increases your gift or subscription to the Vegan Society at no extra cost to yourself, because the Society is able to claim the income tax that you have paid. Provided you are a taxpayer, the Society can claim an additional 33p (at current tax rates) for every pound you covenant. The Deed need only apply for four years, assuring the Society of a regular income so that it can plan for the future. It is easy to complete and once made you only have to sign a claim form which we send you in the first year. HOW YOUR CONTRIBUTION H e r e are s o m e e x a m p l e s : Annual Amounts £ 10.00


Tax Rebate

Benefits over 4 years











If you wish to make a single donation, the Society can gain the same tax benefit if you use a Deposit Covenant. For futher information, please contact: The Office Manager, Vegan Society, 7 Battle Road, St Leonards-on-Sea, East Sussex TN37 7AA.

The Vegan Society's



£ 4 . 5 0 + 45p p&p A shopping guide for those wishing to buy g o o d s which are entirely free of animal ingredients and involve no animal suffering. • handy pocketbook format • multiple outlet quick reference guide • glossary of animal substances • useful addresses

• • • • • •

thousands of entries background information mail order addresses animal-free criteria guidance on additives suggested reading

Send a c h e q u e / P O payable to 'The Vegan Society Ltd' for £ 4 . 9 5 to: T h e V e g a n S o c i e t y , 7 B a t t l e Road, St Leonards-on-Sea, East Sussex T N 3 7 7AA

The Vegan Summer 1992  
The Vegan Summer 1992  

The magazine of The Vegan Society